WorldWideScience

Sample records for cavity flood system

  1. Feasibility of flooding the reactor cavity with liquid gallium coolant for IVR-ERVC strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Dae; Bang, In Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the feasibility of gallium liquid metal application for IVR-ERVC. ► We consider overall concerns to apply the liquid metal. ► Decay heat can be removed by flooding the reactor cavity with gallium liquid metal. -- Abstract: In this paper, a new approach replacing the ERVC coolant by a liquid metal instead of water is studied to avoid the heat removal limit of CHF during boiling of water. As the flooding material, gallium is used in terms of the melting and boiling points. Gallium has the enough low melting point of ∼29.7 °C to ensure to maintain liquid state within the containment building. A gallium storage tank for the new flooding system of the ERVC is located in higher position than one of the reactor cavity to make a passive system using the gravity for the event of a station blackout (SBO). While the decay heat from the reactor vessel is removed by gallium, the borated water which is coming out from the reactor system plays a role as the ultimate heat sink in this ERVC system. In the system, two configurations of gallium and borated water are devised depending on whether the direct contact between them occurs. In the first configuration, two fluids are separated by the block structure. The decay heat is transported from molten corium to gallium through the vessel wall. Then the heat is ultimately dissipated by boiling of water in the block structure surface facing the borated water. In the second configuration, the cavity is flooded with both borated water and gallium in the same reactor cavity space. As the result, two layers of the fluids are naturally formed by the density difference. Like the first configuration, finally the heat removal is achieved by boiling of water via gallium. The CFD analysis shows that the maximum temperature of gallium is much lower than its boiling point while the natural circulation is stably formed in two types of the configurations without any serious risk of thermal limit

  2. Study on natural circulation flow under reactor cavity flooding condition in advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Jun; Yang Jiang; Cao Jianhua; Lu Xianghui; Guo Dingqing

    2015-01-01

    Cavity flooding is an important severe accident management measure for the in-vessel retention of a degraded core by external reactor vessel cooling in advanced PWRs. A code simulation study on the natural circulation flow in the gap between the reactor vessel wall and insulation material under cavity flooding condition is performed by using a detailed mechanistic thermal-hydraulic code package RELAP 5. By simulating of an experiment carried out for studying the natural circulation flow for APR1400 shows that the code is applicable for analyzing the circulation flow under this condition. The analysis results show that heat removal capacity of the natural circulation flow in AP1000 is sufficient to prevent thermal failure of the reactor vessel under bounding heat load. Several conclusions can be drawn from the sensitivity analysis. Larger coolant inlet area induced larger natural circulation flow rate. The outlet should be large enough and should not be submerged by the cavity water to vent the steam-water mixture. In the implementation of cavity flooding, the flooding water level should be high enough to provide sufficient natural circulation driven force. (authors)

  3. Ex-vessel boiling experiments: laboratory- and reactor-scale testing of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention. Pt. II. Reactor-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Slezak, S.E.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.77-88 (1997). This paper summarizes the results of a reactor-scale ex-vessel boiling experiment for assessing the flooded cavity design of the heavy water new production reactor. The simulated reactor vessel has a cylindrical diameter of 3.7 m and a torispherical bottom head. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling mainly results from the gravity head, which in turn results from flooding the side of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid-solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion. The results show that, under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity will be effective for in-vessel core retention in the heavy water new production reactor. The results also demonstrate that the heat dissipation requirement for in-vessel core retention, for the central region of the lower head of an AP-600 advanced light water reactor, can be met with the flooded cavity design. (orig.)

  4. Large-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Slezak, S.E.; Bentz, J.H.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results of ex-vessel boiling experiments performed in the CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility. CYBL is a reactor-scale facility for confirmatory research of the flooded cavity concept for accident management. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner tank simulates the reactor vessel and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. Experiments with uniform and edge-peaked heat flux distributions up to 20 W/cm 2 across the vessel bottom were performed. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling is mainly due to the gravity head which results from flooding the sides of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid/solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion (ejection). The results suggest that under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity in a passive pressurized water reactor like the AP-600 should be capable of cooling the reactor pressure vessel in the central region of the lower head that is addressed by these tests

  5. Actions to reduce radioactive emissions: prevention of containment failure by flooding Containment and Reactor Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor cavity of Asco and Vandellos II is dry type, thus a severe accident leading to vessel failure might potentially end up resulting in the loss of containment integrity, depending on the viability to cool the molten core. Therefore, significant radioactive emissions could be released to outside. In the framework of Fukushima Stress Tests, ANAV has analyzed the convenience of carrying out different actions to prevent failure of the containment integrity in order to reduce radioactive emissions. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the main phenomenological aspects associated with two of these actions: containment flooding and reactor cavity flooding.

  6. A stochastic assessment of cavity flooding strategy involving operator action for Yonggwang 3 and 4 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Yu, D.; Ha, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents a new approach to the evaluation of an accident management strategy when an operator action is involved. This approach classifies the failure in implementing a given strategy into 4 possible states, and provides their corresponding quantification methods: 1) the failure of a diagnosis and decision-making by operators, 2) the failure of taking an action following a correct diagnosis, 3) the failure of a system operation following an adequate action, and 4) the failure due to a delayed action. The proposed methods were applied to assess a cavity flooding strategy that uses containment spray system (CSS), and the result shows that the methods are more appropriate in evaluating accident management strategies when human actions are involved

  7. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kee Poong; Lee, Hyoung Wook; Jang, Kwang Keol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seong Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In this work, assessment system for methodology for reactor pressure vessel integrity is developed. Assessment system is make up of severe accident assessment code which can calculate the conditions of plant and structural analysis code which can assess the integrity of reactor vessel using given plant conditions. An assessment of cavity flooding using containment spray system has been done. As a result, by the containment spray, cavity can be flooded successfully and CCI can be reduced. The technical backgrounds for external vessel cooling and corium cooling on the cavity are summarized and provided in this report.

  8. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kee Poong; Lee, Hyoung Wook; Jang, Kwang Keol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seong Jin; Park, Jae Hong

    2001-03-01

    In this work, assessment system for methodology for reactor pressure vessel integrity is developed. Assessment system is make up of severe accident assessment code which can calculate the conditions of plant and structural analysis code which can assess the integrity of reactor vessel using given plant conditions. An assessment of cavity flooding using containment spray system has been done. As a result, by the containment spray, cavity can be flooded successfully and CCI can be reduced. The technical backgrounds for external vessel cooling and corium cooling on the cavity are summarized and provided in this report

  9. Development of an ex-vessel corium debris bed with two-phase natural convection in a flooded cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunho; Lee, Mooneon; Park, Hyun Sun; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • For ex-vessel severe accidents in LWRs with wet-cavity strategy, development of debris bed with two-phase natural convection flow due to thermal characteristics of prototypic corium particles was investigated experimentally by using simulant particles and local air bubble control system. • Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to describe the spreading of the debris bed in terms of two-phase flow and the debris injection parameters. • This model was then used to analyze the formation of debris beds at the reactor scale, and a sensitivity analysis was carried out based on key accident parameters. - Abstract: During severe accidents of light water reactors (LWRs), the coolability of relocated corium from the reactor vessel is a significant safety issue and a threat to the integrity of containment. With a flooded cavity, a porous debris bed is expected to develop on the bottom of the pool due to breakup and fragmentation of the melt jet. As part of the coolability assessment under accident conditions, the geometrical configuration of the debris bed is important. The Debris Bed Research Apparatus for Validation of the Bubble-Induced Natural Convection Effect Issue (DAVINCI) experimental apparatus facility was constructed to investigate the formation of debris beds under the influence of a two-phase flow induced by steam generation due to the decay heat of the debris bed. Using this system, five kilograms of stainless steel simulant debris were injected from the top of the water level, while air bubbles simulating the vapor flow were injected from the bottom of the particle catcher plate. The airflow rate was determined based on the quantity of settled debris, which will form a heat source due to the decay of corium. The radial distribution of the settled debris was examined using a ‘gap–tooth’ approach. Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to

  10. Development of an ex-vessel corium debris bed with two-phase natural convection in a flooded cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunho; Lee, Mooneon; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • For ex-vessel severe accidents in LWRs with wet-cavity strategy, development of debris bed with two-phase natural convection flow due to thermal characteristics of prototypic corium particles was investigated experimentally by using simulant particles and local air bubble control system. • Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to describe the spreading of the debris bed in terms of two-phase flow and the debris injection parameters. • This model was then used to analyze the formation of debris beds at the reactor scale, and a sensitivity analysis was carried out based on key accident parameters. - Abstract: During severe accidents of light water reactors (LWRs), the coolability of relocated corium from the reactor vessel is a significant safety issue and a threat to the integrity of containment. With a flooded cavity, a porous debris bed is expected to develop on the bottom of the pool due to breakup and fragmentation of the melt jet. As part of the coolability assessment under accident conditions, the geometrical configuration of the debris bed is important. The Debris Bed Research Apparatus for Validation of the Bubble-Induced Natural Convection Effect Issue (DAVINCI) experimental apparatus facility was constructed to investigate the formation of debris beds under the influence of a two-phase flow induced by steam generation due to the decay heat of the debris bed. Using this system, five kilograms of stainless steel simulant debris were injected from the top of the water level, while air bubbles simulating the vapor flow were injected from the bottom of the particle catcher plate. The airflow rate was determined based on the quantity of settled debris, which will form a heat source due to the decay of corium. The radial distribution of the settled debris was examined using a ‘gap–tooth’ approach. Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to

  11. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  12. A Many-Atom Cavity QED System with Homogeneous Atom-Cavity Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jongmin; Vrijsen, Geert; Teper, Igor; Hosten, Onur; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a many-atom-cavity system with a high-finesse dual-wavelength standing wave cavity in which all participating rubidium atoms are nearly identically coupled to a 780-nm cavity mode. This homogeneous coupling is enforced by a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by the field of a 1560-nm cavity mode.

  13. Development of Integrated Flood Analysis System for Improving Flood Mitigation Capabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-suk

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the needs of people are growing for a more safety life and secure homeland from unexpected natural disasters. Flood damages have been recorded every year and those damages are greater than the annual average of 2 trillion won since 2000 in Korea. It has been increased in casualties and property damages due to flooding caused by hydrometeorlogical extremes according to climate change. Although the importance of flooding situation is emerging rapidly, studies related to development of integrated management system for reducing floods are insufficient in Korea. In addition, it is difficult to effectively reduce floods without developing integrated operation system taking into account of sewage pipe network configuration with the river level. Since the floods result in increasing damages to infrastructure, as well as life and property, structural and non-structural measures should be urgently established in order to effectively reduce the flood. Therefore, in this study, we developed an integrated flood analysis system that systematized technology to quantify flood risk and flood forecasting for supporting synthetic decision-making through real-time monitoring and prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information in Korea. Keywords: Flooding, Integrated flood analysis system, Rainfall forecasting, Korea Acknowledgments This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ011686022015)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea

  14. A global flash flood forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Calum; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Hewson, Tim; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    The sudden and devastating nature of flash flood events means it is imperative to provide early warnings such as those derived from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts. Currently such systems exist on basin, national and continental scales in Europe, North America and Australia but rely on high resolution NWP forecasts or rainfall-radar nowcasting, neither of which have global coverage. To produce global flash flood forecasts this work investigates the possibility of using forecasts from a global NWP system. In particular we: (i) discuss how global NWP can be used for flash flood forecasting and discuss strengths and weaknesses; (ii) demonstrate how a robust evaluation can be performed given the rarity of the event; (iii) highlight the challenges and opportunities in communicating flash flood uncertainty to decision makers; and (iv) explore future developments which would significantly improve global flash flood forecasting. The proposed forecast system uses ensemble surface runoff forecasts from the ECMWF H-TESSEL land surface scheme. A flash flood index is generated using the ERIC (Enhanced Runoff Index based on Climatology) methodology [Raynaud et al., 2014]. This global methodology is applied to a series of flash floods across southern Europe. Results from the system are compared against warnings produced using the higher resolution COSMO-LEPS limited area model. The global system is evaluated by comparing forecasted warning locations against a flash flood database of media reports created in partnership with floodlist.com. To deal with the lack of objectivity in media reports we carefully assess the suitability of different skill scores and apply spatial uncertainty thresholds to the observations. To communicate the uncertainties of the flash flood system output we experiment with a dynamic region-growing algorithm. This automatically clusters regions of similar return period exceedence probabilities, thus presenting the at-risk areas at a spatial

  15. Iowa Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  16. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  17. Interactive Web-based Floodplain Simulation System for Realistic Experiments of Flooding and Flood Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.

    2013-12-01

    Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage and visualize large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to create realistic environments, and interact with data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. The floodplain simulation system is a web-based 3D interactive flood simulation environment to create real world flooding scenarios. The simulation systems provides a visually striking platform with realistic terrain information, and water simulation. Students can create and modify predefined scenarios, control environmental parameters, and evaluate flood mitigation techniques. The web-based simulation system provides an environment to children and adults learn about the flooding, flood damage, and effects of development and human activity in the floodplain. The system provides various scenarios customized to fit the age and education level of the users. This presentation provides an overview of the web-based flood simulation system, and demonstrates the capabilities of the system for various flooding and land use scenarios.

  18. Conduction cooling systems for linear accelerator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Robert

    2017-05-02

    A conduction cooling system for linear accelerator cavities. The system conducts heat from the cavities to a refrigeration unit using at least one cavity cooler interconnected with a cooling connector. The cavity cooler and cooling connector are both made from solid material having a very high thermal conductivity of approximately 1.times.10.sup.4 W m.sup.-1 K.sup.-1 at temperatures of approximately 4 degrees K. This allows for very simple and effective conduction of waste heat from the linear accelerator cavities to the cavity cooler, along the cooling connector, and thence to the refrigeration unit.

  19. The CEBAF separator cavity resonance control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wissmann; C. Hovater; A. Guerra; T. Plawski

    2005-01-01

    The CEBAF energy upgrade will increase the maximum beam energy from 6 GeV to 12 GeV available to the experimental halls. RF deflection cavities (separators) are used to direct the electron beam to the three halls. The resulting increase in RF separator cavity gradient and subsequent increase in RF power needed for these higher energies will require the cavities to have active resonance control. Currently, at the present 4 to 6 GeV energies, the cavities are tuned mechanically and then stabilized with Low Conductivity Water (LCW) which is maintained at a constant temperature of 95 Fahrenheit. This approach is no longer feasible and an active resonance control system that controls both water temperature and flow has been designed and built. The system uses a commercial PLC with embedded PID controls to regulate water temperature and flow to the cavities. The system allows the operator to remotely adjust temperature/flow and consequently cavity resonance for the full range of beam energies. Ultimately, closed loop control will be maintained by monitoring each cavity's reflected power. This paper describes this system

  20. Technical evaluation of corium cooling at the reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Soo Hyung; Chan, Eun Sun; Lee, Jae Hun; Lee, Jong In

    1998-01-01

    To terminate the progression of the severe accident and mitigate the accident consequences, corium cooling has been suggested as one of most important design features considered in the severe accident mitigation. Till now, some kinds of cooling methodologies have been identified and, specially, the corium cooling at the reactor cavity has been considered as one of the most promising cooling methodologies. Moreover, several design requirements related to the corium cooling at the reactor cavity have been also suggested and applied to the design of the next generation reactor. In this study, technical descriptions are briefly described for the important issues related to the corium cooling at the reactor cavity, i.e. cavity area, cavity flooding system, etc., and simple evaluations for those items have been performed considering present technical levels including the experiment and analytical works

  1. The CEBAF Separator Cavity Resonance Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Mark J; Hovater, Curt; Plawski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The CEBAF energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12GeV will increase the range of beam energies available to the experimental halls. RF deflection cavities (separators) are used to direct the electron beam to the three experimental halls. Consequently with the increase in RF separator cavity gradient needed for the higher energies, RF power will also increase requiring the cavities to have active resonance control. At the 6 GeV energy, the cavities are tuned mechanically and then stabilized with Low Conductivity Water (LCW), which is maintained at constant temperature of 95o Fahrenheit. This is no longer feasible and an active resonance control system, that controls both water temperature and flow has been built. The system uses a commercial PLC with embedded PID controls to control water temperature and flow to the cavities. The system allows the operator to remotely adjust temperature/flow and consequently cavity resonance for the full range of beam energies. Ultimately closed loop control will be maintained by monit...

  2. Flood Risk Management in Iowa through an Integrated Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 1100 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert

  3. Review of the flood risk management system in Germany after the major flood in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret H. Thieken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Widespread flooding in June 2013 caused damage costs of €6 to 8 billion in Germany, and awoke many memories of the floods in August 2002, which resulted in total damage of €11.6 billion and hence was the most expensive natural hazard event in Germany up to now. The event of 2002 does, however, also mark a reorientation toward an integrated flood risk management system in Germany. Therefore, the flood of 2013 offered the opportunity to review how the measures that politics, administration, and civil society have implemented since 2002 helped to cope with the flood and what still needs to be done to achieve effective and more integrated flood risk management. The review highlights considerable improvements on many levels, in particular (1 an increased consideration of flood hazards in spatial planning and urban development, (2 comprehensive property-level mitigation and preparedness measures, (3 more effective flood warnings and improved coordination of disaster response, and (4 a more targeted maintenance of flood defense systems. In 2013, this led to more effective flood management and to a reduction of damage. Nevertheless, important aspects remain unclear and need to be clarified. This particularly holds for balanced and coordinated strategies for reducing and overcoming the impacts of flooding in large catchments, cross-border and interdisciplinary cooperation, the role of the general public in the different phases of flood risk management, as well as a transparent risk transfer system. Recurring flood events reveal that flood risk management is a continuous task. Hence, risk drivers, such as climate change, land-use changes, economic developments, or demographic change and the resultant risks must be investigated at regular intervals, and risk reduction strategies and processes must be reassessed as well as adapted and implemented in a dialogue with all stakeholders.

  4. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood... process of restoring a flood protection system that was: (i) Constructed using Federal funds; (ii...

  5. Flood forecasting and warning systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Awan, Shaukat

    2004-01-01

    Meteorologically, there are two situations which may cause three types of floods in Indus Basin in Pakistan: i) Meteorological Situation for Category-I Floods when the seasonal low is a semi permanent weather system situated over south eastern Balochistan, south western Punjab, adjoining parts of Sindh get intensified and causes the moisture from the Arabian Sea to be brought up to upper catchments of Chenab and Jhelum rivers. (ii) Meteorological Situation for Category-11 and Category-111 Floods, which is linked with monsoon low/depression. Such monsoon systems originate in Bay of Bengal region and then move across India in general west/north westerly direction arrive over Rajasthan or any of adjoining states of India. Flood management in Pakistan is multi-functional process involving a number of different organizations. The first step in the process is issuance of flood forecast/warning, which is performed by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) utilizing satellite cloud pictures and quantitative precipitation measurement radar data, in addition to the conventional weather forecasting facilities. For quantitative flood forecasting, hydrological data is obtained through the Provincial Irrigation Department and WAPDA. Furthermore, improved rainfall/runoff and flood routing models have been developed to provide more reliable and explicit flood information to a flood prone population.(Author)

  6. Cavity parameters identification for TESLA control system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarski, T.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). ELHEP Lab., ISE; Simrock, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The control system modeling for the TESLA - TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project has been developed for the efficient stabilization of the pulsed, accelerating EM field of the resonator. The cavity parameters identification is an essential task for the comprehensive control algorithm. The TESLA cavity simulator has been successfully implemented by applying very high speed FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array technology. The electromechanical model of the cavity resonator includes the basic features - Lorentz force detuning and beam loading. The parameters identification bases on the electrical model of the cavity. The model is represented by the state space equation for the envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. For a given model structure, the over-determined matrix equation is created covering the long enough measurement range with the solution according to the least squares method. A low degree polynomial approximation is applied to estimate the time-varying cavity detuning during the pulse. The measurement channel distortion is considered, leading to the external cavity model seen by the controller. The comprehensive algorithm of the cavity parameters identification has been implemented in the Matlab system with different modes of the operation. Some experimental results have been presented for different cavity operational conditions. The following considerations have lead to the synthesis of the efficient algorithm for the cavity control system predicted for the potential FPGA technology implementation. (orig.)

  7. Cavity parameters identification for TESLA control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarski, T.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The control system modeling for the TESLA - TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project has been developed for the efficient stabilization of the pulsed, accelerating EM field of the resonator. The cavity parameters identification is an essential task for the comprehensive control algorithm. The TESLA cavity simulator has been successfully implemented by applying very high speed FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Array technology. The electromechanical model of the cavity resonator includes the basic features - Lorentz force detuning and beam loading. The parameters identification bases on the electrical model of the cavity. The model is represented by the state space equation for the envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. For a given model structure, the over-determined matrix equation is created covering the long enough measurement range with the solution according to the least squares method. A low degree polynomial approximation is applied to estimate the time-varying cavity detuning during the pulse. The measurement channel distortion is considered, leading to the external cavity model seen by the controller. The comprehensive algorithm of the cavity parameters identification has been implemented in the Matlab system with different modes of the operation. Some experimental results have been presented for different cavity operational conditions. The following considerations have lead to the synthesis of the efficient algorithm for the cavity control system predicted for the potential FPGA technology implementation. (orig.)

  8. iFLOOD: A Real Time Flood Forecast System for Total Water Modeling in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S. J.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme flood events are the costliest natural hazards impacting the US and frequently cause extensive damages to infrastructure, disruption to economy and loss of lives. In 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought severe damage to South Carolina and demonstrated the importance of accurate flood hazard predictions that requires the integration of riverine and coastal model forecasts for total water prediction in coastal and tidal areas. The National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Ocean Service (NOS) provide flood forecasts for almost the entire US, still there are service-gap areas in tidal regions where no official flood forecast is available. The National capital region is vulnerable to multi-flood hazards including high flows from annual inland precipitation events and surge driven coastal inundation along the tidal Potomac River. Predicting flood levels on such tidal areas in river-estuarine zone is extremely challenging. The main objective of this study is to develop the next generation of flood forecast systems capable of providing accurate and timely information to support emergency management and response in areas impacted by multi-flood hazards. This forecast system is capable of simulating flood levels in the Potomac and Anacostia River incorporating the effects of riverine flooding from the upstream basins, urban storm water and tidal oscillations from the Chesapeake Bay. Flood forecast models developed so far have been using riverine data to simulate water levels for Potomac River. Therefore, the idea is to use forecasted storm surge data from a coastal model as boundary condition of this system. Final output of this validated model will capture the water behavior in river-estuary transition zone far better than the one with riverine data only. The challenge for this iFLOOD forecast system is to understand the complex dynamics of multi-flood hazards caused by storm surges, riverine flow, tidal oscillation and urban storm water. Automated system

  9. Development of the L-band superconducting cavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, T.; Kakutani, N.; Sukenobu, S. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (JP)] [and others

    2000-02-01

    R and D activities on superconducting cavities in 1998 at TOSHIBA are presented. An L-band single-cell niobium cavity with four ports on the beam pipes was fabricated in our company and tested at KEK. The cryostat and refrigerator system for the cavity were designed and fabricated. The cryostat installed the cavity was tested in low temperature. R and D of hydroforming to fabricate seamless cavities is also presented. (author)

  10. Development of the L-band superconducting cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, T.; Kakutani, N.; Sukenobu, S.

    2000-01-01

    R and D activities on superconducting cavities in 1998 at TOSHIBA are presented. An L-band single-cell niobium cavity with four ports on the beam pipes was fabricated in our company and tested at KEK. The cryostat and refrigerator system for the cavity were designed and fabricated. The cryostat installed the cavity was tested in low temperature. R and D of hydroforming to fabricate seamless cavities is also presented. (author)

  11. Control System Design for Automatic Cavity Tuning Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.; Khabiboulline, T.; Kotelnikov, S.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Ross, M.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab; Goessel, A.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.; /DESY

    2009-05-01

    A series of four automatic tuning machines for 9-cell TESLA-type cavities are being developed and fabricated in a collaborative effort among DESY, FNAL, and KEK. These machines are intended to support high-throughput cavity fabrication for construction of large SRF-based accelerator projects. Two of these machines will be delivered to cavity vendors for the tuning of XFEL cavities. The control system for these machines must support a high level of automation adequate for industrial use by non-experts operators. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design for these machines.

  12. Control System Design for Automatic Cavity Tuning Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Khabiboulline, T.; Kotelnikov, S.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Ross, M.; Schappert, W.; Goessel, A.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of four automatic tuning machines for 9-cell TESLA-type cavities are being developed and fabricated in a collaborative effort among DESY, FNAL, and KEK. These machines are intended to support high-throughput cavity fabrication for construction of large SRF-based accelerator projects. Two of these machines will be delivered to cavity vendors for the tuning of XFEL cavities. The control system for these machines must support a high level of automation adequate for industrial use by non-experts operators. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design for these machines.

  13. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Most flood prone areas in the globe are mainly located in developing countries where making communities more flood resilient is a priority. Despite different flood forecasting initiatives are now available from academia and research centers, what is often missing is the connection between the timely hazard detection and the community response to warnings. In order to bridge the gap between science and decision makers, UN agencies play a key role on the dissemination of information in the field and on capacity-building to local governments. In this context, having a reliable global early warning system in the UN would concretely improve existing in house capacities for Humanitarian Response and the Disaster Risk Reduction. For those reasons, UNITAR-UNOSAT has developed together with USGS and CIMA Foundation a Global Flood EWS called "Flood-FINDER". The Flood-FINDER system is a modelling chain which includes meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic models that are accurately linked to enable the production of warnings and forecast inundation scenarios up to three weeks in advance. The system is forced with global satellite derived precipitation products and Numerical Weather Prediction outputs. The modelling chain is based on the "Continuum" hydrological model and risk assessments produced for GAR2015. In combination with existing hydraulically reconditioned SRTM data and 1D hydraulic models, flood scenarios are derived at multiple scales and resolutions. Climate and flood data are shared through a Web GIS integrated platform. First validation of the modelling chain has been conducted through a flood hindcasting test case, over the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand, using multi temporal satellite-based analysis derived for the exceptional flood event of 2011. In terms of humanitarian relief operations, the EO-based services of flood mapping in rush mode generally suffer from delays caused by the time required for their activation, programming, acquisitions and

  14. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopic System And Method

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad Bin Saud

    2015-05-14

    A system and method for cavity ring-down spectroscopy can include a pulsed quantum cascade laser, an optical ring-down cavity, a photodetector, and an oscilloscope. The system and method can produce pulse widths of less than 200 ns with bandwidths greater than 300 pm, as well as provide temporal resolution of greater than 10 .mu.s.

  16. Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopic System And Method

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad Bin Saud; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    A system and method for cavity ring-down spectroscopy can include a pulsed quantum cascade laser, an optical ring-down cavity, a photodetector, and an oscilloscope. The system and method can produce pulse widths of less than 200 ns with bandwidths greater than 300 pm, as well as provide temporal resolution of greater than 10 .mu.s.

  17. Flood early warning system : Design, implementation and computational modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Shirshov, G.S.; Melnikova, N.B.; Belleman, R.G.; Rusadi, F.I.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Gouldby, B.P.; Lhomme, J.; Balis, B.; Bubak, M.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Ozhigin, A.V.; Lang, B.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a prototype of the flood early warning system (EWS) developed within the UrbanFlood FP7 project. The system monitors sensor networks installed in flood defenses (dikes, dams, embankments, etc.), detects sensor signal abnormalities, calculates dike failure probability, and simulates

  18. Evaluation of a cavity flooding strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure in a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Je, Moo Sung; Park, Chang Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, TaeJon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-01

    As a part of the evaluation of accident management strategies for severe accident prevention or mitigation in a station blackout scenario for YGN 3 and 4, an external vessel cooling strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure has been estimated using the MAAP4 computer code. The sensitivity studies have been performed such as actuating timings and the number of spray pumps used. To explore external vessel cooling strategies, containment spray pumps were actuated by varying time spanning core uncovery, core melting and relocation of molten core material. It was shown that flooding of the reactor cavity using the containment spray system may prevent reactor vessel failure but may not prevent the failure of the relocation of molten core material during the station blackout sequence of YGN 3 and 4. Reactor vessel failure can be prevented by external vessel cooling using condensed water from the operation of two containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pump at the time of core uncovery. (Author) 46 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  20. Design and Optimization of Thermophotovoltaic System Cavity with Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermophotovoltaic (TPV systems can convert radiant energy into electrical power. Here we explore the design of the TPV system cavity, which houses the emitter and the photovoltaic (PV cells. Mirrors are utilized in the cavity to modify the spatial and spectral distribution within. After discussing the basic concentric tubular design, two novel cavity configurations are put forward and parametrically studied. The investigated variables include the shape, number, and placement of the mirrors. The optimization objectives are the optimized efficiency and the extended range of application of the TPV system. Through numerical simulations, the relationship between the design parameters and the objectives are revealed. The results show that careful design of the cavity configuration can markedly enhance the performance of the TPV system.

  1. Global Rapid Flood Mapping System with Spaceborne SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Fattahi, H.; Liang, C.; Manipon, G.; Fielding, E. J.; Rosen, P. A.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project for Natural Hazards, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, we have developed an automated system that produces derived products for flood extent map generation using spaceborne SAR data. The system takes user's input of area of interest polygons and time window for SAR data search (pre- and post-event). Then the system automatically searches and downloads SAR data, processes them to produce coregistered SAR image pairs, and generates log amplitude ratio images from each pair. Currently the system is automated to support SAR data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1A/B satellites. We have used the system to produce flood extent maps from Sentinel-1 SAR data for the May 2017 Sri Lanka floods, which killed more than 200 people and displaced about 600,000 people. Our flood extent maps were delivered to the Red Cross to support response efforts. Earlier we also responded to the historic August 2016 Louisiana floods in the United States, which claimed 13 people's lives and caused over $10 billion property damage. For this event, we made synchronized observations from space, air, and ground in close collaboration with USGS and NOAA. The USGS field crews acquired ground observation data, and NOAA acquired high-resolution airborne optical imagery within the time window of +/-2 hours of the SAR data acquisition by JAXA's ALOS-2 satellite. The USGS coordinates of flood water boundaries were used to calibrate our flood extent map derived from the ALOS-2 SAR data, and the map was delivered to FEMA for estimating the number of households affected. Based on the lessons learned from this response effort, we customized the ARIA system automation for rapid flood mapping and developed a mobile friendly web app that can easily be used in the field for data collection. Rapid automatic generation of SAR-based global flood maps calibrated with independent observations from

  2. Auto-tuning systems for J-PARC LINAC RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z.; Kobayashi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Anami, S.; Suzuki, H.; Sato, F.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E.

    2014-01-01

    The 400-MeV proton linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) consists of 324-MHz low-β and 972-MHz high-β accelerator sections. From October 2006 to May 2013, only the 324-MHz low-β accelerator section was in operation. From the summer of 2013 the J-PARC LINAC was upgraded by installing the 972-MHz high-β accelerator section, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated to 400 MeV in January 2014. Auto-tuning systems for the J-PARC LINAC RF cavities have been successfully developed. A first generation design, an auto-tuning system using a mechanical tuner controller, was developed and operated for the first 3 years. Then the second-generation auto-tuning system was developed using a new approach to the RF cavity warm-up process, and this was applied to the accelerator operation for the subsequent 4 years. During the RF cavity warm-up process in this system, the mechanical tuner is constantly fixed and the input RF frequency is automatically tuned to the cavity resonance frequency using the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) of the digital feedback RF control system. After the input power level reaches the required value, input RF frequency tuning is stopped and it is switched to the operation frequency. Then, the mechanical tuner control begins operation. This second-generation auto-tuning system was extremely effective for the 324-MHz cavity operation. However, if we apply this approach to the 972-MHz RF cavities, an interlock due to the RF cavity reflection amplitude occasionally occurs at the end of the warm-up process. In order to solve this problem a third generation novel auto-tuning system was successfully developed in December 2013 and applied to the operation of the J-PARC LINAC, including the 972-MHz ACS RF cavities. During the warm-up process both the mechanical tuner controller and the input RF frequency tuning are in operation, and good matching between the input RF frequency and the RF cavity is

  3. Auto-tuning systems for J-PARC LINAC RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z., E-mail: fang@post.kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kobayashi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Anami, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Suzuki, H.; Sato, F.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-12-11

    The 400-MeV proton linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) consists of 324-MHz low-β and 972-MHz high-β accelerator sections. From October 2006 to May 2013, only the 324-MHz low-β accelerator section was in operation. From the summer of 2013 the J-PARC LINAC was upgraded by installing the 972-MHz high-β accelerator section, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated to 400 MeV in January 2014. Auto-tuning systems for the J-PARC LINAC RF cavities have been successfully developed. A first generation design, an auto-tuning system using a mechanical tuner controller, was developed and operated for the first 3 years. Then the second-generation auto-tuning system was developed using a new approach to the RF cavity warm-up process, and this was applied to the accelerator operation for the subsequent 4 years. During the RF cavity warm-up process in this system, the mechanical tuner is constantly fixed and the input RF frequency is automatically tuned to the cavity resonance frequency using the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) of the digital feedback RF control system. After the input power level reaches the required value, input RF frequency tuning is stopped and it is switched to the operation frequency. Then, the mechanical tuner control begins operation. This second-generation auto-tuning system was extremely effective for the 324-MHz cavity operation. However, if we apply this approach to the 972-MHz RF cavities, an interlock due to the RF cavity reflection amplitude occasionally occurs at the end of the warm-up process. In order to solve this problem a third generation novel auto-tuning system was successfully developed in December 2013 and applied to the operation of the J-PARC LINAC, including the 972-MHz ACS RF cavities. During the warm-up process both the mechanical tuner controller and the input RF frequency tuning are in operation, and good matching between the input RF frequency and the RF cavity is

  4. Cryogenic system for TRISTAN superconducting RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoyama, K.; Hara, K.; Kabe, A.; Kojima, Yuuji; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Ishimaru, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A cryogenic system consisting of a helium refrigerator (4 kW at 4.4 K) and a liquid helium distribution transfer system for TRISTAN 508 MHz 32 x 5-cell superconducting RF cavities was designed and constructed. After the performance test of the cryogenic system, 16 x 5-cell superconducting RF cavities in 8 cryostats were installed in underground TRISTAN electron-positron collider and connected to the helium refrigerator on the ground level through the transfer line (total length about 330 m) and cooled by liquid helium pool boiling in parallel. The cryogenic system and its operation experience are described. (author)

  5. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the

  6. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, L.; Dottori, F.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Bianchi, A.; Hirpa, F. A.; Feyen, L.; Salamon, P.

    2016-12-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by an increasing range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasts, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. To this end, we have developed an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment based on the daily forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The methodology translates GloFAS streamflow forecasts into event-based flood hazard maps based on the predicted flow magnitude and the forecast lead time and a database of flood hazard maps with global coverage. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information to derive flood risk. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To further increase the reliability of the proposed methodology we integrated model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification of impact forecasts. The preliminary tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management. In particular, the link with social media is crucial for improving the accuracy of impact predictions.

  7. Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, I; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Fukami, K; Hanapi, M N; Livia, L; Nor, M D

    2013-01-01

    Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

  8. Study of ex-vessel steam explosion risk of Reactor Pit Flooding System and structural response of containment for CPR1000"+ Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Juanhua; Chen Peng

    2015-01-01

    Reactor Pit Flooding System is one of the special mitigation measures for severe accident for CPR1000"+ Unit. If the In-Vessel Relocation function of Reactor Pit Flooding System is failed, there is the steam explosion risk in reactor cavity. This paper firstly adopts MC3D code to build steam explosion model in order to calculate the pressure load and impulses of steam explosion that are as the input data of containment structural response analysis. The next step is to model the containment structure and analyze the structural response by ABAQUS code. The analysis results show that the integral damage induced by steam explosion to the external containment wall is shallow, and the containment structural integrity can be maintained. The risk and damage to the containment integrity reduced by steam explosion of RPF is small, and it does not influence the design and implementation of RPF. (author)

  9. Observation of Fano-Type Interference in a Coupled Cavity-Atom System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yong; Tan Zheng; Wang Jin; Zhan Ming-Sheng; Zhu Yi-Fu

    2016-01-01

    We present the experimental observation of the Fano-type interference in a coupled cavity-atom system by confining the laser-cooled "8"5Rb atoms in an optical cavity. The asymmetric Fano profile is obtained through quantum interference in a three-level atomic system coherently coupled to a single mode cavity field. The observed Fano profile can be explained by the interference between the intra-cavity dark state and the polariton state of the coupled cavity-atom system. The possible applications of our observations include all-optical switching, optical sensing and narrow band optical filters. (paper)

  10. Actions to reduce radioactive emissions: prevention of containment failure by flooding Containment and Reactor Cavity; Acciones para la reduccion de emisiones radiactivas: prevencion del fallo de la Contencion mediante la inundacion de la Contencion y de la Cavidad del Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-07-01

    The reactor cavity of Asco and Vandellos II is dry type, thus a severe accident leading to vessel failure might potentially end up resulting in the loss of containment integrity, depending on the viability to cool the molten core. Therefore, significant radioactive emissions could be released to outside. In the framework of Fukushima Stress Tests, ANAV has analyzed the convenience of carrying out different actions to prevent failure of the containment integrity in order to reduce radioactive emissions. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the main phenomenological aspects associated with two of these actions: containment flooding and reactor cavity flooding.

  11. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  12. An Experimental System for a Global Flood Prediction: From Satellite Precipitation Data to a Flood Inundation Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Floods impact more people globally than any other type of natural disaster. It has been established by experience that the most effective means to reduce the property damage and life loss caused by floods is the development of flood early warning systems. However, advances for such a system have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-. national-, continental-. or even global-scale areas) and time (hourly to daily). Particularly, insufficient in situ data, long delay in data transmission and absence of real-time data sharing agreements in many trans-boundary basins hamper the development of a real-time system at the regional to global scale. In many countries around the world, particularly in the tropics where rainfall and flooding co-exist in abundance, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data for those data scarce (ungauged) areas and trans-boundary basins. Satellite remote sensing data acquired and processed in real time can now provide the space-time information on rainfall fluxes needed to monitor severe flood events around the world. This can be achieved by integrating the satellite-derived forcing data with hydrological models, which can be parameterized by a tailored geospatial database. An example that is a key to this progress is NASA's contribution to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), launched in November 1997. Hence, in an effort to evolve toward a more hydrologically-relevant flood alert system, this talk articulates a module-structured framework for quasi-global flood potential naming, that is 'up to date' with the state of the art on satellite rainfall estimation and the improved geospatial datasets. The system is modular in design with the flexibility that permits changes in the model structure and in the choice of components. Four major components included in the system are: 1) multi-satellite precipitation estimation; 2) characterization of

  13. Large-scale testing of in-vessel debris cooling through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel in the CYBL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Bergeron, K.D.; Slezak, S.E.; Simpson, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of achieving in-vessel core retention by flooding the reactor cavity, or the ''flooded cavity'', is an accident management concept currently under consideration for advanced light water reactors (ALWR), as well as for existing light water reactors (LWR). The CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility is a facility specifically designed to perform large-scale confirmatory testing of the flooded cavity concept. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner 3.7 m diameter tank simulates the reactor vessel, and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. The energy deposition on the bottom head is simulated with an array of radiant heaters. The array can deliver a tailored heat flux distribution corresponding to that resulting from core melt convection. The present paper provides a detailed description of the capabilities of the facility, as well as results of recent experiments with heat flux in the range of interest to those required for in-vessel retention in typical ALWRs. The paper concludes with a discussion of other experiments for the flooded cavity applications

  14. Flood early warning system in I.R. of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Slina; Jamali, Javad B.; Javanmard, Soheila

    2004-01-01

    At the close of the twentieth century, natural hazards and disasters are one of the most common forms of disasters around the world. Natural disasters cause in significant loss of life and serious economic, environmental and social impacts that greatly retard the development process. Careful hazard assessment and planning, and a range of social, economic and political measures, can significantly contain these threats. Risk is defined as the potential for loss or damage as the result of a particular action or decision and Risk Management is a process consisting of well-defined steps which, when taken in sequence, support better decision making by contributing to a greater insight into risks and their impacts. Most commonly, there are three components in a natural disaster plan: monitoring and early warning; risk assessment; and mitigation and response. Given the improved tools and technologies available today, it is possible to provide disaster information and minimize the potential damage of disasters. In the following parts of the report, the national early warning systems for flood would be discussed, as one of the important component of natural disaster risk management. In 1. R. of Iran, also, different types of natural disasters occur, such as drought, flood, earthquake, sea-level rise, dust storm, hail, freezing and etc, but Flood hazard and disaster is one of the most frequent and damaging types of natural disasters. They have been the most common type of geophysical disaster in the latter half of the twentieth century in Iran, generating an estimated more than 20 percent of all disasters from 1950 to 2003. One of the hazardous floods of Iran occurred in Golestan and north of Khorasan provinces, located in north-east of the country, on August 2001 and 2002. In this regard, according to the responsibility of I. R. of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO) on the flood forecasting, the early warning issue of the mentioned flood, issued within 48 hour's in

  15. Quantum interference effects in a cavity QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Uzma; Ficek, Z

    2003-01-01

    We consider the effect of quantum interference on population distribution and photon statistics of a cavity field interacting with dressed states of a strongly driven three-level atom. We analyse three coupling configurations of the cavity field to the driven atom, with the cavity frequency tuned to the outer Rabi sideband, the inner Rabi sideband and the central frequency of the 'singly dressed' three-level atom. The quantum doubly dressed states for each configuration are identified and the population distribution and photon statistics are interpreted in terms of transitions among these dressed states and their populations. We find that the population distribution depends strongly on quantum interference and the cavity damping. For the cavity field tuned to the outer or inner Rabi sidebands the cavity damping induces transitions between the dressed states which are forbidden for the ordinary spontaneous emission. Moreover, we find that in the case of the cavity field coupled to the inner Rabi sideband the population distribution is almost Poissonian with a large average number of photons that can be controlled by quantum interference. This system can be considered as a one-atom dressed-state laser with controlled intensity

  16. Signal Processing Methods for Flood Early Warning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Kozionov, A.P.; Kusherbaeva, V.T.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Meijer, R.J.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nasermoaddeli, M.H.; Liong, S.Y.; Savic, D.; Fröhle, P.; Daemrich, K.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present in a data-driven approach for detection of anomalies in earthen dam (dike) behaviour that can indicate the onset of flood defence structure failure. This approach is implemented in the UrbanFlood early warning system's Artificial Intelligence component that processes dike measurements in

  17. Flood Monitoring and Early Warning System Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, J. G.; Mendez, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a real-time flood monitoring and early warning system in the northern portion of the province of Isabela, particularly the municipalities near Cagayan River. Ultrasonic sensing techniques have become mature and are widely used in the various fields of engineering and basic science. One of advantage of ultrasonic sensing is its outstanding capability to probe inside objective non-destructively because ultrasound can propagate through any kinds of media including solids, liquids and gases. This study focuses only on the water level detection and early warning system (via website and/or SMS) that alerts concern agencies and individuals for a potential flood event. Furthermore, inquiry system is also included in this study to become more interactive wherein individuals in the community could inquire the actual water level and status of the desired area or location affected by flood thru SMS keyword. The study aims in helping citizens to be prepared and knowledgeable whenever there is a flood. The novelty of this work falls under the utilization of the Arduino, ultrasonic sensors, GSM module, web-monitoring and SMS early warning system in helping stakeholders to mitigate casualties related to flood. The paper envisions helping flood-prone areas which are common in the Philippines particularly to the local communities in the province. Indeed, it is relevant and important as per needs for safety and welfare of the community.

  18. Radar-based Flood Warning System for Houston, Texas and Its Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N.; Bedient, P.

    2009-12-01

    Houston has a long history of flooding problems as a serious nature. For instance, Houstonians suffered from severe flood inundation during Tropical Storm Allison in 2001 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Radar-based flood warning systems as non-structural tools to provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities are greatly needed for urban areas prone to flash floods. Fortunately, the advent of GIS, radar-based rainfall estimation using NEXRAD, and real-time delivery systems on the internet have allowed flood alert systems to provide important advanced warning of impending flood conditions. Thus, emergency personnel can take proper steps to mitigate against catastrophic losses. The Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS2) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 40 events since 1997. The system performed well during these major rainfall events with R square value of 93%. The current system has been improved by incorporating a new hydraulic prediction tool - FloodPlain Map Library (FPML). The FPML module aims to provide visualized information such as floodplain maps and water surface elevations instead of just showing hydrographs in real time based on NEXRAD radar rainfall data. During Hurricane Ike (September, 2008), FAS2 successfully provided precise and timely flood warning information to TMC with the peak flow difference of 3.6% and the volume difference of 5.6%; timing was excellent for this double-peaked event. With the funding from the Texas Department of Transportation, a similar flood warning system has been developed at a critical transportation pass along Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. In order to enable emergency personnel to begin flood preparation with as much lead time as possible, FAS2 is being used as a prototype to develop warning system for other flood-prone areas such as City of Sugar Land.

  19. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Ainsworth, R.; Aryshev, A.; Boogert, S. T.; Boorman, G.; Frisch, J.; Heo, A.; Honda, Y.; Hwang, W. H.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, E.-S.; Kim, S. H.; Lyapin, A.; Naito, T.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Mellor, R. E.; Molloy, S.; Nelson, J.; Park, S. J.; Park, Y. J.; Ross, M.; Shin, S.; Swinson, C.; Smith, T.; Terunuma, N.; Tauchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; White, G. R.

