WorldWideScience

Sample records for cavity formation solute

  1. A generic travelling wave solution in dissipative laser cavity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BALDEEP KAUR; SOUMENDU JANA

    2016-10-01

    A large family of cosh-Gaussian travelling wave solution of a complex Ginzburg–Landau equation (CGLE), that describes dissipative semiconductor laser cavity is derived. Using perturbation method, the stability region is identified. Bifurcation analysis is done by smoothly varying the cavity loss coefficient to provide insight of the system dynamics. He’s variational method is adopted to obtain the standard sech-type and the notso-explored but promising cosh-Gaussian type, travelling wave solutions. For a given set of system parameters, only one sech solution is obtained, whereas several distinct solution points are derived for cosh-Gaussian case. These solutions yield a wide variety of travelling wave profiles, namely Gaussian, near-sech, flat-top and a cosh-Gaussian with variable central dip. A split-step Fourier method and pseudospectral method have been used for direct numerical solution of the CGLE and travelling wave profiles identical to the analytical profiles have been obtained. We also identified the parametric zone that promises an extremely large family of cosh-Gaussian travelling wave solutions with tunable shape. This suggests that the cosh-Gaussian profile is quite generic and would be helpful for further theoretical as well as experimental investigation on pattern formation, pulse dynamics and localization in semiconductor laser cavity.

  2. Cavity formation by the impact of Leidenfrost spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    We report observations of cavity formation and subsequent collapse when a heated sphere impacts onto a liquid pool. When the sphere temperature is much greater than the boiling point of the liquid, we observe an inverted Leidenfrost effect where the sphere is encompassed by a vapour layer that prevents physical contact with the liquid. This creates the ultimate non-wetting scenario during sphere penetration through a free surface, producing very smooth cavity walls. In some cases during initial entry, however, the liquid contacts the sphere at the equator, leading to the formation of a dual cavity structure. For cold sphere impacts, where a contact line is observed, we reveal details of the contact line pinning, which initially forms a sawtooth pattern. We also observe surface waves on the cavity interface for cold spheres. We compare our experimental results to previous studies of cavity dynamics and, in particular, the influence of hydrophobicity on the entry of the sphere. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  3. The structure of polaronic electron cavities in lithium-ammonia solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction has been used in conjunction with isotopic substitution of deuterium for hydrogen to study the structure of lithium-ammonia solutions, at concentrations spanning the metal-nonmetal transition. Detailed analysis and visualization of our experimental data has been carried out via iterative refinement of a three-dimensional molecular model, allowing us to obtain unique insight into the formation of polaronic electron cavities in the solutions. At low electron concentrations the solutions are nonmetallic, and the ammonia molecules are orientated around cavity centres to form Bjerrum-type defects. As the electron content is increased, the solutions become metallic, and we find evidence of percolation channels through the solvent. The dissociated electrons therefore play an active role in determining the structure of these solutions, and serve to disrupt the hydrogen bonding present in liquid ammonia

  4. DYNAMICAL FORMATION OF CAVITY IN A COMPOSED HYPER-ELASTIC SPHERE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任九生; 程昌钧

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical formation of cavity in a hyper-elastic sphere composed of two materials with the incompressible strain energy function, subjected to a suddenly applied uniform radial tensile boundary dead-load, was studied following the theory of finite deformation dynamics. Besides a trivial solution corresponding to the homogeneous static state, a cavity forms at the center of the sphere when the tensile load is larger than its critical value. An exact differential relation between the cavity radius and the tensile land was obtained. It is proved that the evolution of cavity radius with time displays nonlinear periodic oscillations. The phase diagram for oscillation, the maximum amplitude, the approximate period and the critical load were all discussed.

  5. Water entry without surface seal: Extended cavity formation

    KAUST Repository

    Mansoor, Mohammad M.

    2014-03-01

    We report results from an experimental study of cavity formation during the impact of superhydrophobic spheres onto water. Using a simple splash-guard mechanism, we block the spray emerging during initial contact from closing thus eliminating the phenomenon known as \\'surface seal\\', which typically occurs at Froude numbers Fr= V0 2/(gR0) = O(100). As such, we are able to observe the evolution of a smooth cavity in a more extended parameter space than has been achieved in previous studies. Furthermore, by systematically varying the tank size and sphere diameter, we examine the influence of increasing wall effects on these guarded impact cavities and note the formation of surface undulations with wavelength λ =O(10)cm and acoustic waves λa=O(D0) along the cavity interface, which produce multiple pinch-off points. Acoustic waves are initiated by pressure perturbations, which themselves are generated by the primary cavity pinch-off. Using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques we study the bulk fluid flow for the most constrained geometry and show the larger undulations ( λ =O (10cm)) have a fixed nature with respect to the lab frame. We show that previously deduced scalings for the normalized (primary) pinch-off location (ratio of pinch-off depth to sphere depth at pinch-off time), Hp/H = 1/2, and pinch-off time, τ α (R0/g) 1/2, do not hold for these extended cavities in the presence of strong wall effects (sphere-to-tank diameter ratio), ε = D 0/Dtank 1/16. Instead, we find multiple distinct regimes for values of Hp/H as the observed undulations are induced above the first pinch-off point as the impact speed increases. We also report observations of \\'kinked\\' pinch-off points and the suppression of downward facing jets in the presence of wall effects. Surprisingly, upward facing jets emanating from first cavity pinch-off points evolve into a \\'flat\\' structure at high impact speeds, both in the presence and absence of wall effects.

  6. A method based on potential theory for calculating air cavity formation of an air cavity resistance reduction ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-bo; WU Xiao-yu; MA Yong; WANG Jin-guang

    2008-01-01

    This research is intended to provide academic reference and design guidance for further studies to determine the most effective means to reduce a ship's resistance through an air-cavity.On the basis of potential theory and on the assumption of an ideal and irrotational fluid,this paper drives a method for calculating air cavity formation using slender ship theory then points out the parameters directly related to the formation of air cavities and their interrelationships.Simulations showed that the formation of an air cavity is affected by cavitation number,velocity,groove geometry and groove size.When the ship's velocity and groove structure are given,the cavitation number must be within range to form a steady air cavity.The interface between air and water forms a wave shape and could be adjustedby an air injection system.

  7. Formation of dislocations, precipitates and cavities in He-implanted Mn-Cr austenitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, E.; Valdrè, G.

    1991-03-01

    Solution-annealed discs of three Mn-Cr austenitic steels containing different amounts of C and N were uniformly implanted at 310 K with 1000 appm He corresponding to ~ 0.2 dpa. The samples were subsequently aged at temperatures from 923 to 1073 K for various times and, after electropolishing, examined by TEM, EDS and EELS. A study was made of the dislocation loops developing on aging and of the compositional changes in their neighbourhood. The formation and growth of precipitates and He-filled cavities was also investigated together with the elemental segregation to the cavity surfaces. It was found that the microstructural evolution in the three materials can take various forms depending on many parameters.

  8. Source mechanisms of a collapsing solution mine cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennart Kinscher, Jannes; Cesca, Simone; Bernard, Pascal; Contrucci, Isabelle; Mangeney, Anne; Piguet, Jack Pierre; Bigarre, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The development and collapse of a ~200 m wide salt solution mining cavity was seismically monitored in the Lorraine basin in northeastern France. Seismic monitoring and other geophysical in situ measurements were part of a large multi-parameter research project founded by the research "group for the impact and safety of underground works" (GISOS), whose database is being integrated in the EPOS platform (European Plate Observing System). The recorded microseismic events (~ 50,000 in total) show a swarm-like behaviour, with clustering sequences lasting from seconds to days, and distinct spatiotemporal migration. The majority of swarming signals are likely related to detachment and block breakage processes, occurring at the cavity roof. Body wave amplitude patterns indicate the presence of relatively stable source mechanisms, either associated with dip-slip and/or tensile faulting. However, short inter-event times, the high frequency geophone recordings, and the limited network station coverage often limits the application of classical source analysis techniques. In order to deal with these shortcomings, we examined the source mechanisms through different procedures including modelling of observed and synthetic waveforms and amplitude spectra of some well located events, as well as modelling of peak-to-peak amplitude ratios for most of the detected events. The latter approach was used to infer the average source mechanism of many swarming events at once by using a single three component station. To our knowledge this approach is applied here for the first time and represents an useful tool for source studies of seismic swarms and seismicity clusters. The results of the different methods are consistent and show that at least 50 % of the microseismic events have remarkably stable source mechanisms, associated with similarly oriented thrust faults, striking NW-SE and dipping around 35-55°. Consistent source mechanisms are probably related to the presence of a

  9. Soliton-dark pulse pair formation in birefringent cavity fiber lasers through cross phase coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guodong; Song, Yufeng; Zhao, Luming; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Dingyuan

    2015-10-01

    We report on the experimental observation of soliton-dark pulse pair formation in a birefringent cavity fiber laser. Temporal cavity solitons are formed in one polarization mode of the cavity. It is observed that associated with each of the cavity solitons a dark pulse is induced on the CW background of the orthogonal polarization mode. We show that the dark pulse formation is a result of the incoherent cross polarization coupling between the soliton and the CW beam and has a mechanism similar to that of the polarization domain formation observed in the fiber lasers. PMID:26480138

  10. Progress towards crab cavity solutions for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; /Lancaster U.; Bellantoni, L.; /Fermilab; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2006-06-01

    In order to achieve acceptable luminosity for ILC crossing angles greater than 2 mrad, RF deflection cavities must be used to rotate electron and position bunches leading up to the IP. A bunch that passes through a deflection cavity at a phase where the deflection averages to zero, receives a crab kick leading to a finite rotation at the IP. For a beam energy of 500 GeV and a crossing angle of 20 mrad the required crab kick is about 11.4 MV at 1.3 GHz and 3.8 MV at 3.9 GHz. Cavities are needed on both beams and are likely to be positioned about 12 m before the IP. Any RF phase error between the bunch and the cavity leads to a deflection of the bunch in addition to a rotation of the bunch. Any differential phase error between the cavities leads to differing deflections and consequential loss in luminosity. An updated analysis of system requirements and phase tolerances with respect to original calculations [1] is given. Issues on cavity and frequency choice are discussed.

  11. Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bacteria produce acids that cause decay. Tooth pain occurs after decay reaches the inside of the tooth. Dentists can detect cavities by examining the teeth and taking x-rays periodically. Good oral hygiene and regular dental care plus a healthy diet can help prevent cavities. ...

  12. DYNAMICAL FORMATION OF CAVITY IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC HYPER-ELASTIC SPHERES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任九生; 程昌钧

    2003-01-01

    The cavity formation in a radial transversely isotropic hyper-elastic sphere of an incompressible Ogden material, subjected to a suddenly applied uniform radial tensile boundary deadload, is studied following the theory of finite deformation dynamics. A cavity forms at the center of the sphere when the tensile load is greater than its critical value. It is proved that the evolution of the cavity radius with time follows that of nonlinear periodic oscillations.

  13. Analytical solutions for finite cylindrical dynamic cavity expansion in compressible elastic-plastic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄明; 蒋志刚; 宋殿义; 刘飞

    2014-01-01

    Analytical solutions for the dynamic cylindrical cavity expansion in a com-pressible elastic-plastic cylinder with a finite radius are developed by taking into account of the effect of lateral free boundary, which are different from the traditional cavity expan-sion models for targets with infinite dimensions. The finite cylindrical cavity expansion process begins with an elastic-plastic stage followed by a plastic stage. The elastic-plastic stage ends and the plastic stage starts when the plastic wave front reaches the lateral free boundary. Approximate solutions of radial stress on cavity wall are derived by using the Von-Mise yield criterion and Forrestal’s similarity transformation method. The effects of the lateral free boundary and finite radius on the radial stress on the cavity wall are discussed, and comparisons are also conducted with the finite cylindrical cavity expansion in incompressible elastic-plastic materials. Numerical results show that the lateral free boundary has significant influence on the cavity expansion process and the radial stress on the cavity wall of metal cylinder with a finite radius.

  14. Solution of Cavity Resonance and Waveguide Scattering Problems Using the Eigenmode Projection Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nasr, Mamdouh H; Eshrah, Islam A; Abuelfadl, Tamer M

    2016-01-01

    An eigenmode projection technique (EPT) is developed and employed to solve problems of electromagnetic resonance in closed cavities and scattering from discontinuities in guided-wave structures. The EPT invokes the eigenmodes of a canonical predefined cavity in the solution procedure and uses the expansion of these eigenmodes to solve Maxwell's equations, in conjunction with a convenient choice of port boundary conditions. For closed cavities, resonance frequencies of arbitrary-shaped cavities are accurately determined with a robust and efficient separation method of spurious modes. For waveguide scattering problems, the EPT is combined with the generalized scattering matrix approach to solve problems involving waveguide discontinuities with arbitrary dielectric profiles. Convergence studies show stable solutions for a relatively small number of expansion modes, and the proposed method shows great robustness over conventional solvers in analyzing electromagnetic problems with inhomogeneous materials.

  15. Comparing the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztaş, Nurhan; Sümer, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model. Study Design: Twenty-one human molars were divided into 3 groups. Cavities were then cut into the teeth (4 per tooth, 28 cavities per group). After sterilization, the teeth were left in broth cultures of 106 colony-forming units (CFU) ml-1 of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) at 36°C for 48 h. The appropriate treatment followed (group A, control; group B, 2% chlorhexidine solution; and group C, 80s of treatment with ozone, and the cavities were then filled with composite resin. After 72h, the restorations were removed, dentin chips were collected with an excavator, and the total number of microorganisms was determined. Results: Both of the treatments significantly reduced the number of S. mutans present compared with the control group and there was a significant difference between the all groups in terms of the amount of the microorganisms grown (p ozone group (p ozone application could be an anlternative cavity disinfection method because of ozone’s cavity disinfection activity. Key words:Antibacterial activity, chlorhexidine, ozone, streptococcus mutans, tooth cavity. PMID:24455068

  16. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Two interacting atoms in a cavity: exact solutions, entanglement and decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. M.; Sadurní, E.; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-05-01

    We address the problem of two interacting atoms of different species inside a cavity and find the explicit solutions of the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenfunctions using a new variant. This model encompasses various commonly used models. By way of example we obtain closed expressions for concurrence and purity as a function of time for the case where the cavity is prepared in a number state. We discuss the behaviour of these quantities and their relative behaviour in the concurrence-purity plane.

  17. Open Cavity Solutions to the rf in Magnetic Field Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, R; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J C; Kirk, H

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed \\cite{break} that breakdown in an 805 MHz pill-box cavi ty occurs at much lower gradients as an external axial magnetic field is inc reased. This effect was not observed with on open iris cavity. It is propose d that this effect depends on the relative angles of the magnetic and maximu m electric fields: parallel in the pill-box case; at an angle in the open ir is case. If so, using an open iris structure with solenoid coils in the iris es should perform even better. A lattice, using this principle, is presented, for use in 6D cooling for a Muon Collider. Experimental layouts to test th is principle are proposed.

  18. Monitoring the formation of oxide apertures in micropillar cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, Morten P; Suntrup, Donald J; Truong, Tuan-Ahn; van Exter, Martin P; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We present an imaging technique that enables us to monitor the wet thermal oxidation of a thin AlAs layer embedded between two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors in a micropillar. Directly after oxidation, we confirm in situ, without any further fabrication steps, that high quality optical modes confined to a small volume are formed. The combination of these two optical techniques provides a reliable and efficient way of producing oxidation apertured micropillar cavities for which the wet thermal oxidation is a critical fabrication step.

  19. Prediction and prevention of adhesion formation of the abdominal cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Alisher, Zh; Zhandos, T.; Nurbolat, E.; Zarina, R.; Dinara, Shaki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of adhesive disease was known in the middle of the XIX century, N.N. Blinov in the middle of the XX century in his monograph “Adhesive disease”, wrote that post-surgical adhesions in the abdominal cavity – is a defect of surgeon. At present time, it is known that adhesive disease is the adhesions of connective tissue between adjacent organs or the peritoneal surface resulting from damage of their walls (more often during a surgical intervention). As of today, there ar...

  20. Solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a driven cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, B. D.; Sameh, Ahmed

    1991-03-01

    The flow field in a lid driven cavity is determined by integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical integration is accomplished via an operator splitting method known as the theta-scheme. This splitting separates the problem into the solution of a quasi-stokes problem and a nonlinear convection problem. Some details of solution methods used for the two subproblems and results obtained for the driven cavity are described. The schemes developed for the quasi-Stokes problem are more advanced at this stage than those for the nonlinear problem. However, the approaches used for both parts are outlined. As a model problem, a two dimensional square cavity with sides of unit length and a lid moving with unit velocity from left to right is considered. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized in space on a uniform staggered or MAC mesh. The time discretization is accomplished via the theta-scheme.

  1. Weighted-density functionals for cavity formation and dispersion energies in continuum solvation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Gunceler, Deniz; Arias, T. A. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Continuum solvation models enable efficient first principles calculations of chemical reactions in solution, but require extensive parametrization and fitting for each solvent and class of solute systems. Here, we examine the assumptions of continuum solvation models in detail and replace empirical terms with physical models in order to construct a minimally-empirical solvation model. Specifically, we derive solvent radii from the nonlocal dielectric response of the solvent from ab initio calculations, construct a closed-form and parameter-free weighted-density approximation for the free energy of the cavity formation, and employ a pair-potential approximation for the dispersion energy. We show that the resulting model with a single solvent-independent parameter: the electron density threshold (n{sub c}), and a single solvent-dependent parameter: the dispersion scale factor (s{sub 6}), reproduces solvation energies of organic molecules in water, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride with RMS errors of 1.1, 0.6 and 0.5 kcal/mol, respectively. We additionally show that fitting the solvent-dependent s{sub 6} parameter to the solvation energy of a single non-polar molecule does not substantially increase these errors. Parametrization of this model for other solvents, therefore, requires minimal effort and is possible without extensive databases of experimental solvation free energies.

  2. Two interacting atoms in a cavity: exact solutions, entanglement and decoherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J M; SadurnI, E; Seligman, T H, E-mail: mau@fis.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-05-14

    We address the problem of two interacting atoms of different species inside a cavity and find the explicit solutions of the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenfunctions using a new variant. This model encompasses various commonly used models. By way of example we obtain closed expressions for concurrence and purity as a function of time for the case where the cavity is prepared in a number state. We discuss the behaviour of these quantities and their relative behaviour in the concurrence-purity plane. (fast track communication)

  3. Formation of nano-cavities in dielectrics: influence of equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallo, L.; Mezel, C.; Travaille, G.; Chimier, B.; Schurtz, G.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [CELIA, 33 - Talence (France); Bourgeade, A.; Hebert, D. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2008-09-15

    Tight focusing of a sub-picosecond laser pulse in a transparent dielectric provides a mean for localized deposition and plasma formation. A micro-explosion in a confined geometry results in a sub-micron cavity formation. Our numerical simulations show the cavity size is strongly dependent on the parameters of the equation of state such as the Gruneisen coefficient or the latent heat of sublimation. A comparison of numerical simulations with experimental data should allow a tuning of equations of state in the domain of extreme parameters. (authors)

  4. Numerical model for the solution of two-dimensional natural convection problems in arbitrary cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research work a numerical model for the solution of two-dimensional natural convection problems in arbitrary cavities of a Boussinesq fluid is presented. The conservation equations are written in a general curvilinear coordinate system which matches the irregular boundaries of the domain. The nonorthogonal system is generated by a suitable system of elliptic equations. The momentum and continuity equations are transformed from the Cartesian system to the general curvilinear system keeping the Cartesian velocity components as the dependent variables in the transformed domain. Finite difference equations are obtained for the contravariant velocity components in the transformed domain. The numerical calculations are performed in a fixed rectangular domain and both the Cartesian and the contravariant velocity components take part in the solutiomn procedure. The dependent variables are arranged on the grid in a staggered manner. The numerical model is tested by solving the driven flow in a square cavity with a moving side using a nonorthogoanl grid. The natural convenction in a square cavity, using an orthogonal and a nonorthogonal grid, is also solved for the model test. Also, the solution for the buoyancy flow between a square cylinder placed inside a circular cylinder is presented. The results of the test problems are compared with those available in the specialized literature. Finally, in order to show the generality of the model, the natural convection problem inside a very irregular cavity is presented. (Author)

  5. Generation and breakup of Worthington jets after cavity collapse. Part 1. Jet formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gekle, Stephan; Gordillo, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the last century Worthington and Cole discovered that the high-speed jets ejected after the impact of an axisymmetric solid on a liquid surface are intimately related to the formation and collapse of an air cavity created in the wake of the impactor. In this paper, we combine det

  6. Transverse Mode Structure and Pattern Formation in Oxide Confined Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hegarty, S.P.; Hou, H.Q.; Huyet, G.; McInerney, J.G.; Porta, P.

    1999-07-06

    We analyze the transverse profiles of oxide-confined vertical cavity laser diodes as a function of aperture size. For small apertures we demonstrate that thermal lensing can be the dominant effect in determining the transverse resonator properties. We also analyze pattern formation in lasers with large apertures where we observe the appearance of tilted waves.

  7. Fiber-coupled photonic crystal nanocavity for reconfigurable formation of coupled cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Ooka, Yuta; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2016-03-01

    High Q optical cavities are employed to realize a coupled cavity system with which to achieve optical signal processing. Photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavities are particularly attractive because they are suitable for integration. However, they usually suffer from low coupling efficiency with optical fiber and poor resonant wavelength controllability. We recently demonstrated cavity mode formation by placing a tapered nanofiber close to a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide. The cavity mode couples directly with the nanofiber, which results in a coupling efficiency of 39% with a high Q of over half a million. The cavity is formed due to the modulation of the effective refractive index, which is caused by bringing a nanofiber close to the silicon slab. Precise tuning of the resonant wavelength becomes possible by changing the contact area of the nanofiber. In this study, we demonstrate the coupling and de-coupling of coupled PhC nanocavities formed by a nanofiber placed on a PhC waveguide. The wavelength shift of one of the cavities (mode A) is more sensitive than that of the other cavity (mode B) to a change in the nanofiber contact area. By using this difference, we can tune the resonant wavelength of mode A (Q = 4.6×105) to that of mode B (Q = 6.0×105). Then, a clear anti-crossing with a mode splitting of g/2π = 0.94 GHz is observed, which is the result of the coupling of the two modes. A reconfigurable coupled cavity system was demonstrated.

  8. DYNAMICAL FORMATION OF CAVITY FOR COMPOSED THERMAL HYPERELASTIC SPHERES IN NON-UNIFORM TEMPERATURE FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical formation and growth of cavity in a sphere composed of two incompressible thermal-hyperelastic Gent-Thomas materials were discussed under the case of a non-uniform temperature field and the surface dead loading. The mathematical model was first presented based on the dynamical theory of finite deformations. An exact differential relation between the void radius and surface load was obtained by using the variable transformation method. By numerical computation, critical loads and cavitation growth curves were obtained for different temperatures. The influence of the temperature and material parameters of the composed sphere on the void formation and growth was considered and compared with those for static analysis. The results show that the cavity occurs suddenly with a finite radius and its evolvement with time displays a non-linear periodic vibration and that the critical load decreases with the increase of temperature and also the dynamical critical load is lower than the static critical load under the same conditions.

  9. [Cysts and cyst-like formations of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchko, V I; Bibliuk, I I; Martyniuk, N A; Koturbash, R I; Matiiash, Ia V

    1992-01-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 29 children with cysts, and 10--with cyst-like formations of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space are described. In majority of the patients, a cyst at the terminal stage was revealed. In presence of complications, they were operated on with tentative diagnosis of acute appendicitis, or ileus. The operation consisted of cyst enucleation, its elimination with resection, or removal of the organ, creation of cystodigestive anastomosis. Postoperative lethality was 12.8%.

  10. Auroral ionospheric F region density cavity formation and evolution: MICA campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, M.; Lynch, K.; Hampton, D.; Nicolls, M.; Wright, B.; Conde, M.; Moen, J.; Lessard, M.; Miceli, R.; Powell, S.

    2014-04-01

    Auroral ionospheric F region density depletions observed by PFISR (Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar) during the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) sounding rocket campaign are critically examined alongside complementary numerical simulations. Particular processes of interest include cavity formation due to intense frictional heating and Pedersen drifts, evolution in the presence of structured precipitation, and refilling due to impact ionization and downflows. Our analysis uses an ionospheric fluid model which solves conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations for all major ionospheric species. These fluid equations are coupled to an electrostatic current continuity equation to self-consistently describe auroral electric fields. Energetic electron precipitation inputs for the model are specified by inverting optical data, and electric field boundary conditions are obtained from direct PFISR measurements. Thus, the model is driven in as realistic a manner as possible. Both incoherent scatter radar (ISR) data and simulations indicate that the conversion of the F region plasma to molecular ions and subsequent recombination is the dominant process contributing to the formation of the observed cavities, all of which occur in conjunction with electric fields exceeding ˜90 mV/m. Furthermore, the cavities often persist several minutes past the point when the frictional heating stops. Impact ionization and field-aligned plasma flows modulate the cavity depth in a significant way but are of secondary importance to the molecular generation process. Informal comparisons of the ISR density and temperature fits to the model verify that the simulations reproduce most of the observed cavity features to a reasonable level of detail.

  11. On the formation of noise-like pulses in fiber ring cavity configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoonchan; Vazquez-Zuniga, Luis Alonso; Lee, Seungjong; Kwon, Youngchul

    2014-12-01

    We give an overview of the current status of fiber-based noise-like pulse (NLP) research conducted over the past decade, together with presenting the newly conducted, systematic study on their temporal, spectral, and coherence characteristics in nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR)-based erbium-doped fiber ring cavity configurations. Firstly, our study includes experimental investigations on the characteristic features of NLPs both in the net anomalous dispersion regime and in the net normal dispersion regime, in comparison with coherent optical pulses that can alternatively be obtained from the same cavity configurations, i.e., with the conventional and dissipative solitons. Secondly, our study includes numerical simulations on the formation of NLPs, utilizing a simplified, scalar-field model based on the characteristic transfer function of the NPR mechanism in conjunction with the split-step Fourier algorithm, which offer a great help in exploring the interrelationship between the NLP formation and various cavity parameters, and eventually present good agreement with the experimental results. We stress that if the cavity operates with excessively high gain, i.e., higher than the levels just required for generating coherent mode-locked pulses, i.e., conventional solitons and dissipative solitons, it may trigger NLPs, depending on the characteristic transfer function of the NPR mechanism induced in the cavity. In particular, the NPR transfer function is characterized by the critical saturation power and the linear loss ratio. Finally, we also report on the applications of the fiber-based NLP sources, including supercontinuum generation in a master-oscillator power amplifier configuration seeded by a fiber-based NLP source, as one typical example. We expect that the NLP-related research area will continue to expand, and that NLP-based sources will also find more applications in the future.

  12. Integral transform solution of natural convection in a square cavity with volumetric heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. An

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The generalized integral transform technique (GITT is employed to obtain a hybrid numerical-analytical solution of natural convection in a cavity with volumetric heat generation. The hybrid nature of this approach allows for the establishment of benchmark results in the solution of non-linear partial differential equation systems, including the coupled set of heat and fluid flow equations that govern the steady natural convection problem under consideration. Through performing the GITT, the resulting transformed ODE system is then numerically solved by making use of the subroutine DBVPFD from the IMSL Library. Therefore, numerical results under user prescribed accuracy are obtained for different values of Rayleigh numbers, and the convergence behavior of the proposed eigenfunction expansions is illustrated. Critical comparisons against solutions produced by ANSYS CFX 12.0 are then conducted, which demonstrate excellent agreement. Several sets of reference results for natural convection with volumetric heat generation in a bi-dimensional square cavity are also provided for future verification of numerical results obtained by other researchers.

  13. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS TO EXPANSION OF CYLINDRICAL CAVITY IN LINEAR SOFTENING SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengJunjie; PengHong; NieChongjun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the results of conventional triaxial compression tests for a soil, a trilinear elasto-plastic model is proposed to simulate the stress-strain softening curve. According to this curve, the constitutive relation between the bulk strain and two principal strains is established.By using Mohr-Coulomb's yield criterion as the initial yield function with plastic flow phases stage and constructing the rational yield function for the strain softening phase stage, the analytical solutions to the stress, strain, and displacement fields for the expansion of cylindrical cavity are presented. Finally, a computational example is used to show the radii of different stress zones and the corresponding internal pressure.

  14. Theory of the formation of cave holes above cavities in unconsolidated strata. Eine Theorie zur Entstehung von Tagesbruechen ueber Hohlraeumen im Lockergebirge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenk, J.

    1981-01-01

    A theory of the formation of cave holes above cavities in unconsolidated strata is formulated according to mathematical-statistical evaluations of cave holes, to an investigation of the fall in the unconsolidated strata model and a tension deformation analytical examination of the fall process in the unconsolidated strata. The correlations according to the rule were examined by applying the developed empirical and analytical solutions to the investigation of cave holes and found valid.

  15. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  16. Cavity enhanced detection methods for probing the dynamics of spin correlated radical pairs in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Simon R. T.; Maeda, Kiminori; Henbest, Kevin B.; Goez, Martin; Hemmens, Robert; Timmel, Christiane R.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-04-01

    Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) combined with phase-sensitive detection is employed to study the effects of static magnetic fields on radical recombination reactions. The chemical system comprises the photochemically generated thionine semiquinone radical and a 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) cationic radical in a micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Data obtained using the modulated CEAS technique, describing the magnetic field effect (MFE) on reaction yields, are shown to be superior to those obtained using conventional transient absorption (TA) flash photolysis methods typically employed for these measurements. The high sensitivity afforded by modulated CEAS detection is discussed in terms of the new possibilities it offers such as the measurement of magnetic field effects in real biological systems which have hitherto been largely beyond the detection capabilities of existing techniques.

  17. Comparing and studying crack formation during apical cavity preparation using ultrasonic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrabian M.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major goals of periradicular surgery is to create a good apical sea! at the apex. This"nis done by sectioning of 2 to 3mm from the apex, preparation of a class I cavity and filling with a"nbiocompatible material."nThe purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether ultrasonic units used for root end"npreparations could change the surface & structure of resected root ends, as competed to common"nmethods of retropreparation. Eighty-five extracted single rooted teeth were divided into five similar"ngroups. Then instrumented and filled with lateral condensation method. Then three millimeter of apex"nwas resected, retropreparaiions in two groups were done with low speed handpiece and round V ^ur"nand cavities in two other groups prepared with the highest power of dentspiay ultrasonic unit with TFI-"n10 tip and in one other group prepared with the highest power of neo sonic ultrasonic unit with diamond"ncoated CT-1 retro tip."nFollowing root resection and retropreparation the surface of resected root ends were examined for the"npresence of any cracks or structural changes on the surface of resected root ends with stereo microscope"n50x."nThe results of this study showed thai high power settings of ultrasonic units can increase the potential of"ncrack formation on resected root surfaces. In conclusion it is better to use low power setting of ultrasonic"nfor retropreparation.

  18. Transfer of Solutions to Conditional Probability Problems: Effects of Example Problem Format, Solution Format, and Problem Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Alan F.; Van Haneghan, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the results of a study examining how easily students are able to transfer frequency solutions to conditional probability problems to novel situations. University students studied either a problem solved using the traditional Bayes formula format or using a natural frequency (tree diagram) format. In addition, the example problem…

  19. Diketopiperazine-mediated peptide formation in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, M.; Takaoka, O.; Inomata, K.; Yamagata, Y.

    1990-05-01

    Though diketopiperazines (DKP) are formed in most experiments concerning the prebiotic peptide formation, the molecules have not been paid attention in the studies of chemical evolution. We have found that triglycine, tetraglycine or pentaglycine are formed in aqueous solution of glycine anhydride (DKP) and glycine, diglycine or triglycine, respectively. A reaction of alanine with DKP resulted in the formation of glycylglycylalanine under the same conditions. These results indicate that the formation of the peptide bonds proceeds through the nucleophilic attack of an amino group of the amino acids or the oligoglycines on the DKP accompanied by the ring-opening. The formation of glycine anhydride, di-, tri- and tetraglycine was also observed in a mixed aqueous solution of urea and glycine in an open system to allow the evaporation of ammonia. A probable pathway is proposed for prebiotic peptide formation through diketopiperazine on the primitive Earth.

  20. A Comprehensive study of Cavities on the Sun: Structure, Formation, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Nishu; Zhang, Jie; Pesnell, William D.

    2016-05-01

    Coronal cavities are large-scale structures in the Sun's corona that are closely related with the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the photosphere as well as associated with the energetic solar activity such as prominence eruptions and coronal mass ejections. They are observed as circular or elliptical-shaped relatively low-density dark regions above the solar limb in EUV, X-ray, and white-light coronal images. We used SDO/AIA limb synoptic maps, constructed from annuli above the solar limb, to systematically identify cavities. We observed 429 coronal prominence cavities between May 20, 2010 and Feb 1, 2015. We examined correlations between height, width, and length of the cavities. Based on the fitting of the shape of the cross section, we classified cavities in three types: prolate (38%), oblate (27%) and circular (35%). We found that the cavities of all shapes are common in shorter length while circular and oblate cavities are more common in the longer length. In general, we found that the overall 3-D topology of long stable cavities can be characterized as a long tube with an elliptical cross-section. Next, we investigated the pattern of cavity location and found that cavity systematically drifts towards the pole. We found that cavities form a belt by making a plot using SDO/HMI surface magnetogram similar to classical buttery diagram of sunspots, we call that the cavity belt. Our analysis showed that the cavity belts migrated towards higher latitude with time and the cavity belts disappeared after the polar magnetic field reversal. This result shows that cavity evolution provides new insight into the solar cycle. Moreover, we studied the underlying magnetic field of a circumpolar crown cavity (Mar 21, 2013- Oct 25, 2013) that was observed for several Carrington Rotations. Our results showed that the underlying polarity inversion line of cavities is formed between the trailing part of decayed active regions and the unipolar magnetic field in the

  1. Simulating the Formation and Evolution of Solar Prominences in Coronal Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2015-12-01

    The physical mechanism responsible for the formation and the mass cycling of solar prominences has been uncertain for decades, because of the difficulty of knowing the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field hosting prominences and the mass supply from chromosphere to prominences. Here we report comprehensive 3D simulations which demonstrate that the chromospheric evaporation and the coronal condensation in a magnetic flux rope lead to the formation of a quiescent prominence with complex internal fluid dynamics. First, we simulate the formation of a stable magnetic flux rope in the corona starting from a sheared magnetic bipolar arcade driven by shearing and converging flows at the bottom, using isothermal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) modeling including gravity. Second, we fill the magnetic flux rope with hydrostatic plasma from chromosphere to corona and simulate a quiet sun in an equilibrium using full thermodynamic MHD with anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parameterized heating. Then, we add extra strong heating localized in two circular regions covering chromospheric foot points of the flux rope. As the plasma is evaporated into corona, the lower part of the flux rope evolve into thermally unstable situation due to dominative radiative losses, where multiple blobs and threads of condensations form and move continuously mainly along local magnetic field. Some of the condensations fall down to chromosphere without support of magnetic dips near the foot region of the flux rope. Others linger in magnetic dips and descend slowly. Synthetic images of Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly shows many properties of quiescent prominences from real observations, such as, dynamics dark threads under elliptical coronal cavity.

  2. Transport of reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, W.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Transport and spreading behaviour of reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous formations is considered. Spatial variability is modeled by assuming a random space function (RSF) for the spatially variable properties. In the available literature, the effect of random spatial variability is mostly limi

  3. Thermal effects on fluid flow and hydraulic fracturing from wellbores and cavities in low-permeability formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarlong Wang [Petro-Geotech Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Papamichos, Euripides [IKU Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    The coupled heat-fluid-stress problem of circular wellbore or spherical cavity subjected to a constant temperature change and a constant fluid flow rate is considered. Transient analytical solutions for temperature, pore pressure and stress are developed by coupling conductive heat transfer with Darcy fluid flow in a poroelastic medium. They are applicable to lower permeability porous media suitable for liquid-waste disposal and also simulating reservoir for enhanced oil recovery, where conduction dominates the heat transfer process. A full range of solutions is presented showing separately the effects of temperature and fluid flow on pore pressure and stress development. It is shown that injection of warm fluid can be used to restrict fracture development around wellbores and cavities and generally to optimise a fluid injection operation. Both the limitations of the solutions and the convective flow effect are addressed. (Author)

  4. Structure formation in solution ionic polymers and colloidal particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ise, Norio

    2005-01-01

    This book is designed to critically review experimental findings on ionic polymers and colloidal particles and to prove a theoretical framework based on the Poisson-Boltzmann approach. Structure formation in ionic polymer solutions has attracted attention since the days of H. Staudinger and J. D. Bernal. An independent study on ionic colloidal dispersions with microscopy provided a compelling evidence of structure formation. Recent technical developments have made it possible to accumulate relevant information for both ionic polymers and colloidal particles in dilute systems. The outstanding phenomenon experimentally found is microscopic inhomogeneity in the solute distribution in macroscopically homogeneous systems.To account for the observation, the present authors have invoked the existence of the counterion-mediated attraction between similarly charged solute species, in addition to the widely accepted electrostatic repulsion.

  5. Numerical and experimental investigation of central cavity formation in aluminum during forward extrusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S. H.; Sedighi, M.; Mosayebnezhad, J. [Iran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the presented paper central cavity formation during the forward extrusion of commercially pure aluminum was investigated. For this purpose finite element analysis was utilized for simulation of this defect. The experimental tests were carried out on commercially pure aluminum. A good agreement between finite element simulations and experimental tests verified the adaptability of finite element simulations with the real process conditions. Taguchi method was performed for classifying the simulations regarding to consider synergistic parameters. The parameters include reduction of area, friction coefficient and die angle. Critical thickness, the representative waste material, was presented as a new criterion for optimizing the parametric study. By utilizing the Analyze Taguchi design, critical thickness was optimized and the effect of each parameter was recognized for different levels. In addition, the best levels with the minimum waste material were gained in which friction coefficient, die angle and reduction of area were 0.2, 5 .deg. and 20%, respectively. Also the amount of waste material was forecasted by just about 2% errors without FEA by Taguchi method.

  6. Spherical harmonic series solution of fields excited by vertical electric dipole in earth-ionosphere cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanxin WANG; Wensheng FAN; Weiyan PAN; Hongqi ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The spherical harmonic series expression of electromagnetic fields excited by ELF/SLF vertical electric dipole in the spherical earth-ionosphere cavity is derived when the earth and ionosphere are regarded as non-ideal conductors. A method of speeding numerical convergence has been presented. The electromagnetic fields in the cavity are calculated by this algorithm, and the results show that the electromagnetic fields between the earth and the ionosphere are the sum of two traveling waves in the SLF band. Moreover, the results are in complete agreement with that of the well-known spherical second-order approximation in the SLF band. The electromagnetic fields in the cavity are a type of standing wave in the ELF band and the variation of the amplitude versus frequency coincides with Schumann's resonance.

  7. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  8. Stationary bubble formation and cavity collapse in wedge-shaped hoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagisawa, Yui; Then, Hui Zee; Okumura, Ko

    2016-01-01

    The hourglass is one of the apparatuses familiar to everyone, but reveals intriguing behaviors peculiar to granular materials, and many issues are remained to be explored. In this study, we examined the dynamics of falling sand in a special form of hourglass, i.e., a wedge-shaped hopper, when a suspended granular layer is stabilized to a certain degree. As a result, we found remarkably different dynamic regimes of bubbling and cavity. In the bubbling regime, bubbles of nearly equal size are created in the sand at a regular time interval. In the cavity regime, a cavity grows as sand beads fall before a sudden collapse of the cavity. Bubbling found here is quite visible to a level never discussed in the physics literature and the cavity regime is a novel phase, which is neither continuous, intermittent nor completely blocked phase. We elucidate the physical conditions necessary for the bubbling and cavity regimes and develop simple theories for the regimes to successfully explain the observed phenomena by considering the stability of a suspended granular layer and clogging of granular flow at the outlet of the hopper. The bubbling and cavity regimes could be useful for mixing a fluid with granular materials. PMID:27138747

  9. Asymptotic solution of natural convection problem in a square cavity heated from below

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, M; Mojtabi, A; vantHof, B

    1996-01-01

    Studies a two-dimensional natural convection in a porous, square cavity using a regular asymptotic development in powers of the Rayleigh number. Carries the approximation through to the 34th order. Analyses convergence of the resulting series for the Nusselt number in both monocellular and multicell

  10. Cavity Formation in Aluminium Irradiated with a Pulsating Beam of 225 MeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen; Leffers, Torben;

    1984-01-01

    High-purity aluminium was irradiated with a pulsating beam of 225 MeV electrons to a maximum dose of 0.035 dpa with a helium generation rate of up to 17 appm/dpa. The irradiated samples contained cavities in the size range 5 to 70 nm. In a zone of up to 14 μm from the grain boundaries cavity size...

  11. Stationary bubble formation and cavity collapse in wedge-shaped hoppers

    CERN Document Server

    Yagisawa, Yui; Okumura, Ko

    2016-01-01

    The hourglass is one of the apparatuses familiar to everyone, but reveals intriguing behaviors peculiar to granular materials, and many issues are remained to be explored. In this study, we examined the dynamics of falling sand in a special form of hourglass, i.e., a wedge-shaped hopper, when a suspended granular layer is stabilized to a certain degree. As a result, we found remarkably different dynamics, bubbling and cavity regimes. In the bubbling regime, bubbles of nearly equal size are created in the sand at a regular time interval. In the cavity regime, a cavity grows as sand beads fall before a sudden collapse of the cavity. Bubbling found here is quite visible to a level never discussed in the physics literature and the cavity regime is a novel phase, which is neither continuous, intermittent nor completely blocked phase. We elucidate the physical conditions necessary for the bubbling and cavity regimes and develop simple theories for the regimes to successfully explain the observed phenomena by consid...

  12. Effects of A Top SiO2 Surface Layer on Cavity Formation and Helium Desorption in Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cz n-type Si (100) samples with and without a top SiO2 layer were implanted with 40 keV helium ions at the same dose of 5×1016 cm-2. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (THDS) were used to study the thermal evolution of cavities upon and helium thermal release, respectively. XTEM results show that the presence of the top SiO2 layer could suppress the thermal growth of cavities mainly formed in the region close to the SiO2/Si interface, which leads to the reduction in both the cavity band and cavity density. THDS results reveal that the top oxide layer could act as an effective barrier for the migration of helium atoms to the surface, and it thus gives rise to the formation of more overpresurrized bubbles and to the occurrence of a third release peak located at about 1100 K. The results were qualitively discussed by considering the role of the oxide surface layer in defect migration and evolution upon annealing.

  13. Anti-plane (SH) waves diffraction by an underground semi-circular cavity: analytical solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Hao; Vincent W. Lee; Liang Jianwen

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction of a two-dimensional (2D) semi-circular cavity in a half-space under incident SH-waves is studied using the classic wave function expansion method with a new de-coupling technique. This so-called "improved cosine half-range expansion" algorithm exhibits an excellent performance in reducing displacement residual errors at two rim points of concern. The governing equations are developed in a manner that minimizes the residues of the boundary conditions. Detailed derivation and analysis procedures as well as truncation of infinite linear governing equations are presented. The semi-circular cavity model presented in this paper, due to its simple profile, is expected to be used in seismic wave propagation studies as a benchmark for examining the accuracies of various analytical or numerical methods for mixed-boundary wave propagation problems.

  14. Coupled-channel cavity QED model and Semi-classical solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Ling-hua; KONG Ling-bo; LIU Min; ZHAN Ming-sheng

    2004-01-01

    A semi-classical scheme is presented to solve the coupled-channel cavity QED (CQED) model. Such model exhibits remarkable characteristics as shown by numerical calculations. A relation between the swing or angular velocity of the detuning and the motion of the atoms is discussed. With the augmentation of the optical field intensity or frequency, the atoms are trapped firstly and then they move stochastically and finally chaos sets in.

  15. Numerical and analytical solution for the stationary behaviour of binary mixtures in a horizontal annular cavity heated from inside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcoux, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier (IMFT), UMR 5502 CNRS/INP/UPS, Groupe GEMP, 31 - Toulouse (France); Desrayaud, G. [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, LETEM, INSSET, 80 - Amiens (France); Pagano, A.; Fichera, A. [Universita Degli Studi di Catania, DIIM (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    This work is a study of the behavior of a binary mixture filling a horizontal annulus and subjected to a radial thermal gradient, and therefore to thermo-gravitational diffusion. Numerical simulation of this problem has been carried out for a realistic case and gives a precise description of the mixture in the cavity at steady state. From these observations, a complete analytical resolution of the problem is developed. The solution obtained is validated by comparison with numerical results for a wide range of the non-dimensional parameters controlling the problem. Species separation appearing in this case is finally described, bringing out the influence of the geometry. (authors)

  16. Numerical and analytical solution for the stationary behaviour of binary mixtures in a horizontal annular cavity heated from inside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a study of the behavior of a binary mixture filling a horizontal annulus and subjected to a radial thermal gradient, and therefore to thermo-gravitational diffusion. Numerical simulation of this problem has been carried out for a realistic case and gives a precise description of the mixture in the cavity at steady state. From these observations, a complete analytical resolution of the problem is developed. The solution obtained is validated by comparison with numerical results for a wide range of the non-dimensional parameters controlling the problem. Species separation appearing in this case is finally described, bringing out the influence of the geometry. (authors)

  17. Numerical Solution of Stokes Flow in a Circular Cavity Using Mesh-free Local RBF-DQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutanaai, S Soleimani; Roshan, Naeem; Vosoughi, A;

    2012-01-01

    This work reports the results of a numerical investigation of Stokes flow problem in a circular cavity as an irregular geometry using mesh-free local radial basis function-based differential quadrature (RBF-DQ) method. This method is the combination of differential quadrature approximation...... is applied on a two-dimensional geometry. The obtained results from the numerical simulations are compared with those gained by previous works. Outcomes prove that the current technique is in very good agreement with previous investigations and this fact that RBF-DQ method is an accurate and flexible method...... in solution of partial differential equations (PDEs)....

  18. Skin formation in drying a film of soft matter solutions: Application of solute based Lagrangian scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Luo; Fanlong, Meng; Junying, Zhang; Masao, Doi

    2016-07-01

    When a film of soft matter solutions is being dried, a skin layer often forms at its surface, which is a gel-like elastic phase made of concentrated soft matter solutions. We study the dynamics of this process by using the solute based Lagrangian scheme which was proposed by us recently. In this scheme, the process of the gelation (i.e., the change from sol to gel) can be naturally incorporated in the diffusion equation. Effects of the elasticity of the skin phase, the evaporation rate of the solvents, and the initial concentration of the solutions are discussed. Moreover, the condition for the skin formation is provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant Nos. 21434001, 51561145002, and 11421110001).

  19. Formation of three-body entanglement via a vacuum optical cavity induction in Tavis-Cummings model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-Liang; Li Xue-Mei

    2008-01-01

    After briefly introducing Akhtarshenas, concurrence vector and subvector for describing many-body entanglement,we investigate the entanglement formation for a system which contains three bodies, i.e. two identical atoms and a single model cavity field, in the Tavis-Cummings model by calculating the concurrences. The results show that the coupling strength between two atoms, the decay cavity and the atomic spontaneous emission can change the entanglement of formation according to different modes: these factors destroy periodicity and symmetry of all concurrences, and that the coupling strength of two atoms does not change the peak value of concurrence (C), but the strength of decay cavity and the atomic spontaneous emission decline in the peak value of concurrence (C) and the latter is more serious than the former under the same strengths. The concurrence vector and subvector are a useful measure of entanglement for a pure state of the many-body system, in that it can give novel pictures about the entanglements for the entire system and between its inner bodies.

  20. CAVITY FORMATION AT THE CENTER OF A SPHERE COMPOSED OF TWO COMPRESSIBLE HYPER-ELASTIC MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任九生; 程昌钧; 朱正佑

    2003-01-01

    The cavitated bifurcation problem in a solid sphere composed of two compressible hyper-elastic materials under a uniform boundary radial stretch was examined.The solutions, including the trivial solution and the cavitated solutions, were obtained.The bifurcation curves and the stress contributions subsequent to cavitation were discussed.The phenomena of the right and the left bifurcations as well as the catastrophe and concentration of stresses are observed. The stability of solutions is discussed through the energy comparison.

  1. Pattern formation and mass transfer under stationary solutal Marangoni instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Karin; Köllner, Thomas; Linde, Hartmut; Boeck, Thomas; Odenbach, Stefan; Eckert, Kerstin

    2014-04-01

    According to the seminal theory by Sternling and Scriven, solutal Marangoni convection during mass transfer of surface-active solutes may occur as either oscillatory or stationary instability. With strong support of Manuel G. Velarde, a combined initiative of experimental works, in particular to mention those of Linde, Wierschem and coworkers, and theory has enabled a classification of dominant wave types of the oscillatory mode and their interactions. In this way a rather comprehensive understanding of the nonlinear evolution of the oscillatory instability could be achieved. A comparably advanced state-of-the-art with respect to the stationary counterpart seemed to be out of reach a short time ago. Recent developments on both the numerical and experimental side, in combination with assessing an extensive number of older experiments, now allow one to draw a more unified picture. By reviewing these works, we show that three main building blocks exist during the nonlinear evolution: roll cells, relaxation oscillations and relaxation oscillations waves. What is frequently called interfacial turbulence results from the interaction between these partly coexisting basic patterns which may additionally occur in different hierarchy levels. The second focus of this review lies on the practical importance of such convection patterns concerning their influence on mass transfer characteristics. Particular attention is paid here to the interaction between Marangoni and buoyancy effects which frequently complicates the pattern formation even more. To shed more light on these dependencies, new simulations regarding the limiting case of stabilizing density stratification and vanishing buoyancy are incorporated.

