WorldWideScience

Sample records for caving mining

  1. Review of Hydraulic Fracturing for Preconditioning in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been used in cave mining for preconditioning the orebody following its successful application in the oil and gas industries. In this paper, the state of the art of hydraulic fracturing as a preconditioning method in cave mining is presented. Procedures are provided on how to implement prescribed hydraulic fracturing by which effective preconditioning can be realized in any in situ stress condition. Preconditioning is effective in cave mining when an additional fracture set is introduced into the rock mass. Previous studies on cave mining hydraulic fracturing focused on field applications, hydraulic fracture growth measurement and the interaction between hydraulic fractures and natural fractures. The review in this paper reveals that the orientation of the current cave mining hydraulic fractures is dictated by and is perpendicular to the minimum in situ stress orientation. In some geotechnical conditions, these orientation-uncontrollable hydraulic fractures have limited preconditioning efficiency because they do not necessarily result in reduced fragmentation sizes and a blocky orebody through the introduction of an additional fracture set. This implies that if the minimum in situ stress orientation is vertical and favors the creation of horizontal hydraulic fractures, in a rock mass that is already dominated by horizontal joints, no additional fracture set is added to that rock mass to increase its blockiness to enable it cave. Therefore, two approaches that have the potential to create orientation-controllable hydraulic fractures in cave mining with the potential to introduce additional fracture set as desired are proposed to fill this gap. These approaches take advantage of directional hydraulic fracturing and the stress shadow effect, which can re-orientate the hydraulic fracture propagation trajectory against its theoretical predicted direction. Proppants are suggested to be introduced into the cave mining industry to enhance the

  2. Back-and-forth mining for hard and thick coal seams-research about the mining technology for fully mechanized caving working face of Datong Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhi-xin; YU Hong; YU Bin; SONG Hua-ling

    2005-01-01

    The article introduced the key technology, mining process, and back-and-forth mining method for the caving working face of hard-thick coal seams in Datcng mine, and researched this innovations process, optimized the systemic design and working face outplay, tried to perfect the caving mining technology of hard-thick coal seams further.

  3. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Gräser, J; Aspek, W; Gschnaller, J

    2014-11-01

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a(-1) only in the copper mine.

  4. Evaluation of mine scale longwall top Coal caving parameters using continuum analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manoj Khanal; Deepak Adhikary; Rao Balusu

    2011-01-01

    A mine-scale analysis of Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) is performed using a continuum mechanics finite element solver called COSFLOW.The uniqueness of COSFLOW is that it incorporates Cosserat continuum theory in its formulation for describing the load deformation of bedded rocks.It is shown that such a continuum based code is valuable for assessing the feasibility of introducing LTCC in any mine.Various LTCC parameters,for example chock convergences,top coal failure behavior,strata caving mechanism,abutment stresses and vertical stresses,were evaluated for a mine using COSFLOW.

  5. Surface Movement Regularity of Super-Wide Mining Face With Top-Coal Caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Run-hou

    2005-01-01

    No.4326 super-wide panel of Wangzhuang Coal Mine ( in which the fully-mechanized top-coal caving longwall mining method was used) was monitored for dynamic characteristic of surface movement. The dynamic surface movement in and after mining was predicted by using the Mining Subsidence Prediction System. The results indicate that after mining, the surface above the super-wide panel reaches a state of full subsidence, making the No.309national highway above the panel be located on the flat bottom of the subsidence basin so that the influence of mining activity in both sides of 4326 panel on the national highway is the smallest.

  6. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan [WISFIR Laboratory, Earth Physics and Complex System Division, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Riyanto, Erwin [Geotechnical and Hydrology PT. Freeport Indonesia wonbin-ww@hotmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  7. Study on dangers of methane in the gob of fully mechanized caving mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guang-li; WU Li-rong; ZOU De-yun

    2007-01-01

    Divided the gob gas in different types according to falling structure and spatial patterns of gob of the fully mechanized caving mining and analyzed its main form of harm.This passage preliminarily studied the law of unusual gush of gob gas of the fully mechanized caving mining. According to the basic condition for the gas explosion, made comprehensive analysis and appraisal about the oxygen condition, gas concentration distribute and fire source conditions. And find that there is the dangerous district of gas explosion in a certain area of the producing gob and give the three zone theory of gob gas explosion.

  8. Neural Network Identification Model for Technology Selection of Fully-Mechanized Top-Coal Caving Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪锐; 徐永勇; 汪进

    2001-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the selection of the technical parameters of fully-mechanized top-coal caving mining using the neural network technique. The comparison between computing results and experiment data shows that the set-up neural network model has high accuracy and decision-making benefit.

  9. Climatic control on the growth of gigantic gypsum crystals within hypogenic caves (Naica mine, Mexico)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Paolo S.; Fricker, Mattias B.; Günther, Detlef; Forti, Paolo; Mercuri, Anna-Maria; Loreti, Mara; Capaccioni, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Three hypogenic caves within the Naica mine of Mexico ( Cueva de los Cristales — CLC, Ojo de la Reina — OR, and Cueva de las Velas — CLV) host spectacular gypsum crystals up to 11 m in length. These caves are close to another shallow cave of the area ( Cueva de las Espadas — CLE), with which they cover a 160 m-deep vertical section of the local drainage basin. Similar to other hypogenic caves, all these caves lack a direct connection with the land surface and should be unrelated with climate. A record of multi-technique fluid inclusion data and pollen spectra from cave and mine gypsum indicates surprisingly that climatic changes occurring at Naica could have controlled fluid composition in these caves, and hence crystal growth. Microthermometry and LA-ICP-Mass Spectrometry of fluid inclusions indicate that the shallow, chemically peculiar, saline fluid (up to 7.7 eq. wt.%NaCl) of CLE could have formed from evaporation, during a dry and hot climatic period. The fluid of the deep caves was instead of low salinity (˜ 3.5 eq. wt.% NaCl) and chemically homogeneous, and was poorly affected by evaporation. We propose that mixing of these two fluids, generated at different depths of the Naica drainage basin, determined the stable supersaturation conditions for the gigantic gypsum crystals to grow. Fluid mixing was controlled by the hydraulic communication between CLE and the other deep caves, and must have taken place during cycles of warm-dry and fresh-wet climatic periods, which are known to have occurred in the region. Pollen grains from a 35 ka-old gypsum crystal of CLC corresponds to a fairly homogenous catchment basin made of a mixed broadleaf wet forest, which suggests precipitation during a fresh-wet climatic period and confirms our interpretation of the fluid inclusion data. The unusual combination of geological and geochemical factors of Naica suggests that other hypogenic caves found elsewhere may not host similar crystals. However, this work shows that

  10. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al.

  11. Effects of caving-mining ratio on the coal and waste rocks gangue flows and the amount of cyclically caved coal in fully mechanized mining of super-thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ningbo; Liu Changyou; Pei Mengsong

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at determining the appropriate caving–mining ratio for fully mechanized mining of 20 m thick coal seam, this research investigated the effects of caving–mining ratio on the flow fields of coal and waste rocks, amount of cyclically caved coal and top coal loss by means of numerical modeling. The research was based on the geological conditions of panel 8102 in Tashan coal mine. The results indicated the loose coal and waste rocks formed an elliptical zone around the drawpoint. The ellipse enlarged with decreasing caving–mining ratio. And its long axis inclined to the gob gradually became vertical and facil-itating the caving and recovery of top coal. The top coal loss showed a cyclical variation;and the loss cycle was shortened with the decreasing in caving–mining ratio. Moreover, the mean squared error (MSE) of the amount of cyclically caved coal went up with increasing caving–mining ratio, indicating a growing imbalance of amount of cyclically caved coal, which could impede the coordinated mining and caving operations. Finally it was found that a caving–mining ratio of 1:2.51 should be reasonable for the conditions.

  12. Radon exposure in uranium mining industry vs. exposure in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindós Poncela, L; Fernández Navarro, P; Sainz Fernández, C; Gómez Arozamena, J; Bordonoba Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    There is a fairly general consensus among health physicists and radiation professionals that exposure to radon progeny is the largest and most variable contribution to the population's exposure to natural sources of radiation. However, this exposure is the subject of continuing debate concerning the validity of risk assessment and recommendations on how to act in radon-prone areas. The purpose of this contribution is to situate the radon issue in Spain in two very different settings. The first is a uranium mining industry located in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca), which is under strict control of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). We have measured radon concentrations in different workplaces in this mine over a five-year period. The second setting comprises four tourist caves, three of which are located in the province of Cantabria and the fourth on the Canary Island of Lanzarote. These caves are not subject to any administrative control of radiation exposure. Measured air 222Rn concentrations were used to estimate annual effective doses due to radon inhalation in the two settings, and dose values were found to be from 2 to 10 times lower in the uranium mine than in the tourist caves. These results were analysed in the context of the new European Basic Safety Standards Directive (EU-BSS, 1996).

  13. Economical Optimization of the Mechanized Longwall Faces with Top Coal Caving Mining, In Horizontal Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onica, Ilie; Mihăilescu, Viorel; Andrioni, Felicia

    2016-09-01

    To increase the economic and technical performances of the Jiu Valley hard coal mines, the top coal caving, in horizontal slices, mining methods (Bourbaki methods) were introduced, adapted to the local geo-mining conditions. This mining was successfully experimented by using classical technology, using the individual supports and coal blasting. In the future, it is planned to adopt the mechanized technology, with frame supports and shearers. The mechanized longwall faces with top coal caving mining, in horizontal slices, of coal seam no. 3 could be efficient only if the sizes of the top coal height and the panel length determine a minimum cost of production. Therefore, the goal of this paper is the optimization of these parameters, from a technical and economic point of view, taking into account the general model of the cost function, at the panel level. For that, it was necessary to make a certain sequence of analysis involving: technological unit establishment, purpose function and optimizing model. Thus, there attaining to the mathematical model of the unit cost, after determination of all the individual calculation articles, regarding the preparatory workings, coal face equipments, materials, energy, workforce, etc. Because of the complexity of the obtained technical and economic model, to determine the optimum sizes of the panel length and top coal height, it was necessary to archive a sensitivity analysis of the unit cost function to the main parameters implied into this mathematical model.

  14. Induced caving by blasting: innovative experiments in blasting gallery panels of underground coal mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P.; Sawmliana, C.; Bhagat, N.K.; Madhu, M. [CMRI, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    2003-04-01

    Induced caving by blasting during depillaring of panels in underground coal mines has received limited attention. This technique has become an integral part of a mining operation known as the blasting gallery (BG) method in India. Systematical deep hole (16-30 m) blasting has been successfully carried out from underground split galleries in BG panels. A study of drilling and blasting parameters, gas hazards, strata behaviour and ground vibration was undertaken as part of a research project for the Indian Ministry of Coal and Mines. Strata behaviour during blasting and ground movements were critically investigated. All experiments were conducted using newly developed explosive and detonating cord systems. A new blast damage index is proposed for damage assessment of the underground roof and pillars of BG panels. Useful mathematical formulas are described as an aid to future design.

  15. Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for

  16. Analysis on air-leakage law of goal in condition of ascending mining for top-coal caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li; WEN Hu; XIAO Yang; WANG Qiu-hong; WANG Zhen-ping; ZHANG Guang-wen

    2009-01-01

    Using the Jisan Coalmine's top-coal caving for the 3down coal seam with as-cending mining as the project background,the air-leakage characteristics of the goaf was analyzed.Through data fitting of the in situ observation,the models of gas seepage,diffu-sion and air-leakage in the goaf were established in ascending mining.The Computation Fluid Dynamics software Fluent was used to simulate the air-leakage law of the goaf.The results of the numerical simulation provide a basis for the use of the technology of ventila-tion and fire prevention in the working face of an ascending mining,which ensures the safety in production in the working face of the top-coal caving for 3down coal seam in the Jisan Coalmine.

  17. Control on mine pressure of thick and strong roof stratum movement in long wall thick coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Guang-zhe; ZHANG dian-chang; HE Tao

    2008-01-01

    The caving of thick and strong roof stratum causes tremendous rock pressurein mine. The results of the analysis on dynamic natures of actual measurements of somefields, of which the roof pressure can be caused by thick and strong stratum in long wallthick coal caving face, could present the relation between the collapse and movement ofthick and strong roof strata and surrounding rock pressure. In order to control the roofpressure effectively, the thick and strong roof strata, can be fractured and softened previ-ously by hydraulic fracturing and low-high pressure water infusion, fracturing and softeningmethod. The results of study can provide basis for strata control and safe management inlong wall thick coal caving face.

  18. Technical parameters of drawing and coal-gangue field movements of a fully mechanized large mining height top coal caving working face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-you; HUANG Bing-xiang; WU Feng-feng

    2009-01-01

    Under fully mechanized, large mining height top coal caving conditions, the shield beam slope angle of the support increases due to the enlargement of the top coal breaking and caving space. This results in a change of the caving window location and dimensions and, therefore, the granular coal-gangue movement and flows provide new characteristics during top coal caving. The main inferences we draw are as follows. Firstly, after shifting the supports, the caved top coal layer line and the coal gangue boundary line become steeper and are clearly larger than those under common mining heights. Secondly, during the top coal caving procedure, the speed of the coal-gangue flow increases and at the same drawing interval, the distance between the coal-gangue boundary line and the top beam end is reduced. Thirdly, affected by the drawing ratio, the slope angle of the shield beam and the dimensions of the caving window, it is easy to mix the gangue. A rational drawing interval will cause the coal-gangue boundary line to be slightly behind the down tail boom lower boundary. This rational drawing interval under conditions of large mining heights has been analyzed and determined.

  19. 'INCAB' - induced caving by blasting: software for blasting gallery (BG) panel of underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P.; Kumar, A.; Sawmliana, C.; Bhagat, N.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Department

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a brief methodology of induced caving by blasting is discussed in the perspective of one indigenously developed software package 'INCAB' for carrying out successful induced blasting in blasting gallery panels. The development is basically a part of one S & T project jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Coal (GOI) and Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. (SCCL). 'INCAB' is a comprehensive, menu-driven, graphics software package developed in JAVA (Swing) language under Windows environment for designing and analyzing induced caving by blasting in BG panels of underground coal mines. It can be operative in any standard Pentium based IBM compatible system with VGA display unit. Practical validity of the programme was tested in 4 operating BG panels in the country. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  20. USING GIS FOR CAVES MODELLING AND ANALYSIS. THE STUDY CASE OF ANINA MINING AREA (BANAT MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTUGYAN Laurențiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available GIS started to be used also in caves’ mapping, but the work in this area is quite less widespread as surface mapping. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to caves’ digital modelling and analysis, using GIS and geovisualization techniques. COMPASS program is a software package designed for editing, processing, analysing and visualizing data on computer mapping caves. The programs allow input caves, reviewing data, obtaining statistics on caves, view plans from different angles on the monitor, and finally these views can then be printed. In this paper, we obtain digital models for endokarstic landforms situated in a karstic area in the South-West of Romania. We convert the Speleological data from analog into digital data and then obtained a virtual model for 4 cavities. Modelling karst cavities using GIS software require certain advantages and disadvantages. As advantages we can observe the fact that employing such a program can export a cave modelling in various formats and can include the function of spatial analysis in various programs, and the introduction of such objects in the Web Free and accessible. The main drawback to COMPASS program is given the simplicity and the limitation in modelling caves’ galleries. This program gives the form of tubes, pipes, made from a variety of geometric shapes. For Anina Mining Area, where nowadays local authorities are trying to develop tourism as a branch of economic recovery, these digital data regarding the most important caves in the area could be very useful in the management plans and in the tourist strategies.

  1. Key technologies and equipment for a fully mechanized top-coal caving operation with a large mining height at ultra-thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Wang; Bin Yu; Hongpu Kang; Guofa Wang; Debing Mao; Yuntao Liang; Pengfei Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Thick and ultra-thick coal seams are main coal seams for high production rate and high efficiency in Chinese coal mines, which accounts for 44%of the total minable coal reserve. A fully mechanized top-coal caving mining method is a main underground coal extraction method for ultra-thick coal seams. The coal extraction technologies for coal seams less than 14 m thick were extensively used in China. However, for coal seams with thickness greater than 14 m, there have been no reported cases in the world for underground mechanical extraction with safe performance, high efficiency and high coal recovery ratio. To deal with this case, China Coal Technology&Engineering Group, Datong Coal Mine Group, and other 15 organizations in China launched a fundamental and big project to develop coal mining technologies and equipment for coal seams with thicknesses greater than 14 m. After the completion of the project, a coal extraction method was developed for top-coal caving with a large mining height, as well as a ground control theory for ultra-thick coal seams. In addition, the mining technology for top-coal caving with a large mining height, the ground support technology for roadway in coal seams with a large cross-section, and the prevention and control technology for gas and fire hazards were developed and applied. Furthermore, a hydraulic support with a mining height of 5.2 m, a shearer with high reliability, and auxiliary equipment were developed and manufactured. Practical implication on the technologies and equipment developed was successfully completed at the No. 8105 coal face in the Tashan coal mine, Datong, China. The major achievements of the project are summarized as follows:1. A top-coal caving method for ultra-thick coal seams is proposed with a cutting height of 5 m and a top-coal caving height of 15 m. A structural mechanical model of overlying strata called cantilever beam-articulated rock beam is established. Based on the model, the load resistance of the

  2. Three-dimensional experimental study of loose top-coal drawing law for longwall top-coal caving mining technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiachen Wang; Jinwang Zhang; Zhengyang Song; Zhaolong Li

    2015-01-01

    Based on the loose medium flow field theory, the loose top-coal drawing law of longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) mining technology is studied by using self-developed three-dimensional (3D) test device. The loose top-coal drawing test with shields and the controlled test without shields are performed in the condition without any boundary effect. Test results show that shields will cause reduction in drawing volume of coal in the LTCC mining. The deflection phenomenon of drawing body is also observed in the controlled test, which is verified that the deflection of drawing body is caused by shield. It is found that the deflection angle decreases with increasing caving height, with the maximum value of atail and the minimum value of 0. In addition, the formula to calculate the drawing volume is proposed subsequently. The deflection of drawing body is numerically simulated using particle flow code PFC3D and the proposed formula to calculate drawing volume in LTCC is also verified.

  3. Gas effusion of full-mechanized top coal caving in Jiaoping Mine Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Man-gui; WANG Guo-qi; MIN Long

    2008-01-01

    According to the gas observational data, the gas spatiotemporal distributionswere analyzed in full-mechanized top coal caving in thick, hard and high-gas seams. Thefactors influencing gas effusion were researched and the rules of gas effusion under thespecial conditions were educed, for example, the underground pressure, the output inten-sity, the working surface advancement, and the amount of ventilation in the working faceon gas effusion, and so on. The research results can be the base of forecasting gas effu-sion and controlling gas in these special conditions, which can guarantee the safety ofhighly efficient full-mechanized top coal caving.

  4. Numerical simulation of land subsidence and verification of its character for an iron mine using sublevel caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Shuai; Song Weidong; Deng Dan; Lei Yuankun; Lan Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Combined with a digital bored photography system and in-situ statistics concerning the joints and fis-sures of both ore-body and surrounding rock, a 2D discrete model was constructed using UDEC. The stress field and displacement field changes of different sublevel stoping systems were also studied. Changes in the overlying rock strata settlement pattern has been analyzed and validated by in-situ monitoring data. The results show that:in the caving process, there exists an obvious delay and jump for the overlying rock strata displacement over time, and a stable arch can be formed in the process of caving, which leads to hidden goafs. Disturbed by the mining activity, a stress increase occurred in both the hanging wall and the foot wall, demonstrating a hump-shaped distribution pattern. From the comparison between simu-lation results and in-situ monitoring results, land subsidence shows a slow-development, sudden-failure, slow-development cycle pattern, which leads eventually to a stable state. This pattern validates the existence of balanced arch and hidden goafs.

  5. Calculation Analysis on Recovery Ratio of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining Face%综放工作面回采率计算分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海湧

    2011-01-01

    基于放顶煤工作面煤炭回采率的计算只是简单地以原煤产量除以可采的地质储量,得到的工作面回采率值通常偏高,缺乏科学性、准确性和客观性.在神东柳塔煤矿08综放工作面计算回采率时,采用以纯煤产量值计算工作面回采率的方法,即在原煤产量中扣除混入在煤炭中的矸石量和外在水分作为真实产量,每天再对顶煤厚度的钻探数据计算工作面应采的煤炭地质储量,两者之比即为该综放工作面的准确回采率.建议将该计算步骤和方法用于今后综放工作面回采率的计算.%The calculation of the coal mining recovery ratio of the top coal caving mining face was simply based on the raw coal production divided by the mincable geological reserves. The obtained coal mining recovery ratio of the coal mining face usually would be too high and would lack scientificalness, accuracy and objectivity. During the calculation of the coal mining ratio for No. 08 fully mechanized top coal caving mining face in Shendong Liuta Mine, a net coal production value method was applied to calculate the coal mining recovery ratio of the coal mining and th at the real coal production value would be the raw coal production minus therejects in the coal and the surface moisture. Then the daily drilling and exploration data of the top coal thickness was applied to calculate the coal geological reserves required for the coal mining face and the comparison between the two would be the accurate mining ratio of the fully mechanized top caving mining face. The calculation procedure and methods was proposed to be the basis for the mining recovery ratio of the fully mechanized top coal acing mining face in the near future.