    2012-04-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM) system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  20. Exciton-polariton dynamics in quantum dot-cavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Antonio F.; Lima, William J.; Villas-Boas, Jose M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: One of the basic requirement for quantum information processing systems is the ability to completely control the state of a single qubit. This imply in know all sources of decoherence and elaborate ways to avoid them. In recent work, A. Laucht et al. [1] presented detailed theoretical and experimental investigations of electrically tunable single quantum dot (QD) - photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity systems operating in the strong coupling regime of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the exciton-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, they employ the quantum confined Stark-effect to electro-optically control the exciton-cavity detuning. The new built device enabled them to systematically probe the emission spectrum of the strongly coupled system as a function of external control parameters, as for example the incoherent excitation power density or the lattice temperature. Those studies reveal for the first time insights in dephasing mechanisms of 0D exciton polaritons [1]. In another study [2], using a similar device, they investigate the coupling between two different QDs with a single cavity mode. In both works, incoherent pumping was used, but for quantum information, coherent and controlled excitations are necessary. Here, we theoretically investigate the dynamics a single quantum dot inside a cavity under coherent pulse excitation and explore a wide range of parameters, as for example, the exciton-cavity detunings, the excitation power, the spontaneous decay, and pure dephasing. We use density matrix formalism in the Lindblad form, and we solve it numerically. Our results show that coherent excitation can be used to probe strong coupling between exciton and cavity mode by monitoring the exciton Rabi oscillation as function of the cavity detuning. This can give new insights for future experimental measurement focusing on quantum

  1. A New RF System for the CEBAF Normal Conducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Hovater; Hai Dong; Alicia Hofler; George Lahti; John Musson; Tomasz Plawski

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF Accelerator at Jefferson Lab is a 6 GeV five pass electron accelerator consisting of two superconducting linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. CEBAF also has numerous normal conducting cavities for beam conditioning in the injector and for RF extraction to the experimental halls. The RF systems that presently control these cavities are becoming expensive to maintain, therefore a replacement RF control system is now being developed. For the new RF system, cavity field control is maintained digitally using an FPGA which contains the feedback algorithm. The system incorporates digital down conversion, using quadrature under-sampling at an IF frequency of 70 MHz. The VXI bus-crate was chosen as the operating platform because of its excellent RFI/EMI properties and its compatibility with the EPICS control system. The normal conducting cavities operate at both the 1497 MHz accelerating frequency and the sub-harmonic frequency of 499 MHz. To accommodate this, the ne w design will use different receiver-transmitter daughter cards for each frequency. This paper discusses the development of the new RF system and reports on initial results

  2. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1  μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  3. Prospects for development of unified global flood observation and prediction systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Floods are among the most damaging of natural hazards, with global flood losses in 2011 alone estimated to have exceeded $100B. Historically, flood economic damages have been highest in the developed world (due in part to encroachment on historical flood plains), but loss of life, and human impacts have been greatest in the developing world. However, as the 2011 Thailand floods show, industrializing countries, many of which do not have well developed flood protection systems, are increasingly vulnerable to economic damages as they become more industrialized. At present, unified global flood observation and prediction systems are in their infancy; notwithstanding that global weather forecasting is a mature field. The summary for this session identifies two evolving capabilities that hold promise for development of more sophisticated global flood forecast systems: global hydrologic models and satellite remote sensing (primarily of precipitation, but also of flood inundation). To this I would add the increasing sophistication and accuracy of global precipitation analysis (and forecast) fields from numerical weather prediction models. In this brief overview, I will review progress in all three areas, and especially the evolution of hydrologic data assimilation which integrates modeling and data sources. I will also comment on inter-governmental and inter-agency cooperation, and related issues that have impeded progress in the development and utilization of global flood observation and prediction systems.

  4. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  5. Real-time flood monitoring and warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapon Sunkpho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is one of the major disasters occurring in various parts of the world. The system for real-time monitoring ofwater conditions: water level; flow; and precipitation level, was developed to be employed in monitoring flood in Nakhon SiThammarat, a southern province in Thailand. The two main objectives of the developed system is to serve 1 as informationchannel for flooding between the involved authorities and experts to enhance their responsibilities and collaboration and2 as a web based information source for the public, responding to their need for information on water condition and flooding.The developed system is composed of three major components: sensor network, processing/transmission unit, and database/application server. These real-time data of water condition can be monitored remotely by utilizing wireless sensors networkthat utilizes the mobile General Packet Radio Service (GPRS communication in order to transmit measured data to theapplication server. We implemented a so-called VirtualCOM, a middleware that enables application server to communicatewith the remote sensors connected to a GPRS data unit (GDU. With VirtualCOM, a GDU behaves as if it is a cable directlyconnected the remote sensors to the application server. The application server is a web-based system implemented usingPHP and JAVA as the web application and MySQL as its relational database. Users can view real-time water conditionas well as the forecasting of the water condition directly from the web via web browser or via WAP. The developed systemhas demonstrated the applicability of today’s sensors in wirelessly monitor real-time water conditions.

  6. Flood Damage and Loss Estimation for Iowa on Web-based Systems using HAZUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, E.; Sermet, M. Y.; Demir, I.

    2016-12-01

    Importance of decision support systems for flood emergency response and loss estimation increases with its social and economic impacts. To estimate the damage of the flood, there are several software systems available to researchers and decision makers. HAZUS-MH is one of the most widely used desktop program, developed by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), to estimate economic loss and social impacts of disasters such as earthquake, hurricane and flooding (riverine and coastal). HAZUS used loss estimation methodology and implements through geographic information system (GIS). HAZUS contains structural, demographic, and vehicle information across United States. Thus, it allows decision makers to understand and predict possible casualties and damage of the floods by running flood simulations through GIS application. However, it doesn't represent real time conditions because of using static data. To close this gap, an overview of a web-based infrastructure coupling HAZUS and real time data provided by IFIS (Iowa Flood Information System) is presented by this research. IFIS is developed by the Iowa Flood Center, and a one-stop web-platform to access community-based flood conditions, forecasts, visualizations, inundation maps and flood-related data, information, and applications. Large volume of real-time observational data from a variety of sensors and remote sensing resources (radars, rain gauges, stream sensors, etc.) and flood inundation models are staged on a user-friendly maps environment that is accessible to the general public. Providing cross sectional analyses between HAZUS-MH and IFIS datasets, emergency managers are able to evaluate flood damage during flood events easier and more accessible in real time conditions. With matching data from HAZUS-MH census tract layer and IFC gauges, economical effects of flooding can be observed and evaluated by decision makers. The system will also provide visualization of the data by using augmented reality for

  7. A dimension reduction method for flood compensation operation of multi-reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Wu, S.; Fan, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple reservoirs cooperation compensation operations coping with uncontrolled flood play vital role in real-time flood mitigation. This paper come up with a reservoir flood compensation operation index (ResFCOI), which formed by elements of flood control storage, flood inflow volume, flood transmission time and cooperation operations period, then establish a flood cooperation compensation operations model of multi-reservoir system, according to the ResFCOI to determine a computational order of each reservoir, and lastly the differential evolution algorithm is implemented for computing single reservoir flood compensation optimization in turn, so that a dimension reduction method is formed to reduce computational complexity. Shiguan River Basin with two large reservoirs and an extensive uncontrolled flood area, is used as a case study, results show that (a) reservoirs' flood discharges and the uncontrolled flood are superimposed at Jiangjiaji Station, while the formed flood peak flow is as small as possible; (b) cooperation compensation operations slightly increase in usage of flood storage capacity in reservoirs, when comparing to rule-based operations; (c) it takes 50 seconds in average when computing a cooperation compensation operations scheme. The dimension reduction method to guide flood compensation operations of multi-reservoir system, can make each reservoir adjust its flood discharge strategy dynamically according to the uncontrolled flood magnitude and pattern, so as to mitigate the downstream flood disaster.

  8. Regional early flood warning system: design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L. C.; Yang, S. N.; Kuo, C. L.; Wang, Y. F.

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a prototype of the regional early flood inundation warning system in Tainan City, Taiwan. The AI technology is used to forecast multi-step-ahead regional flood inundation maps during storm events. The computing time is only few seconds that leads to real-time regional flood inundation forecasting. A database is built to organize data and information for building real-time forecasting models, maintaining the relations of forecasted points, and displaying forecasted results, while real-time data acquisition is another key task where the model requires immediately accessing rain gauge information to provide forecast services. All programs related database are constructed in Microsoft SQL Server by using Visual C# to extracting real-time hydrological data, managing data, storing the forecasted data and providing the information to the visual map-based display. The regional early flood inundation warning system use the up-to-date Web technologies driven by the database and real-time data acquisition to display the on-line forecasting flood inundation depths in the study area. The friendly interface includes on-line sequentially showing inundation area by Google Map, maximum inundation depth and its location, and providing KMZ file download of the results which can be watched on Google Earth. The developed system can provide all the relevant information and on-line forecast results that helps city authorities to make decisions during typhoon events and make actions to mitigate the losses.

  9. Large-Scale testing of in-vessel debris cooling through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel in the CYBL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Bergeron, K.D.; Slezak, S.E.; Simpson, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility of achieving in-vessel core retention by flooding the reactor cavity, or the open-quotes flooded cavityclose quotes, is an accident management concept currently under consideration for advanced light water reactors (ALWR), as well as for existing light water reactors (LWR). The CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility is a facility specifically designed to perform large-scale confirmatory testing of the flooded cavity concept. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner 3.7 m diameter tank simulates the reactor vessel, and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. The energy deposition on the bottom head is simulated with an array of radiant heaters. The array can deliver a tailored heat flux distribution corresponding to that resulting from core melt convection. The present paper provides a detailed description of the capabilities of the facility, as well as results of recent experiments with heat flux in the range of interest to those required for in-vessel retention in typical ALWRs. The paper concludes with a discussion of other experiments for the flooded cavity applications

  10. GSM and web-based flood monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagatpat, J C; Arellano, A C; Gerasta, O J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a local real-time river flood monitoring and warning system for the selected communities near Mandulog River. This study focuses only on the detection and early warning alert system (via website and/or cell phone text messages) that alerts local subscribers of potential flood events. Furthermore, this system is interactive wherein all non-registered subscribers could inquire the actual water level of the desired area location they want to monitor. An estimated time a particular river waterway will overflow is also included in the analyses. The hardware used in the design is split into several parts namely: the water level detector, GSM module, and microcontroller development board. (paper)

  11. Near Real Time Flood Warning System for National Capital Territory of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Yadav, H.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme floods are common phenomena during Indian Monsoons. The National Capital Territory area of India, Delhi, frequently experiences fluvial as well as pluvial inundation due to its proximity to river Yamuna and poor functioning of its stormwater drainage system. The urban floods result in severe waterlogging and heavy traffic snarls, bringing life in this megapolis to a halt. The city has witnessed six major floods since 1900 and thus its residents are well conscious of potential flood risks but the city still lacks a flood warning system. The flood related risks can be considerably reduced, if not eliminated, by issuing timely warnings and implementing adaptive measures. Therefore, the present study attempts to develop a web based platform that integrates Web-GIS technology and mathematical simulation modelling to provide an effective and reliable early flood warning service for Delhi. The study makes use of India Metorological Department's Doppler radar-derived near real time rainfall estimates of 15 minutes time step. The developed SWMM model has been validated using information from gauges, monitoring sensors and crowd sourcing techniques and utilises capabilities of cloud computing on server side for fast processing. This study also recommends safe evacuation policy and remedial measures for flooding hotspots as part of flood risk management plan. With heightened risk of floods in fast urbanizing areas, this work becomes highly pertinent as flood warning system with adequate lead time can not only save precious lives but can also substantially reduce flood damages.

  12. Digital Measurement System for the HIE-Isolde Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Michal

    Extensive R&D efforts are being invested at CERN into the fundamental science of the RF superconductivity, cavity design, niobium sputtering, coating and RF properties of superconducting cavities. Fast and precise characterization and measurements of RF parameters of the newly produced cavities is essential for advances with the cavity production. The currently deployed analogue measurement system based on an analogue phase discriminators and tracking RF generators is not optimal for efficient work at the SM18 superconducting cavity test stand. If exact properties of the cavity under test are not known a traditional feedback loop will not be able to find resonant frequency in a reasonable time or even at all. This is mainly due to a very high Q factor. The resonance peak is very narrow (fraction of a Hz at 100 MHz). If the resonant frequency is off by several bandwidths, small changes of the cavity field during the tuning will not be measureable. Also cavity field will react only very slowly to any change...

  13. Evaluation of the wind pumped hydropower storage integrated flood mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Aishah; Basrawi, Firdaus

    2018-04-01

    As Wind Pumped Hydropower Storage (WPHS) need high cost to construct, it is important to study their impacts on economic and environmental aspects. Thus, this research aims to evaluate their economic and environmental performances. First, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) was used to simulate power generation system with and without the flood reservoir. Next, the total amount of emitted air pollutant was used to evaluate the environmental impacts. It was found the wind-diesel with reservoir storage system (A-III) will have much lower NPC than other systems that do not include reservoir for flood mitigation when the cost of flood losses are included in the total Net Present Cost (NPC). The NPC for system A-III was RM 1.52 million and for diesel standalone system (A-I) is RM 10.8 million when the cost of flood losses are included in the total NPC. Between both energy systems, the amount of pollutants emitted by the A-III system was only 408 kg-CO2/year which is much less than the A-I system which is 99, 754 kg of carbon dioxide per year. To conclude, the WPHS integrated with flood mitigation system seems promising in the aspects of economic and environment.

  14. A laser-powered hydrokinetic system for caries removal and cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Young, D A; Eversole, L R; Gornbein, J A

    2000-06-01

    Laser systems have been developed for the cutting of dental hard tissues. The erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet, or Er,Cr:YSGG, laser system used in conjunction with an air-water spray has been shown to be efficacious in vitro for cavity preparation. The authors randomly selected subjects for cavity preparation with conventional air turbine/bur dental surgery or an Er,Cr:YSGG laser-powered system using a split-mouth design. They prepared Class I, III and V cavities, placed resin restorations and evaluated subjects on the day of the procedure and 30 days and six months postoperatively for pulp vitality, recurrent caries, pain and discomfort, and restoration retention. Sixty-seven subjects completed the study. There were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups for the parameters measured with one exception; there was a statistically significant decrease in discomfort levels for the laser system at the time of cavity preparation for subjects who declined to receive local anesthetic. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser system is effective for preparation of Class I, III and V cavities and resin restorations are retained by lased tooth surfaces. Hard-tissue cutting lasers are being introduced for use in operative dentistry. In this study, an Er,Cr:YSGG laser has been shown to be effective for cavity preparation and restoration replacement.

  15. Flood forecasting within urban drainage systems using NARX neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rjeily, Yves; Abbas, Oras; Sadek, Marwan; Shahrour, Isam; Hage Chehade, Fadi

    2017-11-01

    Urbanization activity and climate change increase the runoff volumes, and consequently the surcharge of the urban drainage systems (UDS). In addition, age and structural failures of these utilities limit their capacities, and thus generate hydraulic operation shortages, leading to flooding events. The large increase in floods within urban areas requires rapid actions from the UDS operators. The proactivity in taking the appropriate actions is a key element in applying efficient management and flood mitigation. Therefore, this work focuses on developing a flooding forecast system (FFS), able to alert in advance the UDS managers for possible flooding. For a forecasted storm event, a quick estimation of the water depth variation within critical manholes allows a reliable evaluation of the flood risk. The Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) neural network was chosen to develop the FFS as due to its calculation nature it is capable of relating water depth variation in manholes to rainfall intensities. The campus of the University of Lille is used as an experimental site to test and evaluate the FFS proposed in this paper.

  16. Building regional early flood warning systems by AI techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. J.; Chang, L. C.; Amin, M. Z. B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Building early flood warning system is essential for the protection of the residents against flood hazards and make actions to mitigate the losses. This study implements AI technology for forecasting multi-step-ahead regional flood inundation maps during storm events. The methodology includes three major schemes: (1) configuring the self-organizing map (SOM) to categorize a large number of regional inundation maps into a meaningful topology; (2) building dynamic neural networks to forecast multi-step-ahead average inundated depths (AID); and (3) adjusting the weights of the selected neuron in the constructed SOM based on the forecasted AID to obtain real-time regional inundation maps. The proposed models are trained, and tested based on a large number of inundation data sets collected in regions with the most frequent and serious flooding in the river basin. The results appear that the SOM topological relationships between individual neurons and their neighbouring neurons are visible and clearly distinguishable, and the hybrid model can continuously provide multistep-ahead visible regional inundation maps with high resolution during storm events, which have relatively small RMSE values and high R2 as compared with numerical simulation data sets. The computing time is only few seconds, and thereby leads to real-time regional flood inundation forecasting and make early flood inundation warning system. We demonstrate that the proposed hybrid ANN-based model has a robust and reliable predictive ability and can be used for early warning to mitigate flood disasters.

  17. Integrated Flood Forecast and Virtual Dam Operation System for Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Ikoma, Eiji; Lawford, Peter; Oyanagi, Misa; Kanauchi, Shizu; Koudelova, Petra; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    While availability of hydrological- and hydrometeorological data shows growing tendency and advanced modeling techniques are emerging, such newly available data and advanced models may not always be applied in the field of decision-making. In this study we present an integrated system of ensemble streamflow forecast (ESP) and virtual dam simulator, which is designed to support river and dam manager's decision making. The system consists of three main functions: real time hydrological model, ESP model, and dam simulator model. In the real time model, the system simulates current condition of river basins, such as soil moisture and river discharges, using LSM coupled distributed hydrological model. The ESP model takes initial condition from the real time model's output and generates ESP, based on numerical weather prediction. The dam simulator model provides virtual dam operation and users can experience impact of dam control on remaining reservoir volume and downstream flood under the anticipated flood forecast. Thus the river and dam managers shall be able to evaluate benefit of priori dam release and flood risk reduction at the same time, on real time basis. Furthermore the system has been developed under the concept of data and models integration, and it is coupled with Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS) - a Japanese national project for integrating and analyzing massive amount of observational and model data. Therefore it has advantage in direct use of miscellaneous data from point/radar-derived observation, numerical weather prediction output, to satellite imagery stored in data archive. Output of the system is accessible over the web interface, making information available with relative ease, e.g. from ordinary PC to mobile devices. We have been applying the system to the Upper Tone region, located northwest from Tokyo metropolitan area, and we show application example of the system in recent flood events caused by typhoons.

  18. Lasing by driven atoms-cavity system in collective strong coupling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A

    2017-09-12

    The interaction of laser cooled atoms with resonant light is determined by the natural linewidth of the excited state. An optical cavity is another optically resonant system where the loss from the cavity determines the resonant optical response of the system. The near resonant combination of an optical Fabry-Pérot cavity with laser cooled and trapped atoms couples two distinct optical resonators via light and has great potential for precision measurements and the creation of versatile quantum optics systems. Here we show how driven magneto-optically trapped atoms in collective strong coupling regime with the cavity leads to lasing at a frequency red detuned from the atomic transition. Lasing is demonstrated experimentally by the observation of a lasing threshold accompanied by polarization and spatial mode purity, and line-narrowing in the outcoupled light. Spontaneous emission into the cavity mode by the driven atoms stimulates lasing action, which is capable of operating as a continuous wave laser in steady state, without a seed laser. The system is modeled theoretically, and qualitative agreement with experimentally observed lasing is seen. Our result opens up a range of new measurement possibilities with this system.

  19. Raman spectroscopy and single-photon source in an ion-cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves de Barros, H.

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores the interaction between a single trapped 40Ca+ ion and the electromagnetic field inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The coupling takes place via the use of a vacuum stimulated Raman transition, which transfers atomic population from the S1/2 to the D3/2 manifolds of the calcium ion producing a photon in the cavity. This photon is measured and properties of the system are evaluated. Spectroscopy measurements of the Raman transitions are performed and all possible transitions are identified for different polarizations of both drive laser and cavity fields. The system is also used to deterministically produce single photons. Simulation curves quantitatively match the experimental results within calibration error bars. The single-photon creation efficiency obtained in this work overcomes previous ion-cavity setups and is comparable to state-of-the-art systems composed of a neutral atom and a cavity operating in the strong coupling regime. (author)

  20. The Test of LLRF control system on superconducting cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhenglong; Wang, Xianwu; Wen, Lianghua; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Gao, Zheng; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    The first generation Low-Level radio frequency(LLRF) control system independently developed by IMPCAS, the operating frequency is 162.5MHz for China ADS, which consists of superconducting cavity amplitude stability control, phase stability control and the cavity resonance frequency control. The LLRF control system is based on four samples IQ quadrature demodulation technique consisting an all-digital closed-loop feedback control. This paper completed the first generation of ADS LLRF control s...

  1. Flood scour monitoring system using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung Bin; Lai, Jihn Sung; Chang, Kuo Chun; Li, Lu Sheng

    2006-12-01

    The exposure and subsequent undermining of pier/abutment foundations through the scouring action of a flood can result in the structural failure of a bridge. Bridge scour is one of the leading causes of bridge failure. Bridges subject to periods of flood/high flow require monitoring during those times in order to protect the traveling public. In this study, an innovative scour monitoring system using button-like fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors was developed and applied successfully in the field during the Aere typhoon period in 2004. The in situ FBG scour monitoring system has been demonstrated to be robust and reliable for real-time scour-depth measurements, and to be valid for indicating depositional depth at the Dadu Bridge. The field results show that this system can function well and survive a typhoon flood.

  2. Geographical information system (GIS) application for flood prediction at Sungai Sembrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Masiri; Ahmad, Nor Farah Atiqah; Razali, Siti Nooraiin Mohd; Hilaham, Mashuda Mohamad; Rahman, Mohamad Abdul; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Sahat, Suhaila

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of flood is one of natural disaster that often beset Malaysia. The latest incident that happened in 2007 was the worst occurrence of floods ever be set in Johor. Reporting floods mainly focused on rising water rising levels, so about once a focus on the area of flood delineation. A study focused on the effectiveness of using Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict the flood by taking Sg. Sembrong, Batu Pahat, Johor as study area. This study combined hydrological model and water balance model in the display to show the expected flood area for future reference. The minimum, maximum and average rainfall data for January 2007 at Sg Sembrong were used in this study. The data shows that flood does not occurs at the minimum and average rainfall of 17.2mm and 2mm respectively. At maximum rainfall, 203mm, shows the flood area was 9983 hectares with the highest level of the water depth was 2m. The result showed that the combination of hydrological models and water balance model in GIS is very suitable to be used as a tool to obtain preliminary information on flood immediately. Besides that, GIS system is a very powerful tool used in hydrology engineering to help the engineer and planner to imagine the real situation of flood events, doing flood analysis, problem solving and provide a rational, accurate and efficient decision making.

  3. Cavity Resonator Wireless Power Transfer System for Freely Moving Animal Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Henry; Thackston, Kyle A; Bercich, Rebecca A; Jefferys, John G R; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to create a large wireless powering arena for powering small devices implanted in freely behaving rodents. We design a cavity resonator based wireless power transfer (WPT) system and utilize our previously developed optimal impedance matching methodology to achieve effective WPT performance for operating sophisticated implantable devices, made with miniature receive coils (powering fidelity of 93.53% over nine recording sessions across nine weeks, indicating nearly continuous device operation for a freely behaving rat within the large cavity resonator space. We have developed and demonstrated a cavity resonator based WPT system for long term experiments involving freely behaving small animals. This cavity resonator based WPT system offers an effective and simple method for wirelessly powering miniaturized devices implanted in freely moving small animals within the largest space.

  4. Design of flood early warning system with wifi network based on smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supani, Ahyar; Andriani, Yuli; Taqwa, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Today, the development using internet of things enables activities surrounding us to be monitored, controlled, predicted and calculated remotely through connections to the internet network such as monitoring activities of long-distance flood warning with information technology. Applying an information technology in the field of flood early warning has been developed in the world, either connected to internet network or not. The internet network that has been done in this paper is the design of WiFi network to access data of rainfall, water level and flood status at any time with a smartphone coming from flood early warning system. The results obtained when test of data accessing with smartphone are in form of rainfall and water level graphs against time and flood status indicators consisting of 3 flood states: Standby 2, Standby 1 and Flood. It is concluded that data are from flood early warning system has been able to accessed and displayed on smartphone via WiFi network in any time and real time.

  5. Fermilab linac upgrade side coupled cavity temperature control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisp, J.; Satti, J.

    1991-05-01

    Each cavity section has a temperature control system which maintains the resonant frequency by exploiting the 17.8 ppm/degree C frequency sensitivity of the copper cavities. Each accelerating cell has a cooling tube brazed azimuthally to the outside surface. Alternate supply and return connection to the water manifolds reduce temperature gradients and maintain physical alignment of the cavity string. Special tubing with spiral inner fins and large flow rate are used to reduce the film coefficient. Temperature is controlled by mixing chilled water with the water circulating between the cavity and the cooling skid located outside the radiation enclosure. Chilled water flow is regulated with a valve controlled by a local microcomputer. The temperature loop set point will be obtained from a slower loop which corrects the phase error between the cavity section and the rf drive during normal beam loaded conditions. Time constants associated with thermal gradients induced in the cavity with the rf power require programming it to the nominal 7.1 MW level over a 1 minute interval to limit the reverse power. 4 refs., 4 figs

  6. The framework of a UAS-aided flash flood modeling system for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Xu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flash floods cause severe economic damage and are one of the leading causes of fatalities connected with natural disasters in the Gulf Coast region. Current flash flood modeling systems rely on empirical hydrological models driven by precipitation estimates only. Although precipitation is the driving factor for flash floods, soil moisture, urban drainage system and impervious surface have been recognized to have significant impacts on the development of flash floods. We propose a new flash flooding modeling system that integrates 3-D hydrological simulation with satellite and multi-UAS observations. It will have three advantages over existing modeling systems. First, it will incorporate 1-km soil moisture data through integrating satellite images from European SMOS mission and NASA's SMAP mission. The utilization of high-resolution satellite images will provide essential information to determine antecedent soil moisture condition, which is an essential control on flood generation. Second, this system is able to adjust flood forecasting based on real-time inundation information collected by multi-UAS. A group of UAS will be deployed during storm events to capture the changing extent of flooded areas and water depth at multiple critical locations simultaneously. Such information will be transmitted to a hydrological model to validate and improve flood simulation. Third, the backbone of this system is a state-of-the-art 3-D hydrological model that assimilates the hydrological information from satellites and multi-UAS. The model is able to address surface water-groundwater interactions and reflect the effects of various infrastructures. Using Web-GIS technologies, the modeling results will be available online as interactive flood maps accessible to the public. To support the development and verification of this modeling system, surface and subsurface hydrological observations will be conducted in a number of small watersheds in the Coastal Bend region. We envision this

  7. Near Real-Time Flood Monitoring and Impact Assessment Systems. Chapter 6; [Case Study: 2011 Flooding in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin; Fayne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the costliest natural disaster, causing approximately 6.8 million deaths in the twentieth century alone. Worldwide economic flood damage estimates in 2012 exceed $19 Billion USD. Extended duration floods also pose longer term threats to food security, water, sanitation, hygiene, and community livelihoods, particularly in developing countries. Projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggest that precipitation extremes, rainfall intensity, storm intensity, and variability are increasing due to climate change. Increasing hydrologic uncertainty will likely lead to unprecedented extreme flood events. As such, there is a vital need to enhance and further develop traditional techniques used to rapidly assess flooding and extend analytical methods to estimate impacted population and infrastructure. Measuring flood extent in situ is generally impractical, time consuming, and can be inaccurate. Remotely sensed imagery acquired from space-borne and airborne sensors provides a viable platform for consistent and rapid wall-to-wall monitoring of large flood events through time. Terabytes of freely available satellite imagery are made available online each day by NASA, ESA, and other international space research institutions. Advances in cloud computing and data storage technologies allow researchers to leverage these satellite data and apply analytical methods at scale. Repeat-survey earth observations help provide insight about how natural phenomena change through time, including the progression and recession of floodwaters. In recent years, cloud-penetrating radar remote sensing techniques (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar) and high temporal resolution imagery platforms (e.g., MODIS and its 1-day return period), along with high performance computing infrastructure, have enabled significant advances in software systems that provide flood warning, assessments, and hazard reduction potential. By incorporating social and economic data

  8. Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons......, described by a non-Markovian model, interacting with a coupled quantum dot-cavity system. The reduction of phonon-induced dephasing is obtained by placing the cavity-quantum dot system inside an infinite slab, assuming spherical electronic wavefunctions. Based on our calculations, we expect this to have...

  9. Understanding the geomorphology of macrochannel systems for flood risk management in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2016-04-01

    The year 2010-2011 was the wettest on record for the state of Queensland, Australia producing catastrophic floods. A tropical low pressure system in 2013 delivered further extreme flood events across South East Queensland (SEQ) which prompted state and local governments to conduct studies into flood magnitude and frequency in the region and catchment factors contributing to flood hazards. The floods in the region are strongly influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, but also modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) which leads to flood and drought dominated regimes and high hydrological variability. One geomorphic feature in particular exerted a significant control on the transmission speed, the magnitude of flood inundation and resultant landscape resilience. This feature was referred to as a 'macrochannel', a term used to describe a 'large-channel' which has bankfull recurrence intervals generally greater than 10 years. The macrochannels display non-linear downstream hydraulic geometry which leads to zones of flood expansion (when hydraulic geometry decreases) and zones of flood contraction (when hydraulic geometry increases). The pattern of contraction and expansion zones determines flood hazard zones. The floods caused significant wet flow bank mass failures that mobilised over 1,000,000 m3 of sediment in one subcatchment. Results suggest that the wetflow bank mass failures are a stage in a cyclical evolution process which maintains the macrochannel morphology, hence channel resilience to floods. Chronological investigations further show the macrochannels are laterally stable and identify periods of heightened flood activity over the past millennium and upper limits on flood magnitude. This paper elaborates on the results of the geomorphic investigations on Lockyer Creek in SEQ and how the results have alerted managers and policy makers to the different flood responses of these systems and how flood risk management plans can

  10. Cryogenic system for TRISTAN superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoyama, K.; Hara, K.; Kabe, A.; Kojima, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Matsumoto, K.

    1993-01-01

    A large cryogenic system has been designed, constructed and operated in the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at KEK for 508 MHz, 32x5-cell superconducting RF cavities. A 6.5 kW, 4.4 K helium refrigerator with 5 turbo-expanders on the ground level supplies liquid helium in parallel to the 16 cryostats in the TRISTAN tunnel through about 250 m long multichannel transfer line. Two 5-cell cavities are coupled together, enclosed in a cryostat and cooled by about 830 L pool boiling liquid helium. A liquid nitrogen circulation system with a turbo-expander has been adopted for 80 K radiation shields in the multichannel transfer line and the cryostats to reduce liquid nitrogen consumption and to increase the operation stability of the system. The cryogenic system has a total of about 18 000 hours of operating time from the first cool down test in August 1988 to November 1991. The design principle and outline of the cryogenic system and the operational experience are presented. (orig.)

  11. Decoherence in semiconductor cavity QED systems due to phonon couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the coherence properties of single photons emitted from a semiconductor cavity QED (quantum electrodynamics) system, i.e., a quantum dot embedded in an optical cavity. The degree of indistinguishability, governing the quantum mechanical...

  12. Prototypes of risk-based flood forecasting systems in the Netherlands and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood forecasting, warning and emergency response are important components of flood management. Currently, the model-based prediction of discharge and/or water level in a river is common practice for operational flood forecasting. Based on the prediction of these values decisions about specific emergency measures are made within emergency response. However, the information provided for decision support is often restricted to pure hydrological or hydraulic aspects of a flood. Information about weak sections within the flood defences, flood prone areas and assets at risk in the protected areas are rarely used in current early warning and response systems. This information is often available for strategic planning, but is not in an appropriate format for operational purposes. This paper presents the extension of existing flood forecasting systems with elements of strategic flood risk analysis, such as probabilistic failure analysis, two dimensional flood spreading simulation and the analysis of flood impacts and consequences. This paper presents the first results from two prototype applications of the new developed concept: The first prototype is applied to the Rotterdam area situated in the western part of the Netherlands. The second pilot study focusses on a rural area between the cities of Mantua and Ferrara along the Po river (Italy.

  13. CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR SYSTEM FOR ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, S T; Cullinan, F; Joshi, N; Lyapin, A; Aryshev, A; Honda, Y; Naito, T; Terunuma, N; Urakara, J; Heo, A; Kim, E-S; Kim, Y I; McCormick, D; Frisch, J; Nelson, J; Smith, T; White, G R

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) in KEK, Japan, is a prototype scaled demonstrator system for the final focus required for a future high energy lepton linear collider. The ATF2 beam-line is instrumented with a total of 41 high resolution C and S band resonant cavity beam position monitors (BPM) with associated mixer electronics and digitisers. In addition 4 high resolution BPMs have been recently installed at the interaction point, we briefly describe the first operational experience of these cavities in the ATF2 beam-line. The current status of the overall BPM system is also described, with a focus on operational techniques and performance.

  14. TESLA cavity modeling and digital implementation in FPGA technology for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarski, T.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.; Simrock, S.

    2006-01-01

    The electromechanical model of the TESLA cavity has been implemented in FPGA technology for real-time testing of the control system. The model includes Lorentz force detuning and beam loading effects. Step operation and vector stimulus operation modes are applied for the evaluation of a FPGA cavity simulator operated by a digital controller. The performance of the cavity hardware model is verified by comparing with a software model of the cavity implemented in the MATLAB system. The numerical aspects are considered for an optimal DSP calculation. Some experimental results are presented for different cavity operational conditions. (orig.)

  15. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Ouyang, Min; Peeta, Srinivas; He, Xiaozheng; Yan, Yongze

    2015-01-01

    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  16. Cavity opto-electromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Terry G.; Lee, Kwan H.; Harris, Glen I.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2010-01-01

    A cavity opto-electromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via opto-mechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 $\\mu$N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The int...

  17. Flood risk and economically optimal safety targets for coastal flood defense systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuits, E.J.C.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    A front defense can improve the reliability of a rear defense in a coastal flood defense system. The influence of this interdependency on the accompanying economically optimal safety targets of both front and rear defense is investigated. The results preliminary suggest that the optimal safety level

  18. The Phase Servo Tuner Control system of the ALS 500 MHz cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.; Taylor, B.

    1993-05-01

    Three 500 MHz cavities are used in the Booster and Storage Ring of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Due to different varying parameters, a control system is required to keep the cavities in tune during operation. The tuning of the 500 MHz cavity is achieved by detecting the phase error between the drive signal and the cavity probe signal. The error signal is amplified and used to drive a stepping motor which in turn moves a metallic cylinder in or out of the cavity to achieve tuning

  19. Information support systems for cultural heritage protection against flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nedvedova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present use of different kind of software applications to create complex support system for protection of cultural heritage against flooding. The project is very complex and it tries to cover the whole area of the problem from prevention to liquidation of aftermath effects. We used GIS for mapping the risk areas, ontology systems for vulnerability assessment application and the BORM method (Business Object Relation Modelling for flood protection system planning guide. Those modern technologies helped us to gather a lot of information in one place and provide the knowledge to the broad audience.

  20. A Conceptual Flash Flood Early Warning System for Africa, Based on Terrestrial Microwave Links and Flash Flood Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C. B. Hoedjes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual flash flood early warning system for developing countries is described. The system uses rainfall intensity data from terrestrial microwave communication links and the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite, i.e., two systems that are already in place and operational. Flash flood early warnings are based on a combination of the Flash Flood Guidance method and a hydrological model. The system will be maintained and operated through a public-private partnership, which includes a mobile telephone operator, a national meteorological service and an emergency relief service. The mobile telephone operator acts as both the supplier of raw input data and the disseminator of early warnings. The early warning system could significantly reduce the number of fatalities due to flash floods, improve the efficiency of disaster risk reduction efforts and play an important role in strengthening the resilience to climate change of developing countries in Africa. This paper describes the system that is currently being developed for Kenya.

  1. Theory of superfluorescence-laser crossover in a cavity QED system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezaki, Riku; Ishikawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi [University of Yamanashi, Department of Science for Advanced Materials, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Miyajima, Kensuke [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    Coherent emissions of photons, originating from coherently-coupled polarizations, are created by laser and superfluorescence, but the mechanisms remain obscure to be fully explored in nanophotonics from the application viewpoint to coherent-light sources. In this paper, we present a comprehensive full quantum theory to clarify the crossover between laser and superfluorescence caused by the competition between stimulated and spontaneous emissions in a cavity QED system. As a result, in case of steady-state emission, we show the feasibility of coherent-light emission by superfluorescence different from laser, depending on the quality factor of a cavity QED system. In particular, the coherence generation due to superfluorescence occurs in a shorter timescale in a cavity QED systems with a lower Q factor than laser due to stimulated emission. This result suggests that superfluorescence can be applied to a novel coherent-light source by a mechanism greatly different from laser. (orig.)

  2. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology. PMID:27067992

  3. Early Warning System of Flood Disaster Based on Ultrasonic Sensors and Wireless Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasari, W.; Iswanto, B. H.; Andayani, M.

    2018-04-01

    A flood disaster provides considerable losses to the people who live around the river. To mitigate losses of material due to flood disaster required an early warning system of flood disaster. For that reason, it necessary to design a system that provide alert to the people prior the flood disaster. And this paper describes development of a device for early detection system of flood disasters. This device consists of two ultrasonic sensors as a water level detector, and a water flow sensor as a water flow velocity sensor. The wireless technology and GSM is used as an information medium. The system is designed based on water level conditions in the Katulampa Dam, Bogor. Characterization of water level detector showed that the device effectively works in a range of water level of 14-250 cm, with a maximum relative error of 4.3%. Meanwhile the wireless works properly as far as 75 m, and the SMS transmission time is 8.20 second.

  4. Iowa Flood Information System: Towards Integrated Data Management, Analysis and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  5. A microelectromechanically controlled cavity optomechanical sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Houxun; Srinivasan, Kartik; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been applied to many measurement problems in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. In parallel, cavity optomechanical systems have achieved quantum-limited displacement sensitivity and ground state cooling of nanoscale objects. By integrating a novel cavity optomechanical structure into an actuated MEMS sensing platform, we demonstrate a system with high-quality-factor interferometric readout, electrical tuning of the optomechanical coupling by two orders of magnitude and a mechanical transfer function adjustable via feedback. The platform separates optical and mechanical components, allowing flexible customization for specific scientific and commercial applications. We achieve a displacement sensitivity of 4.6 fm Hz -1/2 and a force sensitivity of 53 aN Hz -1/2 with only 250 nW optical power launched into the sensor. Cold-damping feedback is used to reduce the thermal mechanical vibration of the sensor by three orders of magnitude and to broaden the sensor bandwidth by approximately the same factor, to above twice the fundamental frequency of ≈40 kHz. The readout sensitivity approaching the standard quantum limit is combined with MEMS actuation in a fully integrated, compact, low-power, stable system compatible with Si batch fabrication and electronics integration. (paper)

  6. The state of the art of flood forecasting - Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen-Del Pozo, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Salamon, P.; Bogner, K.; Burek, P.; de Roo, A.

    2010-09-01

    Flood forecasting systems form a key part of ‘preparedness' strategies for disastrous floods and provide hydrological services, civil protection authorities and the public with information of upcoming events. Provided the warning leadtime is sufficiently long, adequate preparatory actions can be taken to efficiently reduce the impacts of the flooding. Because of the specific characteristics of each catchment, varying data availability and end-user demands, the design of the best flood forecasting system may differ from catchment to catchment. However, despite the differences in concept and data needs, there is one underlying issue that spans across all systems. There has been an growing awareness and acceptance that uncertainty is a fundamental issue of flood forecasting and needs to be dealt with at the different spatial and temporal scales as well as the different stages of the flood generating processes. Today, operational flood forecasting centres change increasingly from single deterministic forecasts to probabilistic forecasts with various representations of the different contributions of uncertainty. The move towards these so-called Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) in flood forecasting represents the state of the art in forecasting science, following on the success of the use of ensembles for weather forecasting (Buizza et al., 2005) and paralleling the move towards ensemble forecasting in other related disciplines such as climate change predictions. The use of HEPS has been internationally fostered by initiatives such as "The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment" (HEPEX), created with the aim to investigate how best to produce, communicate and use hydrologic ensemble forecasts in hydrological short-, medium- und long term prediction of hydrological processes. The advantages of quantifying the different contributions of uncertainty as well as the overall uncertainty to obtain reliable and useful flood forecasts also for extreme events

  7. Development of optical inspection system of L-band SRF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Yujiro; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Hayano, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require about 15,000 1.3 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerating cavities with high accelerating gradient (>35 MV/m) in its main linac. The high yield (80%) of successful high gradient cavities is necessary. Both of the yield and the accelerating gradient of SRF cavities does not reach the required level at present. We think that the gradient of the SRF cavities is limited by irregularities on the interior surface of the cavities, for example, fine dusts (1μm), balls (100μm) and pits (100μm): electrons emitted from the fine dusts by the tunnel effect are accelerated in the electric field, and consume the stored energy of the cavities (Field Emission). The balls and pits cause a breakdown by a magnetic field enhancement or a thermal current concentration (Thermal Breakdown). To prevent these problems the interior surface are treated by polishing and rinsing. The relation between the surface states and the gradient limitations, however, is still not clarified. To study the relation, we are developing an optical inspection system of the interior surface. (author)

  8. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  9. Influence of Flood Detention Capability in Flood Prevention for Flood Disaster of Depression Area

    OpenAIRE

    Chia Lin Chan; Yi Ju Yang; Chih Chin Yang

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall records of rainfall station including the rainfall potential per hour and rainfall mass of five heavy storms are explored, respectively from 2001 to 2010. The rationalization formula is to investigate the capability of flood peak duration of flood detention pond in different rainfall conditions. The stable flood detention model is also proposed by using system dynamic control theory to get the message of flood detention pond in this research. When rainfall freque...

  10. Prototype Control System for Compensation of Superconducting Cavities Detuning Using Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygoda, K.; Piotrowski, A.; Jablonski, G.; Makowski, D.; Pozniak, T.; Napieralski, A.

    2009-08-01

    Pulsed operation of high gradient superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities results in dynamic Lorentz force detuning (LFD) approaching or exceeding the bandwidth of the cavity of order of a few hundreds of Hz. The resulting modulation of the resonance frequency of the cavity is leading to a perturbation of the amplitude and phase of the accelerating field, which can be controlled only at the expense of RF power. Presently, at various labs, a piezoelectric fast tuner based on an active compensation scheme for the resonance frequency control of the cavity is under study. The tests already performed in the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), proved the possibility of Lorentz force detuning compensation by the means of the piezo element excited with the single period of sine wave prior to the RF pulse. The X-Ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) accelerator, which is now under development in Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), will consists of around 800 cavities with a fast tuner fixture including the actuator/sensor configuration. Therefore, it is necessary to design a distributed control system which would be able to supervise around 25 RF stations, each one comprised of 32 cavities. The Advanced Telecomunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) was chosen to design, develop, and build a Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) controller for X-FEL. The prototype control system for Lorentz force detuning compensation was designed and developed. The control applications applied in the system were fitted to the main framework of interfaces and communication protocols proposed for the ATCA-based LLRF control system. The paper presents the general view of a designed control system and shows the first experimental results from the tests carried out in FLASH facility. Moreover, the possibilities for integration of the piezo control system to the ATCA standards are discussed.

  11. Implementing the national AIGA flash flood warning system in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organde, Didier; Javelle, Pierre; Demargne, Julie; Arnaud, Patrick; Caseri, Angelica; Fine, Jean-Alain; de Saint Aubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    The French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) aims to implement a national flash flood warning system to improve flood alerts for small-to-medium (up to 1000 km2) ungauged basins. This system is based on the AIGA method, co-developed by IRSTEA these last 10 years. The method, initially set up for the Mediterranean area, is based on a simple event-based hourly hydrologic distributed model run every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). The hydrologic model ingests operational radar-gauge rainfall grids from Météo-France at a 1-km² resolution to produce discharges for successive outlets along the river network. Discharges are then compared to regionalized flood quantiles of given return periods and warnings (expressed as the range of the return period estimated in real-time) are provided on a river network map. The main interest of the method is to provide forecasters and emergency services with a synthetic view in real time of the ongoing flood situation, information that is especially critical in ungauged flood prone areas. In its enhanced national version, the hourly event-based distributed model is coupled to a continuous daily rainfall-runoff model which provides baseflow and a soil moisture index (for each 1-km² pixel) at the beginning of the hourly simulation. The rainfall-runoff models were calibrated on a selection of 700 French hydrometric stations with Météo-France radar-gauge reanalysis dataset for the 2002-2006 period. To estimate model parameters for ungauged basins, the 2 hydrologic models were regionalised by testing both regressions (using different catchment attributes, such as catchment area, soil type, and climate characteristic) and spatial proximity techniques (transposing parameters from neighbouring donor catchments), as well as different homogeneous hydrological areas. The most valuable regionalisation method was determined for each model through jack-knife cross-validation. The system performance was then

  12. Performance of vapor compression systems with compressor oil flooding and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Ian H.; Groll, Eckhard A.; Braun, James E. [Purdue University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 140 S. Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Vapor compression refrigeration technology has seen great improvement over the last several decades in terms of cycle efficiency through a concerted effort of manufacturers, regulators, and research engineers. As the standard vapor compression systems approach practical limits, cycle modifications should be investigated to increase system efficiency and capacity. One possible means of increasing cycle efficiency is to flood the compressor with a large quantity of oil to achieve a quasi-isothermal compression process, in addition to using a regenerator to increase refrigerant subcooling. In theory, compressor flooding and regeneration can provide a significant increase in system efficiency over the standard vapor compression system. The effectiveness of compressor flooding and regeneration increases as the temperature lift of the system increases. Therefore, this technology is particularly well suited towards lower evaporating temperatures and high ambient temperatures as seen in supermarket refrigeration applications. While predicted increases in cycle efficiency are over 40% for supermarket refrigeration applications, this technology is still very beneficial for typical air-conditioning applications, for which improvements in cycle efficiency greater than 5% are predicted. It has to be noted though that the beneficial effects of compressor flooding can only be realized if a regenerator is used to exchange heat between the refrigerant vapor exiting the evaporator and the liquid exiting the condenser. (author)

  13. Development of web-based services for an ensemble flood forecasting and risk assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaw Manful, Desmond; He, Yi; Cloke, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian; Li, Zhijia; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Huang, Yingchun; Hu, Yuzhong

    2010-05-01

    Flooding is a wide spread and devastating natural disaster worldwide. Floods that took place in the last decade in China were ranked the worst amongst recorded floods worldwide in terms of the number of human fatalities and economic losses (Munich Re-Insurance). Rapid economic development and population expansion into low lying flood plains has worsened the situation. Current conventional flood prediction systems in China are neither suited to the perceptible climate variability nor the rapid pace of urbanization sweeping the country. Flood prediction, from short-term (a few hours) to medium-term (a few days), needs to be revisited and adapted to changing socio-economic and hydro-climatic realities. The latest technology requires implementation of multiple numerical weather prediction systems. The availability of twelve global ensemble weather prediction systems through the ‘THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble' (TIGGE) offers a good opportunity for an effective state-of-the-art early forecasting system. A prototype of a Novel Flood Early Warning System (NEWS) using the TIGGE database is tested in the Huai River basin in east-central China. It is the first early flood warning system in China that uses the massive TIGGE database cascaded with river catchment models, the Xinanjiang hydrologic model and a 1-D hydraulic model, to predict river discharge and flood inundation. The NEWS algorithm is also designed to provide web-based services to a broad spectrum of end-users. The latter presents challenges as both databases and proprietary codes reside in different locations and converge at dissimilar times. NEWS will thus make use of a ready-to-run grid system that makes distributed computing and data resources available in a seamless and secure way. An ability to run or function on different operating systems and provide an interface or front that is accessible to broad spectrum of end-users is additional requirement. The aim is to achieve robust interoperability

  14. Controllable optical bistability in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yan, Jia-Kai; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistable behavior in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings. The effects of the cavity-pump detuning and the pump power on the bistable behavior are discussed detailedly, the impacts of the atom-pump detuning and the atom-cavity coupling strength on the bistability of the system are also explored, and the influences of the cavity-resonator coupling strength and the cavity decay rate are also taken into consideration. The numerical results demonstrate that by tuning these parameters the bistable behavior of the system can be freely switched on or off, and the threshold of the pump power for the bistability as well as the bistable region width can also be effectively controlled. These results can find potential applications in optical bistable switch in the quantum information processing.