  2. Worming Their Way into Shape: Toroidal Formations in Micellar Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardiel Rivera, Joshua J.; Tonggu, Lige; Dohnalkova, Alice; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Pozzo, Danilo C.; Shen, Amy

    2013-11-01

    We report the formation of nanostructured toroidal micellar bundles (nTMB) from a semidilute wormlike micellar solution, evidenced by both cryogenicelectron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. Our strategy for creating nTMB involves a two-step protocol consisting of a simple prestraining process followed by flow through a microfluidic device containing an array of microposts, producing strain rates in the wormlike micelles on the order of 105 s^1. In combination with microfluidic confinement, these unusually large strain rates allow for the formation of stable nTMB. Electron microscopy images reveal a variety of nTMB morphologies and provide the size distribution of the nTMB. Small-angle neutron scattering indicates the underlying microstructural transition from wormlike micelles to nTMB. We also show that other flow-induced approaches such as sonication can induce and control the emergence of onion-like and nTMB structures, which may provide a useful tool for nanotemplating.

  3. Formation of super-resolution spot through nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity structures: theory and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Rui; Yan, Hui; Fan, Yongtao

    2014-04-01

    This study explores how interference manipulation breaks through the diffraction limit and induces super-resolution nano-optical hot spots through the nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity structure. The theoretical analytical model is established, and the numerical simulation results show that when the thickness of the nonlinear thin film inside the nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity structure is adjusted to centain value, the constructive interference effect can be formed in the central point of the spot, which causes the nanoscale optical hot spot in the central region to be produced. The simulation results also tell us that the hot spot size is sensitive to nonlinear thin film thickness, and the accuracy is required to be up to nanometer or even subnanometer scale, which is very large challenging for thin film deposition technique, however, slightly changing the incident laser power can compensate for drawbacks of low thickness accuracy of nonlinear thin films. Taking As(2)S(3) as the nonlinear thin film, the central hot spot with a size of 40nm is obtained at suitable nonlinear thin film thickness and incident laser power. The central hot spot size is only about λ/16, which is very useful in super-high density optical recording, nanolithography, and high-resolving optical surface imaging.

  4. Weak Turbulence in the Magnetosphere: Formation of Whistler Wave Cavity by Nonlinear Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Crabtree, C; Ganguli, G; Mithaiwala, M; Galinsky, V; Shevchenko, V

    2011-01-01

    We consider the weak turbulence of whistler waves in the in low-\\beta\\ inner magnetosphere of the Earth. Whistler waves with frequencies, originating in the ionosphere, propagate radially outward and can trigger nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons provided the wave energy density is large enough. Nonlinear scattering can substantially change the direction of the wave vector of whistler waves and hence the direction of energy flux with only a small change in the frequency. A portion of whistler waves return to the ionosphere with a smaller perpendicular wave vector resulting in diminished linear damping and enhanced ability to pitch-angle scatter trapped electrons. In addition, a portion of the scattered wave packets can be reflected near the ionosphere back into the magnetosphere. Through multiple nonlinear scatterings and ionospheric reflections a long-lived wave cavity containing turbulent whistler waves can be formed with the appropriate properties to efficiently pitch-angle scatter trapped e...

  5. Dynamical formation of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole with scalar hair in a cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Herdeiro, Carlos; Font, José A; Montero, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    In a recent letter, we presented numerical relativity simulations, solving the full Einstein--Maxwell--Klein-Gordon equations, of superradiantly unstable Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes (BHs), enclosed in a cavity. Low frequency, spherical perturbations of a charged scalar field, trigger this instability. The system's evolution was followed into the non-linear regime, until it relaxed into an equilibrium configuration, found to be a $\\textit{hairy}$ BH: a charged horizon in equilibrium with a scalar field condensate, whose phase is oscillating at the (final) critical frequency. Here, we investigate the impact of adding self-interactions to the scalar field. In particular, we find sufficiently large self-interactions suppress the exponential growth phase, known from linear theory, and promote a non-monotonic behaviour of the scalar field energy. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the influence of the various parameters in this model: the initial BH charge, the initial scalar perturbation, the scalar field char...

  6. Dosimetric consideration for patients with dental filling materials undergoing irradiation of oral cavity using RapidArc: challenges and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mail, Noor; Albarakati, Y.; Khan, M. Ahmad; Saeedi, F.; Safadi, N.; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Saoudi, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of dental filling materials (DFM) on RapidArcTM treatment plans and delivery in a patient undergoing radiotherapy treatment. The presence of DFM creates uncertainties in CT number and causes long streaking artifacts in the reconstructed images which greatly affect the dose distribution inside the oral cavity. The influence of extensive dental filling artifacts on dose distribution was performed using a geometrically well defined head and neck IMRT verification phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) together with inserts from DFM (Amalgam, 11.3 g/cm3). The phantom was scanned using Siemens SOMATOM Sensation CT simulator (Siemens AG, Germany) under standard head and neck imaging protocol (120 kV, 120 mAs, voxel size 1×1×2 mm3). Three RapidArcTM plans were created in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning System (TPS) to treat oral cavity using the same CT dataset including; 1) raw CT image, 2) streaking artifacts replaced with a mask of 10 HU and 3) 2 cm thick 6000 HU virtual filter (a volume around the teeth in TPS to mimic extra attenuation). The virtual filter thickness optimization was purely based on measured PDD data acquired with DFM and the calculation in Eclipse Planning System using direct beam. The dose delivery and distribution for the three plans was verified using Gafchromic EBT2 (International Specialty Product, Wayne, NJ, USA) film measurements. The artifact mask and virtual filter around the teeth in the planning was found very useful to reduce the discrepancies between the dose plan and delivery. From clinical point of view, these results can be helpful to understand the increase of mucositis in patient having DFM, and further investigation is underway for clinical solution.

  7. Formation and reactivity of phenylperoxyl radicals in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of phenyl radicals with oxygen, to produce phenylperoxyl radicals, and the reactions of several phenylperoxyl radicals with a number of organic compounds in aqueous solutions have been studied by pulse radiolysis. Phenyl radicals were produced by reduction of aryl halides with hydrated electrons. The rate constant for the reaction of 4-carboxyphenyl with O2 was determined from the rate of buildup of the peroxyl radical absorption at 520 nm as a function of [O2] and found to be 1.6 x 109 L mol-1 s-1. Phenyl radicals react with 2-PrOH by H abstraction; a rate constants of 4 x 106 L mol-1 s-1 was determined for 4-carboxyphenyl by competition with the reaction of this radical with O2. Phenylperoxyl radicals react with 4-methoxyphenolate ions, trolox C(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), ascorbate ions, chlorpromazine, and ABTS [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate ion)] by one-electron oxidation. The rate constants for such reactions, determined from the rate of formation of the one-electron oxidation product as a function of substrate concentration, were found to be near 108-109 L mol-1 s-1. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Bistability and domain formation in driven-dissipative photon cavity arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Michael; Wilson, Ryan; Gorshkov, Alexey

    2016-05-01

    Atomic, molecular, and optical systems afford exciting opportunities to engineer simple, driven-dissipative quantum systems. Even when these systems reach a steady state, they generally remain far from thermal equilibrium, creating many difficulties in describing them theoretically. We confront some of these difficulties in a simple context by studying coupled arrays of non-linear optical cavities. In the limit of strong photon-photon interactions, and making a mean-field approximation, this system exhibits collective bistability between bright and dark states, in close analogy to single-mode quantum optical systems studied decades ago. While this mean-field picture hints at the existence of a first-order phase transition in the true steady state, we are unaware of any general arguments for whether, and if so in what spatial dimensions, such a transition actually exists; the answer depends upon the detailed dynamics of domains in the presence of both quantum and dissipative fluctuations. We study the effects of such fluctuations at various levels of approximation, and develop some simple qualitative pictures of what is going on in the true quantum steady state.

  9. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S K; Pawloski, G A; Raschke, K

    2007-04-26

    This report describes evaluation of collapse evolution for selected LLNL underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work is being done at the request of NSTec and supports the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Association Nevada Site Office Borehole Management Program (BMP). The primary objective of this program is to close (plug) weapons program legacy boreholes that are deemed no longer useful. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and crater formation are input into their safety decisions. The BMP is an on-going program to address hundreds of boreholes at the NTS. Each year NSTec establishes a list of holes to be addressed. They request the assistance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Containment Programs to provide information related to the evolution of collapse history and make statements on completeness of collapse as relates to surface crater stability. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program and the Chemical Sciences Division who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, and ground motion. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty. The following unclassified summary

  10. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Schoeling, Lanny Gene

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  11. Formation of long-lived resonances in hexagonal cavities by strong coupling of superscar modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghai; Ge, Li; Wiersig, Jan; Cao, Hui

    2013-08-01

    The recent progresses in single crystalline wide bandgap hexagonal disk have stimulated intense research attention on pursuing ultraviolet (UV) laser diodes with low thresholds. While whispering-gallery modes based UV lasers have been successfully obtained in GaN, ZnO nanorods, and nanopillars, the reported thresholds are still very high, due to the low-quality (Q) factors of the hexagonal resonances. Here we demonstrate resonances whose Q factors can be more than two orders of magnitude higher than the hexagonal modes, promising the reduction of the energy consumption. The key to our finding is the avoided resonance crossing between superscar states along two sets of nearly degenerated triangle orbits, which leads to the formation of hexagram modes. The mode couplings suppress the field distributions at the corners and the deviations from triangle orbits simultaneously and therefore enhance the Q factors significantly.

  12. Skin formation in drying a film of soft matter solutions:Application of solute based Lagrangian scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凌; 孟凡龙; 张俊英; Masao Doi

    2016-01-01

    When a film of soft matter solutions is being dried, a skin layer often forms at its surface, which is a gel-like elastic phase made of concentrated soft matter solutions. We study the dynamics of this process by using the solute based La-grangian scheme which was proposed by us recently. In this scheme, the process of the gelation (i.e., the change from sol to gel) can be naturally incorporated in the diffusion equation. Effects of the elasticity of the skin phase, the evaporation rate of the solvents, and the initial concentration of the solutions are discussed. Moreover, the condition for the skin formation is provided.

  13. The formation and solutions of the lime blowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the origin of the lime blowing and gives Solutions of eliminating the limeblowing, which are picking out lime, controlling the grain size, intensifying firing and Showering water on brick.

  14. Nanoscale lubricating film formation by linear polymer in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhai; Guo, Dan; Xie, Guoxin

    2012-11-01

    Film-forming properties of polymer in aqueous solution flowing through a nanogap have been investigated by using a thin film interferometry. The film properties of linear polymer in aqueous solution flowing through a confined nanogap depend on the ratio of water film thickness to averaged radius of polymer chains H0/RPolymer. It was found that the lubrication film thickness of linear polymer in aqueous solution decreases as the polymer molecular weight increasing when H0/RPolymer < 2 ˜ 3. A new lubrication map was proposed, which includes the lubrication regime of weak confinement influence, the lubrication regime of strong confinement influence (LRSCI), and the transition regime of confinement influence. It is very difficult to increase the lubrication film thickness using the higher molecule weight in the LRSCI regime. The lubrication mechanism inferred from our experimental results may help to better understand the dynamic film properties of linear polymer in aqueous solution flowing through a nanogap.

  15. Dense CO2 as a Solute, Co-Solute or Co-Solvent in Particle Formation Processes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. M. Nunes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of dense gases in particle formation processes has attracted great attention due to documented advantages over conventional technologies. In particular, the use of dense CO2 in the process has been subject of many works and explored in a variety of different techniques. This article presents a review of the current available techniques in use in particle formation processes, focusing exclusively on those employing dense CO2 as a solute, co-solute or co-solvent during the process, such as PGSS (Particles from gas-saturated solutions®, CPF (Concentrated Powder Form®, CPCSP (Continuous Powder Coating Spraying Process, CAN-BD (Carbon dioxide Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer®, SEA (Supercritical Enhanced Atomization, SAA (Supercritical Fluid-Assisted Atomization, PGSS-Drying and DELOS (Depressurization of an Expanded Liquid Organic Solution. Special emphasis is given to modifications introduced in the different techniques, as well as the limitations that have been overcome.

  16. Skin formation and bubble growth during drying process of polymer solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S; Doi, M

    2012-07-01

    When a polymer solution with volatile solvent is dried, skins are often formed at the surface of the solution. It has been observed that after the skin is formed, bubbles often appear in the solution. We conducted experiments to clarify the relation between the skin formation and the bubble formation. We measured the time dependence of the thickness of the skin layer, the size of the bubbles, and the pressure in the solution. From our experiments, we concluded that i) the gas in the bubble is a mixture of solvent vapor and air dissolved in the solution, ii) the bubble nucleation is assisted by the pressure decrease in the solution covered by the skin layer, and iii) the growth of the bubbles is diffusion limited, mainly limited by the diffusion of air molecules dissolved in the solution.

  17. Spontaneous Vesicle Formation in Mixed Aqueous Solution of Poly-tailed Cationic and Anionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous vesicles from the mixed aqueous solution of poly-tailed cationic surfactant PTA and anionic surfactant AOT are firstly obtained. Vesicle formation and characterizations are demonstrated by negative-staining TEM and dynamic light scattering. A monodisperse vesicle system is obtained with a polydispersity of 0.082. Ultrasonication can promote the vesicle formation. Mechanism of vesicle formation is discussed from the viewpoint of molecular interaction.

  18. In situ observation of cluster formation during nanoparticle solution casting on a colloidal film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, S V; Herzog, G; Buffet, A; Schwartzkopf, M; Perlich, J; Abul Kashem, M M; Doehrmann, R; Gehrke, R; Rothkirch, A; Stassig, K; Benecke, G [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Koerstgens, V; Rawolle, M; Mueller-Buschbaum, P [TU Muenchen, Physik Department, Lehrstuhl fuer Funkt. Mat., James-Franck-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wurth, W [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Li, C; Fratzl, P, E-mail: stephan.roth@desy.de [MPI fuer Colloids and Interfaces Golm, Abteilung Biomat., Wissenschaftspark Potsdam-Golm, D-14424 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-06-29

    We present a real-time study of the nanostructuring and cluster formation of gold nanoparticles deposited in aqueous solution on top of a pre-structured polystyrene colloidal thin film. Cluster formation takes place at different length scales, from the agglomerations of the gold nanoparticles to domains of polystyrene colloids. By combining in situ imaging ellipsometry and microbeam grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering, we are able to identify different stages of nanocomposite formation, namely diffusion, roughness increase, layer build-up and compaction. The findings can serve as a guideline for nanocomposite tailoring by solution casting.

  19. Study of the formation of solute clusters under irradiation in model ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron irradiation results in the formation of a high number density (1023 to 1024 m-3) of ultrafine (2 nm in diameter) solute clusters in reactor vessel steels. These clusters contain a supersaturated element (copper), and some others solutes (Mn, Ni, Si and P) soluble at the temperature of irradiation (300 C). The aim of the work described in this report is to understand what are the basic processes at the origin of the formation of these clusters, and to obtain information about the effect of the different solutes. The microstructure of model alloys, after different irradiation experiments is characterised by atom probe. The comparison between experimental results and results obtained by mean field modelling (evolution of point defects under irradiation) suggests that the precipitation of the solute clusters is heterogeneous, on point defects clusters. Precipitation kinetic is slowed down by solutes other than copper. (author)

  20. Electrical conductivity of Jupiter's shallow interior and the formation of a resonant of a resonant planetary-ionospheric cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The present consideration of hydrogenic atmospheric reactions on Jupiter, to a depth of 4000 km, notes the primary ion constituents at these depths to be both positive and negative ions of molecular hydrogen contributing less than 20 percent to total electrical conductivity by free electrons. An electrical surface defined by the boundary beneath which the interior is electrically conducting exists at depths which vary according to EM wave frequency, from 1100 km for 1 mHz to 3000 for 1 MHz. The presence of a lower electrical boundary within the shallow interior suggests that a planetary-ionosphere resonant cavity analogous to the earth-ionosphere cavity may exist.

  1. Electrical conductivity of Jupiter's shallow interior and the formation of a resonant of a resonant planetary-ionospheric cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present consideration of hydrogenic atmospheric reactions on Jupiter, to a depth of 4000 km, notes the primary ion constituents at these depths to be both positive and negative ions of molecular hydrogen contributing less than 20 percent to total electrical conductivity by free electrons. An electrical surface defined by the boundary beneath which the interior is electrically conducting exists at depths which vary according to EM wave frequency, from 1100 km for 1 mHz to 3000 for 1 MHz. The presence of a lower electrical boundary within the shallow interior suggests that a planetary-ionosphere resonant cavity analogous to the earth-ionosphere cavity may exist. 36 refs

  2. Comparing high speed dental turbine and endoscopic device in crack formation following cavity preparation in periapical surgeries in Cat teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Razmi

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available   In Present research study, 44 canine teeth of with completely formed apex was selected in 11 cats. Jaw bones were removed while teeth were kept intra alveolar sockets and routine root canal therapy was performed on each root. Afterwards, 3mm of each root were cut apically. 20 teeth underwent cavity preparation via high speed dental turbine and round diamond bur, 20 via endosonic device and 4 (10% of all remained untreated as control group. Then, the cavity walls were assessed with stereomicroscope while the teeth were still kept in their alveolar sockets in order to detect cracks.

  3. Walk-off-induced modulation instability, temporal pattern formation, and frequency comb generation in cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Leo, F; Ricciardi, I; De Rosa, M; Coen, S; Wabnitz, S; Erkintalo, M

    2016-01-01

    We derive a time-domain mean-field equation to model the full temporal and spectral dynamics of light in singly resonant cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We show that the temporal walk-off between the fundamental and the second-harmonic fields plays a decisive role under realistic conditions, giving rise to rich, previously unidentified nonlinear behaviour. Through linear stability analysis and numerical simulations, we discover a new kind of quadratic modulation instability which leads to the formation of optical frequency combs and associated time-domain dissipative structures. Our numerical simulations show excellent agreement with recent experimental observations of frequency combs in quadratic nonlinear media [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063839 (2015)]. Thus, in addition to unveiling a new, experimentally accessible regime of nonlinear dynamics, our work enables predictive modeling of frequency comb generation in cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems.

  4. Crab Cavities for Linear Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.; Carter, R.; Dexter, A.; Tahir, I.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Lancaster U.; Beard, C.; Dykes, M.; Goudket, P.; Kalinin, A.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; /Daresbury; Shulte, D.; /CERN; Jones, Roger M.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Manchester U.; Bellantoni, L.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Khabouline, T.; Latina, A.; /Fermilab; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  5. Crab cavities for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Burt, G; Carter, R; Dexter, A; Tahir, I; Beard, C; Dykes, M; Goudket, P; Kalinin, A; Ma, L; McIntosh, P; Shulte, D; Jones, Roger M; Bellantoni, L; Chase, B; Church, M; Khabouline, T; Latina, A; Adolphsen, C; Li, Z; Seryi, Andrei; Xiao, L

    2008-01-01

    Crab cavities have been proposed for a wide number of accelerators and interest in crab cavities has recently increased after the successful operation of a pair of crab cavities in KEK-B. In particular crab cavities are required for both the ILC and CLIC linear colliders for bunch alignment. Consideration of bunch structure and size constraints favour a 3.9 GHz superconducting, multi-cell cavity as the solution for ILC, whilst bunch structure and beam-loading considerations suggest an X-band copper travelling wave structure for CLIC. These two cavity solutions are very different in design but share complex design issues. Phase stabilisation, beam loading, wakefields and mode damping are fundamental issues for these crab cavities. Requirements and potential design solutions will be discussed for both colliders.

  6. Solution of the square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic using the finite volume method

    CERN Document Server

    Syrakos, Alexandros; Alexandrou, Andreas N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the performance of the finite volume method in solving viscoplastic flows. The creeping square lid-driven cavity flow of a Bingham plastic is chosen as the test case and the constitutive equation is regularised as proposed by Papanastasiou [J. Rheol. 31 (1987) 385-404]. It is shown that the convergence rate of the standard SIMPLE pressure-correction algorithm, which is used to solve the algebraic equation system that is produced by the finite volume discretisation, severely deteriorates as the Bingham number increases, with a corresponding increase in the non-linearity of the equations. It is shown that using the SIMPLE algorithm in a multigrid context dramatically improves convergence, although the multigrid convergence rates are much worse than for Newtonian flows. The numerical results obtained for Bingham numbers as high as 1000 compare favourably with reported results of other methods.

  7. The kinetics of dye formation by pulse radiolysis of pararosaniline cyanide in aqueous or organic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced conversion of the leucocyanide of pararosaniline dye to the highly colored salt-isomer of the dye in acidic aqueous solution (wavelength of maximum absorption lambda sub(max)=540 nm) or polar organic solution (lambda sub(max)=550 nm), takes place in two separate processes. The first is very fast (within 3 s-1 to 106 s-1, as the acidity or concentration of an oxidizing agent increases. In oxygen-free acidic aqueous or organic solutions (argon saturated) there is an unstable transient species (lambdasub(max)=380 nm). When using O2 or N2O-saturated aqueous or organic solution, there is no intermediate absorption band at 380 nm, but the slow process of dye formation at 540 or 550 nm is still sequential to the initial fast process having somewhat faster kinetics than in Ar-saturated solution. (author)

  8. THE VISCOELASTIC EFFECT ON THE FORMATION OF MESO-GLOBULAR PHASE OF DILUTE HETEROPOLYMER SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Wu

    2003-01-01

    Linear homopolymer chains in poor solvent exist either as individual crumpled single chain globules or as macroscopic precipitate, depending on whether the solution is in the one- or the two-phase region. However, linear heteropolymer chains in dilute solution might be able to form stable mesoglobules made up of a limited number of chains if the degree of amphiphilicity of the chain is sufficiently high and the experimental conditions are appropriate. The selfassembly of block copolymers in a selective solvent is typical of such examples. In practice, the formation of stable mesoglobules can be directly related to the formation of novel polymeric nanoparticles in solution. In this article, we will address the formation of mesoglobular phase not only on the basis of thermodynamics, but also from a kinetic point of view,which leads to the discussion of how viscoelasticity can affect the phase behavior of heteropolymer chains in dilute solution.The formation and stabilization of several different kinds of novel polymeric nanoparticles will be used to illustrate our discussion.

  9. Formation of non-equilibrium germanium-based solid solutions in al-ge-alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Bereza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the investigation of phase composition and microstructure of the higher cooled aluminum-germanium alloys. The formation of non-equilibrium germanium solid solutions is shown. The influence of the rate of cooling and the germanium percentage on the phase composition of alloys is shown.

  10. The formation of light-induced gratings in the rigid eosine K solution in gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, A. A.; Kolchanova, S. A.; Sizykh, A. G.; Sul'Kis, I. G.

    1992-03-01

    The mechanism of the formation of light-induced amplitude gratings in the rigid eosine K solution in gelatin is investigated. It is shown that spatial modulation of the absorptance of the recording medium is caused by the transformation of the dye into a colorless form in the process of photosensitized proton transfer from gelatin to the eosine.

  11. Analysis and solution to the cavity defect of baked pruducts%焙烧品空头缺陷分析及解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪伟; 陈磊

    2014-01-01

    The cavity defect of baked products is one of the main quality problems in the first-baking process technology, which often happens in domestic manufactures. It has a significant influence on the first-baking production yield, and the quality index in-cluding the structure, strength, electric resistance and functional performance of finished products. According to years of experience in solving the cavity defects in first-baking products, the causes were analyzed and the solutions were put forward.%石墨电极一次焙烧过程中空头缺陷是主要质量问题之一,其对一次焙烧成品率,成品结构、强度、电阻率等质量指标及产品使用性能有明显影响。根据多年对一次焙烧空头问题解决经验对该问题进行分析及提出新的解决措施。

  12. Crystal Ice Formation of Solution and Its Removal Phenomena From Cooled Solid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Nagasaka, Kouji

    Experimental studies for freezing phenomena of ethylene glycol solution on cooled plate have been performed. A polyvinyl chloride as well as an acrylic resin plates are used for the cooled plates. It is found that the crystal ice formed at the cooled plate is removed from the plate due to buoyancy force acting the crystal ice. It means that ice formation on a cooled plate without deposit ice layer is possible by the present method. It is shown that the cooled plate surface is under cooled about 1.0~1.5 degree below the freezing temperature of the solution during the crystal ice formation and its removal phenomena. The degree of under cooled temperature is unaffected by the cooling temperature of the plate. For higher concentration of solution, it is found that the number of the removed crystal ice per unit time is increased and the volume of each removed ice is decreased.

  13. Variation in assimilable organic carbon formation during chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa extracellular organic matter solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingbin; Yuan, Ting; Ni, Huishan; Li, Yanpeng; Hu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa extracellular organic matter (EOM) solutions under different conditions, to determine how the metabolites produced by these organisms affect water safety and the formation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC). The effects of chlorine dosages, coagulant dosage, reaction time and temperature on the formation of AOC were investigated during the disinfection of M.aeruginosa metabolite solutions. The concentration of AOC followed a decreasing and then increasing pattern with increasing temperature and reaction time. The concentration of AOC decreased and then increased with increasing chlorination dosage, followed by a slight decrease at the highest level of chlorination. However, the concentration of AOC decreased continuously with increasing coagulant dosage. The formation of AOC can be suppressed under appropriate conditions. In this study, chlorination at 4mg/L, combined with a coagulant dose of 40mg/L at 20°C over a reaction time of 12hr, produced the minimum AOC. PMID:27372113

  14. Thermodynamics of the formation of copper(II) complexes with L-histidine in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    The heat effects from the reaction between L-histidine solutions and Cu(NO3)2 solutions at 298.15 K in the 0.2 to 1.0 (KNO3) range of ionic strength are measured by means of direct calorimetry. The experimental data is treated with allowance for the simultaneous proceeding of several processes. The heat effects of the formation of complexes Cu(His)+, Cu(His)2, CuHHis2+, CuH(His){2/+} and CuH2(His){2/2+} are calculated from calorimetric measurements. The standard enthalpies of formation for complexes of L-histidine with Cu2+ ions are obtained via extrapolation to zero ionic strength. The relationship between the thermodynamic characteristics of the formation of complexes of copper(II) with L-histidine and their structure is determined.

  15. On the Construction and Properties of Weak Solutions Describing Dynamic Cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Miroshnikov, Alexey

    2014-08-21

    We consider the problem of dynamic cavity formation in isotropic compressible nonlinear elastic media. For the equations of radial elasticity we construct self-similar weak solutions that describe a cavity emanating from a state of uniform deformation. For dimensions d=2,3 we show that cavity formation is necessarily associated with a unique precursor shock. We also study the bifurcation diagram and do a detailed analysis of the singular asymptotics associated to cavity initiation as a function of the cavity speed of the self-similar profiles. We show that for stress free cavities the critical stretching associated with dynamically cavitating solutions coincides with the critical stretching in the bifurcation diagram of equilibrium elasticity. Our analysis treats both stress-free cavities and cavities with contents.

  16. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets: Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    For estimated values of the currents carried by extragalactic jets, current-driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities, the relativistic double-layer-emitted electron, and ion beams driving plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  17. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets - Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    Current driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur in extragalactic jets for estimated values of the carried currents. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities. The relativistic double-layer-emitted electron and ion beams drive plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  18. Dynamical formation of a Reissner-Nordström black hole with scalar hair in a cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Herdeiro, Carlos; Font, José A.; Montero, Pedro J.

    2016-08-01

    In a recent Letter [Sanchis-Gual et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 141101 (2016)], we presented numerical relativity simulations, solving the full Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations, of superradiantly unstable Reissner-Nordström black holes (BHs), enclosed in a cavity. Low frequency, spherical perturbations of a charged scalar field trigger this instability. The system's evolution was followed into the nonlinear regime, until it relaxed into an equilibrium configuration, found to be a hairy BH: a charged horizon in equilibrium with a scalar field condensate, whose phase is oscillating at the (final) critical frequency. Here, we investigate the impact of adding self-interactions to the scalar field. In particular, we find sufficiently large self-interactions suppress the exponential growth phase, known from linear theory, and promote a nonmonotonic behavior of the scalar field energy. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the influence of the various parameters in this model: the initial BH charge, the initial scalar perturbation, the scalar field charge, the mass, and the position of the cavity's boundary (mirror). We also investigate the "explosive" nonlinear regime previously reported to be akin to a bosenova. A mode analysis shows that the "explosions" can be interpreted as the decay into the BH of modes that exit the superradiant regime.

  19. Application of Analytic Solution in Relative Motion to Spacecraft Formation Flying in Elliptic Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hancheol; Park, Sang-Young; Choi, Kyu-Hong

    2008-09-01

    The current paper presents application of a new analytic solution in general relative motion to spacecraft formation flying in an elliptic orbit. The calculus of variations is used to analytically find optimal trajectories and controls for the given problem. The inverse of the fundamental matrix associated with the dynamic equations is not required for the solution in the current study. It is verified that the optimal thrust vector is a function of the fundamental matrix of the given state equations. The cost function and the state vector during the reconfiguration can be analytically obtained as well. The results predict the form of optimal solutions in advance without having to solve the problem. Numerical simulation shows the brevity and the accuracy of the general analytic solutions developed in the current paper.

  20. Aqueous Solution Preparation of Ruthenium Nanoparticles Using Ammonium Formate as the Reducing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shaohong; CHEN Jialin; GUAN Weiming; BI Jun; CHEN Nanguang; CHEN Dengquan; LIU Manmen; SUN Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Ruthenium,one of the platinum group metals,has drawn much attention due to its catalytic behavior,hardness,electrical conductivity and density.Ruthenium particles are usually prepared on a small scale by the polyol process,however,the size of the obtained ruthenium nanoparticles is most below 10 nm.In this work,ruthenium particles about 200 nm in diameter were obtained in aqueous solution by using ammonium formate as the reducing agent.Tohave a better control of particle's size and shape,the effects of PVP,mixing mode,reaction temperature,solution pH and calcination temperature were investigated.

  1. Slow light, open cavity formation, and large longitudinal electric field on slab waveguide made of indefinite-index metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, W T

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of slab waveguides made of indefinite-index metamaterials are considered. The transverse permittivity is negative while the longitudinal permittivity is positive. At any given frequency the waveguide supports an infinite number of transverse magnetic (TM) eigenmodes. For a slab waveguide with a fixed thickness, at most only one TM mode is forward-wave. The rest of them are backward waves which can have very large phase index. At a critical thickness, the waveguide supports degenerate forward- and backward-wave modes with zero group velocity. Above the critical thickness, the waveguide supports complex-conjugate decay modes instead of propagating modes. These slab waveguides can be used to make optical delay lines in optical buffers to slow down and trap light, to form open cavities, to generate strong longitudinal electric fields, and as phase shifters in optical integrated circuits.

  2. Indentation-induced formation of low-dimensional Si structures in KOH solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuqian; Li, Ding

    2010-03-01

    Low-dimensional Si structures, including Si nanobelts and Si micropyramids, were formed on the surface of n-type silicon by microindentation and anisotropic etching in 30 wt% KOH solution at a temperature of 50 °C. The indentation was performed to create local plastic deformation and residual stresses. The residual stresses caused the formation of the Si nanobelts around the sites of indents on the surface of Si (1 1 1) and the Si micropyramids at the sites of indents on the surface of Si (1 0 0). The formation of the Si micropyramids was due to the local 'mask' created by the indentation and the residual stress around the indents. The residual hydrostatic stress at the tensile state increased the local etching rate, which resulted in a surface depression around the indents. The combination of indentation and wet etching process provides a maskless process to potentially produce low-dimensional Si structures in KOH solution at low temperatures.

  3. Indentation-induced formation of low-dimensional Si structures in KOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-dimensional Si structures, including Si nanobelts and Si micropyramids, were formed on the surface of n-type silicon by microindentation and anisotropic etching in 30 wt% KOH solution at a temperature of 50 0C. The indentation was performed to create local plastic deformation and residual stresses. The residual stresses caused the formation of the Si nanobelts around the sites of indents on the surface of Si (1 1 1) and the Si micropyramids at the sites of indents on the surface of Si (1 0 0). The formation of the Si micropyramids was due to the local 'mask' created by the indentation and the residual stress around the indents. The residual hydrostatic stress at the tensile state increased the local etching rate, which resulted in a surface depression around the indents. The combination of indentation and wet etching process provides a maskless process to potentially produce low-dimensional Si structures in KOH solution at low temperatures.

  4. TT-GMRES: on solution to a linear system in the structured tensor format

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    A adapted tensor-structured GMRES method for the TT format is proposed and investigated. The Tensor Train (TT) approximation is a robust approach to high-dimensional problems. One class of problems is solution of a linear system. In this work we study the convergence of the GMRES method in the presence of tensor approximations and provide relaxation techniques to improve its performance. Several numerical examples are presented. The method is also compared with a projection TT linear solver b...

  5. Rough glass surface-mediated formation of vesicles from lauryl sulfobetaine micellar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Du, Na; Song, Ruiying; Hou, Wanguo; Song, Shue; Zhang, Renjie

    2014-10-01

    We report novel vesicles composed of the zwitterionic surfactant lauryl sulfobetaine (LSB), which is a simple single-tailed surfactant (STS). The novel vesicles spontaneously formed from LSB micellar solutions with the mediation of a rough glass surface (RGS) in the absence of any cosurfactants or additives. Importantly, the obtained STS vesicles displayed good stability upon long-term storage, exposure to high temperature, and freeze-thawing after the RGS was removed. The pH of the LSB solution (4.0-9.0) and the presence of NaCl (1.0 × 10(-5) and 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L) in the LSB solution had no obvious influence on the formation and stability of the vesicles. The adsorption configuration of LSB on the RGS was investigated via water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscope observations. The results showed that LSB adsorption bilayers could form on the RGS, and the bilayer adsorption of LSB on the RGS and the roughness of the solid surface played a key role in the vesicle formation. A possible mechanism for the RGS-mediated formation of LSB vesicles is proposed: LSB micelles and molecules adsorb on the RGS to form curved bilayers, and the curved bilayers are then detached from the RGS and close to form vesicles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of LSB alone forming vesicles. This finding extends our understanding of the nature of vesicle systems.

  6. Rough glass surface-mediated formation of vesicles from lauryl sulfobetaine micellar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Du, Na; Song, Ruiying; Hou, Wanguo; Song, Shue; Zhang, Renjie

    2014-10-01

    We report novel vesicles composed of the zwitterionic surfactant lauryl sulfobetaine (LSB), which is a simple single-tailed surfactant (STS). The novel vesicles spontaneously formed from LSB micellar solutions with the mediation of a rough glass surface (RGS) in the absence of any cosurfactants or additives. Importantly, the obtained STS vesicles displayed good stability upon long-term storage, exposure to high temperature, and freeze-thawing after the RGS was removed. The pH of the LSB solution (4.0-9.0) and the presence of NaCl (1.0 × 10(-5) and 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L) in the LSB solution had no obvious influence on the formation and stability of the vesicles. The adsorption configuration of LSB on the RGS was investigated via water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscope observations. The results showed that LSB adsorption bilayers could form on the RGS, and the bilayer adsorption of LSB on the RGS and the roughness of the solid surface played a key role in the vesicle formation. A possible mechanism for the RGS-mediated formation of LSB vesicles is proposed: LSB micelles and molecules adsorb on the RGS to form curved bilayers, and the curved bilayers are then detached from the RGS and close to form vesicles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of LSB alone forming vesicles. This finding extends our understanding of the nature of vesicle systems. PMID:25220115

  7. Toward Accurate Modeling of the Effect of Ion-Pair Formation on Solute Redox Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A

    2016-09-13

    A scheme to model the dependence of a solute redox potential on the supporting electrolyte is proposed, and the results are compared to experimental observations and other reported theoretical models. An improved agreement with experiment is exhibited if the effect of the supporting electrolyte on the redox potential is modeled through a concentration change induced via ion pair formation with the salt, rather than by only considering the direct impact on the redox potential of the solute itself. To exemplify the approach, the scheme is applied to the concentration-dependent redox potential of select molecules proposed for nonaqueous flow batteries. However, the methodology is general and enables rational computational electrolyte design through tuning of the operating window of electrochemical systems by shifting the redox potential of its solutes; including potentially both salts as well as redox active molecules. PMID:27500744

  8. Uranium (VI) complexing by macrocyclic or chelating ligands in aqueous solutions stability, formation kinetics, polarographic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability of chelates (with EDTA,N,N ethylenediamine diacetic acid EDDA nitrilotriacetic acid NTA and iminodiacetic acid) of UO22+ and UO4 species of uranium VI is studied in aqueous solution (NaClO4 3M at 25 deg celcius). Structure in solution are proposed and discussed for mononuclear species. Only complexing kinetics (formation and acid hydrolysis) of UO4 with EDDA and NTA are studied by spectrophotometry (other reactions are too fast). Besides UO22+ complexes are formed with crown ethers I5C5 and I8C6 in aqueous solution (TEA ClO4 M/10 at 25 deg celcius. Complexes are probably stabilized by solvation. Results are confirmed by voltametry and reduction mechanisms of UO22+ and its complexes on mercury drop are proposed. 143 refs

  9. Efficacy of antiadhesion barrier solution on periimplant capsule formation in a white rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Dae Hyun; Yoon, Jung Ho; Hong, Jong Won; Tark, Kwan Chul

    2010-08-01

    Antiadhesive barrier solution (AABS) has been proven to prevent intraabdominal adhesion by reducing inflammation and fibrosis formation. Because this mechanism can also be applied to capsule formation after the breast implant insertion, we hypothesize that AABS can reduce capsular contraction and evaluate the efficacy of AABS on perisilastic implant capsule formation after submuscular insertion. A silicone block was inserted beneath the panniculus carnosus muscle in 10 rats. The experiment group received 0.1 mL of AABS (Guardix, Hanmi Medical Co.) instilled into the pocket, whereas the control group received 0.1 mL saline solution. Periimplant capsules were excised after 4 weeks and were evaluated for inflammatory cell count, capsular thickness, collagen pattern, and amount of myofibroblast. The inflammatory cell count and the capsular thickness were lower in the experiment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The collagen pattern was loose and parallel in the experiment group, and the amount of myofibroblast was much less compared with the control group. AABS reduced the amount of inflammatory cells, myofibroblast, and capsular thickness. It also made the collagen fibers in the capsule loose and parallel. Therefore, AABS seemed to be effective in reducing the periimplant capsule formation. PMID:20606576

  10. Studies on the formation of carthamin in buffer solutions containing precarthamin and oxidizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Saito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation of carthamin was investigated in bufferized solution containing precarthamin and oxidizing agents. KMnO4, H2O2 and HIO4, were stimulators for carthamin formation. K2Cr2O7 Mn02, Ag2O, SeO2, and CrO3 on the other hand, showed little or no activity in the catalytic carthamin synthesis. KMnO4 was very sensitive to precarthamin, while both H2O2 and HIO4 were insensitive. The optimal pH value for carthamin formation by KMnO4, was 5.3 in 50.0 mM citrate buffer. Antioxidants such as hydroquinone, L-ascorbic acid and D-araboascorbic acid completely inhibited the oxidative conversion of precarthamin to carthamin at a low concentration.

  11. Slow light, open-cavity formation, and large longitudinal electric field on a slab waveguide made of indefinite permittivity metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W. T.; Sridhar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The optical properties of slab waveguides made of indefinite permittivity (ɛ) materials (IEMs) are considered. In this medium, the real part of the transverse permittivity is negative while that of the longitudinal permittivity is positive. At any given frequency, the IEM waveguide supports an infinite number of transverse magnetic (TM) eigenmodes. For a slab waveguide with a fixed thickness, at most only one TM mode is forward wave. The remainder are backward waves which can have a very large phase index. At a critical thickness, the waveguide supports degenerate forward- and backward-wave modes with zero group velocity if loss is absent. Above the critical thickness, the waveguide supports complex-conjugate decay modes instead of propagating modes. The presence of loss in IEMs will lift the TM mode degeneracy, resulting in modes with finite group velocity. A feasible realization is proposed. The performance of the IEM waveguide is analyzed and possible applications are discussed, which are supported by numerical calculations. These slab waveguides can be used to make optical delay lines in optical buffers to slow down and trap light, to form open cavities, to generate strong longitudinal electric fields, and as phase shifters in optical integrated circuits. Although the presence of loss will hinder these applications, gain can be introduced to compensate the loss and enhance the performance.

  12. Interaction mode and nanoparticle formation of bovine serum albumin and anthocyanin in three buffer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Rui; Dong, Xueyan; Song, Lanlan; Jing, Hao, E-mail: hao.haojing@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Investigation of interaction mode of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anthocyanin (ACN) in different solutions will help us understand the interaction mechanism and functional change of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated the binding mode, including binding constant, number of binding sites, binding force of BSA and ACN interaction in three buffer solutions of phosphate (PBS), sodium chloride (NaCl), and PBS-NaCl, using fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation and characteristics of BSA–ACN complex were also investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that ACN could interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues through both hydrogen bonds and van der Waals force, and the same binding mode was seen in dH{sub 2}O and three buffer solutions. The value of binding constant K was decreased as the temperature increased from 298 K to 308 K, and the decreasing degree was in the order of dH{sub 2}O (9.0×10{sup 4})>NaCl (2.64×10{sup 4})/PBS (2.37×10{sup 4})>PBS-NaCl (0.88×10{sup 4}), which was inversely correlated with the ionic strength of the buffer solutions of PBS-NaCl>NaCl>PBS. It indicated that stability of BSA–ACN complex was affected most in dH{sub 2}O than in three buffer solutions. The BSA and ACN interaction led to formation of BSA–ACN nanoparticles. The sizes of BSA–ACN nanoparticles in dH{sub 2}O were smaller than that in three buffer solutions, which correlated with stronger binding force between BSA and ACN in dH{sub 2}O than in three buffer solutions at room temperature (25 °C, 298 K). - Highlights: • We report the influences of four solutions on the BSA–ACN interaction. • We report the relationship between BSA–ACN interaction and particle size of complex. • The stability of BSA–ACN complex was affected most in dH{sub 2}O than in buffer solutions.

  13. Interaction mode and nanoparticle formation of bovine serum albumin and anthocyanin in three buffer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of interaction mode of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anthocyanin (ACN) in different solutions will help us understand the interaction mechanism and functional change of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated the binding mode, including binding constant, number of binding sites, binding force of BSA and ACN interaction in three buffer solutions of phosphate (PBS), sodium chloride (NaCl), and PBS-NaCl, using fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation and characteristics of BSA–ACN complex were also investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that ACN could interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues through both hydrogen bonds and van der Waals force, and the same binding mode was seen in dH2O and three buffer solutions. The value of binding constant K was decreased as the temperature increased from 298 K to 308 K, and the decreasing degree was in the order of dH2O (9.0×104)>NaCl (2.64×104)/PBS (2.37×104)>PBS-NaCl (0.88×104), which was inversely correlated with the ionic strength of the buffer solutions of PBS-NaCl>NaCl>PBS. It indicated that stability of BSA–ACN complex was affected most in dH2O than in three buffer solutions. The BSA and ACN interaction led to formation of BSA–ACN nanoparticles. The sizes of BSA–ACN nanoparticles in dH2O were smaller than that in three buffer solutions, which correlated with stronger binding force between BSA and ACN in dH2O than in three buffer solutions at room temperature (25 °C, 298 K). - Highlights: • We report the influences of four solutions on the BSA–ACN interaction. • We report the relationship between BSA–ACN interaction and particle size of complex. • The stability of BSA–ACN complex was affected most in dH2O than in buffer solutions

  14. Standard enthalpies of formation of α-aminobutyric acid and products of its dissociation in an aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.

    2016-08-01

    Heats of solution of crystalline α-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide at 298.15 K are measured by means of direct calorimetry. Standard enthalpies of formation of the amino acid and products of its dissociation in an aqueous solution are calculated.

  15. Standard enthalpies of formation for crystalline serine and isoserine and products of their dissociation in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Damrina, K. V.; Skvortsov, I. A.

    2016-02-01

    The heats of solution of crystalline serine and isoserine in water and potassium hydroxide solutions are measured via direct calorimetry at 298.15 K. The standard enthalpies of formations of amino acids and products of their dissociation in aqueous solution are calculated.

  16. Dipole solution and angular-momentum minimization for two-satellite electromagnetic formation flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian-lin; Zhang, Chun; Ban, Xiao-jun

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic formation flight is very attractive for no fuel expenditure, and may become an alternative to traditional propellant-based spacecraft formation flying. When electromagnetic forces are used to determine relative satellite positions, electromagnetic torques are created simultaneously and result in angular-momentum buildup. This paper investigates dipole computation and angular-momentum minimization for a two-satellite formation. Instead of using dipole vectors, a group of parameters are introduced to represent the relation between the electromagnetic force and torque. These parameters enable a certain freedom of allocating electromagnetic torques, and help find an analytical dipole solution to minimize total electromagnetic torque action. It is shown that an electromagnetic force is unconstrained only if associated torque ratios ranges from 0.5 to 2. The impact of formation configuration and control is also investigated. Torque-free formations are obtained where electromagnetic torques can be simply removed. A parameter optimization model is derived under the framework of sliding mode control to minimize angular-momentum buildup. Simulation results demonstrate the effect of the proposed angular-momentum minimization method.

  17. Shear thickening and onion formation of non-ionic surfactant solution and the effect of charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shear-induced lamellar to onion transition of a surfactant solution has attracted considerable attention in these decades. Diat and Roux have shown that shear flow induces a transformation from planer lamellar structure to multilamellar vesicles (onions) with a polyhedral shape, which fill all the space without excess water and lead shear thickening. In a nonionic surfactant aqueous solution, pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E5) and D2O, onion formation associated with shear thickening is observed in 40 wt% C12E5 solution at T=55° C Effects of charge on the nonionic surfactant mixture were investigated by adding ionic surfactant and onion structure is induced by the suppression of Helfrich undulation of surfactant membranes. [3] Here we investigated the rheological behavior of a dilute solution of C12E5 (10 wt%) and D2O and the effect of charge. We have already shown that a disordered structure of C12E5 and D2O at T=59 °C transforms to an ordered lamellar structure by adding an antagonistic salt such as sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4). An electrostatic interaction between surfactant membranes caused by a heterogeneous distribution of anions and cations originates the transformation as the effect of adding ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Figure 1 shows molar ratio between SDS and C12E5, S, dependence of viscosity as a function of shear rate. It is clear that shear thickening is observed for all the samples measured including SDS and a shoulder at 2 s-1 is observed for the sample without charged molecules. The present SANS experiment confirmed that the lamellar layers are oriented parallel to the flow direction at low shear rate, while onion structure is formed as evident by isotropic scattering pattern, which is eventually broken by further increase of shear rate. This is the first evidence of the shear thickening and the onion formation in the dilute solution of nonionic surfactant.

  18. Laser cavity modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Damakoa, I.; Audounet, J.; Bouyssou, G.; Vassilieff, G.

    1993-01-01

    Two approachs of modelling nonhomogeneous cavity laser are presented. They are based on the beam propagation method which allows the use of fast Fourier transform (FFT). The resulting procedures provide selfconsistent solutions to the Maxwell and diffusion equations. Results are given to illustrate the two methods.


  19. The sealing of excavation damaged zones in salt formations using sodium silicate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since many decades, pressure grouting is an effective technique of civil engineering for sealing and stabilization purposes. Due to the potential contamination of fluids, grouting is of particular importance in repositories of radioactive waste. Traditional grouts for the sealing of fine fractures are sodium silicate solutions. Laboratory and field investigations prove that the particle-free solutions can be used to permanently seal excavation damaged zones (EDZ) in salt formations, because the solid reaction products are inert or almost insoluble. EDZ permeabilities of 10-17 m2 can be achieved and were determined on the basis of the injection pressures and flow rates. High grouting pressures were realized as local test loadings. Laboratory tests show the fixation of Co2+, Ni2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, [UO2]2+ and illustrate that sodium silicates may act additionally as a chemical barrier.

  20. The sealing of excavation damaged zones in salt formations using sodium silicate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Hans-Joachim; Schmidt, Holger; Borstel, Lieselotte von [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany). Dept. of Repository Safety

    2015-07-01

    Since many decades, pressure grouting is an effective technique of civil engineering for sealing and stabilization purposes. Due to the potential contamination of fluids, grouting is of particular importance in repositories of radioactive waste. Traditional grouts for the sealing of fine fractures are sodium silicate solutions. Laboratory and field investigations prove that the particle-free solutions can be used to permanently seal excavation damaged zones (EDZ) in salt formations, because the solid reaction products are inert or almost insoluble. EDZ permeabilities of 10{sup -17} m{sup 2} can be achieved and were determined on the basis of the injection pressures and flow rates. High grouting pressures were realized as local test loadings. Laboratory tests show the fixation of Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+} and illustrate that sodium silicates may act additionally as a chemical barrier.