  6. Geographical and geological data from caves and mines infected with white-nose syndrome (WNS) before September 2009 in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, a white fungus named Geomyces destructans has been observed on the muzzles, noses, ears, and (or) wings of bats in the eastern United States, and bat colonies that are infected with this fungus have experienced dramatic incidences of mortality. Although it is not exactly certain how and why these bats are dying, this condition has been named white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS appears to have spread from an initial infection site at a cave that is connected to a commercial cave in New York, and by the end of August 2009 was identified in at least 74 other sites in the eastern United States. Although detailed geographical and geological data are limited, a review of the available data shows that sites infected with WNS before September 2009 include both natural caves and mines. These infected sites extend from New Hampshire to Virginia, and known site elevations range from 84 to 2693 feet above sea level. In terms of geological setting, the infected sites include sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks of ages ranging from Precambrian to Jurassic. However, by the end of August 2009, no infected sites had been identified in strata of Mississippian, Cretaceous, or Triassic age. Meteorological data are sparse, but most of the recorded air temperatures in the known WNS-infected caves and mines range from 0 to 13.9 degrees C, and humidity measurements range from 68 to 100 percent. Although it is not certain which environmental parameters are important for WNS, it is hoped that the geographical and geological information presented in this paper will inform and clarify some of the debate about WNS, lead to greater understanding of the environmental parameters associated with WNS, and highlight the paucity of scientific data from caves in the eastern United States.

  7. SPELEOTHERAPY DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA ON THE WORLD CONTEXT AND PERSPECTIVES FOR USE OF SOME SALT MINES AND KARST CAVES FOR SPELEOTHERAPEUTIC AND BALNEOCLIMATIC TOURISM PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionca Iuri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Speleotherapy (ST is a relatively new method of complementary medicine, although, as is well known ancient tribes appreciated isolation in underwater caves, salt or karst caves, or possessing various ores and was officially recognized in the years 1950-1960 in Germany (K.Spannagel, 1961 and Poland (M. Skulimowski, 1965. Professor Mieczyslaw Skulimowski has granted of speleotherapy in "Wieliczka" Salt Mine, the name of subterraneotherapy, soon to be also called the Skulimowski method. Number of speleotherapeutic centers and speleotherapy symposiums has increased considerably (H.Trimmel, 1994. Speleotherapy in the underground now is an effective therapeutic method for the treatment of obstructive respiratory tract diseases, especially of patients with bronchial asthma (BA, the upward and effective practice in Central and Eastern Europe, but also in the West: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Hungary etc.

  8. Study on the Law of Overlying Strata Movement in Deep Mining and High Comprehensive Caving Mining%深部大采高综放开采覆岩运动规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于克梁; 张贵银; 于涛

    2015-01-01

    龙堌煤矿1301工作面为深井大采高综放工作面,为了分析大采高条件下综放开采煤壁裂隙的发育特征,应用UDEC软件研究了在深井复杂条件下,采场应力随着工作面推进的分布特征和顶煤塑性破坏规律的影响,确定了1302工作面基本顶来压时,超前支承压力峰值点位置至煤壁距离由来压前的8.5 m变为12.2 m(初次来压),周期来压步距为23 m。%1301 working face in Longgu Coal Mine deep well mining height fully mechanized face with caving working face, in order to analyze large mining high under the condition of fully mechanized top coal caving characteristics of the development of the coal wall fracture, using UDEC software was studied in complicated deep well conditions, stope stress with the effect of elastoplastic failure law of working face advancing distribution characteristics of top coal, determined the 1302 face basic top pressing ahead for 12.2 meters (initial pressure variable pressure of abutment pressure peak position to coal wall distance origin of 8.5 meters), the periodic weighting step distance is 23 meters.

  9. Economic Valuation of Mining Heritage from a Recreational Approach: Application to the Case of El Soplao Cave in Spain (Geosite UR004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pérez-Álvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heritage tourism can increase incomes and stimulate the economy in former mining areas. Recreational tourism is one of the main sources of value of heritage. People from urban areas are willing to pay for access to these tourism options. The measurement of the economic impact of this availability is one of the main problems to confront, due to the immeasurable possibilities of heritage resources. The use of non-market values and their estimation by means of revealed preference methods should help to assess the economic value of this sort of resources from a recreational perspective. The travel cost method (TCM is widely used to value areas with recreational uses, such as lakes, beaches or forests, but there are not references to previous applications of this methodology in the field of mining heritage. In this work, TCM has been applied to obtain the economic value of El Soplao Cave (Geosite UR004, Cantabria, Spain as a recreational site, providing an estimated result of 34,961,162 euros.

  10. 波状厚煤层综放开采矿压显现规律分析%Analysis of the Strata-pressure Behavior of Fully Mechanized Caving Mining in Undulate and Thick Coal Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 方新秋; 张亮

    2012-01-01

    Through carrying on the field strata control observation of 1301 fully mechanized caving face in Guojiahe coal mine,the movement characteristics of roof rock is analyzed,and the strata-pressure behavior is mastered too.There is certain reference in studying strata-pressure behavior and determining reasonable working resistance of support on fully mechanized caving face of Linbei coal field.%通过对郭家河煤矿1301综放面进行现场矿压观测,分析研究该综放面顶板覆岩运动特征,掌握其矿压显现规律,对麟北煤田综放面矿压显现规律研究和确定合理支架工作阻力具有一定的借鉴作用。

  11. Study on Micro Seismic Monitoring and Measuring Technology in High Cutting Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining of Deep Mine%深井大采高综放开采微震监测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 姜福兴; 任艳芳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the application of the micro seismic monitoring and measuring technology to the coal mining face, the monitoring and measuring technology was applied to the study on the overburden strata movement law and the mining support pressure distribution law of the fully mechanized top coal caving mining face in deep mine with thick overburden. In combination with the monitoring and measuring parameters, the basis could be provided to determine the working resistance of the powered support in the coal mining face. The study results showed that periodical weighting step distance of the coal mining face was 21.6 - 25.4 m and the average was 23.4 m. The weighting step distance of the high level roof was 56. 3 - 62. 3 m, the average was 59. 3 m and the max broken height was 70 m. The thickness of the seam immediate roof and the thickness of the base roof and high level roof were 30, 20 and 20 m individually. The influence scope of the strike abutment pressure in the coal mining face was 42. 7 - 54. 2 m and the average was 48. 6 m. The peak location of the abutment pressure was determined and could provide the theoretical basis to determine the advance support distance during the mining process in the mine. According to the mine strata pressure parameters obtained with the micro seismic monitoring and measuring technology, the rational working resistance of the powered support was determined as 15 000 kN.%基于微震监测技术在回采工作面的应用,采用该技术对厚表土深井综放开采工作面覆岩运动规律和采动支承压力分布规律进行了研究,并结合监测参数为工作面支架工作阻力的确定提供依据。研究结果表明:工作面周期来压步距21.6~25.4m,平均23.4m;高位顶板来压步距56.3—62.3m,平均59.3m,最大断裂高度70m;煤层直接顶厚度、基本顶板和高位顶板厚度分别为30、20、20m;工作面走向支承压力影响范围42.7~54.2m,平均48.6m,

  12. Testing on Sub-step Caving and Long -wall Controlling Blasting Mining Method at Yinan Gold Mine%沂南金矿分步放顶阶段长壁控爆连续采矿法试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万记龙; 张洪波; 武传利

    2014-01-01

    Based on the inclined thin and thickness orebody at the 101 stope at Yinan Gold Mine , the sub -step caving and long -wall controlling blasting mining method was tested and applied . By applying the sub-step caving and continuous mining method , the underground pressure of stope was transferred to goaf . In this paper , the characteristic of mining method was introduced to mining development , slot and stoping method . T he mining method is suitable to the inclined thin and thickness orebody of the 101 stope , w hich is meaningful to safety and efficient of similar mines .%以沂南金矿金场矿区101号缓倾斜薄及中厚矿体为工程背景,开展了分步放顶阶段长壁控爆连续采矿新方法的试验及应用。采用连续开采方式,并相应的对采空区采用分步放顶卸压。详细论述了该方案特征及采准、切割、回采工艺。该采矿技术工业试验效果良好,对类似矿山的安全高效开采具有一定的借鉴与指导意义。

  13. Practice of Mining Technique by Passing Through Empty Drifton Fully Mechanized Caving Face in Thick Coal Seam%厚煤层综放工作面过空巷开采技术实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫俊杰

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively solve the problem on safety mining technology of Chian passing through empty drift on fully mechanized caving face faced by HanJawa Coal Mine and prevent the happening of roof fall acci-dent during backstopping,this paper presents a set of technical safety measures which includes setting up a support by building wood crib to laying artifical roof at working face on Anchor Craning Beam in empty drift, using long bar as a base,slanting the working face,decreasing height of backstopping and caving face stand processing sliding advance of the support under pressure in advance,to control the deformation of surrounding rocks in empty drift and ensure the safety backstopping of passing through empty drift on fully mechanized ca-ving face,according to analyze the location of empty drift and the influence to backstopping caving face coming from cross -section factors.%为了有效解决韩家洼煤矿综放工作面过空巷安全开采技术问题,防止回采过程中冒顶事故的发生,通过分析空巷位置和断面因素对回采工作面的影响,提出在空巷中采用锚索梁上架设木垛的支护方式铺设工作面假顶,采取长钢梁垫底、工作面调斜、降低回采高度和工作面支架超前带压擦顶移架等安全技术措施,有效控制空巷围岩变形,确保综放面过空巷安全回采。

  14. Mycobiome of the bat white nose syndrome affected caves and mines reveals diversity of fungi and local adaptation by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans (Pd are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD and culture-independent (CI methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'. CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS. The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS.

  15. Cave Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    hypothesis, that cave rings are formed in the same manner as coffee rings[3], that is, due to the enhanced deposition at the edges of sessile drops ...ring’ is the deposit formed when a sessile drop of a solution containing dissolved particles, such as coffee or salt, dries. This was investigated by...who expanded on Deegan et al.[3] to find an exact form for the evaporation flux over a sessile drop . It turns out that solving 179 for the flux is

  16. Tests of an integrated mechanized winning with a coal plough at 35-40{degree} and caving mining, comparison with shearers; Ensayos de arranque mecanizado integral con cepillo en 35-40{degree} y hundamiento, comparacion con rozadura. Informe final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The equipment was tested during 1991 and 1992 in the Asturias coal field, on sloping seams. The geology of the mine is described, with details of the seams cut during this period. The number of passes with the coal plough per day were noted, and its productivity. The equipment was provided with shield supports, the dimensions and operation of which are given. The use of the shielded plough in caving mining is described. The number of accidents during the testing period are compared with those from other faces. Productivity is higher using this method, and costs are lower. The cost of the equipment can be recovered in savings made over 855 working days. 63 figs., 9 plates., 4 tabs., 4 graphs.

  17. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2015-11-01

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to (222)Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors.

  18. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  19. Research on key technology of revolving mining the triangle coal in boundaries of full-mechanized caving mining face with heavy equipment%重型装备综放工作面旋转开采边界三角煤关键技术研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高维智; 张会军; 张学亮

    2015-01-01

    由于重型装备的综放工作面支架吨位大,前后部刮板输送机与转载机等端头设备搭接关系极其复杂,设备旋转过程中调架、移动管理难度极大,效率较低。因此,从重型设备综放工作面的设备搭接、工艺优化、巷道布置等方面做了详细研究,提出了重型装备综放工作面旋转开采成套关键技术。%The supports in full-mechanized caving mining face with heavy equipment have large tonnage,the lapping relations of end equipment such as scraper conveyer and reversed load-er are extremely complex,the difficulty of support shifting and movement management in process of equipment revolving is great and the efficiency is low. Based on above problems,e-quipment lapping,process optimization and roadway layout were researched,and the complete key technology of revolving mining in full-mechanized caving mining face with heavy equipment was put forward.

  20. Mining Technology and Practices of Fully-Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining Face in Gently Inclined Thick Seam Passing Through Abandoned Gateway%缓倾斜厚煤层综放工作面跨空巷开采技术与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐佐胜; 张秉钊; 曹旭光; 杨一帆; 张铎; 李鹏

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent a roof falling in an abandoned gateway,roof falling in a front of the powered support and other accidents oc-curred during a mining process of No.6701 fully-mechanized top coal caving mining face passing through the abandoned gateway in Hong-hui No.6 Mine and to ensure in time support during the mining process of coal mining face,with establishment of powered support mechan-ics model when the coal mining face was in normal pushing forward and the coal mining face was closed to the abandoned gateway,stress status of the powered support was studied when the coal mining face was in normal pushing forward process and was closed to the aban-doned gateway.The study results showed that when the coal mining face was passing through the abandoned gateway,a working resistance of the powered support would be increased and would be 1. 5~ 2. 0 times higher than a normal periodical roof weighting.When an advance a-bandoned gateway support plan combined with wood stacks and mineral waste backfilling applied,deformation of surrounding rock section in the abandoned gateway could be well controlled with slab beams setting on the seam floor,false-inclined mining face,rapid pushing for-ward speed,a controlled top coal caving quantity when the coal mining face passing through the abandoned gateway,powered support for-ward moving with a closed pressure against with the roof and other comprehensive technical measures in order to ensure safety mining of the fully-mechanized top coal caving face passing through the abandoned gateway.%为了防止红会四矿6701综放工作面跨空巷回采过程中出现空巷冒落、架前冒顶等事故,确保工作面回采过程支护及时到位。通过建立工作面正常推进及工作面渐近空巷时的支架力学模型,研究了支架在正常推进过程和渐近空巷时的受力状态。结果表明:工作面过空巷时支架工作阻力将增大,一般为正常周期来压的1.5~2.0倍;通过采用架设

  1. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  2. Exploring old caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luana Belli, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Quarries, caves and mines often contain fossils. During the '30s in Rome, the urban expansion needs for building materials such as gravel, sand and clay were extracted from quarries that surrounded the city. One of these quarries in particular, in the area of Saccopastore (Nomentana area 3 km from the University Sapienza Roma) returned an ancient human fossil skull belonging to a Neanderthal (most likely a female) who lived in Latium about 120,000 years ago. Detailed studies of this fossil were carried out by Sergio Sergi, the son of the founder of the Museum of Anthropology in Rome, Giuseppe Sergi. The museum was founded in 1884 and was later transferred to the University City (1934) where it is still located. Professor Maria Luana Belli, a science teacher in the Liceo Scientifico "G. Keplero" is a volunteer and collaborator with the Museum "G. Sergi", and she and her students retrace the places of the discovery on the trail of the Neanderthals, for understanding the evolution of the territory in a perspective of interdisciplinary teaching.

  3. Urang Cave Karst Environmental Development, as Tourism Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijono Srijono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst environment become an alternative tourist destination as well as to boost local revenues. In karst environments in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, formed Urang Cave, with an interesting endokarst phenomenon. This study aims to do zoning district Urang Cave as tourist sites. The research method is using contour maps as a base map of Urang Cave karst environment geomorphological mapping. Geomorphological data processing is using ArcView GIS 3.3 program. Land use map refers to RBI, scale 1:25.000. Geomorphological analysis refers to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 1456.K/20/MEM/2000, and petrography. Each development zone is analyzed its geophysical environmental element, then set scoring and value summation. For comprehensive environmental element analysis, chemical analysis of rocks, and water-soil chemistry. In reference to Minister of Energy Mineral Resource decrees No. 1456/K/20/MEM/2000, Urang Cave zoning defined into 3 (three zone, as follow: the Protected Zone, Cultivation Zone 1, and Cultivation Zone 2. Protected Zone, consists of Urang Cave tunnel/hallway with a unique spheleothem in it. This zone as a cave tracking site tourism, potential to produce karst water as a decent drinking water while maintaining hardness. Cultivation Zone 1 is spreading about 200 m in distance from outer appearance of spring around the cave hallway. In this zone mining of cave sediments may be done in the inactive form caves, without changing the state of the existing major exokarst morphology. Cultivation Zone 2, an outer zone, located farthest from the tunnel/hallway Urang Cave. Utilization of this zone as a limestone mining quarry, although only on a small scale.

  4. The Crystals Cave in a test tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, C.; Romero, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    It's quite easy to understand formation of crystals in Nature by evaporation of the solutions that contain minerals, but many times we have realised that our pupils hardly understand that precipitation is a process mostly caused by changing parameters in a solution, like pH, temperature, etc. and not necessarily depending on evaporation. We propose a hands-on activity using the context of the Cave of the Crystals in Naica's mine, Mexico. The Crystals Cave is a wonderful place where giant crystals of selenite (gypsum) have grown feeding from a supersaturated anhydrite solution1. Miners discovered the cave filled with hot water, and drained it to explore the gallery. The cave is now a giant laboratory where scientists are looking for the keys to understand geological processes. Teaching sequence (for students 15 years old) is as follows: DISCOVERING A MARVELLOUS PLACE: We showed our pupils several images and a short video of the Cave of the Crystals and ask them about the process that may have caused the phenomenon. Whole-class discussion. PRESENTING A CHALLENGE TO OUR STUDENTS: "COULD WE CREATE A CRYSTALS CAVE IN A TEST TUBE?" EXPERIMENTING TO IMITATE NATURE: Students tried to grow crystals simulating the same conditions as those in Naica's mine. We have chosen KNO3, a salt more soluble than gypsum. We added 85 g of salt to 200 ml of water (solubility of KNO3 at 25°C is 36 g per 100 gr of water) and heated it until it is dissolved. Afterwards, we poured the solution into some test tubes and other recipients and let them cool at room temperature. And they got a beautiful crystals cave!! THINKING A LITTLE MORE: we asked pupils some questions to make them think about the process and to predict what would happen in different situations. For example: a) What would happen with crystals if we heated the tubes again? or b) What would happen if we took the remaining solution from the tubes and keep it in the fridge? PROVING A NEW HYPOTHESIS: Pupils collected the remaining

  5. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Allegrucci

    Full Text Available The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA. Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  6. 特厚煤层大采高综放工作面覆岩上层活动规律的相似模拟研究%Analog Simulation Study on Deformation and Failure Laws of Overlying Strata of Full -mechanized Top- coal Caving Face with Large Mining Height in Extra Thick Coal Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义东; 李英明

    2011-01-01

    In order to know well the movement pattern of overlying strata and the distribution of abutment pressure in the fullmechanized top - coal caving face with large mining height of the 4# coal seam of which thickness is form 14 m to 20 m, in Liuhuanggou coal mine of Xinjiang Hami Coal Industry (Group)Co.Ltd, physical simulation experiment and studies were carried out.The results showed that a stable arch structure can form in overlying strata of full - mechanized top - coal caving face with large mining height of extra thick coal seam, under the stable arch structure the fractured rock beam becomes a multispan beam structure.The deformation and unstability of the structure in overlying strata of full - mechanized top - coal caving face with large mining height dominate the abutment pressure distribution and strata pressure behavior of coal mining face.%新疆哈密煤业集团硫磺沟矿4号煤层厚度为14~20m,为掌握该特厚煤层综放工作面上覆岩层活动规律以及支承压力分布特点,采用物理相似模拟方法进行了研究,研究结果表明,特厚大采高综放工作面的上位岩层可以形成稳定拱结构,而在稳定拱大结构之下,断裂岩梁形成多跨梁的结构.大采高综放采场上覆岩层的这种结构的变形和失稳将决定采场的支承压力分布和工作面的矿压显现.

  7. 长壁全垮法开采和限厚条带开采对生态环境影响比较分析%Comparison of Long-wall Roof-caved Method and Strip Mining Method's Influence on Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹凤平

    2013-01-01

    以亭南矿为研究对象,采用《建筑物、水体、铁路及主要井巷煤柱留设与压煤开采规程》中模式,预测亭南矿全部垮落法开采和限厚条带开采2种不同开采方式的地表沉陷、移动变形等情况.通过类比分析得出条带开采对生态环境影响较小,对地表植被的生长、耕地农作物生产影响较小,条带开采生态环境影响区农作物减产量(232.4t)较全部垮落法开采减产量(345.2t)少112.8t,从而论证了煤炭开采技术的合理选择对生态环境保护和资源合理利用的重要意义.%Applying prediction method from Coal Mining Regulations under Buildings,Water Bodies and Railways and Width of Main Shaft Pillar,this paper predicted surface subsidence,movement and deformation of 2 different mining methods including roof-caved mining and strip mining in Tingnan Colliery.Result showed that the influence of strip mining on ecological environment,surface vegetation and crop was minor,crop production reduction amount of strip mining (232.4t) reduced 112.8t than that of roof-caved mining,which proved rationally selecting mining method had important significance for ecological environmental protection and resource utilization.

  8. Dunhuang Mogao Caves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    AS the 20th century approached, a Taoist discovered a cave on the desolate Gobi in Northwest China. Within this cave were hidden more than 40,000 pieces of Buddhist scripture, embroideries, paintings and books on various subjects, such as religion, history,

  9. Recognition of microclimate zones through radon mapping, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.I.; LaRock, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radon concentrations range from temperature and barometric pressure, similar to other Type 2 caves. Most of the cave is developed in three geographic branches beneath the entrance passages; these areas maintain Rn levels independent of surface effects, an indication that Rn levels in deep, complex caves or mines cannot be simply estimated by outside atmospheric parameters. These deeper, more isolated areas are subject to convective ventilation driven by temperature differences along the 477-m vertical extent of the cave. Radon concentrations are used to delineate six microclimate zones (air circulation cells) throughout the cave in conjunction with observed airflow data. Suspected surface connections contribute fresh air to remote cave areas demonstrated by anomalous Rn lows surrounded by higher values, the presence of mammalian skeletal remains, CO2 concentrations and temperatures lower than the cave mean, and associated surficial karst features.