  15. Return period assessment of urban pluvial floods through modelling of rainfall–flood response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuyls, Damian Murla; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2018-01-01

    Intense rainfall in urban areas can often generate severe flood impacts. Consequently, it is crucial to design systems to minimize potential flood damages. Traditional, simple design of urban drainage systems assumes agreement between rainfall return period and its consequent flood return period......; however, this does not always apply. Hydraulic infrastructures found in urban drainage systems can increase system heterogeneity and perturb the impact of severe rainfall response. In this study, a surface flood return period assessment was carried out at Lystrup (Denmark), which has received the impact...... of flooding in recent years. A 35 years' rainfall dataset together with a coupled 1D/2D surface and network model was used to analyse and assess flood return period response. Results show an ambiguous relation between rainfall and flood return periods indicating that linear rainfall–runoff relationships will...

  16. Strengthening flood warning systems: the benefits of encouraging social preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Flood warning and response have normally been focused on the technical aspects and disregarded the connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social dimensions. An increasing body of research, however, points at the importance of considering socio-hydrological aspects to improve flood damage mitigation. One of the key factors is the preparedness of the public and first responders during flood situations, which is influenced by many behavioural traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or denial. In this study, we investigate the impact of social preparedness on the efficiency of flood early warning systems by using the recency of flood experience as a proxy for social preparedness. To this end, we developed a stylised model and a synthetic data-set to perform a hypothetical analysis. The main findings point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially when the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. More specifically, efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings from this study provide insights into the importance of considering social preparedness in decision-making for disaster risk reduction.

  17. A Prototype Flood Early Warning SensorWeb System for Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, R. A.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S. W.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Szarzynski, J.; Policelli, F.; van Langenhove, G.

    2010-12-01

    During the past two years, there have been extensive floods in the country of Namibia, Africa which have affected up to a quarter of the population. Via a collaboration between a group funded by the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) at NASA that has been performing various SensorWeb prototyping activities for disasters, the Department of Hydrology in Namibia and the United Nations Space-based Information for Disaster and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) , experiments were conducted on how to apply various satellite resources integrated into a SensorWeb architecture along with in-situ sensors such as river gauges and rain gauges into a flood early warning system. The SensorWeb includes a global flood model and a higher resolution basin specific flood model. Furthermore, flood extent and status is monitored by optical and radar types of satellites and integrated via some automation. We have taken a practical approach to find out how to create a working system by selectively using the components that provide good results. The vision for the future is to combine this with the country side dwelling unit data base to create risk maps that provide specific warnings to houses within high risk areas based on near term predictions. This presentation will show some of the highlights of the effort thus far plus our future plans.

  18. The system of enclosed optical cavities as a tool for laser photons storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    2004-01-01

    The calculation of the system consisting of two optical cavities enclosed one into another is performed in the plane-wave approximation. It is shown that under definite conditions one can obtain an enhancement of the electromagnetic field in the internal cavity as compared to the case of direct excitation of the cavity with an electromagnetic wave of the same amplitude. The comparative analysis of these two approaches is carried out. We suppose to apply the proposed system with moderate-reflectivity mirrors (R=0.99) for accumulating laser photons in the optical cavity of the X-ray source LESR-N100 based on Compton scattering of the laser beam on relativistic electrons stored in the ring

  19. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  20. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  1. Risk-Based Evaluation of Flood Warning and Preparedness Systems. Volume 2 - Technical

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    1996-01-01

    ... for both structural and nonstructural measures. The unifing theme of these results is that the design and evaluation of structural and nonstructural measures for flood mitigation, including flood warning and preparedness systems, is an integrative...

  2. Discussion of mechanical design for pressured cavity-air-receiver in solar power tower system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhilin; Zhang, Yaoming; Liu, Deyou; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wei [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China). New Materials and Energy Sources Research and Exploitation Inst.

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, Hohai university and Nanjing Chunhui science and technology Ltd. of China, cooperating with Weizmann Institute of Science and EDIG Ltd. of Israel, built up a 70kWe solar power tower test plant in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China, which was regarded as the first demonstration project to demonstrate the feasibility of solar power tower system in China. The system consists of heliostats field providing concentrated sunlight, a solar tower with a height of 33 meter, a pressured cavity-air-receiver transforming solar energy to thermal energy, a modified gas turbine adapting to solar power system, natural gas subsystem for solar-hybrid generation, cooling water subsystem for receiver and CPC, controlling subsystem for whole plant, et al. In this system, air acts as actuating medium and the system works in Brayton cycle. Testing results show that solar power tower system is feasible in China. To promote the development of solar powered gas turbine system and the pressured cavity-air-receiver technology in China, it is necessary to study the mechanical design for pressured Cavity-air-receiver. Mechanical design of pressured cavity-air-receiver is underway and some tentative principles for pressured cavity-air-receiver design, involving in power matching, thermal efficiency, material choosing, and equipment security and machining ability, are presented. At the same time, simplified method and process adapted to engineering application for the mechanical design of pressured cavity-air-receiver are discussed too. Furthermore, some design parameters and appearance of a test sample of pressured cavity-air-receiver designed in this way is shown. It is appealed that, in China, the research in this field should be intensified and independent knowledge patents for pivotal technological equipments such as receiver in solar power tower system should be formed. (orig.)

  3. Effects of Flood Control Strategies on Flood Resilience Under Sociohydrological Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyungmin; Jeong, Hanseok; Sangwan, Nikhil; Yu, David J.

    2018-04-01

    A community capacity to cope with flood hazards, or community flood resilience, emerges from the interplay of hydrological and social processes. This interplay can be significantly influenced by the flood control strategy adopted by a society, i.e., how a society sets its desired flood protection level and strives to achieve this goal. And this interplay can be further complicated by rising land-sea level differences, seasonal water level fluctuations, and economic change. But not much research has been done on how various forms of flood control strategies affect human-flood interactions under these disturbances and therefore flood resilience in the long run. The current study is an effort to address these issues by developing a conceptual model of human-flood interaction mediated by flood control strategies. Our model extends the existing model of Yu et al. (2017), who investigated the flood resilience of a community-based flood protection system in coastal Bangladesh. The major extensions made in this study are inclusions of various forms of flood control strategies (both adaptive and nonadaptive ones), the challenge of rising land-sea level differences, and various high tide level scenarios generated from modifying the statistical variances and averages. Our results show that adaptive forms of flood control strategies tend to outperform nonadaptive ones for maintaining the model community's flood protection system. Adaptive strategies that dynamically adjust target flood protection levels through close monitoring of flood damages and social memories of flood risk can help the model community deal with various disturbances.

  4. Thermal modeling of a pressurized air cavity receiver for solar dish Stirling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chongzhe; Zhang, Yanping; Falcoz, Quentin; Neveu, Pierre; Li, Jianlan; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    A solar cavity receiver model for the dish collector system is designed in response to growing demand of renewable energy. In the present research field, no investigations into the geometric parameters of a cavity receiver have been performed. The cylindrical receiver in this study is composed of an enclosed bottom at the back, an aperture at the front, a helical pipe inside the cavity and an insulation layer on the external surface of the cavity. The influence of several critical receiver parameters on the thermal efficiency is analyzed in this paper: cavity inner diameter and cavity length. The thermal model in this paper is solved considering the cavity dimensions as variables. Implementing the model into EES, each parameter influence is separately investigated, and a preliminary optimization method is proposed.

  5. Development of Real-Time System for Urban Flooding by Surcharge of Storm Drainge and River Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. B.; Won, C. Y.; Park, J.; Lee, K.

    2017-12-01

    Korea experiences frequent flood disasters, which cause considerable economic losses and damages to towns and farms. Especially, a regional torrential storm is about 98.5mm/hr on September 21, 2010 in Seoul. The storm exceeds the capacity of urban drainage system of 75mm/hr, and 9,419 houses. How to monitor and control the urban flood disasters is an important issue in Korea. To mitigate the flood damage, a customizing system was developed to estimate urban floods and inundation using by integrating drainage system data and river information database which are managed by local governments and national agencies. In the case of Korean urban city, there are a lot of detention ponds and drainage pumping stations on end of drainage system and flow is going into river. The drainage pumping station, it is very important hydraulic facility for flood control between river and drainage system. So, it is possible to occur different patterns of flood inundation according to operation rule of drainage pumping station. A flood disaster is different damage as how to operate drainage pumping station and plan operation rule.

  6. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  7. Faithful state transfer between two-level systems via an actively cooled finite-temperature cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárkány, Lőrinc; Fortágh, József; Petrosyan, David

    2018-03-01

    We consider state transfer between two qubits—effective two-level systems represented by Rydberg atoms—via a common mode of a microwave cavity at finite temperature. We find that when both qubits have the same coupling strength to the cavity field, at large enough detuning from the cavity mode frequency, quantum interference between the transition paths makes the swap of the excitation between the qubits largely insensitive to the number of thermal photons in the cavity. When, however, the coupling strengths are different, the photon-number-dependent differential Stark shift of the transition frequencies precludes efficient transfer. Nevertheless, using an auxiliary cooling system to continuously extract the cavity photons, we can still achieve a high-fidelity state transfer between the qubits.

  8. Optomechanically induced transparency in multi-cavity optomechanical system with and without one two-level atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-Shui

    2016-06-28

    We analytically study the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in the N-cavity system with the Nth cavity driven by pump, probing laser fields and the 1st cavity coupled to mechanical oscillator. We also consider that one atom could be trapped in the ith cavity. Instead of only illustrating the OMIT in such a system, we are interested in how the number of OMIT windows is influenced by the cavities and the atom and what roles the atom could play in different cavities. In the resolved sideband regime, we find that, the number of cavities precisely determines the maximal number of OMIT windows. It is interesting that, when the two-level atom is trapped in the even-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is split and forms an extra OMIT window, but if the atom is trapped in the odd-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is only broadened and thus changes the width of the OMIT windows rather than induces an extra window.

  9. On the tunneling time of ultracold atoms through a system of two mazer cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Fazal; Ge, Guo-Qin; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid

    2018-01-30

    We study the resonant tunneling of ultraslow atoms through a system of high quality microwave cavities. We find that the phase tunneling time across the two coupled cavities exhibits more frequent resonances as compared to the single cavity interaction. The increased resonances are instrumental in the display of an alternate sub and superclassical character of the tunneling time along the momentum axis with increasing energies of the incident slow atoms. Here, the intercavity separation appears as an additional controlling parameter of the system that provides an efficient control of the superclassical behavior of the phase tunneling time. Further, we find that the phase time characteristics through two cavity system has the combined features of the tunneling through a double barrier and a double well arrangements.

  10. A Real-Time Measurement System for Long-Life Flood Monitoring and Warning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Skarmeta Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A flood warning system incorporates telemetered rainfall and flow/water level data measured at various locations in the catchment area. Real-time accurate data collection is required for this use, and sensor networks improve the system capabilities. However, existing sensor nodes struggle to satisfy the hydrological requirements in terms of autonomy, sensor hardware compatibility, reliability and long-range communication. We describe the design and development of a real-time measurement system for flood monitoring, and its deployment in a flash-flood prone 650 km2 semiarid watershed in Southern Spain. A developed low-power and long-range communication device, so-called DatalogV1, provides automatic data gathering and reliable transmission. DatalogV1 incorporates self-monitoring for adapting measurement schedules for consumption management and to capture events of interest. Two tests are used to assess the success of the development. The results show an autonomous and robust monitoring system for long-term collection of water level data inmany sparse locations during flood events.

  11. Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

    2013-04-01

    Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of

  12. Innovative solutions in monitoring systems in flood protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekuła, Klaudia; Połeć, Marzena; Borecka, Aleksandra

    2018-02-01

    The article presents the possibilities of ISMOP - IT System of Levee Monitoring. This system is able to collecting data from the reference and experimental control and measurement network. The experimental levee is build in a 1:1 scale and located in the village of Czernichow, near Cracow. The innovation is the utilization of a series of sensors monitoring the changes in the body of levee. It can be done by comparing the results of numerical simulations with results from installed two groups of sensors: reference sensors and experimental sensors. The reference control and measurement sensors create network based on pore pressure and temperature sensors. Additionally, it contains the fiber-optic technology. The second network include design experimental sensors, constructed for the development of solutions that can be used in existing flood embankments. The results are important to create the comprehensive and inexpensive monitoring system, which could be helpful for state authorities and local governments in flood protection.

  13. Flood AI: An Intelligent Systems for Discovery and Communication of Disaster Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Sermet, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Communities are not immune from extreme events or natural disasters that can lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and public. Improving resilience to better prepare, plan, recover, and adapt to disasters is critical to reduce the impacts of extreme events. The National Research Council (NRC) report discusses the topic of how to increase resilience to extreme events through a vision of resilient nation in the year 2030. The report highlights the importance of data, information, gaps and knowledge challenges that needs to be addressed, and suggests every individual to access the risk and vulnerability information to make their communities more resilient. This project presents an intelligent system, Flood AI, for flooding to improve societal preparedness by providing a knowledge engine using voice recognition, artificial intelligence, and natural language processing based on a generalized ontology for disasters with a primary focus on flooding. The knowledge engine utilizes the flood ontology and concepts to connect user input to relevant knowledge discovery channels on flooding by developing a data acquisition and processing framework utilizing environmental observations, forecast models, and knowledge bases. Communication channels of the framework includes web-based systems, agent-based chat bots, smartphone applications, automated web workflows, and smart home devices, opening the knowledge discovery for flooding to many unique use cases.

  14. Cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, Herbert; Varcoe, Benjamin T H; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Becker, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the work on cavity quantum electrodynamics of free atoms. In recent years, cavity experiments have also been conducted on a variety of solid-state systems resulting in many interesting applications, of which microlasers, photon bandgap structures and quantum dot structures in cavities are outstanding examples. Although these phenomena and systems are very interesting, discussion is limited here to free atoms and mostly single atoms because these systems exhibit clean quantum phenomena and are not disturbed by a variety of other effects. At the centre of our review is the work on the one-atom maser, but we also give a survey of the entire field, using free atoms in order to show the large variety of problems dealt with. The cavity interaction can be separated into two main regimes: the weak coupling in cavity or cavity-like structures with low quality factors Q and the strong coupling when high-Q cavities are involved. The weak coupling leads to modification of spontaneous transitions and level shifts, whereas the strong coupling enables one to observe a periodic exchange of photons between atoms and the radiation field. In this case, atoms and photons are entangled, this being the basis for a variety of phenomena observed, some of them leading to interesting applications in quantum information processing. The cavity experiments with free atoms reached a new domain with the advent of experiments in the visible spectral region. A review on recent achievements in this area is also given

  15. System robustness analysis in support of flood and drought risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Mens, MJP

    2015-01-01

    Floods and droughts have an increasing impact on societies worldwide. It is unlikely that the provision of flood protection infrastructure and reservoirs will eliminate this problem, especially as extreme events are expected to increase in probability and magnitude as a result of climate change. For this reason, the focus of water management has shifted to a risk-based approach in recent years; but this also has its limitations.This book examines system robustness as a new perspective on flood and drought risk management. The concept of robustness is familiar from other areas, such as engineer

  16. Prominence Bubbles and Plumes: Thermo-magnetic Buoyancy in Coronal Cavity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Hurlburt, N.

    2009-05-01

    The Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope continues to produce high spatial and temporal resolution images of solar prominences in both the Ca II 396.8 nm H-line and the H-alpha 656.3 nm line. Time series of these images show that many quiescent prominences produce large scale (50 Mm) dark "bubbles" that "inflate" into, and sometimes burst through, the prominence material. In addition, small-scale (2--5 Mm) dark plumes are seen rising into many quiescent prominences. We show typical examples of both phenomena and argue that they originate from the same mechanism: concentrated and heated magnetic flux that rises due to thermal and magnetic buoyancy to equilibrium heights in the prominence/coronal-cavity system. More generally, these bubbles and upflows offer a source of both magnetic flux and mass to the overlying coronal cavity, supporting B.C. Low's theory of CME initiation via steadily increasing magnetic buoyancy breaking through the overlying helmut streamer tension forces. Quiescent prominences are thus seen as the lowermost parts of the larger coronal cavity system, revealing through thermal effects both the cooled downflowing "drainage" from the cavity and the heated upflowing magnetic "plasmoids" supplying the cavity. We compare SOT movies to new 3D compressible MHD simulations that reproduce the dark turbulent plume dynamics to establish the magnetic and thermal character of these buoyancy-driven flows into the corona.

  17. A critical approach to some new ideas about the Dutch flood risk system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, T.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions on measures to improve a flood risk system are in part supported by general ideas about how the system works and should work. After the completion of the Dutch Delta Works around 1990, such new ideas regarding flood risk emerged. Some of these may be appealing at first, but appear

  18. Calculation, normalization and perturbation of quasinormal modes in coupled cavity-waveguide systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    of divergent series to provide a framework for modeling of optical phenomena in such coupled cavity-waveguide systems. As an example, we apply the framework to study perturbative changes in the resonance frequency and Q value of a photonic crystal cavity coupled to a defect waveguide....

  19. Prediction of the flooding process at the Ronneburg site - results of an integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, M.; Saenger, H.-J.; Snagowski, S.; Maerten, H.; Eckart, M.

    1998-01-01

    The flooding process of the Ronneburg uranium mine (WISMUT) was initiated at the turn of the year 1997 to 1998. In order to prepare the flooding process and to derive and optimize technological measures an integrated modelling approach was chosen which includes several coupled modules. The most important issues to be answered are: (1) prediction of the flooding time (2) prediction of the groundwater level at the post-flooding stage, assessment of amount, location and quality of flooding waters entering the receiving streams at the final stage (3) water quality prediction within the mine during the flooding process (4) definition of technological measures and assessment of their efficiency A box model which includes the three-dimensional distribution of the cavity volume in the mine represents the model core. The model considers the various types of dewatered cavity volumes for each mine level / mining field and the degree of vertical and horizontal connection between the mining fields. Different types of open mine space as well as the dewatered geological pore and joint volume are considered taking into account the contour of the depression cone prior to flooding and the characteristics of the different rock types. Based on the mine water balance and the flooding technology the model predicts the rise of the water table over time during the flooding process for each mine field separately. In order to predict the mine water quality and the efficiency of in-situ water treatment the box model was linked to a geochemical model (PHREEQC). A three-dimensional flow model is used to evaluate the post-flooding situation at the Ronneburg site. This model is coupled to the box model. The modelling results of various flooding scenarios show that a prediction of the post-flooding geohydraulic situation is possible despite of uncertainties concerning the input parameters which still exist. The post-flooding water table in the central part of the Ronneburg mine will be 270 m

  20. Anticipated chaos in a nonsymmetric coupled external-cavity-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Paul; Spencer, Paul S.; Pierce, Iestyn; Sivaprakasam, S.; Shore, K. Alan

    2003-01-01

    We explain how the anticipation of chaos in a coupled external cavity laser system described by Sivaprakasam, Shahverdiev, Spencer, and Shore [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 154101 (2001)] is obtained. We show that the external cavity induces the required symmetry breaking necessary for the existence of a time delay between the synchronized output of the two laser diodes. The inclusion of a detuning between the two lasers causes one laser to anticipate the chaotic dynamics of the other

  1. On the Use of Global Flood Forecasts and Satellite-Derived Inundation Maps for Flood Monitoring in Data-Sparse Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Revilla-Romero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response decisions. Global-scale flood forecasting and satellite-based flood detection systems are currently operating, however their reliability for decision-making applications needs to be assessed. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of several operational global flood forecasting and flood detection systems, using 10 major flood events recorded over 2012–2014. Specifically, we evaluated the spatial extent and temporal characteristics of flood detections from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS. Furthermore, we compared the GFDS flood maps with those from NASA’s two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors. Results reveal that: (1 general agreement was found between the GFDS and MODIS flood detection systems, (2 large differences exist in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the GFDS detections and GloFAS forecasts, and (3 the quantitative validation of global flood disasters in data-sparse regions is highly challenging. Overall, satellite remote sensing provides useful near real-time flood information that can be useful for risk management. We highlight the known limitations of global flood detection and forecasting systems, and propose ways forward to improve the reliability of large-scale flood monitoring tools.

  2. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  3. Continental and global scale flood forecasting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerton, Rebecca E.; Stephens, Elisabeth M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Pagano, Thomas P.; Weerts, A.H.; Wood, A.; Salamon, Peter; Brown, James D.; Hjerdt, Niclas; Donnelly, Chantal; Baugh, Calum A.; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent of natural disasters, affecting millions of people across the globe every year. The anticipation and forecasting of floods at the global scale is crucial to preparing for severe events and providing early awareness where local flood models and warning services may not

  4. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan [Sharif University of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)

  5. Urban pluvial flood prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2016-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numerically both...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0–2 h lead time, and numerical weather models with lead times up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model in order to investigate the relative difference between different inputs in predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been flooded in 2012 and 2014. Results show it is possible to generate detailed flood maps...

  6. Experimental study of the passive flooding system in the WWER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, A.B.; Efanov, A.D.; Kalyakin, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    The design solution of the passive flooding system in the WWER-1000 reactor core with the V-392 reactor facility and the scheme of the GE-2 large-scale thermohydraulic stand for substantiation of its functions are presented. The proposals, improving the efficiency of the system are developed on the basis of the experimental studies on the equipment input-output operational characteristics and the recommendations on the substantiation of the function of the reactor core flooding system are given [ru

  7. Mini-cavity plasma core reactors for dual-mode space nuclear power/propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, S.

    1976-01-01

    A mini-cavity plasma core reactor is investigated for potential use in a dual-mode space power and propulsion system. In the propulsive mode, hydrogen propellant is injected radially inward through the reactor solid regions and into the cavity. The propellant is heated by both solid driver fuel elements surrounding the cavity and uranium plasma before it is exhausted out the nozzle. The propellant only removes a fraction of the driver power, the remainder is transferred by a coolant fluid to a power conversion system, which incorporates a radiator for heat rejection. In the power generation mode, the plasma and propellant flows are shut off, and the driver elements supply thermal power to the power conversion system, which generates electricity for primary electric propulsion purposes

  8. Urban flood return period assessment through rainfall-flood response modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murla, Damian; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    Intense rainfall can often cause severe floods, especially in urbanized areas, where population density or large impermeable areas are found. In this context, floods can generate a direct impact in a social-environmental-economic viewpoint. Traditionally, in design of Urban Drainage Systems (UDS......), correlation between return period (RP) of a given rainfall and RP of its consequent flood has been assumed to be linear (e.g.DS/EN752 (2008)). However, this is not always the case. Complex UDS, where diverse hydraulic infrastructures are often found, increase the heterogeneity of system response, which may...... cause an alteration of the mentioned correlation. Consequently, reliability on future urban planning, design and resilience against floods may be also affected by this misassumption. In this study, an assessment of surface flood RP across rainfall RP has been carried out at Lystrup, a urbanized...

  9. Efficient Characterization of Protein Cavities within Molecular Simulation Trajectories: trj_cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, Teresa; East, Alexandra; Garzón, Diana; Ulmschneider, Martin B; Bond, Peter J

    2014-05-13

    Protein cavities and tunnels are critical in determining phenomena such as ligand binding, molecular transport, and enzyme catalysis. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations enable the exploration of the flexibility and conformational plasticity of protein cavities, extending the information available from static experimental structures relevant to, for example, drug design. Here, we present a new tool (trj_cavity) implemented within the GROMACS ( www.gromacs.org ) framework for the rapid identification and characterization of cavities detected within MD trajectories. trj_cavity is optimized for usability and computational efficiency and is applicable to the time-dependent analysis of any cavity topology, and optional specialized descriptors can be used to characterize, for example, protein channels. Its novel grid-based algorithm performs an efficient neighbor search whose calculation time is linear with system size, and a comparison of performance with other widely used cavity analysis programs reveals an orders-of-magnitude improvement in the computational cost. To demonstrate its potential for revealing novel mechanistic insights, trj_cavity has been used to analyze long-time scale simulation trajectories for three diverse protein cavity systems. This has helped to reveal, respectively, the lipid binding mechanism in the deep hydrophobic cavity of a soluble mite-allergen protein, Der p 2; a means for shuttling carbohydrates between the surface-exposed substrate-binding and catalytic pockets of a multidomain, membrane-proximal pullulanase, PulA; and the structural basis for selectivity in the transmembrane pore of a voltage-gated sodium channel (NavMs), embedded within a lipid bilayer environment. trj_cavity is available for download under an open-source license ( http://sourceforge.net/projects/trjcavity ). A simplified, GROMACS-independent version may also be compiled.

  10. The Namibia Early Flood Warning System, A CEOS Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Sohlberg, Robert; Handy, Matthew; Grossman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year few years, an international collaboration has developed a pilot project under the auspices of Committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS) Disasters team. The overall team consists of civilian satellite agencies. For this pilot effort, the development team consists of NASA, Canadian Space Agency, Univ. of Maryland, Univ. of Colorado, Univ. of Oklahoma, Ukraine Space Research Institute and Joint Research Center(JRC) for European Commission. This development team collaborates with regional , national and international agencies to deliver end-to-end disaster coverage. In particular, the team in collaborating on this effort with the Namibia Department of Hydrology to begin in Namibia . However, the ultimate goal is to expand the functionality to provide early warning over the South Africa region. The initial collaboration was initiated by United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs and CEOS Working Group for Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The initial driver was to demonstrate international interoperability using various space agency sensors and models along with regional in-situ ground sensors. In 2010, the team created a preliminary semi-manual system to demonstrate moving and combining key data streams and delivering the data to the Namibia Department of Hydrology during their flood season which typically is January through April. In this pilot, a variety of moderate resolution and high resolution satellite flood imagery was rapidly delivered and used in conjunction with flood predictive models in Namibia. This was collected in conjunction with ground measurements and was used to examine how to create a customized flood early warning system. During the first year, the team made use of SensorWeb technology to gather various sensor data which was used to monitor flood waves traveling down basins originating in Angola, but eventually flooding villages in Namibia. The team made use of standardized interfaces such as those articulated

  11. Flood and Traffic Wireless Monitoring System for Smart Cities

    KAUST Repository

    Moussa, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The convergence of computation, communication and sensing has led to the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which allow distributed monitoring of physical phenomena over extended areas. In this thesis, we focus on a dual flood and traffic flow WSN applicable to urban environments. This fixed sensing system is based on the combination of ultrasonic range-finding with remote temperature sensing, and can sense both phenomena with a high degree of accuracy. This enables the monitoring of urban areas to lessen the impact of catastrophic flood events, by monitoring flood parameters and traffic flow to enable public evacuation and early warning, allocate the resources efficiently or control the traffic to make cities more productive and smarter. We present an implementation of the device, and illustrate its performance in water level estimation and rain detection using a novel combination of L1 regularized reconstruction and machine learning algorithms on a 6-month dataset involving four different sensors. Our results show that water level can be estimated with an uncertainty of 1 cm using a combination of thermal sensing and ultrasonic distance measurements. The demonstration of the performance included the detection of an actual flash flood event using two sensors located in Umm Al Qura University (Mecca). Finally, we show that Lagrangian (mobile) sensors can be used to inexpensively increase the performance of the system with respect to traffic sensing. These sensors are based on Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), which have never been investigated in the context of traffic ow monitoring before. We investigate the divergence of the speed estimation process, the lack of the calibration parameters of the system, and the problem of reconstructing vehicle trajectories evolving in a given transportation network. To address these problems, we propose an automatic calibration algorithm applicable to IMU-equipped ground vehicles, and an L1 regularized least squares

  12. An early warning system for flash floods in hyper-arid Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J.; Vanderkimpen, P.; El Afandi, G.; Abdelkhalek, A.; Fockedey, S.; El Sammany, M.; Abdallah, G.; El Bihery, M.; Bauwens, W.; Huygens, M.

    2012-02-01

    An early warning system (EWS) for flash floods has been developed for part of the Sinai peninsula of Egypt, an hyper-arid area confronted with limited availability of field data, limited understanding of the response of the wadi to rainfall, and a lack of correspondence between rainfall data and observed flash flood events. This paper shows that an EWS is not a "mission impossible" when confronted with large technical and scientific uncertainties and limited data availability. Firstly, the EWS has been developed and tested based on the best available information, this being quantitative data (field measurements, simulations and remote sensing images) complemented with qualitative "expert opinion" and local stakeholders' knowledge. Secondly, a set of essential parameters has been identified to be estimated or measured under data-poor conditions. These are: (1) an inventory of past significant rainfall and flash flood events, (2) the spatial and temporal distribution of the rainfall events and (3) transmission and infiltration losses and (4) thresholds for issuing warnings. Over a period of 30 yr (1979-2010), only 20 significant rain events have been measured. Nine of these resulted in a flash flood. Five flash floods were caused by regional storms and four by local convective storms. The results for the 2010 flash flood show that 90% of the total rainfall volume was lost to infiltration and transmission losses. Finally, it is discussed that the effectiveness of an EWS is only partially determined by technological performance. A strong institutional capacity is equally important, especially skilled staff to operate and maintain the system and clear communication pathways and emergency procedures in case of an upcoming disaster.

  13. Estimation of Internal Flooding Frequency for Screening Analysis of Flooding PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Jun Eon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the internal frequency for the quantitative screening analysis of the flooding PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) with the appropriate data and estimation method. In the case of the existing flood PSA for domestic NPPs (Nuclear Power Plant), the screening analysis was performed firstly and then detailed analysis was performed for the area not screened out. For the quantitative screening analysis, the plant area based flood frequency by MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) method was used, while the component based flood frequency is used for the detailed analysis. The existing quantitative screening analysis for domestic NPPs have used data from all LWRs (Light Water Reactor), namely PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) for the internal flood frequency of the auxiliary building and turbine building. However, in the case of the primary auxiliary building, the applicability of the data from all LWRs needs to be examined carefully because of the significant difference in equipments between the PWR and BWR structure. NUREG/CR-5750 suggested the Bayesian update method with Jeffrey's noninformative prior to estimate the initiating event frequency for the flood. It, however, did not describe any procedure of the flood PSA. Recently, Fleming and Lydell suggested the internal flooding frequency in the unit of the plant operation year-pipe length (in meter) by pipe size of each specific system which is susceptible to the flooding such as the service water system and the circulating water system. They used the failure rate, the rupture conditional probability given the failure to estimate the internal flooding frequency, and the Bayesian update to reduce uncertainties. To perform the quantitative screening analysis with the method, it requires pipe length by each pipe size of the specific system per each divided area to change the concept of the component based frequency to the concept of the plant area

  14. Urbanization and climate change implications in flood risk management: Developing an efficient decision support system for flood susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Gan, Thian Yew

    2018-04-26

    The effects of urbanization and climate change impact to the flood risk of two governorates in Egypt were analyzed. Non-parametric change point and trend detection algorithms were applied to the annual rainfall, rainfall anomaly, and temperature anomaly of both study sites. Next, change points and trends of the annual and monthly surface runoff data generated by the Curve Number method over 1948-2014 were also analyzed to detect the effects of urbanization on the surface runoff. Lastly, a GIS decision support system was developed to delineate flood susceptibility zones for the two governorates. The significant decline in annual rainfall and rainfall anomaly after 1994 at 8.96 and 15.3 mm/decade respectively was likely due to climate change impact, especially significant warming trend since 1976 at 0.16 °C/decade, though that could partly be attributed to rapid urbanization. Since 1970, effects of urbanization to flood risk are clear, because despite a decline in rainfall, the annual surface runoff and runoff anomaly show positive trends of 12.7 and of 14.39 mm/decade, respectively. Eleven flood contributing factors have been identified and used in mapping flood susceptibility zones of both sites. In the El-Beheira governorate, 9.2%, 17.9%, 32.3%, 28.3% and 12.3% of its area are categorized as very high, high, moderate, low and very low susceptibility to flooding, respectively. Similarly, in Alexandria governorate, 15.9%, 33.5%, 41%, 8.8% and 0.8% of its area are categorized as very high, high, moderate, low and very low susceptibility to flooding, respectively. Very high and high susceptible zones are located in the northern, northwestern and northeastern parts of the Beheira governorates, and in the northeastern and northwestern parts of Alexandria. The flood related information obtained in this study will be useful to assist mitigating potential flood damages and future land use planning of both governorates of Egypt. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Physics of coolability of top flooded molten corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.P.; Singh, R.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    During a postulated severe accident in a nuclear reactor in case of ex-vessel scenario the molten corium can be relocated in the containment cavity forming a melt pool. In order to arrest further progression of severe accident, complete quenching of the molten corium pool is necessary. Most common way to deal with ex-vessel scenario is to flood the melt pool with large quantity of water. However, the mechanism of coolability is much more complex involving multi-component, multiphase heat, mass and momentum transfer. In this paper, a mechanistic model has been presented for the corium coolability under top flooding conditions. The model has been validated with the experimental data of COMECO test facility available in literature. Simulations have been carried out using the model to explore the physics behind the corium coolability with MCCI under top flooding condition. Variations in the thermo-physical properties as a result of MCCI have been considered and its effect on coolability has been studied. (author)

  16. CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR SYSTEM FOR ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, S T; Boorman, G; Molloy, S; Ross, M; Aryshev, A; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J; Kim, E S; Kim, Y I; Heo, A E; Lyapin, A; Swinson, C J; Frisch, J; McCormick, D M; Nelson, J; Smith, T; White, G R

    2010-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) in KEK, Japan, is a prototype scaled demonstrator system for the final focus required for a future high energy lepton linear collider. The ATF2 beam-line is instrumented with a total of 38 C and S band resonant cavity beam position monitors (CBPM) with associated mixer electronics and digitizers. The current status of the BPM system is described, with a focus on operational techniques and performance.

  17. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  18. A Bayesian-Based System to Assess Wave-Driven Flooding Hazards on Coral Reef-Lined Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, S. G.; Storlazzi, C. D.; van Dongeren, A. R.; Tissier, M. F. S.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Many low-elevation, coral reef-lined, tropical coasts are vulnerable to the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and wave-induced flooding. The considerable morphological diversity of these coasts and the variability of the hydrodynamic forcing that they are exposed to make predicting wave-induced flooding a challenge. A process-based wave-resolving hydrodynamic model (XBeach Non-Hydrostatic, "XBNH") was used to create a large synthetic database for use in a "Bayesian Estimator for Wave Attack in Reef Environments" (BEWARE), relating incident hydrodynamics and coral reef geomorphology to coastal flooding hazards on reef-lined coasts. Building on previous work, BEWARE improves system understanding of reef hydrodynamics by examining the intrinsic reef and extrinsic forcing factors controlling runup and flooding on reef-lined coasts. The Bayesian estimator has high predictive skill for the XBNH model outputs that are flooding indicators, and was validated for a number of available field cases. It was found that, in order to accurately predict flooding hazards, water depth over the reef flat, incident wave conditions, and reef flat width are the most essential factors, whereas other factors such as beach slope and bed friction due to the presence or absence of corals are less important. BEWARE is a potentially powerful tool for use in early warning systems or risk assessment studies, and can be used to make projections about how wave-induced flooding on coral reef-lined coasts may change due to climate change.Plain Language SummaryLow-lying tropical coasts fronted by coral reefs are threatened by the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and flooding caused by waves. However, the reefs on these coasts differ widely in their shape, size, and physical characteristics; the wave and water level conditions affecting these coastlines also vary in space and time. These factors make it difficult to predict flooding caused by waves along coral reef-lined coasts. We

  19. A Multi-Scale Flood Monitoring System Based on Fully Automatic MODIS and TerraSAR-X Processing Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Stein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A two-component fully automated flood monitoring system is described and evaluated. This is a result of combining two individual flood services that are currently under development at DLR’s (German Aerospace Center Center for Satellite based Crisis Information (ZKI to rapidly support disaster management activities. A first-phase monitoring component of the system systematically detects potential flood events on a continental scale using daily-acquired medium spatial resolution optical data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. A threshold set controls the activation of the second-phase crisis component of the system, which derives flood information at higher spatial detail using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR based satellite mission (TerraSAR-X. The proposed activation procedure finds use in the identification of flood situations in different spatial resolutions and in the time-critical and on demand programming of SAR satellite acquisitions at an early stage of an evolving flood situation. The automated processing chains of the MODIS (MFS and the TerraSAR-X Flood Service (TFS include data pre-processing, the computation and adaptation of global auxiliary data, thematic classification, and the subsequent dissemination of flood maps using an interactive web-client. The system is operationally demonstrated and evaluated via the monitoring two recent flood events in Russia 2013 and Albania/Montenegro 2013.

  20. Case studies of extended model-based flood forecasting: prediction of dike strength and flood impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuparu, Dana; Bachmann, Daniel; Bogaard, Tom; Twigt, Daniel; Verkade, Jan; de Bruijn, Karin; de Leeuw, Annemargreet

    2017-04-01

    Flood forecasts, warning and emergency response are important components in flood risk management. Most flood forecasting systems use models to translate weather predictions to forecasted discharges or water levels. However, this information is often not sufficient for real time decisions. A sound understanding of the reliability of embankments and flood dynamics is needed to react timely and reduce the negative effects of the flood. Where are the weak points in the dike system? When, how much and where the water will flow? When and where is the greatest impact expected? Model-based flood impact forecasting tries to answer these questions by adding new dimensions to the existing forecasting systems by providing forecasted information about: (a) the dike strength during the event (reliability), (b) the flood extent in case of an overflow or a dike failure (flood spread) and (c) the assets at risk (impacts). This work presents three study-cases in which such a set-up is applied. Special features are highlighted. Forecasting of dike strength. The first study-case focusses on the forecast of dike strength in the Netherlands for the river Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn and IJssel. A so-called reliability transformation is used to translate the predicted water levels at selected dike sections into failure probabilities during a flood event. The reliability of a dike section is defined by fragility curves - a summary of the dike strength conditional to the water level. The reliability information enhances the emergency management and inspections of embankments. Ensemble forecasting. The second study-case shows the setup of a flood impact forecasting system in Dumfries, Scotland. The existing forecasting system is extended with a 2D flood spreading model in combination with the Delft-FIAT impact model. Ensemble forecasts are used to make use of the uncertainty in the precipitation forecasts, which is useful to quantify the certainty of a forecasted flood event. From global

  1. Tunable two-photon correlation in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bo Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlated photons are essential sources for quantum information processing. We propose a practical scheme to generate pairs of correlated photons in a controllable fashion from a double-cavity optomechanical system, where the variable optomechanical coupling strength makes it possible to tune the photon correlation at our will. The key operation is based on the repulsive or attractive interaction between the two photons intermediated by the mechanical resonator. The present protocol could provide a potential approach to coherent control of the photon correlation using the optomechanical cavity.

  2. Glacier surge mechanism based on linked cavity configuration of the basal water conduit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamb, Barclay

    1987-08-01

    Based on observations of the 1982-1983 surge of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, a model of the surge mechanism is developed in terms of a transition from the normal tunnel configuration of the basal water conduit system to a linked cavity configuration that tends to restrict the flow of water, resulting in increased basal water pressures that cause rapid basal sliding. The linked cavity system consists of basal cavities formed by ice-bedrock separation (cavitation), ˜1 m high and ˜10 m in horizontal dimensions, widely scattered over the glacier bed, and hydraulically linked by narrow connections where separation is minimal (separation gap ≲ 0.1 m). The narrow connections, called orifices, control the water flow through the conduit system; by throttling the flow through the large cavities, the orifices keep the water flux transmitted by the basal water system at normal levels even though the total cavity cross-sectional area (˜200 m2) is much larger than that of a tunnel system (˜10 m2). A physical model of the linked cavity system is formulated in terms of the dimensions of the "typical" cavity and orifice and the numbers of these across the glacier width. The model concentrates on the detailed configuration of the typical orifice and its response to basal water pressure and basal sliding, which determines the water flux carried by the system under given conditions. Configurations are worked out for two idealized orifice types, step orifices that form in the lee of downglacier-facing bedrock steps, and wave orifices that form on the lee slopes of quasisinusoidal bedrock waves and are similar to transverse "N channels." The orifice configurations are obtained from the results of solutions of the basal-sliding-with-separation problem for an ice mass constituting of linear half-space of linear rheology, with nonlinearity introduced by making the viscosity stress-dependent on an intuitive basis. Modification of the orifice shapes by melting of the ice roof due to

  3. From the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past ...

  4. Hardware-efficient fermionic simulation with a cavity-QED system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanyu; Subaşı, Yiǧit; Whitfield, James D.; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    In digital quantum simulation of fermionic models with qubits, non-local maps for encoding are often encountered. Such maps require linear or logarithmic overhead in circuit depth which could render the simulation useless, for a given decoherence time. Here we show how one can use a cavity-QED system to perform digital quantum simulation of fermionic models. In particular, we show that highly nonlocal Jordan-Wigner or Bravyi-Kitaev transformations can be efficiently implemented through a hardware approach. The key idea is using ancilla cavity modes, which are dispersively coupled to a qubit string, to collectively manipulate and measure qubit states. Our scheme reduces the circuit depth in each Trotter step of the Jordan-Wigner encoding by a factor of N2, comparing to the scheme for a device with only local connectivity, where N is the number of orbitals for a generic two-body Hamiltonian. Additional analysis for the Fermi-Hubbard model on an N × N square lattice results in a similar reduction. We also discuss a detailed implementation of our scheme with superconducting qubits and cavities.

  5. Operational flood forecasting system of Umbria Region "Functional Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Ponziani, F.; Viterbo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrometeorological alert office (called "Decentrate Functional Centre" - CFD) of Umbria Region, in central Italy, is the office that provides technical tools able to support decisions when significant flood/landslide events occur, furnishing 24h support for the whole duration of the emergency period, according to the national directive DPCM 27 February 2004 concerning the "Operating concepts for functional management of national and regional alert system during flooding and landslide events for civil protection activities purposes" that designs, within the Italian Civil Defence Emergency Management System, a network of 21 regional Functional Centres coordinated by a central office at the National Civil Protection Department in Rome. Due to its "linking" role between Civil Protection "real time" activities and environmental/planning "deferred time" ones, the Centre is in charge to acquire and collect both real time and quasi-static data: quantitative data from monitoring networks (hydrometeorological stations, meteo radar, ...), meteorological forecasting models output, Earth Observation data, hydraulic and hydrological simulation models, cartographic and thematic GIS data (vectorial and raster type), planning studies related to flooding areas mapping, dam managing plans during flood events, non instrumental information from direct control of "territorial presidium". A detailed procedure for the management of critical events was planned, also in order to define the different role of various authorities and institutions involved. Tiber River catchment, of which Umbria region represents the main upper-medium portion, includes also regional trans-boundary issues very important to cope with, especially for what concerns large dam behavior and management during heavy rainfall. The alert system is referred to 6 different warning areas in which the territory has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels according

  6. Entanglement of a two-atom system driven by the quantum vacuum in arbitrary cavity size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Hidalgo, G., E-mail: gfloreshidalgo@unifei.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rojas, M., E-mail: moises.leyva@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Rojas, Onofre, E-mail: ors@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-10

    We study the entanglement dynamics of two distinguishable atoms confined into a cavity and interacting with a quantum vacuum field. As a simplified model for this system, we consider two harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to a massless scalar field which are inside a spherical cavity of radius R. Through the concurrence, the entanglement dynamics for the two-atom system is discussed for a range of initial states composed of a superposition of atomic states. Our results reveal how the entanglement of the two atoms behaves through the time evolution, in a precise way, for arbitrary cavity size and for arbitrary coupling constant. All our computations are analytical and only the final step is numerical. - Highlights: • Entanglement time evolution in arbitrary cavity size is considered. • In free space concurrence approaches a fixed value at large time. • For finite cavity, concurrence behaves almost as a periodic function of time.