  1. Substitutional solute atom-vacancy complex formation in proton-irradiated Zirlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of substitutional alloying elements on the recovery processes associated with proton-induced defects in a new zirconium-based alloy (known as Zirlo) is investigated by positron annihilation studies. We observed that the atoms of the alloying elements when knocked out by protons from complexes with the vacancies generated by the removal of host Zr atoms. The formation of the solute atom-vacancy complexes is favoured by the fact that these atoms can migrate only substitutionally in the close-packed crystal structure. With increasing dose of irradiation, the usual defect agglomeration dominates but the growth of vacancy clusters is restricted by the octahedral oxygen atoms which diffuse to an appreciable number of Zr vacancies. Isochronal annealing of the defects took place in three stages and are respectively identified as the annealing of dislocation/vacancy loops, an antirecovery stage due to the dissociation of the solute atom-vacancy complexes and the final annealing of vacancy clusters. (author)

  2. Barium and strontium sulfate solid solution formation in relation to North Sea scaling problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate barium sulphate and strontium sulphate solid solution formation in multi-pressure tapped cores. Two brines, one barium and strontium rich and the other sulphate rich, were mixed in a core plug. Pressure differentials were measured and the changing permeability distribution along the length of the core calculated. The morphology and chemical analysis of scaling crystals are presented based on Scanning electron Microsocpy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). The results show the large extent of permeability damage caused by (Ba, SR) SO/sub 4/ solid solution depositing on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline and morphology and size of the scaling crystals indicate the influence of the supersaturations of BaSO/sub 4/ and SrSO/sub 4/ as well as the concentration ratio of barium ions to strontium ions

  3. Lack of Evidence for Prenucleation Aggregate Formation in Lysozyme Crystal Growth Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschol, Martin; Rosenberger, Franz

    1996-01-01

    There have been numerous claims of large concentrations of prenucleation aggregates in supersaturated as well as undersaturated lysozyme solutions at high salt concentrations. The presence of these aggregates was derived from measurements of the light or neutron scattering intensity, ultracentrifugation and dialysis behavior, as well as over-simplified crystal growth kinetics considerations. In all these interpretations it has been assumed that lysozyme solutions are either ideal or that protein interactions are independent of salt concentration. Contrary to these presumptions, our static and dynamic light scattering experiments provide evidence that lysozyme forms highly non-ideal, strongly interacting solutions. At low salt concentrations, the scattering intensities fall well below the values expected for an ideal, monomeric solution at the same protein concentration, while diffusivities increase with increasing protein concentration. Upon increase in salt concentration, these trends are eventually reversed. This enhancement in scattering intensity and decrease in diffusivity was widely interpreted as sign of aggregate formation. Yet, a quantitative interpretation of the scattering behavior over the whole salt concentration range can only be given in terms of a transition from net repulsion to net attraction between lysozyme monomers. Increased salt screening of the electrostatic repulsion among the protein macro-ions, together with attractive protein interactions, such as van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydration forces, provide an unambiguous mechanism for the observed transition and a more physical interpretation of the various observations.

  4. Oligo-lysine Induced Formation of Silica Particles in Neutral Silicate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Oligo-(lysine)n (n = 1-4) containing different numbers of lysine residues was used to induce the condensation of silicic acid to form silica particles in neutral silicate solution. It was found that the condensation rate and the formation of silica particles are dependent on the number of lysine residues in an oligo-lysine. Oligo-lysine with more lysine residues can link more silicic acid together to form a matrix that promotes the effective aggregation of the condensed silica pieces to form large silica particles.

  5. Formation of 3He droplets in dilute 3He-4He solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chao; Candela, Don; Kim, Sung; Yin, Liang; Xia, Jiang-Sheng; Sullivan, Neil

    2015-03-01

    We review the different stages of the formation of 3He droplets in dilute solid 3He-4He solutions. The studies are interesting because the phase separation in isotopic helium mixtures is a first-order transition with a conserved order parameter. The rate of growth of the droplets as observed in NMR studies is compared with the rates expected for homogeneous nucleation followed by a period of coarsening known as Ostwald ripening. Work suported by the National Science Foundation - DMR-1303599 and DMR- 1157490 (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory).

  6. Standard molar enthalpy of formation of Pr6UO12 by acid solution calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth constitute major fraction of the fission product and reacts with the fuel during irradiation. Under transient conditions, compounds of formula, RE6UO12 (RE = Rare earths) with rhombohedral crystal structure are formed. The standard enthalpy of formation of La6UO12 and Nd6UO12 has been reported in our earlier publication. As there are no reported data on that of Pr6UO12, the experiments pertaining to the same was carried out in the present work. The experiments were carried out by using the indigenously developed semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

  7. Formation and Oxidation of Hydrogen Molybdenum Bronze on platinum electrode in sulfuric acid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin LU; Jun Hua DU; Wei Shan Li; Jia Mo FU

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen molybdenum bronze (HxMoO3) can be electrodeposited on platinum and oxidized in two steps to the hydrogen molybdenum bronze with less amount of hydrogen HyMoO3 (ysolution. During the formation of HxMoO3, the electrochemical reduction of molybdate existing in the form of polymolydate is reversible and is about a five-electron transfer reaction.

  8. Montmorillonite catalysis of RNA oligomer formation in aqueous solution. A model for the prebiotic formation of RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J. P.; Ertem, G.

    1993-01-01

    Oligomers of adenylic acid of up to the 11-mer in length are formed by the reaction of the phosphorimidazolide of adenosine (ImpA) in pH 8 aqueous solution at room temperature in the presence of Na(+)-montmorillonite. These oligomers are joined by phosphodiester bonds in which the 3',5'-linkage predominates over the 2',5'-linkage by a 2:1 ratio. Reaction of a 9:1 mixture of ImpA, A5'ppA results in the formation of oligomers with a 3:1 ratio of 3',5'- to 2',5'-linked phosphodiester bonds. A high proportion of these oligomers contain the A5'ppA grouping. A5'ppA reacts much more rapidly with ImpA than does 5'-ADP (ppA) or 5'-ATP (pppA). The exchangeable cation associated with the montmorillonite effects the observed catalysis with Li+, Na+, NH4+, and Ca2+ being the more effective while Mg2+ and Al3+ are almost ineffective catalysts. 2',5'-Linked oligomers, up to the tetramer in length, are formed using UO2(2+)-montmorillonite. The structure analysis of individual oligomer fractions was performed by selective enzymatic and KOH hydrolytic studies followed by HPLC analysis of the reaction products. It is concluded from the composition of the oligomers that the rate of addition ImpA to a 3'-terminus containing a 2',5'-linkage is slower than the addition to a nucleoside joined by a 3',5'-linked phosphodiester bond. The potential importance of mineral catalysis of the formation of RNA and other oligomers on primitive Earth is discussed.

  9. Cavity magnomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X

    2016-03-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  10. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leading to cavities. Treatment may involve: Fillings Crowns Root canals Dentists fill teeth by removing the decayed tooth ... gold, porcelain, or porcelain attached to metal. A root canal is recommended if the nerve in a tooth ...

  11. radiofrequency cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  12. Hydrothermal formation of dispersive Mg(OH)2 particles in NaOH solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向兰; 金永成; 金涌

    2004-01-01

    The hydrothermal modification of Mg(OH)2 crystals in NaOH solution was investigated. The aggregated Mg(OH)2 particles with irregular shape are converted to regular Mg(OH)2 hexagonal plates after hydrothermal treatment. The prolongation of reaction time from 1 - 4 h or the increase of temperature from 140 ℃ to 200 ℃ can promote the formation of Mg(OH)2 plates with big particle size but small cluster size. The dispersion characteristics of the hydrothermal products are improved owing to the improvement of Mg(OH)2 crystalline degree and the increase of I(001)/I(101) ratio. The proper hydrothermal modification condition is as follows: solid content 0.075 g/mL,NaOH concentration 5.0 mol/L, temperature 200 ℃ and time 4 h. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that the increase of MgOH+ concentration at elevated temperature or the increase of OH- concentration in concentrated NaOH solution is favorable for the hydrothermal formation of Mg(OH)2 particles.

  13. Orientation of the peptide formation of N-phosphoryl amino acids in solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The peptide formation of N-phosphoryl aminoacids with amino acids proceeds in aqueous solution withoutany coupling reagents. After being separated in sephadex gelcolumn, the phosphoryl dipeptides were analyzed by theelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESIMS/MS). The result demonstrates that phosphoryl dipeptides were detected in all the reaction systems. It is found that theformation of N-phosphoryl dipeptides is oriented: theN-terminal amino acid residues of the N-phosphoryl dipep-tides are from N-phosphoryl amino acids, and the peptideelongation happened at the C-terminal. Only (-dipeptide, no(-dipeptide, is formed in the N-phosphoryl dipeptides,showing that ?-carboxylic group is activated selectively byN-phosphorylation. Theoretical calculation shows that the peptide formation of N-phosphoryl amino acids might hap-pen through a penta-coordinate carboxylic-phosphoric in-termediate in solution. These results might give some clues tothe study on the origin of proteins and protein biosynthesis.

  14. Diketopiperazine-mediated peptide formation in aqueous solution II. Catalytic effect of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, O.; Yamagata, Y.; Inomata, K.

    1991-05-01

    The previous paper (I) reported that DKP (glycine anhydride) spontaneously reacts with glycine (Gly) or oligoglycines (Gly n ) to produce longer oligoglycines (Gly n+2). This paper presents that phosphate catalyzes the condensation reaction quite effectively. Formation of Gly4 from DKP (0.1 M) and Gly2 (0.1 M) in phosphate solution of various concentrations was investigated at a neutral pH at 41 °C. The yields of Gly4 increased almost linearly with the concentration of phosphate from 0.06 M to 0.24 M. The yield in 0.24 M phosphate solution was approximately one hundred times as high as that in the absence of the phosphate, whereas in the case of Gly3 formation from DKP and Gly the effect of the phosphate was of ten times lower than in the former case. Orthophosphate was the most effective catalyst among the various kind of chemicals tried in the present investigation including polyphosphates.

  15. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Supersaturated Lysozyme Solutions and Associated Precipitate Formation/Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschol, Martin; Rosenberger, Franz

    1997-01-01

    Using cloud point determinations, the phase boundaries (binodals) for metastable liquid-liquid (L-L) separation in supersaturated hen egg white lysozyme solutions with 3%, 5%, and 7% (wlv) NaCl at pH= 4.5 and protein concentrations c between 40 and 400 mg/ml were determined. The critical temperature for the binodal increased approximately linearly with salt concentration. The coexisting liquid phases both remained supersaturated but differed widely in protein concentration. No salt repartitioning was observed between the initial and the two separated liquid phases. After the L-L separation, due to the presence of the high protein concentration phase, crystallization occurred much more rapidly than in the initial solution. At high initial protein concentrations, a metastable gel phase formed at temperatures above the liquid binodal. Both crystal nucleation and gel formation were accelerated in samples that had been cycled through the binodal. Solutions in the gel and L-L regions yielded various types of precipitates. Based on theoretical considerations, previous observations with other proteins, and our experimental results with lysozyme, a generic phase diagram for globular proteins is put forth. A limited region in the (T,c) plane favorable for the growth of protein single crystals is delineated.

  16. Complex formation between neptunium(V) and various thiosemicarbazide derivatives in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex formation between neptunium(V) and various thiosemicarbazide derivatives in solution has been studied spectrophotometrically in the pH range 4-10. Stepwise formation of three types of complexes, with composition NpO2HA, NpO2A-, and NpOHA2-, has been demonstrated with salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H2L) and salicylaldehyde S-methyl-isothiosemicarbazone (H2Q) at t = 25 +/- 10C and μ = 0.05. The logarithmic stability constants of the first two complexes are 5.14 +/- 0.06, 11.85 +/- 0.04 and 8.42 +/- 0.09, 13.33 +/- 0.015 for H2L and H2Q, respectively; equilibrium constants for the formation of hydroxo complexes of the form NpO2OHL2- and NpO2OHQ2- were also determined, and found to be equal to (2.23 +/-0.37) x 10-5 and (5.02 +/- 0.9) x 10-5, respectively. In the case of S-methyl-N1,N4-bis(salicylidene)isothiosemicarbazide (H2Z), only one type of complex is formed under these experimental conditions, namely, NpO2Z-, with a logarithmic stability constant of 4.78 +/- 0.03. Dissociation constants for H2Q and H2Z were also determined

  17. Investigation into formation of nanoparticles of tetravalent neptunium in slightly alkaline aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Richard

    2015-08-20

    Considering the worldwide growing discharge of minor actinides and the current need for geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste, this work provides a contribution to the safety case concerning Np transport if it would be released from deep repository sites and moving from alkaline cement conditions (near-field) to more neutral environmental conditions (far-field). The reducing conditions in a nuclear waste repository render neptunium tetravalent, which is assumed to be immobile in aqueous environment due to the low solubility solution of Np(IV). For tetravalent actinide nuclides, the most significant transport should occur via colloidal particles. This work demonstrates the formation of intrinsic neptunium dioxide nanocrystals and amorphous Np(IV) silica colloids under environmentally relevant conditions. The dissociation of the initial soluble Np(IV) complex (i.e. [Np(IV)(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup 6-}) induces the intrinsic formation of nanocrystalline NpO{sub 2} in the solution phase. The resulting irregularly shaped nanocrystals with an average size of 4 nm exhibit a face-centered cubic (fcc), fluorite-type structure (space group Fm anti 3m). The NCs tend to agglomerate under ambient conditions due to the weakly charged hydrodynamic surface at neutral pH (zetapotential ζ ∝0 mV). The formation of micron-sized agglomerates, composed of nanocrystals of 2-5 nm in size, and the subsequent precipitation cause immobilization of the major amount of Np(IV) in the Np carbonate system. Agglomeration of NpO{sub 2} nanocrystals in dependence on time was indicated by PCS and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with the changes of baseline characteristics and absorption maximum at 742 nm. Hitherto, unknown polynuclear species as intermediate species of NpO{sub 2} nanocrystal formation were isolated from solution and observed by HR-TEM. These polynuclear Np species appear as dimers, trimers and hexanuclear compounds in analogy with those reported for other actinides

  18. Standard enthalpy of formation of L-glutamine and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochergina, L. A.; Lytkin, A. I.; Krutova, O. N.; Damrina, K. V.

    2014-03-01

    Heat effects of the dissolution of crystalline L-glutamine in water and lithium hydroxide solutions were determined by direct calorimetry at 298.15 K. Standard enthalpies of formation of L-glutamine and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solution were calculated.

  19. Standard enthalpies of formation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Skvortsov, I. A.; Korchagina, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    Heat effects of the dissolution of crystalline γ-aminobutyric acid in water and potassium hydroxide solutions are determined by direct colorimetry at 298.15 K. Standard enthalpies of formation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solution are calculated.

  20. Effect of parenteral nutrition solutions on biofilm formation of coagulase-negative Staphylococci: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sedef Göçmen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In our study we investigated the effects ofparenteral nutrition (PN solutions on Coagulase negativestaphylococci (CoNS biofilm production.Materials and methods: Thirty nine CoNS strains isolatedfrom hemocultures and a reference strain (ATCC 12228Staphylococcus epidermidis were included. Bacterial dilutionswere made in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB. The experimentalmediums were 1. Glucose, 2. Amino acid, 3. Lipid,4. Glucose+ Amino acid+ lipid, 5. Glucose+ Amino acid, 6.Glucose+ Lipid, 7. Amino acid+ Lipid, and 8. Control (TSB.Biofilm formation was evaluated by “quantitative microdilutionplaque test”. The values greater than cut off valueare considered as positive. Biofilm positivity was dividedinto 3 groups (mild, moderate and intensive and all otherstrains under cutoff value were accepted as negative. Thenumbers of biofilm positive strains derived from 1-7. mediumswere compared with each other, and with the resultsof control.Results: The three-component PN solution and two componentPN solutions containing glucose+ lipid and aminoacid+ lipid were found to increase the biofilm productionactivity of CoNS when compared to the control group.Slime positivity in medium 1 and 2 was lower than controlsignificantly, in medium 4, 6, and 7 slime positivity washigher considerably. The indifferent results were obtainedwithin the mediums 1, 2, 3 and within the mediums 4, 5, 6,and 7.Conclusions: In our study, it was found that, glucose, aminoacid and lipid solutions which were building structuresof PN decreased the biofilm production when used solitary.However use of the compounds increased the biofilmproduction. Therefore, we can conclude that PN solutionsgiven as mixtures in routine practice increase the risk ofcatheter infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 505-509Key words: Catheter-related infections, biofilm, parenteralnutrition

  1. On the formation, growth, and shapes of solution pipes - insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Piotr; Tredak, Hanna; Upadhyay, Virat; Kondratiuk, Paweł; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2015-04-01

    Cylindrical, vertical structures called solution pipes are a characteristic feature of epikarst, encountered in different parts of the world, both in relatively cold areas such as England and Poland (where their formation is linked to glacial processes) [1] and in coastal areas in tropical or subtropical climate (Bermuda, Australia, South Africa, Caribbean, Mediterranean) [2,3]. They are invariably associated with weakly cemented, porous limestones and relatively high groundwater fluxes. Many of them develop under the colluvial sandy cover and contain the fill of clayey silt. Although it is widely accepted that they are solutional in origin, the exact mechanism by which the flow becomes focused is still under debate. The hypotheses include the concentration of acidified water around stems and roots of plants, or the presence of pre-existing fractures or steeply dipping bedding planes, which would determine the points of entry for the focused groundwater flows. However, there are field sites where neither of this mechanisms was apparently at play and yet the pipes are formed in large quantities [1]. In this communication we show that the systems of solution pipes can develop spontaneously in nearly uniform matrix due to the reactive-infiltration instability: a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This leads to the formation of a system of solution pipes which then advance into the matrix. We study this process numerically, by a combination of 2d- and 3d-simulations, solving the coupled flow and transport equations at the Darcy scale. The relative simplicity of this system (pipes developing in a uniform porous matrix, without any pre-existing structure) makes it very attractive from the modeling standpoint. We quantify the factors which control the pipe diameters and the

  2. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H.; Anastasio, C.

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) are linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PM. While hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most reactive of the ROS species, there are few quantitative studies of •OH generation from PM. Here we report on •OH formation from PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California. We quantified •OH in PM extracts using a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). The results show that generally the urban Fresno PM generates much more •OH than the rural Westside PM. The presence of Asc at a physiologically relevant concentration in the extraction solution greatly enhances •OH formation from all the samples. Fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more •OH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm) normalized by air volume collected, while the coarse PM typically generates more •OH normalized by PM mass. •OH production by SJV PM is reduced on average by (97 ± 6) % when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction solution, indicating a dominant role of transition metals. By measuring calibration curves of •OH generation from copper and iron, and quantifying copper and iron concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for •OH production by the SJV PM, while iron often makes a significant contribution. Extrapolating our results to expected burdens of PM-derived •OH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to result in a high amount of pulmonary •OH, although high PM events could produce much higher levels of •OH, which might lead to cytotoxicity.

  3. Formation of hydroxyl radical from San Joaquin Valley particles extracted in a cell-free solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM are linked to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by PM. While hydroxyl radical (OH is the most reactive of the ROS species, there are few quantitative studies of OH generation from PM. Here we report on OH formation from PM collected at an urban (Fresno and rural (Westside site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV of California. We quantified OH in PM extracts using a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc. The results show that generally the urban Fresno PM generates much more OH than the rural Westside PM. The presence of Asc at a physiologically relevant concentration in the extraction solution greatly enhances OH formation from all the samples. Fine PM (PM2.5 generally makes more OH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm normalized by air volume collected, while the coarse PM typically generates more OH normalized by PM mass. OH production by SJV PM is reduced on average by (97 ± 6 % when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF is added to the extraction solution, indicating a dominant role of transition metals. By measuring calibration curves of OH generation from copper and iron, and quantifying copper and iron concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for OH production by the SJV PM, while iron often makes a significant contribution. Extrapolating our results to expected burdens of PM-derived OH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to result in a high amount of pulmonary OH, although high PM events could produce much higher levels

  4. Logic of historical development of the formation process of architectural and construction solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Valeriy Aleksandrovich

    2014-05-01

    necessary condition of its working implementation, and so-called "designing designing" becomes its necessary stage. Achievements of each of the revealed stages don't disappear, and pass into a new stage of development as a subordinated level, carrying out the certain function available to its opportunities. Each subsequent level differs from the previous one, first, in the wider covered subject content of activity of ACD formation, secondly, increase in the depth of penetration into ACD problem, and, thirdly, the contents, which is meant by the concept "architectural and construction solution" at each level.

  5. Explicit solution format for complex-valued natural frequency of beam with R-shunted piezoelectric laminate transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Cöent, Adrien Le

    2014-01-01

    format is derived for the complex-valued natural frequency of the beam with a shunted piezoelectric laminate transducer, where the influence from the residual modes is taken into account by a quasi-static representation. This explicit solution format contains system parameters that directly represent....... The accuracy of the explicit frequency solution format is verified by comparison with numerical results. It is found that the complex-valued natural frequency of the first vibration mode of a beam with a piezoelectric laminate transducer shunted to a resistance is estimated with sufficient accuracy...

  6. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  7. Wavelength-dependent photoproduct formation of phycocyanobilin in solution - Indications for competing reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzek, Benjamin; Fey, Sonja; Matute, Ricardo A.; González, Leticia; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Yartsev, Arkady; Hermann, Gudrun

    2011-10-01

    Phycocyanobilin (PCB), an open-chain tetrapyrrole, makes up - slightly modified - the chromophore in phytochromes, the importance of which triggered model studies on the photochemistry of PCB in solution. We use pump-wavelength dependent femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy including the near-IR region for probing to gain new insight into the photoreaction. The data reveal the coexistence of three ground state species: The dominant species PCB A undergoes photoreaction into PCB B and PCB C indicating a branching of the initial reaction path leading to formation of PCB B and PCB C. On this basis the photoreaction involves fast structural rearrangements within the tetrapyrrolic macrocycle, which are followed by slower rate-limiting changes in the protonation state of the pyrrolenine/pyrrole rings.

  8. Photoinduced Formation of Colloidal Silver in Nitrocellulose Solutions Containing Titanium Alkoxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, A. I.; Branitsky, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    The study shows the possibility of photo-induced reduction of silver nitrate and formation of stable colloidal silver particles in an isopropanol-N,N-dimethylacetamide solution of titanium alkoxide (polybutyl titanate) stabilized by nitrocellulose. It is established that titanium alkoxide and the products of its partial hydrolysis in the liquid composition play the role of a photocatalyst for the reduction of silver ions; the introduction of nitric or acetic acid additives to the composition significantly increases its photosensitivity. The films deposited from the liquid composition, previously irradiated with visible or UV light, consist of hydrated titanium dioxide and nitrocellulose with incorporated colloidal silver. Thermal treatment of the films at 150-245°C leads to the decomposition of nitrocellulose and an increase in the absorption by silver particles.

  9. Formation of salbutamol sulphate microparticles using solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Rouholamini Najafabadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Salbutamol sulphate (SS was precipitated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 using a homemade system at two different pressures. This process is characterized by spraying a methanolic solution of the drug into the supercritical fluid (SCF, extraction of the solvent by SC-CO2 and formation of drug particles. The morphology and size distribution of precipitated SS particles were characterized using scanning electron microscope and laser diffraction particle size analyzer respectively. FTIR spectra were used before and after processing to asses crystal modifications. Depending on the processing conditions, needle-like and flake-like particles with different size distributions were observed. The average size of the flake like particles was less than needle-like particles and the span parameter showed a narrower size distribution of the processed in comparison with the unprocessed materials. Analysis by FTIR showed that there was no significant effect on the structure of the drug under these processing conditions.

  10. Formation and Destruction of NDELA in 30 wt% MEA (Monoethanolamine and 50 wt% DEA (Diethanolamine Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutila Hanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The formation of nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA in a lab scale pilot was studied by feeding known amounts of nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide into the gas entering the absorber. In the same pilot, the destruction by UV-irradiation of NDELA present in the solvent was studied. Two campaigns were performed, one with 30 wt% monoethanolamine (MEA and one with 50 wt% diethanolamine (DEA. During the DEA campaign the destruction of NDELA in the water wash section was also tested. Additionally, degraded solution samples withdrawn from the pilot were tested for thermal degradation. The results show that NDELA was formed when nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide were present. Destruction of NDELA with UV-light in the solvent loop was found to be slow. In the water wash section, the UV-light destroyed the NDELA effectively. NDELA was found to degrade during the thermal degradation studies at 135°C.

  11. Mechanism of formation of silver nanoparticles in MAG–DMAEMA copolymer aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvedchenko, Dmitry O. [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Nekrasova, Tatiana N.; Nazarova, Olga V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Buffat, Philippe A. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Microscopie Electronique, Station 12, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Suvorova, Elena I., E-mail: elena.suvorova@epfl.ch, E-mail: suvorova@ns.crys.ras.ru [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    Dispersed Ag nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solutions in the presence of pure poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (poly-DMAEMA), poly[2-deoxy-2-methacrylamido-d-glucose] (poly-MAG), and their copolymers of poly[MAG–DMAEMA] with different mole fractions. Polymers contributed to the silver reduction, formation of nanoparticles, and stabilization of suspensions. No agglomerations of nanoparticles are formed. For each sample, more than one thousand silver particles were measured by transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine their number vs diameter and volume versus diameter distributions. The samples with the smallest nanoparticle mode diameter of 2.3 nm were formed in DMAEMA homopolymer suspension, while the mode diameter increased up to 13.3 nm in copolymers depending on the mole fraction of DMAEMA. A model of Ag nanoparticles’ growth taking into account the structure of the copolymers and the amount of reducing centers per monomer is proposed. The volume fraction of large Ag particles (>15–20 nm) in the tail of distributions was determined to estimate the part of less efficient nanoparticles assuming that only surface atoms are active. The largest volume occupied by big particles is measured in the solution with pure poly-MAG. Figures of merit, as the ratio of particle area to total volume of particles, were compared for five systems of Ag NPs/polymer. They can be understood from an economical point of view as the total silver investment compared to efficiency.

  12. Controlled formation of ag nanoparticles by means of long-chain sodium polyacrylates in dilute solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Klaus; Witte, Thomas; Hollmann, Jutta; Keuker-Baumann, Susanne

    2007-02-01

    A new tool is presented to control formation of Ag nanoparticles. Small amounts of silver ions were added to dilute solutions of long-chain sodium polyacrylates (NaPA). Four NaPA samples covering a molar mass regime of 97 kD polyacrylate coils toward compact structures. Coil shrinking and aggregation was revealed by means of time-resolved static light scattering. If exposed to UV-radiation, small Ag particles formed within the shrunken anionic polyacrylate coils. The Ag nanoparticles were identified by means of an enhanced light scattering and a characteristic plasmon absorption band around 410 nm. No such Ag particle formation could be observed even at 5 times larger concentrations of Ag(+) and NaPA if the two smallest polyacrylate samples have been used under otherwise equal conditions. This molar mass sensitive response of NaPA to Ag(+)-addition suggests an interesting phenomenon: if the coil size of the NaPa chains, which act as Ag(+) collectors, is large enough, local Ag(+) concentration in these coil-shaped Ag(+) containers exceeds a critical value, and irradiation with UV generates Ag nanoparticles. PMID:17263389

  13. Formation of black nickel in leaching solution containing ammonia and chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guo-qu; ZHENG Li-feng; CAO Hua-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The black nickel formation process in leaching solution containing ammonia and chloride was investigated in terms of cyclic voltammetric and galvanostatic reduction techniques.The structure of black nickel was examined by means of X-ray diffraction technique.The results show that in the scanning region,two oxidization current peaks are observed during the positive sweep,one of which is attributed to a valence state transformation of Ni(OH)2 to high valence nickel compound(black nickel),and the other is caused by nitrogen evolution.During the formation process of black nickel,γ-NiOOH probably tends to self-discharge with water to form α-Ni(OH)2.As a result,it is observed that Ipa/Ipc(Ipa-anodic peak current;Ipc-cathodic peak current) maintains at a constant with the scanning rate increasing.Two reduction current peaks in cyclic voltammogram and two potential plateaus in galvanostatic reduction curve for black nickel are ascribed to the reduction of various oxidization states of nickel oxide.The potential plateaus at about 0.75 V reach the maximum in galvanostatic reduction curves.Black nickel presents amorphous structure.

  14. Thermodynamics of mixed-ligand complex formation of mercury (II) ethylenediaminetetraacetate with amino acids in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyreu, Dmitrii, E-mail: pyreu@mail.ru [Department of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, Ivanovo State University, Ermak 39, Ivanovo 153025 (Russian Federation); Kozlovskii, Eugenii [Department of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, Ivanovo State University, Ermak 39, Ivanovo 153025 (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, Matvei; Kumeev, Roman [Institute of Solution Chemistry, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable mixed ligand complexes of HgEdta with amino acids at physiological pH value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic and NMR data evident the ambidentate coordination mode of arginine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Participation of the guanidinic group of Arg in coordination process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binuclear complexes (HgEdta){sub 2}L with the bridging function of amino acid. - Abstract: The mixed-ligand complex formation in the systems Hg{sup 2+} - Edta{sup 4-} - L{sup -}(L = Arg, Orn, Ser) has been studied by means of calorimetry, pH-potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and the ionic strength of I = 0.5 (KNO{sub 3}). The thermodynamic parameters of formation of the HgEdtaL, HgEdtaHL and (HgEdta){sub 2}L complexes have been determined. The most probable coordination mode for the complexone and the amino acid in the mixed-ligand complexes was discussed.

  15. Complex formation between neptunium(V) and various thiosemicarbazide derivatives in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuguryan, D.G.; Dzyubenko, V.I.; Gerbeleu, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Complex formation between neptunium(V) and various thiosemicarbazide derivatives in solution has been studied spectrophotometrically in the pH range 4-10. Stepwise formation of three types of complexes, with composition NpO/sub 2/HA, NpO/sub 2/A/sup -/, and NpOHA/sup 2 -/, has been demonstrated with salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H/sub 2/L) and salicylaldehyde S-methyl-isothiosemicarbazone (H/sub 2/Q) at t = 25 +/- 1/sup 0/C and ..mu.. = 0.05. The logarithmic stability constants of the first two complexes are 5.14 +/- 0.06, 11.85 +/- 0.04 and 8.42 +/- 0.09, 13.33 +/- 0.015 for H/sub 2/L and H/sub 2/Q, respectively; equilibrium constants for the formation of hydroxo complexes of the form NpO/sub 2/OHL/sup 2 -/ and NpO/sub 2/OHQ/sup 2 -/ were also determined, and found to be equal to (2.23 +/-0.37) x 10/sup -5/ and (5.02 +/- 0.9) x 10/sup -5/, respectively. In the case of S-methyl-N/sub 1/,N/sub 4/-bis(salicylidene)isothiosemicarbazide (H/sub 2/Z), only one type of complex is formed under these experimental conditions, namely, NpO/sub 2/Z/sup -/, with a logarithmic stability constant of 4.78 +/- 0.03. Dissociation constants for H/sub 2/Q and H/sub 2/Z were also determined.

  16. Investigation into formation of nanoparticles of tetravalent neptunium in slightly alkaline aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the worldwide growing discharge of minor actinides and the current need for geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste, this work provides a contribution to the safety case concerning Np transport if it would be released from deep repository sites and moving from alkaline cement conditions (near-field) to more neutral environmental conditions (far-field). The reducing conditions in a nuclear waste repository render neptunium tetravalent, which is assumed to be immobile in aqueous environment due to the low solubility solution of Np(IV). For tetravalent actinide nuclides, the most significant transport should occur via colloidal particles. This work demonstrates the formation of intrinsic neptunium dioxide nanocrystals and amorphous Np(IV) silica colloids under environmentally relevant conditions. The dissociation of the initial soluble Np(IV) complex (i.e. [Np(IV)(CO3)5]6-) induces the intrinsic formation of nanocrystalline NpO2 in the solution phase. The resulting irregularly shaped nanocrystals with an average size of 4 nm exhibit a face-centered cubic (fcc), fluorite-type structure (space group Fm anti 3m). The NCs tend to agglomerate under ambient conditions due to the weakly charged hydrodynamic surface at neutral pH (zetapotential ζ ∝0 mV). The formation of micron-sized agglomerates, composed of nanocrystals of 2-5 nm in size, and the subsequent precipitation cause immobilization of the major amount of Np(IV) in the Np carbonate system. Agglomeration of NpO2 nanocrystals in dependence on time was indicated by PCS and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with the changes of baseline characteristics and absorption maximum at 742 nm. Hitherto, unknown polynuclear species as intermediate species of NpO2 nanocrystal formation were isolated from solution and observed by HR-TEM. These polynuclear Np species appear as dimers, trimers and hexanuclear compounds in analogy with those reported for other actinides. Intrinsic formation of NpO2 (fcc

  17. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  18. Cavity polaritons in an organic single-crystalline rubrene microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimoto, Yuta; Nagai, Hikaru; Amano, Masamitsu; Bando, Kazuki; Kondo, Hisao

    2014-06-01

    We fabricated a single-crystalline rubrene microcavity using a simple solution technique and observed cavity polaritons in the microcavity at room temperature (RT). Large Rabi splitting energies were obtained from dispersion of the cavity polaritons. Furthermore, photoluminescence from the cavity polaritons was observed at RT. The findings will be of importance for the application of cavity polaritons.

  19. Formation of intermolecular crosslinks by the actinocin derivatives with DNA in interaction under conditions of semidilute solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of native calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) with the actinocin derivatives containing protonated diethylamino groups, dimethylamino groups and unsubstituted amino groups and having different length of the alkyl chain have been studied by the method of viscometry. An anomalous hydrodynamic behavior of solutions of DNA with very low amount of ligands prepared under conditions of semidilute solution was revealed. We assumed that such an anomalous behavior of solutions of DNA complexes with actinocin derivatives associated with the formation of intermolecular crosslinks while the preparation of the complex was in terms of overlapping of macromolecular coils in solution. Comparative study of the hydrodynamic behavior of the DNA complexes with various actinocin structures lead us to the conclusion of the formation of crosslinks by the compounds containing protonated diethylamino groups

  20. Melatonin and oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.

  1. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat İnanç Cengiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers.

  2. Particle formation and characterization of mackerel reaction oil by gas saturated solution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbirul Haque, A S M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids like Docosahexenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). There are few dietary sources of EPA and DHA other than oily fish. EPA and DHA have great potential effect on human health. In this research, Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extracted mackerel oil was reacted by enzyme at different systems to improve the EPA and DHA. Different types of immobilize enzyme TL-IM, RM-IM, Novozyme 435 were assessed for improving PUFAs. Best result was found at non-pressurized system using TL-IM. Reacted oil particle were obtained with polyethylene glycol by gas saturated solution process (PGSS). Different parameters like temperature, pressure, agitation speed and nozzle size effect on particle formulation were observed. SEM and PSA analysis showed, small size non spherical particles were obtained. It was found that after particle formation poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were present in particle as same in oil. PUFAs release from particle was almost linear against constant time duration. Oil quality in particle not change significantly, in this contrast this study will be helpful for food and pharmaceutical industry to provide high EPA and DHA containing powder. PMID:26787949

  3. EPR study of complex formation between copper (II) ions and sympathomimetic amines in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preoteasa, E.A. [Inst. of Atomic Physics, IFIN, Bucharest (Romania); Duliu, O.G.; Grecu, V.V. [Bucharest, Univ. (Romania). Dept. of Atomic and Nuclear Physics

    1997-07-01

    The complex formation between sympathomimetic amines (SA): adrenaline (AD), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), ephedrine (ED) and p-tyramine (pTA), and Cu(II) ion in aqueous solution has been studied by X-band EPR at room temperature. Excepting pTA, all investigated SA yielded two types of complexes in different pH domains. All complexes consistent with a ligand fields having a distorted octahedral symmetry, i.e., hexacoordination of Cu(II). The covalence coefficient calculated from the isotropic g and A values has shown strong ionic sigma-type ligand bonds. A structural model with the Cu(II) ion bound by four catecholic O(hydroxy) atoms for the low pH complexes of AD, NA and DA is proposed. For the high pH complexes of the former compounds as well as for both Ed complexes, the authors suppose Cu(II) bound by two N (amino) and two O (hydroxy) atoms. The spectra are consistent to water binding on the longitudinal octahedron axis in all compounds excepting the high pH complex of Ed, where OH2- ions are bound. Possible implications for the SA-cell receptors interactions are discussed.

  4. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  5. Effect of carbon on formation of mixed solid solutions during mechanochemical synthesis of Ni-Al-Mo-C mixtures and ordering of solutions during heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoi, V. K.; Leonov, A. V.; Streletskii, A. N.; Logacheva, A. I.

    2014-03-01

    Solid solutions Ni(Al, Mo, C) are formed via milling the Ni2.8Al1Mo0.2 and Ni3Al0.8Mo0.2 and graphite-containing Ni2.8Al1Mo0.2C(0.25, 0.5) and Ni3Al0.8Mo0.2C(0.25, 0.5) mixtures. In this case, some amount of Mo remains beyond the solid solution. Graphite added to a starting mixture decreases the Mo solubility and favors the amorphization of solid solutions. The complete amorphization was found for the mixture with the 5 at % C and 5 at % Mo, which was added instead of Ni. The heating of mechanically synthesized (MS) powder alloys leads to the ordering of carbon-free and carbon-containing solid solutions with the formation of the L12 and E21 structure, respectively. In the course of the ordering of the Ni(Al, Mo, C) solid solutions, Mo and carbon precipitate in the form of the molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) second phase. The hardness of the MS three-phase Ni-Al-Mo-C solid solutions subjected to hot isostatic pressing is determined by the mass fraction of the formed Mo2C carbide. It is shown that the carbon content in the multicomponent antiperovskite can be estimated by analyzing the ratio of integral intensities of superlattice reflections I (100)/ I (110).

  6. Design and Construction of Experiment for Direct Electron Irradiation of Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakho [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies in developing SHINE, a system for producing fission-product 99Mo using a D/T-accelerator to produce fission in a non-critical target solution of aqueous uranyl sulfate. We have developed an experimental setup for studying thermal-hydraulics and bubble formation in the uranyl sulfate solution to simulate conditions expected in the SHINE target solution during irradiation. A direct electron beam from the linac accelerator will be used to irradiate a 20 L solution (sector of the solution vessel). Because the solution will undergo radiolytic decomposition, we will be able to study bubble formation and dynamics and effects of convection and temperature on bubble behavior. These experiments will serve as a verification/ validation tool for the thermal-hydraulic model. Utilization of the direct electron beam for irradiation allows homogeneous heating of a large solution volume and simplifies observation of the bubble dynamics simultaneously with thermal-hydraulic data collection, which will complement data collected during operation of the miniSHINE experiment. Irradiation will be conducted using a 30-40 MeV electron beam from the high-power linac accelerator. The total electron-beam power will be 20 kW, which will yield a power density on the order of 1 kW/L. The solution volume will be cooled on the front and back surfaces and central tube to mimic the geometry of the proposed SHINE solution vessel. Also, multiple thermocouples will be inserted into the solution vessel to map thermal profiles. The experimental design is now complete, and installation and testing are in progress.

  7. FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE FORMATION OF HYDROPHOBIC MICRODOMAINS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS OF POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YANG, YJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1991-01-01

    The conformational state of poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) was studied in aqueous solutions using pyrene as a fluorescence probe. The results are indicative for the formation of hydrophobic microdomains in the case of several copolymers which possess sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl side ch

  8. Chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1 : 1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1997-01-01

    The chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1:1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation has been investigated in an intensively stirred batch reactor: MHCO3(aq) + H2(aq) ↔ MOOCH(aq) + H2O(l) This was accomplished for the sodium (M = Na), potassium (M = K) and ammonium (M

  9. Analytical solutions of jam pattern formation on a ring for a class of optimal velocity traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Berkemer, Rainer; Caputo, Jean Guy;

    2009-01-01

    A follow-the-leader model of traffic flow on a closed loop is considered in the framework of the extended optimal velocity (OV) model where the driver reacts to both the following and the preceding car. Periodic wave train solutions that describe the formation of traffic congestion patterns...

  10. Enthalpy of formation of quasicrystalline phase and ternary solid solutions in the Al-Fe-Cu system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.A. Tomilin; S.D. Kaloshkin; V. V. Tcherdyntsev

    2006-01-01

    Standard enthalpies of formation of quasicrystalline phase and the ternary solid solutions in the Al-Fe-Cu system and the intermetallic compound FeAl were determined by the means of solution calorimetry. The quasicrystalline phase was prepared using two different methods. The first method (Ⅰ) consisted of ball milling the mixture of powders of pure aluminum copper and iron in a planetary mill with subsequent compacting by hot pressing and annealing. The second method (Ⅱ) consisted of arc melting of the components in argon atmosphere followed by annealing. The latter method was used for preparing the compound FeAl and the solid solutions. The phases were identified using the XRD method. The enthalpy of the formation was determined for the quasicrystalline phase of the composition Al62Cu25.5Fe12.5 and the ternary BCC solid solutions Al35Cu14Fe51, Al40Cu17Fe43, and Al50.4Cu19.6Fe30. The measured enthalpy of formation of the intermetallic com pound FeAl is in good agreement with the earlier published data. The enthaipies of formation of the quasicrystalline phases prepared using two different methods are close to each other, namely, -22.7±3.4 (method Ⅰ) and -21.3±2.1 (method Ⅱ)k J/mol.

  11. Thermochemical study of processes of complex formation of Cu2+ ions with L-glutamine in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Gridchin, S. N.; Lutsenko, A. A.

    2010-11-01

    Heats of the interaction of Cu(NO3)2 solutions with L-glutamine solutions were measured directly by calorimetry at a temperature of 298.15 K and ionic strength values of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 (KNO3). Using RRSU universal software, the experimental data were subjected to rigorous mathematical treatment with allowances made for several concurrent processes in the system. The heats of formation of the CuL+ and CuL2 complexes were calculated from the calorimetric measurements. The standard heats of the complex formation of Cu2+ with L-glutamine were obtained by extrapolation to zero ionic strength. The complete thermodynamic characteristic (Δr H o, Δr G o, Δr S o) of the complex formation processes in a Cu2+—L-glutamine system was obtained.

  12. Cavity magnomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhang, Xufeng; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, cavity magnonics has attracted much attention for potential applications of coherent information transduction and hybrid quantum devices. The magnon is a collective spin wave excitation in ferromagnetic material. It is magnetically tunability, with long coherence time and non-reciprocical interaction with electro-magnetic fields. We report the coherent coupling between magnon, microwave photon and phonon. First, we demonstrate strong coupling and ultrastrong coupling between the magnon in YIG sphere and microwave photon in three-dimensional cavity. Then, based on the hybridized magnon-photon modes, we observe the triply resonant magnon-mcirowave photon-phonon coupling, where the ultrahigh-Q mechanical vibration of YIG sphere is dispersively coupled with the magnon via magnetostrictive interaction. We observe interesting phenomena, including electromagnetically induced transparency/absorption and parametric amplification. In particular, benefit from the large tunability of the magnon, we demonstrate a tunable microwave amplifier with gain as high as 30 dB. The single crystal YIG also has excellent optical properties, and thus provide a unique platform bridging MHz, GHz and THz information carriers. Finally, we present the latest progress towards coherent magnon to optical photon conversion.

  13. Rectangular Full Packed Format for Cholesky's Algorithm: Factorization, Solution, and Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Fred G.; Wasniewski, Jerzy; Dongarra, Jack J;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new data format for storing triangular, symmetric, and Hermitian matrices called Rectangular Full Packed Format (RFPF). The standard two-dimensional arrays of Fortran and C (also known as full format) that are used to represent triangular and symmetric matrices waste nearly half...

  14. SRF Cavity Fabrication and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, W

    2014-01-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for highgradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10μg/g. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2μg/g to prevent degradation of the Q-value under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Defects may be detected by quality control methods such as eddy current scanning and identified by a number of special methods. Conventional and alternative cavity fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and Electron-Beam Welding (EBW). The welding of half-cells is a delicate...

  15. The genesis of solution pipes: Evidence from the Middle-Late Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation calcarenite, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipar, Matej; Webb, John A.; White, Susan Q.; Grimes, Ken G.

    2015-10-01

    Solution pipes are abundant in Late Pleistocene aeolian calcarenites at Cape Bridgewater in southwestern Victoria, and were studied using field work, morphometric analysis, thin sections, mineralogical and chemical analyses, and OSL dating. The solution pipes are vertical tubes formed in aeolian limestone with matrix porosity. They are typically 0.1-1 m wide and 1-5 m deep, with rounded terminations and cemented rims up to 10 cm thick. They are overlain by palaeosols and filled mostly with palaeosol material; rhizoliths are commonly present in the solution pipe fills and the surrounding calcarenite. The solution pipes have formed by focused dissolution of aeolianite, relatively quickly after the sand deposition, and concurrently filled with soil as they developed. They most likely formed beneath trees (as a result of focused infiltration due to stemflow) or due to fingered flow (unstable wetting front that breaks into fingers as it moves downwards). Solution pipe formation was strongly dependent on climate; periods of solution pipe formation followed the deposition of aeolianites at the end of interglacials MIS 7, 9 and 11, when the dunes were stabilised by vegetation and there was sufficient rainfall for substantial subsoil dissolution. The cemented rims formed in the following drier glacial climates. Solution pipes are most abundant in the youngest aeolianite, probably reflecting the wetter climate at the end of MIS 7 that allowed a dense forest to cover the dunes. From MIS 5 to MIS 2 no deposition of calcareous sand occurred on Cape Bridgewater, and combined with a very wet interglacial period MIS 5e, resulted in additional karstification, allowing the pipes in the MIS 7 aeolianite to extend deeper and drill down into the underlying member. A well-developed calcrete layer drapes over these solution pipes, and probably formed during the dry, windy climate of the Last Glacial Maximum.

  16. Cryogenic Electron Microscopy Studies: Structure and Formation of Self-assembled Nanostructures in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Seung

    Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) techniques are among the most powerful to characterize self-assembling soft materials (colloids, polymers, and microemulsions, etc.) at the nanometer scale, without any need for implicit models or assumptions about the structure. We can even visualize structure under dynamic conditions, capturing each stage of development. In this thesis, cryo-EM has been used to investigate the formation and structure of a variety of self-assembling soft materials. Visualization is complemented by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering, and conductivity measurements. In each case, cryo-EM provides new insights, not otherwise available, into the nanostructure development. Self-assembly phenomena at the molecular level are critical to the performance of tremendous number of applied systems ranging from personal care products to industrial products. To evaluate these self-assembled materials, multiple characterization techniques are required. We investigated aggregation behavior of cesium dodecyl sulfate (CsDS) ionic surfactant in aqueous solution. Coupled with the real space data from cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and the inverse space data from SAXS, the experimental result of CsDS in aqueous solution gave a new insight in CsDS micellar structures and their development as a function of concentration. Cryo-TEM showed the presence of the liquid-like hydrocarbon core in the CsDS micelles and relatively thick shell structures at a low CsDS concentration. The core-shell sphere structure micelle shifted to core-shell cylindrical micelle structure at high concentration. The morphology and structure of paclitaxel silicate (PTX) prodrug, encapsulated with amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) diblock copolymers were studied. The six different silicate PTX prodrug candidates were characterized with cryo-TEM. Direct imaging with cryo-TEM illustrated structure of prodrug

  17. Formation and dissolution behaviour of niobium oxide in phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of phosphoric acid concentration and temperature on the formation and dissolution process of niobium oxide was investigated using capacitance, potential and galvanostatic measurements. The formation rate of the niobium oxide increases with increasing phosphoric acid concentration and decreases with increasing temperature. The dissolution rate of the niobium oxide is accelerated by increasing phosphoric acid concentration and temperature. The activation energy was calculated for both the formation and dissolution process and found to be 8.93 and 16.65 kJ/mol respectively. The effect of formation voltage on the dissolution process of niobium oxide was also investigated. The oxide film formed at high-formation voltage has a more defective character than that formed at lower voltage. This enhances the dissolution process of the oxide. The effect of current density on the formation rate and the thickness during the oxide film growth was measured. (orig.)

  18. Effects of Thaumasite Formation on the Performance of Portland-limestone Concrete Stored in Magnesium Sulfate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Lixiong; YAO Yan; WANG Ling

    2005-01-01

    The influence of thaumasite formation on the performance of Portland- limestone cement concrete stored in magnesium sulfate solution was studied. The experimental results show that the deterioration of Portlandlimestone cement concrete is higher than that of Portland cement concrete. The more the content of limestone, the more serious the deterioration of concrete, and also the lower the temperature, the earlier the deterioration of concrete. Thaumasite was detected to form in the Portland-limestone pastes when stored in 10wt% MgSO4 solution at 3- 10 ℃ and it was easy to form at lower temperatures.

  19. Complex formation in the system double charged metal cation-Stenhouse base in water-alcohol solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of potentiometric titration complex formation reaction of the system metal(II) salt cation (Me2+ = Fe2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+) Stenhouse base in water-alcohol solution has been studied. Compositions of equilibrium complexes, the constants of their formation and instability have been determined. CoCl2 x 6H2O, NiCl2 x 6H2O and Mn(NO3)2 x 6H2O have been shown to have the most stabilizing effect on Stenhouse base

  20. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY COMPLEXONES. THE THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FORMATION OF AL3+ ION COMPLEXES WITH ETHYLENEDIAMINEDISUCCINIC ACID IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Tolkacheva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex formation between Al3+ and ethylenediamine - N,N`-disuccinic acid (H4L was studied at 25°C against the background of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 N solutions of KNO3 by potentiometry and mathematical modeling. The extrapolation of concentration constants to zero ionic strength was used to calculate the thermodynamic constants of the formation of the AlL–, AlHL complexes using an equation with one individual parameter (logβ0 = 16.27 ± 0.07, 9.19 ± 0.2 respectively.

  1. Ageing behaviour of unary hydroxides in trivalent metal salt solutions: Formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH)-like phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Rajamathi; P Vishnu Kamath

    2000-10-01

    The hydroxides of Mg, Ni, Cu and Zn transform into layered double hydroxide (LDH)-like phases on ageing in solutions of Al or Cr salts. This reaction is similar to acid leaching and proceeds by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism offering a simple method of LDH synthesis, with implications for the accepted theories of formation of LDH minerals in the earth’s crust.

  2. Cavity magnomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Changling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    Mechanical oscillators have been recently widely utilized to couple with optical and microwave photons in a variety of hybrid quantum systems, but they all lack the tunability. The magnetostrictive force provides an alternative mechanism to allow phonon to couple with a different type of information carrier-magnon, the collective excitation of magnetization whose frequency can be tuned by a bias magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate an intriguing hybrid system that consists of a magnonic, a mechanical, and a microwave resonator. The magnon-phonon interaction results in hallmark coherent phenomena such as magnomechanically induced transparency/absorption and magnomechanical parametric amplification. The magnetic field dependence of magnon provides our system with unprecedented tunability. Moreover, the great flexibility of our system allows us to achieve triple resonance among magnon, phonon and photon, which drastically enhances the magnomechanical interaction. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnetomechanics, opening up great opportunities in various applications, such as tunable microwave filter and amplifier, long-lifetime quantum memories, microwave-to-optics conversion.