  10. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  11. Carroll Cave: a Missouri legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll Cave is one of the premiere caves of Missouri and the Ozarks region. At over 20 miles of surveyed passage, it is the 2nd longest cave in the state and 33rd longest in the nation. It is also the largest known cave formed in the Ordovician aged (443-485 million years ago) Gasconade Dolomite o...

  12. Analysis of the dialectical relation between top coal caving and coal-gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-zheng; XIA Yong-jun; TANG Bing; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2009-01-01

    According to the different engineering mechanical states of top coal caving and normal stoping of gaseous loose thick coal seams, the dialectical relation between this caving method and dynamic disasters was analyzed by simulating the change of stress states in the process of top coal initial caving with different mining and caving ratios based on the ANSYS10.0. The variation of elastic energy and methane expansion energy during first top coal caving was analyzed by first weighting and periodic weighting and combining with coal stress and deformation distribution of top coal normal stoping as well as positive and negative examples in top coal caving of outburst coal seam. The research shows that the outburst risk increases along with the increase of the caving ratio in the initial mining stage. In the period of normal stoping, when the mining and caving ratio is smaller than 1:3 and hard and massive overlying strata do not exist (periodic weighting is not obvious), it is beneficial to control ground stress leading type outburst. Thus, it is unreasonable to prohibit top coal caving in dangerous and outburst prone areas.

  13. Research on Feasibilityof Top-Coal Caving Based on Neural Network Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the neural network technique, this paper proposes a BP neural network model which integratesgeological factors which affect top-coal caving in a comprehensive index. The index of top-coal caving may be usedto forecast the mining cost of working faces, which shows the model's potential prospect of applications.

  14. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  15. 松软煤层综放开采护巷煤柱合理宽度研究%Study on Ratinal Width of Protective Coal Pillar in Mining Gateway of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Face in Soft Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉林

    2011-01-01

    汾西新阳矿综放工作面煤柱留设大,为了减少煤柱宽度,提高采区采出率,基于极限平衡理论的分析方法,推导出计算煤柱宽度的表达式,结合煤柱强度与高宽比关系,设计煤柱宽由35m减少到25 m;采用连续自动采集装置,实测得煤柱侧支承压力范围为10~12 m,所设计煤柱宽大于2倍塑性区宽,理论计算与测试结果具有很好的一致性。现场监测结果表明:掘进期间,煤柱侧巷道顶板位移85 mm,两帮移近70 mm,顶板深部、浅部离层分别为8和10 mm;回采期间,顶板及两帮位移分别为105和90 mm,离层没有变化,煤柱和巷道都保持稳定,满足安全生产要求。%In the fully mechanized coal caving mining face of Fenxi Xinyang Mine,the coal pillar left for the coal mining face was large.In order to reduce the coal pillar width and improve the coal recovery rate of the coal mining face,base on the analysis method of the limit balance theory,the expression to calculate the coal pillar width was derived.With the relationship between the coal pillar strength and the high and wide ratio,the designed coal pillar width was as reduced from 35 m to 25 m.With the continued automatic sampling device,the actual measured data showed that the lateral support pressure scope of the coal pillar would be 10~12 m.The coal width designed would be two times wider than the width of the plastic zone and the theoretical calculation and the measured results could be well fitted.The site monitoring and measuring results showed that during the gateway driving period of the coal mining face,the gateway roof displacement at the coal pillar would be 85 mm,the convergence between the two side walls would be 70 mm and the separation in the shallow section of the roof would be 8 mm and 10 mm individually.During the mining operation period,convergence of the roof and the two side walls was increased to 105 mm and 90 mm individually,the separation in the roof strata was not changed

  16. Numerical analysis of application for induction caving roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jian-hua; ZHOU Ke-ping; LI Xi-bing; YANG Nian-ge; SU Jia-hong

    2005-01-01

    New method for handling roof of the base successive mining is proposed, which is induction caving in the roof. The key is that it is made certain to the station of the space-time in the induction caving roof, as the stress is released with the mining process. And applying the catastrophe theory, the influencing factors of induction caving roof are studied in the emptied areas, such as the mechanical property of the surrounding rock, the area of the gob,the scope and dimension of tensile stress. The results show that the key factor is the area of the gob to the method of the induction caving roof. Then according to the geology and the ore characteristic, the three dimension FEM mechanical model is built in Tongkeng Mine, the laws of the tensile stress are analyzed to the space and the time in the roof with the mining, then it is rational design to the mine step and time of the handing the roof.

  17. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  18. Unexplored diversity and conservation potential of neotropical hot caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladle, Richard J; Firmino, João V L; Malhado, Ana C M; Rodríguez-Durán, Armando

    2012-12-01

    The term hot cave is used to describe some subterranean chambers in the Neotropics that are characterized by constantly high ambient temperatures generated by the body heat of high densities of certain bat species. Many of these species have limited geographic ranges, and some occur only in the hot-cave environment. In addition to the bats, the stable microclimate and abundant bat guano provides refuge and food for a high diversity of invertebrates. Hot caves have so far been described in the Caribbean and in a few isolated locations from Mexico to Brazil, although there is some evidence that similar caves may be present throughout the tropics. The existing literature suggests these poorly known ecosystems, with their unique combination of geomorphology and bat-generated microclimate, are particularly sensitive to disturbance and face multiple threats from urbanization, agricultural development, mining, and tourism.

  19. Energy expenditure in caving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Giorgia; Marini, Elisabetta; Curreli, Nicoletta; Tuveri, Valerio; Comandini, Ornella; Cabras, Stefano; Gabba, Silvia; Madeddu, Clelia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Rinaldi, Andrea C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE) was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1), respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  20. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  1. 011604 fully mechanized top coal caving face round mining practice and discussion%011604综采放顶煤工作面的转采实践与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张补明

    2014-01-01

    倾斜长臂综采放顶煤工作面,转采角23°,转采工艺的设计及转采时的斜切比例,对控制前后刮板机、支架下滑采取的安全措施和拐点扩帮区域有着特殊的支护。根据上下巷两拐点不在同一素线的情况,确定上巷推进越过拐点的超前距离。选择工作面以外的旋转中心,是为了克服长短刀推进时给工作面带来的困难和影响,以及对工作面工程质量的影响,同时也加大了长短刀的比例。通过割煤、推移刮板机的方向和拉支架的顺序,控制前后刮板机上下窜量,以保证两机头的接煤效果。按计算出的拐点扩帮量,估算了顶板的压力,选择了转角处分两次扩帮、锚杆锚索外加单体支柱和木垛的支护方式和方法,确保了顶板的稳定和安全。%Slant long arm of fully mechanized top coal caving face with a face length rotating mining angle 23°, the design of rotating mining craft and beveling proportion control front and back scraper and stent decline, take special support for inflection point expanding state regional. According to the upper and lower lane inflection points are not in the same line, confirm the ad-vance distance across the inflection point lane. Choose the center of rotation outside working face to overcome the difficulties and influence that long-short knife takes to working, as well as engineering quality while boosting, but also increased the proportion of long -short knife. By cutting coal scraper, change bracket direction and limb frame sequence, control before and after the scraper shift to ensure coal receiving effect, estimating the roof pressure according to inflection point expansion amount, choose a support way and method on two times expansion angle of rock bolt anchor rope coupled with single prop and wood block at the corner, to ensure the stability and security of the roof.

  2. Arrangement of anchor reinforcement in roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾攀峰; 陈启永; 芦付松

    2003-01-01

    Bolting of mining roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving has been practised successfully in Hebi mining area.It provides a new method for roadway support and settles the problem of support difficulty radically for sublevel caving in Hebi mining area.Where anchor reinforcement holds an important station in roadway support.This article brings forward the arrangement project of anchor based on theoretic analysis.Compared with arranged in the middle of the entry, anchor arranged in the vertex of the entry can reduces the length of anchor,shortens the anchor installation time,and heightens the reliability of anchor installation.

  3. 厚冲积层下大采高综放工作面顶板控制机理与实践%Thick alluvium full-mechanized caving mining with large mining height face roof control mechanism and practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立强; 张东升; 孙广京; 崔泰贺; 周焘

    2013-01-01

    龙固煤矿主采煤层上覆基岩厚度平均不足200 m,但基岩上方赋存着厚度平均超过700 m的厚冲积层,针对厚冲积层条件下工作面矿山压力与顶板的控制难题,分析了大采高长壁综放工作面上覆厚冲积层在采动卸荷条件下的承载特性,以及基岩发生台阶下沉的可能性及其对应临界厚度.研究结果表明,厚冲积层在其底部煤层大范围开挖后,自承载能力不强,其自重将以载荷形式作用在下伏基岩上,但当基岩厚度大于120 m时,断裂带岩层可以形成稳定的力学承载结构,确定工作面顶板具有可控性.在此基础上,研发了工作阻力为国内最大的ZF15000/23/43综放支架,对厚冲积层下大采高综放面围岩进行了有效控制.%The average thickness of the overlying bedrock of Longgu primary mineable coalseam is less than 200 m, but there is a thick alluvium averaging above 700 m above the bedrock. The bearing characteristic of fully mechanized longwallcaving face with large mining height on the condition of unloading, the possibility of step sinking and its critical thickness are analyzed in order to solvethe problems of the mine pressure atmining face and strata control under-thick alluvium condition. The results show that, whileits bearing capacity is not strong after large excavation underthe bottom of deep alluvium and itsweight is loaded onthe underlying bedrock, the fracture zone can form a stable mechanical bearing structurewhen the thickness of the bedrock is more than 120 m,so the coalface roof canbe controlled. On this basis,ZF15000/23/43 hydraulic support has been developed,with the largest working resistance in China. With this hydraulic support,the surrounding rock in fully mechanized caving coalface with large mining height underthick alluvium can becontrolled.

  4. 采空区积水下急倾斜厚煤层水平分层综放开采安全性分析%Safety Analysis of Steeply Inclined Thick Coal Seam with Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining under Goaf Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立明; 张玉军

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary gravel aquifer and the goaf water are the main threat of safety mining of steeply inclined thick coal seam with fully mechanized top coal caving mining in Meihe mining area. It is an important problem to be solved. Taking Mitsui 5109 zone as the research area,based on the transient electromagnetic sounding and the goaf water of and the failure height pre-diction on horizontal overburden of the steeply inclined thick coal seam,abundant coal pillars for the water barrier at F4 fault are set. In the light of the strata movement law,it is calculated that the mining influence in working face spread to the goaf water are-a. The evaluation shows that:before mining,the elevation of goaf water just declined to +172 m can ensure the safety mining.%第四系沙砾含水层及采空区积水是梅河矿区急倾斜特厚煤层残采区综放安全复采的主要威胁,也是亟待解决的重要问题。以三井5109区为研究区域,在对采空区积水瞬变电磁探测和对急倾斜特厚煤层水平分层覆岩破坏高度预计的基础上,对F4断层留设了足够的隔水煤柱,并针对岩层移动规律,求算出工作面采动影响波及到的采空区积水区的范围,评价结果认为:在回采前要确保采空区积水降至+172 m标高以下方能保证安全开采。

  5. 高瓦斯煤层综放工作面瓦斯运移规律实测研究%Site Measurement of Methane Migration in Full-mechanized Caving Mining Face in Coal-seam with High Methane Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延斌; 秦子晗; 于新河; 幺洪武; 尹立军

    2015-01-01

    By long-term site measurement and numerical simulation, methane gushing rule of S2205 mining face was re-searched. Different sources of methane and respective proportion was obtained. Methane gushing amount from gob occupied 48. 1% of methane gushing amount by ventilation. On the basis of statistical analysis of methane gushing variation in initial mining phrase and nor-mal mining phrase, it was found that variation of methane gushing amount was directly related with underground pressure behav-ior. Basic roof caving made coal fissure in advance of mining face evolve and extrude gob, which resulted in increasing of methane gushing amount and even exceeding limit. Analyzing methane gushing rule of full-mechanized caving mining face could provide reference for methane prevention.%以某矿S2205综放工作面为例,通过长期现场观测并结合数值模拟对综放工作面的瓦斯涌出规律进行研究,得到S2205工作面瓦斯涌出量的不同来源及各自所占比例,其中采空区内的瓦斯涌出量约占到工作面风排瓦斯涌出量的48.1%。同时对开采初期和正常回采期间的瓦斯涌出变化情况进行了统计和分析,发现瓦斯涌出量的变化与工作面矿压显现有着直接的联系,基本顶的垮落造成工作面前方煤体裂隙扩大和增加,并挤压采空区而导致瓦斯涌入工作面,造成工作面瓦斯涌出量的增大甚至超限。通过对综放工作面瓦斯涌出规律的分析,可以为高瓦斯综放工作面的瓦斯防治提供指导依据。

  6. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  7. 上榆泉煤矿10#层综放面预防采空区自燃发火技术实践%10 # layer on elm springs coal mine is fully mechanized caving face the prevention of spontaneous combustion in goaf technology practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雷

    2012-01-01

      To analyze the characteristics of the coal seams and coal quality, the coalbed natural characteristics as well as the coal spontaneous combustion risk evaluation. The coal mines buried in shallow conditions, several fully mechanized caving faces the prevention Gob angry should take technical measures.%  分析了煤层及煤质的特点,煤层自燃特性以及煤炭自燃发火危险性评价指标。论述了煤矿埋藏浅条件下,综放面预防采空区自燃发火应采取的几种技术措施。

  8. Bony anomaly of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the seemingly rare occurrence of bone formation within the proximal superior aspect of Meckel's cave thus forming a bony foramen for the proximal trigeminal nerve to traverse. The anatomy of Meckel's cave is reviewed and the clinical potential for nerve compression from this bony anomaly discussed.

  9. Meningiomas of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, R; Innocenzi, G; Ciappetta, P; Domenicucci, M; Cantore, G

    1992-12-01

    A series of 16 patients with meningiomas of Meckel's cave is reported. Trigeminal neuralgia, typical or atypical, was the initial symptom in 10 patients (62.5%). At admission, trigeminal signs and symptoms were present in 15 patients (93.7%); in 7 patients (43.7%), trigeminal dysfunction was combined with the impairment of other cranial nerves. On retrospective analysis, these patients fall into two clinical groups that differ also in prognosis. Group 1 comprises eight patients with trigeminal signs and symptoms only. These patients had small meningiomas strictly affecting Meckel's cave. Total removal of the tumor was achieved in seven of eight patients, without adjunctive postoperative neurological deficits. In this group, there were no tumor recurrences. Group 2 comprises the other eight patients in whom trigeminal dysfunction was combined with impairment of other cranial nerves. These patients had large tumors arising from Meckel's cave and secondarily invading the cavernous sinus (five patients) or extending into the posterior fossa (two patients) or largely growing into the middle fossa (one patient). Total removal was achieved in only one patient, and a worsening of the preoperative neurological status was observed in four patients; there were three cases of tumor progression. A subtemporal intradural approach (used in the past in every case) is still used for the small tumors of Group 1 with good results. Since 1985, for tumors involving the cavernous sinus, we have employed a frontotemporal craniotomy with extradural clinoidectomy and superior and lateral approach to the cavernous sinus. When the tumor extends toward the posterior fossa, we use a combined temporosuboccipital-transpetrosal approach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Research on micro-seismic activity rule in fully mechanized caving face of extra-thick coal seam in deep mine%深井特厚煤层综放工作面微震活动规律研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元杰

    2016-01-01

    新巨龙矿井2303S工作面开采深度900 m,为沿空工作面,工作面采用综合机械化放顶煤开采工艺。根据微震监测系统的监测数据,分析了2303S工作面微震事件分布规律,研究表明微震事件的能量释放具有明显的周期性,微震能量释放与工作面回采速度成正相关关系,工作面靠近断层位置时冲击危险性增大,工作面开采影响范围大致在工作面后方100 m到工作面前方200 m范围内,顶板破裂带高度在80 m左右。%The mining depth of 2303S working face in Xinjulong Mine was 900 m,the face that was gob-side working face adopted fully mechanized caving mining technology��According to monitoring data of micro-seismic monitoring system,distribution rule of micro-seismic events in the working face was analyzed��The research results showed that the energy release of micro-seis-mic had obvious periodicity,there was a positive correlation between the energy release and working face advance speed,and the rock burst risk in the working face near fault increased,the mining influence range was from 100 m behind the working face to 200 m ahead the working face, and the height of roof fracture zone was about 80 m.

  11. 千米深井复杂运输条件特厚煤层综放支架设计及参数优化%Design and Parameters Optimization of Full-mechanized Top-coal Caving Powered Support for Extremely-thick Coal-seam under Complex Transportation Condition in 1000 m Deep Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金虎

    2015-01-01

    为满足3号特厚煤层千米以上埋深、顶板控制要求和复杂运输条件,对不同采煤方法适应性和支架参数进行研究。研究结果表明:特厚煤层综放开采在回采率、成本控制、安全保障和设备配套等方面较分层和大采高综采具有较大优势,千米埋深特厚煤层所需支护强度为1.3~1.4MPa,支架设计ϕ300/220mm较大缸径立柱和1500mm较小中心距解决罐笼小尺寸运输和强力支护重型大设备之间的矛盾,采用铰接顶梁加强架前支护和方便运输,优化立柱布置保证足够的行人和操作空间,设置防倒防滑、双侧活动侧护板和抬底机构增强对较大倾角和较软底板的适应性。%In order to meet 1000m deep depth, roof controlling requirement and complex transportation condition of No. 3 extremely-thick coalseam, adaptability of different mining methods and powered support's parameters were researched. Results showed that full-mechanized top-coal caving mining had larger advantage in mining ratio, cost control, safety assurance and equipments matching, compared with slicing mining and large-mining-height full-mechanized mining method. For extremely-thick coalseam in 1000m deep mine, 1. 3-1. 4MPa supporting intensity, 300/220 cylinder diameter and 1500mm center distance was designed to solve the conflict of small size cage and large equipment. Articulated roof beam was applied to strengthening supporting and facilitating transportation. Prop arrangement was optimized to ensure enough pedestrian and operation space. Anti-slide and anti-dumping structure, side-guard plate and bottom-lift device was designed to strengthen adaptability for large inclined angle and soft floor.

  12. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  13. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  14. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-xiang Xie; Ke Yang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Safety and Efficiently Caving of Ministry of Education

    2009-06-15

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the macro stress shell, (MSS) distribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteristics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide theoretic references to the surrounding rocks stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Water Control Study for Extra-thick Coal Seam Fully Mechanized Caving Mining under Thick Sandy Conglomerate Aquifer%厚砂砾含水层下特厚煤层综放开采防治水技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英锋

    2011-01-01

    水帘洞煤矿地表水系发育,煤系地层上覆的白平系洛河组和宜君组巨厚层状砂砾岩含水层,含水丰富,对矿井的安全开采构成了威胁.在详细分析矿区顶板含水层特征、隔水层岩性组合特征及隔水性能基础上.采用比拟法计算了综放条件下顶板导水裂隙带发育高度,并用数值法研究了不同采宽条件下顶板导水裂缝带发育规律,预计了工作面涌水量,为评价煤矿综放条件下工作面安全回采可行性提供了科学的依据.%Surface drainage is rather developed in the Shuiliandong coalmine area, coal measures strata overlying Cretaceous Luohe and Yijun formations extra-thick layered sandy conglomerate aquifer contains abundant water and threatens safe working of coalmines.Based on detailed analysis of roof aquifer characteristics, aquffuge lithologie association characteristics and water confining performance, using analogue method estimated height of roof water conducted zone under fully mechanized caving condition, and using numerical method studied roof conducted zone development pattern under different shear width conditions, and predicted working face mine inflow.Thus the study has provided scientific basis for working face safe winning feasibility under coalmine fully mechanized caving condition.

  16. Relationship of coal and rock damage,underground behavior and methane gushing in fully-mechanized caving mining face%综放工作面煤岩破坏及矿压显现与瓦斯涌出关系的实测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁明月; 徐金海; 李冲

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain variation rules of methane gushing with mining procedure in fully-mechanized caving mining face,micro-seismic monitoring for coal and rock damage,underground behavior monitoring and methane gushing monitoring were done in S2205 face of Tunliu Colliery.3D time-space distribution of coal and rock damage,working resistance of powered supports and advanced abutment pressure variation were analyzed.Combined with methane gushing data,the authors researched the relationship of coal and rock damage,underground behavior and methane gushing.The results show that amounts of micro-seismic matters occurred in behind of coal wall with the mining face advanced,summit of micro-seismic matters' occurrence is earlier than that of the periodical pressure and the summit of methane gushing is later than that of periodical pressure.Therefore,micro-seismic matters variation might be used to predict underground pressure and methane gushing of mining face.The micro-seismic matters of fully-mechanized caving mining face in S2205 face of Tunliu Colliery and the sudden increase in energy are earlier than periodical pressure one day.And the fully destruction of coal rock is earlier than methane gushing eight hours.%为获取综放开采工作面瓦斯涌出随开采过程的变化规律,在屯留煤矿S2205综放工作面进行了煤岩破坏的微震监测、工作面矿压显现监测和瓦斯涌出的实测研究,分析了煤岩破坏的三维时空分布、工作面支架工作阻力和超前支承压力的变化情况,结合工作面瓦斯涌出监测数据,得到了综放工作面煤岩破坏、矿压显现和瓦斯涌出三者之间的关系。结果表明:工作面煤壁前方随工作面的推进而产生大量微震事件,微震事件峰值出现的时间一般略早于工作面周期来压,而瓦斯涌出量峰值的出现又略晚于工作面周期来压,可以根据微震事件变化来间接反映工作面矿压显现和瓦斯涌出情况。屯

  17. Yukonite from the Grotta della Monaca cave, Sant'Agata di Esaro, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Anna; Pinto, Daniela; Vurro, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We report the first Italian occurrence of yukonite, a rare hydrated arsenate of calcium and ferric iron, from Grotta della Monaca cave, S. Agata di Esaro, Cosenza, Italy. We have studied samples of cotype yukonite from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada, for comparison. At Grotta della Monaca...