  7. Design and development of RF system for vertical test stand for characterization of superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohania, Praveen; Rajput, Vikas; Baxy, Deodatta; Agrawal, Ankur; Mahawar, Ashish; Adarsh, Kunver; Singh, Pratap; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    RRCAT is developing a Vertical Test Stand (VTS) to test and qualify 1.3 GHz/650 MHz, SCRF Cavities in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) under Indian Institutions' Fermilab Collaboration. The technical details for VTS is being provided by FNAL, USA. The RF System of VTS needs to provide stable RF power to SCRF cavity with control of amplitude, relative phase and frequency. The incident, reflected, transmitted power and field decay time constant of the cavity are measured to evaluate cavity performance parameters (E, Qo). RF Power is supplied via 500 W Solid State amplifier, 1270-1310 MHz being developed by PHPMS, RRCAT. VTS system is controlled by PXI Platform and National Instruments LabVIEW software. Low Level RF (LLRF) system is used to track the cavity frequency using Phase Locked Loop (PLL). The system is comprised of several integrated functional modules which would be assembled, optimized, and tested separately. Required components and instruments have been identified and procurement for the same is underway. Inhouse development for the Solid State RF amplifier and instrument interfacing is in progress. This paper describes the progress on the development of the RF system for VTS. (author)

  8. Dynamics of atom-field probability amplitudes in a coupled cavity system with Kerr non-linearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyesh, K. V.; Thayyullathil, Ramesh Babu [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India)

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated the dynamics of two cavities coupled together via photon hopping, filled with Kerr non-linear medium and each containing a two level atom in it. The evolution of various atom (field) state probabilities of the coupled cavity system in two excitation sub space are obtained numerically. Detailed analysis has been done by taking different initial conditions of the system, with various coupling strengths and by varying the susceptibility of the medium. The role of susceptibility factor, on the dynamics atom field probability has been examined. In a coupled cavity system with strong photon hopping it is found that the susceptibility factor modifies the behaviour of probability amplitudes.

  9. A Cascading Storm-Flood-Landslide Guidance System: Development and Application in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziyue; Tang, Guoqiang; Long, Di; Ma, Meihong; Hong, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods and landslides, triggered by storms, often interact and cause cascading effects on human lives and property. Satellite remote sensing data has significant potential use in analysis of these natural hazards. As one of the regions continuously affected by severe flash floods and landslides, Yunnan Province, located in Southwest China, has a complex mountainous hydrometeorology and suffers from frequent heavy rainfalls from May through to late September. Taking Yunnan as a test-bed, this study proposed a Cascading Storm-Flood-Landslide Guidance System to progressively analysis and evaluate the risk of the multi-hazards based on multisource satellite remote sensing data. First, three standardized rainfall amounts (average daily amount in flood seasons, maximum 1h and maximum 6h amount) from the products of Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were used as rainfall indicators to derive the StorM Hazard Index (SMHI). In this process, an integrated approach of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Information-Entropy theory was adopted to determine the weight of each indicator. Then, land cover and vegetation cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products, soil type from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) soil map, and slope from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data were add as semi-static geo-topographical indicators to derive the Flash Flood Hazard Index (FFHI). Furthermore, three more relevant landslide-controlling indicators, including elevation, slope angle and soil text were involved to derive the LandSlide Hazard Index (LSHI). Further inclusion of GDP, population and prevention measures as vulnerability indicators enabled to consecutively predict the risk of storm to flash flood and landslide, respectively. Consequently, the spatial patterns of the hazard indices show that the southeast of Yunnan has more possibility to encounter with storms

  10. Quantum iSWAP gate in optical cavities with a cyclic three-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guo-an; Qiao, Hao-xue; Lu, Hua

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present a scheme to directly implement the iSWAP gate by passing a cyclic three-level system across a two-mode cavity quantum electrodynamics. In the scheme, a three-level Δ -type atom ensemble prepared in its ground state mediates the interaction between the two-cavity modes. For this theoretical model, we also analyze its performance under practical noise, including spontaneous emission and the decay of the cavity modes. It is shown that our scheme may have a high fidelity under the practical noise.

  11. Performance of Ferrite Vector Modulators in the LLRF System of the Fermilab HINS 6-Cavity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Philip [Fermilab; Barnes, Barry [Fermilab; Chase, Brian [Fermilab; Cullerton, Ed [Fermilab; Tan, Cong [Fermilab

    2013-04-01

    The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) 6-cavity test is a part of the Fermilab HINS Linac R&D program for a low energy, high intensity proton Hsup>- linear accelerator. One of the objectives of the 6-cavity test is to demonstrate the use of high power RF Ferrite Vector Modulators(FVM) for independent control of multiple cavities driven by a single klystron. The beamline includes an RFQ and six cavities. The LLRF system provides a primary feedback loop around the RFQ and the distribution of the regulated klystron output is controlled by secondary learning feed-forward loops on the FVMs for each of the six cavities. The feed-forward loops provide pulse to pulse correction to the current waveform profiles of the FVM power supplies to compensate for beam-loading and other disturbances. The learning feed-forward loops are shown to successfully control the amplitude and phase settings for the cavities well within the 1 % and 1 degree requirements specified for the system.

  12. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merz, B.; Aerts, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    context of floods. We come to the following conclusions: (1) extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes) opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2) Statistical......, and this variation may be partially quantifiable and predictable, with the perspective of dynamic, climate-informed flood risk management. (4) Efforts are needed to fully account for factors that contribute to changes in all three risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability) and to better understand......Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction...

  13. Quantification of uncertainty in flood risk assessment for flood protection planning: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Ebrahimian, Negin; Kaiser, Maria; Rieger, Wolfgang; Disse, Markus; Straub, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Flood risk estimates are subject to significant uncertainties, e.g. due to limited records of historic flood events, uncertainty in flood modeling, uncertain impact of climate change or uncertainty in the exposure and loss estimates. In traditional design of flood protection systems, these uncertainties are typically just accounted for implicitly, based on engineering judgment. In the AdaptRisk project, we develop a fully quantitative framework for planning of flood protection systems under current and future uncertainties using quantitative pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis. In this contribution, we focus on the quantification of the uncertainties and study their relative influence on the flood risk estimate and on the planning of flood protection systems. The following uncertainty components are included using a Bayesian approach: 1) inherent and statistical (i.e. limited record length) uncertainty; 2) climate uncertainty that can be learned from an ensemble of GCM-RCM models; 3) estimates of climate uncertainty components not covered in 2), such as bias correction, incomplete ensemble, local specifics not captured by the GCM-RCM models; 4) uncertainty in the inundation modelling; 5) uncertainty in damage estimation. We also investigate how these uncertainties are possibly reduced in the future when new evidence - such as new climate models, observed extreme events, and socio-economic data - becomes available. Finally, we look into how this new evidence influences the risk assessment and effectivity of flood protection systems. We demonstrate our methodology for a pre-alpine catchment in southern Germany: the Mangfall catchment in Bavaria that includes the city of Rosenheim, which suffered significant losses during the 2013 flood event.

  14. A hydro-sedimentary modeling system for flash flood propagation and hazard estimation under different agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, N. N.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    A modeling system for the estimation of flash flood flow velocity and sediment transport is developed in this study. The system comprises three components: (a) a modeling framework based on the hydrological model HSPF, (b) the hydrodynamic module of the hydraulic model MIKE 11 (quasi-2-D), and (c) the advection-dispersion module of MIKE 11 as a sediment transport model. An important parameter in hydraulic modeling is the Manning's coefficient, an indicator of the channel resistance which is directly dependent on riparian vegetation changes. Riparian vegetation's effect on flood propagation parameters such as water depth (inundation), discharge, flow velocity, and sediment transport load is investigated in this study. Based on the obtained results, when the weed-cutting percentage is increased, the flood wave depth decreases while flow discharge, velocity and sediment transport load increase. The proposed modeling system is used to evaluate and illustrate the flood hazard for different riparian vegetation cutting scenarios. For the estimation of flood hazard, a combination of the flood propagation characteristics of water depth, flow velocity and sediment load was used. Next, a well-balanced selection of the most appropriate agricultural cutting practices of riparian vegetation was performed. Ultimately, the model results obtained for different agricultural cutting practice scenarios can be employed to create flood protection measures for flood-prone areas. The proposed methodology was applied to the downstream part of a small Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece.

  15. Development of Probabilistic Flood Inundation Mapping For Flooding Induced by Dam Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Yeh, J. J. J.

    2017-12-01

    A primary function of flood inundation mapping is to forecast flood hazards and assess potential losses. However, uncertainties limit the reliability of inundation hazard assessments. Major sources of uncertainty should be taken into consideration by an optimal flood management strategy. This study focuses on the 20km reach downstream of the Shihmen Reservoir in Taiwan. A dam failure induced flood herein provides the upstream boundary conditions of flood routing. The two major sources of uncertainty that are considered in the hydraulic model and the flood inundation mapping herein are uncertainties in the dam break model and uncertainty of the roughness coefficient. The perturbance moment method is applied to a dam break model and the hydro system model to develop probabilistic flood inundation mapping. Various numbers of uncertain variables can be considered in these models and the variability of outputs can be quantified. The probabilistic flood inundation mapping for dam break induced floods can be developed with consideration of the variability of output using a commonly used HEC-RAS model. Different probabilistic flood inundation mappings are discussed and compared. Probabilistic flood inundation mappings are hoped to provide new physical insights in support of the evaluation of concerning reservoir flooded areas.

  16. Nuclear reactor cavity floor passive heat removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Neeley, Gary W.; Inman, James B.

    2018-03-06

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor core disposed in a reactor pressure vessel. A radiological containment contains the nuclear reactor and includes a concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor. An ex vessel corium retention system includes flow channels embedded in the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor, an inlet in fluid communication with first ends of the flow channels, and an outlet in fluid communication with second ends of the flow channels. In some embodiments the inlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a first elevation and the outlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a second elevation higher than the first elevation. The radiological containment may include a reactor cavity containing a lower portion of the pressure vessel, wherein the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor is the reactor cavity floor.

  17. Systems and method for lagrangian monitoring of flooding conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-12-17

    A traffic monitoring system and method for mapping traffic speed and density while preserving privacy. The system can include fixed stations that make up a network and mobile probes that are associated with vehicles. The system and method do not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a complementary flood monitoring system and method.

  18. Effects of Energy Dissipation on the Parametric Excitation of a Coupled Qubit-Cavity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remizov, S. V.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapiro, D. S.; Pogosov, W. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2018-02-01

    We consider a parametrically driven system of a qubit coupled to a cavity taking into account different channels of energy dissipation. We focus on the periodic modulation of a single parameter of this hybrid system, which is the coupling constant between the two subsystems. Such a modulation is possible within the superconducting realization of qubit-cavity coupled systems, characterized by an outstanding degree of tunability and flexibility. Our major result is that energy dissipation in the cavity can enhance population of the excited state of the qubit in the steady state, while energy dissipation in the qubit subsystem can enhance the number of photons generated from vacuum. We find optimal parameters for the realization of such dissipation-induced amplification of quantum effects. Our results might be of importance for the full control of quantum states of coupled systems as well as for the storage and engineering of quantum states.

  19. Forecasting skills of the ensemble hydro-meteorological system for the Po river floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Montani, Andrea; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Pecora, Silvano; Tonelli, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The Po basin is the largest and most economically important river-basin in Italy. Extreme hydrological events, including floods, flash floods and droughts, are expected to become more severe in the next future due to climate change, and related ground effects are linked both with environmental and social resilience. A Warning Operational Center (WOC) for hydrological event management was created in Emilia Romagna region. In the last years, the WOC faced challenges in legislation, organization, technology and economics, achieving improvements in forecasting skill and information dissemination. Since 2005, an operational forecasting and modelling system for flood modelling and forecasting has been implemented, aimed at supporting and coordinating flood control and emergency management on the whole Po basin. This system, referred to as FEWSPo, has also taken care of environmental aspects of flood forecast. The FEWSPo system has reached a very high level of complexity, due to the combination of three different hydrological-hydraulic chains (HEC-HMS/RAS - MIKE11 NAM/HD, Topkapi/Sobek), with several meteorological inputs (forecasted - COSMOI2, COSMOI7, COSMO-LEPS among others - and observed). In this hydrological and meteorological ensemble the management of the relative predictive uncertainties, which have to be established and communicated to decision makers, is a debated scientific and social challenge. Real time activities face professional, modelling and technological aspects but are also strongly interrelated with organization and human aspects. The authors will report a case study using the operational flood forecast hydro-meteorological ensemble, provided by the MIKE11 chain fed by COSMO_LEPS EQPF. The basic aim of the proposed approach is to analyse limits and opportunities of the long term forecast (with a lead time ranging from 3 to 5 days), for the implementation of low cost actions, also looking for a well informed decision making and the improvement of

  20. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.

    2015-07-01

    As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that public authorities alone not only take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may personally experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility for protecting themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks is conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that problems persist even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks. There is a need for the development of new tools that are able to rapidly disseminate flood-risk information to the general public. To be useful these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influence both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a web-based geographical information system (WebGIS) has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making citizens more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and easily read maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast

  1. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

  2. Optomechanically induced transparency with Bose–Einstein condensate in double-cavity optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Wei; Gengzang, Duo-Jie; An, Xiu-Jia; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel technique of generating multiple optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) of a weak probe field in hybrid optomechanical system. This system consists of a cigar-shaped Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside each high finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity. In the resolved sideband regime, the analytic solutions of the absorption and the dispersion spectrum are given. The tunneling strength of the two resonators and the coupling parameters of the each BEC in combination with the cavity field have the appearance of three distinct OMIT windows in the absorption spectrum. Furthermore, whether there is BEC in each cavity is a key factor in the number of OMIT windows determination. The technique presented may have potential applications in quantum engineering and quantum information networks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11564034, 11105062, and 21663026) and the Scientific Research Funds of College of Electrical Engineering, Northwest University, China (Grant No. xbmuyjrc201115).

  3. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  4. Internal flooding analyses results of Slovak NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopira, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of the flood risk was the objective of the internal flooding analysis for NPPs Bohunice V1, V2 and Mochovce. All important flooding sources were identified. The rooms containing safety important components were analyzed from the point of view of: Integrity of flood boundaries; Capability for drainage; Flood signalisation; Flood localization and liquidation; Vulnerability of safety system component. The redundancies of safety systems are located mostly separately and no flood can endanger more than single train. It can be concluded that NPPs with WWER-440 are very safe against the flooding initiating event

  5. Development of high-resolution multi-scale modelling system for simulation of coastal-fluvial urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joanne; Indiana Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen; Hartnett, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Urban developments in coastal zones are often exposed to natural hazards such as flooding. In this research, a state-of-the-art, multi-scale nested flood (MSN_Flood) model is applied to simulate complex coastal-fluvial urban flooding due to combined effects of tides, surges and river discharges. Cork city on Ireland's southwest coast is a study case. The flood modelling system comprises a cascade of four dynamically linked models that resolve the hydrodynamics of Cork Harbour and/or its sub-region at four scales: 90, 30, 6 and 2 m. Results demonstrate that the internalization of the nested boundary through the use of ghost cells combined with a tailored adaptive interpolation technique creates a highly dynamic moving boundary that permits flooding and drying of the nested boundary. This novel feature of MSN_Flood provides a high degree of choice regarding the location of the boundaries to the nested domain and therefore flexibility in model application. The nested MSN_Flood model through dynamic downscaling facilitates significant improvements in accuracy of model output without incurring the computational expense of high spatial resolution over the entire model domain. The urban flood model provides full characteristics of water levels and flow regimes necessary for flood hazard identification and flood risk assessment.

  6. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  7. A SURVEY OF CORONAL CAVITY DENSITY PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R sun and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R sun than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height-indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions-except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  8. Multi-target-qubit unconventional geometric phase gate in a multi-cavity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Cao, Xiao-Zhi; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2016-02-22

    Cavity-based large scale quantum information processing (QIP) may involve multiple cavities and require performing various quantum logic operations on qubits distributed in different cavities. Geometric-phase-based quantum computing has drawn much attention recently, which offers advantages against inaccuracies and local fluctuations. In addition, multiqubit gates are particularly appealing and play important roles in QIP. We here present a simple and efficient scheme for realizing a multi-target-qubit unconventional geometric phase gate in a multi-cavity system. This multiqubit phase gate has a common control qubit but different target qubits distributed in different cavities, which can be achieved using a single-step operation. The gate operation time is independent of the number of qubits and only two levels for each qubit are needed. This multiqubit gate is generic, e.g., by performing single-qubit operations, it can be converted into two types of significant multi-target-qubit phase gates useful in QIP. The proposal is quite general, which can be used to accomplish the same task for a general type of qubits such as atoms, NV centers, quantum dots, and superconducting qubits.

  9. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. rockwell; P. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2002-05-29

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. Moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  10. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. Rockwell; P.L. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2001-02-28

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  11. Urban flood return period assessment through rainfall-flood response modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murla Tuyls, Damian; Thorndahl, Søren

    2017-04-01

    Intense rainfall can often cause severe floods, especially in urbanized areas, where population density or large impermeable areas are found. In this context, floods can generate a direct impact in a social-environmental-economic viewpoint. Traditionally, in design of Urban Drainage Systems (UDS), correlation between return period (RP) of a given rainfall and RP of its consequent flood has been assumed to be linear (e.g. DS/EN752 (2008)). However, this is not always the case. Complex UDS, where diverse hydraulic infrastructures are often found, increase the heterogeneity of system response, which may cause an alteration of the mentioned correlation. Consequently, reliability on future urban planning, design and resilience against floods may be also affected by this misassumption. In this study, an assessment of surface flood RP across rainfall RP has been carried out at Lystrup, a urbanized catchment area of 440ha and 10.400inhab. located in Jutland (Denmark), which has received the impact of several pluvial flooding in the last recent years. A historical rainfall dataset from the last 35 years from two different rain gauges located at 2 and 10 km from the study area has been provided by the Danish Wastewater Pollution Committee and the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). The most extreme 25 rainfall events have been selected through a two-step multi-criteria procedure, ensuring an adequate variability of rainfall, from extreme high peak storms with a short duration to moderate rainfall with longer duration. In addition, a coupled 1D/2D surface and network UDS model of the catchment area developed in an integrated MIKE URBAN and MIKE Flood model (DHI 2014), considering both permeable and impermeable areas, in combination with a DTM (2x2m res.) has been used to study and assess in detail flood RP. Results show an ambiguous relation between rainfall RP and flood response. Local flood levels, flood area and volume RP estimates should therefore not be neglected in

  12. Homogeneous nonequilibrium critical flashing flow with a cavity flooding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Schrock, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of the work presented here is to describe the model for pressure undershoot at incipient flashing in the critical flow of straight channels (Fanno-type flow) for subcooled or saturated stagnation conditions on a more physical basis. In previous models, a modification of the pressure undershoot prediction of Alamgir and Lienhard was used. Their method assumed nucleation occurs on the bounding walls as a result of molecular fluctuations. Without modification it overpredicts the pressure undershoot. In the present work the authors develop a mechanistic model for nucleation from wall cavities. This physical concept is more consistent with experimental data

  13. An early warning system for flash floods in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J.; Abdelkhalek, A.; El Sammany, M.; Fahmi, A. H.; Bauwens, W.; Huygens, M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the development of the Flash Flood Manager, abbreviated as FlaFloM. The Flash Flood Manager is an early warning system for flash floods which is developed under the EU LIFE project FlaFloM. It is applied to Wadi Watier located in the Sinai peninsula (Egypt) and discharges in the Red Sea at the local economic and tourist hub of Nuweiba city. FlaFloM consists of a chain of four modules: 1) Data gathering module, 2) Forecasting module, 3) Decision support module or DSS and 4) Warning module. Each module processes input data and consequently send the output to the following module. In case of a flash flood emergency, the final outcome of FlaFloM is a flood warning which is sent out to decision-makers. The ‘data gathering module’ collects input data from different sources, validates the input, visualise data and exports it to other modules. Input data is provided ideally as water stage (h), discharge (Q) and rainfall (R) through real-time field measurements and external forecasts. This project, however, as occurs in many arid flash flood prone areas, was confronted with a scarcity of data, and insufficient insight in the characteristics that release a flash flood. Hence, discharge and water stage data were not available. Although rainfall measurements are available through classical off line rain gauges, the sparse rain gauges network couldn’t catch the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall events. To overcome this bottleneck, we developed rainfall intensity raster maps (mm/hr) with an hourly time step and raster cell of 1*1km. These maps are derived through downscaling from two sources of global instruments: the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) and satellite estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The ‘forecast module’ comprises three numerical models that, using data from the gathering module performs simulations on command: a rainfall-runoff model, a river flow model, and a flood model. A

  14. Flood triggering in Switzerland: the role of daily to monthly preceding precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, P.; Schwanbeck, J.; Weingartner, R.; Chevalier, C.; Martius, O.

    2015-09-01

    Determining the role of different precipitation periods for peak discharge generation is crucial for both projecting future changes in flood probability and for short- and medium-range flood forecasting. In this study, catchment-averaged daily precipitation time series are analyzed prior to annual peak discharge events (floods) in Switzerland. The high number of floods considered - more than 4000 events from 101 catchments have been analyzed - allows to derive significant information about the role of antecedent precipitation for peak discharge generation. Based on the analysis of precipitation times series, a new separation of flood-related precipitation periods is proposed: (i) the period 0 to 1 day before flood days, when the maximum flood-triggering precipitation rates are generally observed, (ii) the period 2 to 3 days before flood days, when longer-lasting synoptic situations generate "significantly higher than normal" precipitation amounts, and (iii) the period from 4 days to 1 month before flood days when previous wet episodes may have already preconditioned the catchment. The novelty of this study lies in the separation of antecedent precipitation into the precursor antecedent precipitation (4 days before floods or earlier, called PRE-AP) and the short range precipitation (0 to 3 days before floods, a period when precipitation is often driven by one persistent weather situation like e.g., a stationary low-pressure system). A precise separation of "antecedent" and "peak-triggering" precipitation is not attempted. Instead, the strict definition of antecedent precipitation periods permits a direct comparison of all catchments. The precipitation accumulating 0 to 3 days before an event is the most relevant for floods in Switzerland. PRE-AP precipitation has only a weak and region-specific influence on flood probability. Floods were significantly more frequent after wet PRE-AP periods only in the Jura Mountains, in the western and eastern Swiss plateau, and at

  15. Modelling of ammonia volatilisation in fertilised and flooded rice systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khairudin, Nurulhuda

    2017-01-01

    In flooded rice systems that are broadcast with urea, significant amounts of nitrogen (N) may be lost to the atmosphere in the form of ammonia (NH3). Many models with different complexities with regards to describing the process of NH3 volatilisation and the overall N dynamics in the systems are

  16. Flange joint system for SRF cavities utilizing high force spring clamps for low particle generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2017-09-05

    A flange joint system for SRF cavities. The flange joint system includes a set of high force spring clamps that produce high force on the simple flanges of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities to squeeze conventional metallic seals. The system establishes the required vacuum and RF-tight seal with minimum particle contamination to the inside of the cavity assembly. The spring clamps are designed to stay within their elastic range while being forced open enough to mount over the flange pair. Upon release, the clamps have enough force to plastically deform metallic seal surfaces and continue to a new equilibrium sprung dimension where the flanges remain held against one another with enough preload such that normal handling will not break the seal.

  17. Assessing uncertainties in flood forecasts for decision making: prototype of an operational flood management system integrating ensemble predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dietrich

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble forecasts aim at framing the uncertainties of the potential future development of the hydro-meteorological situation. A probabilistic evaluation can be used to communicate forecast uncertainty to decision makers. Here an operational system for ensemble based flood forecasting is presented, which combines forecasts from the European COSMO-LEPS, SRNWP-PEPS and COSMO-DE prediction systems. A multi-model lagged average super-ensemble is generated by recombining members from different runs of these meteorological forecast systems. A subset of the super-ensemble is selected based on a priori model weights, which are obtained from ensemble calibration. Flood forecasts are simulated by the conceptual rainfall-runoff-model ArcEGMO. Parameter uncertainty of the model is represented by a parameter ensemble, which is a priori generated from a comprehensive uncertainty analysis during model calibration. The use of a computationally efficient hydrological model within a flood management system allows us to compute the hydro-meteorological model chain for all members of the sub-ensemble. The model chain is not re-computed before new ensemble forecasts are available, but the probabilistic assessment of the output is updated when new information from deterministic short range forecasts or from assimilation of measured data becomes available. For hydraulic modelling, with the desired result of a probabilistic inundation map with high spatial resolution, a replacement model can help to overcome computational limitations. A prototype of the developed framework has been applied for a case study in the Mulde river basin. However these techniques, in particular the probabilistic assessment and the derivation of decision rules are still in their infancy. Further research is necessary and promising.

  18. Present status of superconducting cavity developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Nobuo; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-11-01

    An R and D work of a superconducting (SC) cavity for the high intensity proton linac has begun at JAERI in collaboration with KEK. The RF field calculation and the structural analysis have been made to determine the cavity shape in the proton energy range between 100 and 1500 MeV. The results indicate the feasibility of a SC proton linac. A vertical test stand with clean room, water rinsing system, cavity evacuation pumping system, cryostat and data acquisition system has been installed to demonstrate the cavity performance. A single cell cavity of {beta}=0.5 has been fabricated and tested at the test stand to obtain the Q-value and the maximum surface electric field strength. The measured Q-values have been found to be high enough for our requirement while the field strength was limited to about 75% of the specification by the multipacting. We describe the preliminary design of the SC cavity, the overview of the vertical test stand and experimental results of the single cell cavity. (author)

  19. Repetitive flood victims and acceptance of FEMA mitigation offers: an analysis with community-system policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kick, Edward L; Fraser, James C; Fulkerson, Gregory M; McKinney, Laura A; De Vries, Daniel H

    2011-07-01

    Of all natural disasters, flooding causes the greatest amount of economic and social damage. The United States' Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) uses a number of hazard mitigation grant programmes for flood victims, including mitigation offers to relocate permanently repetitive flood loss victims. This study examines factors that help to explain the degree of difficulty repetitive flood loss victims experience when they make decisions about relocating permanently after multiple flood losses. Data are drawn from interviews with FEMA officials and a survey of flood victims from eight repetitive flooding sites. The qualitative and quantitative results show the importance of rational choices by flood victims in their mitigation decisions, as they relate to financial variables, perceptions of future risk, attachments to home and community, and the relationships between repetitive flood loss victims and the local flood management officials who help them. The results offer evidence to suggest the value of a more community-system approach to FEMA relocation practices. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  20. Cavity-enhanced eigenmode and angular hybrid multiplexing in holographic data storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2016-12-26

    Resonant optical cavities have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiencies in Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). The orthogonal reference beams supported as cavity eigenmodes can provide another multiplexing degree of freedom to push storage densities toward the limit of 3D optical data storage. While keeping the increased energy efficiency of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modification of current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  1. Numerical Investigation of the Thermal Regime of Underground Channel Heat Pipelines Under Flooding Conditions with the Use of a Conductive-Convective Heat Transfer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical analysis of thermal regimes and heat losses of underground channel heating systems under flooding conditions with the use of a convective-conductive heat transfer model with the example of the configuration of the heat pipeline widely used in the Russian Federation — a nonpassage ferroconcrete channel (crawlway) and pipelines insulated with mineral wool and a protective covering layer. It has been shown that convective motion of water in the channel cavity of the heat pipeline under flooding conditions has no marked effect on the intensification of heat losses. It has been established that for the case under consideration, heat losses of the heat pipeline under flooding conditions increase from 0.75 to 52.39% due to the sharp increase in the effective thermal characteristics of the covering layer and the heat insulator caused by their moistening.

  2. Integrated Urban Flood Analysis considering Optimal Operation of Flood Control Facilities in Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, M. S.; Choi, J. H.; Yuk, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    eavy rainfall has become a recent major cause of urban area flooding due to the climate change and urbanization. To prevent property damage along with casualties, a system which can alert and forecast urban flooding must be developed. Optimal performance of reducing flood damage can be expected of urban drainage facilities when operated in smaller rainfall events over extreme ones. Thus, the purpose of this study is to execute: A) flood forecasting system using runoff analysis based on short term rainfall; and B) flood warning system which operates based on the data from pump stations and rainwater storage in urban basins. In result of the analysis, it is shown that urban drainage facilities using short term rainfall forecasting data by radar will be more effective to reduce urban flood damage than using only the inflow data of the facility. Keywords: Heavy Rainfall, Urban Flood, Short-term Rainfall Forecasting, Optimal operating of urban drainage facilities. AcknowledgmentsThis research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B066744-05) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  3. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walston, S.; Chung, C.; Fitsos, P.; Gronberg, J.; Ross, M.; Khainovski, O.; Kolomensky, Y.; Loscutoff, P.; Slater, M.; Thomson, M.; Ward, D.; Boogert, S.; Vogel, V.; Meller, R.; Lyapin, A.; Malton, S.; Miller, D.; Frisch, J.; Hinton, S.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.; White, G.; Orimoto, T.; Hayano, H.; Honda, Y.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2005-01-01

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns

  4. Phonon Routing in Integrated Optomechanical Cavity-waveguide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    cavity (bottom beam of Fig. 1b), allowing for evanescent cou- pling of laser light into and out of the cavity. A single optical fiber taper is used to...couple light into the on- chip coupling waveguide, and a photonic crystal mirror is etched in to the end of the optical coupling waveguide so that light...coupled into the nanobeam cavity can be recollected by the optical fiber taper as per Ref. [36]. Figure 1c shows the band structure of the phonon

  5. Operational flood forecasting, warning and response for multi-scale flood risks in developing cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelis Prada, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Flood early warning systems are recognized as one of the most effective flood risk management instruments when correctly embedded in comprehensive flood risk management strategies and policies. Many efforts around the world are being put in place to advance the components that determine the

  6. An application of Geographic Information System in mapping flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roland

    1Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. 2National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Central Area, Abuja, Nigeria. Accepted 20 May, 2013. This study deals with the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in mapping flood risk zones in Makurdi Town. This study ...

  7. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.J.; Ballinger, C.T.; Burger, S.R.; Charache, G.W.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Donovan, T.J.; LoCascio, M.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a 1 cm 2 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage

  8. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  9. Pump Hydro Energy Storage systems (PHES) in groundwater flooded quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Angélique; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Goderniaux, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been evoked. However, these flooded quarries are generally connected to unconfined aquifers. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent aquifers. Conversely, water exchanges between the quarry and the aquifer may also influence the water level fluctuations in the lower reservoir. Using numerical modelling, this study investigates the interactions between generic flooded open pit quarries and adjacent unconfined aquifers, during various pump-storage cyclic stresses. The propagation of sinusoidal stresses in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry are studied. Homogeneous rock media and the presence of fractures in the vicinity of the quarry are considered. Results show that hydrological quarry - rock interactions must be considered with caution, when implementing pump - storage systems. For rock media characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and porosity values, water volumes exchanges during cycles may affect significantly the amplitude of the water level fluctuations in the quarry, and as a consequence, the instantaneous electricity production. Regarding the impact of the pump - storage cyclic stresses on the surrounding environment, the distance of influence is potentially high under specific conditions, and is enhanced with the occurrence of rock heterogeneities, such as fractures. The impact around the quarry used as a lower reservoir thus appears as an important constraining factor regarding the feasibility of pump - storage systems, to be assessed carefully if groundwater level fluctuations around the quarry

  10. Solar power conversion system with directionally- and spectrally-selective properties based on a reflective cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana; Kraemer, Daniel; McEnaney, Kenneth; Weinstein, Lee A.; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-13

    Solar power conversion system. The system includes a cavity formed within an enclosure having highly specularly reflecting in the IR spectrum inside walls, the enclosure having an opening to receive solar radiation. An absorber is positioned within the cavity for receiving the solar radiation resulting in heating of the absorber structure. In a preferred embodiment, the system further contains an energy conversion and storage devices thermally-linked to the absorber by heat conduction, convection, far-field or near-field thermal radiation.

  11. Role of Streptococcus mutans two-component systems in antimicrobial peptide resistance in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known a...

  12. A Feasibility Study on the Inspection System Development of Underground Cavities Using Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Che Wook; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho

    2015-01-01

    The detection efficiency using the gravimetry method is significantly low; therefore, it requires large surveying time. The magnetometry method detects the cavities by the magnitude of the magnetic field. However, the magnetometry method is problematical in urban areas due to pipes and electrical installations. GPR is the method that uses high frequency electromagnetic wave. This method is widely used for the inspection; however, the detection accuracy of sinkholes can be low in specific soil types. In this study, to verify the feasibility of the neutron source-based inspection system to detect the cavity detection, the Monte Carlo simulation was performed using neutron source. The analysis shows that the detection of the cavity with the given condition is possible when the diameter of cavity is over 100 cm. However, the detection efficiency can be enough increased if some optimization strategies for the inspection are developed. Also, it is expected that the proposed inspection method can detect the expected locations of the cavities

  13. A Feasibility Study on the Inspection System Development of Underground Cavities Using Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Che Wook; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The detection efficiency using the gravimetry method is significantly low; therefore, it requires large surveying time. The magnetometry method detects the cavities by the magnitude of the magnetic field. However, the magnetometry method is problematical in urban areas due to pipes and electrical installations. GPR is the method that uses high frequency electromagnetic wave. This method is widely used for the inspection; however, the detection accuracy of sinkholes can be low in specific soil types. In this study, to verify the feasibility of the neutron source-based inspection system to detect the cavity detection, the Monte Carlo simulation was performed using neutron source. The analysis shows that the detection of the cavity with the given condition is possible when the diameter of cavity is over 100 cm. However, the detection efficiency can be enough increased if some optimization strategies for the inspection are developed. Also, it is expected that the proposed inspection method can detect the expected locations of the cavities.

  14. System of prediction and warning of floods in the water basin of Struma/ Strymonas River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimides, Theologos; Rizos, Spyros; Soulis, Kostas; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    Struma is collecting waters from four countries: Bulgaria, Serbia, FYROM and Greece. Most of its basin area is located in Bulgaria and Greece, while the upper part of its basin is in Bulgaria. There are important hydro technical structures just below the Bulgarian-Greek border, and the floods generated in the Bulgarian part of the basin could significantly affect the security of those structures and their operational rules. That is why several years ago a project related to flood warning at Struma/ Strymonas river basin was formulated and its first phase was completed in 2000. The main objective of the project was to demonstrate the principal possibility for issuing reliable warnings for hazardous flood events with sufficient lead-time to organize flood mitigation measures. The project implementation team included various scientists from the Agricultural University of Athens-Greece (leader), from the Center of Remote Sensing, Bristol University-UK, and from the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Sofia - Bulgaria. The work program of the first project phase included a range of activities implemented by the Bulgarian and Greek team members, coordinated by the Agricultural University of Athens. Among the activities of the Project are included: a) a preliminary model for peak flood hydrographs and specifications of an early warning system, b) a real time flood forecasting by routing flood hydrographs through the system of the river and Kerkini lake, c) thematic maps of vegetation and land cover derived by satellite remote sensing, d) satellite snow monitoring in the basin, e) an adaptation of the Alladin Weather Forecast Model at the hydrological basin and scaling of the Crocus Snow Model at a preliminary stage, and f) development of a geo environmental recording system.(Author)

  15. Invariant-based inverse engineering for fluctuation transfer between membranes in an optomechanical cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, by invariant-based inverse engineering, we design classical driving fields to transfer quantum fluctuations between two suspended membranes in an optomechanical cavity system. The transfer can be quickly attained through a nonadiabatic evolution path determined by a so-called dynamical invariant. Such an evolution path allows one to optimize the occupancies of the unstable "intermediate" states; thus, the influence of cavity decays can be suppressed. Numerical simulation demonstrates that a perfect fluctuation transfer between two membranes can be rapidly achieved in one step, and the transfer is robust to both the amplitude noises and cavity decays.

  16. Flood control design requirements and flood evaluation methods of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ailing; Wang Ping; Zhu Jingxing

    2011-01-01

    Effect of flooding is one of the key safety factors and environmental factors in inland nuclear power plant sitting. Up to now, the rule of law and standard systems are established for the selection of nuclear power plant location and flood control requirements in China. In this paper flood control standards of China and other countries are introduced. Several inland nuclear power plants are taken as examples to thoroughly discuss the related flood evaluation methods. The suggestions are also put forward in the paper. (authors)

  17. Lessons learned from international flood PSAS in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myungro; Lee, Beomsu; Kang, Sunkoo

    1998-01-01

    Risk due to internal flooding has been one of the major concerns for the design and operation of nuclear power plants. To reduce the risk from internal flooding, two design approaches for flood protection systems, active and passive, can be considered. The approaches to flood protection design are different for each plant design, and they are highly dependent on the plant type. The flood PSA revealed that the potential plant risk due to a flooding event is highly dependent on the flood design. The major design characteristics are 1) the location of systems that utilize sea water and their impact to other safety related systems, and 2) the existence of emergency overflow paths and an emergency sump which can transfer and accommodate flood water to prevent a significant flooding event. To identify and compare the effectiveness and potential vulnerability of various Korean nuclear power plants' flood designs, the flood PSAs have been performed for three plant designs, such as existing Korean PWR plants, CANDU type PHWR plants, and Korean Standard Nuclear Plants. Based on the evaluation, several design changes were recommended. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Flooding Risk and Engineering Protection Against Floods for Ulan-Ude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The report presents the results of the study on analysis and risk assessment in relation to floods for Ulan-Ude and provides the developed recommendations of the activities for engineering protection of the population and economic installations. The current situation is reviewed and the results of the site survey are shown to identify the challenges and areas of negative water influence along with the existing security system. The report presents a summary of floods and index risk assessment. The articles describes the scope of eventual flooding, underflooding and enumerates the economic installations inside the urban areas’ research-based zones of flooding at the rated levels of water to identify the likeliness of exceedance. The assessment of damage from flood equal to 1% is shown.

  19. Can we predict the next urban flood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2015-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0-2 hours leadtime, and numerical weather models with leadtimes up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model with the purpose to investigate the potential for predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been recently flooded. Results show that it is possible to generate detailed flood maps in real-time with high resolution...

  20. A hydro-meteorological ensemble prediction system for real-time flood forecasting purposes in the Milano area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazzani, Giovanni; Amengual, Arnau; Ceppi, Alessandro; Romero, Romualdo; Homar, Victor; Mancini, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of forecasting strategies that can provide a tangible basis for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures over the Western Mediterranean region is one of the fundamental motivations of the European HyMeX programme. Here, we examine a set of hydro-meteorological episodes that affected the Milano urban area for which the complex flood protection system of the city did not completely succeed before the occurred flash-floods. Indeed, flood damages have exponentially increased in the area during the last 60 years, due to industrial and urban developments. Thus, the improvement of the Milano flood control system needs a synergism between structural and non-structural approaches. The flood forecasting system tested in this work comprises the Flash-flood Event-based Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff Transformation, including Water Balance (FEST-WB) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models, in order to provide a hydrological ensemble prediction system (HEPS). Deterministic and probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) have been provided by WRF model in a set of 48-hours experiments. HEPS has been generated by combining different physical parameterizations (i.e. cloud microphysics, moist convection and boundary-layer schemes) of the WRF model in order to better encompass the atmospheric processes leading to high precipitation amounts. We have been able to test the value of a probabilistic versus a deterministic framework when driving Quantitative Discharge Forecasts (QDFs). Results highlight (i) the benefits of using a high-resolution HEPS in conveying uncertainties for this complex orographic area and (ii) a better simulation of the most of extreme precipitation events, potentially enabling valuable probabilistic QDFs. Hence, the HEPS copes with the significant deficiencies found in the deterministic QPFs. These shortcomings would prevent to correctly forecast the location and timing of high precipitation rates and

  1. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  2. Flood Early Warning in Bridge Management System: from idea to implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, Igor; Bekić, Damir; Michalis, Panagiotis; Šolman, Hrvoje; Cahill, Paul; Gilja, Gordon; Pakrashi, Vikram; Lapthorne, John; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in computational speed, cloud systems and GPRS data are some of the factors that have resulted in an increased number of operational and fully automatized Flood Early Warning Systems (FEWS). Flood forecasting is becoming a well-recognised solution for flood management as an indirect measure for minimising the risk should preventive or defence measures prove ineffective or are not feasible for implementation. Public acceptance of FEWS as a standalone solution is still considered to be at low level. Further public engagement regarding engineering risks and providing timely notifications and warnings can, however, establish the true value of such a system to the society in general. Flood risks can be direct, resulting in damage to buildings, infrastructure and natural resources, or indirect, which can be related to disaster losses leading to declines in commercial output or revenue and impact on wellbeing of people, typically from disruptions to the flow of goods and services. Flood risk and structural risks are closely related, thereby impacting the maintenance and management of bridges assets over watercourses. Many studies indicate that most bridge collapses are related to hydraulic effects and consequently scour issues (i.e. the removal of riverbed around bridge foundations due to flowing water). Consequently, hydraulic, hydrologic and geotechnical expertise and knowledge can lead to introducing FEWS as a key tool for Bridge Scour Management System (BSMS), forming a part of a BMS. The implementation of this concept was initiated with the EU/FP7 funded project BRIDGE SMS. The project introduces BSMS into the overall BMS to develop a reliable decision support tool which would efficiently manage bridge failure risks in a cost-effective way. This is accomplished through the development of FEWS, alongside monitoring systems that can provide important information about environmental and structural conditions at the catchment area and bridge site

  3. Discrete vapour cavity model with improved timing of opening and collapse of cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergant, A.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Vítkovský, J.P.; Simpson, A.R.; Lambert, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Transient vaporous cavitation occurs in hydraulic piping systems when the liquid pressure falls to the vapour pressure. Cavitation may occur as a localized vapour cavity (large void fraction) or as distributed vaporous cavitation (small void fraction). The discrete vapour cavity model (DVCM) with

  4. An economical wireless cavity-nest viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Sarah R. Hurteau

    2007-01-01

    Inspection of cavity nests and nest boxes is often required during studies of cavity-nesting birds, and fiberscopes and pole-mounted video cameras are sometimes used for such inspection. However, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive for some potential users. We describe a user-built, wireless cavity viewer that can be used to access cavities as high as 15 m and...

  5. Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

    2014-05-01

    Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Topčiderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Topčiderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Topčiderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Topčiderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

  6. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity

  7. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  8. Decision Support for Flood Event Prediction and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Liang, Gengsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the development of Web GIS based decision support system for flood events is presented. To improve flood prediction we developed the decision support system for flood prediction and monitoring that integrates hydrological modelling and CARIS GIS. We present the methodology for data...... integration, floodplain delineation, and online map interfaces. Our Web-based GIS model can dynamically display observed and predicted flood extents for decision makers and the general public. The users can access Web-based GIS that models current flood events and displays satellite imagery and digital...... elevation model integrated with flood plain area. The system can show how the flooding prediction based on the output from hydrological modeling for the next 48 hours along the lower Saint John River Valley....

  9. Improving Flood Risk Management for California's Central Valley: How the State Developed a Toolbox for Large, System-wide Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, N.; Liang, Y.; Bindra, A.

    2016-12-01

    More than 1 million Californians live and work in the floodplains of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley where flood risks are among the highest in the nation. In response to this threat to people, property and the environment, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) has been called to action to improve flood risk management. This has transpired through significant advances in development of flood information and tools, analysis, and planning. Senate Bill 5 directed DWR to prepare the Central Valley Flood Protection Plan (CVFPP) and update it every 5 years. A key component of this aggressive planning approach is answering the question: What is the current flood risk, and how would proposed improvements change flood risk throughout the system? Answering this question is a substantial challenge due to the size and complexity of the watershed and flood control system. The watershed is roughly 42,000 sq mi, and flows are controlled by numerous reservoirs, bypasses, and levees. To overcome this challenge, the State invested in development of a comprehensive analysis "tool box" through various DWR programs. Development of the tool box included: collection of hydro-meteorological, topographic, geotechnical, and economic data; development of rainfall-runoff, reservoir operation, hydraulic routing, and flood risk analysis models; and development of specialized applications and computing schemes to accelerate the analysis. With this toolbox, DWR is analyzing flood hazard, flood control system performance, exposure and vulnerability of people and property to flooding, consequence of flooding for specific events, and finally flood risk for a range of CVFPP alternatives. Based on the results, DWR will put forward a State Recommended Plan in the 2017 CVFPP. Further, the value of the analysis tool box extends beyond the CVFPP. It will serve as a foundation for other flood studies for years to come and has already been successfully applied for inundation mapping to support emergency

  10. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  11. Nuclear reactor equipped with a flooding tank and a residual heat removal and emergency cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Winkler, F.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor such as a pressurized-water reactor or the like which is equipped with a flooding tank and a residual heat removal and emergency cooling system. The flooding tank is arranged within the containment shell at an elevation above the upper edge of the reactor core and contains a liquid for flooding the reactor core in the event of a loss of coolant

  12. Identification of flood-rich and flood-poor periods in flood series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a general concern about non-stationarity of flood series has arisen, as changes in catchment response can be driven by several factors, such as climatic and land-use changes. Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Trends are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test. However, the results of this test depend on the starting and ending year of the series, which can lead to different results in terms of the period considered. The results can be conditioned to flood-poor and flood-rich periods located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to a set of long series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in some parts of Spain that could be caused by a flood-rich period observed in 1950-1970, placed at the beginning of the flood series. The results of this study support the findings of Mediero et al. (2014), as a flood-rich period in 1950-1970 was identified in most of the selected sites. References: Mediero, L., Santillán, D., Garrote, L., Granados, A. Detection and attribution of trends in magnitude, frequency and timing of floods in Spain, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 1072-1088, 2014.