  3. Controlling the oxygen potential to improve the densification and the solid solution formation of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzati, Ségolène; Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Léchelle, Jacques; Marc, Yves; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Heintz, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Diffusion mechanisms occurring during the sintering of oxide ceramics are affected by the oxygen content of the atmosphere, as it imposes the nature and the concentration of structural defects in the material. Thus, the oxygen partial pressure, p(O2), of the sintering gas has to be precisely controlled, otherwise a large dispersion in various parameters, critical for the manufacturing of ceramics such as nuclear oxides fuels, is likely to occur. In the present work, the densification behaviour and the solid solution formation of a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) were investigated. The initial mixture, composed of 70% UO2 + 30% PuO2, was studied at p(O2) ranging from 10-15 to 10-4 atm up to 1873 K both with dilatometry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. This study has shown that the initial oxides UO2+x and PuO2-x first densify during heating and then the solid solution formation starts at about 200 K higher. The densification and the formation of the solid solution both occur at a lower temperature when p(O2) increases. Based on this result, it is possible to better define the sintering atmosphere, eventually leading to optimized parameters such as density, oxygen stoichiometry and cations homogenization of nuclear ceramics and of a wide range of industrial ceramic materials.

  4. Formation of anhydrotetracycline in gamma irradiated aqueous tetracycline solutions (Preprint No. RC-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiolysis of antibiotic tetracycline in aqueous solutions has been studied under various conditions. Anhydrotetracycline, a potential toxic substance, was identified as a major radiation degradation product formed under deoxygenated conditions mainly because of H atom attack on tetracycline. (author)

  5. A Simple Cosmological Solution to the Higgs Instability Problem in the Chaotic Inflation and Formation of Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the compatibility between the chaotic inflation, which provides a natural solution to the initial condition problem, and the metastable electroweak vacuum, which is suggested by the results of LHC and the current mass measurements of top quark and Higgs boson. It is known that the chaotic inflation poses a threat to the stability of the electroweak vacuum because it easily generates large Higgs fluctuations during inflation or preheating and triggers the catastrophic vacuum decay. In this paper, we propose a simple cosmological solution in which the vacuum is stabilized during chaotic inflation, preheating and after that. This simple solution naturally predicts formation of primordial black holes. We find interesting parameter regions where the present dark matter density is provided by them. Also, the thermal leptogensis can be accommodated in our scenario.

  6. Finite-Difference Solutions of the Alternate Turbopump Development High-Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Pump-End Ball-Bearing Cavity Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Theodore G.; Garcia, Roberto; Mcconnaughey, Paul K.; Wang, Ten-See; Vu, Bruce T.; Dakhoul, Youssef

    1993-01-01

    These analyses were undertaken to aid in the understanding of flow phenomena in the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) High-pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) Pump-end ball bearing (PEBB) cavities and their roles in turbopump vibration initiation and bearing distress. This effort was being performed to provide timely support to the program in a decision as to whether or not the program should be continued. In the first case, it was determined that a change in bearing through flow had no significant effect on axial preload. This was a follow-on to a previous study which had resulted in a redesign of the bearing exit cavity which virtually eliminated bearing axial loading. In the second case, a three-dimensional analysis of the inner-race-guided cage configuration was performed so as to determine the pressure distribution on the outer race when the shaft is 0.0002 inches off-center. The results indicate that there is virtually no circumferential pressure difference caused by the offset to contribute to bearing tilt. In the third case, axisymmetric analyses were performed on an outer-race guided cage configuration to determine the magnitude of tangential flow entering the bearing. The removed-shoulder case was analyzed as was the static diverter case. A third analysis where the preload spring was shielded by a sheet of metal for the baseline case was also performed. It was determined that the swirl entering the bearing was acceptable and the project decided to use the outer-race-guided cage configuration. In the fourth case, more bearing configurations were analyzed. These analyses included thermal modeling so as to determine the added benefit of injecting colder fluid directly onto the bearing inner-race contact area. The results of these analyses contributed to a programmatic decision to include coolant injection in the design.

  7. Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

  8. Protein Conformational Flexibility Enables the Formation of Dense Liquid Clusters: Tests Using Solution Shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Michael C; Safari, Mohammad S; Conrad, Jacinta C; Vekilov, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    According to recently proposed two-step nucleation mechanisms, crystal nuclei form within preexisting dense liquid clusters. Clusters with radii about 100 nm, which capture from 10(-7) to 10(-3) of the total protein, have been observed with numerous proteins and shown to host crystal nucleation. Theories aiming to understand the mesoscopic size and small protein fraction held in the clusters have proposed that in solutions of single-chain proteins, the clusters consist of partially misfolded protein molecules. To test this conjecture, we perturb the protein conformation by shearing solutions of the protein lysozyme. We demonstrate that shear rates greater than a threshold applied for longer than 1 h reduce the volume of the cluster population. The likely mechanism of the observed response involves enhanced partial unfolding of lysozyme molecules, which exposes hydrophobic surfaces between the constituent domains to the aqueous solution. PMID:27267087

  9. Controlled formation of 3D CdS nanocrystal superlattices in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly ordered 3D superlattices comprised of monodisperse CdS nanocrystals are formed rapidly in solution using a simple procedure. Control over the instigation of the superlattice crystallization process is demonstrated by adjusting the concentration of sulfur in solution. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the CdS nanocrystals are 7 nm in size and form well-ordered structures. Selected area electron diffraction of the superlattices reveals that the CdS nanocrystals have their crystal axes partially aligned. This is further confirmed using a fast Fourier transform analysis of high-resolution transmission electron micrographs

  10. Dynamics of Magnesite Formation at Low-Temperature and High pCO2 in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Dixon, David A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bowden, Mark E.; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2015-09-17

    Like many metal carbonate minerals, despite conditions of supersaturation, precipitation of magnesite from aqueous solution is kinetically hindered at low temperatures, for reasons that remain poorly understood. The present study examines precipitation products from reaction of Mg(OH)2 in aqueous solutions saturated with supercritical CO2 at high pressures (90 atm and 110 atm) and low temperatures (35 °C and 50 °C). Traditional bulk characterization (X-ray diffraction) of the initial solid formed indicated the presence of hydrated magnesium carbonates (hydromagnesite and nesquehonite), thermodynamically metastable phases that were found to slowly react during ageing to the more stable anhydrous form, magnesite, at temperatures as low as 35 °C (135-140 days) and at a faster rate at 50 °C (56 days). Undetected by bulk measurements, detailed examination of the precipitates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that magnesite is present as a minor component at relatively early reaction times (7 days) at 50 °C. In addition to magnesite dominating the solid phases over time, we find that mangesite nucleation and growth occurs more quickly with increasing partial pressure of CO2, and in electrolyte solutions with high bicarbonate content. Furthermore, formation of magnesite was found to be enhanced in sulfate-rich solutions, compared to chloride-rich solutions. We speculate that much of this behavior is possibly due to sulfate serving as sink of protons generated during carbonation reactions. These results support the importance of integrating magnesite as an equilibrium phase in reactive transport calculations of the effects of carbon dioxide sequestration on subsurface formations at long time scales.

  11. Cavity Solitons in VCSEL Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barbay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review advances on the experimental study of cavity solitons in VCSELs in the past decade. We emphasize on the design and fabrication of electrically or optically pumped broad-area VCSELs used for CSs formation and review different experimental configurations. Potential applications of CSs in the field of photonics are discussed, in particular the use of CSs for all-optical processing of information and for VCSELs characterization. Prospects on self-localization studies based on vertical cavity devices involving new physical mechanisms are also given.

  12. Cavities in molecular liquids and the theory of hydrophobic solubilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; MacElroy, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Thermal configurational data on neat liquids are used to obtain the work of formation of hard spherical cavities of atomic size in six molecular solvents: n-hexane, n-dodecane, n-undecyl alcohol, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and water. These results are used to test a recent suggestion that the differences between nonaqueous solvents and liquid water in solvation of inert gases are not principally due to the hydrogen-bonded structure of liquid water but rather to the comparatively small size of the water molecule. The frequencies of occurrence of cavities in liquid water can be meaningfully distinguished from those in the organic solvents. Liquid water has a larger fractional free volume, but that free volume is distributed in smaller packets. With respect to cavity work, water is compared to a solvent of the same molecular density and composed of hard spheres of the same size as the water molecule. That comparison indicates that the hard-sphere liquid finds more ways to configure its free volume in order to accommodate an atomic solute of substantial size and thus, would be more favorable solvent for inert gases. The scaled particle model of inert gas solubility in liquid water predicts cavity works 20% below the numerical data for TIP4P water at 300 K and 1.0 g/cm3 for cavity radii near 2.0 angstroms. It is argued that the sign of this difference is just the sign that ought to be expected and that the magnitude of this difference measures structural differences between water and the directly comparable hard-sphere liquid. In conjunction with previous data, these results indicate that atomic sized cavities should be considered submacroscopic.

  13. The formation of ZnO-based coatings from solutions containing high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstrop'ev, S. K.; Soshnikov, I. P.; Khrebtov, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    A method for deposition of transparent nanosize ZnO-based coatings on the glass surface from solutions containing high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone is described. The method can be used to form transparent homogeneous coatings based on ZnO with an increased energy gap width. It does not require any intricate technological equipment.

  14. The mechanism of the initial step of germanosilicate formation in solution: a first-principles molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Thuat T; Rozanska, Xavier; Delbecq, Françoise; Tuel, Alain; Sautet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The condensation reactions between Ge(OH)4 and Si(OH)4 units in solution are studied to understand the mechanism and stable species during the initial steps of the formation process of Ge containing zeolites under basic conditions. The free energy of formation of (OH)3Ge-O-Ge-(OH)2O(-), (OH)3Si-O-Si-(OH)2O(-), (OH)3Ge-O-Si-(OH)2O(-) and (OH)3Si-O-Ge-(OH)2O(-) dimers is calculated with ab initio molecular dynamics and thermodynamic integration, including an explicit description of the water solvent molecules. Calculations show that the attack of the conjugated base (Ge(OH)3O(-) and Si(OH)3O(-)) proceeds with a smaller barrier at the Ge center. In addition, the formation of the pure germanate dimer is more favorable than that of the germano-silicate structure. These results explain the experimental observation of Ge-Ge and Si-Ge dimer species in solutions, with a few Si-Si ones. PMID:27172391

  15. Hydrodynamic Drag on Streamlined Projectiles and Cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2016-04-19

    The air cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research due to its application in various fields such as biology, marine vehicles, sports and oil and gas industries. Recently we demonstrated that at certain conditions following the closing of the air cavity formed by the initial impact of a superhydrophobic sphere on a free water surface a stable streamlined shape air cavity can remain attached to the sphere. The formation of superhydrophobic sphere and attached air cavity reaches a steady state during the free fall. In this thesis we further explore this novel phenomenon to quantify the drag on streamlined shape cavities. The drag on the sphere-cavity formation is then compared with the drag on solid projectile which were designed to have self-similar shape to that of the cavity. The solid projectiles of adjustable weight were produced using 3D printing technique. In a set of experiments on the free fall of projectile we determined the variation of projectiles drag coefficient as a function of the projectiles length to diameter ratio and the projectiles specific weight, covering a range of intermediate Reynolds number, Re ~ 104 – 105 which are characteristic for our streamlined cavity experiments. Parallel free fall experiment with sphere attached streamlined air cavity and projectile of the same shape and effective weight clearly demonstrated the drag reduction effect due to the stress-free boundary condition at cavity liquid interface. The streamlined cavity experiments can be used as the upper bound estimate of the drag reduction by air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces in contact with water. In the final part of the thesis we design an experiment to test the drag reduction capacity of robust superhydrophobic coatings deposited on the surface of various model vessels.

  16. Impact of sodium polyacrylate on the amorphous calcium carbonate formation from supersaturated solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Pancera, S; Boyko, V; Gummel, J; Nayuk, R; Huber, K

    2012-02-21

    A detailed in situ scattering study has been carried out on the formation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles modulated by the presence of small amounts of sodium polyacrylate chains. The work is aiming at an insight into the modulation of ACC formation by means of two polyacrylate samples differing in their molecular weight by a factor of 50. The ACC formation process was initiated by an in situ generation of CO(3)(2-) ions via hydrolysis of 10 mM dimethylcarbonate in the presence of 10 mM CaCl(2). Analysis of the formation process by means of time-resolved small-angle X-ray and light scattering in the absence of any additives provided evidence for a monomer addition mechanism for the growth of ACC particles. ACC formation under these conditions sets in after a lag-period of some 350 s. In the presence of sodium polyacrylate chains, calcium polyacrylate aggregates are formed during the lag-period, succeeded by a modulated ACC growth in a second step. The presence of anionic polyacrylate chains changed the shape of the growing particles toward loose and less homogeneous entities. In the case of low amounts (1.5-7.5 mg/L) of the long chain additive with 97 kDa, the size of the aggregates is comparable to the size of the successively formed hybrid particles. No variation of the lag-period has been observed in this case. Use of the short chain additive with 2 kDa enabled increase of the additive concentration up to 100 mg/L and resulted in a significant increase of the lag-period. This fact, together with the finding that the resulting hybrid particles remained stable in the latter case, identified short chain sodium polyacrylates as more efficient modulators than long chain polyacrylates. PMID:22256962

  17. Crab Cavity Development

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Burt, G; Ratti, A

    2015-01-01

    The HL-LHC upgrade will use deflecting (or crab) cavities to compensate for geometric luminosity loss at low β* and non-zero crossing angle. A local scheme with crab cavity pairs across the IPs is used employing compact crab cavities at 400 MHz. Design of the cavities, the cryomodules and the RF system is well advanced. The LHC crab cavities will be validated initially with proton beam in the SPS.

  18. Sourceless formation evaluation. An LWD solution providing density and neutron measurements without the use of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, R.; Reichel, N. [Schlumberger, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2013-08-01

    For many years the industry has been searching for a way to eliminate the logistical difficulties and risk associated with deployment of radioisotopes for formation evaluation. The traditional gamma-gamma density (GGD) measurement uses the scattering of 662-keV gamma rays from a 137Cs radioisotopic source, with a 30.17-year half-life, to determine formation density. The traditional neutron measurement uses an Am-Be source emitting neutrons with an energy around 4 MeV, with a half-life of 432 years. Both these radioisotopic sources pose health, security, and environmental risks. Pulsed-neutron generators have been used in the industry for several decades in wireline tools and more recently in logging-while-drilling tools. These generators produce 14-MeV neutrons, many of which interact with the nuclei in the formation. Elastic collisions allow a neutron porosity measurement to be derived, which has been available to the industry since 2005. Inelastic interactions are typically followed by the emission of a variety of high-energy gamma rays. Similar to the case of the GGD measurement, the transport and attenuation of these gamma rays is a strong function of the formation density. However, the gamma-ray source is now distributed over a volume within the formation, where gamma rays have been induced by neutron interactions and the source can no longer be considered to be a point as in the case of a radioisotopic source. In addition, the extent of the induced source region depends on the transport of the fast neutrons from the source to the point of gamma-ray production. Even though the physics is more complex, it is possible to measure the formation density if the fast neutron transport is taken into account when deriving the density answer. This paper briefly reviews the physics underlying the sourceless neutron porosity and recently introduced neutron-gamma density (SNGD) measurement, demonstrates how they can be used in traditional workflows and illustrates their

  19. Cocrystal formation in solution: Inducing phase transition by manipulating the amount of cocrystallizing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagniere, Emilie; Mangin, Denis; Puel, François; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Klein, Jean-Paul; Monnier, Olivier

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the possibility of inducing solution mediated phase transition (SMPT) by manipulating the amount of the cocrystallizing agent. The cocrystal, composed of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (carbamazepine, CBZ) and its cocrystallizing agent (a vitamin—nicotinamide, NCT), was selected as a model compound. Batch experiments were performed in a stirred vessel. The solute concentrations of both CBZ and NCT were monitored using in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The introduction of NCT in dry form allowed a shift in the phase diagram, leading to an SMPT from CBZ crystals toward cocrystals. The concentration profiles gave information on the phase transition kinetics, i.e., the kinetics of nucleation, growth and dissolution mechanisms of the solid phases involved. Several situations were analyzed. This procedure could also be used to correct a process deviation that led to CBZ crystals instead of cocrystals.

  20. Thermomechanical effects of co-solute on the structure formation of bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul; Lundin, Leif; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    The effect of glucose syrup on the structural properties of bovine serum albumin has been addressed in preparations from low to high solids. Fifteen percent protein was mixed with the co-solute at concentrations up to 65% and subjected to thermal treatment to examine the changes in phase and state transitions. Thermomechanics were the working protocol being carried out with micro differential scanning calorimetry and small deformation dynamic oscillation. Results argue that protein molecules have been extensively stabilised by the addition of a co-solute, recorded via a delayed thermal denaturation. Further, increasing the glucose syrup enhanced polymer-polymer interactions leading to stronger networks following thermal denaturation of the globular protein. Condensed BSA/glucose syrup mixtures, i.e. at 80% solids, were cooled at subzero temperatures to exhibit a considerable state of vitrification. Molecular relaxation phenomena were successfully followed using theoretical concepts from synthetic polymer research to yield the mechanical glass transition temperature.

  1. Biomimetic apatite formation on different polymeric microspheres modified with calcium silicate solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor, I. B.; Balas, F.; Kawashita, M.; Reis, R. L.; T Kokubo; Nakamura, T

    2006-01-01

    Bioactive polymeric microspheres can be produced by pre-coating them with a calcium silicate solution and the subsequent soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Such combination should allow for the development of bioactive microspheres for several applications in the medical field including tissue engineering. In this work, three types of polymeric microspheres with different sizes were used: (i) ethylene-vinyl alcohol co-polymer (20-30 'm), (ii) polyamide 12 (10-30 'm) and (...

  2. A Numerical Renormalization Solution for Self-Similar Cosmic Structure Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Couchman, H M P

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a numerical renormalization approximation to the self- similar growth of clustering of pressureless dust out of a power-law spectrum of primeval Gaussian mass density fluctuations (index n) in an Einstein-de Sitter cosmological model. The self-similar two-point correlation function, xi, seems to be well established. The renormalization solutions for xi show a satisfying insensitivity to the parameters in the method, and at n=-1 and 0 are close to the Hamilton et al. formula for interpolation between the large-scale perturbative limit and stable small-scale clustering. The solutions are tested by comparing the mean relative peculiar velocity of particle pairs and the velocity derived from xi under the assumption of self-similar evolution. Both the renormalization and a comparison conventional N-body solution are in reasonable agreement with the test, although the conventional approach does slightly better at large separations and the renormalization approach slightly better at small sepa...

  3. Late formation of singularities in solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkitani, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We study how late the first singularity can form in solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and estimate the size of the potentially dangerous time interval, where it can possibly appear. According to Leray (1934), its size is estimated as O({R}8) when normalized by the local existence time, for a general blowup of the enstrophy Q(t)≥slant \\frac{c{ν }3/2}{{({t}*-t)}1/2} at t={t}*. Here R={(E(0)Q(0))}1/4/ν is the Reynolds number defined with initial energy E(0) and enstrophy Q(0). Applying dynamic scaling transformations, we give a general estimate parameterized by the behaviour of the scaled enstrophy. In particular, we show that the size is reduced to O({R}4), for a class of type II blow up of the form Q(t)≥slant \\frac{{c}\\prime {ν }3/2}{{({t}*-t)}\\frac{1{2}+0}}. On the basis on the structure theorem of Leray (1934), we note that the self-similar and asymptotically self-similar blowup are ruled out for any singularities of weak solutions. We also apply the dynamic scaling to weak solutions with more than one singularities to show that the size is estimated as O({R}4) for the type II blowup above.

  4. Wet etching of InSb surfaces in aqueous solutions: Controlled oxide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aureau, D., E-mail: damien.aureau@chimie.uvsq.fr [Institut Lavoisier UVSQ-CNRS UMR 8180, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, Versailles, 78035 (France); Chaghi, R.; Gerard, I. [Institut Lavoisier UVSQ-CNRS UMR 8180, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, Versailles, 78035 (France); Sik, H.; Fleury, J. [Sagem Defense Sécurité, 72-74, rue de la tour Billy, 95101, Argenteuil Cedex (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier UVSQ-CNRS UMR 8180, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, Versailles, 78035 (France)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the wet etching of InSb surfaces by two different oxidant agents: Br{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the consecutive oxides generation onto the surfaces. The strong dependence between the chemical composition of the etching baths and the nature of the final surface chemistry of this low band-gap III–V semiconductor will be especially highlighted. One aqueous etching solution combined hydrobromic acid and Bromine (HBr–Br{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O) with adjusted concentrations. The other solution combines orthophosphoric and citric acids with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}–H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O). Depending on its composition, each formulation gave rise to variable etching rate. The dosage of Indium traces in the etching solution by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) gives the kinetic variation of the dissolution process. The variations on etching rates are associated to the properties and the nature of the formed oxides on InSb surfaces. Surface characterization is specifically performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A clear evidence of the differences between the formed oxides is highlighted. Atomic force microscopy is used to monitor the surface morphology and pointed out that very different final morphologies can be reached. This paper presents new results on the strong variability of the InSb oxides in relation with the InSb reactivity toward environment interaction.

  5. From solid solution to cluster formation of Fe and Cr in α-Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, P. A.; Wenman, M. R.; Gault, B.; Moody, M. P.; Ivermark, M.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Preuss, M.; Edwards, L.; Grimes, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the mechanisms by which the re-solution of Fe and Cr additions increase the corrosion rate of irradiated Zr alloys, the solubility and clustering of Fe and Cr in model binary Zr alloys was investigated using a combination of experimental and modelling techniques - atom probe tomography (APT), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermoelectric power (TEP) and density functional theory (DFT). Cr occupies both interstitial and substitutional sites in the α-Zr lattice; Fe favours interstitial sites, and a low-symmetry site that was not previously modelled is found to be the most favourable for Fe. Lattice expansion as a function of Fe and Cr content in the α-Zr matrix deviates from Vegard's law and is strongly anisotropic for Fe additions, expanding the c-axis while contracting the a-axis. Matrix content of solutes cannot be reliably estimated from lattice parameter measurements, instead a combination of TEP and APT was employed. Defect clusters form at higher solution concentrations, which induce a smaller lattice strain compared to the dilute defects. In the presence of a Zr vacancy, all two-atom clusters are more soluble than individual point defects and as many as four Fe or three Cr atoms could be accommodated in a single Zr vacancy. The Zr vacancy is critical for the increased apparent solubility of defect clusters; the implications for irradiation induced microstructure changes in Zr alloys are discussed.

  6. Influence of shear on globule formation in dilute solutions of flexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rangarajan; Underhill, Patrick T.

    2015-04-01

    Polyelectrolytes, polymers in poor solvents, polymers mixed with particles, and other systems with attractions and repulsions show formation of globules/structures in equilibrium or in flow. To study the flow behavior of such systems, we developed a simple coarse-grained model with short ranged attractions and repulsions. Polymers are represented as charged bead-spring chains and they interact with oppositely charged colloids. Neglecting hydrodynamic interactions, we study the formation of compact polymer structures called globules. Under certain conditions, increase in shear rate decreases the mean first passage time to form a globule. At other conditions, shear flow causes the globules to breakup, similar to the globule-stretch transition of polymers in poor solvents.

  7. Nano-silver Colloidal Solution Formation by a Simple and Green Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghorbani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were obtained in aqueous medium, at room temperature, by simple and low cost route. The synthesis involves the use of silver nitrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp, dextrose and water as the silver precursor, stabilizing agent, reducing agent and solvent respectively. In order to identify and analyze nanoparticles, UV – Vis spectroscopy, transitional electron microscopy (TEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used. All data showed evidence for the formation of silver nanoparticles, with the size of 6–12 nm.

  8. Reversible formation of gold nanoparticle–surfactant composite assemblies for the preparation of concentrated colloidal solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Shalkevich, Natallia; Shalkevich, Andrey; Si-Ahmed, Lynda; Bürgi, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for the preparation of nearly mono-dispersed stable gold colloids with a fairly high concentration using a two step procedure. First we synthesize citrate capped gold nanoparticles and then exchange the citrate ions with triethyleneglycolmono-11-mercaptoundecylether (EGMUDE). This leads to the immediate precipitation and formation of composite assemblies. The gold nanoparticles were successfully self-redispersed after a few days. The prepared gold colloid can...

  9. Exact solution of CKP equation and formation and interaction of two solitons in pair-ion-electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Nazia; Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Jahangir, R.

    2016-08-01

    In the present investigation, cylindrical Kadomstev-Petviashvili (CKP) equation is derived in pair-ion-electron plasmas to study the propagation and interaction of two solitons. Using a novel gauge transformation, two soliton solutions of CKP equation are found analytically by using Hirota's method and to the best of our knowledge have been used in plasma physics for the first time. Interestingly, it is observed that unlike the planar Kadomstev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, the CKP equation admits horseshoe-like solitary structures. Another non-trivial feature of CKP solitary solution is that the interaction parameter gets modified by the plasma parameters contrary to the one obtained for Korteweg-de Vries equation. The importance of the present investigation to understand the formation and interaction of solitons in laboratory produced pair plasmas is also highlighted.

  10. Formation of magnetite (Fe3O4)in aqueous media and properties of the interface magnetite/solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of Fe3O4 particles in aqueous media and the properties of the Fe3O4/aqueous solution interface are studied. This system is of particular interest in nuclear reactor chemistry, since Fe3O4 was identified as the main component of the corrosion products of nuclear power plants cooled with pressurized water, of the Atucha I and II, and Embalse type. Four methods for the synthesis of Fe3O4 are described: a) controlled oxidation of Fe(OH)2 in the presence of NaNO3 at 25 deg C; b) controlled oxidation of Fe(OH)2 in the presence of NaNO3 and N2H4 and at 100 deg C; c) alkalinization of a F2+ and Fe3+ solutions at 80 deg C; d) simultaneous oxidation and alkalinization of a Fe2+. The interfacial properties of Fe3O4 particles suspended in aqueous solutions of indifferent electrolytes are described. These properties are essential for the activity transport associated with the corrosion products. Finally, the adsorption of H3BO3, Hsub(n)PO4sup(n-3) and n Co(II) in the Fe3O4/solution interface at 30 deg C. It is concluded that the adsorbed species are chemically bonded to surface metal ions. (M.E.L.)

  11. A systematic investigation and insight into the formation mechanism of bilayers of fatty acid/soap mixtures in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenlong; Song, Aixin; Dong, Shuli; Chen, Jingfei; Hao, Jingcheng

    2013-10-01

    Vesicles are the most common form of bilayer structures in fatty acid/soap mixtures in aqueous solutions; however, a peculiar bilayer structure called a "planar sheet" was found for the first time in the mixtures. In the past few decades, considerable research has focused on the formation theory of bilayers in fatty acid/soap mixtures. The hydrogen bond theory has been widely accepted by scientists to explain the formation of bilayers. However, except for the hydrogen bond, no other driving forces were proposed systematically. In this work, three kinds of weak interactions were investigated in detail, which could perfectly demonstrate the formation mechanism of bilayer structures in the fatty acid/soap mixtures in aqueous solutions. (i) The influence of hydrophobic interaction was detected by changing the chain length of fatty acid (C(n)H(2n+1)COOH), in which n = 10 to 18, the phase behavior was investigated, and the phase region was presented. With the help of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observations, deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the vesicles and planar sheets were determined. The chain length of C(n)H(2n+1)COOH has an important effect on the physical state of the hydrophobic chain, resulting in an obvious difference in the viscoelasticity of the solution samples. (ii) The existence of hydrogen bonds between fatty acids and their soaps in aqueous solutions was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and molecule dynamical simulation. From the pH measurements, the pH ranges of the bilayer formation were at the pKa values of fatty acids, respectively. (iii) Counterions can be embedded in the stern layer of the bilayers and screen the electrostatic repulsion between the COO(-) anionic headgroups. FT-IR characterization demonstrated a bidentate bridging coordination mode between counterions and carboxylates. The conductivity measurements provided the degree

  12. Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items And Their Associated Solutions and Rationales to Support Formative Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gierl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic item generation is the process of using item models to produce assessment tasks using computer technology. An item model is similar to a template that highlights the elements in the task that must be manipulated to produce new items. The purpose of our study is to describe an innovative method for generating large numbers of diverse and heterogeneous items along with their solutions and associated rationales to support formative feedback. We demonstrate the method by generating items in two diverse content areas, mathematics and nonverbal reasoning

  13. On Catastrophe and Cavitation for Spherical Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingJIN; KefuHUANG; 等

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with catastrophe of a spherical cavity and cavitation of a spherical cavity for Hooke material with 1/2 Poisson's ratio.A nonlinear problem.which is the Cauchy traction problem,is solved analytically.The governing equations are written on the deformed region or on the present configuration.And the conditions are described on moving boundary.A closed form solution is found.Furthermore,a bifurcation solution in closed form is given from the trivial homogeneous solution of a solid sphere.The results indicate that there is a tangent bifurcation on the displacement-load curve for a sphere with a cavity.On the tangent bifurcation point,the cavity grows up suddenly,which is a kind of catastrophe,And there is a pitchfork bifurcation on the displacement-load curve for a solid sphere.On the pitchfork bifurcation point.there is a cavitation in the solid sphere.

  14. 3D model of small-scale density cavities in the auroral magnetosphere with field-aligned current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Misonova, V. G.; Savina, O. N.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a 3D model of small-scale density cavities stimulated by an auroral field-aligned current and an oscillating field-aligned current of kinetic Alfvén waves. It is shown that when the field-aligned current increases so that the electron drift velocity exceeds a value of the order of the electron thermal velocity, the plasma becomes unstable to the formation of cavities with low density and strong electric field. The condition of instability is associated with the value of the background magnetic field. In the case of a relatively weak magnetic field (where the electron gyro-radius is greater than the ion acoustic wavelength), the current instability can lead to the formation of one-dimensional cavities along the magnetic field. In the case of a stronger magnetic field (where the ion acoustic wavelength is greater than the electron gyro-radius, but still is less than the ion gyro-radius), the instability can lead to the formation of 3D density cavities. In this case, the spatial scales of the cavity, both along and across the background magnetic field, can be comparable, and at the earlier stage of the cavity formation they are of the order of the ion acoustic wavelength. Rarefactions of the cavity density are accompanied by an increase in the electric field and are limited by the pressure of bipolar electric fields that occur within them. The estimates of typical density cavity characteristics and the results of numerical solutions agree with known experimental data: small-scale structures with a sufficiently strong electric field are observed in the auroral regions with strong field-aligned current.

  15. Temperature induced complex formation-deformation behavior of collagen model peptides and polyelectrolytes in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Terao, Ken; Kanenaga, Ryoko; Yoshida, Tasuku; Mizuno, Kazunori; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    Since the triple-helical collagen model peptides with a free N-terminus have three cationic groups at one end, it may have strong interactions with polyelectrolytes. In this study, complex formation behavior was investigated for sodium carboxymethyl amylose (NaCMA) + H-(Pro-Pro-Gly)10-OH (PPG10), a collagen model peptide, in aqueous NaCl with ionic strength of 10 mM and 100 mM by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and circular dichroism at different temperatures. The previously repo...

  16. Separation of californium from actinides and lanthanides in aqueous solution by electrochemical formation of amalgams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical reduction of transneptunium elements (Pu to Cf) and rare earths (Eu, Tm) from aqueous complexing solutions to amalgams was studied over a wide range of cathodic potentials in order to achieve optimal separation of californium. The reduction in acetate media (pH 4.5-4.6) at potentials around -1.7 to -1.9 V1 leads to a quantitative extraction of californium into the mercury phase, while more negative potentials are required for the reduction of the lighter transuranium elements and of the lanthanides. Hence, the optimal conditions for the separation of californium from the investigated actinides and lanthanides were determined. Separation factors α between 25 and 90 were found except in the case of Cf/Eu, where poor values (α varying from 7 to 12) were observed. More negative cathodic potentials decrease the selectivity of the reduction process. A similar study with lithium citrate solutions (pH ∝6) shows that satisfactory separation of californium from lighter and heavier actinides is achievable. A separation factor of 88 is obtained for Cf/Am at -1.98 V. The anodic stripping of mixed amalgams (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Tm and Cf) Hg in nitric and acetic acid soultions at potentials ranging from +0.1 to -0.7 V proceeds slowly and proved to be ineffective for the separation of californium from light actinides under conditions described. (orig.)

  17. Formation of ZnO Micro-Flowers Prepared via Solution Process and their Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Amrita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of zinc oxide micro-flowers and their antibacterial activity. The micro-flowers of zinc oxide composed of hexagonal nanorods have been prepared via solution process using precursor zinc acetate di-hydrate and sodium hydroxide in 3 h of refluxing time at ~90°C. The antibacterial activities of grown micro-flowers were investigated against four pathogenic bacteria namely S. aureus, E. coli, S. typhimurium and K. pneumoniae by taking five different concentrations (5–45 μg/ml of ZnO micro-flowers (ZnO-MFs. Our investigation reveals that at lowest concentration of ZnO-MFs solution inhibiting the growth of microbial strain which was found to be 5 μg/ml for all the tested pathogens. Additionally, on the basis of morphological and chemical observations, a chemical reaction mechanism of ZnO-MFs composed of hexagonal nanorods was also proposed.

  18. A model for trace metal sorption processes at the calcite surface: Adsorption of Cd2+ and subsequent solid solution formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Cook, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of Cd2+ sorption by calcite was determined as a function of pH and Mg2+ in aqueous solutions saturated with respect to calcite but undersaturated with respect to CdCO3. The sorption is characterized by two reaction steps, with the first reaching completion within 24 hours. The second step proceeded at a slow and nearly constant rate for at least 7 days. The rate of calcite recrystallization was also studied, using a Ca2+ isotopic exchange technique. Both the recrystallization rate of calcite and the rate of slow Cd2+ sorption decrease with increasing pH or with increasing Mg2+. The recrystallization rate could be predicted from the number of moles of Ca present in the hydrated surface layer. A model is presented which is consistent with the rates of Cd2+ sorption and Ca2+ isotopic exchange. In the model, the first step in Cd2+ sorption involves a fast adsorption reaction that is followed by diffusion of Cd2+ into a surface layer of hydrated CaCO3 that overlies crystalline calcite. Desorption of Cd2+ from the hydrated layer is slow. The second step is solid solution formation in new crystalline material, which grows from the disordered mixture of Cd and Ca carbonate in the hydrated surface layer. Calculated distribution coefficients for solid solutions formed at the surface are slightly greater than the ratio of equilibrium constants for dissolution of calcite and CdCO3, which is the value that would be expected for an ideal solid solution in equilibrium with the aqueous solution. ?? 1987.

  19. Effect of solution pH on CO: formate formation rates during electrochemical reduction of aqueous CO2 at Sn cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of the molar ratios of CO:formate products formed by electrochemical reduction of CO2 at Sn electrodes was studied in aqueous buffer solutions as a function of pH, with values of those ratios ranging from 1 to 0.15 over the pH range 2.9 to 7.8. However, decreasing pH led to decreased charge yields of CO2 reduction, due to increasing rates of the competing hydrogen evolution reaction. A reaction scheme was proposed to explain the observed relationship and a mathematical model was developed to quantify the dependence of the product ratios on pH and to predict the observed partial current densities of product formation at different pHs and electrode potentials. The reaction scheme was based on multiple protonation states of the intermediate in CO2 reduction; the higher the protonation state, the higher was the tendency of the intermediate to form CO. A generalised reaction mechanism for other electrode materials was also proposed

  20. Diagnostics and modeling of yttria-stabilized zirconia formation in solution-precursor plasma-spray process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Alper

    Thermal barrier coatings produced by solution-precursor plasma-spray (SPPS) process have been shown to offer superior thermal properties and durability. The microstructure of these coatings combines favorable properties of conventional air plasma spray (APS) and electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) coatings by providing evenly spaced, through-thickness vertical cracks and uniformly distributed porosity resulting in good strain tolerance and low thermal conductivity. This experimental and computational study aims at clarifying some of the key aspects of this process through diagnostics of the actual process, modeling of vaporization and precipitation within droplets and through model experiments which utilize a combustion flame instead of a plasma jet. The work also includes characterization of the combustion flame and study of the possibility of coating formation utilizing combustion processes instead of plasmas. Plasma-extracted sample indicate presence of spherical sintered polycrystalline particles of 100 nm to 1 micron. Characterization of the precursor spray show that the mean droplet size is about 40 micron suggesting droplet disintegration in the process. Modeling of the heat and mass transfer around the droplets and solute precipitation predict formation of shell type structures and ceno-spheres supported by the experimental evidence of shell type structures in the single pass plasma experiments. Combustion flame experiments were found to produce sintered polycrystalline tetragonal yttria-stabilized zirconia particles similar to the plasma-extracted samples. The microstructural and compositional evolution of the ceramic particles was characterized as a function of downstream distance in the flame jet.

  1. Analysis of solutes in groundwaters from the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1986, groundwater samples from more than 60 locations in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site were collected and analyzed for a variety of major, minor, and trace solutes. Most of the samples were from the Rustler Formation (the Culebra Dolomite, the Magenta Dolomite, or the zone at the contact between the Rustler and underlying Salado Formations) or the Dewey Lake Red Beds. The analytical data from the laboratories are presented here with accompanying discussions of sample collection methods, supporting field measurements, and laboratory analytical methods. A comparison of four data sets and a preliminary evaluation of the data for the major solutes (Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Na, K, Ca, and Mg) shows that the data for samples analyzed by UNC/Bendix for SNL seem to be the most reliable, but that at some locations, samples representative of the native, unperturbed groundwater have not been collected. At other locations, the water chemistry has apparently changed between sampling episodes.

  2. Solution NMR structure of CsgE: Structural insights into a chaperone and regulator protein important for functional amyloid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qin; Krezel, Andrzej M; Cusumano, Zachary T; Pinkner, Jerome S; Klein, Roger; Hultgren, Scott J; Frieden, Carl

    2016-06-28

    Curli, consisting primarily of major structural subunit CsgA, are functional amyloids produced on the surface of Escherichia coli, as well as many other enteric bacteria, and are involved in cell colonization and biofilm formation. CsgE is a periplasmic accessory protein that plays a crucial role in curli biogenesis. CsgE binds to both CsgA and the nonameric pore protein CsgG. The CsgG-CsgE complex is the curli secretion channel and is essential for the formation of the curli fibril in vivo. To better understand the role of CsgE in curli formation, we have determined the solution NMR structure of a double mutant of CsgE (W48A/F79A) that appears to be similar to the wild-type (WT) protein in overall structure and function but does not form mixed oligomers at NMR concentrations similar to the WT. The well-converged structure of this mutant has a core scaffold composed of a layer of two α-helices and a layer of three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet with flexible N and C termini. The structure of CsgE fits well into the cryoelectron microscopy density map of the CsgG-CsgE complex. We highlight a striking feature of the electrostatic potential surface in CsgE structure and present an assembly model of the CsgG-CsgE complex. We suggest a structural mechanism of the interaction between CsgE and CsgA. Understanding curli formation can provide the information necessary to develop treatments and therapeutic agents for biofilm-related infections and may benefit the prevention and treatment of amyloid diseases. CsgE could establish a paradigm for the regulation of amyloidogenesis because of its unique role in curli formation. PMID:27298344

  3. Formation of metastable solid solutions by mechanical alloying of immiscible Ag and Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musu, Elodia [Laboratorio di Telemicroscopia Industriale, Sardegna Ricerche, Polaris, Parco Tecnologico della Sardegna, Edificio 3, Loc. Piscinamanna, 09010 Pula (Italy); Mura, Giovanna [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Ligios, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Delogu, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.delogu@dimcm.unica.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •Ag powders with different Vickers micro-hardness were prepared by ball milling. •They were mechanically alloyed with Bi. •Bi dissolves into Ag exceeding the solubility limits. •Bi dissolution rate and solubility degree depend on the Ag Vickers micro-hardness. -- Abstract: This work investigates the effects of the Vickers micro-hardness of Ag powders on the alloying process undergone by Ag{sub 90}Bi{sub 10} powder mixtures submitted to ball milling. The transformation kinetics has been studied by quantitative X-ray diffraction. The experimental findings indicate that Bi gradually dissolves into Ag, finally forming a crystalline solid solution in which thermodynamic solubility limits are largely exceeded. It is shown that the rate of Bi dissolution, and the solubility degree, decrease as the Vickers micro-hardness of Ag powders increases.

  4. Formation and decay of the peroxy radicals in the oxidation process of Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal and Hydroxyacetone in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Thomas; Weller, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere in large amounts from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. For example, the semivolatile carbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal will be produced in the oxidation process of isoprene, while hydroxyacetone can be formed by the combustion of biomass. Additionally, these semivolatile carbonyl compounds might be important for the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by partitioning between gas- and liquid phase of pre-existing particles. In the gas phase as well as in the aqueous phase (cloud droplets, fog, rain and deliquescent particles) these compounds can be further oxidized, e.g., by radicals (OH and NO3) leading to peroxy radical and then to substitued organics. There are still uncertainties concerning the oxidation pathways of glyoxal, after H-atom abstraction by, e.g., OH radicals, via alkyl radical to the peroxy radical under addition of molecular oxygen. One concept[1] claims that for dilute solutions ( 1 mM the formation of the peroxy radicals is a minor reaction pathway because of a lower rate constant of k = 1 × 106 M-1 s-1 estimated after Guzman et al., 2006[3]. The difference in the rate constants of the oxygen addition is of about three orders of magnitude and thus leads to different oxidation products and yields in the aqueous solution. Laboratory studies of glyoxal oxidation under varying oxygen concentrations have been performed in order to investigate the importance of the peroxy radical formation and alkyl radical recombination in more detail. The formation and the decay of the formed glyoxyl radicals and glyoxyl peroxy radicals were studied in low and high concentrated oxygen solutions using a laser photolysis long path absorption setup (LP-LPA). Additionally, the Tdependent decay of the peroxy radicals formed in the oxidation of methyglyoxal and hydroxyacetone was also studied using the same experiment. 1 Buxton, G. V., Malone, T. N. und Salmon, G. A., J. Chem. Soc

  5. Formation Equilibria of Ternary Metal Complexes with Citric Acid and Glutamine (Alanine) in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进平; 牛春吉; 杨魁跃; 倪嘉缵

    2004-01-01

    The species and their formation constants in the ternary systems were obtained by the Scogs2 software from potentiometric titration data. The Comics software was used to calculate the distribution of species in the ternary systems. MLXH, MLXH2 and MLXH3 are the common species in these systems. The coordination behaviors of the rare earths are very similar and their stability is closely matched. The ternary rare earth complexes are more stable than the corresponding ternary complexes of calcium. The ternary zinc complex with glutamine as the secondary ligand is more stable than the corresponding complexes of rare earths, but the ternary complex with alanine as the secondary ligand shows an inverse trend. The distributions of species in the ternary systems vary with pH changing. A prediction can be made that exogenous rare earths can affect the species of Ca and Zn in human body.

  6. The Nonisothermal Stage of Magnetic Star Formation. I. Formulation of the Problem and Method of Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Matthew W

    2008-01-01

    We formulate the problem of the formation and subsequent evolution of fragments (or cores) in magnetically-supported, self-gravitating molecular clouds in two spatial dimensions. The six-fluid (neutrals, electrons, molecular and atomic ions, positively-charged, negatively-charged, and neutral grains) physical system is governed by the radiative, nonideal magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations. The magnetic flux is not assumed to be frozen in any of the charged species. Its evolution is determined by a newly-derived generalized Ohm's law, which accounts for the contributions of both elastic and inelastic collisions to ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. The species abundances are calculated using an extensive chemical-equilibrium network. Both MRN and uniform grain size distributions are considered. The thermal evolution of the protostellar core and its effect on the dynamics are followed by employing the grey flux-limited diffusion approximation. Realistic temperature-dependent grain opacities are used t...

  7. Detection Of Multilayer Cavities By Employing RC-DTH Air Hammer System And Cavity Auto Scanning Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjiang; Li, Lijia; Peng, Jianming; Yin, Kun; Li, Peng; Gan, Xin; Zhao, Letao; Su, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The subterranean cavities are seriously threatened to construction and mining safety, and it's important to obtain the exact localization and dimensions of subterranean cavities for the planning of geotechnical and mining activities. Geophysical investigation is an alternative method for cavity detection, but it usually failed for the uncertainly solution of information and data obtained by Geophysical methods. Drilling is considered as the most accurate method for cavity detection. However, the conventional drilling methods can only be used for single cavity detection, and there is no effective solution for multilayer cavities detection have been reported. In this paper, a reverse circulation (RC) down-the-hole (DTH) air hammer system with a special structured drill bit is built and a cavity auto scanning laser system based on laser range finding technique was employed to confirm the localization and dimensions of the cavities. This RC-DTH air hammer system allows drilling through the upper cavities and putting the cavity auto scanning laser system into the cavity area through the central passage of the drill tools to protect the detection system from collapsing of borehole wall. The RC-DTH air hammer system was built, and field tests were conducted in Lanxian County Iron Ore District, which is located in Lv Liang city of Shan Xi province, the northwest of china. Field tests show that employing the RC-DTH air hammer system assisted by the cavity auto scanning laser system is an efficiency method to detect multilayer cavities.

  8. Formation conditions and nature of solid solutions in the Fe2O3 - V2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase composition of Fe2O3 and V2O3 interaction products is unvestigated at different pressures of gas phase and temperature in the air conditions. It is established, that at low temperature up to 900 deg C, Fesub(2-2x)Vsub(2x)Osub(3) solid solution is forming in the individual ampules and above this temperature partial dissociation of Fe2O3 and appearance of Fesub(3-2x)Vsub(2x)Osub(4) solid solution on the base of magnetite with the spinel defect structure is observed. The formation of three phases with different structure: Fesub(2-2x)Vsub(2x)Osub(3), Fesub(3-2x)Vsub(2x)Osub(4) and V3O5 is observed simultaneously at annealing of samples in the general ampule at 1000 deg C. Thermal behaviour of the forming solid solutions in the air is studied

  9. Natural Frequency Analysis of Two Nonlinear Panels Coupled with a Cavity Using the Approximate Elliptic Integral Solution and the Method of Harmonic Residual Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear structural acoustic problem considered in this study is the nonlinear natural frequency analysis of flexible double panels using the elliptic integral solution method. There are very limited studies for this nonlinear structural-acoustic problem, although many nonlinear plate or linear double panel problems have been tackled and solved. A multistructural/acoustic modal formulation is derived from two coupled partial differential equations which represent the large amplitude structural vibrations of the flexible panels and acoustic pressure induced within the air gap. One is the von Karman’s plate equation and the other is the homogeneous wave equation. The results obtained from the proposed method approach are verified with those from a numerical method. The effects of vibration amplitude, gap width, aspect ratio, the numbers of acoustic modes and harmonic terms, and so forth on the resonant frequencies of the in-phase and out of phase modes are examined.

  10. A priori calculations of the free energy of formation from solution of polymorphic self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; Panduwinata, Dwi; Visser, Johan; Chin, Yiing; Tang, Chunguang; Goerigk, Lars; Ford, Michael J; Sintic, Maxine; Sum, Tze-Jing; Coenen, Michiel J J; Hendriksen, Bas L M; Elemans, Johannes A A W; Hush, Noel S; Crossley, Maxwell J

    2015-11-10

    Modern quantum chemical electronic structure methods typically applied to localized chemical bonding are developed to predict atomic structures and free energies for meso-tetraalkylporphyrin self-assembled monolayer (SAM) polymorph formation from organic solution on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surfaces. Large polymorph-dependent dispersion-induced substrate-molecule interactions (e.g., -100 kcal mol(-1) to -150 kcal mol(-1) for tetratrisdecylporphyrin) are found to drive SAM formation, opposed nearly completely by large polymorph-dependent dispersion-induced solvent interactions (70-110 kcal mol(-1)) and entropy effects (25-40 kcal mol(-1) at 298 K) favoring dissolution. Dielectric continuum models of the solvent are used, facilitating consideration of many possible SAM polymorphs, along with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical and dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations. These predict and interpret newly measured and existing high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy images of SAM structure, rationalizing polymorph formation conditions. A wide range of molecular condensed matter properties at room temperature now appear suitable for prediction and analysis using electronic structure calculations.

  11. Salt-induced vesicle formation from single anionic surfactant SDBS and its mixture with LSB in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Limin; Zhao, Mei; Sun, Dejun; Hao, Jingcheng; Zhang, Lungjun

    2005-03-31

    Vesicles can be formed spontaneously in aqueous solution of a single anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) just under the inducement of salt, which makes the formation of vesicle much easier and simpler. The existence of vesicles was demonstrated by TEM image using the negative-staining method. The mechanism of the formation may be attributed to the compression of salt on the electric bilayer of the surfactant headgroups, which alters the packing parameter of the surfactant. The addition of the zwitterionic surfactant lauryl sulfonate betaine (LSB) makes the vesicles more stable, expands the range of formation and vesicle size, and reduces the polydispersity of the vesicles. The vesicle region was presented in a pseudoternary diagram of SDBS/LSB/brine. The variations of vesicle size with the salinity and mixing ratios, as well as the surfactant concentration, were determined using the dynamic light scattering method. It is found that the vesicle size is independent of the surfactant concentration but subject to the salinity and the mixing ratio of the two surfactants.