  18. The future of the CAVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFanti, Thomas; Acevedo, Daniel; Ainsworth, Richard; Brown, Maxine; Cutchin, Steven; Dawe, Gregory; Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Johnson, Andrew; Knox, Chris; Kooima, Robert; Kuester, Falko; Leigh, Jason; Long, Lance; Otto, Peter; Petrovic, Vid; Ponto, Kevin; Prudhomme, Andrew; Rao, Ramesh; Renambot, Luc; Sandin, Daniel; Schulze, Jurgen; Smarr, Larry; Srinivasan, Madhu; Weber, Philip; Wickham, Gregory

    2011-03-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4-6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  19. The future of the CAVE

    KAUST Repository

    DeFanti, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  20. The migration law of overlay rock and coal in deeply inclined coal seam with fully mechanized top coal caving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Shan-Le; Wang, Hua-Jun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Geng, Xiaowei

    2015-07-01

    In a mine area, some environment geotechnics problems always occure, induced by mined-out region such as the subsidence and cracks at ground level, deformation and destruction of buildings, landslides destruction of water resources and the ecological environment. In order to research the migration of surrounding rock and coal in steeply inclined super high seams which used fully mechanized top coal caving, a working face of a certain mine was made as an example, analyzed the migration law of the overlay rock and coal under different caving ratio of fully mechanized top coal caving with numerical simulation analysis. The results suggest that the laws of overlay rock deformation caused by deeply inclined coal seam were different from horizontal coal seam. On the inclined direction, with an increase of dip angle and caving ratio, the vertical displacement of overlay rock and coal became greater, the asymmetric phenomenon of vertical displacement became obvious. On the trend direction, active region and transition region in goaf became smaller along with the increase of mining and caving ratio. On the contrary, the stable region area became greater. Therefore, there was an essential difference between the mechanism of surface movement deformation with deeply inclined coal seam and that with horizontal coal seam.

  1. Conventional approaches for assessment of caving behaviour and support requirement with regard to strata control experiences in longwall workings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.S.P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Effective control of roof strata is very important for trouble free operation and regular face advance in mechanised longwall workings. It is now technically possible to exploit coal seams in difficult geo-mining conditions with the help of newer innovations in longwall face machineries. A reliable assess-ment of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement helps in selecting supports of adequate capacity and making operational preparedness for timely and confident solution of impending problems. This paper reviews the mechanism of roof caving and the conventional approaches of caving behaviour and support requirement in the context of major strata control experiences gained worldwide. The re-view shows that a number of approaches are being used for advance prediction of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement in a variety of geo-mining conditions. The theoretical explanation of the mechanism of roof caving and the design function of roof supports have been worked out through staged development of approaches, their evaluation followed by their gradual modification and enrichment of synthesized findings. This process is still continuing with consistently improved understanding through growing field experiences in the larger domain of geo-mining conditions and state-of-art strata analysis and monitoring techniques. These attempts have contributed significantly to improving the level of understanding and reducing the gap of uncertainty in planning and design of longwall operation in a given geo-mining condition.

  2. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  3. Numerical simulation on the delivery law of gob gas of fully mechanized caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-gang; ZHANG Wei; LIN Hai-fei

    2008-01-01

    According to the cover rock caving features, the gob of fully mechanized cavingface was divided into 3 zones: natural collected zone, pressure effecting zone and pressstable zone. Based on these and the gob gas flow control equation, and considered the in-fluence to the mining fissured zone of gas drainage, also made use of CFD software, wefound an not uniform 3D numerical model of gob gas seepage and got the gas emissionlaw in gob of fully mechanized caving face (with or without discharge measures), and thiscan guide the engineering practice in some aspects.

  4. SAFETY PROBLEMS IN FULLY-MECHANIZED TOP-COAL CAVING.LONGWALL FACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健; 郭文章

    1994-01-01

    The thick-seam top-coal caving technology has been in use in China for over a decade, and has given rise to significant economic efficiencies. Efforts in recent years to extend its application to more complex mining conditions, mostly high-gas seams, with or without prononcss of spontaneous combustion, have brought about new safety problems. This paper will highlight the fcaturca and problems related with thick-seam top-coal caving systems, compared with conventional, fully=mechanized longwall systems, particularly issues related to methane, spontaneous combustion and dust, and discuss the methods and measures to deal with them.

  5. Behaviors of overlying strata in extra-thick coal seams using top-coal caving method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidents such as support failure and excessive deformation of roadways due to drastic changes in strata behaviors are frequently reported when mining the extra-thick coal seams Nos. 3–5 in Datong coal mine with top-coal caving method, which significantly hampers the mine's normal production. To understand the mechanism of strata failure, this paper presented a structure evolution model with respect to strata behaviors. Then the behaviors of strata overlying the extra-thick coal seams were studied with the combined method of theoretical analysis, physical simulation, and field measurement. The results show that the key strata, which are usually thick-hard strata, play an important role in overlying movement and may influence the mining-induced strata behaviors in the working face using top-coal caving method. The structural model of far-field key strata presents a “masonry beam” type structure when “horizontal O-X” breakage type happens. The rotational motion of the block imposed radial compressive stress on the surrounding rock mass of the roadway. This can induce excessive deformation of roadway near the goaf. Besides, this paper proposed a pre-control technology for the hard roof based on fracture holes and underground roof pre-splitting. It could effectively reduce stress concentration and release the accumulated energy of the strata, when mining underground coal resources with top-coal caving method.

  6. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  7. Using CAVE technology for functional genomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensen, Christoph W

    2002-01-01

    We have established the first Java 3D-enabled CAVE (CAVE automated virtual environment). The Java application programming interface allows the complete separation of the program development from the program execution, opening new application domains for the CAVE technology. Programs can be developed on any Java-enabled computer platform, including Windows, Macintosh, and Linux workstations, and executed in the CAVE without modification. The introduction of Java, one of the major programming environments for bioinformatics, into the CAVE environment allows the rapid development applications for genome research, especially for the analysis of the spatial and temporal data that are being produced by functional genomics experiments. The CAVE technology will play a major role in the modeling of biological systems that is necessary to understand how these systems are organized and how they function.

  8. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  9. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  10. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  11. Rational cutting height for large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Bingxiang; Li Hongtao; Liu Changyou; Xing Shijun; Xue Weichao

    2011-01-01

    Large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving is a new mining method that improves recovery ratio and single-pass production.It also allows safe and efficient mining.A rational cutting height is one key parameter of this technique.Numerical simulation and a granular-media model experiment were used to analyze the effect of cutting height on the rock pressure of a fully mechanized top-coal caving work face.The recovery ratio was also studied.As the cutting height increases the top-coal thickness is reduced.Changing the ratio of cutting to drawing height intensifies the face pressure and the top-coal shattering.A maximum cutting height exists under a given set of conditions due to issues with surrounding rock-mass control.An increase in cutting height makes the top-coal cave better and the recovery ratio when drawing top-coal is then improved.A method of adjusting the face rock pressure is presented.Changing the cutting to drawing height ratio is the technique used to control face rock pressure.The recovery ratio when cutting coal exceeds that when caving top-coal so the face recovery ratio may be improved by over sizing the cutting height and increasing the top-coal drawing ratio.An optimum ratio of cutting to drawing height exists that maximizes the face recovery ratio.A rational cutting height is determined by comprehensively considering the surrounding rock-mass control and the recovery ratio.At the same time increasing the cutting height can improve single pass mining during fully mechanized top-coal caving.

  12. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  13. Research on New Method of Full-Seam Mining for Gently Inclined Thick Coal Seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景礼; 郭志飙; 柳慧鹏; 赵立军

    2002-01-01

    The recovery ratio of top-coal caving mining plays a key role in the development of this mining method. For the proposes to raise the recovery ratio and considering heading advance and roadway maintenance, a new method of full - seam mining for gently inclined thick coal seams is put forward on the basis of a theoretic research and engineering practice.

  14. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  15. Cavernous hemangioma of Meckel's cave. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlings, M G; Tucker, W S

    1988-04-01

    A case of a cavernous hemangioma located within Meckel's cave and involving the gasserian ganglion is described in a patient presenting with facial pain and a trigeminal nerve deficit. Although these lesions have been reported to occur in the middle fossa, this is believed to be the first case of such a vascular malformation arising solely from within Meckel's cave.

  16. [Anatomic variants of Meckel's cave on MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Hadj-Rabia, M; Iffenecker, C; Fuerxer, F; Bekkali, F; Francke, J P; Doyon, D

    1998-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives an accurate analysis of Meckel's cave variability. Images were acquired in 50 patients with several sections for anatomical comparison. Using several sections, MRI is a suitable method for better analysis of the trigeminal cistern. The most frequent findings are symmetrical trigeminal cisterns. Expansion of Meckel's cave or its disappearance has pathological significance.

  17. Radiocarbon intercomparison program for Chauvet Cave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzange, Marie-Therese; Delque-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Goslar, Tomasz; Grootes, Pieter Meiert; Higham, Tom; Kaltnecker, Evelyne; Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Oberlin, Christine; Paterne, Martine; van der Plicht, Johannes; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Valladas, Helene; Clottes, Jean; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon intercomparison program on 3 different charcoal samples collected in one of the hearths of the Megaceros gallery of Chauvet Cave (Ardeche, France). This cave, rich in parietal decoration, is important for the study of

  18. Study on Pier Supporting Technology of Gas Drainage Gateway of Full-mechanized Caving Mining Face%高瓦斯综放工作面瓦排巷墩柱支护技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉生; 陈继刚; 王刚

    2015-01-01

    高瓦斯矿井综放工作面采用双“U ”型通风方式解除瓦斯的制约,但外圈巷道受动压影响变形大(底鼓量高达2.0 m),严重影响通风和行人的安全,一般采用木垛进行加强支护,效果不好。为此,提出了用高水速凝材料墩柱代替木垛进行加强支护。 FLAC3D数值模拟及现场矿压观测结果显示,墩柱支护优于木垛支护,并能有效地控制巷道围岩变形,平均每米巷道节约4243元,效益明显,为类似地质条件下巷道支护提供一种行之有效的方案。%The fully mechanized coal face of high-methane coal mine adopting double “U” type ventilation way remove the threat of methane.But the outer roadway affected by the dynamic pressure bringing about severe deformation ( the heaving floor reach up to 2.0 m), seriously affect the ventilation and pedestrians'safety.The general use of the crib timbering to reinforce supporting is unsatis-fied.Therefore, the reinforcement method of high-water and quick-setting pier instead of crib timbering is put forward.FLAC3D nu-merical simulation and field-observation results of rock pressure showed that the supporting can effectively control the deformation of surrounding rock of roadways and better than crib timbering, and save 4 243 yuan per meter roadway , benefit is obvious .This pro-vides an effective support scheme for roadway support in the similar geological conditions.

  19. Raman spectroscopy in the study of hydrothermal cave minerals: Implications for research on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Sanz, Aurelio; Audra, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Regarding that the ExoMars mission of the ESA, scheduled for launch in 2018 will be equipped with a Raman spectrometer, investigations by Raman spectroscopy on Earth's minerals are essential to interpret data coming from this further mission to Mars. Among terrestrial minerals, cave minerals represent an opportunity to better understand the genesis of Martian minerals and the evolution of Mars itself, in particular by studying minerals formed in hydrothermal conditions, as well as those generated due to hydrothermal alteration of previous materials. The absence of solar radiation, practically constant temperature at daily and seasonal scale and the presence of liquid water are some of the attractions which make caves interesting for Martian research. In the present work, we have studied a great variety of cave minerals from hypogenic/thermal mine-caves like the Giant Geode of Pulpí (south-eastern Spain), the caves of the Naica mine (northern Mexico), the caves of the San Giovanni Mountain (Sardinia, Italy) and Baume Galinière Cave (south-eastern France). Carbonate, sulphate, sulphurs and polymetallic oxyhydroxides are the most common minerals found in these cavities. Among them, it is worth noting the presence of several minerals of the jarosite group and gypsum, since these minerals have been recently discovered on the Mars surface. Both of them are hydrated minerals, which genetic mechanisms are linked to the presence of liquid water. In the case of jarosite minerals, identification of species like argentojarosite and plumbojarosite confers worth to the Raman technique against other methodologies, like XRD by which the characterization of the jarosite group minerals is difficult. As a consequence of the recent discovery of Ca-rich sulphates (probably gypsum) on the surface of Mars, attention has been focused on the terrestrial gypsiferous formations. The gypsum samples from the Giant Geode of Pulpí and the caves of the Naica mine, which are subject of this

  20. Denuded cave in Podbojev laz, Rakov Škocjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Stepišnik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a denuded cave situated in the area of Podbojev laz, on the northwestern side of the Rakov Škocjan. Morphometric and morphogenetic properties of several sections of the denuded cave and its surroundings are described in detail. The denuded cave developed from an epiphreatic cave system which used to function as an outflow cave system from the Rak valley. Morphometrical analysis of the slopes show that the denuded cave was developedin stages. As the surrounding surface is not flattened, the cave roof must have been denuded gradually.

  1. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  2. Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenya is one of the few countries in which karst cavities are scarce with respect to volcanic ones, which are widespread throughout the whole country. The great variability in lava composition allowed the evolution of very different cavities, some of which are amongst the largest lava tubes of the world. As normal for such a kind of cave, the hosted speleothems and cave minerals are scarce but important from the minerogenetic point of view. Anyway up to present no specific mineralogical research have been carried out therein. During the 8th International Symposium on Volcanospeleology, held in Nairobi in February 1998, some of the most important volcanic caves of Kenya have been visited and their speleothems and/or chemical deposits sampled: most of them were related to thick guano deposits once present inside these cavities. Speleothems mainly consisted of opal or gypsum, while the deposits related to guano often resulted in a mixture of sulphates and phosphates. The analyses confirmed the great variability in the minerogenetic mechanisms active inside the volcanic caves, which consequently allow the evolution of several different minerals even if the total amount of chemical deposit is scarce. Among the observed minerals kogarkoite, phillipsite and hydroxyapophyllite, must be cited because they are new cave minerals not only for the lava tubes of Kenya, but also for the world cave environment. The achieved results are compared with the available random data from previous literature in order to allow an updated overview on the secondary cave minerals of Kenya.

  3. Does the Cave Environment Reduce Functional Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Camile Sorbo; Batalha, Marco Antonio; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2016-01-01

    Caves are not colonised by all taxa present in the surface species pool, due to absence of light and the tendency to food limitation when compared to surface communities. Under strong species sorting during colonisation and later by the restrictive environmental filter, traits that are not adaptive in subterranean habitats may be filtered out. We tested whether cave communities were assembled by the restrictive regime propitiated by permanent darkness or by competitive exclusion due to resource scarcity. When compared to surface communities, the restrictive subterranean regime would lead to lower functional diversity and phenotypic clustering inside the caves, and the opposite should be expected in the case of competitive exclusion. Using isopods (Oniscidea) as model taxa, we measured several niche descriptors of taxa from surface and cave habitats, used a multivariate measure of functional diversity, and compared their widths. We found phenotypic overdispersion and higher functional diversity in cave taxa when compared to surface taxa. On the one hand, the dry climate outside of caves hampered the survival of several taxa and their ecological strategies, not viable under severe desiccation risk, culminating in the clustering of functional traits. In contrast, this restriction does not occur inside of caves, where isopods find favourable conditions under lower predation pressures and more amenable environmental parameters that allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Our results showed that, at least for some taxa, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought. The high functional diversity we found inside caves adds an additional reason for the conservation of these sensitive environments.

  4. Study on destressing technology for a roadway driven along goaf in a fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿群迪

    2003-01-01

    Based on the deformation characteristics of the roadways driven along goaf in fully mechanized top-coal caving faces, the author considers that it is the key to ensure the stability of surrounding rocks of roadway driven along goaf to control the deformation during the period affected by mining. Considering the characteristics of the roadway layout in fully mechanized top-coal caving faces, a technical scheme of destressing is put forward and the destressing effect is analyzed by using the software of Universal Distinct Element Code 3.0(UDEC 3.0).

  5. Influence of different mining layouts on the mechanical properties of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie; Heping; Zhao; Xiaoping; Liu; Jianfeng; Zhang; Ru; Xue; Dongjie

    2012-01-01

    Non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining are the most popular mining methods in coal exploitation,and the different mining layouts will change the stress state and failure mechanism of coal in front of the working face.In this paper,mining-induced mechanical behaviors under three mining layouts have been simulated in the laboratory to investigate the effects of mining layouts on the deformation and strength of coal.Furthermore,the coal failure mechanism under different mining layouts is analyzed microscopically.The experimental results indicate that the stage characteristics of the coal deformation are obvious.Under the serial action of non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining layouts,the values of radial deformation,volume strain and Poisson's ratio increase,while the peak strength and deformation modulus decrease at the same buried depth,and the peak strength under non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining is about 3.0,2.5 and 2.0 times of the initial confining pressure,respectively.The results also indicate that the trend of the coal deformation decreases with the increase of the buried depth under the same mining layout,while the strength and deformation modulus increase,and the failure mechanism under three mining layouts is dominated with shear/tensile failure.

  6. Influence Of different mining layouts on the mechanical properties of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Heping; Zhao Xiaoping; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Ru; Xue Dongjie

    2012-01-01

    Non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining are the most popular mining methods in coal exploitation,and the different mining layouts will change the stress state and failure mechanism of coal in front of the working face.In this paper,mining-induced mechanical behaviors under three mining layouts have been simulated in the laboratory to investigate the effects of mining layouts on the deformation and strength of coal.Furthermore,the coal failure mechanism under different mining layouts is analyzed microscopically.The experimental results indicate that the stage characteristics of the coal deformation are obvious.Under the serial action of non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining layouts,the values of radial deformation,volume strain and Poisson's ratio increase,while the peak strength and deformation modulus decrease at the same buried depth,and the peak strength under non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining is about 3.0,2.5 and 2.0 times of the initial confining pressure,respectively.The results also indicate that the trend of the coal deformation decreases with the increase of the buried depth under the same mining layout,while the strength and deformation modulus increase,and the failure mechanism under three mining layouts is dominated with shear/tensile failure.

  7. Bilateral Meckel's cave amyloidoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültaşli, N; van den Hauwe, L; Bruneau, M; D'Haene, N; Delpierre, I; Balériaux, D

    2012-05-01

    Primary solitary amyloidoma of Meckel's cave is rare, and a bilateral location is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 12 cases in the literature have described such a primary lesion, including one case of bilateral involvement of Meckel's cave. We report here on the case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with pseudotumor masses involving both Meckel's caves and responsible for trigeminal neuropathy. The final diagnosis of amyloidoma was made on the basis of histological examination of surgical biopsy specimens.

  8. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  9. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Levy

    2008-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis) may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically...

  10. Gas Fathering Scheme Selection of 8104 Comprehensive Mechanized Caving Face in TASHAN Mine on the basis of numerical simulation%基于数值模拟的塔山煤矿8104综放面瓦斯治理方案选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛建华

    2013-01-01

    At first, necessity and feasibility of gas drainage was analyzed in the text about 8104 Comprehensive Mechanized Ca-ving Face in TASHAN Mine , the result shows that it is ncessary for the gas drainage to the working face , and moreover , it is not provided with the conditon for gas pre -drainage in mining seam.Three schemes was brought forward , and they are drainage in the top corner , natural extracting gas through roof roadway and using the pump to extract gas through roof roadway , and these schemes may solve the gas emission from the neighborhood seam and goaf;and then, the gas migration rule was studied in three conditions by making use of numerical simulation , the corresponding distribution of pressure , atmosphere velocity and gas con-centration was obtained in the working face and goaf.The research results are as follows.The drainage in the top corner and u-sing the pump to extract gas through roof roadway may reduce gas concentration in the top corner by a large margin , and at the same time, it is very easy to lead the spontaneous combustion of goaf;natural extracting gas through roof roadway has the ability to resolve the gas question from the top corner basically , and but , it is easy to exceed the limitation for the gas concentration of stope.Therefore , natural extracting gas through roof roadway and spraying surfactant were advised to use for fathering gas .%本研究首先对塔山煤矿8104综放面的瓦斯抽放必要性和可行性进行了分析,结果显示,该工作面需要进行瓦斯抽放,而且,不具备本煤层瓦斯预抽条件。提出了解决该工作面邻近层及采空区瓦斯涌出的三种方案,即上隅角抽采、顶板巷自然引排和顶板巷抽采;然后,采用数值模拟手段对这三种方案条件下的瓦斯运移规律进行研究,得出了相应的工作面及采空区压力分布、空气速度分布及瓦斯浓度分布图。研究结果显示,采用上隅角瓦斯抽采和顶板巷密

  11. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  12. Adult peripheral neuroepithelioma in Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midroni, G; Dhanani, A N; Gray, T; Tucker, W S; Bilbao, J M

    1991-02-01

    A case of peripheral neuroepithelioma arising from the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's cave is presented. The discussion emphasizes the pathological criteria for the diagnosis of a peripheral neuroepithelioma and the current controversy about the classification of this and related tumors.