  13. Mass and energy analysis of the ions in a plasma flood system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooding, A.C.; Armour, D.G.; Berg, J.A. van den; Holmes, A.J.T.; Burgess, C.; Goldberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma flood systems, capable of providing a copious supply of electrons are used in ion implanters to control wafer charging and provide effective space charge neutralisation of the ion beam in the post-analysis/post-deceleration section of the beamline. Under appropriate conditions the plasma from the flood system interacts with the ion beam and this bridging leads to an enhanced beam transport efficiency in the final critical stage of the beamline. The effectiveness of this process depends on the properties of the plasma emanating from the system. In this study, a plasma analyser comprising a double hemi-spherical electrostatic energy analyser and a quadrupole mass spectrometer, was used to measure the energy distributions of all the ion species leaving a magnetically confined argon plasma, generated in the discharge chamber of a conventional flood neutraliser. The energy distributions extended to surprisingly high energies and the peak structures depended strongly on discharge voltage, discharge current and gas pressure. The nature of these dependencies was complex with both the pressure and arc current affecting the way in which the ion energy distributions depended on arc voltage. In all cases, multiply charged ions played a significant role in determining the nature of the ion energy distributions

  14. Mass and energy analysis of the ions in a plasma flood system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooding, A.C. [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Armour, D.G. [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Berg, J.A. van den [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.a.vandenberg@salford.ac.uk; Holmes, A.J.T. [Marcham Scientific, Hungerford, Berks RG17 0LH (United Kingdom); Burgess, C. [Applied Materials UK Ltd., Foundry Lane, Horsham, West Sussex RH13 5PX (United Kingdom); Goldberg, R.D. [Applied Materials UK Ltd., Foundry Lane, Horsham, West Sussex RH13 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    Plasma flood systems, capable of providing a copious supply of electrons are used in ion implanters to control wafer charging and provide effective space charge neutralisation of the ion beam in the post-analysis/post-deceleration section of the beamline. Under appropriate conditions the plasma from the flood system interacts with the ion beam and this bridging leads to an enhanced beam transport efficiency in the final critical stage of the beamline. The effectiveness of this process depends on the properties of the plasma emanating from the system. In this study, a plasma analyser comprising a double hemi-spherical electrostatic energy analyser and a quadrupole mass spectrometer, was used to measure the energy distributions of all the ion species leaving a magnetically confined argon plasma, generated in the discharge chamber of a conventional flood neutraliser. The energy distributions extended to surprisingly high energies and the peak structures depended strongly on discharge voltage, discharge current and gas pressure. The nature of these dependencies was complex with both the pressure and arc current affecting the way in which the ion energy distributions depended on arc voltage. In all cases, multiply charged ions played a significant role in determining the nature of the ion energy distributions.

  15. Flood Risk Mapping Using Flow Energy Equation and Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pourya Javan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and its damages are not only found uplift water level in a region. In other words, the depth and speed parameters together have determining the level of flood risk at each point. This subject is visible in flooded plain with low height and high speed of 2 meters per second, which damages are extensive. According to the criteria of having both velocity and flow depth in the governing equation to the flows energy, this equation seems appropriate to analysis in this study. Various methods have been proposed for increase accuracy in flood zoning with different return periods and risks associated with it in land border of river. For example, some of these methods are considered factors such as analysis of past flooding in the area affected by floods, hydrological factors and consideration of hydraulic elements affecting in flood zoning (such as flow velocity. This paper investigates the effect of flood zoning by the energy flow in the areas affected by floods. Also risk due to flood based on energy flow in each section of the river is compared by the proposed graphs of hazard interval and other done flood zoning in this field. In this study, the FORDO river has been selected as the case study. This river is part of the rivers located in the city of QOM KAHAK. The characteristics of river in upstream and downstream are mountain, young and stable and adult, respectively. Also this river in different seasons is exposed the flood damage. The proposed method in this study can be improving recognition accuracy of flood risk in areas affected by flood. Also, this method facilitate the identify parts of the river bed, that is affected by severe flooding, for decision making to improve rivers organizing.

  16. An analysis of system pressure and temperature distribution in self-pressurizer of SMART considering thermal stratification at intermediate cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, Doo Jeong; Yoon, Ju Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Because the pressurizer is in reactor vessel, the heat transfer from primary water would increase the temperatures of fluids in pressurizer to same temperature of hotleg, if no cooling equipment were supplied. Thus, heat exchanger and thermal insulator are needed to minimize heat transferred from primary water and to remove heat in pressurizer. The temperatures in cavities of pressurizer for normal operation are 70 deg C and 74 deg C for intermediate and end cavity, respectively, which considers the solubility of nitrogen gas in water. Natural convection is the mechanism of heat balance in pressurizer of SMART. In SMART, the heat exchanger in pressurizer is placed in lower part of intermediate cavity, so the heat in upper part of intermediate cavity can't be removed adequately and it can cause thermal stratification. If thermal stratification occurred, it increases heat transfers to nitrogen gas and system pressure increases as the result. Thus, proper evaluation of those effects on system pressure and ways to mitigate thermal stratification should be established. This report estimates the system pressure and temperatures in cavities of pressurizer with considering thermal stratification in intermediate cavity. The system pressure and temperatures for each cavities considered size of wet thermal insulator, temperature of upper plate of reactor vessel, parameters of heat exchanger in intermediate cavity such as flow rate and temperature of cooling water, heat transfer area, effective tube height, and location of cooling tube. In addition to the consideration of thermal stratification thermal mixing of all water in intermediate cavity also considered and compared in this report. (author). 6 refs., 60 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Impacts of adaptive flood management strategies on the Socio-Hydrological system in Ganges - Brahmaputra river basin, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Jeong, H.; Sangwan, N.; Yu, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Human societies have tried to prevent floods by building robust infrastructure such as levees or dams. However, some scholars raise a doubt to this approach because of a lack of adaptiveness to environmental and societal changes in a long-term. Thus, a growing number of studies now suggest adopting new strategies in flood management to reinforce an adapt capacity to the long-term flood risk. This study addresses this issue by developing a conceptual mathematical model exploring how flood management strategies effect to the dynamics human-flood interaction, ultimately the flood resilience in a long-term. Especially, our model is motivated by the community-based flood protection system in southwest coastal area in Bangladesh. We developed several conceptual flood management strategies and investigated the interplay between those strategies and community's capacity to cope with floods. We additionally analyzed how external disturbances (sea level rise, water tide level change, and outside economic development) alter the adaptive capacity to flood risks. The results of this study reveal that the conventional flood management has potential vulnerabilities as external disturbances increase. Our results also highlight the needs of the adaptive strategy as a new paradigm in flood management which is able to feedback to the social and hydrological conditions. These findings provide insights on the resilience-based, adaptive strategies which can build flood resilience under global change.

  18. Origin, enzymatic response and fate of dissolved organic matter during flood and non-flood conditions in a river-floodplain system of the Danube (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieczko, Anna; Peduzzi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic techniques and extracellular enzyme activity measurements were combined with assessments of bacterial secondary production (BSP) to elucidate flood-pulse-linked differences in carbon (C) sources and related microbial processes in a river-floodplain system near Vienna (Austria). Surface connection with the main channel significantly influenced the quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in floodplain backwaters. The highest values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) were observed during the peak of the flood, when DOC increased from 1.36 to 4.37 mg l -1 and CDOM from 2.94 to 14.32 m -1 . The flood introduced DOC which consisted of more allochthonously-derived, aromatic compounds. Bacterial enzymatic activity, as a proxy to track the response to changes in DOM, indicated elevated utilization of imported allochthonous material. Based on the enzyme measurements, new parameters were calculated: metabolic effort and enzymatic indices (EEA 1 and EEA 2). During connection, bacterial glucosidase and protease activity were dominant, whereas during disconnected phases a switch to lignin degradation (phenol oxidase) occurred. The enzymatic activity analysis revealed that flooding mobilized reactive DOM, which then supported bacterial metabolism. No significant differences in overall BSP between the two phases were detected, indicating that heterogeneous sources of C sufficiently support BSP. The study demonstrates that floods are important for delivering DOM, which, despite its allochthonous origin, is reactive and can be effectively utilized by aquatic bacteria in this river-floodplain systems. The presence of active floodplains, characterized by hydrological connectivity with the main channel, creates the opportunity to process allochthonous DOC. This has potential consequences for carbon flux, enhancing C sequestration and mineralization processes in this river-floodplain system.

  19. Superconducting cavity driving with FPGA controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarski, Tomasz; Koprek, Waldemar; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Simrock, Stefan; Brandt, Alexander; Chase, Brian; Carcagno, Ruben; Cancelo, Gustavo; Koeth, Timothy W.

    2006-01-01

    A digital control of superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. FPGA-based controller, supported by Matlab system, was applied. Electrical model of a resonator was used for design of a control system. Calibration of the signal path is considered. Identification of cavity parameters has been carried out for adaptive control algorithm. Feed-forward and feedback modes were applied in operating the cavities. Required performance has been achieved; i.e. driving on resonance during filling and field stabilization during flattop time, while keeping reasonable level of the power consumption. Representative results of the experiments are presented for different levels of the cavity field gradient

  20. Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

  1. SC-cavity operation via WG-transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwersteg, B.

    1990-01-01

    Varying beam currents in storage rings like PETRA and HERA strongly change the match condition of the generator-cavity system. To maintain optimum energy transfer variable input coupling is needed. A variable waveguide transformer was developed which covers transformation ratios of 0.2 to 5. Additionally this device allows to change the cavity phase independently. The parameters of a system consisting of generator, transformer and superconducting cavity under operation in a storage ring will be discussed. (author)

  2. Circuit QED with 3D cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Edwar; Baust, Alexander; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Anderson, Gustav; Wang, Lujun; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In typical circuit QED systems on-chip superconducting qubits are coupled to integrated coplanar microwave resonators. Due to the planar geometry, the resonators are often a limiting factor regarding the total coherence of the system. Alternatively, similar hybrid systems can be realized using 3D microwave cavities. Here, we present design considerations for the 3D microwave cavity as well as the superconducting transmon qubit. Moreover, we show experimental data of a high purity aluminum cavity demonstrating quality factors above 1.4 .10{sup 6} at the single photon level and a temperature of 50 mK. Our experiments also demonstrate that the quality factor is less dependent on the power compared to planar resonator geometries. Furthermore, we present strategies for tuning both the cavity and the qubit individually.

  3. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Fan; Han, Chun-Yu; Pu, Yu-Jin; Ding, Yang; Zhang, Li-Jia

    2017-05-31

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of physiological traits in trees subjected to medium and severe winter flooding stresses, suggesting that males and females of P. deltoides were winter flooding tolerant, and insensitive to winter flooding duration. Males were more tolerant to winter flooding stress in terms of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence than females. Females displayed greater oxidative damage due to flooding stress than males. Males developed more efficient antioxidant enzymatic systems to control reactive oxygen species. Both sexes had similarly strong post-flooding recovery capabilities in terms of plant growth, and physiological and ultrastructural parameters. However, Males had better recovery capabilities in terms of pigment content. These results increase the understanding of poplars's adaptation to winter flooding stress. They also elucidate sex-specific differences in response to flooding stress during the dormant season, and during post-flooding recovery periods.

  4. Optically coupled cavities for wavelength switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulman.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulman.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An optical bistable device which presents hysteresis behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system finds applications in wavelength switching, pulse reshaping and optical bistability. It is based on two optically coupled cavities named master and slave. Each cavity includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), acting as the gain medium of the laser, and two pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) which define the lasing wavelength (being different in each cavity). Finally, a variable optical coupler (VOC) is employed to couple both cavities. Experimental characterization of the system performance is made analyzing the effects of the coupling coefficient between the two cavities and the driving current in each SOA. The properties of the hysteretic bistable curve and switching can be controlled by adjusting these parameters and the loss in the cavities. By selecting the output wavelength ({lambda}{sub 1} or {lambda}{sub 2}) with an external filter it is possible to choose either the invert or non-invert switched signal. Experiments were developed employing both optical discrete components and a photonic integrated circuit. They show that for 8 m-long cavities the maximum switching frequency is about 500 KHz, and for 4 m-long cavities a minimum rise-time about 21 ns was measured. The switching time can be reduced by shortening the cavity lengths and using photonic integrated circuits.

  5. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  6. May flood-poor periods be more dangerous than flood-rich periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Viglione, Alberto; Kuil, Linda; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2014-05-01

    perception of risk and, consequently, people preparedness remains high. Conversely, long periods without floods will serve to diminish awareness, since the memory of floods tends to be short (i.e., people tend to forget quickly), finally leading communities to take too high risks. Di Baldassarre, G., A. Viglione, G. Carr, L. Kuil, J.L. Salinas and G. Blöschl (2013) Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 3295-3303, doi:10.5194/hess-17-3295-2013. Viglione, A., G. Di Baldassarre, L. Brandimarte, L. Kuil, G. Carr, J.L. Salinas, A. Scolobig and G. Blöschl (2013) Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust, Journal of Hydrology, accepted.

  7. Tuner control system of Spoke012 SRF cavity for C-ADS injector I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Sun, Yi; Wang, Guang-Wei; Mi, Zheng-Hui; Lin, Hai-Ying; Wang, Qun-Yao; Liu, Rong; Ma, Xin-Peng

    2016-09-01

    A new tuner control system for spoke superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities has been developed and applied to cryomodule I of the C-ADS injector I at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We have successfully implemented the tuner controller based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for the first time and achieved a cavity tuning phase error of ±0.7° (about ±4 Hz peak to peak) in the presence of electromechanical coupled resonance. This paper presents preliminary experimental results based on the PLC tuner controller under proton beam commissioning. Supported by Proton linac accelerator I of China Accelerator Driven sub-critical System (Y12C32W129)

  8. Flood impacts on a water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    Floods cause damage to people, buildings and infrastructures. Water distribution systems are particularly exposed, since water treatment plants are often located next to the rivers. Failure of the system leads to both direct losses, for instance damage to equipment and pipework contamination, and indirect impact, since it may lead to service disruption and thus affect populations far from the event through the functional dependencies of the network. In this work, we present an analysis of direct and indirect damages on a drinking water supply system, considering the hazard of riverine flooding as well as the exposure and vulnerability of active system components. The method is based on interweaving, through a semi-automated GIS procedure, a flood model and an EPANET-based pipe network model with a pressure-driven demand approach, which is needed when modelling water distribution networks in highly off-design conditions. Impact measures are defined and estimated so as to quantify service outage and potential pipe contamination. The method is applied to the water supply system of the city of Florence, Italy, serving approximately 380 000 inhabitants. The evaluation of flood impact on the water distribution network is carried out for different events with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to estimate their residual functionality and to simulate failure scenarios. Results show that in the worst failure scenario (no residual functionality of the lifting station and a 500-year flood), 420 km of pipework would require disinfection with an estimated cost of EUR 21 million, which is about 0.5 % of the direct flood losses evaluated for buildings and contents. Moreover, if flood impacts on the water distribution network are considered, the population affected by the flood is up to 3 times the population directly flooded.

  9. Cavity Mediated Manipulation of Distant Spin Currents Using a Cavity-Magnon-Polariton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lihui; Harder, Michael; Hyde, Paul; Zhang, Zhaohui; Hu, Can-Ming; Chen, Y P; Xiao, John Q

    2017-05-26

    Using electrical detection of a strongly coupled spin-photon system comprised of a microwave cavity mode and two magnetic samples, we demonstrate the long distance manipulation of spin currents. This distant control is not limited by the spin diffusion length, instead depending on the interplay between the local and global properties of the coupled system, enabling systematic spin current control over large distance scales (several centimeters in this work). This flexibility opens the door to improved spin current generation and manipulation for cavity spintronic devices.

  10. Superconducting cavity driving with FPGA controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarski, T.; Koprek, W.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Simrock, S.; Brand, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Chase, B.; Carcagno, R.; Cancelo, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Koeth, T.W. [Rutgers - the State Univ. of New Jersey, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The digital control of several superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. The laboratory setup of the CHECHIA cavity and ACC1 module of the VU-FEL TTF in DESY-Hamburg have both been driven by a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based system. Additionally, a single 9-cell TESLA Superconducting cavity of the FNPL Photo Injector at FERMILAB has been remotely controlled from WUT-ISE laboratory with the support of the DESY team using the same FPGA control system. These experiments focused attention on the general recognition of the cavity features and projected control methods. An electrical model of the resonator was taken as a starting point. Calibration of the signal path is considered key in preparation for the efficient driving of a cavity. Identification of the resonator parameters has been proven to be a successful approach in achieving required performance; i.e. driving on resonance during filling and field stabilization during flattop time while requiring reasonable levels of power consumption. Feed-forward and feedback modes were successfully applied in operating the cavities. Representative results of the experiments are presented for different levels of the cavity field gradient. (orig.)

  11. Superconducting cavity driving with FPGA controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarski, T.; Koprek, W.; Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.; Simrock, S.; Brand, A.; Chase, B.; Carcagno, R.; Cancelo, G.; Koeth, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The digital control of several superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. The laboratory setup of the CHECHIA cavity and ACC1 module of the VU-FEL TTF in DESY-Hamburg have both been driven by a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based system. Additionally, a single 9-cell TESLA Superconducting cavity of the FNPL Photo Injector at FERMILAB has been remotely controlled from WUT-ISE laboratory with the support of the DESY team using the same FPGA control system. These experiments focused attention on the general recognition of the cavity features and projected control methods. An electrical model of the resonator was taken as a starting point. Calibration of the signal path is considered key in preparation for the efficient driving of a cavity. Identification of the resonator parameters has been proven to be a successful approach in achieving required performance; i.e. driving on resonance during filling and field stabilization during flattop time while requiring reasonable levels of power consumption. Feed-forward and feedback modes were successfully applied in operating the cavities. Representative results of the experiments are presented for different levels of the cavity field gradient. (orig.)

  12. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  13. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  14. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  15. EMERGO : The Dutch flood risk system since 1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, T.

    2017-01-01

    PART I | A RESEARCH AND DESIGN PROJECT ABOUT FLOOD RISK POLICY SINCE 1986 The period between the Dutch flood disaster of 1953 and the year 2016 can be divided into two eras, separated by the year 1986, when the famous Eastern Scheldt barrier was completed. The perspective of water professionals on

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  17. The use of water marks mapping to understand flood overflow events inside karstic cavities: Cueva Fría and Cueva Rosa (Asturias, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Lemos, Saúl; Stoll, Heather M.

    2014-05-01

    Several karst systems in Asturias (NW Spain) present evidence of fluvial deposits cemented in speleothems that may provide good chronology of past flood events inside the caves. This flood record is under research in two karstic caves of this region, Cueva Fría and Cueva Rosa, which have in common the presence of a perennial stream inside the cave and a low gradient of the cave passage. Immediately after a flood overflow event, water marks, foam and detritus are visible at different heights on the cave walls and correspond to heights of bottlenecks in overflow drainage through the cave passage. Flood events also deposit sand and gravel on terraces on the cave wall and move large volumes of sand in the cave bed. We have noted that detrital particles (like sand or silt particles) are preserved as inclusions inside the stalagmites and that their abundance inside coeval stalagmites decreases as altitude and distance from the perennial stream increase, supporting its fluvial affinity. However, not all the stalagmites that contain detrital particles are located close to the perennial streams. In this work, we have mapped the water marks preserved in the cave walls to reconstruct water levels associated to flood overflow events of different magnitude. We have found that water mark correlation along the cave passage is very useful to define the hydrological behaviour and flood model of the cave during these extreme events. The water mark mapping and correlation have been also useful to prove that during periods of high rainfall, the movement of the sand-bars inside the cave can cover partially or completely active stalagmites, facilitating the cementation process and trapping abundant detrital material inside the stalagmite carbonate. 14C and U/Th dating of the stalagmites can provide a chronology for the detrital rich layers, so that the abundance of fluvial material in the stalagmites can reveal periods of enhanced vs. reduced flooding in the cave over the past several

  18. Flood Response System—A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh Kumar Singh; Upasana Dutta; T. S. Murugesh Prabhu; I. Prabu; Jitendra Mhatre; Manoj Khare; Sandeep Srivastava; Subasisha Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Flood Response System (FRS) is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to flood, like displaying spatial maps of area affected, inundated roads, etc., and maintains a steady flow of information at all levels with different access rights depending upon the critica...

  19. Study of CT Scan Flooding System at High Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. Y.

    2017-12-01

    CT scan flooding experiment can scan micro-pore in different flooding stages by the use of CT scan technology, without changing the external morphology and internal structure of the core, and observe the distribution characterization in pore medium of different flooding fluid under different pressure.thus,it can rebuilt the distribution images of oil-water distribution in different flooding stages. However,under extreme high pressure and temperature conditions,the CT scan system can not meet the requirements. Container of low density materials or thin shell can not resist high pressure,while high density materials or thick shell will cause attenuation and scattering of X-ray. The experiment uses a simple Ct scanning systems.X ray from a point light source passing trough a micro beryllium shell on High pressure stainless steal container,continuously irradiates the core holder that can continuously 360° rotate along the core axis. A rare earth intensifying screen behind the core holder emitting light when irradiated with X ray can show the core X ray section image. An optical camera record the core X ray images through a transparency high pressure glazing that placed on the High pressure stainless steal container.Thus,multiple core X ray section images can reconstruct the 3D core reconstruction after a series of data processing.The experiment shows that both the micro beryllium shell and rare earth intensifying screen can work in high temperature and high pressure environment in the stainless steal container. This way that X-ray passes through a thin layer of micro beryllium shell , not high pressure stainless steal shell,avoid the attenuation and scattering of X-ray from the container shell,while improving the high-pressure experiment requirements.

  20. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    /vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  1. 46 CFR 62.35-10 - Flooding safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding safety. 62.35-10 Section 62.35-10 Shipping... Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-10 Flooding safety. (a) Automatic bilge.... (b) Remote controls for flooding safety equipment must remain functional under flooding conditions to...

  2. RF Power Requirements for PEFP SRF Cavity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    For the future extension of the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) Proton linac, preliminary study on the SRF (superconducting radio-frequency) cavity is going on including a five-cell prototype cavity development to confirm the design and fabrication procedures and to check the RF and mechanical properties of a low-beta elliptical cavity. The main parameters of the cavity are like followings. - Frequency: 700 MHz - Operating mode: TM010 pi mode - Cavity type: Elliptical - Geometrical beta: 0.42 - Number of cells: 5 - Accelerating gradient: 8 MV/m - Epeak/Eacc: 3.71 - Bpeak/Eacc: 7.47 mT/(MV/m) - R/Q: 102.3 ohm - Epeak: 29.68 MV/m (1.21 Kilp.) - Geometrical factor: 121.68 ohm - Cavity wall thickness: 4.3 mm - Stiffening structure: Double ring - Effective length: 0.45 m For the test of the cavity at low temperature of 4.2 K, many subsystems are required such as a cryogenic system, RF system, vacuum system and radiation shielding. RF power required to generate accelerating field inside cavity depends on the RF coupling parameters of the power coupler and quality factor of the SRF cavity and the quality factor itself is affected by several factors such as operating temperature, external magnetic field level and surface condition. Therefore, these factors should be considered to estimate the required RF power for the SRF cavity test

  3. Lessons Learned from Missing Flooding Barriers Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Veira, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding hazard is highly significant for nuclear power plant safety because of its potential for common cause impact on safety related systems, and because operating experience reviews regularly identify flooding as a cause of concern. Source of the flooding could be external (location) or internal (plant design). The amount of flooding water could vary but even small amount might suffice to affect redundant trains of safety related systems for power supply and cooling. The protection from the flooding is related to the design-basis flood level (DBFL) and it consists of three elements: structural, organizational and accessibility. Determination of the DBFL is critical, as Fukushima Daiichi accident terribly proved. However, as the topic of flooding is very broad, the scope of this paper is focused only on the issues related to the missing flood barriers. Structural measures are physically preventing flooding water to reach or damage safety related system, and they could be permanent or temporary. For temporary measures it is important to have necessary material, equipment and organizational capacity for the timely implementation. Maintenance is important for permanent protection and periodical review is important for assuring readiness and feasibility of temporary flooding protection. Final flooding protection element is assured accessibility to safety related systems during the flooding. Appropriate flooding protection is based on the right implementation of design requirements, proper maintenance and periodic reviews. Operating experience is constantly proving how numerous water sources and systems interactions make flooding protection challenging. This paper is presenting recent related operating experience feedback involving equipment, procedures and analysis. Most frequent deficiencies are: inadequate, degraded or missing seals that would allow floodwaters into safety related spaces. Procedures are inadequate typically because they underestimate necessary

  4. A UAV based system for real time flash flood monitoring in desert environments using Lagrangian microsensors

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, flash flood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Most casualties could be avoided with advance warning, for which real time monitoring is critical. While satellite-based high resolution weather forecasts can help predict floods to a certain extent, they are not reliable enough, as flood models depend on a large number of parameters that cannot be estimated beforehand. In this article, we present a novel flood sensing architecture to monitor large scale desert hydrological basins surrounding metropolitan areas, based on unmanned air vehicles. The system relies on Lagrangian (mobile) microsensors, that are released by a swarm of UAVs. A preliminary testbed implementing this technology is briefly described, and future research directions and problems are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Thermal Protection System Cavity Heating for Simplified and Actual Geometries Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations with Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal Protection System (TPS) Cavity Heating is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on unstructured grids for both simplified cavities and actual cavity geometries. Validation was performed using comparisons to wind tunnel experimental results and CFD predictions using structured grids. Full-scale predictions were made for simplified and actual geometry configurations on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mission support timeframe.

  6. Impact of a flood disaster on sediment toxicity in a major river system - the Elbe flood 2002 as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oetken, Matthias; Stachel, Burkhard; Pfenninger, Markus; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The ecotoxicological implications of a flooding disaster were investigated with the exceptional Elbe flood in August 2002 as an example. Sediment samples were taken shortly after the flood at 37 sites. For toxicity assessment the midge Chironomus riparius (Insecta) and the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda) were exposed to the sediment samples for 28 days. For a subset of 19 sampling sites, the contamination level and the biological response of both species were also recorded before the flood in 2000. The direct comparison of biological responses at identical sites revealed significant differences for samples taken before and immediately after the flood. After flood sediments of the river Elbe caused both higher emergence rates in the midge and higher numbers of embryos in the mudsnail. Contrary to expectations the toxicity of the sediments decreased after the flood, probably because of a dilution of toxic substances along the river Elbe and a reduction in bioavailability of pollutants as a result of increasing TOC values after the flood. - The extraordinary Elbe flood in August 2002 did not result in an overall increase of environmental contamination

  7. How useful are Swiss flood insurance data for flood vulnerability assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Veronika; Bernet, Daniel; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2015-04-01

    The databases of Swiss flood insurance companies build a valuable but to date rarely used source of information on physical flood vulnerability. Detailed insights into the Swiss flood insurance system are crucial for using the full potential of the different databases for research on flood vulnerability. Insurance against floods in Switzerland is a federal system, the modalities are manly regulated on cantonal level. However there are some common principles that apply throughout Switzerland. First of all coverage against floods (and other particular natural hazards) is an integral part of every fire insurance policy for buildings or contents. This coupling of insurance as well as the statutory obligation to insure buildings in most of the cantons and movables in some of the cantons lead to a very high penetration. Second, in case of damage, the reinstatement costs (value as new) are compensated and third there are no (or little) deductible and co-pay. High penetration and the fact that the compensations represent a large share of the direct, tangible losses of the individual policy holders make the databases of the flood insurance companies a comprehensive and therefore valuable data source for flood vulnerability research. Insurance companies not only store electronically data about losses (typically date, amount of claims payment, cause of damage, identity of the insured object or policyholder) but also about insured objects. For insured objects the (insured) value and the details on the policy and its holder are the main feature to record. On buildings the insurance companies usually computerize additional information such as location, volume, year of construction or purpose of use. For the 19 (of total 26) cantons with a cantonal monopoly insurer the data of these insurance establishments have the additional value to represent (almost) the entire building stock of the respective canton. Spatial referenced insurance data can be used for many aspects of

  8. Design and development progress of a LLRF control system for a 500 MHz superconducting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. W.; Song, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, K. H.; Yu, I. H.; Chai, J. S.

    2012-07-01

    The LLRF (low-level radio-frequency) control system which regulates the amplitude and the phase of the accelerating voltage inside a RF cavity is essential to ensure the stable operation of charged particle accelerators. Recent advances in digital signal processors and data acquisition systems have allowed the LLRF control system to be implemented in digitally and have made it possible to meet the higher demands associated with the performance of LLRF control systems, such as stability, accuracy, etc. For this reason, many accelerator laboratories have completed or are completing the developments of digital LLRF control systems. The digital LLRF control system has advantages related with flexibility and fast reconfiguration. This paper describes the design of the FPGA (field programmable gate array) based LLRF control system and the status of development for this system. The proposed LLRF control system includes an analog front-end, a digital board (ADC (analog to digital converter), DAC (digital to analog converter), FPGA, etc.) and a RF & clock generation system. The control algorithms will be implemented by using the VHDL (VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuits) hardware description language), and the EPICS (experiment physics and industrial control system) will be ported to the host computer for the communication. In addition, the purpose of this system is to control a 500 MHz RF cavity, so the system will be applied to the superconducting cavity to be installed in the PLS storage ring, and its performance will be tested.

  9. IoT-based flood embankments monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michta, E.; Szulim, R.; Sojka-Piotrowska, A.; Piotrowski, K.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper a concept of flood embankments monitoring system based on using Internet of Things approach and Cloud Computing technologies will be presented. The proposed system consists of sensors, IoT nodes, Gateways and Cloud based services. Nodes communicates with the sensors measuring certain physical parameters describing the state of the embankments and communicates with the Gateways. Gateways are specialized active devices responsible for direct communication with the nodes, collecting sensor data, preprocess the data, applying local rules and communicate with the Cloud Services using communication API delivered by cloud services providers. Architecture of all of the system components will be proposed consisting IoT devices functionalities description, their communication model, software modules and services bases on using a public cloud computing platform like Microsoft Azure will be proposed. The most important aspects of maintaining the communication in a secure way will be shown.

  10. Flood Response System—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flood Response System (FRS is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to flood, like displaying spatial maps of area affected, inundated roads, etc., and maintains a steady flow of information at all levels with different access rights depending upon the criticality of the information. It is designed to facilitate users in managing information related to flooding during critical flood seasons and analyzing the extent of damage. The inputs to FRS are provided using two components: (1 a semi-automated application developed indigenously, to delineate inundated areas for Near-Real Time Flood Monitoring using Active Microwave Remote Sensing data and (2 a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic river model generated outputs for water depth and velocity in flooded areas for an embankment breach scenario. The 2D Hydrodynamic model, CCHE2D (Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering Two-Dimensional model, was used to simulate an area of 600 km2 in the flood-prone zone of the Brahmaputra basin. The resultant inundated area from the model was found to be 85% accurate when validated with post-flood optical satellite data.

  11. FloodProBE: technologies for improved safety of the built environment in relation to flood events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, C.C.D.F. van; Van, M.A.; Heilemann, K.; Morris, M.W.; Royet, P.; Zevenbergen, C.

    2011-01-01

    The FloodProBE project started as a FP7 research project in November 2009. Floods, together with wind related storms, are considered the major natural hazard in the EU in terms of risk to people and assets. In order to adapt urban areas (in river and coastal zones) to prevent flooding or to be better prepared for floods, decision makers need to determine how to upgrade flood defences and increasing flood resilience of protected buildings and critical infrastructure (power supplies, communications, water, transport, etc.) and assess the expected risk reduction from these measures. The aim of the FloodProBE-project is to improve knowledge on flood resilience and flood protection performance for balancing investments in flood risk management in urban areas. To this end, technologies, methods and tools for assessment purposes and for the adaptation of new and existing buildings and critical infrastructure are developed, tested and disseminated. Three priority areas are addressed by FloodProBE. These are: (i) vulnerability of critical infrastructure and high-density value assets including direct and indirect damage, (ii) the assessment and reliability of urban flood defences including the use of geophysical methods and remote sensing techniques and (iii) concepts and technologies for upgrading weak links in flood defences as well as construction technologies for flood proofing buildings and infrastructure networks to increase the flood resilience of the urban system. The primary impact of FloodProBE in advancing knowledge in these areas is an increase in the cost-effectiveness (i.e. performance) of new and existing flood protection structures and flood resilience measures.

  12. Life and Death of a Flood Basalt: Evolution of a Magma Plumbing System in the Ethiopian Low-Ti Flood Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, S. R.; Rooney, T. O.; Kappelman, J. W.; Yirgu, G.; Ayalew, D.

    2017-12-01

    Continental flood basalt provinces (CFBPs), which are thought to preserve the magmatic record of an impinging mantle plume head, offer spatial and temporal insight into melt generation processes in Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Despite the utility of CFBPs in probing the composition of mantle plumes, these basalts typically erupt fractionated compositions, suggestive of significant residence time in the continental lithosphere. The location and duration of this residence within the continental lithosphere provides additional insights into the flux of plume-related magmas. The NW Ethiopian plateau offers a well preserved stratigraphic section from flood basalt initiation to termination, and is thus an important target for study of CFBPs. We examine petrographic and whole rock geochemical variation within a stratigraphic framework and place these observations within the context of the magmatic evolution of the Ethiopian CFBP. We observe multiple pulses of magma recharge punctuated by brief shut-down events and an overall shallowing of the magmatic plumbing system over time. Initial flows are fed by magmas that have experienced deeper fractionation (clinopyroxene dominated and lower CaO/Al2O3 for a given MgO value), likely near the crust-mantle boundary. Subsequent flows are fed by magmas that have experienced shallower fractionation (plagioclase dominated and higher CaO/Al2O3 for a given MgO value) in addition to deeper fractionated magmas. Broad changes in flow thickness and modal mineralogy are consistent with fluctuating changes in magmatic flux through a complex plumbing system and indicate pulsed magma flux and an overall shallowing of the magmatic plumbing system over time. Pulses of less differentiated magmas (MgO > 8 wt%) and high-An composition of plagioclase megacrysts (labradorite to bytownite) suggest a constant replenishing of new primitive magma recharging the shallow plumbing system during the main phase of flood volcanism, though the magnitude of

  13. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding

  14. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  15. A system for generating long streamflow records for study of floods of long return period: Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, D.D.; Kraeger, B.A.; Linsley, R.K.

    1989-02-01

    Knowledge of the return periods of large floods is required to make risk analyses for nuclear power plants subject to flooding from rivers. The system reported here combined the stochastic simulation of hourly rainfall data and daily pan evaporation data with the deterministic simulation of streamflow by using the synthetic rainfall and evaporation data as input to a calibrated rainfall runoff model. The sequence of annual maximum flood peaks from a synthetic record of 10,000 years or more was then analyzed to obtain estimates of flood frequency. The reasonableness of the flood frequency results must be evaluated on the degree of mimicry of the key characteristics of the observed rainfall data and the ability of the rainfall-runoff model to mimic the observed flood frequency during the calibration period. On this basis, the flood frequency results appeared to be a reasonable extrapolation of the data used in defining the model parameters. There is a need to develop regional parameters for the stochastic models and to conduct research on the relationship between the stochastic structure of rainfall and stochastic structure of flood frequency. The methodology is applicable, assuming a highly skilled analyst, to watersheds similar to those already tested

  16. The use of a flood index to characterise flooding in the north-eastern region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh is presented in this paper. A haor is a saucershaped depression, which is used during the dry period (Dec to mid-May for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (Jun-Nov. Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss. The area is bordering India, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly by the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the flood propagation. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 from DHI and a two-dimensional model for the haors (based on MIKE 21 from DHI were developed. In order to characterize flooding in the large area a flood index is proposed, which is computed based on the hydrograph characteristics such as the rising curve gradient, flood magnitude ratio and time to peak. The index was used in characterising flooding in the Haor region. In general, two groups of rivers were identified. The study enabled identifying the hot-spots in the study area with risks from flooding.

  17. On a possibility of using a superconducting cavity in the RF system of the storage ring LESR-N100

    CERN Document Server

    Androsov, V P; Telegin, Yu P

    2002-01-01

    In the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology the design project of the 200 MeV electron storage ring LESR-N100 is under development. The essential feature of this facility is the large beam energy spread (of about 1%). To ensure a reasonable beam lifetime the RF-system should provide the accelerating voltage of about 0.5 MV, while the total energy losses do not exceed approx 700 eV/turn. The power dissipated in two 700 MHz normal-conducting (NC) cavities much exceeds the power transmitted to the beam. We considered a possibility to use in LESR-N100 a high-Q superconducting RF-cavity (SRF-cavity) in which the dissipated power is the same order of magnitude as the beam-transmitted power. The studies show that the system with SRF-cavity cannot operate in the standard mode when the cavity is matched to the power transmission line at some nominal beam current. The optimal operation mode with high overcoupling is proposed that requires the RF-power one order of magnitude less than in the case of Nc-cavities.

  18. An object-oriented implementation of the TRIUMF 92 MHz booster cavity control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, N.A.; Ludgate, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    A 92 MHz auxiliary accelerating cavity has been designed for installation inside the TRIUMF cyclotron, operating up to a maximum peak voltage of 200 kV. The cavity doubles the energy gain per turn for accelerating hydrogen ions in the energy region of 400-500 MeV, and reduces by 50% the stripping loss of the ion beam. The control system for the booster comprises a PC-based processor in a VME crate, for local control, and a 68030 processor with an ethernet connection as the interface to the TRIUMF Central Control System. The requirements for the booster control system were established by an object-oriented requirements analysis. Afterward, an object-oriented architectural design step was used to produce the processor allocation of the design, which was then implemented using C, for the VME processor, and a commercial database and screen generator product, for the VAX user interface. (author)

  19. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out

  20. RF control studies for moderate beamtime coupling between SRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, L.R.; Wang, D.X.

    1998-01-01

    When an SRF accelerator is designed, there is motivation to move the cavities close together on the beamline. Assuming the beamline apertures are not shrunk as well, this compaction (which will increase the overall accelerating gradient and/or lower the dynamic cryogenic heat load) increases the inter-cavity coupling. Within certain limits, the control system can compensate for this coupling by retuning each of the cavities. This paper describes constraints on the RF system, tuners, couplers, and control systems that are required to provide stable operation of cavities in the presence of inter-cavity coupling that exceeds the loaded bandwidth of an individual cavity

  1. Entangling movable mirrors in a double cavity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinard, Michel; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Vitali, David

    2005-01-01

    We propose a double-cavity set-up capable of generating a stationary entangled state of two movable mirrors at cryogenic temperatures. The scheme is based on the optimal transfer of squeezing of input optical fields to mechanical vibrational modes of the mirrors, realized by the radiation pressure...... of the intracavity light. We show that the presence of macroscopic entanglement can be demonstrated by an appropriate readout of the output light of the two cavities....

  2. Control Instabilities in a Pulsed Multi-Cavity RF System with Vector Sum Feedback (A Mathematical Analysis)

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming projects relying on pulsed linear accelerators intend to use superconducting RF systems. Cost reasons suggest driving several cavities by a common transmitter, controlled over a vector sum feedback system, possibly supported by a feed forward system. Numerical simulations hint that such a system may become uncontrollable under certain conditions. In the present paper, for a model very close to reality, we will present a mathematical proof that in fact spontaneous symmetry braking is possible for these configurations, defining also the precise conditions under which it will take place. These can be used as an estimate for the real RF system stability limits. The listing of a small program demonstrating the mechanism numerically for two cavities is attached.

  3. Flood Foresight: A near-real time flood monitoring and forecasting tool for rapid and predictive flood impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Shelton, Kay; Wood, Elizabeth; Berry, Robert; Bevington, John; Hankin, Barry; Lewis, Gavin; Gubbin, Andrew; Griffiths, Samuel; Barnard, Paul; Pinnell, Marc; Huyck, Charles

    2017-04-01

    The hours and days immediately after a major flood event are often chaotic and confusing, with first responders rushing to mobilise emergency responders, provide alleviation assistance and assess loss to assets of interest (e.g., population, buildings or utilities). Preparations in advance of a forthcoming event are becoming increasingly important; early warning systems have been demonstrated to be useful tools for decision markers. The extent of damage, human casualties and economic loss estimates can vary greatly during an event, and the timely availability of an accurate flood extent allows emergency response and resources to be optimised, reduces impacts, and helps prioritise recovery. In the insurance sector, for example, insurers are under pressure to respond in a proactive manner to claims rather than waiting for policyholders to report losses. Even though there is a great demand for flood inundation extents and severity information in different sectors, generating flood footprints for large areas from hydraulic models in real time remains a challenge. While such footprints can be produced in real time using remote sensing, weather conditions and sensor availability limit their ability to capture every single flood event across the globe. In this session, we will present Flood Foresight (www.floodforesight.com), an operational tool developed to meet the universal requirement for rapid geographic information, before, during and after major riverine flood events. The tool provides spatial data with which users can measure their current or predicted impact from an event - at building, basin, national or continental scales. Within Flood Foresight, the Screening component uses global rainfall predictions to provide a regional- to continental-scale view of heavy rainfall events up to a week in advance, alerting the user to potentially hazardous situations relevant to them. The Forecasting component enhances the predictive suite of tools by providing a local

  4. Fast Excitation and Photon Emission of a Single-Atom-Cavity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochmann, J.; Muecke, M.; Langfahl-Klabes, G.; Erbel, C.; Weber, B.; Specht, H. P.; Moehring, D. L.; Rempe, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the fast excitation of a single atom coupled to an optical cavity using laser pulses that are much shorter than all other relevant processes. The cavity frequency constitutes a control parameter that allows the creation of single photons in a superposition of two tunable frequencies. Each photon emitted from the cavity thus exhibits a pronounced amplitude modulation determined by the oscillatory energy exchange between the atom and the cavity. Our technique constitutes a versatile tool for future quantum networking experiments

  5. In- and ex-vessel flooding as part of the severe accident strategy in the KERENA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, P.; Fischer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, AREVA NP is finalizing the basic design of the KERENA reactor, an advanced boiling water reactor with a net electric output of about 1250 MWe. The safety concept in the KERENA reactor is founded on reliable active and passive systems for water supply and heat removal. The passive systems are based on simple physics and do not require operator action. Therefore, a severe accident (SA) with core damage, caused by the subsequent and multiple failures of the safety systems, has an extremely low probability. Despite this, the KERENA design is intended to involve measures that can limit and stop the progression of the severe accident which further reduces the frequency and extent of radioactive releases into the environment. These additional measures include in-vessel and ex-vessel flooding. Flooding is intended to remove the heat from the core or from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and transfer it into the containment. There the heat is removed by the active RHR (residual heat removal) system or by the passive CCCs (containment cooling condensers). Both flooding measures are passive and actuated independent of each other by different signals. The study shows that the in-vessel flooding is capable of arresting the core melt progression before a large molten pool can develop. In the unlikely event that the passive in-vessel flooding cannot be actuated or fails, the core will melt and relocate into the lower head of the RPV. In this case, as a further line of defense, decay heat removal can be achieved through the RPV wall into the water in the cavity. In order to assess whether the ex-vessel cooling can ensure RPV wall integrity a dedicated thermodynamics code has been developed which considers heat transfer from the molten corium pool into the RPV wall and the resulting wall ablation. As an input for the code the stratification behavior of the oxidic and metallic phase of the molten pool is examined. In the case of a light metallic phase on top, high heat

  6. M10.3.1: LHC crab cavity specifications completed

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapala, E

    2010-01-01

    • The starting point of Sub-task 1 is to determine the full LHC system requirements for the crab cavity system. This milestone concerns completion of basic specifications for the crab cavity system. This comprises the beam requirements, the cavity impedance constraints, the operating conditions and constraints, the layout and integration constraints in LHC and very importantly machine protection issues. The specifications of the cavity itself and its ancillaries follow from these system requirements and on the technology chosen for the cavity design. • The beam requirements result from the known parameters of the LHC upgrade lattice and the expected LHC beam parameters at ultimate bunch intensity. There are boundary conditions imposed by certain beam parameters such as the bunch length and intensity and by the machine layout, mainly the available beam pipe separations at the proposed cavity positions. Requirements on RF noise and stability are tight, to avoid emittance blow-up. Machine protection issues a...

  7. Design and analysis on fume exhaust system of blackbody cavity sensor for continuously measuring molten steel temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Mei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fume exhaust system is the main component of the novel blackbody cavity sensor with a single layer tube, which removes the fume by gas flow along the exhaust pipe to keep the light path clean. However, the gas flow may break the conditions of blackbody cavity and results in the poor measurement accuracy. In this paper, we analyzed the influence of the gas flow on the temperature distribution of the measuring cavity, and then calculated the integrated effective emissivity of the non-isothermal cavity based on Monte-Carlo method, accordingly evaluated the sensor measurement accuracy, finally obtained the maximum allowable flow rate for various length of the exhaust pipe to meet the measurement accuracy. These results will help optimize the novel blackbody cavity sensor design and use it better for measuring the temperature of molten steel.

  8. Mine waters of the flooded Příbram uranium deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Karel

    2010-01-01

    From the Příbram deposit, which was the largest exploited uranium deposit in the Czech Republic, mine water has been drained under controlled conditions, treated and discharged into the Kocába River since the flooding of the deposit in October 2005. The amount of water drained in this way is determined at any particular moment by the volume of seepage from precipitation and surface water into the underground mine cavities. The draining of overbalance mine waters is carried out at two points t...

  9. Colloquium: cavity optomechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Monday 14 November 2011, 17:00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Université de Genève Cavity optomechanics: controlling micro mechanical oscillators with laser light Prof. Tobias Kippenberg EPFL, Lausanne Laser light can be used to cool and to control trapped ions, atoms and molecules at the quantum level. This has lead to spectacular advances such as the most precise atomic clocks. An outstanding frontier is the control with lasers of nano- and micro-mechancial systems. Recent advances in cavity optomechanics have allowed such elementary control for the first time, enabling mechanical systems to be ground state cooled leading to readout with quantum limited sensitivity and permitting to explore new device concepts resulting from radiation pressure.  