  12. The formation of magnetic carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles using precipitation from an aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Sašo, E-mail: saso.gyergyek@ijs.si [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Primc, Darinka [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Plantan, Ivan [Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., Mengeš (Slovenia)

    2015-03-01

    The formation of spinel iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions from an aqueous solution in the presence of carboxymethyldextrane (CMD) was studied. To follow the formation of the nanoparticles, a mixture of the Fe ions, CMD and ammonia was heated to different temperatures, while the samples were taken, quenched in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and magnetometry. The CMD plays a role in the reactions of the Fe ions' precipitation by partially immobilizing the Fe{sup 3+} ions into a complex. At room temperature, the amorphous material is precipitated. Then, above approximately 30 °C, the spinel nanoparticles form inside the amorphous matrix, and at approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The CMD bonded to the nanoparticles' surfaces hinders the mass transport and thus prevents their growth. - Highlights: • The carboxymethyl-dextrane coated iron-oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • The carboxymethyl-dextrane significantly modifies formation of the spinel nanoparticles. • The spinel nanoparticles are formed inside the amorphous matrix. • At approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles.

  13. Formation of silicon-on-insulator layer with midair cavity for meniscus force-mediated layer transfer and high-performance transistor fabrication on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Muneki; Sakaike, Kohei; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2015-08-01

    We attempted to transfer a phosphorus ion (P+)-implanted oxidized silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layer with a midair cavity to a glass substrate using meniscus force at a low temperature. The SiO2 column size was controlled by etching time and the minimum column size was 104 nm. The transfer yield of the implanted sample was significantly improved by decreasing the column size, and the maximum transfer yield was 95% when the implantation dose was 1 × 1015 cm-2. The causes of increasing transfer yield are considered to be the tapered SiO2 column shape and the hydrophilicity of the surface of oxidized samples with implantation. N-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using the films on glass at 300 °C showed a field-effect mobility of 505 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage of 2.47 V and a subthreshold swing of 324 mV/dec. on average.

  14. The Effect of Silver Chloride Formation on the Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hung; Payer, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer. PMID:21516171

  15. The Effect of Silver Chloride Formation on the Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Chloride Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hung; Payer, Joe

    2011-02-28

    The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer.

  16. Formation of reflective and conductive silver film on ABS surface via covalent grafting and solution spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dexin; Zhang, Yan [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Bessho, Takeshi [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Kudo, Takahiro; Sang, Jing; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Mori, Kunio [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kang, Zhixin, E-mail: zxkang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A pure and homogenous silver film was deposited by spray-style plating technique. • The mechanism of covalent bonding between coating and substrate was studied. • The silver coating is highly reflective and conductive. • UV light was used to activate the ABS surface with triazine azide derivative. - Abstract: Conductive and reflective silver layers on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics have been prepared by photo grafting of triazine azides upon ultraviolet activation, self-assembling of triazine dithiols and silver electroless plating by solution spray based on silver mirror reaction. The as-prepared silver film exhibited excellent adhesion with ABS owing to covalent bonds between coating and substrate, and the detailed bonding mechanism have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) result revealed that silver film on ABS was pure and with a nanocrystalline structure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis demonstrated that massive silver particles with sizes varying from 80 to 120 nm were deposited on ABS and formed a homogenous and smooth coating, resulting in highly reflective surface. Furthermore, silver maintained its unique conductivity even as film on ABS surface in term of four-point probe method.

  17. Formation and characterisation of solution processed ''pseudo-bilayer'' organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Marc Daniel; Ananthanarayanan, Krishnamoorthy; Thummalakunta, L.N.S.A.; Yong, Chian Haw; Luther, Joachim [Singapore National Univ. (SG). Solar Energy Research Inst. of Singapore (SERIS)

    2011-07-01

    The current state of the art solution processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are based on the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architecture, consisting of an active layer, in which the donor and the acceptor material are dissolved in a common solvent. In this report, we show that by sequential processing of the active components and by subsequent annealing a ''pseudo-bilayer'' can be formed which results in an enhanced nanomorphology for efficient charge generation and extraction. The enhanced nanomorphology arises from the inter-diffusion of the PCBM nanoparticles into a layer of pre-organised polymer P3HT instead of a phase separation that happens at the time of spin-coating and annealing in the case of conventional BHJ devices. To get a further insight into the inter-diffusion process, TOF-SIMS depth profiling and XPS measurements were carried out for different thermal annealing treatments of these pseudo-bilayer devices, which show full inter-diffusion after only seconds of annealing at 140 C. The optimised photovoltaic devices that were fabricated showed an efficiency of 4.1%. (orig.)

  18. RF Cavity Design

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, E

    2014-01-01

    After a short overview of a general approach to cavity design, we sketch the derivation of waveguide modes from plane waves and of cavity fields from waveguide modes. The characteristic parameters describing cavities and their performance are defined and explained. An equivalent circuit is introduced and extended to explain beam loading and higher order modes. Finally travelling- and standing-wave multi-gap cavities are introduced using the Brillouin diagram.

  19. The Aggregation Behavior and Formation of Nanoparticles of Oleoylchitosan in Dilute Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanyan; CHEN Xiguang; SUN Gangzheng; XING Ke

    2008-01-01

    Oleoylchitosans (O-chitosans) with different degrees of substitution (DS) were synthesized by reacting chitosan with oleoyl chloride. The chemical structures of the products were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR. These results suggested the for-mation of an amide linkage between the amino groups of chitosan and the carboxyl groups of oleic acid. The viscosity of O-chitosan sharply increased with the increase of concentration, whereas that of unmodified chitosan rose only slightly. This increase became larger as the DS increased. All of the O-chitosans could reduce surface tension slightly. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of O-chitosans with DS 5%, 11%, and 27% were 79.43 mgL-1, 31.6 mgL-1, and 10mgL-1, respectively. Nanoparticles were prepared using an O/W emulsification method. The mean diameters of the polymeric amphiphilic nanoparticles of O-chitosans with DS 5% and 11% were around 327.4 nm and 275.3 nm, respectively.

  20. Spall formation in solution mined storage caverns based on a creep and fracture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    2000-02-02

    Because of limited direct observation, understanding of the interior conditions of the massive storage caverns constructed in Gulf Coast salt domes is realizable only through predictions of salt response. Determination of the potential for formation of salt spans, leading to eventual salt falls, is based on salt creep and fracture using the Multimechanism-Deformation Coupled Fracture (MCDF) model. This is a continuum model for creep, coupled to continuum damage evolution. The model has been successfully tested against underground results of damage around several test rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Model simulations, here, evaluate observations made in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, namely, the accumulation of material on cavern floors and evidence of salt falls. A simulation of a smooth cavern wall indicates damage is maximum at the surface but diminishes monotonically into the salt, which suggests the source of salt accumulation is surface sluffing. If a protuberance occurs on the wall, fracture damage can form beneath the protuberance, which will eventually cause fracture, and lead to a salt fall.

  1. Effect of initial pH and temperature of iron salt solutions on formation of magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanaprakash, G. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Mahadevan, S. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kalyanasundaram, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Philip, John [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)]. E-mail: philip@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2007-05-15

    We report the effect of initial pH and temperature of iron salt solutions on formation of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles during co-precipitation. We synthesized nanoparticles by keeping the initial pH at 0.7, 1.5, 3.0, 4.7, 5.7, 6.7 for two different temperatures of 30 and 60 deg. C. When the initial pH (prior to alkali addition) of the salt solution was below 5, the nanoparticles formed were 100% spinel iron oxide. Average size of the magnetite particles increases with initial pH until ferrihydrite is formed at a pH of 3 and the size remains the same till 4.7 pH. The percentage of goethite formed along with non-stoichiometric magnetite was 35 and 78%, respectively, when the initial pH of the solution was 5.7 and 6.7. As the reaction temperature was increased to 60 deg. C, maintaining a pH of 6.7, the amount of goethite increased from 78 to 100%. These results show that the initial pH and temperature of the ferrous and ferric salt solution before initiation of the precipitation reaction are critical parameters controlling the composition and size of nanoparticles formed. We characterize the samples using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results of the present work provide the right conditions to synthesis pure magnetite nanoparticles, without goethite impurities, through co-precipitation technique for ferrofluid applications.

  2. Numerical Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation: X-Ray Spectral Formation from Cylindrical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairnelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.; Romano, P.; Titarchuk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. This requires developing numerical routines for the solution of the radiative transfer equation according to the expected physical conditions of the systems under study. Aims. We have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. Methods. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system pi using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Results. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar surface and at the top of the accretion column, respectively. In both cases higher values of the electron temperature and of the optical depth pi produce flatter and harder spectra. Other parameters contributing to the spectral formation are the steepness of the vertical velocity profile, the albedo at the star surface, and the radius of the accretion column. The latter parameter modifies the emerging spectra in a specular way for the two assumed accretion profiles. Conclusions. The algorithm has been implemented in the XPEC package for X-ray fitting and is specifically dedicated to the physical framework of accretion at the polar cap of a neutron star with a high magnetic field (approx > 10(exp 12) G). This latter case is expected to be of typical accreting systems such as X

  3. Dawn of Cavity Spintronics

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Can-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Merging the progress of spintronics with the advancement in cavity quantum electrodynamics and cavity polaritons, a new field of Cavity Spintronics is forming, which connects some of the most exciting modern physics, such as quantum information and quantum optics, with one of the oldest science on the earth, the magnetism.

  4. Solid solution formation and microstructure of UO2 added with Nb and Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of UO2 fuels added with Nb and Ca has been done by mixing UO2 with Nb2O5 and CaUO4 oxides respectively and heating them at 1390degC in stream of helium. Characterization has been then carried out with aid of X-ray diffraction analysis and metallography. The results can be summarized as follows. Nb could dissolve and form solid solution in UO2 with y up to 0.01, where y = Nb/(Ub+U) atomic ratio. The effect of Ca on the change of lattice parameter of the UO2 could be explained well using the simple ionic model, and according to this model, Ca occupies uranium sublattice of the UO2 (substitutional mechanism). Observation of the microstructure of the fuels showed that Nb created large grains and pores. The pores enlarged whether a liquid second phase was present or not. However, the grains did not enlarge and tended to be spherical when the liquid second phase was present. The structure of the liquid second phase could not be determined, but it had a melting point of 1328degC as confirmed by DTA. The evaluation also showed that Ca created small grains and pores. The difference in the grain and pore structure between (Nb,U)O2+x and (Ca,U)O2+x fuels was considered to be strongly due to the different lattice defect created by Nb and Ca, where Nb created a uranium vacancy which is considered to enhance the grain and pore growth and Ca created an oxygen vacancy which is considered to be less effective to enhance grain and pore growth. (author)

  5. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    -dimensional pore network, the dependence of the mass balance in all major directions is taken into account, either as a three-dimensional network of pores with specific geometry (cylinders, sinusoidal cells), or as a homogeneous random medium (Darcy description). The distribution of the crystals along the porous medium was calculated in the case of selective crystallization on the walls, which is the predominant effect to date in the experiments. The crystals distribution was also examined in the case where crystallization was carried out in the bulk solution. Salts sedimentation experiments were simulated both in an unsaturated porous medium and in a medium saturated with an oil phase. A comparison of the simulation results with corresponding experimental results was performed in order to design improved selective sedimentation of salts systems in porous formations. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was partially funded by the European Union (European Social Fund-ESF) and Greek National Funds through the Operational program "Education and Lifelong Learning" under the action Aristeia II (Code No 4420).

  6. The mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels: The case of Fe-Cu model alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, A. V.; Panyukov, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels is proposed and developed in case of Fe-Cu model alloys. The suggested solute-drag mechanism is analogous to the well-known zone-refining process. We show that the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data on the parameters of clusters enriched with the alloying elements. Our model explains why the formation of solute-enriched clusters does not happen in austenitic stainless steels with fcc lattice structure. It also allows to quantify the method of evaluation of neutron irradiation dose for the process of RPV steels hardening.

  7. The mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels: the case of Fe-Cu model alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Subbotina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels is proposed and developed in case of Fe-Cu model alloys. We show that the obtained results are in a good agreement with available experimental data on the parameters of clusters enriched with the alloying elements. The suggested solute-drag mechanism is analogous to the well-known zone-refining process. Our model explains why the formation of solute-enriched clusters does not happen in austenitic stainless steels with fcc lattice structure. It also allows to quantify the method of evaluation of neutron irradiation dose for the process of RPV steels hardening.

  8. Possible solutions to the problem of channel formation on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    A warm climate on early Mars would provide a natural, although not unique, explanation for the presence of fluvial networks on the ancient, heavily cratered terrains. Explaining how the climate could have been kept warm, however, is not easy. The idea that the global average surface temperature, T(sub s), could have been kept warm by a dense, CO2 atmosphere supplied by volcanism or impacts is no longer viable. It was shown that CO2 cloud formation should have kept T(sub s) well below freezing until approximately 2 b.y. ago, when the Sun had brightened to at least 86 percent of its present value. Warm equatorial regions on an otherwise cold planet seem unlikely because atmospheric CO2 would probably condense out at the poles. Warming by impact-produced dust in the atmosphere seems unlikely because the amount of warming expected for silicate dust particles is relatively small. Greenhouse warming by high altitude CO2 ice clouds seems unlikely because such are poor absorbers of infrared radiation at most wavelengths. Warming by atmospheric NH3 seems unlikely because NH3 is readily photodissociated and because N may have been in short supply as consequence of impact erosion and the high solubility of NH3. A brighter, mass-losing young Sun seems unlikely because stellar winds of the required strength were not observed on other solar-type stars. In short, most of the explanations for a warm Martian paleoclimate that were proposed in the past seem unlikely. One possibility that seems feasible from radiative/photochemical standpoint is that CH4 and associated hydrocarbon gases and particles contributed substantially to the greenhouse effect on early Mars. Methane is photochemically more stable than NH3 and the gases and particles that can be formed from it are all good absorbers of infrared radiation. The idea of a CH4-rich Martian paleoatmosphere was suggested a long time ago but has fallen out of favor because of perceived difficulties in maintaining a CH4-rich atmosphere

  9. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury.

  10. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xue; Er-jun Wu; Pei-xun Zhang; Li-ya A; Yu-hui Kou; Xiao-feng Yin; Na Han

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modiifed biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantationin vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker) and glial ifbrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker) at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve ifbers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our ifndings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvi-ronment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury.

  11. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Xue; Er-jun Wu; Pei-xun Zhang; Li-ya A; Yu-hui Kou; Xiao-feng Yin; Na Han

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive fo...

  12. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  13. Supersonic flows over cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianwen FANG; Meng DING; Jin ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of supersonic cold flows over cavities were investigated experimentally and numer-ically, and the effects of cavities of different sizes on super-sonic flow field were analyzed. The results indicate that the ratio of length to depth L/D within the range of 5-9 has little relevance to integral structures of cavity flow. The bevel angle of the rear wall does not alter the overall structure of the cavity flow within the range of 30°-60°, but it can exert obvious effect on the evolvement of shear layer and vortexes in cavities.

  14. Model simulation of solute leaching and its application for estimating the net rate of nitrate formation under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoma, Suehiro; Kuboi, Toru

    1985-12-01

    A model of the discrete type was built to describe unsteady infiltrations and redistributions of water and solutes in soil. The model was evaluated by comparing the measurements of the changes in chloride concentration in the field soil amended with sewage sludge with those obtained by simulation. The simulations showed that the amount of chloride adsorbed in the field was as small as 60% of that measured in the flask of the batch test, and that most of the chloride leached quickly through the upper zone of soil (0-20 cm) but stagnated in the lower zone (20-100 cm). The model was applied for estimating the daily net rate of nitrate formation. The estimation results indicated that the rate was accelerated remarkably by rainfall and abruptly slowed down soon after.

  15. Hydration and ion pair formation in common aqueous La(III) salt solutions--a Raman scattering and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Wolfram W; Irmer, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectra of aqueous lanthanum perchlorate, triflate (trifluorosulfonate), chloride and nitrate solutions were measured over a broad concentration (0.121-3.050 mol L(-1)) range at room temperature (23 °C). A very weak mode at 343 cm(-1) with a full width at half height at 49 cm(-1) in the isotropic spectrum suggests that the nona-aqua La(III) ion is thermodynamically stable in dilute perchlorate solutions (∼0.2 mol L(-1)) while in concentrated perchlorate solutions outer-sphere ion pairs and contact ion pairs are formed. The La(3+) nona-hydrate was also detected in a 1.2 mol L(-1) La(CF3SO3)3(aq). In lanthanum chloride solutions chloro-complex formation was detected over the measured concentration range from 0.5-3.050 mol L(-1). The chloro-complexes in LaCl3(aq) are fairly weak and disappear with dilution. At a concentration complexes disappeared. In LaCl3 solutions, with additional HCl, a series of chloro-complexes of the type [La(OH2)(9-n)Cln](+3-n) (n = 1-3) were formed. The La(NO3)3(aq) spectra were compared with a spectrum of a 0.409 mol L(-1) NaNO3(aq) and it was concluded that in La(NO3)3(aq) over the concentration range from 0.121-1.844 mol L(-1), nitrato-complexes, [La(OH2)(9-n)(NO3)n](+3-n) (n = 1, 2) were formed. These nitrato-complexes are quite weak and disappear with dilution La(OH2)9](3+) with the polarizable dielectric continuum are in good agreement with data from recent structural experimental measurements and high quality simulations. The DFT frequency of the La-O stretching mode at 328.2 cm(-1), is only slightly smaller than the experimental one.

  16. Cavity turnover and equilibrium cavity densities in a cottonwood bottomland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental factor regulating the numbers of secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds is the number of extant cavities available for nesting. The number of available cavities may be thought of as being in an approximate equilibrium maintained by a very rough balance between recruitment and loss of cavities. Based on estimates of cavity recruitment and loss, we ascertained equilibrium cavity densities in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado. Annual cavity recruitment, derived from density estimates of primary cavity nesting (PCN) birds and cavity excavation rates, was estimated to be 71-86 new cavities excavated/100 ha. Of 180 active cavities of 11 species of cavity-nesting birds found in 1985 and 1986, 83 were no longer usable by 1990, giving an average instantaneous rate of cavity loss of r = -0.230. From these values of cavity recruitment and cavity loss, equilibrium cavity density along the South Platte is 238-289 cavities/100 ha. This range of equilibrium cavity density is only slightly above the minimum of 205 cavities/100 ha required by SCN's and suggests that cavity availability may be limiting SCN densities along the South Platte River. We submit that snag management alone does not adequately address SCN habitat needs, and that cavity management, expressed in terms of cavity turnover and cavity densities, may be more useful.

  17. Formation of High Aspect Ratio TiO2 Nano tube Arrays by Anodization of Ti Foil in Organic Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nano tubes were successfully formed by anodization of pure titanium foil in a standard two-electrode bath consisting of ethylene glycol solution containing 5 wt % NH4F. The pH of the solution was ∼7 and the anodization voltage was 60 V. It was observed that such anodization condition results in ordered arrays of TiO2 nano tubes with smooth surface and a very high aspect ratio. It was observed that a minimum of 1 wt % water addition was required to form well ordered TiO2 nano tubes with length of approximately 18.5 μm. As-anodized sample, the self-organized TiO2 nano tubes have amorphous structure and annealing at 500 degree Celsius of the nano tubes promote formation of anatase and rutile phase. Photo catalytic activity of well ordered TiO2 nano tubes with two different lengths was evaluated by measuring the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The elaboration of this observation is described in detail in this paper. (author)

  18. Thermodynamics of mixed-ligand complex formation of zinc nitrilotriacetate with amino acids and dipeptides in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Stable mixed ligand complexes of ZnNta with amino acids and dipeptides. • Histamine-like coordination mode of His in the complex ZnNtaHis. • Glycine-like coordination of Lys and Orn in the complexes ZnNtaL and ZnNtaHL • NH2, CO-coordination mode of GlyGly in the complex ZnNtaGG. • NH2, N− or NH2, N−, COO-coordination modes of GlyGly in the complex ZnNtaGGH−1. - Abstract: The isothermal calorimetry, pH-potentiometric titration and 1H and 13C NMR methods has been used to study the mixed-ligand complex formation in the systems Zn2+–Nta3––L− (L = His, Orn, Lys, GlyGly, AlaAla) in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and the ionic strength of I = 0.5 (KNO3). The thermodynamic parameters of formation of the mixed complexes have been determined. The relationship between the probable coordination modes of the complexone and amino acid or dipeptide molecules in the mixed-ligand complex and the thermodynamic parameters has been discussed

  19. Study of solvent effects on complex formation of tungsten (VI) with ethylenediaminediacetic acid in aqueous solutions of propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrophotometric and potentiometric techniques were used to determine the formation constants of the species formed in the systems H+ + W(VI) + ethylenediaminediacetic acid and H+ + ethylenediaminediacetic acid in aqueous solutions of propanol at 25 deg C and constant ionic strength 0.1 mol dm-3 of sodium perchlorate. The composition of the complex was determined by the continuous variations method. It was shown that tungsten (VI) forms a mononuclear 1 : 1 complex with ethylenediaminediacetic acid of the type WO3L3- at -log[H+] = 5.8. The formation constants in various media were analyzed in terms of Kamlet and Taft's parameters. Solvents have been parameterized by scales of dipolarity/polarizability π*, hydrogen-bond donor strength α, and hydrogen-bond acceptor strength β. Linear dependence on these solvent parameters are used to correlate and predict a wide variety of solvent effects, as well as to provide an analysis of them. Linear relationships are observed when logKS is plotted versus π*. Finally, the results are discussed in terms of the effect of solvent on complexation

  20. γ-radiolysis of poly(A) in aqueous solution: efficiency of strand break formation by primary water radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ-radiation-induced single-strand break formation (ssb) in polyadenylic acid (poly(A)) was determined in Ar and N2O-saturated solution in the presence of various concentrations of t-butanol. The efficiencies for strand breakage caused by solvated electrons, hydrogen atoms and OH radicals were found to be 0.25, 0.20 and 7.8%, respectively. The efficiency of OH radicals depends only slightly on pH (pH 5.0, 7.5 and 9.0) and is independent of the presence of salt (0.01 mol dm-3 NaClO4) and of irradiation temperature (200C and 700C). The efficiency of OH for ssb formation obtained in this work with poly(A) is much smaller than that of poly(dA), explained by different molecular conformations of the sugar moiety of poly(A) (3'-endo) and poly(dA) (2'-endo). With increasing t-butanol concentration more strand breaks are formed than expected from simple homogeneous competition kinetics of poly(A) and t-butanol for OH radicals, considered to be due to non-homogeneous reaction kinetics. Rate constants for the reaction of OH and H with poly(A) have been determined. (author)

  1. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  2. Thermodynamics of mixed-ligand complex formation of zinc nitrilotriacetate with amino acids and dipeptides in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyreu, Dmitrii, E-mail: pyreu@mail.ru [Department of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, Ivanovo State UniversityErmak 39, Ivanovo 153025 (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, Matvey; Kumeev, Roman [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Gridchin, Sergei [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-20

    Highlights: • Stable mixed ligand complexes of ZnNta with amino acids and dipeptides. • Histamine-like coordination mode of His in the complex ZnNtaHis. • Glycine-like coordination of Lys and Orn in the complexes ZnNtaL and ZnNtaHL • NH{sub 2}, CO-coordination mode of GlyGly in the complex ZnNtaGG. • NH{sub 2}, N{sup −} or NH2, N{sup −}, COO-coordination modes of GlyGly in the complex ZnNtaGGH{sub −1}. - Abstract: The isothermal calorimetry, pH-potentiometric titration and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR methods has been used to study the mixed-ligand complex formation in the systems Zn{sup 2+}–Nta{sup 3–}–L{sup −} (L = His, Orn, Lys, GlyGly, AlaAla) in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and the ionic strength of I = 0.5 (KNO{sub 3}). The thermodynamic parameters of formation of the mixed complexes have been determined. The relationship between the probable coordination modes of the complexone and amino acid or dipeptide molecules in the mixed-ligand complex and the thermodynamic parameters has been discussed.

  3. Polynomial Chaos Expansion of Random Coefficients and the Solution of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations in the Tensor Train Format

    KAUST Repository

    Dolgov, Sergey

    2015-11-03

    We apply the tensor train (TT) decomposition to construct the tensor product polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of a random field, to solve the stochastic elliptic diffusion PDE with the stochastic Galerkin discretization, and to compute some quantities of interest (mean, variance, and exceedance probabilities). We assume that the random diffusion coefficient is given as a smooth transformation of a Gaussian random field. In this case, the PCE is delivered by a complicated formula, which lacks an analytic TT representation. To construct its TT approximation numerically, we develop the new block TT cross algorithm, a method that computes the whole TT decomposition from a few evaluations of the PCE formula. The new method is conceptually similar to the adaptive cross approximation in the TT format but is more efficient when several tensors must be stored in the same TT representation, which is the case for the PCE. In addition, we demonstrate how to assemble the stochastic Galerkin matrix and to compute the solution of the elliptic equation and its postprocessing, staying in the TT format. We compare our technique with the traditional sparse polynomial chaos and the Monte Carlo approaches. In the tensor product polynomial chaos, the polynomial degree is bounded for each random variable independently. This provides higher accuracy than the sparse polynomial set or the Monte Carlo method, but the cardinality of the tensor product set grows exponentially with the number of random variables. However, when the PCE coefficients are implicitly approximated in the TT format, the computations with the full tensor product polynomial set become possible. In the numerical experiments, we confirm that the new methodology is competitive in a wide range of parameters, especially where high accuracy and high polynomial degrees are required.

  4. Polynomial Chaos Expansion of random coefficients and the solution of stochastic partial differential equations in the Tensor Train format

    KAUST Repository

    Dolgov, S.

    2015-03-11

    We apply the Tensor Train (TT) decomposition to construct the tensor product Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) of a random field, to solve the stochastic elliptic diffusion PDE with the stochastic Galerkin discretization, and to compute some quantities of interest (mean, variance, exceedance probabilities). We assume that the random diffusion coefficient is given as a smooth transformation of a Gaussian random field. In this case, the PCE is delivered by a complicated formula, which lacks an analytic TT representation. To construct its TT approximation numerically, we develop the new block TT cross algorithm, a method that computes the whole TT decomposition from a few evaluations of the PCE formula. The new method is conceptually similar to the adaptive cross approximation in the TT format, but is more efficient when several tensors must be stored in the same TT representation, which is the case for the PCE. Besides, we demonstrate how to assemble the stochastic Galerkin matrix and to compute the solution of the elliptic equation and its post-processing, staying in the TT format. We compare our technique with the traditional sparse polynomial chaos and the Monte Carlo approaches. In the tensor product polynomial chaos, the polynomial degree is bounded for each random variable independently. This provides higher accuracy than the sparse polynomial set or the Monte Carlo method, but the cardinality of the tensor product set grows exponentially with the number of random variables. However, when the PCE coefficients are implicitly approximated in the TT format, the computations with the full tensor product polynomial set become possible. In the numerical experiments, we confirm that the new methodology is competitive in a wide range of parameters, especially where high accuracy and high polynomial degrees are required.

  5. Formation of alteration products during dissolution of vitrified ILW in a high-pH calcium-rich solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To simulate the possible disposition of a vitrified intermediate-level waste (ILW) in a cementitious environment within a geological disposal facility (GDF), the durability of a laboratory simulant ILW vitrified in a borosilicate glass in a saturated Ca(OH)2 solution (pH ∼12.5) was measured. Both a low surface area to volume (SA/V) ratio (∼10 m−1) Materials Characterisation Center test 1 (MCC-1) and a high SA/V ratio (∼10,000 m−1) product consistency test type B (PCT-B) were used at 50 °C for up to 170 days. The formation of alteration layers and products was followed. The surfaces of the monoliths were analysed using SEM/EDX and showed the formation of magnesium-rich precipitates and distinct calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) precipitates. Cross sections showed the development of a calcium-rich alteration layer, which was observed from 14 days. The altered layer was up to 5 μm thick after 170 days and showed accumulation of zirconium, iron and magnesium and to a lesser extent aluminium, along with calcium and silicon. Based on comparison of the rate data, it is suggested that the presence of this layer may offer some protection to the underlying glass. However, the high SA/V ratio experiments showed resumed alteration after 56 days, indicating that the altered layer may not be protective in the long term (under accelerated conditions). The formation of a magnesium-containing smectite clay (likely saponite) in addition to CSH(II), a jennite-like CSH phase, were identified in the high SA/V experiment by X-ray diffraction after 170 days. These results suggest that calcium and magnesium have important roles in both the long and shorter-term durability of vitrified wastes exposed to high pH

  6. Study of electrical conductivity response upon formation of ice and gas hydrates from salt solutions by a second generation high pressure electrical conductivity probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Barbara; Zhang, Xue Hua; Kozielski, Karen A; Dunstan, Dave E; Hartley, Patrick G; Maeda, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    We recently reported the development of a high pressure electrical conductivity probe (HP-ECP) for experimental studies of formation of gas hydrates from electrolytes. The onset of the formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrate from salt solutions was marked by a temporary upward spike in the electrical conductivity. To further understand hydrate formation a second generation of window-less HP-ECP (MkII), which has a much smaller heat capacity than the earlier version and allows access to faster cooling rates, has been constructed. Using the HP-ECP (MkII) the electrical conductivity signal responses of NaCl solutions upon the formation of ice, tetrahydrofuran hydrates, and methane-propane mixed gas hydrate has been measured. The concentration range of the NaCl solutions was from 1 mM to 3M and the driving AC frequency range was from 25 Hz to 5 kHz. This data has been used to construct an "electrical conductivity response phase diagrams" that summarize the electrical conductivity response signal upon solid formation in these systems. The general trend is that gas hydrate formation is marked by an upward spike in the conductivity at high concentrations and by a drop at low concentrations. This work shows that HP-ECP can be applied in automated measurements of hydrate formation probability distributions of optically opaque samples using the conductivity response signals as a trigger.

  7. Electromagnetic SCRF Cavity Tuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V.; Borissov, E.; Foster, G.W.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Khabiboulline, T.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    A novel prototype of SCRF cavity tuner is being designed and tested at Fermilab. This is a superconducting C-type iron dominated magnet having a 10 mm gap, axial symmetry, and a 1 Tesla field. Inside the gap is mounted a superconducting coil capable of moving {+-} 1 mm and producing a longitudinal force up to {+-} 1.5 kN. The static force applied to the RF cavity flanges provides a long-term cavity geometry tuning to a nominal frequency. The same coil powered by fast AC current pulse delivers mechanical perturbation for fast cavity tuning. This fast mechanical perturbation could be used to compensate a dynamic RF cavity detuning caused by cavity Lorentz forces and microphonics. A special configuration of magnet system was designed and tested.

  8. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  9. Structural and silver/vanadium ratio effects on silver vanadium phosphorous oxide solution formation kinetics: impact on battery electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-01-21

    The detailed understanding of non-faradaic parasitic reactions which diminish battery calendar life is essential to the development of effective batteries for use in long life applications. The dissolution of cathode materials including manganese, cobalt and vanadium oxides in battery systems has been identified as a battery failure mechanism, yet detailed dissolution studies including kinetic analysis are absent from the literature. The results presented here provide a framework for the quantitative and kinetic analyses of the dissolution of cathode materials which will aid the broader community in more fully understanding this battery failure mechanism. In this study, the dissolution of silver vanadium oxide, representing the primary battery powering implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), is compared with the dissolution of silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag(w)VxPyOz) materials which were targeted as alternatives to minimize solubility. This study contains the first kinetic analyses of silver and vanadium solution formation from Ag0.48VOPO4·1.9H2O and Ag2VP2O8, in a non-aqueous battery electrolyte. The kinetic results are compared with those of Ag2VO2PO4 and Ag2V4O11 to probe the relationships among crystal structure, stoichiometry, and solubility. For vanadium, significant dissolution was observed for Ag2V4O11 as well as for the phosphate oxide Ag0.49VOPO4·1.9H2O, which may involve structural water or the existence of multiple vanadium oxidation states. Notably, the materials from the SVPO family with the lowest vanadium solubility are Ag2VO2PO4 and Ag2VP2O8. The low concentrations and solution rates coupled with their electrochemical performance make these materials interesting alternatives to Ag2V4O11 for the ICD application. PMID:25478865

  10. Numerical Analysis of Intra-Cavity and Power-Stream Flow Interaction in Multiple Gas-Turbine Disk-Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical analysis methodology and solutions of the interaction between the power stream and multiply-connected multi-cavity sealed secondary flow fields are presented. Flow solutions for a multi-cavity experimental rig were computed and compared with experimental data of Daniels and Johnson. The flow solutions illustrate the complex coupling between the main-path and the cavity flows as well as outline the flow thread that exists throughout the subplatform multiple cavities and seals. The analysis also shows that the de-coupled solutions on single cavities is inadequate. The present results show trends similar to the T-700 engine data that suggests the changes in the CDP seal altered the flow fields throughout the engine and affected the engine performance.

  11. Effect of acidity on the equilibria of formation of mixed Co2+ complexes with heparin and arginine in aqueous solutions at 37°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofanova, M. A.; Frantseva, Yu. V.; Semenov, A. N.; Baranova, N. V.; Zhuravlev, E. V.

    2014-02-01

    Results from studying interactions in the heparin-Co2+ ion-arginine system are presented. The constants of formation of mixed Co2+ complexes with heparin and arginine in aqueous solutions in a broad pH range at 37°C are determined potentiometrically. The chemical equilibria in the system are simulated and the stoichiometry of formation of the complex forms is determined.

  12. Development of Karst Formation in Area 4 of Tahe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying-jie; DU Yu-shan; ZHANG Jing-xuan; QU Quan-gong; LI Jing-hao; WU Qiang

    2003-01-01

    The main oil-bearing formation of Area 4 of Tahe oilfield is in Yingshan Group of Ordovician consisted of thick pure limestone. The types of the pore space contain the pore, fissure, cave as well as fracture formed by solution collapse. The primary porosity and tectonic fracture are of poor growth. Therefore, the formation growth is mainly controlled by hydraulic units of the palaeo-karst. There are three palaeo-hydraulic zones: vadose zone (including infiltration sub-zone and percolation sub-zone), phreatic zone and tranquil zone. They are identified by retrieving the palaeo-geographical karst environment. The pore space of the infiltration zone is mainly solution fissures, small solution cavities and solution pores. The growth and lateral connection of the formation are favorable. The reservoir/formation ratio is 0.54. The pore space of the phreatic zone developed large size cavities and fractures related to cave collapse. The height of the cavity can reach 71m. The fractures by collapse have a influencing range of more than 100m, and its reservoir/formation ratio is 0. 51. But the lateral connection is unfavorable. The percolation subzone and the tranquil zone are of relatively poor growth with the reservoir/tormation ratio less than 0. 3.

  13. The Modelling of the Solids Solution Formation Process in Systems In2O3-HfO2 at Heating in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Soloviova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ionic radiuses for cations, namely, for indium, hafnium, anion, and anion vacancy on the Templiton and Dauben scale, were calculated based on the mathematical models of the solid solution formation in In2O3-HfO2 system. The phase transition in indium oxide, which is connected with disorder of anion vacancies in the C-type lattice, was revealed. The formation of solid solutions in In2O3-HfO2 system occurs based on the disordered C1-type phase of indium oxide. It was established that the limited solid solutions of the subtraction-substitution and subtraction-substitution-interstitial types are formed during the sample sintering at 1450 °C and 1600 °C in the air medium. The type of solid solution in In2O3-HfO2 system depends on the sizes of indium and hafnium cations. The solid-solution formation energies in the system were determined. It was found that the conductivity, concentration and charge carrier mobility depend on the solid solution type and not on the cation valence of dissolved impurity

  14. Effect of mixing, concentration and temperature on the formation of mesostructured solutions and their role in the nucleation of DL-valine crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawor-Baczynska, Anna; Moore, Barry D; Sefcik, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We report investigations on the formation of mesostructured solutions in DL-valine-water-2-propanol mixtures, and the crystallization of DL-valine from these solutions. Mesostructured liquid phases, similar to those previously observed in aqueous solutions of glycine and DL-alanine, were observed using Dynamic Light Scattering and Brownian microscopy, in both undersaturated and supersaturated solutions below a certain transition temperature. Careful experimentation was used to demonstrate that the optically clear mesostructured liquid phase, comprising colloidal mesoscale clusters dispersed within bulk solution, is thermodynamically stable and present in equilibrium with the solid phase at saturation conditions. Solutions prepared by slow cooling contained mesoscale clusters with a narrow size distribution and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of around 200 nm. Solutions of identical composition prepared by rapid isothermal mixing of valine aqueous solutions with 2-propanol contained mesoscale clusters which were significantly larger than those observed in slowly cooled solutions. The presence of larger mesoscale clusters was found to correspond to faster nucleation. Observed induction times were strongly dependent on the rapid initial mixing step, although solutions were left undisturbed afterwards and the induction times observed were up to two orders of magnitude longer than the initial mixing period. We propose that mesoscale clusters above a certain critical size are likely to be the location of productive nucleation events.

  15. Repassivation behavior of 316L stainless steel in borate buffer solution: Kinetics analysis of anodic dissolution and film formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haisong; Sun, Dongbai; Yu, Hongying

    2015-12-01

    The repassivation behavior of metals or alloys after oxide film damage determines the development of local corrosion and corrosion resistance. In this work, the repassivation kinetics of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) are investigated in borate buffer solution (pH 9.1) by using the abrading electrode technique. The current densities flowing from bare 316L SS surface are measured by potentiostatic method and analyzed to characterize repassivation kinetics. The initial stages of current decay (t Avrami kinetics. Then the two independent components are analyzed individually. The film formation rate and the thickness of film are compared in different applied potential. It is shown that anodic dissolution dominates the repassivation for a short time during the early times, and a higher applied potential will promote the anodic dissolution of metal. The film growth rate increases slightly with increasing in potential. Correspondingly, increase in applied potential from 0 VSCE to 0.8 VSCE results in thicker monolayer, which covers the whole bare surface at the time of θ = 1. The electric field strengths through the thin passive film could reach 3.97 × 106 V cm-1.

  16. Catalytic condensation of formaldehyde in aqueous solution initiated by UV irradiation as putative "prebiological" route of the monosaccharides formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestunova, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Snytnikov, V. N.; Parmon, V. N.; Snytnikova, O. A.; Tsentalovich, Yu. P.

    The condensation of formaldehyde into higher monosaccharides in aqueous alkaline solutions catalyzed by several metal ions in particular Ca 2 and Mg 2 named as formose reaction is considered as a probable source of carbohydrates in prebiotic conditions Formaldehyde is detected in significant amounts in molecular clouds in space Undoubtedly it was an important gas component of circumsolar protoplanet disk Naturally formaldehyde could be dissolved in water of the Protoearth Calcium and magnesium that are capable of creating an alkaline medium are the abundant elements Thus the basic conditions for the formose reaction and for formation of monosaccharides in nature could be met However the formose reaction is autocatalytic since it can be initiated only in the presence of carbohydrates In spite of the fact that Russian chemist Butlerov discovered the formose reaction almost 150 years ago the reason of autocatalytic character of the process and the mechanism of initiation till now remained not quite clear In our work regular investigation of the mechanism of the formose reaction was carried out Influence of various initiators on reaction kinetics and composition of products was studied The composition of the formose reaction products in presence of different initiators is practically invariable under steady-state conditions and is caused by an aldol condensation of the lowest N 2 - and C 3 -carbohydrates The ability of the C 4 -C 6 sugars to initiate the formose reaction is revealed to correlate with the

  17. A comparison of the product formation induced by ultrasonic waves and γ-rays in aqueous D-glucose solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation products obtained in aerated, aqueous α-D-glucose solutions after irradiation with ultrasonic waves and γ-rays were compared. Separation and identification were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and three methods for the derivatization of the products were used: 1) Trimethylsilylation pf the OH groups; 2) methoximation of the carbonyl groups followed by trimethylsilylation of the OH groups; 3) reduction of the carbonyl and carboxyl groups to alcohols by sodium borodeuteride, followed by trimetylsilylation of the OH groups. When using ultrasound and γ-irradiation identical products were observed: D-glucono-1,4-lactone, D-glucono-1,5-lactone, D-arabino-hexos-2-ulose, D-ribo-hexos-3-ulose, D-xylo-hexos-4-ulose, D-xylo-hexos-5-ulose, D-glucohexodialdose and arabino-1,4-lactone. From the results it was concluded that in ultrasound and γ-irradiation the same primary species and consecutive reactions are involved in product formation. (orig.)

  18. Effects of modulated electron beams and cavities on reditrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, T. J. T.; Davis, H. A.; Fulton, R. D.; Sherwood, E. G.

    The virtual cathode, when formed in a cavity, can generate microwaves at different cavity modes depending on the geometry of the cavity. We found that the formation and the oscillation frequency of the virtual cathode in a reditron can be significantly influenced by cavity designs. The length of a cavity can play a role in frequency and mode selection. Our simulations showed that TM sub 012 and TM sub 033 were excited for cavity lengths of 15.0 cm and 22.5 cm, respectively. In addition to the cavity effects on reditrons, we discovered that highly modulated electron beams can be produced in reditrons. Full modulation (100 percent) of the transmitted electron beam current has been confirmed in our simulations. We further showed that incorporation of an inverse diode configuration can achieve microwave production efficiency of 26 percent.

  19. Effects of modulated electron beams and cavities on reditrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Davis, H.A.; Fulton, R.D.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The virtual cathode, when formed in a cavity, can generate microwaves at different cavity modes depending on the geometry of the cavity. We found that the formation and the oscillation frequency of the virtual cathode in a reditron can be significantly influenced by cavity designs. The length of a cavity can play a role in frequency and mode selection. Our simulations showed that TM/sub 012/ and TM/sub 033/ were excited for cavity lengths of 15.0 cm and 22.5 cm, respectively. In addition to the cavity effects on reditrons, we discovered that highly modulated electron beams can be produced in reditrons. Full modulation (100/percent/) of the transmitted electron beam current has been confirmed in our simulations. We further showed that incorporation of an inverse diode configuration can achieve microwave production efficiency of 26/percent/. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Cavity spin optodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brahms, N

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of a large quantum spin coupled parametrically to an optical resonator is treated in analogy with the motion of a cantilever in cavity optomechanics. New spin optodynamic phenonmena are predicted, such as cavity-spin bistability, optodynamic spin-precession frequency shifts, coherent amplification and damping of spin, and the spin optodynamic squeezing of light.

  1. Superconducting cavities for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Above: a 350 MHz superconducting accelerating cavity in niobium of the type envisaged for accelerating electrons and positrons in later phases of LEP. Below: a small 1 GHz cavity used for investigating the surface problems of superconducting niobium. Albert Insomby stays on the right. See Annual Report 1983 p. 51.

  2. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    One of the SPS acceleration cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). On the ceiling one sees the coaxial transmission line which feeds the power from the amplifier, located in a surface building above, to the upstream end of the cavity. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138, 8302397.

  3. Superconducting RF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    It was 20 years ago when the research and development programme for LEP superconducting cavities was initiated. It lasted about 10 years. Today, my aim is not to tell you in great detail about the many innovations made thanks to our research, but I would like to point out some milestones in the development of superconducting cavities where Emilio's influence was particularly important.

  4. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    One of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). The power that is fed into the upstream end of the cavity is extracted at the downstream end and sent into a dump load. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8011289, 8302397.

  5. Ferrite loaded rf cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of a ferrite-loaded rf cavity is explained from the point of view of its operation. Then, an analysis of the automatic cavity-tuning system is presented using the transfer function; and a systematic analysis of a beam-feedback system using transfer functions is also presented. (author)

  6. Passivated niobium cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  7. Interconnection of salt-induced hydrophobic compaction and secondary structure formation depends on solution conditions: revisiting early events of protein folding at single molecule resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Shubhasis; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2012-03-30

    What happens in the early stage of protein folding remains an interesting unsolved problem. Rapid kinetics measurements with cytochrome c using submillisecond continuous flow mixing devices suggest simultaneous formation of a compact collapsed state and secondary structure. These data seem to indicate that collapse formation is guided by specific short and long range interactions (heteropolymer collapse). A contrasting interpretation also has been proposed, which suggests that the collapse formation is rapid, nonspecific, and a trivial solvent related compaction, which could as well be observed by a homopolymer (homopolymer collapse). We address this controversy using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which enables us to monitor the salt-induced compaction accompanying collapse formation and the associated time constant directly at single molecule resolution. In addition, we follow the formation of secondary structure using far UV CD. The data presented here suggest that both these models (homopolymer and heteropolymer) could be applicable depending on the solution conditions. For example, the formation of secondary structure and compact state is not simultaneous in aqueous buffer. In aqueous buffer, formation of the compact state occurs through a two-state co-operative transition following heteropolymer formalism, whereas secondary structure formation takes place gradually. In contrast, in the presence of urea, a compaction of the protein radius occurs gradually over an extended range of salt concentration following homopolymer formalism. The salt-induced compaction and the formation of secondary structure take place simultaneously in the presence of urea.

  8. 99TcO4(-): selective recognition and trapping in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Roger; Bergamaschi, Greta; Braband, Henrik; Fox, Thomas; Amendola, Valeria

    2012-09-24

    Too hot to handle: Unprecedented affinity and specificity for (99)TcO(4)(-) in aqueous solution was shown with the p-xylyl azacryptand in the hexaprotonated form. A crystal structure of the complex reveals how the anion fits within the cavity of the cage, and the formation of multiple H-bond interactions with protonated amino groups stabilize the adduct.

  9. Quantum yield of triplet formation of riboflavin in aqueous solution and of flavin mononucleotide bound to the LOV1 domain of Phot1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum yields of triplet formation, phiT, of riboflavin, and of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) bound to wild-type LOV1 domain (LOV1-WT) or bound to a mutated LOV1 domain (LOV1-C57S, cysteine 57 replaced by serine) of the photo-receptor Phot1 from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are determined by picosecond laser double-pulse excitation and time-resolved fluorescence detection. The determined quantum yields of triplet formation are phiT=0.375±0.05 for riboflavinin in aqueous solution at pH=7, phiT=0.225±0.04 for FMN in LOV1-C57S in aqueous solution at pH=8, and phiT=0.255±0.04 for FMN in LOV1-WT in aqueous solution at pH = 8

  10. Formation of Amino Acids on the Sonolysis of Aqueous Solutions Containing Acetic Acid, Methane, or Carbon Dioxide, in the Presence of Nitrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarathne, Leena; Grieser, Franz

    2016-01-21

    The sonolysis of aqueous solutions containing acetic acid, methane, or carbon dioxide in the presence of nitrogen gas was found to produce a number of different amino acids at a rate of ∼1 to 100 nM/min, using ultrasound at an operating power of 70 W and 355 kHz. Gas-phase elementary reactions are suggested, and discussed, to account for the formation of the complex biomolecules from the low molar mass solutes used. On the basis of the results, a new hypothesis is presented to explain the formation of amino acids under primitive atmospheric conditions and how their formation may be linked to the eventual abiotic genesis of life on Earth.

  11. Formation of Amino Acids on the Sonolysis of Aqueous Solutions Containing Acetic Acid, Methane, or Carbon Dioxide, in the Presence of Nitrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarathne, Leena; Grieser, Franz

    2016-01-21

    The sonolysis of aqueous solutions containing acetic acid, methane, or carbon dioxide in the presence of nitrogen gas was found to produce a number of different amino acids at a rate of ∼1 to 100 nM/min, using ultrasound at an operating power of 70 W and 355 kHz. Gas-phase elementary reactions are suggested, and discussed, to account for the formation of the complex biomolecules from the low molar mass solutes used. On the basis of the results, a new hypothesis is presented to explain the formation of amino acids under primitive atmospheric conditions and how their formation may be linked to the eventual abiotic genesis of life on Earth. PMID:26695890

  12. Two interacting atoms in a cavity: Entanglement vs decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, J M; Seligman, T H

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of two interacting atoms of different species inside a cavity and find the explicit solutions of the corresponding eigenvalue problem. Closed expressions for concurrence and purity as a function of time when the cavity is prepared in a number state are found. The behavior in the concurrence-purity plane is discussed.

  13. Ion-pair formation in aqueous strontium chloride and strontium hydroxide solutions under hydrothermal conditions by AC conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcis, H; Zimmerman, G H; Tremaine, P R

    2014-09-01

    Frequency-dependent electrical conductivities of solutions of aqueous strontium hydroxide and strontium chloride have been measured from T = 295 K to T = 625 K at p = 20 MPa, over a very wide range of ionic strength (3 × 10(-5) to 0.2 mol kg(-1)), using a high-precision flow AC conductivity instrument. Experimental values for the concentration-dependent equivalent conductivity, Λ, of the two electrolytes were fitted with the Turq-Blum-Bernard-Kunz ("TBBK") ionic conductivity model, to determine ionic association constants, K(A,m). The TBBK fits yielded statistically significant formation constants for the species SrOH(+) and SrCl(+) at all temperatures, and for Sr(OH)2(0) and SrCl2(0) at temperatures above 446 K. The first and second stepwise association constants for the ion pairs followed the order K(A1)(SrOH(+)) > K(A1)(SrCl(+)) > K(A2)[Sr(OH)2(0)] > K(A2)[SrCl2(0)], consistent with long-range solvent polarization effects associated with the lower static dielectric constant and high compressibility of water at elevated temperatures. The stepwise association constants to form SrCl(+) agree with previously reported values for CaCl(+) to within the combined experimental error at high temperatures and, at temperatures below ∼375 K, the values of log10 KA1 for strontium are lower than those for calcium by up to ∼0.3-0.4 units. The association constants for the species SrOH(+) and Sr(OH)2(0) are the first accurate values to be reported for hydroxide ion pairs with any divalent cation under these conditions.

  14. Formation of Semimetallic Cobalt Telluride Nanotube Film via Anion Exchange Tellurization Strategy in Aqueous Solution for Electrocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Supriya A; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Chang, Jinho; Lee, Joong Kee; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2015-11-25

    Metal telluride nanostructures have demonstrated several potential applications particularly in harvesting and storing green energy. Metal tellurides are synthesized by tellurization process performed basically at high temperature in reducing gas atmosphere, which makes the process expensive and complicated. The development of a facile and economical process for desirable metal telluride nanostructures without complicated manipulation is still a challenge. In an effort to develop an alternative strategy of tellurization, herein we report a thin film formation of self-standing cobalt telluride nanotubes on various conducting and nonconducting substrates using a simple binder-free synthetic strategy based on anion exchange transformation from a thin film of cobalt hydroxycarbonate nanostructures in aqueous solution at room temperature. The nanostructured films before and after ion exchange transformation reaction are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thin film X-ray diffraction technique, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction analysis technique. After the ion exchange transformation of nanostructures, the film shows conversion from insulator to highly electrical conductive semimetallic characteristic. When used as a counter electrode in I3(-)/I(-) redox electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells, the telluride film exhibits an electrocatalytic reduction activity for I3(-) with a demonstration of solar-light to electrical power conversion efficiency of 8.10%, which is highly competitive to the efficiency of 8.20% exhibited by a benchmarked Pt-film counter electrode. On the other hand, the telluride film electrode also demonstrates electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction from oxidation of water.