  13. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Millipedes play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter in the subterranean environment. Despite the existence of several cave-adapted species of millipedes in adjacent geographic areas, their study has been largely ignored in Portugal. Over the last decade, intense fieldwork...... in caves of the mainland and the island of Madeira has provided new data about the distribution and diversity of millipedes. A review of millipedes from caves of Portugal is presented, listing fourteen species belonging to eight families, among which six species are considered troglobionts....... The distribution of millipedes in caves of Portugal is discussed and compared with the troglobiont biodiversity in the overall Iberian Peninsula and the Macaronesian archipelagos....

  14. PERISCOPE: PERIapsis Subsurface Cave OPtical Explorer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar sub-surface exploration has been a topic of discussion since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter identified openings (cave skylights) on the surface of the moon...

  15. Mining-Induced Coal Permeability Change Under Different Mining Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zetian; Zhang, Ru; Xie, Heping; Gao, Mingzhong; Xie, Jing

    2016-09-01

    To comprehensively understand the mining-induced coal permeability change, a series of laboratory unloading experiments are conducted based on a simplifying assumption of the actual mining-induced stress evolution processes of three typical longwall mining layouts in China, i.e., non-pillar mining (NM), top-coal caving mining (TCM) and protective coal-seam mining (PCM). A theoretical expression of the mining-induced permeability change ratio (MPCR) is derived and validated by laboratory experiments and in situ observations. The mining-induced coal permeability variation under the three typical mining layouts is quantitatively analyzed using the MPCR based on the test results. The experimental results show that the mining-induced stress evolution processes of different mining layouts do have an influence on the mechanical behavior and evolution of MPCR of coal. The coal mass in the PCM simulation has the lowest stress concentration but the highest peak MPCR (approximately 4000 %), whereas the opposite trends are observed for the coal mass under NM. The results of the coal mass under TCM fall between those for PCM and NM. The evolution of the MPCR of coal under different layouts can be divided into three sections, i.e., stable increasing section, accelerated increasing section and reducing section, but the evolution processes are slightly different for the different mining layouts. A coal bed gas intensive extraction region is recommended based on the MPCR distribution of coal seams obtained by simplifying assumptions and the laboratory testing results. The presented results are also compared with existing conventional triaxial compression test results to fully comprehend the effect of actual mining-induced stress evolution on coal property tests.

  16. Tree-mould caves in Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaal Ludovit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tube-shaped caves are described in this work, which origined in consequence of weathering the trees. Their length ranges from 5.8 to 17 m. All of them occur in neovolcanic rocks of Middle Slovakia, in epiclastic andesite conglomerates, breccias or in the tuffs. Some other caverns are close to the entrance of this caves, however they are inaccessible for a man. Thin rim of silicates (opal or chalcedony occurs in some of them.

  17. Airborne microorganisms in Lascaux Cave (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Martin-Sanchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lascaux Cave in France contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings. The importance of the paintings, one of the finest examples of European rock art paintings, was recognized shortly after their discovery in 1940. In the 60’s of the past century the cave received a huge number of visitors and suffered a microbial crisis due to the impact of massive tourism and the previous adaptation works carried out to facilitate visits. In 1963, the cave was closed due to the damage produced by visitors’ breath, lighting and algal growth on the paintings. In 2001, an outbreak of the fungus Fusarium solani covered the walls and sediments. Later, black stains, produced by the growth of the fungus Ochroconis lascauxensis, appeared on the walls. In 2006, the extensive black stains constituted the third major microbial crisis. In an attempt to know the dispersion of microorganisms inside the cave, aerobiological and microclimate studies were carried out in two different seasons, when a climate system for preventing condensation of water vapor on the walls was active (September 2010 or inactive (February 2010. The data showed that in September the convection currents created by the climate system evacuated the airborne microorganisms whereas in February they remained in suspension which explained the high concentrations of bacteria and fungi found in the air. This double aerobiological and microclimate study inLascauxCave can help to understand the dispersion of microorganisms and to adopt measures for a correct cave management.

  18. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  19. The Caves of Naica: a decade of research; Las Cuevas de Naica: una decada de investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazquez, F.; Calaforra, J. M.; Porti, P.; Badino, G.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)

  20. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA; El sistema de la Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km{sup 2}. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  1. The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, P.D.; Dennis, I. [Inst. for Groundwater Studies, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2010-07-01

    This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Undersafe: Monitoring safety parameters in touristic mines and caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcerisa, David; Sanmiquel, Lluís; Alfonso, Pura; Oliva, Josep

    2014-05-01

    Tourism is a key sector of the European economy, generating more than 5% of the EU GPD (Gross Domestic Product). Usually, underground touristic sites receive non-expert visitors; nevertheless these activities are poorly regulated or completely deregulated. Nowadays, safety is provided by underground expert professionals whom proceed to regular inspections and by basic safety infrastructures. Even with these measures, some potential personal and environmental dangers are always present and cannot be totally avoided. Therefore, there is a clear need of a new technological product for safety and environmental continuous monitoring of tourist underground attractions. So, the aim of the Undersafe project is to provide underground attractions with a novel and specifically tailored monitoring system, easy to use and maintain. One of the goals of the Undersafe project is to develop a rock falling detection based on a set of cost limited vibration sensors. Based on the technical needs, but with cost constraints, different types of potential sensors are considered: Underground microphone: It is placed in the surface or in the underground. It is based on the consideration that the impact of the stone generates a ground impact vibration which can be understood as a "noise" that is received by a microphone capsule. Airborne sound sensing microphone: It similarly applies to underground use of the microphones, but now the microphone is tested as for its traditional use (I.e. air sound detection). In such case, the microphone detects the environmental noise produced by the impact of the stone falling onto the ground, which will include the impact sound of the stone. Geophone: It is the de facto standard for ground vibrations. Although this technology was initially discarded due to its high cost, recently, low cost geophones have appeared in the market that allows its use inside the underground attractions. Accelerometers: These, can have enough sensibility to act as vibration sensors. Although the costs of the most sensible ones are out of the limits needed for our purposes, but some non-expensive accelerometers will be tested in real environment. All these systems have been tested and it can be concluded that results have been positive for the following technologies: piezoelectric, Electret (airborne and underground) and geophone. On the contrary, accelerometer and movement sensor provided negative results. The most sensible sensor that we have found is Electret that, in turn, is the most sensitive one to out of ground environmental noise (relevant in order to discard surface vibrations effect). All sensors can provide detections in a range of 15m. Low cost rock falling detectors, in cercles of 30 m of diameter are feasible. Also detection for longer distances, up to 80 meters, is feasible, but not advisable for low-cost application. Aknowledgements: Undersafe is an European project under the auspices of the EU 7h Framework Program. EDMA Innovation S.L. deeply contributed to the development of this study.

  3. Stability analysis of subgrade cave roofs in karst region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 赵明华; 曹文贵

    2008-01-01

    According to the engineering features of subgrade cave roof in karst region, the clamped beam model of subgrade cave roof in karst region was set up. Based on the catastrophe theory, the cusp catastrophe model for bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof and safe thickness of subgrade cave roof in karst region was established. The necessary instability conditions of subgrade cave roof were deduced, and then the methods to determine safe thickness of cave roofs under piles and bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof were proposed. At the same time, a practical engineering project was applied to verifying this method, which has been proved successfu1ly. At last, the major factors that affect the stability on cave roof under pile in karst region were deeply discussed and some results in quality were acquired.

  4. Habitat Management Plan for Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Logan Cave NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Logan Cave NWR, to...

  5. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Linnea M.; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Kirk S Zigler

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave co...

  6. Using bioenergetic models to estimate environmental conditions in anchialine caves

    OpenAIRE

    Klanjšček, Tin; Cukrov, Neven; Cukrov, Marijana; Geček, Sunčana; Legović, Tarzan

    2012-01-01

    Ways of deducing information on physicochemical characteristics of anchialine caves from measurements of sedentary biota are investigated. First, photographs of Ficopomatus enigmaticus from two different anchialine caves are used to draw qualitative conclusions on water circulation patterns and organic loads of the two caves. Next, the ability of bioenergetic models to quantify average conditions in anchialine caves from information on abundance, distribution, morphological characteristcs, an...

  7. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  8. Characteristics of rockburst and its mining technology in mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to resolve how to mine under the condition of high stress with rockburst, this paper analyzes the law of rockburst, and considers that most of the rockbursts occur in the high stress area of stope. A method of rockburst forecast and its steps are given, and three different stages of rockburst are identified. Furthermore, this paper considers that blasting energy can effectively control rockburst by changing the characteristics of rock mass, which decreases the probability of rockburst happening. According to characteristics of rockburst, two feasible mining techniques under rockburst conditions are put forward, that is stoping-and-filling method, and sublevel caving method of mining without any sills in hanging wall.

  9. Final Critical Habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia...

  10. 75 FR 4417 - Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of... Statement, Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 102(2)(C) of... Environmental Impact Statement (Plan), Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. On December 3,...

  11. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa and volcanic caves in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Declan Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the history of the Cave Exploration Group of East Africa with special reference to the exploration of volcanic caves. It demonstrates that the group has concentrated on two main areas, the Chyulu HiIls and Mt. Suswa, although other areas have also been studied. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa has had to cope with various problems. The most important of which are related to the socio-economic conditions of a developing country. These problems have not prevented the group from making a valuable contribution to vulcanospeleology.

  12. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  13. Study on gob-side entry retaining technique with roadside packing in longwall top-coal caving technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Xin-zhu(华心祝)

    2004-01-01

    Pointed out some technical difficulties of gob-side entry retaining with roadside packing in longwall top-coal caving technology (LTCT), and analyzed the function mechanism of roadside filling body. Theory analysis shows the mechanical properties of high water material fit for the feature of deformation of gob-side entry retaining in LTCT, and gob-side entry retaining in LTCT face is one of effective ways to increase the recovery ratio of mining district.

  14. Is it always dark in caves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not used from underground life.

  15. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  16. Meckel's cave meningiomas with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G A; Herz, D A; Leeds, N; Strully, K

    1975-06-01

    Two patients with Meckel's Cave meningiomas were initially hospitalized as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Four-vessel angiography was necessary to exclude other causes of bleeding while demonstrating these lesions. Apoplectic presentation in both cases led to early diagnosis and successful surgical therapy. A review of the literature reveals subarachnoid hemorrhage to be a rarity in association with meningiomas. The two patients currently reported are believed to be the only examples on record of hemorrhagic meningiomas arising from the region of Meckel's Cave.

  17. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  18. Study of "3-Step Mining" Subsidence Control in Coal Mining Under Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Guang-li; ZHA Jian-feng; WU Bin; JIA Xin-guo

    2007-01-01

    Mining subsidence damage is the main factor of restricting coal mining under buildings. To control or ease effectively the degree of mining subsidence and deformation is essential to resolve this problem. Through analyzing both advantages and disadvantages of some technologies such as mining with stowing, partial extraction and grouting in separated beds of overburden, we used the principle of load replacement and propose a "3-step mining" method, a new pattern of controlling mining subsidence, which consists of: strip mining, i.e. grouting to fill and consolidate the caving zone and retained strip pillar mining. The mechanism of controlling mining subsidence by using the "3-step mining" pattern is analyzed. The effect of the control is numerically simulated. The preliminary analysis shows that the "3-step mining" can effectively control ground subsidence and deformation. By using this method, the ground subsidence factor can be controlled to a value of about 0.25. Coal recovery can reach 80%-90%. Coal mining without removing surface buildings can be realized and the economic loss resulting from ground subsidence can be greatly reduced.

  19. Occurrence and Distribution of Cave Dwelling Frogs of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The life in subterranean caves always needs a high degree of biological adaptability, due to its unusual ecosystem. The cave dwelling species usually get selected from preadapted biological traits for cave life. The cave dwelling tendencies in frog are very uncommon. Majority of reported cave frogs usually prefer cave for temporary shelter. In India, the biospeleological inventory is still in its primary stage. Till date no serious attempt has been taken to understand the cave dwelling habitat for any frog in India. Inspite of it, in India time to time various reports on natural histories of anurans reveal its cave dwelling tendencies. On the basis of personal observations and available literature in this report I have documented the occurrences and distributions of five cave dwelling frogs of India. Common biological traits from all the established cave frogs, which could be referred as preadapted for cave life, have been discussed. Further, the possible threats and IUCN status of each discussed species has been highlighted.

  20. Instrumenting caves to collect hydrologic and geochemical data: case study from James Cave, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Madeline E.; Schwartz, Benjamin F.; Orndorff, William; Doctor, Daniel H.; Eagle, Sarah D.; Gerst, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers are productive groundwater systems, supplying approximately 25 % of the world’s drinking water. Sustainable use of this critical water supply requires information about rates of recharge to karst aquifers. The overall goal of this project is to collect long-term, high-resolution hydrologic and geochemical datasets at James Cave, Virginia, to evaluate the quantity and quality of recharge to the karst system. To achieve this goal, the cave has been instrumented for continuous (10-min interval) measurement of the (1) temperature and rate of precipitation; (2) temperature, specific conductance, and rate of epikarst dripwater; (3) temperature of the cave air; and (4) temperature, conductivity, and discharge of the cave stream. Instrumentation has also been installed to collect both composite and grab samples of precipitation, soil water, the cave stream, and dripwater for geochemical analysis. This chapter provides detailed information about the instrumentation, data processing, and data management; shows examples of collected datasets; and discusses recommendations for other researchers interested in hydrologic and geochemical monitoring of cave systems. Results from the research, briefly described here and discussed in more detail in other publications, document a strong seasonality of the start of the recharge season, the extent of the recharge season, and the geochemistry of recharge.

  1. Meckel's cave tuberculoma with unusual infratemporal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Somasundaram, S; Rao, Ravi M; Radhakrishnan, V V

    2007-07-01

    The authors describe a rare case of intracranial tuberculoma of the Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus with extension into the infratemporal fossa causing widening of the foramen ovale and adjacent bone destruction. The rarity of the lesion and the unusual extension of the lesion are presented with a brief review of literature.

  2. Xanthoma in Meckel's cave. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H; Oka, K; Nakayama, Y; Tomonaga, M

    1991-04-01

    A case of xanthoma located within Meckel's cave and the semilunar ganglion is described in a patient with a trigeminal nerve deficit. This is the first case of xanthoma in such a location. The distinctive morphological appearance is illustrated and the possible histogenesis is discussed.

  3. Data on the Limanu Cave mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Dumitraş

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of diphractometric X-rays analyses on powders, we emphasize an association of minerals in the Limanu Cave from South Dobrogea, made up of hydroxylapatite, brushite, calcite, gypsum and dolomite as the main minerals and quartz and illite as secondary minerals.

  4. Microbial diversity in uranium mining-impacted soils as revealed by high-density 16S microarray and clone library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Andersen, Gary L; Stetler, Larry D; Sani, Rajesh K

    2010-01-01

    Microbial diversity was characterized in mining-impacted soils collected from two abandoned uranium mine sites, the Edgemont and the North Cave Hills, South Dakota, using a high-density 16S microarray (PhyloChip) and clone libraries. Characterization of the elemental compositions of soils by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher metal contamination including uranium at the Edgemont than at the North Cave Hills mine site. Microarray data demonstrated extensive phylogenetic diversity in soils and confirmed nearly all clone-detected taxonomic levels. Additionally, the microarray exhibited greater diversity than clone libraries at each taxonomic level at both the mine sites. Interestingly, the PhyloChip detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum for both the mine sites. However, clone libraries detected Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the most numerically abundant phyla in the Edgemont and North Cave Hills mine sites, respectively. Several 16S rDNA signatures found in both the microarrays and clone libraries displayed sequence similarities with yet-uncultured bacteria representing a hitherto unidentified diversity. Results from this study demonstrated that highly diverse microbial populations were present in these uranium mine sites. Diversity indices indicated that microbial communities at the North Cave Hills mine site were much more diverse than those at the Edgemont mine site.

  5. Optimal location of terminal line in sublevel caving face with suspend-shift support in thinner thick-seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-qian; MENG Xiang-rui; GAO Zhao-ning; LIU Zeng-hui

    2008-01-01

    According to the geological and mining technical conditions of No.18128 sub-level caving face with suspend-shift support, the first working face of the working area, the distribution laws of abutment pressure were studied by jointly employing FlAG3D numerical simulations and field tests. With the full consideration of these laws and the service time-limit of the mining district, the optimal location of the terminal mining line, should be 60 m away from the W4-B8 track dip, which was 20 m shorter than the 80 m distance deter-mined according to traditional experiences. The retained coal safety pillar for the protect-ing of dips, already proved by the industrial practice, can not only improve the rate of coal recovery and satisfy the subsequent service requirement for the following working faces, but also decrease the maintaining expenditure and thus increase profits.

  6. A brief history of exploration in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, USA; Una historia abreviada de las exploraciones en la cueva Lechuguilla, Nuevo Mexico, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, J. T. M.; Davis, D. G.

    2016-07-01

    Lechuguilla Cave, a complex three-dimensional cave with a single known entrance, is located in remote desert terrain in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, in southeastern New Mexico, USA. The Guadalupe Mountains there contain uplifted limestone and dolomite rock in the Permian-age Capitan Reef complex. Hundreds of caves have been found in this region, but Lechuguilla Cave greatly exceeds the size of all others known. It was only a small pit mined for bat guano in the early twentieth century. In the 1970s the Cave Research Foundation performed digs at the bottom, where profuse air movement had been noted in the debris. This work ceased but another team of cavers visited in 1984, hearing and feeling the significant air, and began a digging project approved by the Park. The cavers dug into continuing passage in 1986. It was explored in three major branches, generally trending west/southwest to east/northeast, parallel to the reef face, with north-south connections along deep rift features. Depositional and corrosional events during sulfuric-acid speleogenesis created remarkable speleothems and speleogenesis, and the cave has often been called the Jewel of the Underground. The rapidly growing cave passed 80 km of surveyed length by 1990. Within the first ten years of exploration, 28 large-scale expeditions led to the cave reaching 113 km in length. From 1997 to 2013, 109 additional kilometers were mapped with smaller teams of up to 12 cavers per expedition. Exploration and mapping is now done in three to five expeditions per year, and recent work has focused on climbs and smaller leads such as tight crawls and fissures that were previously passed. Significant discoveries continue to be found using these techniques. The cave reaches a depth of 475 m and has been mapped to over 222 km in length. Exploration to the extreme ends is efficiently done with multi-day expeditions, using established camps in each branch. Cavers from the United States and dozens of other countries

  7. Top coal flows in an excavation disturbed zone of high section top coal caving of an extremely steep and thick seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Shengjuna; Lai Xingping; Cui Feng

    2011-01-01

    Compared with gentle dip long-wall caving, the length of a working face in fully-mechanized top-coal caving for extremely steep and thick seams is short, while its horizontal section is high with increasing production. But the caving ratio is low, which might result in some disasters, such as roof falls, induced by local and large area collapse of the top coal in a working face and dangers induced by gas accumulation. After the development of cracks and weakening of the coal body, the tall, broken section of the top coal (a granular medium) of an extremely steep seam (over 60°) shows clear characteristics of nonlinear movement, We have thoroughly analyzed the geological environment and mining conditions of an excavation disturbed zone. Based on the results from a physical experiment of large-scale 3D modeling and coupling simulation of top coal-water-gas, we conclude that the weakened top coal can be regarded as a non-continuous medium. We used a particle flow code program to compare and analyze migration processes and the movements of a 30 m high section top coal over time before and after weakening of an extremely steep seam in the Weihuliang coal mine. The results of our simulation,experiment and monitoring show that pre-injection of water and pre-splitting blasting improve caving ability and symmetrical caving, relieve space for large area dynamic collapse of top coal, prolong migration time of noxious gases and release them from the mined out area and so achieve safety in mining.

  8. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  9. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  10. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L N; Miller, Ana Z; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  11. Dandak: a mammalian dominated cave ecosystem of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual darkness, high humidity with almost constant geophysical factors are some of the abiotic factors which make the cave ecosystem unique. For any species a high degree of adaptation is always needed to thrive in such an ecosystem. Mammals in general have never adapted to cave life but they can play a major role in the cave ecosystem. Structurally, the Dandak cave has two distinct chambers that are completely different from each other in several geophysical factors. Thus both the cave chambers offer two distinct types of ecological niche. In the present study we found that both chambers of this cave were dominated by mammals all year round. Additionally, the group of mammals using the outer chamber completely differs from the group using the inner one. Possible geophysical factors responsible for such differences are discussed.

  12. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  13. Toxicity and Geochemistry of Missouri Cave Stream Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, C. A.; Besser, J.; Wicks, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Water and sediment quality are among the most important variables affecting the survival of stygobites. In Tumbling Creek Cave, Taney County Missouri the population of the endangered cave snail, Antrobia culveri, has declined significantly over the past decade. The cause of the population decline is unknown but could be related to the quality of streambed sediment in which the cave snail lives. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity and concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment of Tumbling Creek Cave and five other caves in Missouri. These sediments were analyzed to assess possible point sources from within the recharge areas of the caves and to provide baseline geochemical data to which Tumbling Creek Cave sediments could be compared. Standard sediment toxicity tests and ICP-MS analysis for heavy metals were conducted. Survival and reproduction of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, did not differ significantly between cave sediments and a control sediment. However the growth of amphipods differed significantly among sites and was significantly reduced in sediments from Tumbling Creek Cave relative to controls. Concentrations of several metals in sediments differed substantially among locations, with elevated levels of zinc and copper occurring in Tumbling Creek Cave. However, none of the measured metal concentrations exceeded sediment quality guidelines derived to predict probable effects on benthic organisms and correlations between sediment metal concentrations and toxicity endpoints were generally weak. While elevated metal levels may play a part in the cave snail's decline, other factors may be of equal or greater importance. Ongoing analyses of persistent organic contaminants and total organic carbon in cave sediments, along with continued water quality monitoring, may provide data that will allow us to better understand this complicated problem.