  10. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  11. Application of the "Behind the Barriers" resilience conceptual model to a flooded rail transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzva, Michael; Barroca, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The vulnerability of guided transport systems facing natural hazards is a burning issue for the urban risks management. Experience feedbacks on guided transport systems show they are particularly vulnerable to natural risks, especially flood risks. Besides, the resilience concept is used as a systemic approach for making an accurate analysis of the effect of these natural risks on rail guided transport systems. In this context, several conceptual models of resilience are elaborated for presenting the various possible resilience strategies applied to urban technical systems. One of this resilience conceptual model is the so-called "Behind The Barriers" model based on the identification of four complementary types of resilience: (i) cognitive resilience, linked to knowledge of the risk and the potential failures; (ii) functional resilience, representing the capacity of a system to protect itself from damage while continuing to provide services; (iii) correlative resilience, that characterises the relationship between service demand and the capacity of the system to respond; (iv) organisational resilience, expressing the capacity to mobilise an area much wider than the one affected. In addition to the work already published during the 7th Resilience Engineering Symposium, the purpose of this paper is to offer an application of a resilience conceptual model, the "Behind the Barriers" model, relating to a specific urban technical system, the public guided transport system, and facing a particular risk, a flood hazard. To do that, the paper is focused on a past incident on a French Intercity railway line as a studied case. Indeed, on June 18th and 19th 2013, the rise of the level of the "Gave de Pau" river, located in the municipality of Coarraze, caused many disorders on the intercity line serving the cities of Tarbes, Pau and Lourdes . Among the disorders caused by the flooding, about 100 meters of railway embankments were collapsed. With a constraint to reopen the

  12. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  13. Cavity digital control testing system by Simulink step operation method for TESLA linear accelerator and free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Simrock, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    The cavity control system for the TESLA -- TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project is initially introduced in this paper. The FPGA -- Field Programmable Gate Array technology has been implemented for digital controller stabilizing cavity field gradient. The cavity SIMULINK model has been applied to test the hardware controller. The step operation method has been developed for testing the FPGA device coupled to the SIMULINK model of the analog real plant. The FPGA signal processing has been verified according to the required algorithm of the reference MATLAB controller. Some experimental results have been presented for different cavity operational conditions.

  14. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  15. Program system for calculating streaming neutron radiation field in reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongliang; Zhao Shu.

    1986-01-01

    The A23 neutron albedo data base based on Monte Carlo method well agrees with SAIL albedo data base. RSCAM program system, using Monte Carlo method with albedo approach, is used to calculate streaming neutron radiation field in reactor cavity and containment operating hall. The dose rate distributions calculated with RSCAM in square concrete duct well agree with experiments

  16. Bayesian flood forecasting methods: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shasha; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, floods have been seen as one of the most common and largely distributed natural disasters in the world. If floods could be accurately forecasted in advance, then their negative impacts could be greatly minimized. It is widely recognized that quantification and reduction of uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecast is of great importance for flood estimation and rational decision making. Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) offers an ideal theoretic framework for uncertainty quantification that can be developed for probabilistic flood forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. It provides suitable theoretical structure, empirically validated models and reasonable analytic-numerical computation method, and can be developed into various Bayesian forecasting approaches. This paper presents a comprehensive review on Bayesian forecasting approaches applied in flood forecasting from 1999 till now. The review starts with an overview of fundamentals of BFS and recent advances in BFS, followed with BFS application in river stage forecasting and real-time flood forecasting, then move to a critical analysis by evaluating advantages and limitations of Bayesian forecasting methods and other predictive uncertainty assessment approaches in flood forecasting, and finally discusses the future research direction in Bayesian flood forecasting. Results show that the Bayesian flood forecasting approach is an effective and advanced way for flood estimation, it considers all sources of uncertainties and produces a predictive distribution of the river stage, river discharge or runoff, thus gives more accurate and reliable flood forecasts. Some emerging Bayesian forecasting methods (e.g. ensemble Bayesian forecasting system, Bayesian multi-model combination) were shown to overcome limitations of single model or fixed model weight and effectively reduce predictive uncertainty. In recent years, various Bayesian flood forecasting approaches have been

  17. Elliptical superconducting RF cavities for FRIB energy upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Contreras, C.; Plastun, A. S.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Taylor, A.; Wei, J.; Xu, M.; Xu, T.; Zhao, Q.; Gonin, I. V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    The multi-physics design of a five cell, βG = 0 . 61, 644 MHz superconducting elliptical cavity being developed for an energy upgrade in the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is presented. The FRIB energy upgrade from 200 MeV/u to 400 MeV/u for heaviest uranium ions will increase the intensities of rare isotope beams by nearly an order of magnitude. After studying three different frequencies, 1288 MHz, 805 MHz, and 644 MHz, the 644 MHz cavity was shown to provide the highest energy gain per cavity for both uranium and protons. The FRIB upgrade will include 11 cryomodules containing 5 cavities each and installed in 80-meter available space in the tunnel. The cavity development included extensive multi-physics optimization, mechanical and engineering analysis. The development of a niobium cavity is complete and two cavities are being fabricated in industry. The detailed design of the cavity sub-systems such as fundamental power coupler and dynamic tuner are currently being pursued. In the overall design of the cavity and its sub-systems we extensively applied experience gained during the development of 650 MHz low-beta cavities at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) for the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) II.

  18. Preparation of n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states in cavity QED: An approach with tolerance to nonidentical qubit-cavity coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chuiping

    2011-01-01

    We propose a way for generating n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states with a three-level qubit system and (n-1) four-level qubit systems in a cavity. This proposal does not require identical qubit-cavity coupling constants and thus is tolerant to qubit-system parameter nonuniformity and nonexact placement of qubits in a cavity. The proposal does not require adjustment of the qubit-system level spacings during the entire operation. Moreover, it is shown that entanglement can be deterministically generated using this method and the operation time is independent of the number of qubits. The present proposal is quite general, which can be applied to physical systems such as various types of superconducting devices coupled to a resonator or atoms trapped in a cavity.

  19. On the reliable use of satellite-derived surface water products for global flood monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpa, F. A.; Revilla-Romero, B.; Thielen, J.; Salamon, P.; Brakenridge, R.; Pappenberger, F.; de Groeve, T.

    2015-12-01

    Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response management. To this end, real-time flood forecasting and satellite-based detection systems have been developed at global scale. However, due to the limited availability of up-to-date ground observations, the reliability of these systems for real-time applications have not been assessed in large parts of the globe. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of the commonly used satellite-based global flood detections and operational flood forecasting system using 10 major flood cases reported over three years (2012-2014). Specially, we assessed the flood detection capabilities of the near real-time global flood maps from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS), and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the operational forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) for the major flood events recorded in global flood databases. We present the evaluation results of the global flood detection and forecasting systems in terms of correctly indicating the reported flood events and highlight the exiting limitations of each system. Finally, we propose possible ways forward to improve the reliability of large scale flood monitoring tools.

  20. Quantum Fisher information for a qubit system placed inside a dissipative cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.; Obada, A.-S.F.

    2012-01-01

    We study the time evolution of the quantum Fisher information of a system whose the dynamics is described by the phase-damped model. We discuss the correlation between the Fisher information and entanglement dynamics of a qubit and single-mode quantized field in a coherent state inside phase-damped cavity. Analytic results under certain parametric conditions are obtained, by means of which we analyze the influence of dissipation on the negativity and quantum Fisher information for different values of the estimator parameter. An interesting monotonic relation between the Fisher information and nonlocal correlation behavior is observed during the time evolution. -- Highlights: ► Relation between the Fisher information and nonlocal correlation dynamics. ► Definition of quantum Fisher information for the atomic density operator. ► Investigation of Fisher information and negativity for the phase-damped model. ► Analytic solution of the master equation for the atom-field system in cavity field. ► Quantum Fisher information may be helpful in quantum information tasks.

  1. Many-body effects in transport through a quantum-dot cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, I. V.; Moldoveanu, V.; Gartner, P.

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically describe electric transport through an optically active quantum dot embedded in a single-mode cavity, and coupled to source-drain particle reservoirs. The populations of various many-body configurations (e.g., excitons, trions, biexciton) and the photon-number occupancies are calculated from a master equation which is derived in the basis of dressed states. These take into account both the Coulomb and the light-matter interaction. The former is essential in the description of the transport, while for the latter we identify situations in which it can be neglected in the expression of tunneling rates. The fermionic nature of the particle reservoirs plays an important role in the argument. The master equation is numerically solved for the s -shell many-body configurations of disk-shaped quantum dots. If the cavity is tuned to the biexciton-exciton transition, the most efficient optical processes take place in a three-level Λ system. The alternative exciton-ground-state route is inhibited as nonresonant due to the biexciton binding energy. The steady-state current is analyzed as a function of the photon frequency and the coupling to the leads. An unexpected feature appears in its dependence on the cavity loss rate, which turns out to be nonmonotonic.

  2. Near Real-Time Flood Monitoring and Impact Assessment Systems. Chapter 6; [Case Study: 2011 Flooding in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, C.; Fayne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the costliest natural disaster (United Nations 2004), causing approximately6.8 million deaths in the twentieth century alone (Doocy et al. 2013).Worldwide economic flood damage estimates in 2012 exceed $19 Billion USD(Munich Re 2013). Extended duration floods also pose longer term threats to food security, water, sanitation, hygiene, and community livelihoods, particularly in developing countries (Davies et al. 2014).Projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggest that precipitation extremes, rainfall intensity, storm intensity, and variability are increasing due to climate change (IPCC 2007). Increasing hydrologic uncertainty will likely lead to unprecedented extreme flood events. As such, there is a vital need to enhance and further develop traditional techniques used to rapidly assessflooding and extend analytical methods to estimate impacted population and infrastructure.

  3. The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenegger, H.

    2003-04-01

    On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for

  4. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  5. Economic optimization of flood prevention systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.; Kok, M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    After the flood disaster of 1953, the Netherlands adopted a rational approach to flood risk management with the use of protection standards determined by means of cost-benefit analysis. Due to scientific and political developments that have recently taken place, an update of the Dutch protection

  6. The added value of system robustness analysis for flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, M.J.P.; Klijn, F.

    2014-01-01

    Decision makers in fluvial flood risk management increasingly acknowledge that they have to prepare for extreme events. Flood risk is the most common basis on which to compare flood risk-reducing strategies. To take uncertainties into account the criteria of robustness and flexibility are advocated

  7. Application of RUNTA code in flood analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, F.; Benitez Fonzalez, F.

    1994-01-01

    Flood probability analyses carried out to date indicate the need to evaluate a large number of flood scenarios. This necessity is due to a variety of reasons, the most important of which include: - Large number of potential flood sources - Wide variety of characteristics of flood sources - Large possibility of flood-affected areas becoming inter linked, depending on the location of the potential flood sources - Diversity of flood flows from one flood source, depending on the size of the rupture and mode of operation - Isolation times applicable - Uncertainties in respect of the structural resistance of doors, penetration seals and floors - Applicable degrees of obstruction of floor drainage system Consequently, a tool which carries out the large number of calculations usually required in flood analyses, with speed and flexibility, is considered necessary. The RUNTA Code enables the range of possible scenarios to be calculated numerically, in accordance with all those parameters which, as a result of previous flood analyses, it is necessary to take into account in order to cover all the possible floods associated with each flood area

  8. Review of cavity optomechanical cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong-Chun; Hu Yu-Wen; Xiao Yun-Feng; Wong Chee Wei

    2013-01-01

    Quantum manipulation of macroscopic mechanical systems is of great interest in both fundamental physics and applications ranging from high-precision metrology to quantum information processing. For these purposes, a crucial step is to cool the mechanical system to its quantum ground state. In this review, we focus on the cavity optomechanical cooling, which exploits the cavity enhanced interaction between optical field and mechanical motion to reduce the thermal noise. Recent remarkable theoretical and experimental efforts in this field have taken a major step forward in preparing the motional quantum ground state of mesoscopic mechanical systems. This review first describes the quantum theory of cavity optomechanical cooling, including quantum noise approach and covariance approach; then, the up-to-date experimental progresses are introduced. Finally, new cooling approaches are discussed along the directions of cooling in the strong coupling regime and cooling beyond the resolved sideband limit. (topical review - quantum information)

  9. The land use potential of flood-prone rice fields using floating rice system in Bojonegoro regency in East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, H.; Mujiyo; Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.

    2018-03-01

    Bojonegoro regency occupies the largest flood-prone rice fields of about 14,198 hectares, in East Java province. Floods commonly occur due to Bengawan Solo river over-burst, particularly in rainy season. The fields are potential for cultivating rice, but floods lasting for months causing these areas to be unproductive. The objective of this article is to examine the potential land use of flood prone rice fields in Bojonegoro regency using floating rice system as an effort to maintain productivity in rainy season. The method of this study is referential study about the rice production using floating cultivation system in other regions, which are later compared with the physical condition of the fields in Bojonegoro. The results of analysis show that rice cultivation using floating system can maintain rice production in flood prone areas during rainy season. The potential production of rice is 5-6 tons/ha. However, technical problems for cultivating rice cannot be ignored since farmers are not familiar with cultivating flooded fields. This article also explains alternatives of floating rice cultivation technique, which can be implemented effectively and efficiently. Pioneer work of developing floating rice in Bojonegoro that has been done by the Team of Faculty of Agriculture of UNS, Surakarta, is expected to serve as a medium for accelerating the adoption of cultivation technology innovation to farmers.

  10. Definition of Pluviometric Thresholds For A Real Time Flood Forecasting System In The Arno Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, P.; Mancini, M.; Mazzetti, P.; Menduni, G.; Nativi, S.; Rabuffetti, D.; Ravazzani, G.; Rosso, R.

    The pluviometric flood forecasting thresholds are an easy method that helps river flood emergency management collecting data from limited area meteorologic model or telemetric raingauges. The thresholds represent the cumulated rainfall depth which generate critic discharge for a particular section. The thresholds were calculated for different sections of Arno river and for different antecedent moisture condition using the flood event distributed hydrologic model FEST. The model inputs were syntethic hietographs with different shape and duration. The system realibility has been verified by generating 500 year syntethic rainfall for 3 important subwatersheds of the studied area. A new technique to consider spatial variability of rainfall and soil properties effects on hydrograph has been investigated. The "Geomorphologic Weights" were so calculated. The alarm system has been implemented in a dedicated software (MIMI) that gets measured and forecast rainfall data from Autorità di Bacino and defines the state of the alert of the river sections.

  11. Uncertainty quantification in flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöschl, Günter; Hall, Julia; Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj; Perdigão, Rui A. P.; Rogger, Magdalena; Salinas, José Luis; Viglione, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainty is inherent to flood risk assessments because of the complexity of the human-water system, which is characterised by nonlinearities and interdependencies, because of limited knowledge about system properties and because of cognitive biases in human perception and decision-making. On top of the uncertainty associated with the assessment of the existing risk to extreme events, additional uncertainty arises because of temporal changes in the system due to climate change, modifications of the environment, population growth and the associated increase in assets. Novel risk assessment concepts are needed that take into account all these sources of uncertainty. They should be based on the understanding of how flood extremes are generated and how they change over time. They should also account for the dynamics of risk perception of decision makers and population in the floodplains. In this talk we discuss these novel risk assessment concepts through examples from Flood Frequency Hydrology, Socio-Hydrology and Predictions Under Change. We believe that uncertainty quantification in flood risk assessment should lead to a robust approach of integrated flood risk management aiming at enhancing resilience rather than searching for optimal defense strategies.

  12. An operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2017-07-01

    The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flood events. To overcome this limitation, this study describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Daily streamflow forecasts produced for major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood-prone areas, economic damage and affected population, infrastructures and cities.An extensive testing of the operational procedure has been carried out by analysing the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-based and report-based flood extent data, while modelled estimates of economic damage and affected population are compared against ground-based estimations. Finally, we evaluate the skill of risk estimates derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations of probabilistic forecasts. Results highlight the potential of the real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  13. Non-markovian model of photon-assisted dephasing by electron-phonon interactions in a coupled quantum-dot-cavity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    treatments. A pronounced consequence is the emergence of a phonon induced spectral asymmetry when detuning the cavity from the quantum-dot resonance. The asymmetry can only be explained when considering the polaritonic quasiparticle nature of the quantum-dot-cavity system. Furthermore, a temperature induced...

  14. Beam self-excited rf cavity driver for a deflector or focusing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    A bunched beam from and accelerator can excite and power an rf cavity which then drives either a deflecting or focusing (including nonlinear focusing) rf cavity with and amplitude related to beam current. Rf power, generated when a bunched beam loses energy to an rf field when traversing an electric field that opposes the particle's motion, is used to drive a separate (or the same) cavity to either focus or deflect the beam. The deflected beam can be stopped by an apertures or directed to a different area of a target depending on beam current. The beam-generated rf power can drive a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) that can change the focusing properties of a beam channel as a function of beam current (space- charge force compensation or modifying the beam distribution on a target). An rf deflector can offset a beam to a downstream sextupole, effectively producing a position-dependent quadrupole field. The combination of rf deflector plus sextupole will produce a beam current dependent quadropole-focusing force. A static quadrupole magnet plus another rf deflector can place the beam back on the optic axis. This paper describes the concept, derives the appropriate equations for system analysis, and fives examples. A variation on this theme is to use the wake field generated in an rf cavity to cause growth in the beam emittance. The beam current would then be apertured by emittance defining slits

  15. Beam self-excited rf cavity driver for a deflector or focusing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    A bunched beam from an accelerator can excite and power an rf cavity which then drives either a deflecting or focusing (including nonlinear focusing) rf cavity with an amplitude related to beam current. Rf power, generated when a bunched beam loses energy to an rf field when traversing an electric field that opposes the particle's motion, is used to drive a separate (or the same) cavity to either focus or deflect the beam. The deflected beam can be stopped by an aperture or directed to a different area of a target depending on beam current. The beam-generated rf power can drive a radiofrequency quadrupole that can change the focusing properties of a beam channel as a function of beam current (space-charge-force compensation or modifying the beam distribution on a target). An rf deflector can offset a beam to a downstream sextupole, effectively producing a position-dependent quadrupole field. The combination of rf deflector plus sextupole will produce a beam current dependent quadrupole-focusing force. A static quadrupole magnet plus another rf deflector can place the beam back on the optic axis. This paper describes the concept, derives the appropriate equations for system analysis, and gives examples. A variation on this theme is to use the wake field generated in an rf cavity to cause growth in the beam emittance. The beam current would then be apertured by emittance defining slits. (author)

  16. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  17. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    perception and understanding of risk in the population. • Residual risk and the levee shadow effect - why the population "felt safe." • What is the overload case and how to implement it in flood protection systems? • Decision-making for the future under uncertainty - how to design to acceptable flood protection levels if we haven't seen yet what's physically possible. 3. How to protect - practical examples Finally, we outline practical examples for reducing the loss burden and risk over time. • "Flood protection hierarchy" - from location choice under a hazard perspective to mobile flood protection. • Risk-based approach and identification of critical infrastructure. • Integrated flood risk management in theory and practical application. • Role of insurance.

  18. Pluvial, urban flood mechanisms and characteristics - Assessment based on insurance claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Mobini, Shifteh

    2017-12-01

    Pluvial flooding is a problem in many cities and for city planning purpose the mechanisms behind pluvial flooding are of interest. Previous studies seldom use insurance claim data to analyse city scale characteristics that lead to flooding. In the present study, two long time series (∼20 years) of flood claims from property owners have been collected and analysed in detail to investigate the mechanisms and characteristics leading to urban flooding. The flood claim data come from the municipal water utility company and property owners with insurance that covers property loss from overland flooding, groundwater intrusion through basement walls and flooding from the drainage system. These data are used as a proxy for flood severity for several events in the Swedish city of Malmö. It is discussed which rainfall characteristics give most flooding and why some rainfall events do not lead to severe flooding, how city scale topography and sewerage system type influence spatial distribution of flood claims, and which impact high sea level has on flooding in Malmö. Three severe flood events are described in detail and compared with a number of smaller flood events. It was found that the main mechanisms and characteristics of flood extent and its spatial distribution in Malmö are intensity and spatial distribution of rainfall, distance to the main sewer system as well as overland flow paths, and type of drainage system, while high sea level has little impact on the flood extent. Finally, measures that could be taken to lower the flood risk in Malmö, and other cities with similar characteristics, are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of bond strength of silorane and methacrylate based restorative systems to dentin using different cavity models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephano Zerlottini Isaac

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS to dentin of two different restorative systems: silorane-based (P90, and methacrylate-based (P60, using two cavity models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Occlusal enamel of 40 human third molars was removed to expose flat dentin surface. Class I cavities with 4 mm mesial-distal width, 3 mm buccal-lingual width and 3 mm depth (C-factor=4.5 were prepared in 20 teeth, which were divided into two groups (n=10 restored with P60 and P90, bulk-filled after dentin treatment according to manufacturer's instructions. Flat buccal dentin surfaces were prepared in the 20 remaining teeth (C-factor=0.2 and restored with resin blocks measuring 4x3x3 mm using the two restorative systems (n=10. The teeth were sectioned into samples with area between 0.85 and 1.25 mm2 that were submitted to µTBS testing, using a universal testing machine (EMIC at speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fractured specimens were analyzed under stereomicroscope and categorized according to fracture pattern. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey Kramer tests. RESULTS: For flat surfaces, P60 obtained higher bond strength values compared with P90. However, for Class I cavities, P60 showed significant reduction in bond strength (p0.05, or between Class I Cavity and Flat Surface group, considering P90 restorative system (p>0.05. Regarding fracture pattern, there was no statistical difference among groups (p=0.0713 and 56.3% of the fractures were adhesive. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that methacrylate-based composite µTBS was influenced by cavity models, and the use of silorane-based composite led to similar bond strength values compared to the methacrylate-based composite in cavities with high C-factor.

  20. Flood risk analysis for flood control and sediment transportation in sandy regions: A case study in the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aijun; Chang, Jianxia; Wang, Yimin; Huang, Qiang; Zhou, Shuai

    2018-05-01

    Traditional flood risk analysis focuses on the probability of flood events exceeding the design flood of downstream hydraulic structures while neglecting the influence of sedimentation in river channels on regional flood control systems. This work advances traditional flood risk analysis by proposing a univariate and copula-based bivariate hydrological risk framework which incorporates both flood control and sediment transport. In developing the framework, the conditional probabilities of different flood events under various extreme precipitation scenarios are estimated by exploiting the copula-based model. Moreover, a Monte Carlo-based algorithm is designed to quantify the sampling uncertainty associated with univariate and bivariate hydrological risk analyses. Two catchments located on the Loess plateau are selected as study regions: the upper catchments of the Xianyang and Huaxian stations (denoted as UCX and UCH, respectively). The univariate and bivariate return periods, risk and reliability in the context of uncertainty for the purposes of flood control and sediment transport are assessed for the study regions. The results indicate that sedimentation triggers higher risks of damaging the safety of local flood control systems compared with the event that AMF exceeds the design flood of downstream hydraulic structures in the UCX and UCH. Moreover, there is considerable sampling uncertainty affecting the univariate and bivariate hydrologic risk evaluation, which greatly challenges measures of future flood mitigation. In addition, results also confirm that the developed framework can estimate conditional probabilities associated with different flood events under various extreme precipitation scenarios aiming for flood control and sediment transport. The proposed hydrological risk framework offers a promising technical reference for flood risk analysis in sandy regions worldwide.

  1. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  2. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues

  3. Policy learning for flood mitigation: a longitudinal assessment of the community rating system in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Samuel D; Zahran, Sammy; Highfield, Wesley E; Bernhardt, Sarah P; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2009-06-01

    Floods continue to inflict the most damage upon human communities among all natural hazards in the United States. Because localized flooding tends to be spatially repetitive over time, local decisionmakers often have an opportunity to learn from previous events and make proactive policy adjustments to reduce the adverse effects of a subsequent storm. Despite the importance of understanding the degree to which local jurisdictions learn from flood risks and under what circumstances, little if any empirical, longitudinal research has been conducted along these lines. This article addresses the research gap by examining the change in local flood mitigation policies in Florida from 1999 to 2005. We track 18 different mitigation activities organized into four series of activities under the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Community Rating System (CRS) for every local jurisdiction in Florida participating in the FEMA program on a yearly time step. We then identify the major factors contributing to policy changes based on CRS scores over the seven-year study period. Using multivariate statistical models to analyze both natural and social science data, we isolate the effects of several variables categorized into the following groups: hydrologic conditions, flood disaster history, socioeconomic and human capital controls. Results indicate that local jurisdictions do in fact learn from histories of flood risk and this process is expedited under specific conditions.

  4. Design of 325 MHz spoke cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Peng; Huang Hong; Dai Jianping; Zu Guoquan; Li Han

    2012-01-01

    Spoke cavity can be used in the low-energy section of the proton accelerator. It has many significant advantages: compact structure, high value of R/Q, etc. The ADS (Accelerator Driven System) project will adopt many spoke cavities with different β values. Therefore, IHEP has began the research of β=0.14, 325 MHz spoke cavity. In this pa per, the dimensions, RF performances and mechanical properties of it are studied. (authors)

  5. Development of a national Flash flood warning system in France using the AIGA method: first results and main issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Demargne, Julie; de Saint-Aubin, Céline; Garandeau, Léa; Janet, Bruno; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Fouchier, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Developing a national flash flood (FF) warning system is an ambitious and difficult task. On one hand it rises huge expectations from exposed populations and authorities since induced damages are considerable (ie 20 casualties in the recent October 2015 flood at the French Riviera). But on the other hand, many practical and scientific issues have to be addressed and limitations should be clearly stated. The FF warning system to be implemented by 2016 in France by the SCHAPI (French national service in charge of flood forecasting) will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014). The AIGA method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr). It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km² resolution to reference flood quantiles of different return periods, at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France. Model calibration was based on ~700 hydrometric stations over the 2002-2015 period and then hourly discharges were computed at ~76 000 catchment outlets, with areas ranging from 10 to 3 500 km², over the last 19 years. This product makes it possible to calculate reference flood quantiles at each outlet. The on-going evaluation of the FF warnings is currently made at two levels: in a 'classical' way, using discharges available at the hydrometric stations, but also in a more 'exploratory' way, by comparing past flood reports and warnings issued by the system over the 76 000 catchment outlets. The interest of the last method is that it better fit the system objectives since it is designed to monitor small ungauged catchments. Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D, .Pansu, J, .Arnaud, P. (2014). Evaluating flash-flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system

  6. The Calculation of Flooding Level using CFX Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seo Bin; Kim, Keon Yeop; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The plant design should consider internal flooding by postulated pipe ruptures, component failures, actuation of spray systems, and improper system alignment. The flooding causes failure of safety-related equipment and affects the integrity of the structure. The safety-related equipment should be installed above the flood level for protection against flooding effects. Conservative estimates of the flood level are important when a DBA occurs. The flooding level can be calculated simply applying Bernoulli's equation. However, in this study, a realistic calculation is performed with ANSYS CFX code. In calculation with CFX, air-core vortex phenomena, and turbulent flow can be simulated, which cannot be calculated analytically. The flooding level is evaluated by analytical calculation and CFX analysis for an assumed condition. The flood level is calculated as 0.71m and 1.1m analytically and with CFX simulation, respectively. Comparing the analytical calculation and simulation, they are similar, but the analytical calculation is not conservative. There are many factors reducing the drainage capacity such as air-core vortex, intake of air, and turbulent flow. Therefore, in case of flood level evaluation by analytical calculation, a sufficient safety margin should be considered

  7. Photon correlations in a two-site nonlinear cavity system under coherent drive and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Sara; Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Tuereci, Hakan E.; Gerace, Dario

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the normalized second-order correlation function for a system of two tunnel-coupled photonic resonators, each one exhibiting a single-photon nonlinearity of the Kerr type. We employ a full quantum formulation: The master equation for the model, which takes into account both a coherent continuous drive and radiative as well as nonradiative dissipation channels, is solved analytically in steady state through a perturbative approach, and the results are compared to exact numerical simulations. The degree of second-order coherence displays values between 0 and 1, and divides the diagram identified by the two energy scales of the system - the tunneling and the nonlinear Kerr interaction - into two distinct regions separated by a crossover. When the tunneling term dominates over the nonlinear one, the system state is delocalized over both cavities, and the emitted light is coherent. In the opposite limit, photon blockade sets in, and the system shows an insulatorlike state with photons locked on each cavity, identified by antibunching of emitted light.

  8. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  9. A metrology system for a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hinton, Shantell; Honda, Yosuke; Khainovski, Oleg; Kolomensky, Yury; Loscutoff, Peter; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2013-11-01

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will likely be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved-ideally using a beam-based stability measurement. We developed a high resolution RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. A triplet of these BPMs, installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and tested with its ultra-low emittance beam, achieved a position measurement resolution of 15 nm. A metrology system for the three BPMs was subsequently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame. We have demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body at the level of less than 5 nm.

  10. Setting up a French national flash flood warning system for ungauged catchments based on the AIGA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javelle Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurring at small temporal and spatial scales, flash floods (FF can cause severe economic damages and human losses. To better anticipate such events and mitigate their impacts, the French Ministry in charge of Ecology has decided to set up a national FF warning system over the French territory. This automated system will be run by the SCHAPI, the French national service in charge of flood forecasting, providing warnings for fast-responding ungauged catchments (area ranging from ~10 to ~1000 km2. It will therefore be complementary to the SCHAPI’s national “vigilance” system which concerns only gauged catchments. The FF warning system to be implemented in 2017 will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014. This method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr. It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km2 resolution to reference flood quantiles of different (e.g., 2-, 10- and 50-year return periods. Therefore the system characterizes in real time the severity of ongoing events by the range of the return period estimated by AIGA at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France and takes into account the baseflow and the initial soil humidity conditions to better estimate the basin response to rainfall inputs. To meet the requirements of the future FF warning system, the AIGA method has been extended to the whole French territory (except Corsica and overseas French territories. The calibration, regionalization and validation procedures of the hydrologic model were carried out using data for ~700 hydrometric stations from the 2002-2015 period. Performance of the warning system was evaluated with various contingency criteria (e.g., probability of detection and success rate. Furthermore, specific

  11. Distributed Simulation of City Inundation by Coupled Surface and Subsurface Porous Flow for Urban Flood Decision Support System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Chirkin, A.M.; Ivanov, S.V.; Boukhanovsky, A.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a decision support system for flood early warning and disaster management. It includes the models for data- driven meteorological predictions, for simulation of atmospheric pressure, wind, long sea waves and seiches; a module for optimization of flood barrier gates operation; models for

  12. Pacer processing: cavity inventory relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.J.; Gritzo, L.A.

    1975-09-01

    The pacer cavity and its associated primary power loop comprise a recirculating system in which materials are introduced by a series of thermonuclear explosions while debris is continuously removed by radioactive decay, sorption phenomena, and deliberate processing. Safe, reliable, and economical realization of the Pacer concept depends on the removal and control of both noxious and valuable by-products of the fusion reaction. Mathematical relationships are developed that describe the quantities of materials that are introduced into the Pacer cavity by a series of discrete events and are removed continuously by processing and decay. An iterative computer program based on these relationships is developed that allows both the total cavity inventory and the amounts of important individual species to be determined at any time during the lifetime of the cavity in order to establish the effects of the thermonuclear event, the cavity, the flow, and various processing parameters on Pacer design requirements

  13. The development of flood map in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Fairus; Zin, Rosli Mohamad; Mohamad, Ismail; Balubaid, Saeed; Mydin, Shaik Hussein; MDR, E. M. Roodienyanto

    2017-11-01

    In Malaysia, flash floods are common occurrences throughout the year in flood prone areas. In terms of flood extent, flash floods affect smaller areas but because of its tendency to occur in densely urbanized areas, the value of damaged property is high and disruption to traffic flow and businesses are substantial. However, in river floods especially the river floods of Kelantan and Pahang, the flood extent is widespread and can extend over 1,000 square kilometers. Although the value of property and density of affected population is lower, the damage inflicted by these floods can also be high because the area affected is large. In order to combat these floods, various flood mitigation measures have been carried out. Structural flood mitigation alone can only provide protection levels from 10 to 100 years Average Recurrence Intervals (ARI). One of the economically effective non-structural approaches in flood mitigation and flood management is using a geospatial technology which involves flood forecasting and warning services to the flood prone areas. This approach which involves the use of Geographical Information Flood Forecasting system also includes the generation of a series of flood maps. There are three types of flood maps namely Flood Hazard Map, Flood Risk Map and Flood Evacuation Map. Flood Hazard Map is used to determine areas susceptible to flooding when discharge from a stream exceeds the bank-full stage. Early warnings of incoming flood events will enable the flood victims to prepare themselves before flooding occurs. Properties and life's can be saved by keeping their movable properties above the flood levels and if necessary, an early evacuation from the area. With respect to flood fighting, an early warning with reference through a series of flood maps including flood hazard map, flood risk map and flood evacuation map of the approaching flood should be able to alert the organization in charge of the flood fighting actions and the authority to

  14. Scheme for quantum state manipulation in coupled cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Zhong

    By controlling the parameters of the system, the effective interaction between different atoms is achieved in different cavities. Based on the interaction, scheme to generate three-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) is proposed in coupled cavities. Spontaneous emission of excited states and decay of cavity modes can be suppressed efficiently. In addition, the scheme is robust against the variation of hopping rate between cavities.

  15. Early physiological flood tolerance is followed by slow post-flooding root recovery in the dryland riparian tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, R E; Colmer, T D; Grierson, P F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated physiological and morphological responses to flooding and recovery in Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens, a riparian tree species from a dryland region prone to intense episodic floods. Seedlings in soil flooded for 88 d produced extensive adventitious roots, displayed stem hypertrophy (stem diameter increased by 93%) and increased root porosity owing to aerenchyma formation. Net photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gs) were maintained for at least 2 weeks of soil flooding, contrasting with previous studies of other subspecies of E. camaldulensis. Gradual declines followed in both gs (30% less than controls) and Pn (19% less). Total leaf soluble sugars did not differ between flooded and control plants. Root mass did not recover 32 d after flooding ceased, but gs was not lower than controls, suggesting the root system was able to functionally compensate. However, the limited root growth during recovery after flooding was surprising given the importance of extensive root systems in dryland environments. We conclude that early flood tolerance could be an adaptation to capitalize on scarce water resources in a water-limited environment. Overall, our findings highlight the need to assess flooding responses in relation to a species' fitness for particular flood regimes or ecological niches. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Control Instabilities in a Pulsed Multi-Cavity RF System with Vector Sum Feedback (A Mathematical Analysis) 052

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming projects relying on pulsed linear accelerators intend to use superconducting RF systems. Cost reasons suggest driving several cavities by a common transmitter, controlled over a vector sum feedback system, possibly supported by a feed forward system. Numerical simulations hint that such a system may become uncontrollable under certain conditions. In the present paper, for a model very close to reality, we will present a mathematical proof that in fact spontaneous symmetry braking is possible for these configurations, defining also the precise conditions under which it will take place. These can be used as an estimate for the real RF system stability limits. The listing of a small program demonstrating the mechanism numerically for two cavities is attached.

  17. Vacuum-induced Stark shifts for quantum logic using a collective system in a high-quality dispersive cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabris, A.; Agarwal, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    A collective system of atoms in a high-quality cavity can be described by a nonlinear interaction which arises due to the Lamb shift of the energy levels due to the cavity vacuum [Agarwal et al., Phys. Rev. A 56, 2249 (1997)]. We show how this collective interaction can be used to perform quantum logic. In particular we produce schemes to realize controlled-NOT gates not only for two-qubit but also for three-qubit systems. We also discuss realizations of Toffoli gates. Our effective Hamiltonian is also realized in other systems such as trapped ions or magnetic molecules

  18. Flood Catastrophe Model for Designing Optimal Flood Insurance Program: Estimating Location-Specific Premiums in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolieva, T; Filatova, T; Ermoliev, Y; Obersteiner, M; de Bruijn, K M; Jeuken, A

    2017-01-01

    As flood risks grow worldwide, a well-designed insurance program engaging various stakeholders becomes a vital instrument in flood risk management. The main challenge concerns the applicability of standard approaches for calculating insurance premiums of rare catastrophic losses. This article focuses on the design of a flood-loss-sharing program involving private insurance based on location-specific exposures. The analysis is guided by a developed integrated catastrophe risk management (ICRM) model consisting of a GIS-based flood model and a stochastic optimization procedure with respect to location-specific risk exposures. To achieve the stability and robustness of the program towards floods with various recurrences, the ICRM uses stochastic optimization procedure, which relies on quantile-related risk functions of a systemic insolvency involving overpayments and underpayments of the stakeholders. Two alternative ways of calculating insurance premiums are compared: the robust derived with the ICRM and the traditional average annual loss approach. The applicability of the proposed model is illustrated in a case study of a Rotterdam area outside the main flood protection system in the Netherlands. Our numerical experiments demonstrate essential advantages of the robust premiums, namely, that they: (1) guarantee the program's solvency under all relevant flood scenarios rather than one average event; (2) establish a tradeoff between the security of the program and the welfare of locations; and (3) decrease the need for other risk transfer and risk reduction measures. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. M10.3.4: CLIC crab cavity specifications completed

    CERN Document Server

    Dexter, A; Ambattu, P; Shinton, I; Jones, R

    2010-01-01

    The starting point of Sub-task 2 is to document the currently anticipated requirements for the CLIC crab cavity system. This milestone concerns completion of the basic specifications for the CLIC crab cavity system. This comprises kick, power requirement, phase and amplitude stability, technology choice, and RF layout. The wakefield calculations of a baseline CLIC cavity will be used to estimate the required damping of the higher order modes as well as other special modes in crab cavities (the lower and same order modes).

  20. CLIC CRAB CAVITY SPECIFICATIONS MILESTONE: M10.3.4

    CERN Document Server

    Ambattu, P; Dexter, A; Jones, R; McIntosh, P; Shinton, I

    2010-01-01

    The starting point of Sub-task 2 is to document the currently anticipated requirements for the CLIC crab cavity system. This milestone concerns completion of the basic specifications for the CLIC crab cavity system. This comprises kick, power requirement, phase and amplitude stability, technology choice, and RF layout. The wakefield calculations of a baseline CLIC cavity will be used to estimate the required damping of the higher order modes as well as other special modes in crab cavities (the lower and same order modes).

  1. Collective and boson mapping description of a system of N Josephson junctions in a resonant cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Civitarese, O.; Herranz, F.J.; Reboiro, M.

    2003-01-01

    A system of N two-level Josephson junctions, interacting between themselves and with a single-mode cavity field, is described in terms of the superposition of fermionic and bosonic excitations. The results of the exact diagonalization are compared with the results of the Tamm-Dancoff approximation and with the results of a boson mapping. It is found that the boson mapping provides a suitable description of the spectrum, sum rules, and response function of the system. The dependence of the results upon the number of junctions, the excitation of the cavity modes, and the coupling strengths is investigated

  2. Sequential planning of flood protection infrastructure under limited historic flood record and climate change uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Flood protection is often designed to safeguard people and property following regulations and standards, which specify a target design flood protection level, such as the 100-year flood level prescribed in Germany (DWA, 2011). In practice, the magnitude of such an event is only known within a range of uncertainty, which is caused by limited historic records and uncertain climate change impacts, among other factors (Hall & Solomatine, 2008). As more observations and improved climate projections become available in the future, the design flood estimate changes and the capacity of the flood protection may be deemed insufficient at a future point in time. This problem can be mitigated by the implementation of flexible flood protection systems (that can easily be adjusted in the future) and/or by adding an additional reserve to the flood protection, i.e. by applying a safety factor to the design. But how high should such a safety factor be? And how much should the decision maker be willing to pay to make the system flexible, i.e. what is the Value of Flexibility (Špačková & Straub, 2017)? We propose a decision model that identifies cost-optimal decisions on flood protection capacity in the face of uncertainty (Dittes et al. 2017). It considers sequential adjustments of the protection system during its lifetime, taking into account its flexibility. The proposed framework is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis, using Decision Trees and Markov Decision Processes, and is fully quantitative. It can include a wide range of uncertainty components such as uncertainty associated with limited historic record or uncertain climate or socio-economic change. It is shown that since flexible systems are less costly to adjust when flood estimates are changing, they justify initially lower safety factors. Investigation on the Value of Flexibility (VoF) demonstrates that VoF depends on the type and degree of uncertainty, on the learning effect (i.e. kind and quality of

  3. [Climate changes, floods, and health consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; de' Donato, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    In the European Region, floods are the most common natural disaster, causing extensive damage and disruption. In Italy, it has been estimated that over 68% of municipalities are at high hydrogeological risk and with the recent intense rainfall events local populations have been facing severe disruptions. The health consequences of floods are wide ranging and are dependent upon the vulnerability of the environment and the local population. Health effects can be a direct or indirect consequence of flooding. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, heart attacks, injuries and hypothermia. The indirect effects include, injuries and infections, water-borne infectious disease, mental health problems, respiratory disease and allergies in both the medium and long term after a flood. Future efforts should be addressed to integrate health preparedness and prevention measures into emergency flood plans and hydrological warning systems.

  4. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-Category I systems for Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.

    1979-08-01

    Three separate reviews of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 were conducted by the FPLCO between 1972 and 1975. Initially, at the request of NBC in 1972, the FPLCO reviewed several water systems as sources of flooding. Subsequently, as a result of an abnormal occurrence, the drainage system was reviewed. Finally, the facilities were again reviewed at NRC's request and both the potential sources of flooding and safety-related equipment which could be damaged by flooding were identified. The sources of flooding and the appropriate safety equipment are discussed. An evaluation is presented of measures that were taken by FPLCO to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment

  5. Spatiotemporal hazard mapping of a flood event "migration" in a transboundary river basin as an operational tool in flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrou, Theodora; Papastergios, Asterios; Parcharidis, Issaak; Chini, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Flood disaster is one of the heaviest disasters in the world. It is necessary to monitor and evaluate the flood disaster in order to mitigate the consequences. As floods do not recognize borders, transboundary flood risk management is imperative in shared river basins. Disaster management is highly dependent on early information and requires data from the whole river basin. Based on the hypothesis that the flood events over the same area with same magnitude have almost identical evolution, it is crucial to develop a repository database of historical flood events. This tool, in the case of extended transboundary river basins, could constitute an operational warning system for the downstream area. The utility of SAR images for flood mapping, was demonstrated by previous studies but the SAR systems in orbit were not characterized by high operational capacity. Copernicus system will fill this gap in operational service for risk management, especially during emergency phase. The operational capabilities have been significantly improved by newly available satellite constellation, such as the Sentinel-1A AB mission, which is able to provide systematic acquisitions with a very high temporal resolution in a wide swath coverage. The present study deals with the monitoring of a transboundary flood event in Evros basin. The objective of the study is to create the "migration story" of the flooded areas on the basis of the evolution in time for the event occurred from October 2014 till May 2015. Flood hazard maps will be created, using SAR-based semi-automatic algorithms and then through the synthesis of the related maps in a GIS-system, a spatiotemporal thematic map of the event will be produced. The thematic map combined with TanDEM-X DEM, 12m/pixel spatial resolution, will define the non- affected areas which is a very useful information for the emergency planning and emergency response phases. The Sentinels meet the main requirements to be an effective and suitable

  6. Towards a Flood Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A.; Chong, A.; Prades, L.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Muir, S.; Amparore, A.; Slayback, D. A.; Poungprom, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding is the most common natural hazard worldwide, affecting 21 million people every year. In the immediate moments following a flood event, humanitarian actors like the World Food Program need to make rapid decisions ( 72 hrs) on how to prioritize affected areas impacted by such an event. For other natural disasters like hurricanes/cyclones and earthquakes, there are industry-recognized standards on how the impacted areas are to be classified. Shake maps, quantifying peak ground motion, from for example the US Geological Survey are widely used for assessing earthquakes. Similarly, cyclones are tracked by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) who release storm nodes and tracks (forecasted and actual), with wind buffers and classify the event according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. For floods, the community is usually able to acquire unclassified data of the flood extent as identified from satellite imagery. Most often no water discharge hydrograph is available to classify the event into recurrence intervals simply because there is no gauging station, or the gauging station was unable to record the maximum discharge due to overtopping or flood damage. So, the question remains: How do we methodically turn a flooded area into classified areas of different gradations of impact? Here, we present a first approach towards developing a global applicable flood severity index. The flood severity index is set up such that it considers relatively easily obtainable physical parameters in a short period of time like: flood frequency (relating the current flood to historical events) and magnitude, as well as land cover, slope, and where available pre-event simulated flood depth. The scale includes categories ranging from very minor flooding to catastrophic flooding. We test and evaluate the postulated classification scheme against a set of past flood events. Once a severity category is determined, socio

  7. Prediction of flood abnormalities for improved public safety using a modified adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, M; Kita, I; Yano, A; Nishiyama, S

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that an efficient flood alarm system may significantly improve public safety and mitigate economical damages caused by inundations. In this paper, a modified adaptive neuro-fuzzy system is proposed to modify the traditional neuro-fuzzy model. This new method employs a rule-correction based algorithm to replace the error back propagation algorithm that is employed by the traditional neuro-fuzzy method in backward pass calculation. The final value obtained during the backward pass calculation using the rule-correction algorithm is then considered as a mapping function of the learning mechanism of the modified neuro-fuzzy system. Effectiveness of the proposed identification technique is demonstrated through a simulation study on the flood series of the Citarum River in Indonesia. The first four-year data (1987 to 1990) was used for model training/calibration, while the other remaining data (1991 to 2002) was used for testing the model. The number of antecedent flows that should be included in the input variables was determined by two statistical methods, i.e. autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation between the variables. Performance accuracy of the model was evaluated in terms of two statistical indices, i.e. mean average percentage error and root mean square error. The algorithm was developed in a decision support system environment in order to enable users to process the data. The decision support system is found to be useful due to its interactive nature, flexibility in approach, and evolving graphical features, and can be adopted for any similar situation to predict the streamflow. The main data processing includes gauging station selection, input generation, lead-time selection/generation, and length of prediction. This program enables users to process the flood data, to train/test the model using various input options, and to visualize results. The program code consists of a set of files, which can be modified as well to match other

  8. Test results of the Los Alamos ferrite-tuned rf cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, C.C.; Spalek, G.; Carlini, R.D.; Smythe, W.R.