  15. SPS RF Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The picture shows one of the two initially installed cavities. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also gradually increased: by end 1980 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412017X, 7411048X, 7505074.

  16. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  17. Bifurcation structure of an optical ring cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubstrup, C.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional continuation techniques are applied to determine the basic bifurcation structure for an optical ring cavity with a nonlinear absorbing element (the Ikeda Map). By virtue of the periodic structure of the map, families of similar solutions develop in parameter space. Within...

  18. Lagrangian theory of structure formation in relativistic cosmology III: gravitoelectric perturbation and solution schemes at any order

    CERN Document Server

    Alles, Alexandre; Roumi, Fosca Al; Wiegand, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The relativistic generalization of the Newtonian Lagrangian perturbation theory is investigated. In previous works, the first-order trace solutions that are generated by the spatially projected gravitoelectric part of the Weyl tensor were given together with extensions and applications for accessing the nonperturbative regime. We here furnish construction rules to obtain from Newtonian solutions the gravitoelectric class of relativistic solutions, for which we give the complete perturbation and solution schemes at any order of the perturbations. By construction, these schemes generalize the complete hierarchy of solutions of the Newtonian Lagrangian perturbation theory.

  19. Tracing the origin of water and solute transfers in deep groundwater from Oxfordian, Dogger and Trias formations in the east of the Paris Basin - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the feasibility for long lived radioactive wastes storage facilities in deep geological formation, solute transport processes must be investigated in the vicinity of the host formation. In France, the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone layers surrounding the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite in the east of the Paris Basin are investigated for this purpose. More than 60 samples of Oxfordian and Dogger formation groundwater and one sample of Triassic formation groundwater, located at the bottom section of the investigated sedimentary cover, were collected over a 250 km2 area, and were analysed for major ions, δ18O and δ2H of water, 87Sr/86Sr/, and δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate. Oxfordian and Dogger formation water is from meteoric origin, and no direct water flow between Oxfordian, Dogger, nor Triassic formations was evidenced. Mineralization processes of the Dogger limestone groundwater were fully investigated. These processes correspond to a series of geochemical reactions including: calcite dissolution, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, ion addition from upward vertical diffusion through the sedimentary pile inducing cation exchange and further dissolution due to the increased ionic strength of the solutions. A PHREEQC model was developed to simulate inferred chemical processes. The model output is consistent with observed data. (authors)

  20. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  1. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  2. Nylon Sleeve for Cavity Amplifier Holds Tuning Despite Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Lloyd

    1964-01-01

    The problem: Detuning of cavity amplifiers with change in temperature. This results in deterioration of the performance of the amplifier at its design frequency. In cavity amplifiers and filters it is desirable that constant performance be maintained regardless of thermal changes. These changes often cause an "off resonance shift" in a cavity filter and a deterioration of performance in a cavity amplifier. The solution: Mount the tuning probe in a nylon sleeve. Thermal expansion and contraction of the nylon nullifies unwanted capacitive and inductive changes in the resonant elements.

  3. Stability for the Electromagnetic Scattering from Large Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Yun, KiHyun

    2016-06-01

    Consider the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a large rectangular cavity embedded in the infinite ground plane. There are two fundamental polarizations for the scattering problem in two dimensions: TM (transverse magnetic) and TE (transverse electric). In this paper, new stability results for the cavity problems are established for large rectangular shape cavities in both polarizations. For the TM cavity problem, an asymptotic property of the solution and a stability estimate with an improved dependence on the high wavenumber are derived. In the TE case, the first stability result is established with an explicit dependence on the wave number.

  4. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8202397: View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  5. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  6. Moving Detectors in Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Obadia, N

    2007-01-01

    We consider two-level detectors, coupled to a quantum scalar field, moving inside cavities. We highlight some pathological resonant effects due to abrupt boundaries, and decide to describe the cavity by switching smoothly the interaction by a time-dependent gate-like function. Considering uniformly accelerated trajectories, we show that some specific choices of non-adiabatic switching have led to hazardous interpretations about the enhancement of the Unruh effect in cavities. More specifically, we show that the emission/absorption ratio takes arbitrary high values according to the emitted quanta properties and to the transients undergone at the entrance and the exit of the cavity, {\\it independently of the acceleration}. An explicit example is provided where we show that inertial and uniformly accelerated world-lines can even lead to the same ``pseudo-temperature''.

  7. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  8. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  9. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  10. The formation of supercooled brines, viscous liquids, and low-temperature perchlorate glasses in aqueous solutions relevant to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2014-05-01

    Salt solutions on Mars can stabilize liquid water at low temperatures by lowering the freezing point of water. The maximum equilibrium freezing-point depression possible, known as the eutectic temperature, suggests a lower temperature limit for liquid water on Mars; however, salt solutions can supercool below their eutectic before crystallization occurs. To investigate the magnitude of supercooling and its variation with salt composition and concentration, we performed slow cooling and warming experiments on pure salt solutions and saturated soil-solutions of MgSO4, MgCl2, NaCl, NaClO4, Mg(ClO4)2, and Ca(ClO4)2. By monitoring solution temperatures, we identified exothermic crystallization events and determined the composition of precipitated phases from the eutectic melting temperature. Our results indicate that supercooling is pervasive. In general, supercooling is greater in more concentrated solutions and with salts of Ca and Mg. Slowly cooled MgSO4, MgCl2, NaCl, and NaClO4 solutions investigated in this study typically supercool 5-15 °C below their eutectic temperature before crystallizing. The addition of soil to these salt solutions has a variable effect on supercooling. Relative to the pure salt solutions, supercooling decreases in MgSO4 soil-solutions, increases in MgCl2 soil-solutions, and is similar in NaCl and NaClO4 soil-solutions. Supercooling in MgSO4, MgCl2, NaCl, and NaClO4 solutions could marginally extend the duration of liquid water during relatively warm daytime temperatures in the martian summer. In contrast, we find that Mg(ClO4)2 and Ca(ClO4)2 solutions do not crystallize during slow cooling, but remain in a supercooled, liquid state until forming an amorphous glass near -120 °C. Even if soil is added to the solutions, a glass still forms during cooling. The large supercooling effect in Mg(ClO4)2 and Ca(ClO4)2 solutions has the potential to prevent water from freezing over diurnal and possibly annual cycles on Mars. Glasses are also

  11. Hydroforming of Elliptical Cavities

    OpenAIRE

    W. Singer; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-01-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area ...

  12. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  13. Stability analysis for bad cavity lasers with inhomogeneously broadened gain

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, Georgy A

    2016-01-01

    Bad cavity lasers are experiencing renewed interest in the context of active optical frequency standards, due to their enhanced robustness against fluctuations of the laser cavity. The gain medium would consist of narrow-linewidth atoms, either trapped inside the cavity or intersecting the cavity mode dynamically. A finite velocity distribution, atomic interactions, or interactions of realistic multilevel atoms with external field leads to an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic gain profile. This can bring the bad cavity laser to operate in unstable regimes characterized by complex temporal patterns of the field amplitude. We present a new and efficient method for the stability analysis of bad cavity lasers with inhomogeneously broadened gain. We apply this method to identify the steady-state solutions for the metrology-relevant case of spin-1/2 atoms interacting with an external magnetic field.

  14. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of Pb2Fe2O5(s) and PbFe5O8.5(s) by acid solution calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Acid solution calorimetry studies to determine the enthalpy of formation of ternary compounds in (Pb + Fe + O) system. ► Standard molar enthalpy of formation of lead ferrites at 298 K. ► The standard enthalpy of formation of Pb2Fe2O5(s) is −(1324.2 ± 11.1) kJ mol−1. ► The standard enthalpy of formation of PbFe5O8.5(s) is −(2347.8 ± 10.7) kJ mol−1. - Abstract: The standard molar enthalpies of formation, ΔfHm0 (298.15 K) of Pb2Fe2O5(s) and PbFe5O8.5(s) have been determined using acid solution calorimetry. The enthalpies of solution of the compounds Pb2Fe2O5(s) and PbFe5O8.5(s), as well as those of mixtures of Fe2O3(s) and Pb3O4(s) in HCl (aq, 6 mol·dm−3) at 298.15 K were measured. Using these values, the standard enthalpies of formation (ΔfHm0) of Pb2Fe2O5(s) and PbFe5O8.5(s) were determined as −(1324.2 ± 11.1) kJ·mol−1 and −(2347.8 ± 10.7) kJ·mol−1, respectively.

  15. Fac-mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida2-) in ternary CuII(ida)(H-1B)- complex formation (B = imidazole, benzimidazole) in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susmita Bandyopadhyay; G N Mukherjee

    2003-08-01

    pH potentiometric and spectrophotometric investigations on the complex formation equilibria of CuII with iminodiacetate (ida2-) and heterocyclic N-bases, viz. imidazole and benzimidazole (B), in aqueous solution in binary and ternary systems using different molar ratios of the reactants indicated the formation of complexes of the types, Cu(ida), Cu(ida)(OH)-, (ida)Cu(OH)Cu(ida)-, Cu(B)2+, Cu(H-1B)+, Cu(ida)(H-1B)-, (ida)Cu(B)Cu(ida) and (ida)Cu(H-1B)Cu(ida)-. Formation constants of the complexes at 25 ± 1° at a fixed ionic strength, = 0.1 mol dm-3 (NaNO3) in aqueous solution were evaluated and the complex formation equilibria were elucidated with the aid of speciation curves. Departure of the experimental values of the reproportionation constants (log Cu) of ternary Cu(ida)(H-1B)- complexes from the statistically expected values, despite their formation in appreciable amounts at equilibrium, were assigned to fac(f)-mer(m) equilibria of the ida2- ligand coordinated to CuII, as the N-heterocyclic donors, (H-1B)-, coordinate trans- to the N-(ida2-) atom in the binary Cu(ida) complex to form the ternary Cu(ida) (H-1B)- complexes.

  16. The ``Q disease'' in Superconducting Niobium RF Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, J.

    2003-07-01

    Superconducting niobium cavities can achieve quality (Q0) factors of 1010-1011, more than six orders of magnitude higher than conventional copper cavities. However, to maintain this performance at high accelerating gradient (20 MV/m) the radio-frequency (rf) surface must be damage and dust free. Cavity preparation techniques therefore routinely include a chemical etch or electropolishing. Under certain conditions, these (and other) treatments can contaminate the niobium with hydrogen. Hydrides may then form when the cavity is cooled through 150 K, even if only a few atomic percent hydrogen are present. If hydrides are formed, the cavity quality can degrade substantially (Q disease). A rapid cooldown often inhibits the hydride formation. Other "cures" include degassing cavities at 900 °C to eliminate the hydrogen. A historical review of the Q disease is provided here, with the emphasis being placed on its discovery, symptoms, mechanism, and cures.

  17. Cavity parameters identification for TESLA control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system modeling for the TESLA - TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project has been developed for the efficient stabilization of the pulsed, accelerating EM field of the resonator. The cavity parameters identification is an essential task for the comprehensive control algorithm. The TESLA cavity simulator has been successfully implemented by applying very high speed FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array technology. The electromechanical model of the cavity resonator includes the basic features - Lorentz force detuning and beam loading. The parameters identification bases on the electrical model of the cavity. The model is represented by the state space equation for the envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. For a given model structure, the over-determined matrix equation is created covering the long enough measurement range with the solution according to the least squares method. A low degree polynomial approximation is applied to estimate the time-varying cavity detuning during the pulse. The measurement channel distortion is considered, leading to the external cavity model seen by the controller. The comprehensive algorithm of the cavity parameters identification has been implemented in the Matlab system with different modes of the operation. Some experimental results have been presented for different cavity operational conditions. The following considerations have lead to the synthesis of the efficient algorithm for the cavity control system predicted for the potential FPGA technology implementation. (orig.)

  18. Coherent acoustic excitation of cavity polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; de Lima, M. M.; Hey, R.;

    and highly nonlinear optical response.Our sample consists of epitaxially grown GaAs/AlGaAs QWs located at the anti-node ofa high Q lambda cavity, which is resonant with the QW excitonic transition3. The SAWfield, which is excited by an interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric GaAs samplesurface......, modulates the refractive index and displaces the material causing a harmonicmodulation of the PBG structure1. This periodic modulation of the cavity-exciton systemleads to in-plane mini-Brillouin zone (MBZ) formation. The very high vacuum-Rabisplitting of our sample enables us to clearly resolve...

  19. Modulation of cavity-polaritons by surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Hey, R.;

    2006-01-01

    We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations.......We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations....

  20. Dusty plasma cavities: probe-induced and natural

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, B J; Hyde, T W

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive exploration of regional dust evacuation in complex plasma crystals is presented. Voids created in 3D crystals on the International Space Station have provided a rich foundation for experiments, but cavities in dust crystals formed in ground-based experiments have not received as much attention. Inside a modified GEC RF cell, a powered vertical probe was used to clear the central area of a dust crystal, producing a cavity with high cylindrical symmetry. Cavities generated by three mechanisms are examined. First, repulsion of micrometer-sized particles by a negatively charged probe is investigated. A model of this effect developed for a DC plasma is modified and applied to explain new experimental data in RF plasma. Second, the formation of natural cavities is surveyed; a radial ion drag proposed to occur due to a curved sheath is considered in conjunction with thermophoresis and a flattened confinement potential above the center of the electrode. Finally, cavity formation unexpectedly occurs up...

  1. Impact of forming, welding, and electropolishing on pitting and the surface finish of SRF cavity niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, L.D.; Burk, D.; Cooper, C.; Dhanaraj, N.; Foley, M.; Ford, D.; Gould, K.; Hicks, D.; Novitski, R.; Romanenko, A.; Schuessler, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    A broad range of coupon electropolishing experiments are described to ascertain the mechanism(s) by which large defects are formed near superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity welds. Cold-worked vs. annealed metal, the presence of a weld, and several variations of electropolishing (EP) parameters were considered. Pitting is strongly promoted by cold work and agitation of the EP solution. Welding also promotes pitting, but less so compared with the other factors above. Temperature increase during EP did not strongly affect glossiness or pitting, but the reduced viscosity made the electrolyte more susceptible to agitation. The experiments suggest that several factors that are rather benign alone are combined by the cavity forming, welding, and processing sequence to promote the formation of defects such as pits. Process changes to mitigate these risks are discussed.

  2. Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: Early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, M.G.; Taddei, P.; Siboni, F.; Modena, E.; Ginebra Molins, Maria Pau; Prati, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Gandolfi MG, Taddei P, Siboni F, Modena E, Ginebra MP, Prati C. Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution. International Endodontic Journal, 44, 938–949, 2011. Aim To test the chemical–physical properties and apatite-forming ability of experimental fluoride-doped calcium silicate cements designed to create novel bioactive materials for use in endodontics ...

  3. Cadmium(II) Complex Formation with Selenourea and Thiourea in Solution: An XAS and 113Cd NMR Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jalilehvand, Farideh; Amini, Zahra; Parmar, Karnjit

    2012-01-01

    The complexes formed in methanol solutions of Cd(CF3SO3)2 with selenourea (SeU) or thiourea (TU), for thiourea also in aqueous solution, were studied by combining 113Cd NMR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. At low temperature (~200 K) distinct 113Cd NMR signals were observed, corresponding to CdLn2+ species (n = 0 - 4, L = TU or SeU) in slow ligand exchange. Peak integrals were used to obtain the speciation in the methanol solutions, allowing stability constants to be estimated. For cadmium(...

  4. Solution set on the natural satellite formation orbits under first-order earth's non-spherical perturbation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Humei Wang; Wei Yang; Junfeng Li

    2005-01-01

    Using the reference orbital element approach, the precise governing equations for the relative motion of formation flight are formulated. A number of ideal formations with respect to an elliptic orbit can be designed based on the relative motion analysis from the equations. The features of the oscillating reference orbital elements are studied by using the perturbation theory. The changes in the relative orbit under perturbation are divided into three categories, termed scale enlargement, drift and distortion respectively. By properly choosing the initial mean orbital elements for the leader and follower satellites, the deviations from originally regular formation orbit caused by the perturbation can be suppressed. Thereby the natural formation is set up. It behaves either like non-disturbed or need little control to maintain.The presented reference orbital element approach highlights the kinematics properties of the relative motion and is convenient to incorporate the results of perturbation analysis on orbital elements. This method of formation design has advantages over other methods in seeking natural formation and in initializing formation.

  5. Different optical properties in different periodic slot cavity geometrical morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Shen, Meng; Du, Lan; Deng, Caisong; Ni, Haibin; Wang, Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, optical properties of two-dimensional periodic annular slot cavity arrays in hexagonal close-packing on a silica substrate are theoretically characterized by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation method. By simulating reflectance spectra, electric field distribution, and charge distribution, we confirm that multiple cylindrical surface plasmon resonances can be excited in annular inclined slot cavities by linearly polarized light, in which the four reflectance dips are attributed to Fabry-Perot cavity resonances in the coaxial cavity. A coaxial waveguide mode TE11 will exist in these annular cavities, and the wavelengths of these reflectance dips are effectively tailored by changing the geometrical pattern of slot cavity and the dielectric materials filled in the cavities. These resonant wavelengths are localized in annular cavities with large electric field enhancement and dissipate gradually due to metal loss. The formation of an absorption peak can be explained from the aspect of phase matching conditions. We observed that the proposed structure can be tuned over the broad spectral range of 600-4000 nm by changing the outer and inner radii of the annular gaps, gap surface topography. Meanwhile, different lengths of the cavity may cause the shift of resonance dips. Also, we study the field enhancement at different vertical locations of the slit. In addition, dielectric materials filling in the annular gaps will result in a shift of the resonance wavelengths, which make the annular cavities good candidates for refractive index sensors. The refractive index sensitivity of annular cavities can also be tuned by the geometry size and the media around the cavity. Annular cavities with novel applications can be implied as surface enhanced Raman spectra substrates, refractive index sensors, nano-lasers, and optical trappers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61178044), the Natural Science Foundation

  6. Phase Shift Interferometer and Growth Set Up to Step Pattern Formation During Growth From Solutions. Influence of the Oscillatory solution Flow on Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alex A.; Booth, N. A.; Vekilov, P. G.; Murray, B. T.; McFadden, G. B.

    2000-01-01

    We have assembled an experimental setup based on Michelson interferometry with the growing crystal surface as one of the reflective surfaces. The crystallization part of the device allows optical monitoring of a face of a crystal growing at temperature stable within 0.05 C in a flow of solution of controlled direction and speed. The reference arm of the interferometer contains a liquid crystal element that allows controlled shifts of the phase of the interferograms. We employ an image-processing algorithm, which combines five images with a pi/2 phase difference between each pair of images. The images are transferred to a computer by a camera capable of capturing 60 frames per second. The device allows data collection on surface morphology and kinetics during the face layers growth over a relatively large area (approximately 4 sq. mm) in situ and in real time during growth. The estimated depth resolution of the phase shifting interferometry is approximately 50 Angstroms. The data will be analyzed in order to reveal and monitor step bunching during the growth process. The crystal chosen as a model for study in this work is KH2PO4 (KDP). This optically non-linear material is widely used in frequency doubling applications. There have been a number of studies of the kinetics of KDP crystallization that can serve as a benchmark for our investigations. However, so far, systematic quantitative characteristics of step interaction and bunching are missing. We intend to present our first quantitative results on the onset, initial stages and development of instabilities in moving step trains on vicinal crystal surfaces at varying supersaturation, flow rate, and flow direction. Behavior of a vicinal face growing from solution flowing normal to the steps and periodically changing its direction in time was considered theoretically. It was found that this oscillating flow reduces both stabilization and destabilization effects resulted from the unidirectional solution flow directed

  7. Solid solution or amorphous phase formation in TiZr-based ternary to quinternary multi-principal-element films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Braic

    2014-08-01

    The deposited films exhibited only solid solution (fcc, bcc or hcp or amorphous phases, no intermetallic components being detected. It was found that the hcp structure was stabilized by the presence of Hf or Y, bcc by Nb or Al and fcc by Cu. For the investigated films, the atomic size difference, mixing enthalpy, mixing entropy, Gibbs free energy of mixing and the electronegativity difference for solid solution and amorphous phases were calculated based on Miedema׳s approach of the regular solution model. It was shown that the atomic size difference and the ratio between the Gibbs free energies of mixing of the solid solution and amorphous phases were the most significant parameters controlling the film crystallinity.

  8. Formation of three-dimensional surface waves on deep-water using elliptic solutions of nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Sajjadi, Shahrdad G; Drullion, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    A review of three-dimensional waves on deep-water is presented. Three forms of three dimensionality, namely oblique, forced and spontaneous type, are identified. An alternative formulation for these three-dimensional waves is given through cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The periodic solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation are found using Weierstrass elliptic $\\wp$ functions. It is shown that the classification of solutions depends on the boundary conditions, wavenumber and frequency. For certain parameters, Weierstrass $\\wp$ functions are reduced to periodic, hyperbolic or Jacobi elliptic functions. It is demonstrated that some of these solutions do not have any physical significance. An analytical solution of cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with wind forcing is also obtained which results in how groups of waves are generated on the surface of deep water in the ocean. In this case the dependency on the energy-transfer parameter, from wind to waves, make either the groups of wav...

  9. A Numerical Method for Cavity Identification in Beams on an Elastic Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An analytical solution for the natural frequencies of a beam containing a cavity on an elastic foundation is presented. Based on the analytical solution, a numerical method for identifying cavities in the foundation is developed. The position and size of the cavities are identified by minimizing an objective function, which is formulated according to the difference between the computed and measured natural frequencies of the system. The conjugate gradient algorithm is adopted for minimizing the objective function. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the presented cavity determination method. The results show that the presented method can be used to identify the cavity position and size conveniently and efficiently.

  10. Formation of globules and aggregates of DNA chains in DNA/polyethylene glycol/monovalent salt aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakita, H.; Uneyama, T.; Kojima, M; Morishima, K.; Masubuchi, Y.; Watanabe, H.(Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany)

    2009-01-01

    It has been known that giant DNA shows structural transitions in aqueous solutions under the existence of counterions and other polymers. However, the mechanism of these transitions has not been fully understood. In this study, we directly observed structures of probed (dye-labeled), dilute DNA chains in unprobed DNA/polyethylene glycol (PEG)/monovalent salt (NaCl) aqueous solutions with fluorescent microscopy to examine this mechanism. Specifically, we varied the PEG molecular weight and sal...

  11. Oxygen vacancy formation in CeO2 and Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O2 solid solutions: electron localization, electrostatic potential and structural relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Hui-Ying; Gong, Xue-Qing; Guo, Yang-Long; Lu, Guan-Zhong; Hu, P

    2012-12-28

    Ceria (CeO(2)) and ceria-based composite materials, especially Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O(2) solid solutions, possess a wide range of applications in many important catalytic processes, such as three-way catalysts, owing to their excellent oxygen storage capacity (OSC) through the oxygen vacancy formation and refilling. Much of this activity has focused on the understanding of the electronic and structural properties of defective CeO(2) with and without doping, and comprehending the determining factor for oxygen vacancy formation and the rule to tune the formation energy by doping has constituted a central issue in material chemistry related to ceria. However, the calculation on electronic structures and the corresponding relaxation patterns in defective CeO(2-x) oxides remains at present a challenge in the DFT framework. A pragmatic approach based on density functional theory with the inclusion of on-site Coulomb correction, i.e. the so-called DFT + U technique, has been extensively applied in the majority of recent theoretical investigations. Firstly, we review briefly the latest electronic structure calculations of defective CeO(2)(111), focusing on the phenomenon of multiple configurations of the localized 4f electrons, as well as the discussions of its formation mechanism and the catalytic role in activating the O(2) molecule. Secondly, aiming at shedding light on the doping effect on tuning the oxygen vacancy formation in ceria-based solid solutions, we summarize the recent theoretical results of Ce(1-x)Zr(x)O(2) solid solutions in terms of the effect of dopant concentrations and crystal phases. A general model on O vacancy formation is also discussed; it consists of electrostatic and structural relaxation terms, and the vital role of the later is emphasized. Particularly, we discuss the crucial role of the localized structural relaxation patterns in determining the superb oxygen storage capacity in kappa-phase Ce(1-x)Zr(1-x)O(2). Thirdly, we briefly discuss some

  12. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  13. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  14. A spherical cavity model for quadrupolar dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Iglika M; Slavchov, Radomir I; Ivanov, Tzanko; Mosbach, Sebastian

    2016-03-21

    The dielectric properties of a fluid composed of molecules possessing both dipole and quadrupole moments are studied based on a model of the Onsager type (molecule in the centre of a spherical cavity). The dielectric permittivity ε and the macroscopic quadrupole polarizability αQ of the fluid are related to the basic molecular characteristics (molecular dipole, polarizability, quadrupole, quadrupolarizability). The effect of αQ is to increase the reaction field, to bring forth reaction field gradient, to decrease the cavity field, and to bring forth cavity field gradient. The effects from the quadrupole terms are significant in the case of small cavity size in a non-polar liquid. The quadrupoles in the medium are shown to have a small but measurable effect on the dielectric permittivity of several liquids (Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, N2, CO2, CS2, C6H6, H2O, CH3OH). The theory is used to calculate the macroscopic quadrupolarizabilities of these fluids as functions of pressure and temperature. The cavity radii are also determined for these liquids, and it is shown that they are functions of density only. This extension of Onsager's theory will be important for non-polar solutions (fuel, crude oil, liquid CO2), especially at increased pressures. PMID:27004882

  15. Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine mediated particle formation in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Murray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. These ultra-fine particles may then grow through the condensation of other materials to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of the initially nucleated particles. In laboratory simulations, hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5·H2O. In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH. On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass. Water retention in amorphous material at low RH is important for understanding the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and uptake of other condensable material. Subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only 6%, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the

  16. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1998-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Experimental Results for Direct Electron Irradiation of a Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-30

    In support of the development of accelerator-driven production of fission product Mo-99 as proposed by SHINE Medical Technologies, a 35 MeV electron linac was used to irradiate depleted-uranium (DU) uranyl sulfate dissolved in pH 1 sulfuric acid at average power densities of 6 kW, 12 kW, and 15 kW. During these irradiations, gas bubbles were generated in the solution due to the radiolytic decomposition of water molecules in the solution. Multiple video cameras were used to record the behavior of bubble generation and transport in the solution. Seven six-channel thermocouples were used to record temperature gradients in the solution from self-heating. Measurements of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in a helium sweep gas were recorded by a gas chromatograph to estimate production rates during irradiation. These data are being used to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the experiment that includes multiphase flow and a custom bubble injection model for the solution region.

  18. Experimental Investigation on the Pressure Characteristics of Cavity Closure Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadong Wang; Xulong Yuan; Yuwen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The most complicated component in cavitating flow and pressure distribution is the flow in the cavity closure line.The cavitating flow and pressure distribution provide critical aspects of flow field details in the region.The integral of pressure results of the hydrodynamic forces,indicate domination in the design of a supercavitating vehicle.An experiment was performed in a water tunnel to investigate the pressure characteristics of the cavity closure region.Ventilation methods were employed to generate artificial cavity,and the ventilation rate was adjusted accordingly to obtain the desired cavity length.An array of pressure transducers was laid down the cavity closure line to capture pressure distribution in this region.The experimental results show that there is a pressure peak in the cavity closure region,and the rise rate of pressure in space tends to be higher in the upwind side when the flow is non-axisymmetric.The transient pressure variations during the cavity formation procedure were also present.The method of measurement in this paper can be referenced by engineers.The result helps to study the flow pattern of cavity closure region,and it can also be used to analyze the formation of supercavitating vehicle hydrodynamics.

  19. A possible solution to the [alpha/Fe]-sigma problem in early type galaxies within a hierarchical galaxy formation model

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The most massive elliptical galaxies apparently formed the fastest, because the ratio of alpha elements (such as oxygen) to iron is the smallest. In fact, iron is mainly produced from type Ia supernovae on a timescale of ~ 0.1-1 billion years, while the alpha elements come from massive stars on timescales of a few tens of million years (Matteucci 1994). Reproducing such a alpha/Fe correlation has long been a severe problem for cosmological theories of galaxy formation, which envisage massive galaxies to assemble gradually from smaller progenitors, and to be characterized by a star formation history too much extended towards late cosmic times. While it has recently become clear that feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) activity play a role in the late quenching of star formation (e.g. Cattaneo et al. 2009), and that early star formation history in the galaxy progenitors affect the alpha/Fe ratio (Calura & Menci 2009), major mergers alone cannot enhance the star formation in the high-redshift progenit...

  20. Apatite formation on alkaline-treated dense TiO2 coatings deposited using the solution precursor plasma spray process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianying; Jordan, Eric H; Gell, Maurice; Wei, Mei

    2008-05-01

    A dense titania (TiO2) coating was deposited from an ethanol-based solution containing titanium isopropoxide using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process. XRD and Raman spectrum analyses confirmed that the coating is exclusively composed of rutile TiO2. SEM micrographs show the as-sprayed coating is dense with a uniform thickness and there are no coarse splat boundaries. The as-sprayed coating was chemically treated in 5M NaOH solution at 80 degrees C for 48 h. The bioactivity of as-sprayed and alkaline-treated coatings was investigated by immersing the coatings in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14-28 days, respectively. After 28 days immersion, there is a complete layer of carbonate-containing apatite formed on the alkaline-treated TiO2 coating surface, but none formed on the as-sprayed coating.

  1. Numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation: X-ray spectral formation from cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Farinelli, R; Romano, P; Titarchuk, L

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. To this aim, we have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system tau using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar...

  2. Leaky Modes of Dielectric Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud; Jakobsen, Per

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of external excitation, light trapped within a dielectric medium generally decays by leaking out (and also by getting absorbed within the medium). We analyze the leaky modes of a parallel-plate slab, a solid glass sphere, and a solid glass cylinder, by examining those solutions of Maxwell's equations (for dispersive as well as non-dispersive media) which admit of a complex-valued oscillation frequency. Under certain circumstances, these leaky modes constitute a complete set into which an arbitrary distribution of the electromagnetic field residing inside a dielectric body can be expanded. We provide completeness proofs, and also present results of numerical calculations that illustrate the relationship between the leaky modes and the resonances of dielectric cavities formed by a simple parallel-plate slab, a glass sphere, and a glass cylinder.

  3. Investigating and Modeling the Thermo-dynamic Impact of Electrolyte Solutions of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Prevention of the Formation of Methane Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manteghian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Devising methods to prevent hydrate formation is of the important issues in natural gas industry. Since a great deal of money is annually spent on using hydrate inhibitors, identification of new inhibitors with higher degrees of efficacy is economically justifiable. Bearing in mind the significant role of hydrate inhibitors in prevention of natural gas pipelines’ getting blocked, the present study attempts to investigate two compounds of NaCl and Na2SO4 as inhibitors of hydrate methane’s formation so as to respond to “what is the inhibitive thermo-dynamic impact of electrolyte compounds of NaCl and Na2SO4 on the formation of methane hydrate?” To do so, this study not only measures the equilibrium temperature and pressure of methane hydrate formation in the presence of electrolyte solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 and compares the results obtained with the state lacking such inhibitors, but it also assesses the regression and mathematical modeling are utilized within a basic virtual environment in order to propose a model for prediction of thermo-dynamic equilibrium temperature and pressure of methane hydrate formation.

  4. Estimation of Abraham solvation equation coefficients for hydrogen bond formation from Abraham solvation parameters for solute acidity and basicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Abraham solvation equations find widespread use in environmental chemistry and pharmaco-chemistry. The coefficients in these equations, which are solvent (system) descriptors, are usually determined by fitting experimental data. To simplify the determination of these coefficients in Abraham solvation equations, this study derives equations, based on Abraham solvation parameters for hydrogen acidity and basicity of the solvents involved, to estimate the value of the coefficients for hydrogen bond formation. These equations were applied to calculate Abraham solvation parameters for hydrogen acidity and basicity for polyoxymethylene, polyacrylate, sodium dodecylsulfate, some ionic liquids, alkanoyl phosphatidyl cholines, and lipids for which fitted values for Abraham coefficients for hydrogen bond formation were available. PMID:22892357

  5. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  6. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8302397: View from the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138. Giacomo Primadei stands on the left.

  7. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic

  8. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  9. Solubility and speciation of actinides in salt solutions and migration experiments of intermediate level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study into the solubility of the actinides americium and plutonium in concentrated salt solutions, the release of radionuclides from various forms of conditioned ILW and the migration behaviour of these nuclides through geological material specific to the Gorleben site in Lower Saxony is described. A detailed investigation into the characterization of four highly concentrated salt solutions in terms of their pH, Eh, inorganic carbon contents and their densities is given and a series of experiments investigating the solubility of standard americium(III) and plutonium(IV) hydroxides in these solutions is described. Transuranic mobility studies for solutions derived from the standard hydroxides through salt and sand have shown the presence of at least two types of species present of widely differing mobility; one migrating with approximately the same velocity as the solvent front and the other strongly retarded. Actinide mobility data are presented and discussed for leachates derived from the simulated ILW in cement and data are also presented for the migration of the fission products in leachates derived from real waste solidified in cement and bitumen. Relatively high plutonium mobilities were observed in the case of the former and in the case of the real waste leachates, cesium was found to be the least retarded. The sorption of ruthenium was found to be largely associated with the insoluble residues of the natural rock salt rather than the halite itself. (orig./RB)

  10. Solid solution or amorphous phase formation in TiZr-based ternary to quinternary multi-principal-element films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana Braic; Viorel Braic; Alina Vladescu; Catalin N. Zoita; Mihai Balaceanu

    2014-01-01

    TiZr-based multicomponent metallic films composed of 3-5 constituents with almost equal atomic concentrations were prepared by co-sputtering of pure metallic targets in an Ar atmosphere. X-ray diffraction was employed to determine phase composition, crystalline structure, lattice parameters, texture and crystallite size of the deposited films. The deposited films exhibited only solid solution (fcc, bcc or hcp) or amorphous phases, no intermetallic components being detected. It was found that the hcp structure was stabilized by the presence of Hf or Y, bcc by Nb or Al and fcc by Cu. For the investigated films, the atomic size difference, mixing enthalpy, mixing entropy, Gibbs free energy of mixing and the electronegativity difference for solid solution and amorphous phases were calculated based on Miedema's approach of the regular solution model. It was shown that the atomic size difference and the ratio between the Gibbs free energies of mixing of the solid solution and amorphous phases were the most significant parameters controlling the film crystallinity.

  11. Formation of a 25 mol% Fe2O3-Al2O3 solid solution prepared by ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen; Linderoth, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The phase transformation process of a 25 mol% Fe2O3-Al2O3 powder mixture during high-energy ball milling has been studied by x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. A metastable solid solution of 25 mol % Fe2O3 in Al2O3 with corundum structure has successfully been prepared after a milling ...

  12. Formation of colloidal dispersions from supersaturated iron(III) nitrate solutions. III. Development of goethite at room temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, P.L. de; Woude, J.H.A. van der; Pieters, J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of colloidal goethite from partially neutralized iron(III) nitrate solutions has been investigated by high resolution electronmicroscopy and ultracentrifuge analysis. Monocrystalline rod-like particles characterized by (001) faces and very flat (010) and (120) faces are observed to f

  13. Cadmium(II) Complex Formation with Selenourea and Thiourea in Solution: An XAS and 113Cd NMR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilehvand, Farideh; Amini, Zahra; Parmar, Karnjit

    2012-01-01

    The complexes formed in methanol solutions of Cd(CF3SO3)2 with selenourea (SeU) or thiourea (TU), for thiourea also in aqueous solution, were studied by combining 113Cd NMR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. At low temperature (~200 K) distinct 113Cd NMR signals were observed, corresponding to CdLn2+ species (n = 0 - 4, L = TU or SeU) in slow ligand exchange. Peak integrals were used to obtain the speciation in the methanol solutions, allowing stability constants to be estimated. For cadmium(II) complexes with thione (C=S) or selone (C=Se) groups coordinated in Cd(S/Se)O5 or Cd(S/Se)2O4 (O from MeOH or CF3SO3-) environments the 113Cd chemical shifts were quite similar, within 93-97 ppm and 189 – 193 ppm, respectively. However, the difference in the chemical shift for the Cd(SeU)42+ (578 pm) and Cd(TU)42+ (526 ppm) species, with CdSe4 and CdS4 coordination, respectively, shows less chemical shielding for the coordinated Se atoms than for S, in contrast to the common trend with increasing shielding in the order: O > N > Se >S. In solutions dominated by mono- and tetra-thiourea / selenourea complexes, their coordination and bond distances could be evaluated by Cd K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. At ~200 K and high excess of thiourea a minor amount (up to ~30%) of [Cd(TU)5-6]2+ species was detected by an upfield shift of the 113Cd NMR signal (up to 423 ppm) and an amplitude reduction of the EXAFS oscillation. The amount was estimated by fitting linear combinations of simulated EXAFS spectra for [Cd(TU)4]2+ and [Cd(TU)6]2+ complexes. At room temperature, [Cd(TU)4]2+ was the highest complex formed, also in aqueous solution. Cd L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of cadmium(II) thiourea solutions in methanol were used to follow changes in the CdSxOy coordination at room temperature. The correlations found from the current and previous studies between 113Cd NMR chemical shifts and different Cd(II) coordination

  14. Implosion of the small cavity and large cavity cannonball targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results of cannonball target implosion research are briefly reviewed with theoretical predictions for GEKKO XII experiments. The cannonball targets are classified into two types according to the cavity size ; small cavity and large cavity. The compression mechanisms of the two types are discussed. (author)

  15. Teleportation of Cavity Field States via Cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, E S

    2004-01-01

    In this article we discuss two schemes of teleportation of cavity field states. In the first scheme we consider cavities prepared in a coherent state and in the second scheme we consider cavities prepared in a superposition of zero and one Fock states.

  16. Enthalpies of formation of CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19 (hibonite) by high temperature, alkali borate solution calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C. A.; Kleppa, O. J.; Grossman, L.; Mysen, B. O.; Lattimer, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation were determined for two calcium aluminate phases, CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19, using high-temperature alkali borate solution calorimetry. The aluminates were synthesized by multiple-cycle heating and grinding stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and Al2O3, and the products were characteized by X-ray diffraction and SEM microbeam analysis. The data on impurities (CaAl4O7 was found to be about 89.00 percent pure by weight and the CaAl12O19 samples about 91.48 percent pure) were used to correct the heat of solution values of the synthetic products. The enthalpies of formation, at 1063 K, from oxides, were found to be equal to -(25.6 + or - 4.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl4O7 and -(33.0 + or - 9.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl12O19; the respective standard enthalpies of formation from elements, at 298 K, were estimated to be -4007 + or - 5.2 kJ/g.f.w. and -10,722 + or - 12 kJ/g.f.w.

  17. Seamless/bonded niobium cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.

    2006-07-01

    Technological aspects and performance of seamless cavities produced by hydroforming are presented. Problems related to the fabrication of seamless cavities from bulk niobium are mainly solved thanks to the progress of the last years. The highest achieved accelerating gradients are comparable for both seamless and welded versions (ca. 40 MV/m) Nevertheless further development of seamless cavities is desirable in order to avoid the careful preparation of parts for welding and get reliable statistic. Fabrication of NbCu clad cavities from bimetallic tubes is an interesting option that gives new opportunity to the seamless technique. On the one hand it allows reducing the niobium costs contribution; on the other hand it increases the thermal stability of the cavity. The highest accelerating gradient achieved on seamless NbCu clad single cell cavities (ca. 40 MV/m) is comparable to the one reached on bulk Nb cavities. Fabrication of multi-cell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was recently proven.

  18. The electromagnetic Casimir effect of spherical cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Casimir effect results from the zero-point energy of vacuum. A spherical cavity can be divided into three regions, and we make an analysis of every region and then give a formal solution of Casimir energy. The zeta-function regularization is also used to dispel the divergence of the summation. At the end, we can see the Casimir effect of a single sphere is included in our results.

  19. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having p...

  20. Spinning process variables and polymer solution effects in the die-swell phenomenon during hollow fiber membranes formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During hollow fiber spinning many variables are involved whose effects are still not completely clear. However, its understanding is of great interest because the control of these variables may originate membranes with the desired morphologies and physical properties. In this work, the phase inversion process induced by the immersion precipitation technique was applied to prepare hollow fibers membranes. It was verified that some of the variables involved, can promote a visco-elastic polymer solution expansion, called die-swell phenomenon, which is undesired since it may lead to low reproducibility of the permeation properties. The effects of the distance between spinneret and precipitation bath, the bore liquid composition, and the polymer solution composition were analyzed and discussed in order to avoid this phenomenon. According to the results, it was verified that the parameters investigated might promote a delay precipitation, which restrained the visco-elastic expansion.

  1. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    Summary The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72–100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates. PMID:26734089

  2. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John Blacker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72–100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates.

  3. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, A John; Jolley, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72-100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates.

  4. Formation of fractals by the self-assembly of interpolymer adducts of polymethacrylic acid with complementary polymers in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kandhasamy Durai Murugan; Arlin Jose Amali; Paramasivam Natarajan

    2012-03-01

    Interpolymer adducts of poly(methacrylic acid), (PMAA), with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) in presence of sodium chloride or potassium chloride form highly ordered fractal patterns in films on glass surface on drying at ambient temperature. The structure, morphology and the conditions under which the formation of fractal patterns occurs were investigated by SEM, EDX and confocal microscopic techniques. Self-organization of PMAA with complementary polymers such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) is well-known and in the presence of sodium chloride formation of the fractals in films of the adducts is a novel observation. Fractal formation occurs due to the aggregation of interpolymer adducts. The composition of the fractals in the film is studied by EDX and confocal microscopic images of the fluorophores covalently bound to PMAA. In presence of salts, sodium chloride or potassium chloride, micellar like entities of 80 nm size were formed which further aggregate to form fractal patterns. It is suggested that the fractals result from the interpolymer adduct by Diffusion Limited Aggregation mechanism.

  5. Modeling the competition between solid solution formation and cation exchange on the retardation of aqueous radium in an idealized bentonite column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clays and clay rocks are considered viable geotechnical barriers in radioactive waste disposal. One reason for this is the propensity for cation exchange reactions in clay minerals to retard the migration of radionuclides. Although another retardation mechanism, namely the incorporation of radionuclides into sulfate or carbonate solid solutions, has been known for a long time, only recently has it been examined systematically. In this work, we investigate the competitive effect of both mechanisms on the transport of radium (Ra) in the near-field of a low- and intermediate level nuclear waste repository. In our idealized geochemical model, numerical simulations show that barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr) needed for Ra sulfate solid solutions also partition to the cation exchange sites of montmorillonite (Mont), which is the major mineral constituent of bentonite that is used for tunnel backfill. At high Mont content, most Ra tends to attach to Mont, while incorporation of Ra in sulfate solid solutions is more important at low Monte content. To explore the effect of the Mont content on the transport of radium, a multi-component reactive transport model was developed and implemented in the scientific software OpenGeoSys-GEM. It was found that a decrease of fixation capacity due to low Mont content is compensated by the formation of solid solutions and that the migration distance of aqueous Ra is similar at different Mont/water ratios. (author)

  6. Voltammetric Analysis on the Formation of Fe(OH)2 and FeCO3, and on the Reactivity of Passivation of Steel in Carbonate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Kish, J. R.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the simultaneous dissolution and the formation of Fe(OH)2 and FeCO3 in carbonate solutions. It re-evaluates some of the early findings on Fe(OH)2 outlining that it forms with kinetics interfering with that of FeCO3. The formation and electroreactivity of FeCO3 are investigated in detail. The electrochemical significance of the thickness and reactivity of the passive films are linked to the carbonate concentration, cyclic voltammetry scans, and the cathodic reduction of oxygen and water. The cathodic currents were indicative of the thickness and reactivity of the passive films, which increased with the carbonate concentration and higher cycling.

  7. EFFECTS OF NATURAL ORIFICE SECRETIONS IN PERITONEAL CAVITY IN THE BACKGROUND OF NATURAL ORIFICE TRANSLUMINAL ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY (NOTES AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES is a new form of minimally invasive surgery which eliminates traditional skin incisions by accessing internal body cavities through natural orifices. In our experimental animal study, we compared the incidences intraperitoneal abscess formation , culture swab of peritoneal cavity positive for organism, intraperitoneal adhesion formation and mean adhesion score before and after lavaging the portal of entry of albino rat , i.e. transgastric and transvaginal. On vaginal route as a portal of entry into peritoneal cavity , on the 7th day , 66% rats developed abscesses , 88% rats had culture swab positive and 88% rats developed intraperitoneal adhesion (grade - 2 before any cleansing of vaginal cavity with antiseptic solution . Now after lavage with povidone iodine solution, only 11% developed abscesses , 22% were peritoneal swab culture positive and 33% had interbowel and parietal adhesion of (grade 0 - 1. On 21 st day , the complication observed was adhesion formation in pre lavage group of 66% incidence and 16% after vaginal lavage. The incidence of complications were reduced significantly after lavage with antiseptic solution as shown by p values (p<0.01 for abscess formation, p< 0.01 for culture positivity and p< 0.01 for adhesions formation. Also the mean adhesion scoring was significantly reduced (p <0.02 after vaginal lavage on the 7 th day. Gastric route as the portal of entry into the peritoneal cavity, again the same variables were compared on the 7th and the 21st day , but wash was given with antibiotic solution (Cefazolin. On the 7th day , 44% had abscesses, 77% were culture positive and 66% had adhesions (Grade 1 - 2 before gastric lavage with antibiotic solution . After wash of stomach, 11% were culture positive and 44% developed adhesions (Grade 0 - 1. Here, abscess formation (p<0.02 and mean adhesion scoring (p<0.05 were significantly reduced after stomach wash. On the 21st day

  8. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  9. Colloquium: cavity optomechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Monday 14 November 2011, 17:00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Université de Genève Cavity optomechanics: controlling micro mechanical oscillators with laser light Prof. Tobias Kippenberg EPFL, Lausanne Laser light can be used to cool and to control trapped ions, atoms and molecules at the quantum level. This has lead to spectacular advances such as the most precise atomic clocks. An outstanding frontier is the control with lasers of nano- and micro-mechancial systems. Recent advances in cavity optomechanics have allowed such elementary control for the first time, enabling mechanical systems to be ground state cooled leading to readout with quantum limited sensitivity and permitting to explore new device concepts resulting from radiation pressure.  

  10. RF superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Y

    1980-01-01

    The history and present activity in research on RF superconducting cavities in various countries are reviewed. The program of the July 1980 Karlsruhe workshop is reproduced and research activity in this field at Stanford HEPL and SLAC, Cornell, Oregon, Brookhaven, KEK (Japan), Weismann (Israel), Genoa, CERN and Karlsruhe (KfK) listed. The theoretical basis of surface resistance and intracavity magnetic field, multipacing and non-resonant electron loading are outlined. (20 refs).

  11. Thermodynamics of the complex formation of copper(II) with L-phenylalanine in aqueous ethanol solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, D. M.; Ledenkov, S. F.; Vandyshev, V. N.

    2013-05-01

    Constants of the acid dissociation and complexation of L-phenylalanine (HPhe) with copper(II) ions are determined by potentiometry in aqueous ethanol solutions containing 0 to 0.7 molar fraction of alcohol. Changes in the Gibbs energy for the transfer from water to a binary solvent of L-phenylalanine, Phe- anion, and [CuPhe]+ complex are calculated. It is found that the weakening of solvation of the ligand donor groups in solvents with high ethanol contents is accompanied by an increase in the stability of [CuPhe]+ complex.

  12. The formation of stable pH gradients with weak monovalent buffers for isoelectric focusing in free solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Graham, Aly; Bier, Milan

    1985-01-01

    Two methods which utilize simple buffers for the generation of stable pH gradients (useful for preparative isoelectric focusing) are compared and contrasted. The first employs preformed gradients comprised of two simple buffers in density-stabilized free solution. The second method utilizes neutral membranes to isolate electrolyte reservoirs of constant composition from the separation column. It is shown by computer simulation that steady-state gradients can be formed at any pH range with any number of components in such a system.

  13. Uptake and Release of Cerium During Fe-Oxide Formation and Transformation in Fe(II) Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin; Dideriksen, Knud; Christiansen, Bo C.;

    2010-01-01

    of trace components. Further, Fe(II)-Fe(III) (hydr)oxides are redox active. Cerium, a member of the lanthanide family, can be used as an analogue for the tri- and tetra-valent actinides found in radioactive waste, expected to be stored in subsurface repositories. In experiments with ferrihydrite, Ce...... environments. Our results also suggest that trivalent actinides and lanthanides are released when dissimilatory iron reduction of Fe(III)-oxides leads to GR formation However, under oxidizing conditions, GR may influence radionuclide mobility by catalyzing their transformation to a higher oxidation state....

  14. Suppression of extraneous thermal noise in cavity optomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yi; Wilson, Dalziel J.; Ni, Kang-Kuen; Kimble, H. Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Extraneous thermal motion can limit displacement sensitivity and radiation pressure effects, such as optical cooling, in a cavity-optomechanical system. Here we present an active noise suppression scheme and its experimental implementation. The main challenge is to selectively sense and suppress extraneous thermal noise without affecting motion of the oscillator. Our solution is to monitor two modes of the optical cavity, each with different sensitivity to the oscillator's motion but similar ...