  14. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Borba, Luis A B; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Almeida, Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior, José Valentim

    2004-06-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months did not show abnormalities.

  15. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Falavigna,Asdrubal; Luis A. B. Borba; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani [UNIFESP; Almeida,Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior,José Valentim

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months d...

  16. Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onac Bogdan P.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cioclovina Cave in Romania’s Southern Carpathians is a world-renowned cave site for its paleontological, anthropological, andmineralogical (type locality of ardealite finds. To date, over 25 mineral species have been documented, some unusual for a caveenvironment. This paper presents details on the occurrence of collinsite [Ca2(Mg,Fe2+(PO42·2H2O], atacamite [Cu22+Cl(OH3], andkröhnkite [Na2Cu2+(SO42·2H2O] based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, stable isotope analyses, and scanningelectron microscope imaging. This is the first reported occurrence of kröhnkite in a cave environment. Atacamite representsthe weathering product (in the presence of Lower-Cretaceous limestone-derived chlorine of copper minerals washed into the cavefrom nearby ore bodies. Atacamite and kröhnkite have similar sources for copper and chlorine, whereas sodium probably originatesfrom weathered Precambrian and Permian detrital rocks. Collinsite is believed to have precipitated from bat guano in a damp, nearneutralpH environment. The results show the following sequence of precipitation: ardealite-brushite-(gypsum-atacamite-kröhnkite.This suggests that the observed mineral paragenesis is controlled by the neutralization potential of the host-rock mineralogy and theconcentrations of Ca, Cl, Cu, and Na.

  17. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environme......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE......This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...

  18. Underground pressure appearance laws analysis for fully mechanized top coal slice caving on high-dipping thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng-li; CAO Guang-ming; LI Fu-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Taking Adaohai Coal Mine as the example, underground pressure appearance laws of fully mechanized top coal slice caving on high-dipping and thick coal seams. Through site visit, theoretical analysis and discrete element calculation, the research shows that, as the mining deepens, underground stress of lower sublevels is more obvious and higher than that of upper sublevels and is higher in the air return roadway than that in the air intake roadway in the area that is near to the top coal.Because the top coal is thick and gangue is caved above the support, underground pressure to the working face is relatively gentle. Immediate roof will mainly fall down along the floor. Main roof and the rock bed above the main roof will move to the mined out area along the fault in the early stage and then fall down with the mined out area later. In addition, roof pressure mainly periodically appears in two directions along the trend and the dip.

  19. Influence of Mining Thickness on the Rationality of Upward Mining in Coal Seam Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of mining thickness on the rationality of upward mining in coal seam group. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of the mining thicknesses of initial mining seam on the destruction and pressure relief effect of the upper coal seam in a high-gas coal seam group. The mechanical model of the roof failure based on the mining thickness was established by assuming that the gob formed after adjacent panels have fully been caved is the infinite plane. On the basis of this model, an equation was derived to calculate the roof failure height of the panel. Considering the geological conditions of No. 9 and No. 12 coal seams of Zhaogezhuang Coal Mine, economic effectiveness, and proposed techniques, we concluded that the top layer (4 m of the No. 12 coal seam should be mined first. The top layer of the No. 9 coal seam should be subsequently mined. The topcaving technique was applied to the exploitation of the lower layer of the No. 12 coal seam. Practically monitored data revealed that the deformation and failure of the No. 2699 panel roadway was small and controllable, the amount of gas emission was reduced significantly, and the effect of upward mining was active. The results of this study provide theory basics for mine designing, and it is the provision of a reference for safe and efficient coal exploitation under similar conditions.

  20. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically 0.9 m, and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 µS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a pre-existing layer of higher salinity.

  1. Bacteria and free-living amoeba in the Lascaux Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Fabiola; Alabouvette, Claude; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-01-01

    The Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940, and by 1960 it had received up to 1800 daily visitors. In 1963, the cave was closed and in 2001 it was invaded by a Fusarium solani species complex which was treated for four years with benzalkonium chloride. However, Lascaux Cave bacteria have only been poorly investigated. Here we show that the cave is now a reservoir of potential pathogenic bacteria and protozoa which can be found in outbreaks linked to air-conditioning systems and cooling towers in community hospitals and public buildings.

  2. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  3. Linkage of cave-ice changes to weather patterns inside and outside the cave Eisriesenwelt (Tennengebirge, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schöner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of perennial ice masses in karst caves in relation to the outside climate is still not well understood, though a significant potential of the cave-ice for paleo-climate reconstructions could be expected. This study investigates the relationship between weather patterns inside and outside the cave Eisriesenwelt (Austrian Alps and the ice-surface changes of the ice-covered part of the cave from extensive measurements. It is shown that under recent climate the cave ice mass balance is more sensitive to winter climate for the inner parts of the cave and sensitive to winter and summer climate for the entrance near parts of the cave. For recent climate conditions ice surface changes can be well described from cave atmosphere measurements, indicating a clear annual cycle with weak mass loss in winter due to sublimation, stable ice conditions in spring until summer (autumn for the remoter parts of the cave and significant melt in late summer to autumn (for the entrance near parts of the cave. Interestingly, surface ice melt plays a minor role for ablation at the inner parts of the cave. Based on our measurements and other observations it is rather likely that sublimation was the major source for ice loss in Eisriesenwelt since the begin of the 20th century. Build-up of the ice in spring (as expected from theory was not observed as a general feature of the ice dynamics. Generally, the ice body currently appears in a quite balanced state, though the influence of show-cave management on ice mass-balance could not be clearly quantified.

  4. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability.

  5. Managing trauma in the South African mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, R Paul

    2005-01-01

    Deep sub-surface mining is one of South Africa s leading industries. It is also one of the most dangerous. While safety is maintained as much as possible to minimize cave-ins and other accidents, underground tremors and earthquakes are commonplace and unpredictable and usually involve life threatening injuries and loss of life. Crisis intervention and trauma management are essential to helping workers cope with mining accidents. This article describes the trauma management program developed by the employee assistance program at the Chamber of Mines in South Africa to respond to workplace accidents.

  6. Hydraulic support stability control of fully mechanized top coal caving face with steep coal seams based on instable critical angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TO Shi-hao; YUAN Yong; LI Nai-liang; DOU Feng-jin; WANG Fang-tian

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed the support instable mode of sliding, tripping, and so on, and believedthe key point of the support stability control of fully mechanized coal caving face with steepcoal seams was to maintain that the seam true angle was less than the hydraulic supportinstability critical angle. Through the layout of oblique face, the improvement of supportsetting load, the control of mining height and nonskid platform, the group support systemof end face, the advance optimization of conveyor and support, and the other control tech-nical measures, the true angle of the seam is reduced and the instable critical angle of thesupport is increased, the hydraulic support stability of fully mechanized coal caving facewith steep coal seams is effectively controlled.

  7. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  8. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing

  9. Optimal location of terminal line in sublevel caving face with suspend-shift support in thinner thick-seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-qian; MENG Xiang-rui; GAO Zhao-ning; LIU Zeng-hui

    2008-01-01

    According to the geological and mining technical conditions of No.18128 sublevel caving face with suspend-shift support,the first working face of the working area,the distribution laws of abutment pressure were studied by jointly employing FIAC3D numerical simulations and field tests.With the full consideration of these laws and the service timelimit of the mining district,the optimal location of the terminal mining line,should be 60 m away from the W4-B8 track dip,which was 20 m shorter than the 80 m distance determined according to traditional experiences.The retained coal safety pillar for the protect-ing of dips,already proved by the industrial practice,can not only improve the rate of coalrecovery and satisfy the subsequent service requirement for the following working faces,but also decrease the maintaining expenditure and thus increase profits.

  10. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS: a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant information remains fragmented in isolated publications and databases. This fragmentation makes assessing the conservation status of marine cave species especially problematic, and this issue should be addressed urgently given the stresses resulting from planned and rampant development in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS initiative is to create a comprehensive taxonomic and ecological database of known species from marine caves and anchialine systems worldwide and to present this as a Thematic Species Database (TSD of the World Register of marine Species (WoRMS. WoRCS will incorporate ecological data (e.g., type of environment, salinity regimes, and cave zone as well as geographical information on the distribution of species in cave and anchialine environments. Biodiversity data will be progressively assembled from individual database sources at regional, national or local levels, as well as from literature sources (estimate: >20,000 existing records of cave-dwelling species scattered in several databases. Information will be organized in the WoRCS database following a standard glossary based on existing terminology. Cave-related information will be managed by the WoRCS thematic editors with all data dynamically linked to WoRMS and its team of taxonomic editors. In order to mobilize data into global biogeographic databases, a Gazetteer of the Marine and Anchialine Caves of the World will be established. The presence records of species could be eventually georeferenced for submission to the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and constitute an important dataset for biogeographical and

  11. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  12. Aspergillosis of the Petrous Apex and Meckel's Cave

    OpenAIRE

    Ederies, Ash; Chen, Joseph; Aviv, Richard I.; Pirouzmand, Farhad; Bilbao, Juan M.; Thompson, Andrew L.; Symons, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    Cranial cerebral aspergillosis is a rare entity in immunocompetent patients. Invasive disease involving the petrous apex and Meckel's cave has rarely been described. We present a case of localized invasive petrous apical and Meckel's cave disease in an immunocompetent patient who presented with hemicranial neuralgic pain.

  13. Meckel's cave epidermoid with trigeminal neuralgia: CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, A; Steinbaum, S; Chakeres, D W

    1984-12-01

    An epidermoid tumor of Meckel's cave was found in a middle-aged woman with trigeminal neuralgia. On CT the lesion had negative attenuation numbers of fat and extended from an expanded Meckel's cave through the porous trigeminus into the ambient and cerebellopontine angle cisterns. Surgical excision provided relief of the patient's trigeminal neuralgia.

  14. Aspergillosis of the Petrous Apex and Meckel's Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederies, Ash; Chen, Joseph; Aviv, Richard I; Pirouzmand, Farhad; Bilbao, Juan M; Thompson, Andrew L; Symons, Sean P

    2010-05-01

    Cranial cerebral aspergillosis is a rare entity in immunocompetent patients. Invasive disease involving the petrous apex and Meckel's cave has rarely been described. We present a case of localized invasive petrous apical and Meckel's cave disease in an immunocompetent patient who presented with hemicranial neuralgic pain.

  15. Intratentorial lipomas with Meckel's cave and cerebellopontine angle extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, M J; Robles, H A; Rao, K C; Armonda, R A; Ondra, S L

    1995-08-01

    An unusual case of bilateral intratentorial lipomas with extension into Meckel's caves and the cerebellopontine angle is described. Surgical and histopathologic correlation demonstrate that the lipoma encased the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's caves. The origin of the lipoma from the anteromedial margins of the tentorium is discussed and correlated with a recently proposed theory for the development of intracranial lipomas.

  16. Geologic history of the Black Hills caves, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.; Palmer, Margaret; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Cave development in the Madison aquifer of the Black Hills has taken place in several stages. Mississippian carbonates first underwent eogenetic (early diagenetic) reactions with interbedded sulfates to form breccias and solution voids. Later subaerial exposure allowed oxygenated meteoric water to replace sulfates with calcite and to form karst and small caves. All were later buried by ~2 km of Pennsylvanian–Cretaceous strata.

  17. Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Fadi H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon. The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes. The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show δ18OV-PDB values of about -5.0‰ and δ13C V-PDB values of -11.8‰, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in δ18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2‰, and δ13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1‰. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals ‘invading’ the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes, and the slight depletion in δ18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated δ18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2‰ matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

  18. Terrestrial cave invertebrates of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETAR BERON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biospeleological research in Bulgaria started in 1921 in the Ledenika Cave. From 65 caves of “Vrachanski Balkan” Nature Park and its surroundings have been recorded a total of 218 species of terrestrial invertebrates, including 32 species of troglobionts, most of them endemic to Vrachanska Planina Mts. (including the caves near Lakatnik: Isopoda Oniscoidea – 4, Chilopoda – 1, Diplopoda – 5, Opiliones – 2, Pseudoscorpiones – 3, Araneae – 3, Collembola – 2, Diplura – 2, Coleoptera, Carabidae – 7, Coleoptera, Leiodidae – 3. Troglobites are known from 51 caves, the richest being the caves near Lakatnik (Temnata dupka - 10, Zidanka - 7, Razhishkata dupka - 5, Svinskata dupka - 6, Kozarskata peshtera - 5, near Vratsa (Ledenika - 11, Barkite 8 - 5, Belyar - 6, Toshova dupka near Glavatsi - 6 and others.

  19. Adenocarcinoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L; Arulampalam, T; Johnston, F; Symon, L

    1995-12-01

    A rare localization of adenocarcinoma in Meckel's cave is reported in a 58-year-old woman, who had a 5-month history of pain and altered sensation in the second division of the left trigeminal nerve. Removal of the lesion was achieved by a subtemporal route. Histology showed this to be an adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent investigations for a primary tumor; the investigations were all negative, and the patient was subsequently treated with a course of radiotherapy. At 4-month follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence, and she remains symptomatically well. The various mechanisms of secondary localization are discussed.

  20. Reliability analysis of the velocity matching of coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗善明; 缪协兴

    2002-01-01

    The matching relationship between coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face is analyzed in detail from the angle of reliability. The coupling equation of reliability is established correspondingly, and the mathematical equation of the coefficient of velocity matching of coal cutting and caving is obtained, which meets a certain reliability demand for making the working procedure of coal caving not influence coal cutting of coal-cutter. The results show that the relationship between the coefficient of the velocity matching and the reliability of coal cutting and caving system is linear on the whole when R<0.9. It is pointed out that different numerical value should be selected for different coal face according to different demand for reliability.

  1. Speleothem and biofilm formation in a granite/dolerite cave, Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallstedt, T.; Ivarsson, M.; Lundberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Tjuv-Antes grotta (Tjuv-Ante's Cave) located in northern Sweden is a round-abraded sea cave ('tunnel cave'), about 30 m in length, formed by rock-water abrasion in a dolerite dyke in granite gneiss. Abundant speleothems are restricted to the inner, mafic parts of the cave and absent on granite...

  2. CHINA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN COAL MINING,PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范维唐; 王成龙; 朱德仁

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art and outlook of coal mining and clean coal echnology in China. As the major mining method,underground mining accounts for 96% of the total production. Among the state own mines, the percentage of mechanized mining reached 71%. A rapid development of high-productive and high-profitable mines,especially those with longwall sublevel caving method, is described. The issues of heavy duty equipment, roof bolting, mine safety are also addressed. The Chinese government is paying more and more attention on the environmental problems inducing from coal mining,processing and utilization. A basic framework of clean coal technology is being formed and a wide range of technology is included.

  3. Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh

    Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds are acoust......Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds...... gains and delays in the IAC can produce very different directionalities of the ears but it is still uncertain how interaural transmission gain and delay can be shaped by evolution by anatomical adaptations. A closer inspection of the zebra finch cranium using micro-CT scanning reveals that not only...... and after filling the frontal cavities but found no dramatic effects. The question still remains what function these cavities serve and whether the ICA should be modelled as a simple tube....

  4. Study on the forecasting and maintenance system of special railway subsidence in mine area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜富; 朱德明; 任占营

    2003-01-01

    The fully mechanized caving coal mining under the railway in mine area will result in difficulty maintenance of railway because of great distortion and subsidence speed of terrene and railway. If the subsidence forecasting is incorrect and maintenance measure is not suitable in the preceding and the process of mining, the normal operation of the railway in mine area will not be ensured and perhaps the safety accident will be resulted. The railway subsidence forecasting and maintenance system for fully mechanized caving coal face are studied and developed in this connection. Based on the accurate subsidence forecasting of the terrene and railway, the maintenance measure for track and switch turnout in railway is put forward in this system.

  5. Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillmore, G.K. E-mail: g.k.gillmore@bradford.ac.uk; Phillips, P.S.; Denman, A.R.; Gilbertson, D.D

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m{sup -3}) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m{sup -3} in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m{sup -3}). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system.

  6. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  7. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Price

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  8. In-situ stress measurements and stress change monitoring to monitor overburden caving behaviour and hydraulic fracture pre-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puller Jesse W.; Mills Ken W.; Jeffrey Rob G.; Walker Rick J.

    2016-01-01

    A coal mine in New South Wales is longwall mining 300 m wide panels at a depth of 160–180 m directly below a 16–20 m thick conglomerate strata. As part of a strategy to use hydraulic fracturing to manage potential windblast and periodic caving hazards associated with these conglomerate strata, the in-situ stresses in the conglomerate were measured using ANZI strain cells and the overcoring method of stress relief. Changes in stress associated with abutment loading and placement of hydraulic fractures were also measured using ANZI strain cells installed from the surface and from underground. Overcore stress mea-surements have indicated that the vertical stress is the lowest principal stress so that hydraulic fractures placed ahead of mining form horizontally and so provide effective pre-conditioning to promote caving of the conglomerate strata. Monitoring of stress changes in the overburden strata during longwall retreat was undertaken at two different locations at the mine. The monitoring indicated stress changes were evi-dent 150 m ahead of the longwall face and abutment loading reached a maximum increase of about 7.5 MPa. The stresses ahead of mining change gradually with distance to the approaching longwall and in a direction consistent with the horizontal in-situ stresses. There was no evidence in the stress change monitoring results to indicate significant cyclical forward abutment loading ahead of the face. The for-ward abutment load determined from the stress change monitoring is consistent with the weight of over-burden strata overhanging the goaf indicated by subsidence monitoring.

  9. A new fracture model for the prediction of longwall caving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venticinque Gaetano; Nemcik Jan; Ren Ting

    2014-01-01

    A new numerical model is presented to simulate fracture initiation and propagation in geological structures. This model is based on the recent amalgamation of established failure and fracture mechanics theory, which has been implemented to the finite difference FLAC code as a constitutive FISH user-defined-model. Validation of the model has been studied on the basis of comparing the transitional failure modes in rock. It is shown that the model is capable of accurately simulating fracture distributions over entire brittle to ductile rock phases. The application of the model during longwall retreat simulation highlighted several caving characteristics relevant to varying geological condition. The distribution and behaviour of modelled fractures were both realistic and shown to provide an enhanced post failure analysis to geological structures in FLAC. Moreover, the model introduces new potential insight towards the failure analysis of more complicated problems. This is best suited towards improving safety and efficiency in mines through the prediction of various key fractures and caving characteristics of geological structures.

  10. Rockbolting in gateroads of top coal caving longwall faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Z. [SCT Ltd. (China); Jiang, J. [Yanzhou Coal Mining Co. Ltd. (China)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents technology development of rockbolting in gateroads of top coal caving longwall faces in Yanzhou. The development work has been concentrated on understanding behaviour of gateroads of top coal caving longwalls; introducing a monitoring based feedback design approach; upgrading rockbolting consumables and equipment; optimisation of rockbolting practice; development of effective supplemental reinforcement technique; and last but not the least, establishment of necessary legal framework such as consumables standards and practice guidelines. The paper then highlights aspects of future development work with rockbolting in gateroads of top coal caving longwall faces, such as integrated cutting/bolting cycle for higher drivage rate.

  11. Do cave features affect underground habitat exploitation by non-troglobite species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Many biospeleological studies focus on organisms that are exclusive inhabitants of the subterranean realm, but organisms that are not obligate cave-dwellers are frequent in caves, and may account for a substantial portion of biomass. Moreover, several taxa that are usually epigeous are regularly found inside caves, but for most of them it is unknown whether they accidentally enter them, or whether they actively select caves for specific environmental features. In this study we analysed the community of non-strict cave-dwelling organisms (amphibians, gastropods, spiders and orthopterans) in 33 caves from Central Italy, to assess how environmental factors determine community structure. Cave features strongly affected the distribution of the taxa considered. The combined effect of cave morphology and microclimate explained nearly 50% of the variation of community structure. Most of community variation occurred along a gradient from deep, dark and humid caves, to dry caves with wider entrances and extended photic areas. Most of species were associated with humid, deep and dark caves. Most of the non-troglobiont amphibians and invertebrates did not occur randomly in caves, but were associated to caves with specific environmental features. Analysing relationships between cave-dwelling species and environmental variables can allow a more ecological and objective classification of cave-dwelling organisms.