    1987-03-01

    An rf accelerating cavity appropriate for use in a 20% frequency bandwidth synchrotron has been designed, fabricated, and is now being tested at Los Alamos. The cavity-amplifier system was designed to produce a peak rf gap voltage of 90 kV over the range from 50 to 60 MHz. Special features of the system are the transversely biased ferrite tuner, capacitive coupling of the amplifier to the cavity, and a 15-cm beam pipe. High-power rf testing of the cavity-amplifier system started in August 1986, using an adjustable dc power supply to bias the ferrite. This paper describes the cavity-amplifier circuit and the test results to the present time. Future plans are also discussed

  9. Digital control of the superconducting cavities for the LEP energy upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavallari, G.; Ciapala, E.

    1992-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) cavities for the LEP200 energy upgrade will be installed in units of 16 as for the present copper cavity system. Similar equipment will be used for RF power generation and distribution, for the low-level RF system and for digital control. The SC cavities and their associated equipment however require different interface hardware and new control software. To simplify routine operation control of the SC cavity units is made to resemble as closely as possible that of the existing units. Specific controls for the SC cavities at the equipment level, the facilities available and the integration of the SC cavity units into the LEP RF control system are described. (author)

  10. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number......-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their deliberate relocation. Thus, despite higher hydrological severity damage due to the 2013 flood was significantly lower than in 2002. In our...

  11. Design study of 'HIBLIC-I' reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiie, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a reactor cavity for HIBLIC-1, a heavy ion fusion reactor system, was carried out. Design efforts have been concentrated mainly on the feasibility study of the physical scenario adopted and also on the system integration of the structures and components into a compact reactor cavity. The design features of the reactor are a compact reactor cavity, maximum coolant temperature up to 500 deg C, the protection of the sacrificial wall and cavity wall from radiation, the protection of the sacrificial wall from the pressure transient due to rapid heating, the selection of a ferritic steel HT-9 as the structural material and impurity control, and tritium breeding and recovery. The purpose of this paper is to describe the outline of the reactor cavity design of HIBLIC-1. The objectives of the preliminary conceptual design were to propose the idea and concept in order to constitute the physical scenario without contradiction and to find out the critical and fundamental problems to be studied in future. The cavity configuration and dynamics, tritium breeding and radiation damage, the behavior of a structural material in liquid lithium and tritium recovery are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Coping with Pluvial Floods by Private Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rözer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban areas in recent years. With a projected increase in extreme precipitation as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, further insights, especially on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods and their mitigation, are needed. To gain more knowledge, empirical damage data from three different pluvial flood events in Germany were collected through computer-aided telephone interviews. Pluvial flood awareness as well as flood experience were found to be low before the respective flood events. The level of private precaution increased considerably after all events, but is mainly focused on measures that are easy to implement. Lower inundation depths, smaller potential losses as compared with fluvial floods, as well as the fact that pluvial flooding may occur everywhere, are expected to cause a shift in damage mitigation from precaution to emergency response. However, an effective implementation of emergency measures was constrained by a low dissemination of early warnings in the study areas. Further improvements of early warning systems including dissemination as well as a rise in pluvial flood preparedness are important to reduce future pluvial flood damage.

  13. The impact of bathymetry input on flood simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, M.; Cohen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Flood prediction and mitigation systems are inevitable for improving public safety and community resilience all over the worldwide. Hydraulic simulations of flood events are becoming an increasingly efficient tool for studying and predicting flood events and susceptibility. A consistent limitation of hydraulic simulations of riverine dynamics is the lack of information about river bathymetry as most terrain data record water surface elevation. The impact of this limitation on the accuracy on hydraulic simulations of flood has not been well studies over a large range of flood magnitude and modeling frameworks. Advancing our understanding of this topic is timely given emerging national and global efforts for developing automated flood predictions systems (e.g. NOAA National Water Center). Here we study the response of flood simulation to the incorporation of different bathymetry and floodplain surveillance source. Different hydraulic models are compared, Mike-Flood, a 2D hydrodynamic model, and GSSHA, a hydrology/hydraulics model. We test a hypothesis that the impact of inclusion/exclusion of bathymetry data on hydraulic model results will vary in its magnitude as a function of river size. This will allow researcher and stake holders more accurate predictions of flood events providing useful information that will help local communities in a vulnerable flood zone to mitigate flood hazards. Also, it will help to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of different modeling frameworks and gage their dependency on detailed bathymetry input data.

  14. Application of Flood Nomograph for Flood Forecasting in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness has increased due to urbanization, as has the frequency of extreme rainfall events by climate change. Various countermeasures, such as structural and nonstructural measures, are required to prepare for these effects. Flood forecasting is a representative nonstructural measure. Flood forecasting techniques have been developed for the prevention of repetitive flood damage in urban areas. It is difficult to apply some flood forecasting techniques using training processes because training needs to be applied at every usage. The other flood forecasting techniques that use rainfall data predicted by radar are not appropriate for small areas, such as single drainage basins. In this study, a new flood forecasting technique is suggested to reduce flood damage in urban areas. The flood nomograph consists of the first flooding nodes in rainfall runoff simulations with synthetic rainfall data at each duration. When selecting the first flooding node, the initial amount of synthetic rainfall is 1 mm, which increases in 1 mm increments until flooding occurs. The advantage of this flood forecasting technique is its simple application using real-time rainfall data. This technique can be used to prepare a preemptive response in the process of urban flood management.

  15. A metrology system for a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Sean, E-mail: walston2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., L-181, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Boogert, Stewart [Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., L-181, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Frisch, Joe [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gronberg, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., L-181, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hayano, Hitoshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hinton, Shantell [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Honda, Yosuke [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Khainovski, Oleg; Kolomensky, Yury; Loscutoff, Peter [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen [University College London, London (United Kingdom); May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Meller, Robert [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Miller, David [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Orimoto, Toyoko [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ross, Marc [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); and others

    2013-11-11

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will likely be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved–ideally using a beam-based stability measurement. We developed a high resolution RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. A triplet of these BPMs, installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and tested with its ultra-low emittance beam, achieved a position measurement resolution of 15 nm. A metrology system for the three BPMs was subsequently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame. We have demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body at the level of less than 5 nm.

  16. Circuit QED with 3D cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Edwar; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Deppe, Frank; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), 80799 Muenchen (Germany); Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In typical circuit QED systems, on-chip superconducting qubits are coupled to integrated coplanar microwave resonators. Due to the planar geometry, the resonators are often a limiting factor regarding the total coherence of the system. Alternatively, similar hybrid systems can be realized using 3D microwave cavities. Here, we present studies on transmon qubits capacitively coupled to 3D cavities. The internal quality factors of our 3D cavities, machined out of high purity aluminum, are above 1.4 .10{sup 6} at the single photon level and a temperature of 50 mK. For characterization of the sample, we perform dispersive shift measurements up to the third energy level of the qubit. We show simulations and data describing the effect of the transmon geometry on it's capacitive properties. In addition, we present progress towards an integrated quantum memory application.

  17. Hydrological and hydraulic models for determination of flood-prone and flood inundation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hafzullah; Sadan Ozgur Kirca, Veysel; Burgan, Halil Ibrahim; Kellecioglu, Dorukhan

    2016-05-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS) software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.

  18. Hydrological and hydraulic models for determination of flood-prone and flood inundation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aksoy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.

  19. Output field-quadrature measurements and squeezing in ultrastrong cavity-QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassi, Roberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Garziano, Luigi; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Nori, Franco

    2016-12-01

    We study the squeezing of output quadratures of an electro-magnetic field escaping from a resonator coupled to a general quantum system with arbitrary interaction strengths. The generalized theoretical analysis of output squeezing proposed here is valid for all the interaction regimes of cavity-quantum electrodynamics: from the weak to the strong, ultrastrong, and deep coupling regimes. For coupling rates comparable or larger then the cavity resonance frequency, the standard input-output theory for optical cavities fails to calculate the variance of output field-quadratures and predicts a non-negligible amount of output squeezing, even if the system is in its ground state. Here we show that, for arbitrary interaction strength and for general cavity-embedded quantum systems, no squeezing can be found in the output-field quadratures if the system is in its ground state. We also apply the proposed theoretical approach to study the output squeezing produced by: (i) an artificial two-level atom embedded in a coherently-excited cavity; and (ii) a cascade-type three-level system interacting with a cavity field mode. In the latter case the output squeezing arises from the virtual photons of the atom-cavity dressed states. This work extends the possibility of predicting and analyzing the results of continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography when optical resonators interact very strongly with other quantum systems.

  20. Circulation system for flowing uranium hexafluoride cavity reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaminet, J.F.; Kendall, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Accomplishment of the UF 6 critical cavity experiments, currently in progress, and planned confined flowing UF 6 initial experiments requires development of reliable techniques for handling heated UF 6 throughout extended ranges of temperature, pressure, and flow rate. The development of three laboratory-scale flow systems for handling gaseous UF 6 at temperatures up to 500 K, pressures up to approximately 40 atm, and continuous flow rates up to approximately 50 g/s is presented. A UF 6 handling system fabricated for static critical tests currently being conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is described. The system was designed to supply UF 6 to a double-walled aluminum core canister assembly at temperatures between 300 K and 400 K and pressures up to 4 atm. A second UF 6 handling system designed to provide a circulating flow of up to 50 g/s of gaseous UF 6 in a closed-loop through a double-walled aluminum core canister with controlled temperature and pressure is described

  1. The Financial Benefit of Early Flood Warnings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Parker, Dennis J.; Richardson, David; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    Effective disaster risk management relies on science based solutions to close the gap between prevention and preparedness measures. The outcome of consultations on the UNIDSR post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction highlight the need for cross-border early warning systems to strengthen the preparedness phases of disaster risk management in order to save people's lives and property and reduce the overall impact of severe events. In particular, continental and global scale flood forecasting systems provide vital information to various decision makers with which early warnings of floods can be made. Here the potential monetary benefits of early flood warnings using the example of the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) are calculated based on pan-European Flood damage data and calculations of potential flood damage reductions. The benefits are of the order of 400 Euro for every 1 Euro invested. Because of the uncertainties which accompany the calculation, a large sensitivity analysis is performed in order to develop an envelope of possible financial benefits. Current EFAS system skill is compared against perfect forecasts to demonstrate the importance of further improving the skill of the forecasts. Improving the response to warnings is also essential in reaping the benefits of flood early warnings.

  2. Operating experience with superconducting cavities at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The CEBAF recirculating superconducting electron linac at Jefferson Lab is now in full operation supporting nuclear physics experiments in three target halls at up to 4.4 GeV. The 330 SRF cavities, operating at 2.0 K, continue to perform well above design specifications, and have accumulated over 8,000,000 operating cavity hours. The authors have to date no evidence of degradation of cavity performance. The SRF cavities have demonstrated excellent reliability. The one klystron per cavity design provides CEBAF with flexibility and redundancy for normal operations. Several techniques have been developed for establishing optimum operating conditions for the 330 independent systems. Operation of the cavities and control systems at the full design current of 1 mA has recently been achieved. The principal constraints on usable gradient for low current operations are (1) discharge at the cold ceramic rf window induced by electron field emission in cavities, (2) tuner controls, and (3) stability of the waveguide vacuum in the region between the warm and cold windows. Several cryomodules have been improved by application of rf helium processing while installed on the beamline

  3. Sensitive detection of individual neutral atoms in a strong coupling cavity QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Yuchi; Li Gang; Du Jinjin; Zhang Yanfeng; Guo Yanqiang; Wang Junmin; Zhang Tiancai; Li Weidong

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate real-time detection of individual cesium atoms by using a high-finesse optical micro-cavity in a strong coupling regime. A cloud of cesium atoms is trapped in a magneto-optical trap positioned at 5 mm above the micro-cavity center. The atoms fall down freely in gravitation after shutting off the magneto-optical trap and pass through the cavity. The cavity transmission is strongly affected by the atoms in the cavity, which enables the micro-cavity to sense the atoms individually. We detect the single atom transits either in the resonance or various detunings. The single atom vacuum-Rabi splitting is directly measured to be Ω = 2π × 23.9 MHz. The average duration of atom-cavity coupling of about 110 μs is obtained according to the probability distribution of the atom transits. (authors)

  4. Methodology for flood risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Casada, M.L.; Fussell, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The methodology for flood risk analysis described here addresses the effects of a flood on nuclear power plant safety systems. Combining the results of this method with the probability of a flood allows the effects of flooding to be included in a probabilistic risk assessment. The five-step methodology includes accident sequence screening to focus the detailed analysis efforts on the accident sequences that are significantly affected by a flood event. The quantitative results include the flood's contribution to system failure probability, accident sequence occurrence frequency and consequence category occurrence frequency. The analysis can be added to existing risk assessments without a significant loss in efficiency. The results of two example applications show the usefulness of the methodology. Both examples rely on the Reactor Safety Study for the required risk assessment inputs and present changes in the Reactor Safety Study results as a function of flood probability

  5. Formation of silicides in a cavity applicator microwave system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.; Kim, H.C.; Alford, T.L.; Mayer, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Metal silicides of nickel and cobalt are formed in a cavity applicator microwave system with a magnetron power of 1200 W and a frequency of 2.45 GHz. X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and four-point-probe measurements are used to identify the silicide phase present and layer thicknesses. Additional processing confirmed that the products attained from heating by microwaves do not differ appreciably from those attained in heating by thermal processes. Materials properties are used to explain microwave power absorption and demonstrate how to tailor a robust process in which thin film reactions can be attained and specific products isolated

  6. Evaluation of internal flooding in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Sun, Y.H.; Anavim, E.; Ilberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    Flooding inside a nuclear power station is capable of concurrently disabling redundant safety systems. This paper presents the results of a recent review study performed on internally-generated floods inside a boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor building. The study evaluated the flood initiator frequency due to either maintenance or ruptures using Markovian models. A time phased event tree approach was adopted to quantify the core damage frequency based on the flood initiator frequency. It is found in the study that the contribution to the total core damage due to internal flooding events is not insignificant and is comparable to other transient contributors. The findings also indicate that the operator plays an important role in the prevention as well as the mitigation of a flooding event

  7. An assessment of flood vulnerability on physical development along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad

    Key words: Drainage channel, flood, risk assessment, vulnerability. INTRODUCTION ... hydraulic and other control structures.” The effects of floods are always ..... An application of Geographic Information System in mapping flood risk zones in ...

  8. Risk assessment of urban flood disaster in Jingdezhen City based on analytic hierarchy process and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. C.; Huang, J.; Wang, H. M.; Wang, Z. Q.; Wang, W. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The research of urban flood risk assessment and management are of great academic and practical importance, which has become a widespread concern throughout the world. It’s significant to understand the spatial-temporal distribution of the flood risk before making the risk response measures. In this study, the urban region of Jingdezhen City is selected as the study area. The assessment indicators are selected from four aspects: disaster-causing factors, disaster-pregnant environment, disaster-bearing body and the prevention and mitigation ability, by consideration of the formation process of urban flood risk. And then, a small-scale flood disaster risk assessment model is developed based on Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) and Geographic Information System(GIS), and the spatial-temporal distribution of flood risk in Jingdezhen City is analysed. The results show that the risk decreases gradually from the centre line of Changjiang River to the surrounding, and the areas of high flood disaster risk is decreasing from 2010 to 2013 while the risk areas are more concentred. The flood risk of the areas along the Changjiang River is the largest, followed by the low-lying areas in Changjiang District. And the risk is also large in Zhushan District where the population, the industries and commerce are concentrated. The flood risk in the western part of Changjiang District and the north-eastern part of the study area is relatively low. The results can provide scientific support for flood control construction and land development planning in Jingdezhen City.

  9. The combined effect of side-coupled gain cavity and lossy cavity on the plasmonic response of metal-dielectric-metal surface plasmon polariton waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qiong-gan; Wang, Zhi-guo; Tan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of side-coupled gain cavity and lossy cavity on the plasmonic response of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguide is investigated theoretically using Green's function method. Our result suggests that the gain and loss parameters influence the amplitude and phase of the fields localized in the two cavities. For the case of balanced gain and loss, the fields of the two cavities are always of equi-amplitude but out of phase. A plasmon induced transparency (PIT)-like transmission peak can be achieved by the destructive interference of two fields with anti-phase. For the case of unbalanced gain and loss, some unexpected responses of structure are generated. When the gain is more than the loss, the system response is dissipative at around the resonant frequency of the two cavities, where the sum of reflectance and transmittance becomes less than one. This is because the lossy cavity, with a stronger localized field, makes the main contribution to the system response. When the gain is less than the loss, the reverse is true. It is found that the metal loss dissipates the system energy but facilitates the gain cavity to make a dominant effect on the system response. This mechanism may have a potential application for optical amplification and for a plasmonic waveguide switch. (paper)

  10. Applications of TRMM-based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimation for Global Runoff Simulation: Prototyping a Global Flood Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Pierce, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Advances in flood monitoring/forecasting have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-, national-, continental-, or even global-scale areas) and flood-relevant time scale. With the recent availability of satellite rainfall estimates at fine time and space resolution, this paper describes a prototype research framework for global flood monitoring by combining real-time satellite observations with a database of global terrestrial characteristics through a hydrologically relevant modeling scheme. Four major components included in the framework are (1) real-time precipitation input from NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA); (2) a central geospatial database to preprocess the land surface characteristics: water divides, slopes, soils, land use, flow directions, flow accumulation, drainage network etc.; (3) a modified distributed hydrological model to convert rainfall to runoff and route the flow through the stream network in order to predict the timing and severity of the flood wave, and (4) an open-access web interface to quickly disseminate flood alerts for potential decision-making. Retrospective simulations for 1998-2006 demonstrate that the Global Flood Monitor (GFM) system performs consistently at both station and catchment levels. The GFM website (experimental version) has been running at near real-time in an effort to offer a cost-effective solution to the ultimate challenge of building natural disaster early warning systems for the data-sparse regions of the world. The interactive GFM website shows close-up maps of the flood risks overlaid on topography/population or integrated with the Google-Earth visualization tool. One additional capability, which extends forecast lead-time by assimilating QPF into the GFM, also will be implemented in the future.

  11. Association between Floods and Acute Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using a Geographic Information System Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Cohen, Alan; Courteau, Josiane; Bergeron, Patrick; Dault, Roxanne; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Bélanger, Diane; Rochette, Louis; Chebana, Fateh

    2016-01-28

    Floods represent a serious threat to human health beyond the immediate risk of drowning. There is few data on the potential link between floods and direct consequences on health such as on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to explore the impact of one of the worst floods in the history of Quebec, Canada on acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A cohort study with a time series design with multiple control groups was built with the adult population identified in the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System. A geographic information system approach was used to define the study areas. Logistic regressions were performed to compare the occurrence of CVD between groups. The results showed a 25%-27% increase in the odds in the flooded population in spring 2011 when compared with the population in the same area in springs 2010 and 2012. Besides, an increase up to 69% was observed in individuals with a medical history of CVD. Despite interesting results, the association was not statistically significant. A possible explanation to this result can be that the population affected by the flood was probably too small to provide the statistical power to answer the question, and leaves open a substantial possibility for a real and large effect.

  12. Towards an Australian ensemble streamflow forecasting system for flood prediction and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; David, R. E.; Wang, Q.; Li, M.; Shrestha, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Flood forecasting in Australia has historically relied on deterministic forecasting models run only when floods are imminent, with considerable forecaster input and interpretation. These now co-existed with a continually available 7-day streamflow forecasting service (also deterministic) aimed at operational water management applications such as environmental flow releases. The 7-day service is not optimised for flood prediction. We describe progress on developing a system for ensemble streamflow forecasting that is suitable for both flood prediction and water management applications. Precipitation uncertainty is handled through post-processing of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) output with a Bayesian rainfall post-processor (RPP). The RPP corrects biases, downscales NWP output, and produces reliable ensemble spread. Ensemble precipitation forecasts are used to force a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model. Uncertainty in precipitation forecasts is insufficient to reliably describe streamflow forecast uncertainty, particularly at shorter lead-times. We characterise hydrological prediction uncertainty separately with a 4-stage error model. The error model relies on data transformation to ensure residuals are homoscedastic and symmetrically distributed. To ensure streamflow forecasts are accurate and reliable, the residuals are modelled using a mixture-Gaussian distribution with distinct parameters for the rising and falling limbs of the forecast hydrograph. In a case study of the Murray River in south-eastern Australia, we show ensemble predictions of floods generally have lower errors than deterministic forecasting methods. We also discuss some of the challenges in operationalising short-term ensemble streamflow forecasts in Australia, including meeting the needs for accurate predictions across all flow ranges and comparing forecasts generated by event and continuous hydrological models.

  13. Improvement of cavity performance in the Saclay/Cornell/DESY's SC cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, E.; Noguchi, S.; Ono, M.

    2000-01-01

    Development of 1.3 GHz Nb superconducting cavities for TESLA (TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Collider) has been carried out with international collaboration. Three Saclay single-cell cavities, one Cornell two-cell cavity and one DESY nine-cell cavity were sent to KEK in order to compare the cavity performance. These cavities were tested at KEK after the following surface treatment: 1) high pressure rinsing, HPR, 2) chemical polishing and HPR, 3) electropolishing and HPR. The test results, especially, improvement of the cavity performance due to electropolishing are reported in this paper. (author)

  14. Quantum dynamics of a Josephson junction driven cavity mode system in the presence of voltage bias noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Blencowe, M. P.; Armour, A. D.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    We give a semiclassical analysis of the average photon number as well as photon number variance (Fano factor F ) for a Josephson junction (JJ) embedded microwave cavity system, where the JJ is subject to a fluctuating (i.e., noisy) bias voltage with finite dc average. Through the ac Josephson effect, the dc voltage bias drives the effectively nonlinear microwave cavity mode into an amplitude squeezed state (F Armour et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 247001 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.247001], but bias noise acts to degrade this squeezing. We find that the sensitivity of the Fano factor to bias voltage noise depends qualitatively on which stable fixed point regime the system is in for the corresponding classical nonlinear steady-state dynamics. Furthermore, we show that the impact of voltage bias noise is most significant when the cavity is excited to states with large average photon number.

  15. Two-dimensional Model of Ciliwung River Flood in DKI Jakarta for Development of the Regional Flood Index Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Formánek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present a sophisticated method of developing supporting material for flood control implementation in DKI Jakarta. High flow rates in the Ciliwung River flowing through Jakarta regularly causes extensive flooding in the rainy season. The affected area comprises highly densely populated villages. For developing an efficient early warning system in view of decreasing the vulnerability of the locations a flood index map has to be available. This study analyses the development of a flood risk map of the inundation area based on a two-dimensional modeling using FESWMS. The reference event used for the model was the most recent significant flood in 2007. The resulting solution represents flood characteristics such as inundation area, inundation depth and flow velocity. Model verification was performed by confrontation of the results with survey data. The model solution was overlaid with a street map of Jakarta. Finally, alternatives for flood mitigation measures are discussed.

  16. Time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijs, F.A.; Hall, J.W.; Sayers, P.B.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying theory and a practical process for establishing time-dependent reliability models for components in a realistic and complex flood defence system. Though time-dependent reliability models have been applied frequently in, for example, the offshore, structural safety and nuclear industry, application in the safety-critical field of flood defence has to date been limited. The modelling methodology involves identifying relevant variables and processes, characterisation of those processes in appropriate mathematical terms, numerical implementation, parameter estimation and prediction. A combination of stochastic, hierarchical and parametric processes is employed. The approach is demonstrated for selected deterioration mechanisms in the context of a flood defence system. The paper demonstrates that this structured methodology enables the definition of credible statistical models for time-dependence of flood defences in data scarce situations. In the application of those models one of the main findings is that the time variability in the deterioration process tends to be governed the time-dependence of one or a small number of critical attributes. It is demonstrated how the need for further data collection depends upon the relevance of the time-dependence in the performance of the flood defence system.

  17. Satellites, tweets, forecasts: the future of flood disaster management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Wania, Annett; Pappenberger, Florian; Salamon, Peter; Ramos, Maria Helena; Cloke, Hannah; Castillo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Floods have devastating effects on lives and livelihoods around the world. Structural flood defence measures such as dikes and dams can help protect people. However, it is the emerging science and technologies for flood disaster management and preparedness, such as increasingly accurate flood forecasting systems, high-resolution satellite monitoring, rapid risk mapping, and the unique strength of social media information and crowdsourcing, that are most promising for reducing the impacts of flooding. Here, we describe an innovative framework which integrates in real-time two components of the Copernicus Emergency mapping services, namely the European Flood Awareness System and the satellite-based Rapid Mapping, with new procedures for rapid risk assessment and social media and news monitoring. The integrated framework enables improved flood impact forecast, thanks to the real-time integration of forecasting and monitoring components, and increases the timeliness and efficiency of satellite mapping, with the aim of capturing flood peaks and following the evolution of flooding processes. Thanks to the proposed framework, emergency responders will have access to a broad range of timely and accurate information for more effective and robust planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.

  18. Application of the Unbounded Probability Distribution of the Johnson System for Floods Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Aranda Daniel Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Floods designs constitute a key to estimate the sizing of new water works and to review the hydrological security of existing ones. The most reliable method for estimating their magnitudes associated with certain return periods is to fit a probabilistic model to available records of maximum annual flows. Since such model is at first unknown, several models need to be tested in order to select the most appropriate one according to an arbitrary statistical index, commonly the standard error of fit. Several probability distributions have shown versatility and consistency of results when processing floods records and therefore, its application has been established as a norm or precept. The Johnson System has three families of distributions, one of which is the Log–Normal model with three parameters of fit, which is also the border between the bounded distributions and those with no upper limit. These families of distributions have four adjustment parameters and converge to the standard normal distribution, so that their predictions are obtained with such a model. Having contrasted the three probability distributions established by precept in 31 historical records of hydrological events, the Johnson system is applied to such data. The results of the unbounded distribution of the Johnson system (SJU are compared to the optimal results from the three distributions. It was found that the predictions of the SJU distribution are similar to those obtained with the other models in the low return periods ( 1000 years. Because of its theoretical support, the SJU model is recommended in flood estimation.

  19. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2015-10-19

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  20. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Odat, Enas M.; Claudel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  1. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  2. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  3. Exploitation of Documented Historical Floods for Achieving Better Flood Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kolaković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Base Flood Elevation for a stream network corresponding to a big catchment is feasible by interdisciplinary approach, involving stochastic hydrology, river hydraulics, and computer aided simulations. A numerical model calibrated by historical floods has been exploited in this study. The short presentation of the catchment of the Tisza River in this paper is followed by the overview of historical floods which hit the region in the documented period of 130 years. Several well documented historical floods provided opportunity for the calibration of the chosen numerical model. Once established, the model could be used for investigation of different extreme flood scenarios and to establish the Base Flood Elevation. The calibration has shown that the coefficient of friction in case of the Tisza River is dependent both on the actual water level and on the preceding flood events. The effect of flood plain maintenance as well as the activation of six potential detention ponds on flood mitigation has been examined. Furthermore, the expected maximum water levels have also been determined for the case if the ever observed biggest 1888 flood hit the region again. The investigated cases of flood superposition highlighted the impact of tributary Maros on flood mitigation along the Tisza River.

  4. Flood susceptibility mapping using novel ensembles of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and metaheuristic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Termeh, Seyed Vahid; Kornejady, Aiding; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia

    2018-02-15

    Flood is one of the most destructive natural disasters which cause great financial and life losses per year. Therefore, producing susceptibility maps for flood management are necessary in order to reduce its harmful effects. The aim of the present study is to map flood hazard over the Jahrom Township in Fars Province using a combination of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) with different metaheuristics algorithms such as ant colony optimization (ACO), genetic algorithm (GA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) and comparing their accuracy. A total number of 53 flood locations areas were identified, 35 locations of which were randomly selected in order to model flood susceptibility and the remaining 16 locations were used to validate the models. Learning vector quantization (LVQ), as one of the supervised neural network methods, was employed in order to estimate factors' importance. Nine flood conditioning factors namely: slope degree, plan curvature, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), distance from river, land use/land cover, rainfall, and lithology were selected and the corresponding maps were prepared in ArcGIS. The frequency ratio (FR) model was used to assign weights to each class within particular controlling factor, then the weights was transferred into MATLAB software for further analyses and to combine with metaheuristic models. The ANFIS-PSO was found to be the most practical model in term of producing the highly focused flood susceptibility map with lesser spatial distribution related to highly susceptible classes. The chi-square result attests the same, where the ANFIS-PSO had the highest spatial differentiation within flood susceptibility classes over the study area. The area under the curve (AUC) obtained from ROC curve indicated the accuracy of 91.4%, 91.8%, 92.6% and 94.5% for the respective models of FR, ANFIS-ACO, ANFIS-GA, and ANFIS-PSO ensembles. So, the ensemble of ANFIS-PSO was introduced as the

  5. Interpreting the impact of flood forecasts by combining policy analysis studies and flood defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rijkswaterstaat. Other organisations use these forecasts to define the consequences of the forecast, to take measures (as the evacuation of camping places on rivers banks or lake shores or to estimate the conditional probability of failure of a flood defence. Increasing the resilience of the population by disseminating information from both policy studies (flood scenarios and flood forecasts has been the project goal of the MEGO project “Module Evacuatie Grote Overstromingen”, an information tool for large scale evacuation due to floods. This information is available on a national website. The MEGO project has focussed on making the information from two major policy studies on flood risk available, the first sturdy determined new risk-based standards for flood defences (WV21. The second study determined the current flood risk (VNK-2. The MEGO database contains a selection of verified flood scenario’s. For each scenario the hydraulic loads which will cause a flood are known as are the probabilities of flooding and predicted casualties and damages. Overland flow maps are available. MEGO combines this data with the flood forecast, open data of the “Cadastre” (national Registry, the national digital terrain model (AHN and the main infrastructure (local, regional and national. The site offers prepared and real time maps for professionals during a crisis, and tools to increase risk awareness for citizens. The software was recently renamed national water and flood information system, “Landelijk Informatiesysteem Water en Overstromingen (LIWO ’ when it went live in 2016. In LIWO the second goal of MEGO was realized, by adding the information from flood forecasts. It is an open source model.

  6. Deactivation of nuclear explosions cavities in the salt domes by freezing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Mokhov, V.A.; Murzadilov, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    I. There is a lot of negative consequences of underground nuclear explosions, conducted for creating some cavities of the gas condensate saving at the Azgir site and Karachaganak deposit. Some of them are radioactivity escape, ground pollution, underground water pollution, as result of depressurization and irrigation of cavities. Besides that there are dissolution of infected salt, displacement of brine from the cavities. Existing prolonged exchanges of rock-salt, brines and water can be accompanied by accumulation and throw outing of free chlorine and hydrogen with hydrochloric acid formation, ('white fog' of Azgir site). These questions demand supplementary researches. 2. It is known that more dangerous fission fragments are 9 0S r and 1 31C s, with half life periods equaled 27.7 and 30.3. Duration of their existence determines a period of an object danger. Radionuclide migration come with rock dispersion or with their concentration on the different physical, chemical, including sorptive, barriers on the way of radioactive water displacement. 3. The task of prevention of negative consequences is to save the forms and sizes of cavities, to immobilize the radioactive fluid's in the cavities and closed zone for the half-life time of the main nuclide mass. 4. Solving the task by laying of empty space with hard materials (concrete, rock) demand of big expenses because of cavities size, occurrence depth (850-900 m), high value of materials, their processing and transportation. The problem to render harmless and to utilize of displacing radioactive brines is not solved yet. 5, Freezing of flooding cavities appears to be an alternative, which allows to fill the space by hard ice and to less the moving of radioactive brines into the rocks around the cavities, and, what is more important, along the bore-holes above the cavities, blocking the radionuclides moving into the fractured rocks. This process divides onto 2 stages: (1) freezing with organizing of intensive heat

  7. Flood Forecasting Based on TIGGE Precipitation Ensemble Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyin Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TIGGE (THORPEX International Grand Global Ensemble was a major part of the THORPEX (Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment. It integrates ensemble precipitation products from all the major forecast centers in the world and provides systematic evaluation on the multimodel ensemble prediction system. Development of meteorologic-hydrologic coupled flood forecasting model and early warning model based on the TIGGE precipitation ensemble forecast can provide flood probability forecast, extend the lead time of the flood forecast, and gain more time for decision-makers to make the right decision. In this study, precipitation ensemble forecast products from ECMWF, NCEP, and CMA are used to drive distributed hydrologic model TOPX. We focus on Yi River catchment and aim to build a flood forecast and early warning system. The results show that the meteorologic-hydrologic coupled model can satisfactorily predict the flow-process of four flood events. The predicted occurrence time of peak discharges is close to the observations. However, the magnitude of the peak discharges is significantly different due to various performances of the ensemble prediction systems. The coupled forecasting model can accurately predict occurrence of the peak time and the corresponding risk probability of peak discharge based on the probability distribution of peak time and flood warning, which can provide users a strong theoretical foundation and valuable information as a promising new approach.

  8. Knowledge Discovery, Integration and Communication for Extreme Weather and Flood Resilience Using Artificial Intelligence: Flood AI Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Sermet, M. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Nobody is immune from extreme events or natural hazards that can lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and public. One of the solutions to reduce the impacts of extreme events is to invest in improving resilience with the ability to better prepare, plan, recover, and adapt to disasters. The National Research Council (NRC) report discusses the topic of how to increase resilience to extreme events through a vision of resilient nation in the year 2030. The report highlights the importance of data, information, gaps and knowledge challenges that needs to be addressed, and suggests every individual to access the risk and vulnerability information to make their communities more resilient. This abstracts presents our project on developing a resilience framework for flooding to improve societal preparedness with objectives; (a) develop a generalized ontology for extreme events with primary focus on flooding; (b) develop a knowledge engine with voice recognition, artificial intelligence, natural language processing, and inference engine. The knowledge engine will utilize the flood ontology and concepts to connect user input to relevant knowledge discovery outputs on flooding; (c) develop a data acquisition and processing framework from existing environmental observations, forecast models, and social networks. The system will utilize the framework, capabilities and user base of the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) to populate and test the system; (d) develop a communication framework to support user interaction and delivery of information to users. The interaction and delivery channels will include voice and text input via web-based system (e.g. IFIS), agent-based bots (e.g. Microsoft Skype, Facebook Messenger), smartphone and augmented reality applications (e.g. smart assistant), and automated web workflows (e.g. IFTTT, CloudWork) to open the knowledge discovery for flooding to thousands of community extensible web workflows.

  9. Modeling urban coastal flood severity from crowd-sourced flood reports using Poisson regression and Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J. M.; Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Spencer, K.

    2018-04-01

    Sea level rise has already caused more frequent and severe coastal flooding and this trend will likely continue. Flood prediction is an essential part of a coastal city's capacity to adapt to and mitigate this growing problem. Complex coastal urban hydrological systems however, do not always lend themselves easily to physically-based flood prediction approaches. This paper presents a method for using a data-driven approach to estimate flood severity in an urban coastal setting using crowd-sourced data, a non-traditional but growing data source, along with environmental observation data. Two data-driven models, Poisson regression and Random Forest regression, are trained to predict the number of flood reports per storm event as a proxy for flood severity, given extensive environmental data (i.e., rainfall, tide, groundwater table level, and wind conditions) as input. The method is demonstrated using data from Norfolk, Virginia USA from September 2010 to October 2016. Quality-controlled, crowd-sourced street flooding reports ranging from 1 to 159 per storm event for 45 storm events are used to train and evaluate the models. Random Forest performed better than Poisson regression at predicting the number of flood reports and had a lower false negative rate. From the Random Forest model, total cumulative rainfall was by far the most dominant input variable in predicting flood severity, followed by low tide and lower low tide. These methods serve as a first step toward using data-driven methods for spatially and temporally detailed coastal urban flood prediction.

  10. Intertwined and vestigial order with ultracold atoms in multiple cavity modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Shchadilova, Yulia E.; Demler, Eugene

    2017-12-01

    Atoms in transversely pumped optical cavities "self-organize" by forming a density wave and emitting superradiantly into the cavity mode(s). For a single-mode cavity, the properties of this self-organization transition are well characterized both theoretically and experimentally. Here, we explore the self-organization of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of two cavity modes—a system that recently was realized experimentally [Léonard et al., Nature (London) 543, 87 (2017), 10.1038/nature21067]. We argue that this system can exhibit a "vestigially ordered" phase in which neither cavity mode exhibits superradiance but the cavity modes are mutually phase locked by the atoms. We argue that this vestigially ordered phase should generically be present in multimode cavity geometries.

  11. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  12. Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brilly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

  13. Added value of online satellite data transmission for flood forecasting: warning systems in medium-size catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, C; Stadler, H

    2009-01-01

    The present paper deals with the implementation of online data transferred via LEO satellite communication in a flood forecasting system. Although the project is ongoing, it is already recognised that the information chain: "measurement-transmission-forecast-alert" can be shortened, i.e., the flood danger can be more rapidly communicated to the population at risk. This gain is particularly valuable for medium size catchments where the concentration time (basin time of response to rainfall) is short.

  14. Shortcuts to adiabatic passage for the generation of a maximal Bell state and W state in an atom–cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei; Chen, Qing-Qin

    2018-05-01

    We propose an efficient scheme to generate the maximal entangle states in an atom–cavity system between two three-level atoms in cavity quantum electronic dynamics system based on shortcuts to adiabatic passage. In the accelerate scheme, there is no need to design a time-varying coupling coefficient for the cavity. We only need to tactfully design time-dependent lasers to drive the system into the desired entangled states. Controlling the detuning between the cavity mode and lasers, we deduce a determinate analysis formula for this quantum information processing. The lasers do not need to distinguish which atom is to be affected, therefore the implementation of the experiment is simpler. The method is also generalized to generate a W state. Moreover, the accelerated program can be extended to a multi-body system and an analytical solution in a higher-dimensional system can be achieved. The influence of decoherence and variations of the parameters are discussed by numerical simulation. The results show that the maximally entangled states can be quickly prepared in a short time with high fidelity, and which are robust against both parameter fluctuations and dissipation. Our study enriches the physics and applications of multi-particle quantum entanglement preparation via shortcuts to adiabatic passage in quantum electronic dynamics.

  15. Development of a longitudinal feedback cavity for the beam feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang; Chen Huaibi; Huang Wenhui; Tong Dechun; Lin Yuzheng; Zhao Zhentang

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal beam feedback system is widely used to damp coupling bunch instability. Kicker is one of the key components of the longitudinal feedback system. A prototype cavity of longitudinal feedback kicker is developed according to the parameter of BEPC II. The usage of nose cone in the kicker design increased the shunt impedance. In order to avoid the extra tapper in the storage ring, the racetrack shape beam pipe is applied in the kicker. The impedance and the bandwidth of the kicker is measured by the coaxial line impedance measurement platform and the result achieved the design goals

  16. Emotional engagement with participatory simulations as a tool for learning and decision-support for coupled human-natural systems: Flood hazards and urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Corey, B.; Camp, J. V.; John, N. J.; Sengupta, P.

    2015-12-01

    The complex interactions between land use and natural hazards pose serious challenges in education, research, and public policy. Where complex nonlinear interactions produce unintuitive results, interactive computer simulations can be useful tools for education and decision support. Emotions play important roles in cognition and learning, especially where risks are concerned. Interactive simulations have the potential to harness emotional engagement to enhance learning and understanding of risks in coupled human-natural systems. We developed a participatory agent-based simulation of cities at risk of river flooding. Participants play the role of managers of neighboring cities along a flood-prone river and make choices about building flood walls to protect their inhabitants. Simulated agents participate in dynamic real estate markets in which demand for property, and thus values and decisions to build, respond to experience with flooding over time. By reducing high-frequency low-magnitude flooding, flood walls may stimulate development, thus increasing tax revenues but also increasing vulnerability to uncommon floods that overtop the walls. Flood waves are launched stochastically and propagate downstream. Flood walls that restrict overbank flow at one city can increase the amplitude of a flood wave at neighboring cities, both up and downstream. We conducted a pilot experiment with a group of three pre-service teachers. The subjects successfully learned key concepts of risk tradeoffs and unintended consequences that can accompany flood-control measures. We also observed strong emotional responses, including hope, fear, and sense of loss. This emotional engagement with a model of coupled human-natural systems was very different from previous experiments on participatory simulations of purely natural systems for physics pedagogy. We conducted a second session in which the participants were expert engineers. We will present the results of these experiments and the

  17. Vibro-acoustic modeling and analysis of a coupled acoustic system comprising a partially opened cavity coupled with a flexible plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuangxia; Su, Zhu; Jin, Guoyong; Liu, Zhigang

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling and solution method of a three-dimensional (3D) coupled acoustic system comprising a partially opened cavity coupled with a flexible plate and an exterior field of semi-infinite size, which is ubiquitously encountered in architectural acoustics and is a reasonable representation of many engineering occasions. A general solution method is presented to predict the dynamic behaviors of the three-dimensional (3D) acoustic coupled system, in which the displacement of the plate and the sound pressure in the cavity are respectively constructed in the form of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional modified Fourier series with several auxiliary functions introduced to ensure the uniform convergence of the solution over the entire solution domain. The effect of the opening is taken into account via the work done by the sound pressure acting at the coupling aperture that is contributed from the vibration of particles on the acoustic coupling interface and on the structural-acoustic coupling interface. Both the acoustic coupling between finite cavity and exterior field and the structural-acoustic coupling between flexible plate and interior acoustic field are considered in the vibro-acoustic modeling of the three-dimensional acoustic coupled acoustic system. The dynamic responses of the coupled structural-acoustic system are obtained using the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure based on the energy expressions for the coupled system. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated through numerical examples and comparison with results obtained by the boundary element analysis. Furthermore, the influence of the opening and the cavity volume on the acoustic behaviors of opened cavity system is studied.

  18. Sinkhole flooding in Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg Edward

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, conducted an investigation from January 2001 through April 2002 to delineate sinkholes and sinkhole watersheds in the Murfreesboro area and to characterize the hydrologic response of sinkholes to major rainfall events. Terrain analysis was used to define sinkholes and delineate the sinkhole drainage areas. Flooding in 78 sinkholes in three focus areas was identified and tracked using aerial photography following three major storms in February 2001, January 2002, and March 2002. The three focus areas are located to the east, north, and northwest of Murfreesboro and are underlain primarily by the Ridley Limestone with some outcrops of the underlying Pierce Limestone. The observed sinkhole flooding is controlled by water inflow, water outflow, and the degree of the hydraulic connection (connectivity) to a ground-water conduit system. The observed sinkholes in the focus areas are grouped into three categories based on the sinkhole morphology and the connectivity to the ground-water system as indicated by their response to flooding. The three types of sinkholes described for these focus areas are pan sinkholes with low connectivity, deep sinkholes with high connectivity, and deep sinkholes with low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system. Shallow, broad pan sinkholes flood as water inflow from a storm inundates the depression at land surface. Water overflow from one pan sinkhole can flow downgradient and become inflow to a sinkhole at a lower altitude. Land-surface modifications that direct more water into a pan sinkhole could increase peak-flood altitudes and extend flood durations. Land-surface modifications that increase the outflow by overland drainage could decrease the flood durations. Road construction or alterations that reduce flow within or between pan sinkholes could result in increased flood durations. Flood levels and durations in the deeper sinkholes observed in

  19. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf, E-mail: nra1@hi.is; Gudmundsson, Vidar, E-mail: vidar@raunvis.hi.is [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Tang, Chi-Shung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, 1, Lienda, 36003 Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  20. Global and Regional Real-time Systems for Flood and Drought Monitoring and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Xue, X.; Flamig, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A Hydrometeorological Extreme Mapping and Prediction System (HyXtreme-MaP), initially built upon the Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST) distributed hydrological model, is driven by real-time quasi-global TRMM/GPM satellites and by the US Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) radar network with dual-polarimetric upgrade to simulate streamflow, actual ET, soil moisture and other hydrologic variables at 1/8th degree resolution quasi-globally (http://eos.ou.edu) and at 250-meter 2.5-mintue resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS: http://flash.ou.edu).­ Multifaceted and collaborative by-design, this end-to-end research framework aims to not only integrate data, models, and applications but also brings people together (i.e., NOAA, NASA, University researchers, and end-users). This presentation will review the progresses, challenges and opportunities of such HyXTREME-MaP System used to monitor global floods and droughts, and also to predict flash floods over the CONUS.

  1. Flood risk analysis procedure for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology and procedure for determining the impact of floods on nuclear power plant risk. The procedures are based on techniques of fault tree and event tree analysis and use the logic of these techniques to determine the effects of a flood on system failure probability and accident sequence occurrence frequency. The methodology can be applied independently or as an add-on analysis for an existing risk assessment. Each stage of the analysis yields useful results such as the critical flood level, failure flood level, and the flood's contribution to accident sequence occurrence frequency. The results of applications show the effects of floods on the risk from nuclear power plants analyzed in the Reactor Safety Study

  2. Dynamic building risk assessment theoretic model for rainstorm-flood utilization ABM and ABS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wenze; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Hailei; Huang, Yingliang; Wu, Xuelian; Sun, Bingyun

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of natural disasters with the worst loss in the world. It needs to assess flood disaster risk so that we can reduce the loss of flood disaster. Disaster management practical work needs the dynamic risk results of building. Rainstorm flood disaster system is a typical complex system. From the view of complex system theory, flood disaster risk is the interaction result of hazard effect objects, rainstorm flood hazard factors, and hazard environments. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an important tool for complex system modeling. Rainstorm-flood building risk dynamic assessment method (RFBRDAM) was proposed using ABM in this paper. The interior structures and procedures of different agents in proposed meth had been designed. On the Netlogo platform, the proposed method was implemented to assess the building risk changes of the rainstorm flood disaster in the Huaihe River Basin using Agent-based simulation (ABS). The results indicated that the proposed method can dynamically assess building risk of the whole process for the rainstorm flood disaster. The results of this paper can provide one new approach for flood disaster building risk dynamic assessment and flood disaster management.

  3. Evolutionary leap in large-scale flood risk assessment needed

    OpenAIRE

    Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Bates, Paul D.; de Bruijn, Karin; Castellarin, Attilio; Kreibich, Heidi; Priest, Sally J.; Schröter, Kai; Bagli, Stefano; Blöschl, Günter; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Gouldby, Ben; Klijn, Frans; Lammersen, Rita; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Ridder, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Current approaches for assessing large-scale flood risks contravene the fundamental principles of the flood risk system functioning because they largely ignore basic interactions and feedbacks between atmosphere, catchments, river-floodplain systems and socio-economic processes. As a consequence, risk analyses are uncertain and might be biased. However, reliable risk estimates are required for prioritizing national investments in flood risk mitigation or for appraisal and management of insura...