  15. Mechanism simulation of H2O2 formation by γ-rays irradiation in boric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism reaction analysis of boric aid solutions up to temperature of 150oC was done to understand the reaction mechanism, so the further action for reducing the diluted oxygen in cooling system can be determined. The analysis was done by using fitting method between experimental and simulation results by Facsimilesoftware. The inputs data is one of the probable scheme reactions in aeration boric acid which is irradiated by using γ-rays including the rate constants, G-value, doses and the temperature dependence systems concentration. The unknown rate constant at high temperature is calculated by using the activation energy of 3 kcal. From the fitting simulation, it is known that the presence of proton and oxygen in the solution will in crease the oxidizer of H2O2 production 10 times, but higher oxygen concentration of 1μM will not give the significant effect anymore. The most reactive species for oxygen degradation is H radical at 25oC. The fraction reaction of H atom and oxygen increase 10 times higher at 150oC. The degradation reaction of oxygen by hydrated electron at 150oC become significant. From the fitting simulation, it is known that the reaction between boric acid and hydrogen peroxide degradation species such OH and H was assumed to be occurred with the rate constants of 6 magnitude

  16. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  17. Optical cavity resonator in an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.

    2015-02-01

    We study the cosmological evolution of frequency of a standing electromagnetic wave in a resonant optical cavity placed to the expanding manifold described by the Robertson-Walker metric. Because of the Einstein principle of equivalence (EEP), one can find a local coordinate system (a local freely falling frame), in which spacetime is locally Minkowskian. However, due to the conformal nature of the Robertson-Walker metric the conventional transformation to the local inertial coordinates introduces ambiguity in the physical interpretation of the local time coordinate, . Therefore, contrary to a common-sense expectation, a straightforward implementation of EEP alone does not allow us to unambiguously decide whether atomic clocks based on quantum transitions of atoms, ticks at the same rate as the clocks based on electromagnetic modes of a cavity. To resolve this ambiguity we have to analyse the cavity rigidity and the oscillation of its electromagnetic modes in an expanding universe by employing the full machinery of the Maxwell equations irrespectively of the underlying theory of gravity. We proceed in this way and found out that the size of the cavity and the electromagnetic frequency experience an adiabatic drift in conformal (unphysical) coordinates as the universe expands in accordance with the Hubble law. We set up the oscillation equation for the resonant electromagnetic modes, solve it by the WKB approximation, and reduce the coordinate-dependent quantities to their counterparts measured by a local observer who counts time with atomic clock. The solution shows that there is a perfect mutual cancellation of the adiabatic drift of cavity's frequency by space transformation to local coordinates and the time counted by the clocks based on electromagnetic modes of cavity has the same rate as that of atomic clocks. We conclude that if general relativity is correct and the local expansion of space is isotropic there should be no cosmological drift of frequency of a

  18. Protostar Formation in Magnetic Molecular Clouds beyond Ion Detachment: I. Formulation of the Problem and Method of Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, K; Tassis, Konstantinos; Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.

    2007-01-01

    We formulate the problem of the formation of magnetically supercritical cores in magnetically subcritical parent molecular clouds, and the subsequent collapse of the cores to high densities, past the detachment of ions from magnetic field lines and into the opaque regime. We employ the six-fluid MHD equations, accounting for the effects of grains (negative, positive and neutral) including their inelastic collisions with other species. We do not assume that the magnetic flux is frozen in any of the charged species. We derive a generalized Ohm's law that explicitly distinguishes between flux advection (and the associated process of ambipolar diffusion) and Ohmic dissipation, in order to assess the contribution of each mechanism to the increase of the mass-to-flux ratio of the central parts of a collapsing core and possibly to the resolution of the magnetic flux problem of star formation. We show how our formulation is related to and can be transformed into the traditional, directional formulation of the general...

  19. Mineral catalysis of the formation of the phosphodiester bond in aqueous solution - The possible role of montmorillonite clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, James P.; Ertem, Gozen; KAMALUDDIN; Agarwal, Vipin; Hua, Lu Lin

    1989-01-01

    The possible role of montmorillonite clays in the spontaneous formation on the primitive earth of the phosphodiester bond in the presence of water was investigated in experiments measuring the binding of various nucleosides and nucleotides with Na(+)-montmorillonite 22A and the reactions of these compounds with a water-soluble carbodiimide. It was found that, at neutral pH, adenine derivatives bind stronger than the corresponding uracil derivatives, consistent with the protonation of the adenine by the acidic clay surface and a cationic binding of the protonated ring to the anionic clay surface. The reaction of the 5-prime-AMP with carbodiimide resulted in the formation of 2-prime,5-prime-pApA (18.9 percent), 3-prime,5-prime-pApA (11 percent), and AppA (4.8 percent). The yields of these oligomers obtained when poly(U) was used in place of the clay were 15.5 percent, 3.7 percent, and 14.9 percent AppA, respectively.

  20. Plasma processing of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Janardan

    The development of plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities not only provides a chemical free and less expensive processing method, but also opens up the possibility for controlled modification of the inner surfaces of the cavity for better superconducting properties. The research was focused on the transition of plasma etching from two dimensional flat surfaces to inner surfaces of three dimensional (3D) structures. The results could be applicable to a variety of inner surfaces of 3D structures other than SRF cavities. Understanding the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for achieving the desired modification of Nb SRF cavities. In the process of developing plasma etching technology, an apparatus was built and a method was developed to plasma etch a single cell Pill Box cavity. The plasma characterization was done with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. The Nb etch rate at various points of this cavity was measured before processing the SRF cavity. Cylindrical ring-type samples of Nb placed on the inner surface of the outer wall were used to measure the dependence of the process parameters on plasma etching. The measured etch rate dependence on the pressure, rf power, dc bias, temperature, Cl2 concentration and diameter of the inner electrode was determined. The etch rate mechanism was studied by varying the temperature of the outer wall, the dc bias on the inner electrode and gas conditions. In a coaxial plasma reactor, uniform plasma etching along the cylindrical structure is a challenging task due to depletion of the active radicals along the gas flow direction. The dependence of etch rate uniformity along the cylindrical axis was determined as a function of process parameters. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the

  1. [Use of autologous blood for elimination of the residual pleural cavity after pneumonectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariev, T M; Ibragimov, M A

    1987-09-01

    The authors describe a method of liquidation of a postresectional residual cavity by the introduction of the patient's autoblood with antibiotics. When using this method all the factors of the coagulating system of blood are involved in the formation of fibrin and the following formation of fibrothorax, which accelerates the formation of fibrothorax. The proposed method was used in 26 patients with residual pleural cavities after resection of the lungs and facilitated their liquidation and formation of fibrothorax. PMID:3441966

  2. Difference in surface reactions between titanium and zirconium in Hanks' solution to elucidate mechanism of calcium phosphate formation on titanium using XPS and cathodic polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Nishimura, D.; Doi, H.; Nomura, N. [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Hanawa, T., E-mail: hanawa.met@tmd.ac.jp [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2009-06-01

    Titanium and zirconium were immersed in Hanks' solution with and without calcium and phosphate ions, and the surfaces were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the mechanism of calcium phosphate formation on titanium in simulated body fluids and in a living body. In addition, they were cathodically polarized in the above solutions. XPS characterization and cathodic polarization revealed differences in the surface properties in the ability of calcium phosphate formation between titanium and zirconium. The surface oxide film on titanium is not completely oxidized and is relatively reactive; that on zirconium is more passive and protective than that on titanium. Neither calcium nor phosphate stably exists alone on titanium, and calcium phosphate is naturally formed on it; calcium phosphate formed on titanium is stable and protective. On the other hand, calcium is never incorporated on zirconium, while zirconium phosphate, which is easily formed on zirconium, is highly stable and protective. Our study presents new information regarding the surface property of titanium and demonstrates that the characteristics of titanium and zirconium may be applied to various medical devices and new surface modification techniques.

  3. Difference in surface reactions between titanium and zirconium in Hanks' solution to elucidate mechanism of calcium phosphate formation on titanium using XPS and cathodic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and zirconium were immersed in Hanks' solution with and without calcium and phosphate ions, and the surfaces were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the mechanism of calcium phosphate formation on titanium in simulated body fluids and in a living body. In addition, they were cathodically polarized in the above solutions. XPS characterization and cathodic polarization revealed differences in the surface properties in the ability of calcium phosphate formation between titanium and zirconium. The surface oxide film on titanium is not completely oxidized and is relatively reactive; that on zirconium is more passive and protective than that on titanium. Neither calcium nor phosphate stably exists alone on titanium, and calcium phosphate is naturally formed on it; calcium phosphate formed on titanium is stable and protective. On the other hand, calcium is never incorporated on zirconium, while zirconium phosphate, which is easily formed on zirconium, is highly stable and protective. Our study presents new information regarding the surface property of titanium and demonstrates that the characteristics of titanium and zirconium may be applied to various medical devices and new surface modification techniques.

  4. Femtosecond X-ray solution scattering reveals that bond formation mechanism of a gold trimer complex is independent of excitation wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Jong Goo; Oang, Key Young; Kim, Tae Wu; Ki, Hosung; Jo, Junbeom; Kim, Jeongho; Sato, Tokushi; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Adachi, Shin-Ichi; Ihee, Hyotcherl

    2016-07-01

    The [Au(CN)2 (-)]3 trimer in water experiences a strong van der Waals interaction between the d(10) gold atoms due to large relativistic effect and can serve as an excellent model system to study the bond formation process in real time. The trimer in the ground state (S0) exists as a bent structure without the covalent bond between the gold atoms, and upon the laser excitation, one electron in the antibonding orbital goes to the bonding orbital, thereby inducing the formation of a covalent bond between gold atoms. This process has been studied by various time-resolved techniques, and most of the interpretation on the structure and dynamics converge except that the structure of the first intermediate (S1) has been debated due to different interpretations between femtosecond optical spectroscopy and femtosecond X-ray solution scattering. Recently, the excitation wavelength of 267 nm employed in our previous scattering experiment was suggested as the culprit for misinterpretation. Here, we revisited this issue by performing femtosecond X-ray solution scattering with 310 nm excitation and compared the results with our previous study employing 267 nm excitation. The data show that a linear S1 structure is formed within 500 fs regardless of excitation wavelength and the structural dynamics observed at both excitation wavelengths are identical to each other within experimental errors. PMID:27191012

  5. Femtosecond X-ray solution scattering reveals that bond formation mechanism of a gold trimer complex is independent of excitation wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hwan Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The [Au(CN2−]3 trimer in water experiences a strong van der Waals interaction between the d10 gold atoms due to large relativistic effect and can serve as an excellent model system to study the bond formation process in real time. The trimer in the ground state (S0 exists as a bent structure without the covalent bond between the gold atoms, and upon the laser excitation, one electron in the antibonding orbital goes to the bonding orbital, thereby inducing the formation of a covalent bond between gold atoms. This process has been studied by various time-resolved techniques, and most of the interpretation on the structure and dynamics converge except that the structure of the first intermediate (S1 has been debated due to different interpretations between femtosecond optical spectroscopy and femtosecond X-ray solution scattering. Recently, the excitation wavelength of 267 nm employed in our previous scattering experiment was suggested as the culprit for misinterpretation. Here, we revisited this issue by performing femtosecond X-ray solution scattering with 310 nm excitation and compared the results with our previous study employing 267 nm excitation. The data show that a linear S1 structure is formed within 500 fs regardless of excitation wavelength and the structural dynamics observed at both excitation wavelengths are identical to each other within experimental errors.

  6. Separation in liquid and the formation of supersaturated solid solutions in Fe-Cu alloys upon rapid laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharanzhevskiy, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of compacted specimens produced using the rapid laser melting of ultradispersed Fe-50 wt % Cu powders has been studied. The original powder was produced via the mechanical milling of iron and copper powders in a planetary-type ball mill. It has been found that the structure of the compacted specimens produced using rapid laser melting exhibits signs of the initial stages of separation in supercooled liquid. It has been shown using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy that the final structure contains a supersaturated (Fe; Cu) solid solution formed from the high-speed movement of the solidification front and the nonequilibrium capture of copper by the moving front.

  7. Formation of hexagonal boron nitride nanoscrolls induced by inclusion and exclusion of self-assembling molecules in solution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Da Young; Suh, Dong Hack

    2014-06-01

    Unlike nanoscrolls of 2D graphene, those of 2D h-BN have not been demonstrated, except for only a few experimental reports. Nanoscrolls of h-BN with high yields and reproducibility are first synthesized by a simple solution process. Inner-tube diameters of BNSs including LCAs, N-(2-aminoethyl)-3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amide, a bile acid derivative and self-assembling material, can be controlled by adjusting the diameter of the LCA fiber which is grown by self-assembly. TEM and SEM images show that BNSs have a tube-like morphology and the inner-tube diameter of BNSs can be controlled in the range from 20 to 60 nm for a smaller diameter, up to 300 nm for a larger diameter by LCA fiber growth inside the BNSs. Finally, open cylindrical BNSs with hollow cores were obtained by dissolving LCAs inside BNSs.

  8. Positronium formation and reactions in water, ice and aqueous solutions seen by positron age-momentum correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high counting rate correlation measurements between the positron age at the instant of annihilation and the momentum of the center of mass of the positron-electron pair were carried out in pure water, ice and some aqueous solutions of MnSO4, KMnO4 and FeCl3. The self annihilation of initially formed para-positronium, the self annihilation of the converted para-positronium from ortho-positronium, the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium and the free annihilation of positrons were clearly separated. It was found that the momentum distribution of the self annihilation of converted positronium is significantly narrower than that of initially formed para-positronium. This fact means that initially formed para-positroniums are not completely thermalized but converted ones undergo a complete thermalization. (Auth.)

  9. Multiscale approach to CO2 hydrate formation in aqueous solution: phase field theory and molecular dynamics. Nucleation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegze, György; Pusztai, Tamás; Tóth, Gyula; Gránásy, László; Svandal, Atle; Buanes, Trygve; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Kvamme, Bjorn

    2006-06-21

    A phase field theory with model parameters evaluated from atomistic simulations/experiments is applied to predict the nucleation and growth rates of solid CO(2) hydrate in aqueous solutions under conditions typical to underwater natural gas hydrate reservoirs. It is shown that under practical conditions a homogeneous nucleation of the hydrate phase can be ruled out. The growth rate of CO(2) hydrate dendrites has been determined from phase field simulations as a function of composition while using a physical interface thickness (0.85+/-0.07 nm) evaluated from molecular dynamics simulations. The growth rate extrapolated to realistic supersaturations is about three orders of magnitude larger than the respective experimental observation. A possible origin of the discrepancy is discussed. It is suggested that a kinetic barrier reflecting the difficulties in building the complex crystal structure is the most probable source of the deviations.

  10. Formation of hexagonal boron nitride nanoscrolls induced by inclusion and exclusion of self-assembling molecules in solution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Da Young; Suh, Dong Hack

    2014-05-01

    Unlike nanoscrolls of 2D graphene, those of 2D h-BN have not been demonstrated, except for only a few experimental reports. Nanoscrolls of h-BN with high yields and reproducibility are first synthesized by a simple solution process. Inner-tube diameters of BNSs including LCAs, N-(2-aminoethyl)-3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amide, a bile acid derivative and self-assembling material, can be controlled by adjusting the diameter of the LCA fiber which is grown by self-assembly. TEM and SEM images show that BNSs have a tube-like morphology and the inner-tube diameter of BNSs can be controlled in the range from 20 to 60 nm for a smaller diameter, up to 300 nm for a larger diameter by LCA fiber growth inside the BNSs. Finally, open cylindrical BNSs with hollow cores were obtained by dissolving LCAs inside BNSs.Unlike nanoscrolls of 2D graphene, those of 2D h-BN have not been demonstrated, except for only a few experimental reports. Nanoscrolls of h-BN with high yields and reproducibility are first synthesized by a simple solution process. Inner-tube diameters of BNSs including LCAs, N-(2-aminoethyl)-3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amide, a bile acid derivative and self-assembling material, can be controlled by adjusting the diameter of the LCA fiber which is grown by self-assembly. TEM and SEM images show that BNSs have a tube-like morphology and the inner-tube diameter of BNSs can be controlled in the range from 20 to 60 nm for a smaller diameter, up to 300 nm for a larger diameter by LCA fiber growth inside the BNSs. Finally, open cylindrical BNSs with hollow cores were obtained by dissolving LCAs inside BNSs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00897a

  11. Thermodynamics of complexes formation by ITC in methanol/water = 9/1 (v/v) solution: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisicaro, Emilia, E-mail: emilia.fisicaro@unipr.it [University of Parma, Department of Pharmacy, Parco Area delle Scienze, 27/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Compari, Carlotta; Bacciottini, Franco; Contardi, Laura [University of Parma, Department of Pharmacy, Parco Area delle Scienze, 27/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Carcelli, Mauro; Rispoli, Gabriele; Rogolino, Dominga [University of Parma, Department of Chemistry, Parco Area delle Scienze, 17/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Integrase strand transfert inhibitors chelate the metal ions in the active site of HIV integrase. - Highlights: • Development of inhibitors acting against those viral enzymes operating via a cooperative two-metal ion mechanism, such as HIV integrase (IN), requires optimizing the binding affinity to the target. • We have defined an experimental procedure for obtaining reliable thermodynamic data by ITC in methanol/water = 9/1 (v/v) as solvent. • Formation heats in mixed solvent of the complexes formed by a ligand, model of Raltegravir, with Mg(II), Mn(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) are here reported. - Abstract: Most enzymes that participate in the biochemistry of nucleic acids require divalent metal ion cofactors to promote activity. Development of potent inhibitors, acting against those viral enzymes operating via a cooperative two-metal ion mechanism, such as HIV integrase (IN) and RNase H, hepatitis C virus polymerase and influenza endonuclease, requires optimizing the binding affinity to the target, which is dictated by the binding free energy composed of both enthalpic and entropic contributions. They can be obtained by using isothermal titration microcalorimetry. We have defined an experimental procedure for obtaining reliable thermodynamic data in methanol/water = 9/1 0.1 M KCl as solvent, used to overcome solubility problems. In this way we have measured the heats of formation of the complexes formed by N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-1-methyl-6-oxo-1, 6-dihydroxypyrimidine-4-carboxylate (HL, a model of Raltegravir, the antiretroviral drug produced by Merck and Co.), and a series of divalent metal ions of biological interest (Mg(II), Mn(II), Co(II) and Zn(II)), whose speciation was previously determined by potentiometry.

  12. Effect of ultrasonic frequency on H2O2 sonochemical formation rate in aqueous nitric acid solutions in the presence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalodière, Elodie; Virot, Matthieu; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I

    2016-03-01

    The influence of the ultrasonic frequency (20 kHz, 207 kHz, and 615 kHz) towards the formation kinetics of H2O2 under Ar and Ar/(20 vol.%)O2 atmospheres was evaluated in pure water and aqueous nitric solutions. Results obtained at low frequency ultrasound demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide formation is enhanced under an Ar/O2 gas mixture whatever the sonicated medium. Nevertheless, H2O2 yields are higher in aqueous nitric solutions whatever the nature of the saturating gas. These observations are consistent at high frequency ultrasound under Ar gas notwithstanding higher yields for H2O2. Surprisingly, an inverse tendency is observed for high frequency sonolysis carried out under an Ar/O2 atmosphere: higher yields of H2O2 are measured in pure water. Further studies in the presence of pure Ar revealed a more important decomposition of nitric acid under high frequency ultrasound leading to higher yields of both HNO2 in the liquid phase and NO in the gas phase. In the presence of Ar/O2 mixture, the intrabubble oxidation of NO causes cavitation bubble depletion in O2 leading to the drop of H2O2 yield. On the other hand, it was found that for Ar/(20 vol.%)O2 mixture there is no influence of oxygen on HNO2 yield whatever the ultrasonic frequency; this is most likely explained by two processes: (i) HNO2 formation results from nitrate-ion thermolysis in the liquid reaction zone surrounding the cavitation bubble, and (ii) effective intrabubble oxidation of NOx species by oxygen to nitrate-ion. PMID:26584999

  13. Indications of the formation of an oversaturated solid solution during hydrogenation of Mg-Ni based nanocomposite produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama y Centro Regional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama, CRIDESAT, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile); Ordonez, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Serafini, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Materials, CIMAT, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rojas, P.A. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Av. Los Carrera 01567, Quilpue, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, PUCV (Chile); Aguilar, C. [Instituto de Materiales y Procesos Termomecanicos, Facultad de Ciencias de la Ingenieria, Universidad Austral de Chile, Av. General Lagos 2086, Valdivia (Chile)

    2009-07-15

    An oversaturated solid solution of H in a nanocomposite material formed mainly by nanocrystalline Mg{sub 2}Ni, some residual nanocrystalline Ni and an Mg rich amorphous phase has been found for the first time. The nanocomposite was produced by mechanical alloying starting from Mg and Ni elemental powders, using a SPEX 8000D mill. The hydriding characterization of the nanocomposite was carried out by solid-gas reaction method in a Sievert's type apparatus. The maximum hydrogen content reached in a period of 21 Ks without prior activation was 2.00 wt.% H under hydrogen pressure of 2 MPa at 363 K. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of an oversaturated solid solution between nanocrystalline Mg{sub 2}Ni and H without any sign of Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} hydride formation. The dehydriding behaviour was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The results showed the existence of two desorption peaks, the first one associated with the transformation of the oversaturated solid solution into Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, and the second one with the Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} desorption. (author)

  14. Nanostructured gadolinium-doped ceria microsphere synthesis from ion exchange resin: Multi-scale in-situ studies of solid solution formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caisso, Marie [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Institut Européen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC047, Université Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lebreton, Florent; Horlait, Denis [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Picart, Sébastien [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Martin, Philippe M.; Bès, René [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC/LLCC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Renard, Catherine; Roussel, Pascal [Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR 8012 CNRS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille BP 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Neuville, Daniel R. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris-CNRS, Géochimie and Cosmochimie, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Ayral, André [Institut Européen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC047, Université Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-10-15

    In the current nano-sized material revolution, the main limitations to a large-scale deployment of nanomaterials involve health concerns related to nano-dissemination via air. Developing new chemical routes benefiting from nano-size advantages while avoiding their hazards could overcome these limitations. Addressing this need, a chemical route leading to soft nano-particle agglomerates, i.e., macroscopic precursors presenting the ability to be decomposed into nano-sized materials, was developed and applied to Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ}. Using cerium/gadolinium-loaded ion exchange resin, the Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} solid solution formation as a function of temperature was studied in-situ through X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Temperatures corresponding to the organic skeleton decomposition and to the mixed oxide crystallization were identified. An optimal heat treatment, leading to nanostructured soft agglomerates, was established. Microsphere processing capabilities were evaluated and particle size distribution measurements were recorded. A very low fracture strength was calculated, and a nanometric particle size distribution (170 nm) was determined. - Graphical abstract: The elaboration of micro-spherical precursors leading to the formation of nano-oxide soft agglomerates was studied and approved through the use of ion exchange resin loaded with cerium and gadolinium. The formation of the solid solution was followed through in-situ measurements such as XAS, XRD, Raman, TGA and DSC. Key temperatures were identified for the formation of the mixed-oxide. Following this study, the microstructure and particle size of oxide microspheres formed highlight the formation of soft nano-arrangments. - Highlights: • Soft microspherical agglomerates able to be decomposed into nano-sized materials. • In situ study of cerium/gadolinium-loaded ion exchange resin conversion in oxide. • In situ multi-scale study

  15. On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2007-01-01

    (III) chloro complexes increases steadily with temperature from 0.4 ?? 0.2 to 1.7 ?? 0.3 in the 0.006m chloride solution and from 0.9 ?? 0.7 to 1.8 ?? 0.7 in the 0.1m GdCl3 aqueous solution in the 300-500????C range. Conversely, the number of H2O ligands of Gd(H2O)??-nCln+3-n complexes decreases steadily from 8.9 ?? 0.4 to 5.8 ?? 0.7 in the 0.006m GdCl3 aqueous solution and from 9.0 ?? 0.5 to 5.3 ?? 1.0 in the 0.1m GdCl3 aqueous solution at temperatures from 25 to 500????C. Analysis of our results shows that the chloride ions partially displace the inner-shell water molecules during Gd(III) complex formation under hydrothermal conditions. The Gd-OH2 bond of the partially-hydrated Gd(III) chloro complexes exhibits slightly smaller rates of length contraction (??? 0.005??A??/100????C) for both solutions. The structural aspects of chloride speciation of Gd(III) as measured from this study and of Yb(III) as measured from our previous experiments are consistent with the solubility of these and other REE in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulse radiolysis of poly(vinyl methyl ether) in aqueous solution. Formation and structure of primary radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity of a temperature-sensitive polymer poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) towards OH, e-aq, and H atoms in aqueous solution has been investigated by pulse radiolysis. The rate constant for reaction of OH with PVME (1.2 x 105 Da) has been determined as 2.2 x 108 dm3 mol-1 s-1 by competition kinetics at 296 K. Hydrogen atoms are less reactive. The rate constant of the reaction of hydrated electrons with PVME is lower than 1.9 x 107 dm3 mol-1 s-1. Radicals of PVME formed in the reaction with OH have a featureless absorption spectrum with increasing absorption towards shorter wavelengths. Upon OH attack three kinds of radicals are generated: two at different α-positions and one at a β-position with respect to the oxygen atom. The α-radicals rapidly reduce tetranitromethane yielding the stable nitroform anion. From the yield of the latter species it is calculated that ca. 54% of the PVME radicals are formed at α-positions. Results are compared with earlier data on low-molecular-weight ethers and simple water-soluble polymers

  17. Formation of polymer nanowires through electropolymerization of polybithiophene from mixed electrolyte solutions of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate and tetrabutylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantzas, Trissa T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Semenikhin, Oleg A., E-mail: osemenik@uwo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    Preparation of one-dimensional conducting polymer structures such as nanowires and nanotubes require anisotropic growth conditions. Usually, such conditions are achieved by applying a certain template or by patterning the substrate. In this work, we employ a new approach to facilitate the anisotropic growth of electrochemically deposited polybithiophene through variations of the conductivity of the growing material. If the deposited material varies in conductivity, the areas with less conducting material will sustain little or no electrochemical current and only the areas with sufficient conductivity will experience further growth. In this work, the conductivity variations and the resulting anisotropic growth are achieved by performing electropolymerization in mixed electrolyte solutions of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate and tetrabutylammonium chloride. No growth can be observed in pure tetrabutylammonium chloride because the resulting films are insulating. However, addition of small amounts of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate was found to selectively activate local nanometer-sized areas of the polymer surface where polymer nanowire growth was observed. The latter was confirmed by atomic-force microscopy (AFM). The local properties of the polymer nanostructures obtained with varying contents of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate were characterized.

  18. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  19. Density functional theory-based prediction of the formation constants of complexes of ammonia in aqueous solution: indications of the role of relativistic effects in the solution chemistry of gold(I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Robert D; Bartolotti, Libero J

    2005-10-01

    A prediction of the formation constants (log K1) for complexes of metal ions with a single NH3 ligand in aqueous solution, using quantum mechanical calculations, is reported. DeltaG values at 298 K in the gas phase for eq 1 (DeltaG(DFT)) were calculated for 34 metal ions using density functional theory (DFT), with the expectation that these would correlate with the free energy of complex formation in aqueous solution (DeltaG(aq)). [M(H2O)6]n+(g) + NH(3)(g) = [M(H2O)5NH3]n+(g) + H2O(g) (eq 1). The DeltaG(aq) values include the effects of complex changes in solvation on complex formation, which are not included in eq 1. It was anticipated that such changes in solvation would be constant or vary systematically with changes in the log K(1) value for different metal ions; therefore, simple correlations between DeltaG(DFT) and DeltaG(aq) were sought. The bulk of the log K1(NH3) values used to calculate DeltaG(aq) were not experimental, but estimated previously (Hancock 1978, 1980) from a variety of empirical correlations. Separate linear correlations between DeltaG(DFT) and DeltaG(aq) for metal ions of different charges (M2+, M3+, and M4+) were found. In plots of DeltaG(DFT) versus DeltaG(aq), the slopes ranged from 2.201 for M2+ ions down to 1.076 for M4+ ions, with intercepts increasing from M2+ to M4+ ions. Two separate correlations occurred for the M3+ ions, which appeared to correspond to small metal ions with a coordination number (CN) of 6 and to large metal ions with a higher CN in the vicinity of 7-9. The good correlation coefficients (R) in the range of 0.97-0.99 for all these separate correlations suggest that the approach used here may be the basis for future predictions of aqueous phase chemistry that would otherwise be experimentally inaccessible. Thus, the log K1(NH3) value for the transuranic Lr3+, which has a half-life of 3.6 h in its most stable isotope, is predicted to be 1.46. These calculations should also lead to a greater insight into the factors

  20. Formation of solid solutions of gallium in Fe–Cr and Fe–Co alloys: Mössbauer studies and first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Structure features of the formation of quasibinary solid solutions Fe–Co–Ga and Fe–Cr–Ga are found. • The first-principles calculation of mixing and solubility energies for Ga in an Fe–X alloy are given. • Ga handicaps the processes of phase separation in the Fe–Cr system and ordering in the Fe–Co system. • Preference of Ga entering in the neighborhood of a second element can help study multielement alloys. - Abstract: Investigation of Ga influence on the structure of Fe–Cr and Fe–Co alloys was performed with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The experimental results are compared with results of first-principles calculations of the mixing and solubility energies for Ga in an Fe–X (X = Co, Cr) alloy both in ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states. It is shown that Ga mainly goes into the solid solutions of the base alloys. In the alloys of the Fe–Cr system, doping with Ga handicaps the decomposition of solid solutions, observed in the binary alloys, and increases its stability. In the alloys with Co, Ga also favors the uniformity of solid solutions. The results of the first-principles calculations testify in favor of a preferable dissolution of Ga in the FeCo regions of a multicomponent structure rather than FeCr regions, both types of regions being in the ferromagnetic state at the temperature of annealing. The analysis of Mössbauer experiments gives some grounds to conclude that if, owing to liquation, clusterization, or initial stages of phase separation, there exist regions enriched in iron, some amount of Ga atoms prefer to enter the nearest surroundings of iron atoms, thus forming binary Fe–Ga regions (or phases)

  1. Effect of total aluminum concentration on the formation and transformation of nanosized Al13 and Al30 in hydrolytic polymeric aluminum aqueous solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhaoyang; LIU Changjun; LUAN Zhaokun; ZHANG Zhongguo; LI Yanzhong; JIA Zhiping

    2005-01-01

    Influence of total aluminum concentration (CAlT) on the generation and transformation of nanosized Al13 and Al30 in hydrolytic polyaluminum aqueous solutions was investigated using high field 27Al NMR and time-developed Al-Ferron complex colorimetry. When prepared at the optimal basicity (B) of Al13 generation and 80℃, the Al13 species in polyaluminum solution tends to further polymerize and convert to Al30 and higher polymers when CAlT >0.2 mol·L-1, but Al13 does not convert to Al30 quantificationally, as the formation of Alu from Al13 and Al30 is accelerated in the same way. The conversion rate of Al13 is accelerated by the increase in CAlT. When CAlT >0.75 mol·L-1, Al13 content decreases rapidly, and Al30 content increases continuously and becomes the dominant nanometer polynuclear aluminum species. Alm is one of prerequisites of Al13 conversion to Al30. When CAlT increases and B reduces, the polymerization rate between Al13 and Alm increases, and at the same time, the dissociation reaction rate of Al13 and Al30 by H+ also increases. The latter becomes the dominant reaction in polyaluminum solution with low B value, so Al30 decreases with the increasing CAlT. The hydrolytic polyaluminum solution with Al13 content beyond 80% can only be prepared under the condition of CAlT<0.5 mol·L-1 and optimal B value.

  2. Structure of magnetic fields in intracluster cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos Nektarios; Lyutikov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Observations of clusters of galaxies show ubiquitous presence of X-ray cavities, presumably blown by the AGN jets. We consider magnetic field structures of these cavities. Stability requires that they contain both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, while realistic configurations should have vanishing magnetic field on the boundary. For axisymmetric configurations embedded in unmagnetized plasma, the continuity of poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components on the surface of the bubble then requires solving the elliptical Grad-Shafranov equation with both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. This leads to a double eigenvalue problem, relating the pressure gradients and the toroidal magnetic field to the radius of the bubble. We have found fully analytical stable solutions. This result is confirmed by numerical simulation. We present synthetic X-ray images and synchrotron emission profiles and evaluate the rotation measure for radiation traversing the bubble.

  3. Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Uchiyama, T.; Miyoki, S.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Numata, K.

    2008-07-01

    We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (USA). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta2O5) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing.

  4. Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Numata, K

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (U.S.A.). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta$_2$O$_5$) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing.

  5. In situ morphology studies of the mechanism for solution additive effects on the formation of bulk heterojunction films

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.

    2014-09-29

    The most successful active film morphology in organic photovoltaics is the bulk heterojunction (BHJ). The performance of a BHJ arises from a complex interplay of the spatial organization of the segregated donor and acceptor phases and the local order/quality of the respective phases. These critical morphological features develop dynamically during film formation, and it has become common practice to control them by the introduction of processing additives. Here, in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies of the development of order in BHJ films formed from the donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) and acceptor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester under the influence of two common additives, 1,8-octanedithiol and 1-chloronaphthalene, are reported. By comparing optical aggregation to crystallization and using GISAXS to determine the number and nature of phases present during drying, two common mechanisms by which the additives increase P3HT crystallinity are identified. Additives accelerate the appearance of pre-crystalline nuclei by controlling solvent quality and allow for extended crystal growth by delaying the onset of PCBM-induced vitrification. The glass transition effects vary system-to-system and may be correlated to the number and composition of phases present during drying. Synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements of nanoscale structure evolution during the drying of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic films are described. Changes in the number and nature of phases, as well as the order within them, reveals the mechanisms by which formulation additives promote structural characteristics leading to higher power conversion efficiencies.

  6. Oral cavity eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a pathological process in which eumycotic (fungal or actinomycotic causative agents from exogenous source produce grains. It is a localized chronic and deforming infectious disease of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones. We report the first case of eumycetoma of the oral cavity in world literature. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old male patient, complaining of swelling and fistula in the hard palate. On examination, swelling of the anterior and middle hard palate, with fistula draining a dark liquid was observed. The panoramic radiograph showed extensive radiolucent area involving the region of teeth 21-26 and the computerized tomography showed communication with the nasal cavity, suggesting the diagnosis of periapical cyst. Surgery was performed to remove the lesion. Histopathological examination revealed purulent material with characteristic grain. Gram staining for bacteria was negative and Grocott-Gomori staining for the detection of fungi was positive, concluding the diagnosis of eumycetoma. The patient was treated with ketoconazole for nine months, and was considered cured at the end of treatment. CONCLUSION: Histopathological examination, using histochemical staining, and direct microscopic grains examination can provide the distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma accurately.

  7. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-01

    "Cavity-optomechanics" aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  8. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  9. Surface state photonic bandgap cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Rahachou, A. I.; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2005-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new type of a resonant high-Q cavity for lasing, sensing or filtering applications, which is based on a surface states of a finite photonic crystal. We demonstrate that such the cavity can have a Q factor comparable with that one of conventional photonic band-gap defect mode cavities. At the same time, the distinguished feature of the surface mode cavity is that it is situated directly at the surface of the photonic crystal. This might open up new possibilities for de...

  10. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  11. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26684118

  12. The properties of squeezed optical states created in lossy cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Seifoory, Hossein; Dignam, Marc M; Sipe, J E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the properties of squeezed states generated using degenerate parametric down conversion in lossy cavities. We show that the Lindblad master equation, which governs the evolution of this system, has as its solution a squeezed thermal state with an effective temperature and squeezing parameter that depends on time. We derive analytical solutions for the time-evolution of quadrature noise, thermal photon number, squeezing parameter, and total photon number under different pumping regimes. We also find the steady state limits of the quadrature noises and discuss the $ g^{(2)} $ factor of the generated light inside the cavity in the steady state.

  13. The free radical chemistry of tert-butyl formate: rate constants for hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron and hydrogen atom reaction in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transients generated in situ by advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) to destroy organic contaminants in ground and drinking water often give large concentrations of chemical by-products. These by-products may have adverse health effects, and can also interfere with the desired chemical removal by competing for the generated transients, thus lowering the overall efficiency of the remediation process. To allow for a quantitative evaluation of the influence of tert-butyl formate (TBF), a major by-product formed in the AOT destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether, rate constants for TBF reaction with the hydroxyl radical, the hydrated electron and the hydrogen atom in aqueous solution were measured in this study. Absolute values of (5.23±0.07)x108, (5.48±0.09)x108 and (3.58±0.07)x106 M-1 s-1, were determined at 22 deg. C, respectively

  14. The free radical chemistry of tert-butyl formate: rate constants for hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron and hydrogen atom reaction in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardison, D.R.; Cooper, William J.; Mezyk, Stephen P. E-mail: smezyk@csulb.edu; Bartels, David M

    2002-11-01

    Transients generated in situ by advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) to destroy organic contaminants in ground and drinking water often give large concentrations of chemical by-products. These by-products may have adverse health effects, and can also interfere with the desired chemical removal by competing for the generated transients, thus lowering the overall efficiency of the remediation process. To allow for a quantitative evaluation of the influence of tert-butyl formate (TBF), a major by-product formed in the AOT destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether, rate constants for TBF reaction with the hydroxyl radical, the hydrated electron and the hydrogen atom in aqueous solution were measured in this study. Absolute values of (5.23{+-}0.07)x10{sup 8}, (5.48{+-}0.09)x10{sup 8} and (3.58{+-}0.07)x10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, were determined at 22 deg. C, respectively.

  15. Weak Langmuir optical turbulence in a fiber cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Garnier, J.; Mussot, A.; Trillo, S.; Churkin, D.; Tarasov, N.; Turitsyn, S.; Picozzi, A.

    2016-07-01

    We study theoretically and numerically the dynamics of a passive optical fiber ring cavity pumped by a highly incoherent wave: an incoherently injected fiber laser. The theoretical analysis reveals that the turbulent dynamics of the cavity is dominated by the Raman effect. The forced-dissipative nature of the fiber cavity is responsible for a large diversity of turbulent behaviors: Aside from nonequilibrium statistical stationary states, we report the formation of a periodic pattern of spectral incoherent solitons, or the formation of different types of spectral singularities, e.g., dispersive shock waves and incoherent spectral collapse behaviors. We derive a mean-field kinetic equation that describes in detail the different turbulent regimes of the cavity and whose structure is formally analogous to the weak Langmuir turbulence kinetic equation in the presence of forcing and damping. A quantitative agreement is obtained between the simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cavity boundary conditions and those of the mean-field kinetic equation and the corresponding singular integrodifferential reduction, without using adjustable parameters. We discuss the possible realization of a fiber cavity experimental setup in which the theoretical predictions can be observed and studied.

  16. Absorption spectrum of monomeric pseudoisocyanine: A new perspective and its implications for formation and spectral response of J-aggregates in solution and in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argued against the current spectral assignment for absorption spectrum of monomeric PIC which is widely accepted since the pioneering works of Scheibe and Jelley [G. Scheibe, Angew. Chem. 49 (1936) 563; E.E. Jelly, Nature 138 (1936) 1009]. A new spectrum is presented along with its conceptual basis. The hypothesized spectrum attributes the previous 0-0 (∼525 nm) and 0-1 (∼490 nm) assignments, respectively, to intermediates acting as the precursor of J-aggregates and to the 0-0 transition of monomeric PIC and brings the spectrum in accord with the seemingly universal spectral fingerprint of cyanines. The hypothesis is used to analyze and interpret the temperature dependence of the UV-vis absorption of PIC aggregates in saline aqueous solution by incorporating the J-band simulations within frenkel exciton formalism. Its implications for aggregate formation kinetics are given on the basis of current spectroscopic evidence. The hypothesis readily answers several long-standing questions: Why compared to many other cyanines at least an order of magnitude higher dye concentration is needed to form J-aggregates of PIC? Why are there no precursors, since aggregation is expected to be a consecutive process? A large number of observations on steady-state and time-resolved spectral properties, and aggregation kinetics in solution/thin films are likely to find reasonable explanations within this hypothesis

  17. Absorption spectrum of monomeric pseudoisocyanine: A new perspective and its implications for formation and spectral response of J-aggregates in solution and in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelen, Demet [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University (METU), 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: dgul@metu.edu.tr; Ozcelik, Serdar [Chemistry Department, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    We argued against the current spectral assignment for absorption spectrum of monomeric PIC which is widely accepted since the pioneering works of Scheibe and Jelley [G. Scheibe, Angew. Chem. 49 (1936) 563; E.E. Jelly, Nature 138 (1936) 1009]. A new spectrum is presented along with its conceptual basis. The hypothesized spectrum attributes the previous 0-0 ({approx}525 nm) and 0-1 ({approx}490 nm) assignments, respectively, to intermediates acting as the precursor of J-aggregates and to the 0-0 transition of monomeric PIC and brings the spectrum in accord with the seemingly universal spectral fingerprint of cyanines. The hypothesis is used to analyze and interpret the temperature dependence of the UV-vis absorption of PIC aggregates in saline aqueous solution by incorporating the J-band simulations within frenkel exciton formalism. Its implications for aggregate formation kinetics are given on the basis of current spectroscopic evidence. The hypothesis readily answers several long-standing questions: Why compared to many other cyanines at least an order of magnitude higher dye concentration is needed to form J-aggregates of PIC? Why are there no precursors, since aggregation is expected to be a consecutive process? A large number of observations on steady-state and time-resolved spectral properties, and aggregation kinetics in solution/thin films are likely to find reasonable explanations within this hypothesis.

  18. Standard Glbbs Energy of Formation of the Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution. Rate Constants for the Reaction C102- -t O3 S 03- -t CIO,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaning, U. K.; Sehested, Knud; Holcman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Eoa,(OH/OH-) were determined by means of kf and k,, the equilibrium constant of 03- + O2 + 0-, the pK of the hydroxyl radical, A&Oa, of 030, 2a,n d OH-i n aqueous solution, and E0,,(C1O2/C1O2-) = 0.934 V determined in the present work. Apoa,(OH) = 26.8 * 1 kJ mol-' and Eoao(OH/OH-) = 1.91 * 0.01 V......The rate constants of the following reactions were determined by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow experiments: C102- + O3 + C102 + 03-(k f= (4 f 1) X lo6 dm3 mol-' s-', k, = (1.8 f 0.2) X lo5 dm3 mol-' s-]); C102 + OH - C103- + H+ (k = (4.0 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); C102 + 0- - C103- (k = (2.......7 * 0.4) X lo9 dm3 mol-' s-l); and O3 + C102 - C103 + O2 (k = (1.05 f 0.10) X lo3 dm3 mol-l s-'), where kf is the forward rate of reaction and k, is the reverse rate of reaction. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of OH in aqueous solution A&O,,(OH) and the corresponding standard oxidation potential...

  19. Formation of Microcracks During Micro-Arc Oxidation in a Phytic Acid-Containing Solution on Two-Phase AZ91HP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Chang, W. H.; Jiang, L. F.; Qu, B.; Zhang, S. F.; Qiao, L. P.; Xiang, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is an effective method to produce ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys and can considerably improve their corrosion resistance. The coating properties are closely related with microcracks, which are always inevitably developed on the coating surface. In order to find out the formation and development regularity of microcracks, anodic coatings developed on two-phase AZ91HP after different anodizing times were fabricated in a solution containing environmentally friendly organic electrolyte phytic acid. The results show that anodic film is initially developed on the α phase. At 50 s, anodic coatings begin to develop on the β phase, evidencing the formation of a rough area. Due to the coating successive development, the microcracks initially appear at the boundary between the initially formed coating on the α phase and the subsequently developed coating on the β phase. With the prolonging treatment time, the microcracks near the β phase become evident. After treating for 3 min, the originally rough area on the β phase disappears and the coatings become almost uniform with microcracks randomly distributed on the sample surface. Inorganic phosphates are found in MAO coatings, suggesting that phytate salts are decomposed due to the high instantaneous temperature on the sample surface resulted from spark discharge.

  20. A Scanning Cavity Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Mader, Matthias; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1700-fold signal enhancement compared to diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity below 1 nm2, we show a method to improve spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for opt...

  1. Frequency Tuning for a DQW Crab Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, Rama; Capatina, Ofelia; Leuxe, Raphael; Skaritka, John; Wu, Qiong; Xiao, Binping; Zanoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The nominal operating frequency for the HL-LHC crab cavities is 400.79 MHz within a bandwidth of ±60kHz. Attaining the required cavity tune implies a good understanding of all the processes that influence the cavity frequency from the moment when the cavity parts are being fabricated until the cavity is installed and under operation. Different tuning options will be available for the DQW crab cavity of LHC. This paper details the different steps in the cavity fabrication and preparation that may introduce a shift in the cavity frequency and introduces the different tuning methods foreseen to bring the cavity frequency to meet the specifications.

  2. Quantum atomic lithography via cross-cavity optical Stern-Gerlach setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, C. E.; Batalhão, T. B.; Bachelard, R.; de Moraes Neto, G. D.; de Ponte, M. A.; Moussa, M. H. Y.

    2014-10-01

    We present a fully quantum scheme to perform 2D atomic lithography based on a cross-cavity optical Stern-Gerlach setup: an array of two mutually orthogonal cavities crossed by an atomic beam perpendicular to their optical axes, which is made to interact with two identical modes. After deriving an analytical solution for the atomic momentum distribution, we introduce a protocol allowing us to control the atomic deflection by manipulating the amplitudes and phases of the cavity field states.

  3. Superconducting cavity model for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting cavity model is being prepared for testing in a vertical cryostat.At the top of the assembly jig is H.Preis while A.Scharding adjusts some diagnostic equipment to the cavity. See also photo 7912501X.

  4. Fiber cavities for atom chips

    OpenAIRE

    Klappauf, B.G.; Horak, P.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental realizations of several micro-cavities, constructed from standard fiber optic components, which meet the theoretical criteria for single atom detection from laser-cooled samples. We discuss integration of these cavities into state-of-the-art 'atom chips'.

  5. Technical tasks in superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kenji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The feature of superconducting rf cavities is an extremely small surface resistance on the wall. It brings a large energy saving in the operation, even those are cooled with liquid helium. That also makes possible to operate themselves in a higher field gradient comparing to normal conducting cavities, and brings to make accelerators compact. These merits are very important for the future accelerator engineering which is planed at JAERI for the neutron material science and nuclear waste transmutation. This machine is a high intensity proton linac and uses sc cavities in the medium and high {beta} sections. In this paper, starting R and D of proton superconducting cavities, several important technical points which come from the small surface resistance of sc cavities, are present to succeed it and also differences between the medium and high - {beta} structures are discussed. (author)

  6. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Dhakal, Pashupati [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Matalevich, Joseph R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  7. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  8. Machining of cavities for travelling wave LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Traveling Wave (T.W.), 2π/3 mode electron linear accelerator of 2856 MHz is under development at CAT for radiation processing of agricultural products. This LINAC consists of a thermionic triode electron gun, TW buncher section and Regular Section. Machining of input/output couplers, regular section cells and disc were carried out using CNC lathe LAL- 2 BT and CNC milling machine BMV - 40. This paper highlights the dimensional and geometrical requirements of cavities, problems encountered during machining of OFE copper and their solutions to achieve high precision with ultrahigh surface finish. The performance of Linac depends upon a number of factors such as operating vacuum level, accuracies of cavity dimensions, materials, and surface finish of cavities comprising the LINAC. Each of these depends upon material and fabrication techniques used for manufacturing OFE copper of higher purity has been used since they offer lower surface resistivity and lower power losses. With CNC tuning and milling machines, the high surface finish has been achieved with higher dimensional and geometrical accuracies

  9. Photon momentum and optical forces in cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani;

    2016-01-01

    forces in cavity structures in the cases of dynamical and steady-state fields. In the description of the single-photon transmission process, we use a field-kinetic one-photon theory. Our model suggests that in the medium photons couple with the induced atomic dipoles forming polariton quasiparticles....... When describing the steady-state nonequilibrium field distributions we use the recently developed quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism. While allowing detailed studies of light propagation and quantum field fluctuations in interfering structures, our methods also provide practical...... tools for modeling optical energy transfer and the formation of thermal balance in nanodevices as well as studying electromagnetic forces in optomechanical devices....

  10. 盐岩球腔储库弹性应力分布的理论解析%THEORETICAL ANALYTICAL SOLUTION OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN ELASTICITY STAGE OF SPHERICAL CAVITY STORAGE CAVERN IN SALT ROCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武; 许宏发; 江淼; 方秦

    2012-01-01

    假定地下储气库为球形腔体,利用在弹性阶段应力可叠加的基本原理,将球形储气库的受力方式简化分解为静水压力和垂直方向受力.对这2种受力方式下围岩应力分布解析结果进行叠加,获得在远场三轴压应力和储库内部压力共同作用下球腔储气库围岩弹性应力分布的完整解析解.在相同条件下,对盐岩球腔储气库进行数值分析,并将解析解与数值分析结果进行比较,结果表明,应力分布解析解与数值解吻合较好,验证所提出的分析方法是合理可行的.结合Hoek-Brown破坏准则,计算得出储气库不出现塑性破坏时的极限内压值范围.%Based on the assumption that the storage cavern is sphere, and using a basic principle that the stress could be superimposed in the elastic stage, the force modes of spherical gas storage cavern is disintegrated into hydrostatic pressure and vertical stress. Through the superposition of analytic results of surrounding rock stress distribution under the two kinds of force modes, the elastic stress distribution functions in surrounding rock of the spherical gas storage cavern in salt rock under remote field triaxial compressive stresses and internal pressure are derived. The numerical analysis of spherical gas storage cavern of salt rock is conducted under the same condition. Comparison shows that numerical simulation results are in good agreements with theoretical calculation results; and the presented analysis method is verified to be feasible. Then Hoek-Brown criterion is used to estimate the stability of spherical cavity storage cavern, and the limit of internal pressure is obtained when the plastic failure of gas storage cavern doesn't appear.