  12. Calcite Farming at Hollow Ridge Cave: Calibrating Net Rainfall and Cave Microclimate to Dripwater and Calcite Chemical Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremaine, D. M.; Kilgore, B. P.; Froelich, P. N.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) and trace element records in cave speleothems are often interpreted as climate changes in rainfall amount or source, cave air temperature, overlying vegetation and atmospheric pCO2. However, these records are difficult to verify without in situ calibration of changes in cave microclimate (e.g., net rainfall, interior ventilation changes) to contemporaneous variations in dripwater and speleothem chemistry. In this study at Hollow Ridge Cave (HRC) in Marianna, Florida (USA), cave dripwater, bedrock, and modern calcite (farmed in situ) were collected in conjunction with continuous cave air pCO2, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, radon-222 activity, airflow velocity and direction, rainfall amount, and drip rate data [1]. We analyzed rain and dripwater δD and δ18O, dripwater Ca2+, pH, δ13C and TCO2, cave air pCO2 and δ13C, and farmed calcite δ18O and δ13C to examine the relationships among rainwater isotopic composition, cave air ventilation, cave air temperature, calcite growth rate and seasonal timing, and calcite isotopic composition. Farmed calcite δ13C decreases linearly with distance from the front entrance to the interior of the cave during all seasons, with a maximum entrance-to-interior gradient of Δδ13C = -7‰ . A whole-cave "Hendy test" at distributed contemporaneous farming sites reveals that ventilation induces a +1.9 ± 0.96‰ δ13C offset between calcite precipitated in a ventilation flow path and out of flow paths. Farmed calcite δ18O exhibits a +0.82 ± 0.24‰ offset from values predicted by both theoretical calcite-water calculations and by laboratory-grown calcite [2]. Unlike calcite δ13C, oxygen isotopes show no ventilation effects and are a function only of temperature. Combining our data with other speleothem studies, we find a new empirical relationship for cave-specific water-calcite oxygen isotope fractionation across a range of temperatures and cave environments: 1000 ln α = 16

  13. Spatial organization and connectivity of caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Guglielmi, Yves; Camus, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The main particularity of karst systems is their hierarchical organization as three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drain. They are recognized as having a major influence on fluid flow at reservoir scale. However, a karstic network is generally hardly continuously observable and their great intrinsic heterogeneity makes their characterization very complex. This media can be only observed by speleological investigation, conditioned to human possibilities. As a result, only few parts can be observed and therefore it is required to model the non-observable parts for reservoir characterizations. To provide realistic 3D models, non-observable karstic features will be generated using parameters extracted from observed ones. Morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional karstic network provides quantitative measures that can (i) give information on speleogenesis processes, (ii) be used to compare different karst systems, (iii) be correlated with hydrogeological behavior and (iii) control the simulation of realistic karst networks. Recent work done on the subject characterize the karstic network as a whole, without genetic a-priori. However, most of observable caves appears to have a polygenic history due to modifications in boundary conditions and some different karst features can be observed in a same cavity. To study the geometrical organization of caves, we propose to analyze 3D speleological topographies for which speleogenetic context is known. This way, it is possible to characterize karst features according to speleogenetic processes. Several morphometric descriptors have been calculated on three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological works. Some parameters describe the existence of preferential direction of karstification and preferential flow paths, other parameters describe the complexity, geometry and connectivity of the three-dimensional karstic networks. Through the study of fifteen different caves, 150km of 3D data have been analyzed

  14. Deposition of calcium carbonate in karst caves: role of bacteria in Stiffe's cave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercole Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria make a significant contribution to the accumulation of carbonate in several natural habitats where large amounts of carbonates are deposited. However, the role played by microbial communities in speleothem formation (stalactites, stalagmites etc. in caves is still unclear. In bacteria carbonate is formed by autotrophic pathways, which deplete CO2 from the environment, and by heterotrophic pathways, leading to active or passive precipitation. We isolated cultivable heterotrophic microbial strains, able to induce CaCO3 precipitation in vitro, from samples taken from speleothems in the galleries of Stiffe’s cave, L’Aquila, Italy. We found a large number of bacteria in the calcite formations (1 x 104 to 5 x 109 cells g-1. Microscopic examination, in laboratory conditions at different temperatures, showed that most of the isolates were able to form calcium carbonate microcrystals. The most crystalline precipitates were observed at 32°C. No precipitation was detected in un-inoculated controls media or in media that had been inoculated with autoclaved bacterial cells. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that most of the carbonate crystals produced were calcite. Bacillus strains were the most common calcifying isolates collected from Stiffe’s Cave. Analysis of carbonate-solubilization capability revealed that the non-calcifying bacteria were carbonate solubilizers.

  15. Theoretical analysis on the deformation characteristics of coal wall in a longwall top coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Qingsheng; Tu Shihao; Li Zhaoxin; Tu Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of analyzing coal wall stability in 14101 fully mechanized longwall top coal cav-ing face in Majialiang coal mine, based on the torque equilibrium of the coal wall, shield support and the roof strata, an elastic mechanics model was established to calculate the stress applied on the coal wall. The displacement method was used to obtain the stress and deformation distributions of the coal wall. This study also researched the influence of support resistance, protective pressure to the coal wall, frac-ture position of the main roof and mining height on the coal wall deformation. The following conclusions are drawn:(1) The shorter the distance from the longwall face, the greater the vertical compressive stress and horizontal tensile stress borne by the coal wall. The coal wall is prone to failure in the form of com-pressive-shear and tension;(2) With increasing support resistance, the revolution angle of the main roof decreases linearly. As the support resistance and protective force supplied by the face guard increases, the maximum deformation of the coal wall decreases linearly;(3) As the face approaches the fracture posi-tion of the main roof, coal wall horizontal deformation increases significantly, and the coal wall is prone to instability;and (4) The best mining height of 14101 longwall face is 3.0 m.

  16. Reactivation of subsidence zones due to coal-mine closure in Donbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yermakov, V.N. [Ministry of Coal Industry, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2000-12-01

    Many mines in the Ukraine are in the process of being closed as part of the coal industry restructuring programme. The termination of pumping operations results in the flooding of abandoned mine workings. This causes changes in the hydrogeological characteristics and geomechanical stability of the rock mass. There is no reliable method for predicting the effect of these processes. In the Central Donbass Basin, if only one mine horizon is flooded, surface subsidence of up to 500 mm can occur when the mine is abandoned. The period required for the stabilization of areas liable to subsidence after the mines are closed can be as long as 10 years. The mechanical properties of caved rock can change significantly during the long-term operation of coal mines in the Central Regions of Donbass. The mechanical properties of the rock can also change during flooding. It is therefore necessary to study the physical-mechanical properties of the caved strata when they are saturated during the flooding of abandoned workings. Research into methods of estimating the amount of additional surface subsidence caused by the reactivation of the geomechanical caving processes during flooding is reported.

  17. 应力集中及老硐区复杂条件下综放工作面优化设计实践%Optimal design and mining practice of fully mechanized top coal caving face under complex conditions of the stress concentration and the old roadway area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新华

    2015-01-01

    柴里煤矿23603北综放工作面三面均为采空区,且面内老硐区较多,开采难度较大。对该面施行联合开采。针对应力集中区充分利用老巷道卸压及撕帮、卧底等措施进行治理;同时,针对不同层位的老巷,采取提前打木垛加固、注胶加固等措施,确保工作面的正常推采和安全生产。%23603 working face of chaili coal mine is surrounded by the gob, and have some old roadway in the scope of working face, mining is difficult, For and make full use of the old roadway pressure relief in the stress concentration area and other measures governance, at the same time, according to the different layers of the old roadway, took advance wood pile reinforcement, and glue injection reinforcement measures, which ensure working face normal mining production and safety.

  18. Contaminant concentrations in water and sediments from Shelta Cave

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shelta Cave is a cavern system which lies under the northwestern portion of the City of Huntsville, Alabama. The National Speleological Society owns property which...

  19. Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Logan Cave NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  20. Velcro Tubes 2004 Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Velcro Tubes section of the detailed map of Timpanogos Cave created by Brandon Kowallis 2004 using Adobe Illustrator 10. The map was created from Rod Horrock's...

  1. Center for Advanced Energy Studies: Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The laboratory contains a four-walled 3D computer assisted virtual environment - or CAVE TM — that allows scientists and engineers to literally walk into their data...

  2. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  3. Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  4. Use of resistivity measurements to detect urban caves in Mexico City and to assess the related hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Antonio-Carpio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century when Mexico City was much smaller than at present, there was non-regulated mining of building materials in a region of tuffs northwest of the city in an inhabited countryside. With the growth of the city during the XX century, this region was increasingly populated and in the 1970's many two-level bricks houses were built, without regard for underground caves created by the earlier extractions. Some ground sinkings in adjacent areas alarmed the residents who now are worried about this permanent hazard. An association of residents contracted a private company for a geophysical study in order to know the distribution of the caves. Resistivity measurements were taken in the area to detect the caves in order to alert city authorities. Resistivity data along most of the streets were collected with the array pole-dipole that consisted of three grounded electrodes. We performed 2-D dimensional inversions to the data in order to get a 2-D resistivity image of every street. This is similar to a resistivity cross-section of the ground but obtained from the inversion of pole-dipole and Schlumberger resistivity data simultaneously. Using the information of previous drills we modified our programming code in order to perform constrained inversion and to get more accurate resistivity models in agreement with the drills. From the resistivity models obtained for every street it was possible to produce a map which shows the horizontal distribution of the resistive bodies at a depth of 12m. These resistive bodies show coherent alignments that seem to correspond with a distributions of interconnected caves or tunnels used for extracting the sandy-tuffs. From these kind of interpretation method it was intended to get a more accurate horizontal distribution of the excavated areas in order to better know the urbanized area affected and lead the authorities to remedy the area with refill material.

  5. Genetic analyses determine connectivity among cave and surface populations of the Jamaican endemic freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum in the Cockpit Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Stemmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jamaican freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae is endemic to western central Jamaica where it occurs in cave and surface streams of karst regions. In the present study, we examine the population genetic structure of the species, providing evidence for intraspecific differentiation and genetic substructure among twelve sampled populations. Interestingly, crabs from caves appear genetically undistinguishable from representatives of nearby surface waters, despite previously observed and described morphometric differentiation. In contrast, genetic isolation takes place among populations from rivers and caves belonging to different watersheds. In one case, even populations from different tributaries of the same river were characterized by different genotypes. Overall, the species shows low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, which indicates a high homogeneity and point towards a relatively recent intraspecific radiation and diversification. Our results on the genetic diversification of S. fossarum helps to reconstruct unknown subterranean water flow and cave connections in its native range, allowing prediction of its further dispersal and differentiation potential. Unfortunately, its natural habitat of Jamaican cockpit karst, which also is home to several other endemic species and is a globally-recognized Key Biodiversity Area, is under imminent threat of intensive bauxite mining.

  6. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  7. Mineralogy of Iza Cave (Rodnei Mountains, N. Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Tudor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The secondary minerals from Iza Cave result from the interactions of karst water and/or cave atmosphere with a variety of sedimentaryand metamorphic rocks. The cave passages expose at various extents Eocene limestones and conglomerates, Oligocene blackshales, Upper Precambrian micaschists, marble and dolomitic marble and associated ore deposits. Twelve secondary mineralsidentified in the cave (carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, oxides and hydroxides, and silicates are presented in this study. Calcite,aragonite, gypsum, brushite and hydroxylapatite are the components of common speleothems in the limestone, dolomite andconglomerate areas of the cave. Ankerite crusts are related to areas with pyrite mineralization within the metamorphic carbonaterocks. Goethite, jarosite, hematite and gypsum form various speleothems in the sectors within micaschists and conglomerates. Largeweathering deposits occurring in passage areas developed within micaschists consist of illite, kaolinite, jarosite, goethite, gypsumand alunite. The extent of the weathering deposits occurring on non-karst rocks in the underground environment makes this cave aparticularly interesting site for studies of water-rock interactions.

  8. New distribution record for the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes inermis inermis cope, from the Patoka River drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two specimens of the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes (Orconectes) inermis inermis Cope, were collected from a cave referred to as Audrey’s Cave on May 21, 2001...

  9. Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Amos; Fischhendler, Itay

    2005-04-01

    Isolated caves are a special cave type common in most karst terrains, formed by prolonged slow water flow where aggressivity is locally boosted. The morphometry and distribution of isolated caves are used here to reconstruct the paleohydrology of a karstic mountain range. Within a homogenous karstic rock sequence, two main types of isolated caves are distinguished, and each is associated with a special hydrogeologic setting: maze caves form by rising water in the confined zone of the aquifer, under the Mt. Scopus Group (Israel) confinement, while chamber caves are formed in phreatic conditions, apparently by lateral flow mixing with a vadose input from above.

  10. Study of radiocarbon dynamics of Baradla Cave, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Mihály; Dezsö, Zoltán; Futo, Istvan; Siklósy, Zoltan; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Koltai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Carbon isotope composition of speleothems and their parent drip water reflects the isotope composition of the atmospheric CO2, the soil and the host rock and can sometimes be influenced even by the cave atmosphere. Owing to the fact that 14C in the bedrock has long decayed, the bedrock derived carbon content of the seepage water can be considered as inactive or "dead carbon". The initial dead carbon proportion (dcp) of a stalagmite or tufa layer, caused by the incorporation of the inactive carbon, can be calculated with the help of the C-14 level differences between the contemporary atmosphere and the formed stone carbonate. The revolutionary technological advances of 14C (AMS) have brought the possibility of analysing 14C dynamics of karst systems due to the small amount of demanded material. The Baradla-Domica Cave is the largest cave of Gömör-Torna Karst, a karst area situated in the northeast of Hungary, and located on the Slovakian-Hungarian borderland. The approximately 26 km long cave is a typical example of multi-level speleogenesis. As a case study we have investigated several recent (age < 50 years) and older (age about 10-11 kyrs) stalagmites and recent drip water, some freshwater tufa samples and the recent cave air carbon-dioxide of the Baradla-cave to study the carbon dynamics and dead carbon level there. According four modern stalagmites (formed 1991-2004) the current dcp is very small in Baradla Cave (3-7%). Stalagmites deposited in Holocene (U/Th dated) were also characterized by very small dead carbon contents (1-11% dcp). Outside the cave a dpc about 20-25% was found in a freshwater tufa sample. This relatively low dead carbon content might be either explained by the thinness of the limestone bedrock above (56-80 m) or the relatively fast infiltration conditions, or their combined effect. Cave air is enriched in CO2 (2-5 times higher than in natural air, not homogenous) but the source of this surplus CO2 is not the limestone according its

  11. Brezstropa jama v Podbojevem lazu, Rakov Škocjan = Denuded cave in Podbojev laz, Rakov Škocjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Abramović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a denuded cave situated in the area of Podbojev laz, on the northwesternside of the Rakov Škocjan. Morphometric and morphogenetic properties of several sectionsof the denuded cave and its surroundings are described in detail. The denuded cave developedfrom an epiphreatic cave system which used to function as an outflow cave system from theRak valley. Morphometrical analysis of the slopes show that the denuded cave was developedin stages. As

  12. Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheeptham N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic caves have been little studied for their potential as sources of novel microbial species and bioactive compounds with new scaffolds. We present the f irst study of volcanic cave microbiology from Canada and suggest that this habitat has great potential for the isolation of novel bioactive substances. Sample locat ions were plot ted on a contour map that was compiled in ArcView 3.2. Over 400 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Helmcken Falls cave in Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia. From our preliminary screen, of 400 isolates tested, 1% showed activity against extended spectrum ß-lactamase E. coli, 1.75% against Escherichia coli, 2.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii, and 26.50% against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, 10.25% showed activity against Micrococcus luteus, 2% against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 9.25% against Mycobacterium smegmatis, 6.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 7.5% against Candida albicans. Chemical and physical characteristics of three rock wall samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy and f lame atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, and aluminum (Al were the most abundant components while magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and barium (Ba were second most abundant with cadmium (Cd and potassium (K were the least abundant in our samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of microscopic life forms in all three rock wall samples. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 82 isolates revealed that 65 (79.3% of the strains belong to the Streptomyces genus and 5 (6.1% were members of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia and Erwinia genera. Interestingly, twelve (14.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences showed similarity to unidentif ied ribosomal RNA sequences in the library databases, the sequences of these isolates need to be further investigated using the EzTaxon-e database (http://eztaxon-e. ezbiocloud.net/ to determine whether

  13. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  14. Ancient human footprints in Ciur-Izbuc Cave, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David; Robu, Marius; Moldovan, Oana; Constantin, Silviu; Tomus, Bogdan; Neag, Ionel

    2014-09-01

    In 1965, Ciur-Izbuc Cave in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania was discovered to contain about 400 ancient human footprints. At that time, researchers interpreted the footprints to be those of a man, woman and child who entered the cave by an opening which is now blocked but which was usable in antiquity. The age of the prints (≈10-15 ka BP) was based partly on their association with cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) footprints and bones, and the belief that cave bears became extinct near the end of the last ice age. Since their discovery, the human and bear evidence and the cave itself have attracted spelunkers and other tourists, with the result that the ancient footprints are in danger of destruction by modern humans. In an effort to conserve the footprints and information about them and to reanalyze them with modern techiques, Ciur-Izbuc Cave was restudied in summer of 2012. Modern results are based on fewer than 25% of the originally described human footprints, the rest having been destroyed. It is impossible to confirm some of the original conclusions. The footprints do not cluster about three different sizes, and the number of individuals is estimated to be six or seven. Two cases of bears apparently overprinting humans help establish antiquity, and C-14 dates suggest a much greater age than originally thought. Unfortunately, insufficient footprints remain to measure movement variables such as stride length. However, detailed three-dimensional mapping of the footprints does allow a more precise description of human movements within the cave.

  15. Speleothems in gypsum caves and their paleoclimatological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaforra, J. M.; Forti, P.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights the relationship between speleothems growing inside gypsum caves and the particular climate that existed during their development. Speleothems in gypsum caves normally consist of calcium carbonate (calcite) or calcium sulphate (gypsum) and the abundance of such deposits greatly differs from zone to zone. Observations carried out over the last 20 years in gypsum caves subjected to very different climates (Italy, Spain, New Mexico, northern Russia, Cuba, Argentina) highlight wide variation in their cave deposits. In arid or semi-arid climates, the speleothems are mainly composed of gypsum, whilst in temperate, humid or tropical regions, carbonate formations are largely predominant. In polar zones no speleothems develop. These mineralogical details could be useful paleoclimatic indicators of climate change. The interpretation proposed is based on the fact that in gypsum karst the kind of speleothems deposited is determined by competition between the two principal mechanisms that cause precipitation of calcite and gypsum. These mechanisms are completely different: calcite speleothem evolution is mainly controlled by CO2 diffusion, while gypsum deposits develop mostly due to evaporation. Therefore, the prevalence of one kind of speleothem over the other, and the relationship between the solution precipitation processes of calcite and gypsum, may provide evidence of a specific paleoclimate. Additionally, other non-common deposits in gypsum caves like moonmilk, cave rafts and dolomite speleothems can be used as markers for the prevalence of long, dry periods in humid areas, seasonal changes in climate, or rainfall trends in some gypsum areas. Moreover, the dating of gypsum speleothems could contribute paleoclimatic data relating to dry periods when calcite speleothems are not deposited. In contrast, the dating of calcite speleothems in gypsum caves could identify former wet periods in arid zones.

  16. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John

    2016-05-01

    The steeply-dipping-dolostone-hosted caves of the Sierra de Arnero (N Spain) contain low-gradient relict canyons with up to ten mapped levels of ferromanganese stromatolites and associated wall notches over a vertical range of 85 m, the highest occurring ~ 460 m above base level. Despite a plausible speleogenetic contribution by pyrite oxidation, and the irregular cave-wall mesomorphologies suggestive of hypogenic speleogenesis, the Arnero relict caves are dominantly epigenic, as indicated by the conduit pattern and the abundant allogenic sediments. Allogenic input declined over time due to a piracy-related decrease in the drainage area of allogenic streams, explaining the large size of the relict Arnero caves relative to the limited present-day outcrop area of the karstified carbonates. Allogenic-sediment input also explains the observed change from watertable canyons to phreatic conduits in the paleo-downstream direction. Stromatolites and notches arguably formed in cave-stream passages at the watertable. The best-defined paleo-watertables show an overall slope of 1.7°, consistent with the present-day relief of the watertable, with higher-slope segments caused by barriers related to sulfide mineralization. The formation of watertable stromatolites favored wall notching by the combined effect of enhanced acidity by Mn-Fe oxidation and shielding of cave floors against erosion. Abrasive bedload further contributed to notch formation by promoting lateral mechanical erosion and protecting passage floors. The irregular wallrock erosional forms of Arnero caves are related partly to paragenesis and partly to the porous nature of the host dolostones, which favored irregular dissolution near passage walls, generating friable halos. Subsequent mechanical erosion contributed to generate spongework patterns. The dolostone porosity also contributes to explain the paradox that virtually all Arnero caves are developed in dolostone despite being less soluble than adjacent

  17. Analysis and control on anomaly water inrush in roof of fully-mechanized mining field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Linjun; Yang Xiaojie; Sun Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Caving of mine roofs from water inrush due to anomalous pressure is one of the major disasters and accidents that can occur in mines during production. Roof water inrush can trigger a wide range of roof collapse, causing major accidents from breaking roof supports while caving. These failures flood wells and do a great deal of damage to mines and endanger mine safety. Our objective is to analyze the anomalies of water inrush crushing the support at the #6301 working face in the ]isan Coal Mine of the Yanzhou Mining Group. Through information of water inrush to the roof, damage caused by tectonic movements, information on the damage caused by roof collapse and the theory about the distribution of pressure in mine abutments, we advice adjusting the length of the working face and the position of open-off cut relatively to the rich water area. In the case of anomalous roof pressure we should develop a state equation to estimate preventive measures with "transferring rock beam" theory. Simultaneously,we improve the capacity of drainage equipment and ensured adequate water retention at the storehouse.These are all major technologies to ensure the control and prevention against accidents caused by anomalous water inrush in roofs, thus ensuring safety in the production process of a coal mine.