  4. Estimating the benefits of single value and probability forecasting for flood warning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, J.S.; Werner, M.G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood risk can be reduced by means of flood forecasting, warning and response systems (FFWRS). These systems include a forecasting sub-system which is imperfect, meaning that inherent uncertainties in hydrological forecasts may result in false alarms and missed floods, or surprises. This forecasting

  5. Cavity Cooling a Single Charged Levitated Nanosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, J.; Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Mavrogordatos, T.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2015-03-01

    Optomechanical cavity cooling of levitated objects offers the possibility for laboratory investigation of the macroscopic quantum behavior of systems that are largely decoupled from their environment. However, experimental progress has been hindered by particle loss mechanisms, which have prevented levitation and cavity cooling in a vacuum. We overcome this problem with a new type of hybrid electro-optical trap formed from a Paul trap within a single-mode optical cavity. We demonstrate a factor of 100 cavity cooling of 400 nm diameter silica spheres trapped in vacuum. This paves the way for ground-state cooling in a smaller, higher finesse cavity, as we show that a novel feature of the hybrid trap is that the optomechanical cooling becomes actively driven by the Paul trap, even for singly charged nanospheres.

  6. Advanced Reactor Passive System Reliability Demonstration Analysis for an External Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bucknor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general for the postulated transient event.

  7. Advanced reactor passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grelle, Austin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general) for the postulated transient event.

  8. Advanced reactor passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grelle, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Many advanced reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended because of deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize within a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper provides an overview of a passive system reliability demonstration analysis for an external event. Considering an earthquake with the possibility of site flooding, the analysis focuses on the behavior of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System following potential physical damage and system flooding. The assessment approach seeks to combine mechanistic and simulation-based methods to leverage the benefits of the simulation-based approach without the need to substantially deviate from conventional probabilistic risk assessment techniques. Although this study is presented as only an example analysis, the results appear to demonstrate a high level of reliability of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (and the reactor system in general) for the postulated transient event

  9. Development of a flood-induced health risk prediction model for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, many floods occur in developing or tropical regions where the impact on public health is substantial, including death and injury, drinking water, endemic disease, and so on. Although these flood impacts on public health have been investigated, integrated management of floods and flood-induced health risks is technically and institutionally limited. Specifically, while the use of climatic and hydrologic forecasts for disaster management has been highlighted, analogous predictions for forecasting the magnitude and impact of health risks are lacking, as is the infrastructure for health early warning systems, particularly in developing countries. In this study, we develop flood-induced health risk prediction model for African regions using season-ahead flood predictions with climate drivers and a variety of physical and socio-economic information, such as local hazard, exposure, resilience, and health vulnerability indicators. Skillful prediction of flood and flood-induced health risks can contribute to practical pre- and post-disaster responses in both local- and global-scales, and may eventually be integrated into multi-hazard early warning systems for informed advanced planning and management. This is especially attractive for areas with limited observations and/or little capacity to develop flood-induced health risk warning systems.

  10. Flood characteristics of the Haor area in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Bhattacharya, Biswa

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Bangladesh is a country, which is frequently suffering from flooding. The current research is conducted in the framework of a project, which focuses on the flooding issues in the Haor region in the north-east of Bangladesh. A haor is a saucer-shaped depression, which is used during the dry period (December to mid-May) for agriculture and as a fishery during the wet period (June-November), and thereby presents a very interesting socio-economic perspective of flood risk management. Pre-monsoon flooding till mid-May causes agricultural loss and lot of distress whereas monsoon flooding brings benefits. The area is bordering India, thereby presenting trans-boundary issues as well, and is fed by some flashy Indian catchments. The area is drained mainly through the Surma-Kushiyara river system. The terrain generally is flat and the flashy characteristics die out within a short distance from the border. Limited studies on the region, particularly with the help of numerical models, have been carried out in the past. Therefore, an objective of the current research was to set up numerical models capable of reasonably emulating the physical system. Such models could, for example, associate different gauges to the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic variables and help in carrying out a systemic study on the impact of climate changes. A 1D2D model, with one-dimensional model for the rivers (based on MIKE 11 modelling tool from Danish Hydraulic Institute) and a two

  11. Design and Development of an Octopus Thermometric system for the 704 MHZ Single-Cell SPL Cavity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, K; Brunner, O; Ciapala, E; Glenat, D; Weingarten, W

    2012-01-01

    The octopus thermometric system is designed for the 704 MHz superconducting proton linac (SPL) cavity to detect hot spots and X-rays caused by normal conducting defects and the impact of emission electrons. This system features an octopus body and tentacle structure for good contact with the cavity and easy assembly, a multiplexing circuit with integrated microprocessor for efficient readout and a high density temperature sensor arrangement in order to complete a high resolution temperature and X-ray map. The first prototype is being manufactured and investigations are undergoing for further development.

  12. Mapping flood hazards under uncertainty through probabilistic flood inundation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Miller, A. J.; Lee, G.

    2017-12-01

    Changing precipitation, rapid urbanization, and population growth interact to create unprecedented challenges for flood mitigation and management. Standard methods for estimating risk from flood inundation maps generally involve simulations of floodplain hydraulics for an established regulatory discharge of specified frequency. Hydraulic model results are then geospatially mapped and depicted as a discrete boundary of flood extents and a binary representation of the probability of inundation (in or out) that is assumed constant over a project's lifetime. Consequently, existing methods utilized to define flood hazards and assess risk management are hindered by deterministic approaches that assume stationarity in a nonstationary world, failing to account for spatio-temporal variability of climate and land use as they translate to hydraulic models. This presentation outlines novel techniques for portraying flood hazards and the results of multiple flood inundation maps spanning hydroclimatic regions. Flood inundation maps generated through modeling of floodplain hydraulics are probabilistic reflecting uncertainty quantified through Monte-Carlo analyses of model inputs and parameters under current and future scenarios. The likelihood of inundation and range of variability in flood extents resulting from Monte-Carlo simulations are then compared with deterministic evaluations of flood hazards from current regulatory flood hazard maps. By facilitating alternative approaches of portraying flood hazards, the novel techniques described in this presentation can contribute to a shifting paradigm in flood management that acknowledges the inherent uncertainty in model estimates and the nonstationary behavior of land use and climate.

  13. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  14. Single atoms on demand for cavity QED experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotsenko, I.

    2007-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) describes electromagnetic fields in a confined space and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. The simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with one mode of a high-finesse resonator. Besides observation and exploration of fundamental quantum mechanical effects, this system bears a high potential for applications quantum information science such as, e.g., quantum logic gates, quantum communication and quantum teleportation. In this thesis I present an experiment on the deterministic coupling of a single neutral atom to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator. In Chapter 1 I describe our basic techniques for trapping and observing single cesium atoms. As a source of single atoms we use a high-gradient magneto-optical trap, which captures the atoms from background gas in a vacuum chamber and cools them down to millikelvin temperatures. The atoms are then transferred without loss into a standing-wave dipole trap, which provides a conservative potential required for experiments on atomic coherence such as quantum information processing and metrology on trapped atoms. Moreover, shifting the standing-wave pattern allows us to deterministically transport the atoms (Chapter 2). In combination with nondestructive fluorescence imaging of individual trapped atoms, this enables us to control their position with submicrometer precision over several millimeters along the dipole trap. The cavity QED system can distinctly display quantum behaviour in the so-called strong coupling regime, i.e., when the coherent atom-cavity coupling rate dominates dissipation in the system. This sets the main requirements on the resonator's properties: small mode volume and high finesse. Chapter 3 is devoted to the manufacturing, assembling, and testing of an ultra-high finesse optical Fabry-Perot resonator, stabilized to the atomic transition. In Chapter 4 I present the transportation of single atoms into the cavity

  15. Single atoms on demand for cavity QED experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, I.

    2007-09-06

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) describes electromagnetic fields in a confined space and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. The simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with one mode of a high-finesse resonator. Besides observation and exploration of fundamental quantum mechanical effects, this system bears a high potential for applications quantum information science such as, e.g., quantum logic gates, quantum communication and quantum teleportation. In this thesis I present an experiment on the deterministic coupling of a single neutral atom to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator. In Chapter 1 I describe our basic techniques for trapping and observing single cesium atoms. As a source of single atoms we use a high-gradient magneto-optical trap, which captures the atoms from background gas in a vacuum chamber and cools them down to millikelvin temperatures. The atoms are then transferred without loss into a standing-wave dipole trap, which provides a conservative potential required for experiments on atomic coherence such as quantum information processing and metrology on trapped atoms. Moreover, shifting the standing-wave pattern allows us to deterministically transport the atoms (Chapter 2). In combination with nondestructive fluorescence imaging of individual trapped atoms, this enables us to control their position with submicrometer precision over several millimeters along the dipole trap. The cavity QED system can distinctly display quantum behaviour in the so-called strong coupling regime, i.e., when the coherent atom-cavity coupling rate dominates dissipation in the system. This sets the main requirements on the resonator's properties: small mode volume and high finesse. Chapter 3 is devoted to the manufacturing, assembling, and testing of an ultra-high finesse optical Fabry-Perot resonator, stabilized to the atomic transition. In Chapter 4 I present the transportation of single atoms into the

  16. Bistability of Cavity Magnon Polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Pu; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Dengke; Li, Tie-Fu; Hu, C.-M.; You, J. Q.

    2018-01-01

    We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops) in these two cases. The experimental results are well fitted and explained as being due to the Kerr nonlinearity with either a positive or negative coefficient. Moreover, when the magnetic field is tuned away from the anticrossing point of CMPs, we observe simultaneous bistability of both magnons and cavity photons by applying a drive field on the lower branch.

  17. Flash flood forecasting, warning and risk management: the HYDRATE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, M.; Anagnostou, E.N.; Bloeschl, G.; Creutin, J.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We characterize flash flood events in various regions of Europe. → We provide guidance to improve observations and monitoring of flash floods. → Flash floods are associated to orography and are influenced by initial soil moisture conditions. → Models for flash flood forecasting and flash flood hazard assessment are illustrated and discussed. → We examine implications for flood risk policy and discuss recommendations received from end users. - Abstract: The management of flash flood hazards and risks is a critical component of public safety and quality of life. Flash-floods develop at space and time scales that conventional observation systems are not able to monitor for rainfall and river discharge. Consequently, the atmospheric and hydrological generating mechanisms of flash-floods are poorly understood, leading to highly uncertain forecasts of these events. The objective of the HYDRATE project has been to improve the scientific basis of flash flood forecasting by advancing and harmonising a European-wide innovative flash flood observation strategy and developing a coherent set of technologies and tools for effective early warning systems. To this end, the project included actions on the organization of the existing flash flood data patrimony across Europe. The final aim of HYDRATE was to enhance the capability of flash flood forecasting in ungauged basins by exploiting the extended availability of flash flood data and the improved process understanding. This paper provides a review of the work conducted in HYDRATE with a special emphasis on how this body of research can contribute to guide the policy-life cycle concerning flash flood risk management.

  18. Driven-Dissipative Supersolid in a Ring Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivehvar, Farokh; Ostermann, Stefan; Piazza, Francesco; Ritsch, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Supersolids are characterized by the counterintuitive coexistence of superfluid and crystalline order. Here we study a supersolid phase emerging in the steady state of a driven-dissipative system. We consider a transversely pumped Bose-Einstein condensate trapped along the axis of a ring cavity and coherently coupled to a pair of degenerate counterpropagating cavity modes. Above a threshold pump strength the interference of photons scattered into the two cavity modes results in an emergent superradiant lattice, which spontaneously breaks the continuous translational symmetry towards a periodic atomic pattern. The crystalline steady state inherits the superfluidity of the Bose-Einstein condensate, thus exhibiting genuine properties of a supersolid. A gapless collective Goldstone mode correspondingly appears in the superradiant phase, which can be nondestructively monitored via the relative phase of the two cavity modes on the cavity output. Despite cavity-photon losses the Goldstone mode remains undamped, indicating the robustness of the supersolid phase.

  19. The 2014 Karnali River Floods in Western Nepal: Making Community Based Early Warning Systems Work When Data Is Lacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, S.; MacClune, K.; Venkateswaran, K.; Yadav, S.; Szoenyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Implementing Community Based Flood Early Warning System (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal is challenging. Complex topography and geology combined with a sparse network of river and rainfall gauges and little predictive meteorological capacity both nationally and regionally dramatically constrain EWS options. This paper provides a synopsis of the hydrological and meteorological conditions that led to flooding in the Karnali River, West Nepal during mid-August 2014, and analyses the effectiveness of flood EWS in the region. On August 14-15, 2014, a large, slow moving weather system deposited record breaking rainfall in the foothills of the Karnali River catchment. Precipitation depths of 200 to 500 mm were recorded over a 24-hour period, which led to rapid rise of river heights. At the Chisapani river gauge station used for the existing EWS, where the Karnali River exits the Himalaya onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain, water levels rapidly exceeded the 11 meter danger level. Between 3 to 6 am, water levels rose from 11 to 16. 1 meters, well beyond the design height of 15 meters. Analysis suggests that 2014 floods may have been a one-in-1000 year event. Starting with the onset of intense rainfall, the Chisapani gauge reader was in regular communication with downstream stakeholders and communities providing them with timely information regarding rising water level. This provided people just enough time to move to safe places with their livestock and key assets. Though households still lost substantial assets, without the EWS, floodwaters would have caught communities completely unaware and damage would almost certainly have been much worse. In particular, despite the complications associated with access to the Chisapani gauge and failure of critical communication nodes during the floods, EWS was instrumental in saving lives. This study explores both the details of the flood event and performance of the early warning system, and identifies lessons learned to help

  20. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  1. Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within ½ hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues

  2. Hierarchical Modelling of Flood Risk for Engineering Decision Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco

    protection structures in the hierarchical flood protection system - is identified. To optimise the design of protection structures, fragility and vulnerability models must allow for consideration of decision alternatives. While such vulnerability models are available for large protection structures (e...... systems, as well as the implementation of the flood risk analysis methodology and the vulnerability modelling approach are illustrated with an example application. In summary, the present thesis provides a characterisation of hierarchical flood protection systems as well as several methodologies to model...... and robust. Traditional risk management solutions, e.g. dike construction, are not particularly flexible, as they are difficult to adapt to changing risk. Conversely, the recent concept of integrated flood risk management, entailing a combination of several structural and non-structural risk management...

  3. Coastal and Riverine Flood Forecast Model powered by ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal flooding is becoming a major threat to increased population in the coastal areas. To protect coastal communities from tropical storms & hurricane damages, early warning systems are being developed. These systems have the capability of real time flood forecasting to identify hazardous coastal areas and aid coastal communities in rescue operations. State of the art hydrodynamic models forced by atmospheric forcing have given modelers the ability to forecast storm surge, water levels and currents. This helps to identify the areas threatened by intense storms. Study on Chesapeake Bay area has gained national importance because of its combined riverine and coastal phenomenon, which leads to greater uncertainty in flood predictions. This study presents an automated flood forecast system developed by following Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Surge Guidance System (ASGS) guidelines and tailored to take in riverine and coastal boundary forcing, thus includes all the hydrodynamic processes to forecast total water in the Potomac River. As studies on tidal and riverine flow interaction are very scarce in number, our forecast system would be a scientific tool to examine such area and fill the gaps with precise prediction for Potomac River. Real-time observations from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and field measurements have been used as model boundary feeding. The model performance has been validated by using major historical riverine and coastal flooding events. Hydrodynamic model ADCIRC produced promising predictions for flood inundation areas. As better forecasts can be achieved by using coupled models, this system is developed to take boundary conditions from Global WaveWatchIII for the research purposes. Wave and swell propagation will be fed through Global WavewatchIII model to take into account the effects of swells and currents. This automated forecast system is currently undergoing rigorous testing to include any missing parameters which

  4. A complete CFD tool for flooding forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, V.T.; Eberl, H.

    2004-01-01

    Every year, flooding does not only cause property damage of billions of dollars, but also threats to millions of human life around the world. The ability to accurately predict the extreme flooding in urban areas is of obvious importance in order to reduce flooding risks and to improve public safety. In this paper, a complete computational tool is presented that includes pre-processing, meshing, calculating and post-processing modules. The pre-processing procedure is used to interpolate the geometry of the river and floodplains where the data can not be obtained directly from measurements. The meshing procedure is implemented by a triangle mesh generator. The computational procedure is based on a Finite Element Method to discretize the two-dimensional depth-averaged equations for shallow water flow. The post-processing procedure, finally, is interfaced with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which can serve as a tool for monitoring and as an early warning system. The numerical model is verified and calibrated through many practical projects of flood protection for rivers in Germany. The numerical results show a very good agreement with data from the field survey, as well as data from past flood events. Thus the numerical model can be used as an important tool for flood prediction. (author)

  5. Harnessing the mode mixing in optical fiber-tip cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Takahashi, Hiroki; Keller, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic numerical study of Fabry–Pérot optical cavities with Gaussian-shape mirrors formed between tips of optical fibers. Such cavities can be fabricated by laser machining of fiber tips and are promising systems for achieving strong coupling between atomic particles and an optical field as required for quantum information applications. Using a mode mixing matrix method, we analyze the cavity optical eigenmodes and corresponding losses depending on a range of cavity-shape parameters, such as mirror radius of curvature, indentation depth and cavity length. The Gaussian shape of the mirrors causes mixing of optical modes in the cavity. We investigate the effect of the mode mixing on the coherent atom-cavity coupling as well as the mode matching between the cavity and a single-mode optical fiber. While the mode mixing is associated with increased cavity losses, it can also lead to an enhancement of the local optical field. We demonstrate that around the resonance between the fundamental and 2nd order Laguerre–Gaussian modes of the cavity it is possible to obtain 50% enhancement of the atom-cavity coupling at the cavity center while still maintaining low cavity losses and high cavity-fiber optical coupling. (paper)

  6. Resonator modes and mode dynamics for an external cavity-coupled laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Niketh; Bochove, Erik J.; Aceves, Alejandro B.; Zunoubi, Mohammad R.; Braiman, Yehuda

    2015-03-01

    Employing a Fox-Li approach, we derived the cold-cavity mode structure and a coupled mode theory for a phased array of N single-transverse-mode active waveguides with feedback from an external cavity. We applied the analysis to a system with arbitrary laser lengths, external cavity design and coupling strengths to the external cavity. The entire system was treated as a single resonator. The effect of the external cavity was modeled by a set of boundary conditions expressed by an N-by-N frequency-dependent matrix relation between incident and reflected fields at the interface with the external cavity. The coupled mode theory can be adapted to various types of gain media and internal and external cavity designs.

  7. Deciphering flood frequency curves from a coupled human-nature system perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. Y.; Abeshu, G. W.; Wang, W.; Ye, S.; Guo, J.; Bloeschl, G.; Leung, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    Most previous studies and applications in deriving or applying FFC are underpinned by the stationarity assumption. To examine the theoretical robustness of this basic assumption, we analyzed the observed FFCs at hundreds of catchments in the contiguous United States along the gradients of climate conditions and human influences. The shape of FFCs is described using three similarity indices: mean annual floods (MAF), coefficient of variance (CV), and a seasonality index defined using circular statistics. The characteristics of catchments are quantified with a small number of dimensionless indices, including particularly: 1) the climatic aridity index, AI, which is a measure of the competition between energy and water availability; 2) reservoir impact index, defined as the total upstream reservoir storage capacity normalized by the annual streamflow volume. The linkages between these two sets of indices are then explored based on a combination of mathematical derivations of the Budyko formula, simple but physically based reservoir operation models, and other auxiliary data. It is found that the shape of FFCs shifts from arid to humid climate, and from periods with weak human influences to periods with strong influences. The seasonality of floods is found to be largely controlled by the synchronization between the seasonal cycles of precipitation and solar radiation in pristine catchments, but also by the reservoir regulation capacity in managed catchments. Our findings may help improve flood-risk assessment and mitigation in both natural and regulated river systems across various climate gradients.

  8. An Assessment of Capacity, Gaps and Opportunities toward Building a Global Early Warning System for Flood Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y.; Adler, R.; Huffman, G.

    2007-12-01

    Many governmental emergency management agencies or non-governmental organizations need real-time information on emerging disasters for preparedness and response. However, progress in warnings for hydrologic disasters has been constrained by the difficulty of measuring spatiotemporal variability of rainfall fluxes continuously over space and time, due largely to insufficient ground monitoring networks, long delay in data transmission and absence of data sharing protocols among many geopolitically trans-boundary basins. In addition, in-situ gauging stations are often washed away by the very floods they are designed to monitor, making reconstruction of gauges a common post-flood activity around the world. In reality, remote sensing precipitation estimates may be the only source of rainfall information available over much of the globe, particularly for vulnerable countries in the tropics where abundant extreme rain storms and severe flooding events repeat every year. Building on progress in remote sensing technology, researchers have improved the accuracy, coverage, and resolution of rainfall estimates by combining imagery from infrared, passive microwave, and weather radar sensors. Today, remote sensing imagery acquired and processed in real time can provide near-real-time rainfall fluxes at relatively fine spatiotemporal scales (kilometers to tens of kilometers and 30-minute to 3-hour). These new suites of rainfall products have the potential to support daily decision-making in analysis of hydrologic hazards. This talk will address several key issues, including remote sensing rainfall retrieval and data assimilation, for hydrologists to develop alternative satellite-based flood warning systems that may supplement in-situ infrastructure when conventional data sources are denied due to natural or administrative causes. This talk will also assess a module-structure global flood prediction system that has been running at real-time by integrating remote sensing forcing

  9. Combining Satellite Measurements and Numerical Flood Prediction Models to Save Lives and Property from Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, F.; Garambois, P. A.; Biancamaria, S.

    2017-12-01

    Floods are considered the major natural threats to human societies across all continents. Consequences of floods in highly populated areas are more dramatic with losses of human lives and substantial property damage. This risk is projected to increase with the effects of climate change, particularly sea-level rise, increasing storm frequencies and intensities and increasing population and economic assets in such urban watersheds. Despite the advances in computational resources and modeling techniques, significant gaps exist in predicting complex processes and accurately representing the initial state of the system. Improving flood prediction models and data assimilation chains through satellite has become an absolute priority to produce accurate flood forecasts with sufficient lead times. The overarching goal of this work is to assess the benefits of the Surface Water Ocean Topography SWOT satellite data from a flood prediction perspective. The near real time methodology is based on combining satellite data from a simulator that mimics the future SWOT data, numerical models, high resolution elevation data and real-time local measurement in the New York/New Jersey area.

  10. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  11. Apparatus and process for passivating an SRF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Wallace, John P

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus and process for the production of a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided. The apparatus comprises a first chamber positioned within a second chamber, an RF generator and vacuum pumping systems. The process comprises placing the niobium cavity in a first chamber of the apparatus; thermally treating the cavity by high temperature in the first chamber while maintaining high vacuum in the first and second chambers; and applying a passivating thin film layer to a surface of the cavity in the presence of a gaseous mixture and an RF field. Further a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients produced by the method of the invention is provided.

  12. Technical note: River modelling to infer flood management framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River hydraulic models have successfully identified the weaknesses and areas for improvement with respect to flooding in the Sarawak River system, and can also be used to support decisions on flood management measures. Often, the big question is 'how'. This paper demonstrates a theoretical flood management ...

  13. Citizen involvement in flood risk governance: flood groups and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twigger-Ross Clare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade has been a policy shift withinUK flood risk management towards localism with an emphasis on communities taking ownership of flood risk. There is also an increased focus on resilience and, more specifically, on community resilience to flooding. This paper draws on research carried out for UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs to evaluate the Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder (FRCP scheme in England. Resilience is conceptualised as multidimensional and linked to exisiting capacities within a community. Creating resilience to flooding is an ongoing process of adaptation, learning from past events and preparing for future risks. This paper focusses on the development of formal and informal institutions to support improved flood risk management: institutional resilience capacity. It includes new institutions: e.g. flood groups, as well as activities that help to build inter- and intra- institutional resilience capacity e.g. community flood planning. The pathfinder scheme consisted of 13 projects across England led by local authorities aimed at developing community resilience to flood risk between 2013 – 2015. This paper discusses the nature and structure of flood groups, the process of their development, and the extent of their linkages with formal institutions, drawing out the barriers and facilitators to developing institutional resilience at the local level.

  14. Decision support system emergency planning, creating evacuation strategies in the event of flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, C.J.; Klunder, G.A.; Sanders, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Decision Support System (DSS) Emergency Planning is designed for use in the event of sea or river flooding. It makes accessible all the information related to the decision whether to evacuate an area. An important factor in this decision is the time required for the evacuation. The model used by

  15. Morphological records of storm floods exemplified by the impact of the 1872 Baltic storm on a sandy spit system in south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Bendixen, Mette; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Beach-ridge systems are important geo-archives providing evidence for past wave climate including catastrophic storm flood events. This study investigates the morphological impacts of the 1872 Baltic storm flood on a beach-ridge system (sandy spit) in south-eastern Denmark and evaluates the frequ...

  16. Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of extreme losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease extreme flood losses. Increased return periods of extreme losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the importance of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Flood Risk Management: Exploring the Impacts of the Community Rating System Program on Poverty and Income Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Douglas S; Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem A

    2018-03-01

    Flooding remains a major problem for the United States, causing numerous deaths and damaging countless properties. To reduce the impact of flooding on communities, the U.S. government established the Community Rating System (CRS) in 1990 to reduce flood damages by incentivizing communities to engage in flood risk management initiatives that surpass those required by the National Flood Insurance Program. In return, communities enjoy discounted flood insurance premiums. Despite the fact that the CRS raises concerns about the potential for unevenly distributed impacts across different income groups, no study has examined the equity implications of the CRS. This study thus investigates the possibility of unintended consequences of the CRS by answering the question: What is the effect of the CRS on poverty and income inequality? Understanding the impacts of the CRS on poverty and income inequality is useful in fully assessing the unintended consequences of the CRS. The study estimates four fixed-effects regression models using a panel data set of neighborhood-level observations from 1970 to 2010. The results indicate that median incomes are lower in CRS communities, but rise in floodplains. Also, the CRS attracts poor residents, but relocates them away from floodplains. Additionally, the CRS attracts top earners, including in floodplains. Finally, the CRS encourages income inequality, but discourages income inequality in floodplains. A better understanding of these unintended consequences of the CRS on poverty and income inequality can help to improve the design and performance of the CRS and, ultimately, increase community resilience to flood disasters. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Development of detection techniques for monitoring and optimizing biocide dosing in seawater flooding systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Moniee, M.A.; Al-Abeedi, F.N.; Koopal, C.G.J.; Akmal, N.; Sanders, P.F.; Veen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms which are frequently associated with corrosion fail Control of bacterial activity are posing major challenge in Saudi Arabia's massive seawater flooding systems. Biocides are used to control bacteria throughout the oil industry. A study to explore the feasibility to develop

  19. Nitrogen dynamics in flooded soil systems: An overview on concepts and performance of models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khairudin, Nurul; Gaydon, Donald S.; Jing, Qi; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Struik, Paul C.; Keesman, Karel J.

    2018-01-01

    Extensive modelling studies on nitrogen (N) dynamics in flooded soil systems have been published. Consequently, many N dynamics models are available for users to select from. With the current research trend, inclined towards multi-disciplinary research, and with substantial progress in understanding

  20. Femtojoule-scale all-optical latching and modulation via cavity nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeong-Dae; Armen, Michael A; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2013-11-15

    We experimentally characterize Hopf bifurcation phenomena at femtojoule energy scales in a multiatom cavity quantum electrodynamical (cavity QED) system and demonstrate how such behaviors can be exploited in the design of all-optical memory and modulation devices. The data are analyzed by using a semiclassical model that explicitly treats heterogeneous coupling of atoms to the cavity mode. Our results highlight the interest of cavity QED systems for ultralow power photonic signal processing as well as for fundamental studies of mesoscopic nonlinear dynamics.

  1. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory or the Vth (trigeminal cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons.

  2. A prototype superconducting cavity for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, T.; Hara, K.; Hosoyama, K.

    1987-01-01

    Following the feasibility study on the 3-cell superconducting cavity in the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (TAR), a 5-cell 508 MHz Nb cavity was constructed and tested in the TAR. The cavity was equipped with a RF input coupler on a beam pipe, two HOM couplers on the other beam pipe and two additional HOM couplers on the equator of an end cell. The maximum accelerating field (Eaxx) was 4.5 MV/m with a Q value of about 1x10 9 at 4.2 deg K. The field was limited by the electron field emission and neither electron multipacting nor breakdown caused by couplers was observed. Damping of the HOM was sufficient and the input coupler was tested up to 82 KW in total reflection. A frequency tuning system consisted of two piezo electric and mechanical tuners. The piezo tuner was fast enough and the mechanical tuner covered wide range. In the beam test, the single bunch electron current of 29 mA was captured by the superconducting cavity alone and 13 mA was accelerated to 4.8 GeV. The maximum power transferred to the beam was 26 KW. The refrigeration system worked very stably

  3. LiDAR and IFSAR-Based Flood Inundation Model Estimates for Flood-Prone Areas of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. C.; Goldade, M. M.; Kastens, J.; Dobbs, K. E.; Macpherson, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme flood events are not unusual in semi-arid to hyper-arid regions of the world, and Afghanistan is no exception. Recent flashfloods and flashflood-induced landslides took nearly 100 lives and destroyed or damaged nearly 2000 homes in 12 villages within Guzargah-e-Nur district of Baghlan province in northeastern Afghanistan. With available satellite imagery, flood-water inundation estimation can be accomplished remotely, thereby providing a means to reduce the impact of such flood events by improving shared situational awareness during major flood events. Satellite orbital considerations, weather, cost, data licensing restrictions, and other issues can often complicate the acquisition of appropriately timed imagery. Given the need for tools to supplement imagery where not available, complement imagery when it is available, and bridge the gap between imagery based flood mapping and traditional hydrodynamic modeling approaches, we have developed a topographic floodplain model (FLDPLN), which has been used to identify and map river valley floodplains with elevation data ranging from 90-m SRTM to 1-m LiDAR. Floodplain "depth to flood" (DTF) databases generated by FLDPLN are completely seamless and modular. FLDPLN has been applied in Afghanistan to flood-prone areas along the northern and southern flanks of the Hindu Kush mountain range to generate a continuum of 1-m increment flood-event models up to 10 m in depth. Elevation data used in this application of FLDPLN included high-resolution, drone-acquired LiDAR (~1 m) and IFSAR (5 m; INTERMAP). Validation of the model has been accomplished using the best available satellite-derived flood inundation maps, such as those issued by Unitar's Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT). Results provide a quantitative approach to evaluating the potential risk to urban/village infrastructure as well as to irrigation systems, agricultural fields and archaeological sites.

  4. Investigation of Flood Risk Assessment in Inaccessible Regions using Multiple Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding is extremely dangerous when a river overflows to inundate an urban area. From 1995 to 2016, North Korea (NK) experienced annual extensive damage to life and property almost each year due to a levee breach resulting from typhoons and heavy rainfall during the summer monsoon season. Recently, Hoeryeong City (2016) experienced heavy rainfall during typhoon Lionrock and the resulting flood killed and injured many people (68,900) and destroyed numerous buildings and settlements (11,600). The NK state media described it as the biggest national disaster since 1945. Thus, almost all annual repeat occurrences of floods in NK have had a serious impact, which makes it necessary to figure out the extent of floods in restoring the damaged environment. In addition, traditional hydrological model is impractical to delineate Flood Damaged Areas (FDAs) in NK due to the inaccessibility. Under such a situation, multiple optical Remote Sensing (RS) and radar RS along with a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis were utilized in this study (1) to develop modelling FDA delineation using multiple RS and GIS methods and (2) to conduct flood risk assessment in NK. Interpreting high-resolution web-based satellite imagery were also implemented to confirm the results of the study. From the study result, it was found that (1) on August 30th, 2016, an area of 117.2 km2 (8.6%) at Hoeryeong City was inundated. Most floods occurred in flat areas with a lower and middle stream order. (2) In the binary logistic regression model applied in this study, the distance from the nearest stream map and landform map variables are important factors to delineate FDAs because these two factors reflect heterogeneous mountainous NK topography. (3) Total annual flood risk of study area is estimated to be ₩454.13 million NKW ($504,417.24 USD, and ₩576.53 million SKW). The risk of the confluence of the Tumen River and Hoeryeong stream appears to be the highest. (4) High resolution

  5. A Bayesian decision approach to rainfall thresholds based flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. V. Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational real time flood forecasting systems generally require a hydrological model to run in real time as well as a series of hydro-informatics tools to transform the flood forecast into relatively simple and clear messages to the decision makers involved in flood defense. The scope of this paper is to set forth the possibility of providing flood warnings at given river sections based on the direct comparison of the quantitative precipitation forecast with critical rainfall threshold values, without the need of an on-line real time forecasting system. This approach leads to an extremely simplified alert system to be used by non technical stakeholders and could also be used to supplement the traditional flood forecasting systems in case of system failures. The critical rainfall threshold values, incorporating the soil moisture initial conditions, result from statistical analyses using long hydrological time series combined with a Bayesian utility function minimization. In the paper, results of an application of the proposed methodology to the Sieve river, a tributary of the Arno river in Italy, are given to exemplify its practical applicability.

  6. Flood-rich and flood-poor periods in Spain in 1942-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Mediero et al. (2015) studied flood trends by using the longest streamflow records available in Europe. They found a decreasing trend in the Atlantic, Continental and Scandinavian regions. More specifically, Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in Spain in the period 1959-2009. Trends in flood series are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test applied to a given period. However, the result of the Mann-Kendall test can change in terms of the starting and ending year of the series. Flood oscillations can occur and flood-rich and flood-poor periods could condition the results, especially when they are located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to the longest series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. A flood-rich period in 1950-1970 and a flood-poor period in 1970-1990 are identified in most of the selected sites. The generalised decreasing trend in flood series found by Mediero et al. (2014) could be explained by a flood-rich period placed at the beginning of the series and a flood-poor period located at the end of the series. References: Mediero, L., Kjeldsen, T.R., Macdonald, N., Kohnova, S., Merz, B., Vorogushyn, S., Wilson, D., Alburquerque, T., Blöschl, G., Bogdanowicz, E., Castellarin, A., Hall, J., Kobold, M., Kriauciuniene, J., Lang, M., Madsen, H., Onuşluel Gül, G., Perdigão, R.A.P., Roald, L.A., Salinas, J.L., Toumazis, A.D., Veijalainen, N., Óðinn Þórarinsson. Identification of coherent flood

  7. RF cavities for the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Nassiri, A.; Bridges, J.F.; Smith, T.L.; Song, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The cavities for the dual frequency system of the APS PAR are described. The system uses two frequencies: a 9.78MHz fundamental system for the particle accumulation and a 117.3MHz twelfth harmonic system for the bunch compression. The cavities have been built, installed, tested, and used for storing the beam in the PAR for about a year. The fundamental cavity is a reentrant coaxial type with a capacitive loading plunger and has 1.6m length. The harmonic cavity is a symmetrical reentrant coaxial type and is 0.8m long. Ferrite tuners are used for frequency tuning. During the accumulation period, the ferrite tuner of the harmonic cavity works as a damper to disable the cavity. During an injection cycle the 9.78MHz system accumulates 24 positron bunches in a bucket and the 117.3MHz system compresses the bunch into a shorter bunch. Measurements were made on the rf properties of the cavities

  8. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  9. Enhancing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal with Flood Forecasting Using Local and Global Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Smith, Paul; Parajuli, Binod; Khanal, Sonu; Brown, Sarah; Gautam, Dilip; Bhandari, Dinanath; Gurung, Gehendra; Shakya, Puja; Kharbuja, RamGopal; Uprety, Madhab

    2017-04-01

    Operationalising effective Flood Early Warning Systems (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal poses numerous challenges, with complex topography and geology, sparse network of river and rainfall gauging stations and diverse socio-economic conditions. Despite these challenges, simple real-time monitoring based EWSs have been in place for the past decade. A key constraint of these simple systems is the very limited lead time for response - as little as 2-3 hours, especially for rivers originating from steep mountainous catchments. Efforts to increase lead time for early warning are focusing on imbedding forecasts into the existing early warning systems. In 2016, the Nepal Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) piloted an operational Probabilistic Flood Forecasting Model in major river basins across Nepal. This comprised a low data approach to forecast water levels, developed jointly through a research/practitioner partnership with Lancaster University and WaterNumbers (UK) and the International NGO Practical Action. Using Data-Based Mechanistic Modelling (DBM) techniques, the model assimilated rainfall and water levels to generate localised hourly flood predictions, which are presented as probabilistic forecasts, increasing lead times from 2-3 hours to 7-8 hours. The Nepal DHM has simultaneously started utilizing forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GLoFAS) that provides streamflow predictions at the global scale based upon distributed hydrological simulations using numerical ensemble weather forecasts from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The aforementioned global and local models have already affected the approach to early warning in Nepal, being operational during the 2016 monsoon in the West Rapti basin in Western Nepal. On 24 July 2016, GLoFAS hydrological forecasts for the West Rapti indicated a sharp rise in river discharge above 1500 m3/sec (equivalent to the river warning level at 5 meters) with 53

  10. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  11. Flooding Capability for River-based Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Calhoun, Donna [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Centroid Labs., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anderson, S. Danielle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casteneda, Cody [Boise State Univ., ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the initial investigation into modeling and simulation tools for application of riverine flooding representation as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluations. The report provides examples of different flooding conditions and scenarios that could impact river and watershed systems. Both 2D and 3D modeling approaches are described.

  12. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  13. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Flooding of the root system in soybean: biochemical and molecular aspects of N metabolism in the nodule during stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Sarah C R; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen fixation of the nodule of soybean is highly sensitive to oxygen deficiency such as provoked by waterlogging of the root system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of flooding on N metabolism in nodules of soybean. Flooding resulted in a marked decrease of asparagine (the most abundant amino acid) and a concomitant accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Flooding also resulted in a strong reduction of the incorporation of (15)N2 in amino acids. Nodule amino acids labelled before flooding rapidly lost (15)N during flooding, except for GABA, which initially increased and declined slowly thereafter. Both nitrogenase activity and the expression of nifH and nifD genes were strongly decreased on flooding. Expression of the asparagine synthetase genes SAS1 and SAS2 was reduced, especially the former. Expression of genes encoding the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1, GAD4, GAD5) was also strongly suppressed except for GAD2 which increased. Almost all changes observed during flooding were reversible after draining. Possible changes in asparagine and GABA metabolism that may explain the marked fluctuations of these amino acids during flooding are discussed. It is suggested that the accumulation of GABA has a storage role during flooding stress.

  15. FLOOD VULNERABILITY IN BODVA RIVER BASIN IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELENAKOVA MARTINA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to generate a composite map for decision makers using selected factors, mainly of natural character, causing floods. In the analyses, some of the causative factors for flooding in a catchment area are taken into account, such as soil type, precipitation, land use, size of catchment and basin slope. A case study of flood vulnerability identification in the Bodva river basin in eastern Slovakia is employed to illustrate the different approaches. A geographical information system (GIS is integrated with multicriteria analysis (MCA in the paper. The identification of flood vulnerability consists of two basic phases. Firstly, the effective factors causing floods are identified. Secondly several approaches to MCA in a GIS environment are applied and these approaches are evaluated in order to prepared flood vulnerability map.

  16. Resonance control in SRF cavities at FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schappert, W.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab; Scorrano, M.; /INFN, Pisa

    2011-03-01

    The Lorentz force can dynamically detune pulsed Superconducting RF cavities. Considerable additional RF power can be required to maintain the accelerating gradient if no effort is made to compensate for this detuning. Compensation systems using piezo actuators have been used successfully at DESY and elsewhere to control Lorentz Force Detuning (LFD). Recently, Fermilab has developed an adaptive compensation system for cavities in the Horizontal Test Stand, in the SRF Accelerator Test Facility, and for the proposed Project X.

  17. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  18. A Location Intelligence System for the Assessment of Pluvial Flooding Risk and the Identification of Storm Water Pollutant Sources from Roads in Suburbanised Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Szewrański

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of an ever-growing number of inhabitants, sprawl development, soil sealing, changes in urban traffic characteristics, as well as observed climate trends gives rise to more frequent pluvial flooding in cities, a higher run-off of water, and an increasing pollution of surface water. The aim of this research is to develop a location intelligence system for the assessment of pluvial flooding risks and the identification of storm water pollutant sources from roads in newly-developed areas. The system combines geographic information systems and business intelligence software, and it is based on the original Pluvial Flood Risk Assessment tool. The location intelligence system effectively identifies the spatial and temporal distribution of pluvial flood risks, allows to preliminarily evaluate the total run-off from roads, and helps localise potential places for new water management infrastructure. Further improvements concern the modelling of a flow accumulation and drainage system, the application of weather radar precipitation data, and traffic monitoring and modelling.

  19. Floods in a changing climate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J C R

    2002-07-15

    This paper begins with an analysis of flooding as a natural disaster for which the solutions to the environmental, social and economic problems are essentially those of identifying and overcoming hazards and vulnerability, reducing risk and damaging consequences. Long-term solutions to flooding problems, especially in a changing climate, should be sought in the wider context of developing more sustainable social organization, economics and technology. Then, developments are described of how scientific understanding, supported by practical modelling, is leading to predictions of how human-induced changes to climatic and geological conditions are likely to influence flooding over at least the next 300 years, through their influences on evaporation, precipitation, run-off, wind storm and sea-level rise. Some of the outstanding scientific questions raised by these problems are highlighted, such as the statistical and deterministic prediction of extreme events, the understanding and modelling of mechanisms that operate on varying length- and time-scales, and the complex interactions between biological, ecological and physical problems. Some options for reducing the impact of flooding by new technology include both improved prediction and monitoring with computer models, and remote sensing, flexible and focused warning systems, and permanent and temporary flood-reduction systems.

  20. Unexpected flood loss correlations across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Naomi; Boyd, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Floods don't observe country borders, as highlighted by major events across Europe that resulted in heavy economic and insured losses in 1999, 2002, 2009 and 2013. Flood loss correlations between some countries occur along multi-country river systems or between neighbouring nations affected by the same weather systems. However, correlations are not so obvious and whilst flooding in multiple locations across Europe may appear independent, for a re/insurer providing cover across the continent, these unexpected correlations can lead to high loss accumulations. A consistent, continental-scale method that allows quantification and comparison of losses, and identifies correlations in loss between European countries is therefore essential. A probabilistic model for European river flooding was developed that allows estimation of potential losses to pan-European property portfolios. By combining flood hazard and exposure information in a catastrophe modelling platform, we can consider correlations between river basins across Europe rather than being restricted to country boundaries. A key feature of the model is its statistical event set based on extreme value theory. Using historical river flow data, the event set captures spatial and temporal patterns of flooding across Europe and simulates thousands of events representing a full range of possible scenarios. Some known correlations were identified, such as between neighbouring Belgium and Luxembourg where 28% of events that affect either country produce a loss in both. However, our model identified some unexpected correlations including between Austria and Poland, and Poland and France, which are geographically distant. These correlations in flood loss may be missed by traditional methods and are key for re/insurers with risks in multiple countries. The model also identified that 46% of European river flood events affect more than one country. For more extreme events with a return period higher than 200 years, all events

  1. Continuous hydrologic simulation and flood-frequency, hydraulic, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed, Kane County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Straub, Timothy D.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Results of hydrologic model, flood-frequency, hydraulic model, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kane County, Illinois, indicate that the 100-year and 500-year flood plains range from approximately 25 acres in the tributary F watershed (a headwater subbasin at the northeastern corner of the watershed) to almost 1,800 acres in Blackberry Creek main stem. Based on 1996 land-cover data, most of the land in the 100-year and 500-year flood plains was cropland, forested and wooded land, and grassland. A relatively small percentage of urban land was in the flood plains. The Blackberry Creek watershed has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. The population and urbanized lands in the watershed are projected to double from the 1990 condition by 2020. Recently, flood-induced damage has occurred more frequently in urbanized areas of the watershed. There are concerns about the effect of urbanization on flood peaks and volumes, future flood-mitigation plans, and potential effects on the water quality and stream habitats. This report describes the procedures used in developing the hydrologic models, estimating the flood-peak discharge magnitudes and recurrence intervals for flood-hazard analysis, developing the hydraulic model, and the results of the analysis in graphical and tabular form. The hydrologic model, Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF), was used to perform the simulation of continuous water movements through various patterns of land uses in the watershed. Flood-frequency analysis was applied to an annual maximum series to determine flood quantiles in subbasins for flood-hazard analysis. The Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model was used to determine the 100-year and 500-year flood elevations, and to determine the 100-year floodway. The hydraulic model was calibrated and verified using high water marks and observed inundation maps for the July 17-18, 1996, flood event. Digital

  2. Implosion of the small cavity and large cavity cannonball targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results of cannonball target implosion research are briefly reviewed with theoretical predictions for GEKKO XII experiments. The cannonball targets are classified into two types according to the cavity size ; small cavity and large cavity. The compression mechanisms of the two types are discussed. (author)

  3. Development of a Fabry-Perot cavity for the Compton polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Jean-Paul

    1997-01-01

    A quick, precise and non-destructive longitudinal polarisation measurement should be a great advantage for the HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF (Jefferson Lab, USA). To achieve this, it could be possible to use a Fabry-Perot cavity to get a high photon flux at the electron-photon interaction point of a Compton polarimeter. This thesis is a first study for the design of such a system. We have shown that a 'monolithic' cavity, i.e. with mirrors mounted on fixed stage, is a good solution. My contribution for these studies is the development of a code to compute the optimum geometry of a cavity. Another of my contribution concerns the test of a cavity based on commercial mirrors with a gain > 160, using the Pound-Drever method to lock the laser frequency. My studies concern optical matching between the laser beam and th