  11. Photon statistical properties of the cavity field in the two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The model that two two-level atoms interact with a singel-mode cavity is studied. The exact solution of the time evolution operator for the two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model is presented by the bare-states approach. Furthermore, we investigate the dynamical properties of the photon statistics of the cavity field, and obtain a number of novel features.

  12. Motion control of a rotor with a cavity with a viscous fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurchenkov, A. A.; Esenkov, A. S.; Tsurkov, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    A formulation and solution procedure of optimal control problems for perturbed relative uniform motion of a body with a cavity filled with a viscous incompressible fluid are proposed. In this paper, the case with a cylinder is considered; however, this approach is basically true for the a cavity of

  13. Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent flow in a driven cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.; Wissink, J.G.; Cazemier, W.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of 2 and 3D turbulent flows in a lid-driven cavity have been performed. DNS are numerical solutions of the unsteady (here: incompressible) Navier-Stokes equations that compute the evolution of all dynamically significant scales of motion. In view of the large compu

  14. 固溶体型高熵合金的形成条件%Formation condition of solid solution type high-entropy alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任明星; 李邦盛; 傅恒志

    2013-01-01

    研究高熵合金形成固溶体型组织的条件.制备17种不同成分的高熵合金,计算合金相组成影响因素(综合原子半径差δ、混合焓△H和混合熵△S),利用SEM和XRD分析合金的显微组织及相组成.结果表明:只有满足δ≤2.77和△H≥-8.8 kJ/mol的体系,才会形成固溶体型高熵合金,否则合金中出现金属间化合物.选择元素类型对高熵合金的组织结构和性能具有重要影响.%Formation condition of high-entropy alloys with solid solution structure was investigated.Seventeen kinds of the high-entropy alloys with different components were prepared,the influencing factors (the comprehensive atomic radius difference δ,the mixing enthalpy △H and the mixing entropy △S) of phase composition of the alloys were calculated,and the microstructure and phase compositions of alloys were analyzed by using SEM and XRD.The result shows that only the systems with δ≤2.77 and △H≥-8.8 kJ/mol will form high entropy alloy with simple solid solution.Otherwise,intermetallic compounds will exist in the alloys.So,selection of the type of element has important effects on microstructure and properties of high entropy alloys.

  15. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal loading in salt formation is studied for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste embedded in glass. Temperature effect on glass leaching, stability of gel layer on glass surface, quantity of leaching solution available in the borehole and corrosion resistance of materials used for containers are examined. The geological storage medium must satisfy particularly complex requirements: stratigraphy, brine migration, permeability, fissuring, mechanical strength, creep, thermal expansion, cavity structure ..

  16. Solution Conditions Affect the Ability of the K30D Mutation To Prevent Amyloid Fibril Formation by Apolipoprotein C-II: Insights from Experiments and Theoretical Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Todorova, Nevena; Zlatic, Courtney O; Gooley, Paul R; Griffin, Michael D W; Howlett, Geoffrey J; Yarovsky, Irene

    2016-07-12

    Apolipoproteins form amphipathic helical structures that bind lipid surfaces. Paradoxically, lipid-free apolipoproteins display a strong propensity to form cross-β structure and self-associate into disease-related amyloid fibrils. Studies of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) amyloid fibrils suggest that a K30-D69 ion pair accounts for the dual abilities to form helix and cross-β structure. Consistent with this is the observation that a K30D mutation prevents fibril formation under standard fibril forming conditions. However, we found that fibril formation by K30D apoC-II proceeded readily at low pH and a higher salt or protein concentration. Structural analysis demonstrated that K30D apoC-II fibrils at pH 7 have a structure similar to that of the wild-type fibrils but are less stable. Molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type apoC-II fibril model at pH 7 and 3 showed that the loss of charge on D69 at pH 3 leads to greater separation between residues K30 and D69 within the fibril with a corresponding reduction in β-strand content around residue 30. In contrast, in simulations of the K30D mutant model at pH 7 and 3, residues D30 and D69 moved closer at pH 3, accompanied by an increase in β-strand content around residue 30. The simulations also demonstrated a strong dominance of inter- over intramolecular contacts between ionic residues of apoC-II and suggested a cooperative mechanism for forming favorable interactions between the individual strands under different conditions. These observations demonstrate the important role of the buried K30-D69 ion pair in the stability and solution properties of apoC-II amyloid fibrils. PMID:27311794

  17. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  18. Scaffold-free formation of a millimeter-scale multicellular spheroid with an internal cavity from magnetically levitated 3T3 cells that ingested iron oxide-containing microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Ho; Hur, Won

    2014-05-01

    This report describes fabrication of a millimeter-scale three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structure with a central cavity based on magnetic levitation of 3T3 cells that had ingested Fe3 O4 -containing microcapsules. Magnetically levitated cells initially formed a disc-shaped cell cluster at the air-medium interface and transformed into a spheroid (up to 2.8 mm in diameter) after 10-day incubation under a magnet. Hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained section revealed that an eosinophilic shell of cells enclosed a pale-staining core of the spheroid. Mitotic or elongated and aligned cells were found at the outer periphery of the shell, while Fe3 O4 deposits were distributed in the inner part of the shell. Surgical dissection indicated that the spheroid had a hollow interior filled with a fluid-state cell suspension. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that magnetically levitated 3T3 cells organized themselves into a tissue-like spheroid, resulting in core cell death. The spheroid can be used as a 3D tissue model and as building blocks that fused to form a more complicated structure. PMID:24254251

  19. Internally Pressurized Spherical and Cylindrical Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1978-01-01

    -linear zone and the volume reduction. Results are given for cavities in rock salt, and a comparison with measured stress concentrations is used to support the assumption of a hydrostatic stress state in undisturbed salt formations. Finally a method to estimate convergence due to creep is outlined....

  20. Formation of size and shape tunable gold nanoparticles in solution by bio-assisted synthesis with bovine serum albumin in native and denaturated state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We investigate the ability of bovine serum albumin to synthesize gold nanoparticles. → Bovine serum albumin protein acts as both reducing and stabilizing agent. → The size of nanoparticles can be varied by adjusting the protein concentration. → The shape of nanoparticles can be tuned by reaction temperature. → The obtained nanoparticles can be used as bio-substrates for SERS applications. - Abstract: We have successfully controlled the size and shape of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through a one-step bio-assisted procedure by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein as both reducing and stabilizing agent. We found that the growing process of GNPs can be directly manipulated by simply controlling the BSA concentration in solution and the reaction temperature. The GNPs formation was followed both experimentally by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and theoretically by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The surface plasmon resonance of as-prepared GNPs suits the needs of many biological applications.

  1. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-01-01

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (Sos(Cat)) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of Sos(Cat), while Sos(Cat) also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos. PMID:27412770

  2. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-07-14

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (Sos(Cat)) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of Sos(Cat), while Sos(Cat) also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos.

  3. Assessment of semiempirical enthalpy of formation in solution as an effective energy function to discriminate native-like structures in protein decoy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Carvalho, Gabriel Aires; Fragoso, Wallace Duarte; Rocha, Gerd Bruno

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we tested the PM6, PM6-DH+, PM6-D3, and PM7 enthalpies of formation in aqueous solution as scoring functions across 33 decoy sets to discriminate native structures or good models in a decoy set. In each set these semiempirical quantum chemistry methods were compared according to enthalpic and geometric criteria. Enthalpically, we compared the methods according to how much lower was the enthalpy of each native, when compared with the mean enthalpy of its set. Geometrically, we compared the methods according to the fraction of native contacts (Q), which is a measure of geometric closeness between an arbitrary structure and the native. For each set and method, the Q of the best decoy was compared with the Q0 , which is the Q of the decoy closest to the native in the set. It was shown that the PM7 method is able to assign larger energy differences between the native structure and the decoys in a set, arguably because of a better description of dispersion interactions, however PM6-DH+ was slightly better than the rest at selecting geometrically good models in the absence of a native structure in the set. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Conductance Studies on Complex Formation between c-Methylcalix[4]resorcinarene and Titanium (III in Acetonitrile-H2O Binary Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Saadati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calixresorcinarenes have proved to be unique molecules for molecular recognition via hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and ionic interactions with suitable substrates such as cations. The study of the interactions involved in the complexation of different cations with calixresorcinarenes in solvent mixtures is important for a better understanding of the mechanism of biological transport, molecular recognition, and other analytical applications. This article summarizes different aspects of the complexes of the Ti3+ metal cation with c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR as studied by conductometry in acetonitrile (AN–water (H2O binary mixtures at different temperatures. Conductance data show that the metal cation/ligand (ML stoichiometry of the complexes in solution is 1:1 in all cases. Non-linear behaviour was observed for the variation of logKf of the complexes vs. the composition of the binary solvent mixtures. Selectivity of CMCR for the Ti3+ cation is sensitive to solvent composition; in some cases and at certain compositions of the mixed solvent systems, the selectivity order is changed. Values of thermodynamic parameters (, for formation of the CMCR–Ti3+ complexes in AN–H2O binary systems were obtained from the temperature dependence of stability constants, and the results show that the thermodynamics of complexation reactions are affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  5. An analytic solution for the minimal bathtub toy model: challenges in the star-formation history of high-z galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    We study the minimal ``bathtub" toy model as an analytic tool for capturing key processes of galaxy evolution and identifying robust successes and challenges in reproducing observations at high redshift. The source and sink terms of the continuity equations for gas and stars are expressed in simple terms from first principles. The assumed dependence of star-formation rate (SFR) on gas mass self-regulates the system into a unique asymptotic behavior, which is approximated by an analytic quasi-steady-state solution (QSS). We address the validity of the QSS at different epochs independent of earlier conditions. At high z, where the accretion is assumed to consist of gas only, the specific SFR is robustly predicted to be sSFR = [(1+z)/3]^{5/2} Gyr^{-1}, slightly higher than the cosmological specific accretion rate, in agreement with observations at z=3-8. The gas fraction is expected to decline slowly, and the observations constrain the SFR efficiency per dynamical time to epsilon=0.02. The stellar-to-virial mass...

  6. Geometry-Invariant Resonant Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Liberal, Iñigo; Engheta, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Resonant cavities are one of the basic building blocks in various disciplines of science and technology, with numerous applications ranging from abstract theoretical modeling to everyday life devices. The eigenfrequencies of conventional cavities are a function of its geometry, and, thus, the size and shape of a resonant cavity is selected in order to operate at a specific frequency. Here, we demonstrate theoretically the existence of geometry-invariant resonant cavities, i.e., resonators whose eigenfrequency is invariant with respect to geometrical deformations. This effect is obtained by exploiting the unusual properties of zero-index metamaterials, which enable decoupling of the time and spatial field variations. This new class of resonators may inspire alternative design concepts, and it might lead to the first generation of deformable resonant devices.

  7. Vibration insensitive optical ring cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Jin; Jiang Yan-Yi; Fang Su; Bi Zhi-Yi; Ma Long-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The mounting configuration of an optical ring cavity is optimized for vibration insensitivity by finite element analysis. A minimum response to vertical accelerations is found by simulations made for different supporting positions.

  8. Niobium LEP 2 accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    An accelerating cavity from LEP. This could be cut open to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities were used in an upgrade of the LEP accelerator to double the energy of the particle beams.

  9. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  10. TESLA superconducting RF cavity development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); TESLA Collaboration

    1995-05-01

    The TESLA collaboration has made steady progress since its first official meeting at Cornell in 1990. The infrastructure necessary to assemble and test superconducting rf cavities has been installed at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY. 5-cell, 1.3 GHz cavities have been fabricated and have reached accelerating fields of 25 MV/m. Full sized 9-cell copper cavities of TESLA geometry have been measured to verify the higher order modes present and to evaluate HOM coupling designs. The design of the TESLA 9-cell cavity has been finalized and industry has started delivery. Two prototype 9-cell niobium cavities in their first tests have reached accelerating fields of 10 MV/m and 15 MV/m in a vertical dewar after high peak power (HPP) conditioning. The first 12 m TESLA cryomodule that will house 8 9-cell cavities is scheduled to be delivered in Spring 1995. A design report for the TTF is in progress. The TTF test linac is scheduled to be commissioned in 1996/1997. (orig.).

  11. Stabilization of an optical frequency comb to an external cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this master's thesis is stabilizing a frequency comb laser to an external cavity using a couple of servo controllers. The aim of the project was to build a pair of servo controllers, replacing parts of the existing commercial and proprietary solution already in use. The system under control is an optical frequency comb, which is locked to an external cavity and is used for trace gas detection and spectroscopy. The comb is a broadband light source and needs to be locked to the e...

  12. A photonic crystal cavity-optical fiber tip nanoparticle sensor for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shambat, Gary; Kothapalli, Sri Rajasekhar; Khurana, Aman; Provine, J; Sarmiento, Tomas; Cheng, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; HARRIS, JAMES; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensor capable of detecting solution-based nanoparticles using an optical fiber tip functionalized with a photonic crystal cavity. When sensor tips are retracted from a nanoparticle solution after being submerged, we find that a combination of convective fluid forces and optically-induced trapping cause an aggregation of nanoparticles to form directly on cavity surfaces. A simple readout of quantum dot photoluminescence coupled to the optical fiber shows that nanoparticle presenc...

  13. Bistable behavior of a two-mode Bose–Einstein condensate in an optical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional optical cavity. Specifically, the condensate atoms are taken to be in two degenerate modes due to their internal hyperfine spin degrees of freedom and they are coupled to the cavity field and an external transverse laser field in a Raman scheme. A parallel laser also excites the cavity mode. When the pump laser is far detuned from its resonance atomic transition frequency, an effective nonlinear optical model of the cavity–condensate system is developed under the discrete mode approximation (DMA), while matter–field coupling has been considered beyond the rotating wave approximation. By analytical and numerical solutions of the nonlinear dynamical equations, we examine the mean cavity field and population difference (magnetization) of the condensate modes. The stationary solutions of both the mean cavity field and normalized magnetization demonstrate bistable behavior under certain conditions for the laser pump intensity and matter–field coupling strength. (paper)

  14. Flow-acoustic Characterisation of a Cavity-based Combustor Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kant Agarwal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the flow-acoustic characterisation of a cavity-based combustor configuration. A well-validated numerical tool has been used to simulate the unsteady, two-dimensional reacting flow. Initially, a conventional flow over a cavity with dimensions and conditions corresponding to a compact cavity combustor was studied. Cavity mass injections in the form of fuel and air injections required for trapped vortex formation were then employed and the resonance features of this configuration were studied. The results indicate that the cavity depth mode resonance mechanism is dominant at the conditions studied in this work and that the oscillation frequencies do not change with cavity air injection. This observation is important since it implies that the only important variable which can alter resonant frequencies is the cavity depth. With combustion, the pressure oscillation amplitude was observed to increases significantly due to periodic entrainment of the cavity air jet and fluctuation of fuel-air mixture composition to produce highly fluctuating heat-release rates. The underlying mechanisms of the unsteady flow in the cavity combustor identified in this study indicate the strong dependence of the acoustics on the cavity injection strategies.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(6, pp.523-528, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.870

  15. Interaction of a vircator microwave generator with an enclosing resonant cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction between a vircator microwave generator and a resonant cavity is produced by enclosing the virtual cathode inside a right circular cylinder appended to the anode foil. Cavity diameter is chosen to simultaneously minimize the number of resonant modes and to avoid significant perturbation of the virtual cathode formation. By varying the cavity length frequencies corresponding to the TM/sub 01n/ cavity modes are tuned to resonate with the broad band oscillating virtual cathode. The RF fields stored in the resonant cavities feedback on the virtual cathode and improve the kinetic to microwave power conversion efficiency. For each cavity only a single mode is excited; non-resonant frequencies are suppressed. Measured radiation patterns show that TM/sub 011/ mode microwave power extracted radially from the cavity is 1.5 times that with no cavity, and about 4 times that from a non resonant cavity. Resonant cavities suppress non-resonant frequencies decreasing the bandwidth of the emitting radiation by a factor ≥ 5

  16. Nanostructural features affecting superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities revealed using TEM and EELS

    CERN Document Server

    Trenikhina, Y; Kwon, J; Zuo, J -M; Zasadzinski, J F

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale defect structure within the magnetic penetration depth of ~100nm is key to the performance limitations of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Using a unique combination of advanced thermometry during cavity RF measurements, and TEM structural and compositional characterization of the samples extracted from cavity walls, we discover the existence of nanoscale hydrides in electropolished cavities limited by the high field Q slope, and show the decreased hydride formation in the electropolished cavity after 120C baking. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adding 800C hydrogen degassing followed by light buffered chemical polishing restores the hydride formation to the pre-120C bake level. We also show absence of niobium oxides along the grain boundaries and the modifications of the surface oxide upon 120C bake.

  17. Anion Complexes with Tetrazine-Based Ligands: Formation of Strong Anion-π Interactions in Solution and in the Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Matteo; Bazzicalupi, Carla; Giorgi, Claudia; García-Gallarín, Celeste; López de la Torre, Maria Dolores; Pichierri, Fabio; Bianchi, Antonio; Melguizo, Manuel

    2016-08-15

    Ligands L1 and L2, consisting of a tetrazine ring decorated with two morpholine pendants of different lengths, show peculiar anion-binding behaviors. In several cases, even the neutral ligands, in addition to their protonated HL(+) and H2L(2+) (L = L1 and L2) forms, bind anions such as F(-), NO3(-), PF6(-), ClO4(-), and SO4(2-) to form stable complexes in water. The crystal structures of H2L1(PF6)2·2H2O, H2L1(ClO4)2·2H2O, H2L2(NO3)2, H2L2(PF6)2·H2O, and H2L2(ClO4)2·H2O show that anion-π interactions are pivotal for the formation of these complexes, although other weak forces may contribute to their stability. Complex stability constants were determined by means of potentiometric titration in aqueous solution at 298.1 K, while dissection of the free-energy change of association (ΔG°) into its enthalpic (ΔH°) and entropic (TΔS°) components was accomplished by means of isothermal titration calorimetry measurements. Stability constants are poorly regulated by anion-ligand charge-charge attraction. Thermodynamic data show that the formation of complexes with neutral ligands, which are principally stabilized by anion-π interactions, is enthalpically favorable (-ΔG°, 11.1-17.5 kJ/mol; ΔH°, -2.3 to -0.5 kJ/mol; TΔS°, 9.0-17.0 kJ/mol), while for charged ligands, enthalpy changes are mostly unfavorable. Complexation reactions are invariably promoted by large and favorable entropic contributions. The importance of desolvation phenomena manifested by such thermodynamic data was confirmed by the hydrodynamic results obtained by means of diffusion NMR spectroscopy. In the case of L2, complexation equilibria were also studied in a 80:20 (v/v) water/ethanol mixture. In this mixed solvent of lower dielectric constant than water, the stability of anion complexes decreases, relative to water. Solvation effects, mostly involving the ligand, are thought to be responsible for this peculiar behavior.

  18. 3D cavity detection technique and its application based on cavity auto scanning laser system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-ling; LI Xi-bing; LI Fa-ben; ZHAO Guo-yan; QIN Yu-hui

    2008-01-01

    Ground constructions and mines are severely threatened by underground cavities especially those unsafe or inaccessible ones. Safe and precise cavity detection is vital for reasonable cavity evaluation and disposal. The conventional cavity detection methods and their limitation were analyzed. Those methods cannot form 3D model of underground cavity which is used for instructing the cavity disposal; and their precisions in detection are always greatly affected by the geological circumstance. The importance of 3D cavity detection in metal mine for safe exploitation was pointed out; and the 3D cavity laser detection method and its principle were introduced. A cavity auto scanning laser system was recommended to actualize the cavity 3D detection after comparing with the other laser detection systems. Four boreholes were chosen to verify the validity of the cavity auto scanning laser system. The results show that the cavity auto scanning laser system is very suitable for underground 3D cavity detection, especially for those inaccessible ones.

  19. A photonic crystal cavity-optical fiber tip nanoparticle sensor for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shambat, Gary; Khurana, Aman; Provine, J; Sarmiento, Tomas; Cheng, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; Harris, James; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensor capable of detecting solution-based nanoparticles using an optical fiber tip functionalized with a photonic crystal cavity. When sensor tips are retracted from a nanoparticle solution after being submerged, we find that a combination of convective fluid forces and optically-induced trapping cause an aggregation of nanoparticles to form directly on cavity surfaces. A simple readout of quantum dot photoluminescence coupled to the optical fiber shows that nanoparticle presence and concentration can be detected through modified cavity properties. Our sensor can detect both gold and iron oxide nanoparticles and can be utilized for molecular sensing applications in biomedicine.

  20. Remagnetization and Cementation of Unconsolidated Sediments in the Mallik 5L-38 Well (Canadian Arctic) by Solute Exclusion During Gas Hydrate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. S.; Enkin, R. J.; Esteban, L.

    2007-05-01

    mineralogy. Silt samples are significantly stronger than sand samples in saturation magnetization and magnetic susceptibility. The silt samples have single-domain to pseudo-single domain coercivity ratios whereas the gas hydrate bearing sands have a more multi-domain nature. Sands with current gas hydrate concentrations > 80% have less magnetic material and single domain characteristics. The source of the greigite, carbonates, and other diagenetic minerals was apparently concentrated solutes excluded from formation waters by the freezing and formation of the water dominated gas hydrate. The hydrates served as a cementing agent for the unconsolidated sediments, allowing them to fracture. Some layers have been so inflated by the introduction carbonate and sulfide cements that they resemble hydrothermal tufa and skarns with floating sand grains. In the silts, the magnetic properties reflect the mixture of primary detrital magnetite and diagenetic greigite in various grain sizes and concentrations. At Mallik, the magnetic properties are sensitive to the diagenetic mineralogy and redox state associated with the transport of methane and pore fluids and the creation of gas hydrates. Hypersaline brines, produced by solute exclusion from pore waters, fractured and inflated less permeable sediments and forced rapid disequilibrium growth of greigite without dissolving primary detrital magnetite grains.

  1. Optical coherence tomography based imaging of dental demineralisation and cavity restoration in 840 nm and 1310 nm wavelength regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Vani; Rao, Suresh Ranga; Vasa, Nilesh J.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a study of in-house built optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a wavelength of 840 nm for imaging of dental caries, progress in demineralisation and cavity restoration is presented. The caries when imaged with the 840 nm OCT system showed minute demineralisation in the order of 5 μm. The OCT system was also proposed to study the growth of lesion and this was demonstrated by artificially inducing caries with a demineralisation solution of pH 4.8. The progress of carious lesion to a depth of about 50-60 μm after 60 hours of demineralisation was clearly observed with the 840 nm OCT system. The tooth samples were subjected to accelerated demineralisation condition at pH of approximately 2.3 to study the adverse effects and the onset of cavity formation was clearly observed. The restoration of cavity was also studied by employing different restorative materials (filled and unfilled). In the case of restoration without filler material (unfilled), the restoration boundaries were clearly observed. Overall, results were comparable with that of the widely used 1310 nm OCT system. In the case of restoration with filler material, the 1310 nm OCT imaging displayed better imaging capacity due to lower scattering than 840 nm imaging.

  2. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  3. Analysis of Schottky Contact Formation in Coplanar Au/ZnO/Al Nanogap Radio Frequency Diodes Processed from Solution at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, James; Rossbauer, Stephan; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2016-09-01

    Much work has been carried out in recent years in fabricating and studying the Schottky contact formed between various metals and the n-type wide bandgap semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO). In spite of significant progress, reliable formation of such technologically interesting contacts remains a challenge. Here, we report on solution-processed ZnO Schottky diodes based on a coplanar Al/ZnO/Au nanogap architecture and study the nature of the rectifying contact formed at the ZnO/Au interface. Resultant diodes exhibit excellent operating characteristics, including low-operating voltages (±2.5 V) and exceptionally high current rectification ratios of >10(6) that can be independently tuned via scaling of the nanogap's width. The barrier height for electron injection responsible for the rectifying behavior is studied using current-voltage-temperature and capacitance-voltage measurements (C-V) yielding values in the range of 0.54-0.89 eV. C-V measurements also show that electron traps present at the Au/ZnO interface appear to become less significant at higher frequencies, hence making the diodes particularly attractive for high-frequency applications. Finally, an alternative method for calculating the Richardson constant is presented yielding a value of 38.9 A cm(-2) K(-2), which is close to the theoretically predicted value of 32 A cm(-2) K(-2). The implications of the obtained results for the use of these coplanar Schottky diodes in radio frequency applications is discussed.

  4. Suppression of extraneous thermal noise in cavity optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yi; Ni, Kang-Kuen; Kimble, H Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Extraneous thermal motion can limit displacement sensitivity and radiation pressure effects, such as optical cooling, in a cavity-optomechanical system. Here we present an active noise suppression scheme and its experimental implementation. The main challenge is to selectively sense and suppress extraneous thermal noise without affecting motion of the oscillator. Our solution is to monitor two modes of the optical cavity, each with different sensitivity to the oscillator's motion but similar sensitivity to the extraneous thermal motion. This information is used to imprint "anti-noise" onto the frequency of the incident laser field. In our system, based on a nano-mechanical membrane coupled to a Fabry-P\\'{e}rot cavity, simulation and experiment demonstrate that extraneous thermal noise can be selectively suppressed and that the associated limit on optical cooling can be reduced.

  5. Analysis of short-term reactor cavity transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the transient of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear reactor, peak pressures are reached within the first 0.03 s at different locations inside the reactor cavity. Due to the complicated multidimensional nature of the reactor cavity, the short-term analysis of the LOCA transient cannot be performed by using traditional containment codes, such as CONTEMPT. The advanced containment code, BEACON/MOD3, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), can be adapted for such analysis. This code provides Eulerian, one and two-dimensional, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium flow modeling as well as lumped parameter, homogeneous, equilibrium flow modeling for the solution of two-component, two-phase flow problems. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the BEACON code to analyze complex containment geometry such as a reactor cavity

  6. Subsurface Cavity Detection by Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykaç, Sinem; Rezzan Ozerk, Zeynep; Işıkdeniz Şerifoǧlu, Betül; Bihter Demirci, Büşra; Timur, Emre; Çakir, Korhan

    2016-04-01

    Global warming experienced in recent years in Turkey has led to a severe drought around the Konya Plain in central Anatolia .As a result, excessive amount of ground water was drawn in the region for the sustainability of agricultural activities. So, five small-scale shallow depth sinkholes have occured at different times, at an average interval between 400-450 m. in the study area; Konya-Atlantı. Generally, sinkholes formation occurres among natural processes has turned into disasters caused by humans due to excessive use of groundwater. Consequently, investigations were carried out within a partnership research programme on cavity detection and ground penetration radar, microgravity and multi-frequency electromagnetic methods were jointly utilized. . Exact locations and dimensions of two possible hidden cavities were determined by using these multidisciplinary methods. Keywords: Cavity;Ground-penetrating radar;Konya;Microgravimetry;Multi-frequency electromagnetic method.

  7. Avoiding mastoid cavity Problems: Mastoid obliteration using Bioactive glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shokry, Al`Sayed Hossieni Al`Sayed, Mohammed Fatehy Zidan,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate bioactive glass as an ideal material for the purpose of mastoid cavity elimination after mastoid surgery to avoid mastoid cavity problems.Materials and methods: In 20 patients diagnosed as cholesteatoma or chronic unsafe ear, we used different surgical techniques according to pathology and situation during surgical exploration, basically adhering to standard principles of eradicating disease in chronic unsafe ear. After performing the canal wall down (CWD or the canal wall up (CWU technique, mastoidectomy was followed by obliteration of mastoid cavity by particulate form Bioglass®. Cases were divided according to operative procedures, type of reconstruction and material used into 3 groups A- Canal wall up mastoidectomy followed by obliteration of mastoid cavity by particulate form Bioglass®. B- Canal wall down mastoidectomy followed by reconstruction of posterior meatal wall and obliteration of mastoid cavity by particulate form Bioglass®. C- Canal wall down mastoidectomy followed by reconstruction of posterior meatal wall by conchal cartilage and obliteration of mastoid cavity by Bioglass®.Results: Bioactiveglass paste is very effective for mastoid obliteration in the three groups with good integration to the surrounding tissues either connective tissue, bone, meninges or lateral dural sinus without any adverse reaction on the dura even with contact to Bioglass®. Infection was seen in 2 cases (10%, however was readily controlled by topical application of antibiotics daily for one week. In both cases no extrusion of the material occurred. Conclusion: The successful formation of bone with elimination of mastoid cavity problems proved that using Bioglass is appropriate for performing clinical mastoid obliteration.

  8. RRR Characteristics for SRF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Yoochul; Joung, Mijoung

    2015-01-01

    The first heavy ion accelerator is being constructed by the rare isotope science project (RISP) launched by the Institute of Basic Science (IBS) in South Korea. Four different types of superconducting cavities were designed, and prototypes were fabricated such as a quarter wave resonator (QWR), a half wave resonator (HWR) and a single spoke resonator (SSR). One of the critical factors determining performances of the superconducting cavities is a residual resistance ratio (RRR). The RRR values essentially represent how much niobium is pure and how fast niobium can transmit heat as well. In general, the RRR degrades during electron beam welding due to the impurity incorporation. Thus it is important to maintain RRR above a certain value at which a niobium cavity shows target performance. In this study, RRR degradation related with electron beam welding conditions, for example, welding power, welding speed, and vacuum level will be discussed.

  9. RRR Characteristics for SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoochul; Hyun, Myungook; Joung, Mijoung

    2015-10-01

    The first heavy ion accelerator is being constructed by the rare isotope science project (RISP) launched by the Institute of Basic Science (IBS) in South Korea. Four different types of superconducting cavities were designed, and prototypes such as a quarter-wave resonator (QWR), a half-wave resonator (HWR) and a single-spoke resonator (SSR) were fabricated. One of the critical factors determining the performances of superconducting cavities is the residual resistance ratio (RRR). The RRR values essentially represent how pure niobium is and how fast niobium can transmit heat. In general, the RRR degrades during electron beam welding due to impurity incorporation. Thus, it is important to maintain the RRR above a certain value at which a niobium cavity shows target performance. In this study, RRR degradation related with electron beam welding conditions, for example, the welding power, welding speed, and vacuum level, will be discussed.

  10. Cavity QED with atomic mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, D E; Gorhskov, A V; Kimble, H J

    2012-01-01

    A promising approach to merge atomic systems with scalable photonics has emerged recently, which consists of trapping cold atoms near tapered nanofibers. Here, we describe a novel technique to achieve strong, coherent coupling between a single atom and photon in such a system. Our approach makes use of collective enhancement effects, which allow a lattice of atoms to form a high-finesse cavity within the fiber. We show that a specially designated "impurity" atom within the cavity can experience strongly enhanced interactions with single photons in the fiber. Under realistic conditions, a "strong coupling" regime can be reached, wherein it becomes feasible to observe vacuum Rabi oscillations between the excited impurity atom and a cavity photon. This technique can form the basis for a scalable quantum information network using atom-nanofiber systems.

  11. Analytical approach for resolving stress states around elliptical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of stress states around cavities in the stressed elastic body, regardless of cavity shapes, that may be spherical, cylindrical elliptical etc. in its analytical approach has to be based on selection of a stress function that will satisfy biharmonic equation, under given boundary conditions. This paper is concerned with formulation and solution of the cited differential equation using elliptical coordinates in conformity with the cavity shape of oblong ellipsoid [1]. It is therefore considered that the formulation of the stress tensor will be done in conformity to the cited coordinates. The paper describes basic statements and definitions in connection to harmonic functions used for determination of stress states around cavities formed in the stressed homogeneous space. The particular attention has been paid to the use of Legendre`s functions, with definitions and derivation of recurrent formulas, that have been used for determination of stress states around an oblong ellipsoidal cavity, [1]. The paper also includes the description of procedures used in forming series based on Legendre`s functions of the first order.

  12. Cavity State Reservoir Engineering in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric T.

    Engineered quantum systems are poised to revolutionize information science in the near future. A persistent challenge in applied quantum technology is creating controllable, quantum interactions while preventing information loss to the environment, decoherence. In this thesis, we realize mesoscopic superconducting circuits whose macroscopic collective degrees of freedom, such as voltages and currents, behave quantum mechanically. We couple these mesoscopic devices to microwave cavities forming a cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) architecture comprised entirely of circuit elements. This application of cavity QED is dubbed Circuit QED and is an interdisciplinary field seated at the intersection of electrical engineering, superconductivity, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Two popular methods for taming active quantum systems in the presence of decoherence are discrete feedback conditioned on an ancillary system or quantum reservoir engineering. Quantum reservoir engineering maintains a desired subset of a Hilbert space through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. Circuit QED provides a favorable platform for investigating quantum reservoir engineering proposals. A major advancement of this thesis is the development of a quantum reservoir engineering protocol which maintains the quantum state of a microwave cavity in the presence of decoherence. This thesis synthesizes strongly coupled, coherent devices whose solutions to its driven, dissipative Hamiltonian are predicted a priori. This work lays the foundation for future advancements in cavity centered quantum reservoir engineering protocols realizing hardware efficient circuit QED designs.

  13. Superconducting cavities produced by magnetron sputtering of niobium on copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of thin niobium films on copper is an attractive solution to improve the thermal stability of superconducting rf cavities. First results obtained with a bias diode system have confirmed the interest of this approach. As an alternative to the diode configuration, a cylindrical magnetron system has been developed at CERN which combines the advantages of a simpler design and of a shorter coating duration. The coating systems and procedure are described together with the physical properties of the niobium films and the results obtained on rf cavities. Q/sub o/ values in excess of 2 x 109 at 5 MV/m have been reproducibly achieved on single cell 500 MHz cavities and a Q/sub o/ value of 6.2 x 109 was reached at 5 MV/m on a 4 cell 352 MHz cavity. Together with these excellent results, Nb coated copper cavities also present some inconveniences such as the sporadic appearance of blisters in the Nb film and a faster decrease of Q/sub o/ with increasing field. The results so far achieved are presented and discussed. 17 references, 13 figures, 3 tables

  14. YOUNG AGN OUTBURST RUNNING OVER OLDER X-RAY CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to have a profound effect on the evolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, details of AGN heating remain elusive. Here, we study NGC 193—a nearby lenticular galaxy—based on X-ray (Chandra) and radio (Very Large Array and Giant Meter-wave Radio Telescope) observations. These data reveal the complex AGN outburst history of the galaxy: we detect a pair of inner X-ray cavities, an outer X-ray cavity, a shock front, and radio lobes extending beyond the inner cavities. We suggest that the inner cavities were produced ∼78 Myr ago by a weaker AGN outburst, while the outer cavity, the radio lobes, and the shock front are due to a younger (13-26 Myr) and 4-8 times more powerful outburst. Combining this with the observed morphology of NGC 193, we conclude that NGC 193 likely represents the first example of a second, more powerful, AGN outburst overrunning an older, weaker outburst. These results help us to understand how the outburst energy is dissipated uniformly in the core of galaxies, and therefore may play a crucial role in resolving how AGN outbursts suppress the formation of large cooling flows at cluster centers

  15. A geometric approach to identify cavities in particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyiatzis, Evangelos; Böhm, Michael C.; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2015-11-01

    The implementation of a geometric algorithm to identify cavities in particle systems in an open-source python program is presented. The algorithm makes use of the Delaunay space tessellation. The present python software is based on platform-independent tools, leading to a portable program. Its successful execution provides information concerning the accessible volume fraction of the system, the size and shape of the cavities and the group of atoms forming each of them. The program can be easily incorporated into the LAMMPS software. An advantage of the present algorithm is that no a priori assumption on the cavity shape has to be made. As an example, the cavity size and shape distributions in a polyethylene melt system are presented for three spherical probe particles. This paper serves also as an introductory manual to the script. It summarizes the algorithm, its implementation, the required user-defined parameters as well as the format of the input and output files. Additionally, we demonstrate possible applications of our approach and compare its capability with the ones of well documented cavity size estimators.

  16. Insights to Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavity Processing from First Principles Calculations and Spectroscopic Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Denise Christine [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Insights to the fundamental processes that occur during the manufacturing of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are provided via analyses of density functional theory calculations and Raman, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. I show that during electropolishing fluorine is bound and released by the reaction of the acid components in the solution: HF + H2SO4 <-> HFSO3 + H2O. This result implies that new recipes can possibly be developed on the principle of controlled release of fluorine by a chemical reaction. I also show that NMR or Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor the free fluorine when polishing with the standard electropolishing recipe. Density functional theory was applied to calculate the properties of common processing impurities – hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon – in the niobium. These impurities lower the superconducting transition temperature of niobium, and hydride precipitates are at best weakly superconducting. I modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities, and explain the phase changes in the niobium hydrogen system based on the charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen and the strain field inside of the niobium. I also present evidence for a niobium lattice vacancy serving as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. In considering the other chemical impurities in niobium, I show that the absorption of oxygen into a niobium lattice vacancy is preferred over the absorption of hydrogen, which indicates that oxygen can block these phase nucleation centers. I also show that dissolved oxygen atoms can trap dissolved hydrogen atoms to prevent niobium hydride phase formation. Nitrogen and carbon were studied in less depth, but behaved similarly to oxygen. Based on these results and a literature survey, I propose a mechanism for the success of the low-temperature anneal applied to niobium SRF cavities. Finally, I

  17. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DIVERSIFICATION OF MODULAR CAVITY MOULDS FOR FOOTWEAR SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the prefabricated footwear soles are formed in moulds with unique cavities. Each sole model requires one set of moulds and the set must contain at least one mould for each size number. Considering the great number of sole models, sentiments and size series, whatever the production size, the cost for moulds production and soles production is significant. In this paper are presented solutions that lead to possibilities of using the same set of moulds to obtain various models of soles. There are presented solutions for sole model diversification by modifying the cavities of existing moulds as well as solutions for designing moulds with modular cavities which are different from the classical ones. Through the development of this solutions was aimed the increasing of the exploitation efficiency of the available moulds and decreasing of the time needed and costs of production for new sole models. Experiments have shown that the moulds with modular cavities can be manufactured faster and with smaller costs then the moulds with unique cavities. This has as an immediate effect the faster launching into production and on the market of mew sole models and with smaller prices. Introducing in the sole fabrication process of moulds with modular cavities, as the only solution or in conjunction with the classic moods, opens new perspective in this domain.

  18. Sterility of the uterine cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Birger R.; Kristiansen, Frank V.; Thorsen, Poul;

    1995-01-01

    In a prospective open study the sterility of the uterine cavity was evaluated in 99 women admitted for hysterectomy. The indications for hysterectomy were in most cases persistent irregular vaginal bleeding and fibromyomas of the uterus. Samples for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia...... trachomatis, yeasts and viruses were taken preoperatively from the apex of the vagina and cervical os. Immediately after hysterectomy the uterus was opened under sterile conditions and samples obtained from the isthmus and fundus of the uterine cavity for microbiological examination. Wet smears were taken...

  19. Protein dynamics: hydration and cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heremans K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-pressure behavior of proteins seems to be unique among the biological macromolecules. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic data show the typical elliptical stability diagram. This may be extended by assuming that the unfolded state gives rise to volume and enthalpy-driven liquid-liquid transitions. A molecular interpretation follows from the temperature and the pressure dependence of the hydration and cavities. We suggest that positron annihilation spectroscopy can provide additional quantitative evidence for the contributions of cavities to the dynamics of proteins. Only mature amyloid fibrils that form from unfolded proteins are very resistant to pressure treatment.

  20. Nanobeam Cavities for Reconfigurable Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Deotare, Parag

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of high quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, with theoretical quality factors of \\(1.4 × 10^7\\) in silicon, operating at ~1550 nm. By detecting the cross-polarized resonantly scattered light from a normally incident laser beam, we measure a quality factor of nearly \\(7.5 × 10^5\\). We show on-chip integration of the cavities using waveguides and an inverse taper geometry based mode size converters, and also...

  1. Synchronization in an optomechanical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomi, Keren; Yuvaraj, D; Baskin, Ilya; Suchoi, Oren; Winik, Roni; Buks, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    We study self-excited oscillations (SEO) in an on-fiber optomechanical cavity. Synchronization is observed when the optical power that is injected into the cavity is periodically modulated. A theoretical analysis based on the Fokker-Planck equation evaluates the expected phase space distribution (PSD) of the self-oscillating mechanical resonator. A tomography technique is employed for extracting PSD from the measured reflected optical power. Time-resolved state tomography measurements are performed to study phase diffusion and phase locking of the SEO. The detuning region inside which synchronization occurs is experimentally determined and the results are compared with the theoretical prediction. PMID:25871175

  2. Entanglement swapping between atom and cavity and generation of entangled state of cavity fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ai-Xi; Deng Li

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme where entanglement swapping between atom and cavity can be realized. A-type three-level atoms interacting resonantly with cavity field are considered. By detecting atom and cavity field, it realizes entanglement swapping between atom and cavity. It uses the technique of entanglement swapping to generate an entangled state of two cavity fields by measuring on atoms. It discusses the experimental feasibility of the proposed scheme and application of entangled state of cavity fields.

  3. 8:1 thermal cavity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresho, P M; Sutton, S

    2000-10-11

    We present results for the 8:1 thermal cavity problem using FIDAP on 3 meshes--each using 3 elements. A brief summary of related results is also included. This contribution comes via the rather versatile and general commercial finite element code, FIDAP. This code still offers the user a wide selection with respect to element choices, statement of governing equations, (e.g., advective form, divergence form) implicit time integrators (variable-step or fixed step, first-order or second-order), and solution techniques for both the nonlinear and linear sets of equations. We have tested quite a number of these variations on this problem; here we report on an interesting subset and will present the remainder at the conference.

  4. Droplet based cavities and lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The self-organized and molecularly smooth surface on liquid microdroplets makes them attractive as optical cavities with very high quality factors. This chapter describes the basic theory of optical modes in spherical droplets. The mechanical properties including vibrational excitation are also d...

  5. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JianHua; RUAN ShiPing

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavitation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator, which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emergence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects, of both model and prototype, on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length below aerators was suggested, which considers overall effects of the above mentioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  6. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavi-tation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator,which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emer-gence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects,of both model and prototype,on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length be-low aerators was suggested,which considers overall effects of the above men-tioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  7. Large-mode enhancement cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Henning; Holzberger, Simon; Kaster, Jan; Weitenberg, Johannes; Pervak, Volodymyr; Apolonski, Alexander; Fill, Ernst; Krausz, Ferenc; Pupeza, Ioachim

    2013-05-01

    In passive enhancement cavities the achievable power level is limited by mirror damage. Here, we address the design of robust optical resonators with large spot sizes on all mirrors, a measure that promises to mitigate this limitation by decreasing both the intensity and the thermal gradient on the mirror surfaces. We introduce a misalignment sensitivity metric to evaluate the robustness of resonator designs. We identify the standard bow-tie resonator operated close to the inner stability edge as the most robust large-mode cavity and implement this cavity with two spherical mirrors with 600 mm radius of curvature, two plane mirrors and a round trip length of 1.2 m, demonstrating a stable power enhancement of near-infrared laser light by a factor of 2000. Beam radii of 5.7 mm × 2.6 mm (sagittal × tangential 1/e(2) intensity radius) on all mirrors are obtained. We propose a simple all-reflective ellipticity compensation scheme. This will enable a significant increase of the attainable power and intensity levels in enhancement cavities. PMID:23670017

  8. Field emission in RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee

    1996-01-01

    Electron field emission limits the accelerating gradient in superconducting cavities. It is shown how and why it is an important problem. The phenomenology of field emission is then described, both in DC and RF regimes. Merits of a few plausible `remedies` to field emission are discussed. (author). 20 refs.

  9. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...

  10. A 200 MHz prebunching cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This cavity was installed in the PS ring and proved very efficient in providing a modulation on the PS beam before it is injected into the SPS machine. Moreover it allowed longitudinal instabilities studies at high intensities. Roberto Cappi stands on the left.

  11. Nanobeam cavities for Reconfigurable Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotare, Parag B.

    We investigate the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of high quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, with theoretical quality factors of 1.4 x 107 in silicon, operating at ˜ 1550 nm. By detecting the cross-polarized resonantly scattered light from a normally incident laser beam, we measure a quality factor of nearly 7.5 x 105. We show on-chip integration of the cavities using waveguides and an inverse taper geometry based mode size converters, and also demonstrate tuning of the optical resonance using thermo-optic effect. We also study coupled cavities and show that the single nanobeam cavity modes are coupled into even and odd superposition modes. Using electrostatic force and taking advantage of the highly dispersive nature of the even mode to the nanobeam separation, we demonstrate dynamically reconfigurable optical filters tunable continuously and reversibly over a 9.5 nm wavelength range. The electrostatic force, obtained by applying bias voltages directly to the nanobeams, is used to control the spacing between the nanobeams, which in turn results in tuning of the cavity resonance. The observed tuning trends were confirmed through simulations that modeled the electrostatic actuation as well as the optical resonances in our reconfigurable geometries. Finally we demonstrate reconfiguration of coupled cavities by using optical gradient force induced mechanical actuation. Propagating waveguide modes that exist over wide wavelength range are used to actuate the structures and in that way control the resonance of a localized cavity mode. Using this all-optical approach, more than 18 linewidths of tuning range is demonstrated. Using an on-chip temperature self-referencing method that we developed, we determined that 20% of the total tuning was due to optomechanical reconfiguration and the rest due to thermo-optic effects. By operating the device at frequencies higher than the thermal cut-off, we show high speed operation dominated by

  12. Size dependence of cavity volume: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha; Dubins, David N; Pomès, Régis; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2012-02-01

    Partial molar volume, V°, has been used as a tool to sample solute hydration for decades. The efficacy of volumetric investigations of hydration depends on our ability to reliably discriminate between the cavity, V(C), and interaction, V(I), contributions to the partial molar volume. The cavity volume, V(C), consists of the intrinsic volume, V(M), of a solute molecule and the thermal volume, V(T), with the latter representing the volume of the effective void created around the solute. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with the Kirkwood-Buff theory to compute the partial molar volumes for organic solutes of varying sizes in water. We perform our computations using the Lennard-Jones and Coulombic pair potentials as well as truncated potentials which contain only the Lennard-Jones but not the Coulombic contribution. The partial molar volume computed with the Lennard-Jones potentials in the absence of the Coulombic term nearly coincides with the cavity volume, V(C). We determine the thermal volume, V(T), for each compound by subtracting its van der Waals volume, V(W), from V(C). Finally, we apply the spherical approximation of solute geometry to evaluate the thickness of the thermal volume, δ. Our results reveal an increase in the thickness of thermal volume, δ, with an increase in the size of the solute. This finding may be related to dewetting of large nonpolar solutes and the concomitant increase in the compressibility of water of hydration. PMID:22133917

  13. Radiation Transfer in the Cavity and Shell of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, M D; Zijlstra, A A

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approximate analytical solution for the transfer of line-averaged radiation in the hydrogen recombination lines for the ionized cavity and molecular shell of a spherically symmetric planetary nebula. The scattering problem is treated as a perturbation, using a mean intensity derived from a scattering-free solution. The analytical function was fitted to Halpha and Hbeta data from the planetary nebula NGC6537. The position of the maximum in the intensity profile produced consistent values for the radius of the cavity as a fraction of the radius of the dusty nebula: 0.21 for Halpha and 0.20 for Hbeta. Recovered optical depths were broadly consistent with observed optical extinction in the nebula, but the range of fit parameters in this case is evidence for a clumpy distribution of dust.

  14. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  15. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  16. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer » Detailed Guide » What are ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Oral cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, is cancer ...

  17. Stereoscopic PIV measurements of flow in the nasal cavity with high flow therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C. J. T.; Buchmann, N. A.; Jermy, M. C.; Moore, S. M.

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the airflow characteristics within the nasal cavity with nasal high flow (NHF) therapy and during unassisted breathing is essential to understand the treatment's efficacy. The distribution and velocity of the airflow in the nasal cavity with and without NHF cannula flow has been investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry at steady peak expiration and inspiration. In vivo breathing flows were measured and dimensionally scaled to reproduce physiological conditions in vitro. A scaled model of the complete nasal cavity was constructed in transparent silicone and airflow simulated with an aqueous glycerine solution. NHF modifies nasal cavity flow patterns significantly, altering the proportion of inspiration and expiration through each passageway and producing jets with in vivo velocities up to 17.0 ms-1 for 30 l/min cannula flow. Velocity magnitudes differed appreciably between the left and right sides of the nasal cavity. The importance of using a three-component measurement technique when investigating nasal flows has been highlighted.

  18. Cavity-water interface is polar

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, Allan D.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of numerical simulations of the electrostatics and dynamics of water hydration shells surrounding Kihara cavities given by a Lennard-Jones (LJ) layer at the surface of a hard-sphere cavity. The local dielectric response of the hydration layer substantially exceeds that of bulk water, with the magnitude of the dielectric constant peak in the shell increasing with the growing cavity size. The polar shell propagates into bulk water to approximately the cavity radius. The s...

  19. Theory and technology for superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Lengeler, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    The course will address Physicist and Engineers who are newcomers in the field of accelerators and accelerating cavities. The elements of RF-Superconductivity will be presented with special relevance to accelerating cavities. The present ststus of achievable accelerating fields and RF losses will be given and their link to the special technologies for cavity fabrication and surface treatments will be stressed. Cavity auxiliaries like main couplers, higher order mode couplers and frequency tuners will be described.

  20. Prototype storage cavity for LEP accelerating RF

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The principle of an RF storage cavity was demonstrated with this prototype, working at 500 MHz. Ian Wilso seems to hold it in his hands. The storage cavities had 4 portholes, 1 each for: RF feed; tuning; connection to the accelerating cavity; vacuum pump. The final storage cavities were larger, to suit the lower LEP accelerating frequency of 352.2 MHz. See also 8002294, 8006510X, 8109346, 8407619X, and Annual Report 1980, p.115.