  18. 3D reconstruction method and connectivity rules of fracture networks generated under different mining layouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ru; Ai Ting; Li Hegui; Zhang Zetian; Liu Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In current research, a series of triaxial tests, which were employed to simulate three typical mining lay-outs (i.e., top-coal caving, non-pillar mining and protected coal seam mining), were conducted on coal by using MTS815 Flex Test GT rock mechanics test system, and the fracture networks in the broken coal samples were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by employing CT scanning and 3D reconstruc-tion techniques. This work aimed at providing a detail description on the micro-structure and fracture-connectivity characteristics of rupture coal samples under different mining layouts. The results show that: (i) for protected coal seam mining layout, the coal specimens failure is in a compression-shear manner and oppositely, (ii) the tension-shear failure phenomenon is observed for top-coal caving and non-pillar mining layouts. By investigating the connectivity features of the generated fractures in the direction of r1 under different mining layouts, it is found that the connectivity level of the fractures of the samples corresponding to non-pillar mining layout was the highest.

  19. ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States)]. E-mail: anne.r.skinner@williams.edu; Blackwell, B.A.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Martin, Sara [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Ortega, A. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Golovanova, L.V. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Doronichev, V.B. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Mezmaiskaya Cave has yielded more than 10,000 artifacts, thousands of very well preserved faunal remains, and hominin remains, found in seven Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) and three Upper Paleolithic levels. A complete Neanderthal infant skeleton was preserved in anatomical juxtaposition lying on a large limestone block, overlain by the earliest Mousterian layer, Layer 3. Twenty-four skull fragments from a 1-2 year-old Neanderthal infant, showing post-mortem deformation, occurred in a pit originating in the Mousterian Layer 2 and penetrating into underlying layers 2A and 2B(1). Bone from Layer 2A was dated by AMS {sup 14}C at 35.8-36.3{+-}0.5 kyr BP. Direct dating of Neanderthal bone from Layer 3 gave an age of 29 kyr, but that is now considered to be due to contamination by modern carbon. Fourteen large mammal teeth from Layers 2 through 3 have been dated by standard electron spin resonance (ESR). Low U concentrations in both the enamel and dentine ensure that ESR ages do not depend significantly on the U uptake model, but do depend strongly on the sedimentary dose rates. Assuming a sedimentary water concentration equal to 20 wt%, ESR ages for the Mousterian layers range from 36.2 to 73.0{+-}5.0 ka.

  20. Building 887: An Aladdin's Cave for Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Building 887 on the Prévessin site is home to numerous experiments bringing together physicists and engineers from around the world. Its diversity makes the huge building a replica of CERN in miniature. The Installation unit of the SL EA group in front of the support structure for the ATLAS muon chambers. From left to right, seated: Pierre Gimenez, Yves Bonnet, Yves Naveau, Alain Pinget, Christian Becquet, Camille Adenot; standing: Philippe Guillot, Thierry Reynes, Monserrat Zurita-Perez, Claude Ferrari et Denis Gacon. The big wheel to be used for the ATLAS muon chambers (see below) is much the most spectacular installation currently occupying Building 887. But it is far from being the only attraction. Push open the heavy doors of this immense hall and it is a bit like entering a physicists' Aladdin's cave. The building, 55 metres wide and 300 metres long, is a treasure trove of engineering and technology, a CERN in miniature, housing dozens of collaborations from all over the world. With its 150...

  1. Time-domain characteristics of overlying strata failure under condition of longwall ascending mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Shun; Li Xuehua; Mao Yanxin; Li Chengjun

    2013-01-01

    Ascending mining is one of the most effective ways to solve problems of water inrush,gas outburst and rock burst in coal seams mining.In order to reveal the law of motion and spatiotemporal relationship of overlaying strata,field measurement has been done in a mine.Long distance drillings were constructed from 4# coal seam to 6# coal seam at several certain typical positions,and movement and failure law of overlying strata after mining was analyzed by drilling video and observing the fluid leakage.Besides,we also analyzed the spatiotemporal development law of overlying strata failure with different mining heights and time intervals in the lower coal seam.The results show that:ascending mining is significantly affected by time-domain characteristics of overlaying strata failure after the lower coal seam's mining,height equations of caving zone and fractured zone are given in this paper,and the feasibility of ascending mining was compartmentalized concretely according to the spatiotemporal relationship.Research methods and conclusions of this paper have certain referential significance for the study of ascending mining,mining under water,mining under building,mining under railway and stress-relief mining.

  2. Characteristics of Gas Emission at Super-Length Fully-Mechanized Top Coal Caving Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of gas emission at the K8206 working face in the Third mine of the Yangquan Coal Group were investigated.The effects of strata movement, advancing velocity of working face, production capacity of working face and gas extraction capability of strike high-level entry on gas emission at K8206 working face were analyzed.A regression equation, reflecting the relationship between relative gas emission rate and the production capacity of working faces, was established.Another regression equation showing the relationship between the gas emission rate from adjacent layers when the working face was advancing for one metre and advancing velocity was derived.It can be concluded that, 1) the amount of gas emitted at the K8206 working face is far greater than that of ordinary top coal caving faces with a dip length of 180-190 m; 2) the dynamic process of gas emission from adjacent layers during the initial mining stage is controlled by the movement of key strata; 3) the amount of gas emitted that needs to be forced out by air is greatly affected by the capability of gas extraction; 4) when the advancing velocity is between 3.5-5.5 m/d or when the output is up to 8-12 kt/d, the gas emission from adjacent layers is almost constant.

  3. Integrated geological and geophisycal methods for the evaluation of the ceiling collapse hazard of the Poesia Cave in the Salento peninsula (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, M.; Leucci, G.; Quarta, G.

    2012-04-01

    According to the Protection Civil Department database, Apulia is the fourth region in Italy affected by sinkholes, due to collapse of natural or man-made cavities. The southern part of the region (the Salento peninsula) had hosted in the last twenty years at least fifteen events of sinkholes, the greatest part of which occurred inside "soft" carbonate rocks (calcarenites). The most catastrophic sinkhole, due to the presence of underground quarries, occurred at Gallipoli on 29 March 2007, when a collapse created a 12 x 18 m sinkhole which involved two 3 floors buildings. and 140 people were evacuated. In these cases, the usual approach of investigation of the area consist of geological survey supported by geophysical prospecting aimed to evaluate the real size of sinkhole crater and to predict its development over the time. In spite of the importance on the civil protection, the prediction of the sinkhole events is currently an hard issue, especially if they are related to caves of cultural interest as the case at hand, where are summarised questions of safety of people and cultural heritage. The "Poesia Piccola" cave, located at the Salento area of the Puglia region (southern Italy), has such features and it is the case study of this paper. The cave is an outstanding example of hypogean archaeological site morphologically in evolution and potentially dangerous for humans. It belongs to a karst system formed by dome-shaped caves, minor cavities and galleries. The system, named "Grotte della Poesia", is joined to the ground through vertical and horizontal entrances, respectively placed on a coastal plateau and along the contiguous cliff. This paper provides a new methodological approach on the evaluation of sinkhole hazard in such "soft" carbonate rocks combing geological, geophysical and mine engineering complementary methods, such as: geological analysis of outcrops and boreholes, aerophotogrammetric interpretation of aerial photos, electrical resistivity

  4. A Framework for Aligning Instructional Design Strategies with Affordances of CAVE Immersive Virtual Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Leah T.; Buss, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing availability of immersive virtual reality (IVR) systems, such as the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and head-mounted displays, for use in education contexts is providing new opportunities and challenges for instructional designers. By highlighting the affordances of IVR specific to the CAVE, the authors emphasize the…

  5. Identifying Source Mixing and Examining Water Chemistry Variations: The Carroll Cave - Toronto Springs System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Located in the Missouri Ozarks, Carroll Cave is a dendritic stream cave system, formed in Ordivician Gasconade dolomite. In 2002, a new survey effort was launched under the auspices of the Carroll Cave Conservancy to provide a comprehensive map of the system. Since that time, 29.89 km of estimated p...

  6. Fossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments: a study of four cave sites from Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. T. Moldovan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fossil invertebrates from cave sediments have been recently described as a potential new proxy for paleoenvironment and used in cross-correlations with alternate proxy records from cave deposits. Here we present the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves from two climatically different regions of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. Some of the identified taxa are new for science, and most of them are indicative for either warm/cold stages or dry/wetter oscillations. In two caves the fossil invertebrates records indicate rapid climate oscillations during times known for a relatively stable climate. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures, and hydraulic regimes could be gathered. This paper analyses the potential of fossil invertebrate records as a paleoenvironmental proxy, potential problems and pitfalls.

  7. New Species of Campodeidae (Diplura) from Mexican caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, Alberto; Palacios, Jose; Garcia, Arturo; Montejo, Maira

    2016-01-01

    Six new taxa of Campodeidae (Diplura) are described in the genera Litocampa, Juxtlacampa, Oncinocampa, and Tachycampa. We also redescribe the interesting species Juxtlacampa juxtlahucensis Wygodzinsky, 1944 from Juxtlahuaca cave in Guerrero, Mexico. All of these taxa are cave-dwelling species with more or less noticeable troglobiomorphic features They inhabit the subterranean ecosystem in six limestone massifs and one lava tube cave in the central states of Mexico. Four of these species are included in the "tachycampoide" group and one species in the "podocampoide" group (sensu Bareth & Conde). Nine species already known in Central and South America of the "tachycampoide" group, in such poorly-sampled regions compared with the eight species in the well-sampled Mediterranean region (Ibero-Sardinia and north Africa), suggest an American origin for this group.

  8. Microbial Communities and Associated Mineral Fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuezva Soledad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, bothon walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. Thecolonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes.Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of rhombohedral calcite crystals, andspheroid to hemispheroid CaCO3 elements. Colonies distribution seems to be controlled by microenvironmental conditions inside thecavity. The areas of the cave showing higher temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration fluctuations presented a minorbiomineralization capability.

  9. Chromatic perception of non-invasive lighting of cave paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoido, Jesús; Vazquez, Daniel; Álvarez, Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; García, Ángel; Herraez, Juán A.; del Egido, Marian

    2009-08-01

    This work is intended to deal with the problems which arise when illuminanting Paleolithic cave paintings. We have carried out the spectral and colorimetric characterization of some paintings located in the Murcielagos (bats) cave (Zuheros, Córdoba, Spain). From this characterization, the chromatic changes produced under different lighting conditions are analysed. The damage function is also computed for the different illuminants used. From the results obtained, it is proposed an illuminant whose spectral distribution diminishes the damage by minimizing the absorption of radiation and optimises the color perception of the paintings in this cave. The procedure followed in this study can be applied to optimise the lighting systems used when illuminating any other art work

  10. Aggregate Resources Study, Cave and Steptoe Valleys, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Quartzite Creek Range 8 CV-AS Bgan Range Do Dolomite 9 CV-A9 Cave Valley Ls Limestone 10 Cv-Xf0- Egan Range Qtz Quartzite 11 CV-All Egan Range LS...Limestone 12 CV-A12 Cave Valley Aaf a Sandy Gravel G-GM 13 CV-A13 Bgan Range Vii Quartz Latite 14 CV-A14 Cave Valley Ls Limestone 7r 7 FIELD OBSERVATIONS...SO-A2 Bgan Range Vu Dacitic Ash-flow Tuff 25 SO-A3 Steptoe Aalf Sandy Gravel GP-GM Valley 26 SO-A4 Steptoe Aafs Sandy Gravel GE-GM Valley 27 S0-A5

  11. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  12. Medical illustration: from caves to cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafrir, J; Ohry, A

    2001-06-01

    The human body has been depicted in ancient cave-paintings, in primitively sculpted figures, and through all the ages in various forms of artistic expression. The earliest medical texts were descriptive but not illustrated. Later, as it became clear that knowledge of the human body and all its systems was essential to the practice of healing, texts were accompanied by illustrations which became an integral part of the teaching process. The illustrators included artists, whose interest was primarily artistic, but who were sometimes employed by surgeons or physicians to illustrate their texts. Occasionally, the physicians or scientists accompanied their texts with their own illustrations, and in the last century, medical illustration, in its infinite variety of techniques, has been developed as a profession in its own right. As knowledge was extended, permitted by social and cultural change, as well as by technological advances, the types of illustrations have ranged from gross anatomy through dissections showing the various organ systems, histological preparations, and radiological images, right up to the computerized digital imagery that is available today, which allows both static and dynamic two- and three-dimensional representations to be transmitted electronically across the world in a matter of seconds. The techniques used to represent medical knowledge pictorially have been as varied as the illustrators themselves, involving drawing, engraving, printing, photography, cinematography and digital processing. Each new technique has built on previous experience to broaden medical knowledge and make it accessible to an ever-widening audience. This vast accumulation of pictorial material has posed considerable problems of storage, cataloguing, retrieval, display and dissemination of the information, as well as questions of ethics, validity, manipulation and reliability. This paper traces these developments, illustrating them with representative examples drawn from

  13. Rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia: Meckel's cave meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaid, Abdullah; Schaeffer, Todd; Virojanapa, Justin; Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-07-01

    The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia is vascular compression. However, other causes must be excluded. It is very unlikely that a meningocele presents with symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia. We present a rare case of a patient presenting with left trigeminal neuralgia. Thin-slice CT and MRI showed a transclival Meckel's cave meningocele. The patient underwent endoscopic repair of the meningocele, which resulted in complete resolution of her symptoms. Meckel's cave meningocele or encephalocele should be considered among the differential diagnoses of trigeminal neuralgia. Meningocele repair should be suggested as the first treatment option in this rare situation.

  14. Luminescence of Speleothems in Italian Gypsum Caves: Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Shopov, Yavor Y; Forti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence of 3 speleothem samples from the Acquafredda karst system and 1 from the Novella Cave (Gessi Bolognesi Natural Park, Italy) has been recorded using excitation by impulse Xe- lamp. All these carbonate speleothems are believed to be formed only from active CO2 from the air, because the bedrock of the cave consist of gypsum and does not contain carbonates. The obtained photos of luminescence record the climate changes during the speleothem growth. U/Th and 14C dating proved that studied speleothems started to grow since about 5,000 years ago. The detailed analyses of the luminescence records is still in progress.

  15. Spanish Civil War caves of Asturias in archaeology and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, J.; Moshenska, G.

    2016-01-01

    As the Spanish Civil War drew to a close, retreating Republican troops in the northern region of Asturias took refuge in caves in the mountains from the brutal victor’s justice of the Francoist forces. In this paper we examine three of these caves in the context of the Civil War experiences of the rural municipality of Santo Adriano, based on a combination of archaeological recording and oral history interviews. The paper focuses on the role of the La Ponte-Ecomuseum, a grassroots heritage or...

  16. Seasonal temperature variations controlling cave ventilation processes in Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Vieten

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two years of cave monitoring investigate ventilation processes in Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico. The cave is 1,440 m long with a large main passage (about 120,000 m3. Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varies seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1,800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 permits the estimation of a cave air exchange time of 36 ± 5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,300 ± 1,000 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between cave and surface temperature indicate that the seasonal temperature cycle is the main driver of the alternation between a well-ventilated winter mode and a near-stagnant summer mode. The winter mode is characterized by a positive buoyancy contrast at night leading to maximal cave ventilation, while cave ventilation is at a minimum during summer. Between winter and summer, a transitional mode of partial cave ventilation is observed. On shorter time scales (diurnal to weekly, cave pCO2 is also influenced by atmospheric pressure but this variation is one order of magnitude lower than the seasonal pCO2 change. The cave morphology of Cueva Larga including its large volume, tubular shape and the obstructed cave entrance geometry are important boundary conditions for the observed ventilation patterns. Our findings emphasize that cave systems with varying morphology have to be studied individually in order to correctly describe ventilation processes.

  17. Interpretation of digital well-logging for 'three zones' in coal mine area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, X.; Zhang, J. [Shandong Coalfield Geologic Bureau, Taian (China). Digital Well-logging Station

    2001-06-01

    During mine production, the development of caving, fractured and continuous depressing zones (also known as 'three zones') in the strata overlying the mined coal face following the removal of supports is a common phenomenon. The height at which the 'three zones' occurs would directly influence mine safety production, mining scope determination and environmental effects. Using the digital well-logging data obtained in Xinglongzhuang Coal Mine, the 'three zones' are systematically and comprehensively explained in this paper and their developmental conditions are determined. The study is beneficial for mine safety production, identification of mining scope and preservation of coal pillars. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Comparison and Application of Two types of Filling Gel to Prevent Spontaneous Combustion at the Region where Top-Coal Caves above Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuhuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of gel were developed, by taking fly ash and foaming cement as aggregate, which is usually used as filling material at the region where top-coal caves above coal entry in the Jinggezhuang coal mine, and adding high molecular polymer and bio-gel as additive. Sweating rates of the two types of gel under various matching ratio and temperature were tested. And then sweating ratio and water retention ratio of the two gels were calculated, based on which, the optimized matching ratios, were determined. Viscosity indexes of the two-type gel under different ratios were tested. The optimized filling ratios of the two types of gel were determined according to the two indexes, water retention rate and the viscosity. The filling experiments were implemented and evaluated in site, the Jinggezhuang coal mine. The results show that the fly ash gel has a good achievement on preventing spontaneous combustion at the Region where Top-Coal Caves above entries. It is promising, economically and environmental friendly, and valuable in popularization in coal mines.

  19. Degassification and methane drainage in thick and vertical coal seams worked by horizontal sublevel caving method; Drenaje y Desgasificacion de Grisu en Capas de Carbon Potentes y Verticales, Explotadas por subniveles Horizontales con sutiraje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The present trend of the working in spanish coal underground mines is directed towards the utilization, if the deposit characteristics permit it, of mining method by horizontal sublevels with caving. The application of this method involves an important coal volume in specific situations inside the workings cycle (shots, roof cavings, workings beginning, etc). Therefore, those considerable quantities of coal put into circulation, joined to high firedamp concentration desorbable of coal seam, produce in a instantaneous way large volumes of firedamp in the mine atmosphere with the consequent associated risk for the mine people, the stoppage of the works and its evacuation. These aforementioned risks could be avoided, or at least decreased to a great extent, through a methane capture before its circulation in openings caused by the mining works or by draining from accumulation rooms. During the last years, basically in EU countries, some researches have been accomplished about previous Degassification and methane capture in longwall faces of horizontal seams. In these researches have been studied the methane capture both from surface and from underground. In sublevel caving workings, substantially different from longwall faces workings, the techniques and capture systems utilized in the first one are not applicable to the second. The field works and measurements of this project have been mainly carried out in two mining companies located at the north of Spain, the Mina la Camocha S. A. and the S. A. Hullera Vasco Leonesa. Many methane capture tests by means of boreholes in coal seam have been carried out to determine the influence that capture boreholes exert in degassification of coal panel. Otherwise, many firedamp drainage tests in accumulation rooms have been also carried out, and a small-scale system that makes possible the capture in safe conditions have been defined and tested. (Author)

  20. Application of electrical resistivity imaging on Divaška jama cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Mihevc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI is a widely used tool in geophysical survey of various subsurface structures. To establish its applicability for karst subsurface, ERI was conducted in Divača karst above caves of Trhlovca and Divaška jama and in its continuation as denuded cave on slopes of Radvanj collapse doline. Empty cave passages were not detected with ERI as electrical resistivity difference between voids and highly resistive carbonate bedrock is too small. On the other hand, denuded caves and cave sections, filled with loamy material, can be clearly distinguished.

  1. Gas discharges in fumarolic ice caves of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T. P.; Curtis, A. G.; Kyle, P. R.; Sano, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Fumarolic ice caves and towers on Erebus are the surface expression of flank degassing on the world's southernmost active volcano. The caves are formed by warm gases and steam escaping from small vents on the lava flow floors that melts the overlying ice and snow. Extremophiles in the caves may be analogues for extraterrestrial environments. Over the past four Austral summers, mapping, gas and thermal monitoring conducted under the Erebus Caves Project has provided insights into the ice cave formation processes and the relationships between cave structures, magmatic processes, and weather. Gas samples were collected during the 2012 - 2013 field season in 4 ice caves (Warren, Harry's Dream, Sauna, Haggis Hole) as well as the thermal ground at Tramway Ridge. The vents at all of these sites are characterized by diffuse degassing through loose lava or cracks in the lava flow floor. Vent temperatures ranged from 5 to 17°C in most caves and at Tramway Ridge. In Sauna cave the temperature was 40°C. Gases were sampled by inserting a perforated 1 m long, 5 mm diameter stainless steel tube, into the vents or hot ground. Giggenbach bottles, copper tubes and lead glass bottles were connected in series. The gases were pumped at a slow rate (about 20 ml per minute) using a battery pump for 12-24 hours to flush the system. After flushing samples were collected for later analyses. All samples are dominated by atmospheric components, however, carbon dioxide (0.1 to 1.9%), methane (0.005 to 0.01%), hydrogen (0.002 to 0.07%), and helium (0.0009 to 0.002 %) are above air background. Nitrogen (average 74%) and oxygen (23.5%) are slightly below and above air values, respectively. Helium isotopes show minor input of mantle derived helium-3 with 3He4He ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.18 RA (where RA is the ratio of air). This represents the first detection of hydrogen and helium in the caves. Methane could be produced by anaerobic respiration of subsurface microbes or hydrothermal

  2. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2014-09-01

    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested.

  3. Dolomite in caves: Recent dolomite formation in oxic, non-sulfate environments. Castañar Cave, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana María; Martín Pérez, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Dolomite is a common mineral in the rock record but rare in recent superficial environments. Where it does occur, it is related to anoxic, sulfate-rich environments and microbial activity. The occurrence of some dolomite deposits in caves, however, indicates that dolomite formation is also possible in oxic, non-sulfate settings. Dolomite is forming at 17 °C and in oxic-vadose conditions on the host rocks and aragonite speleothems of the Castañar Cave, Cáceres, Spain. It appears as...

  4. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  5. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  6. Assessment of the dose from radon and its decay products in the Bozkov dolomite cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenská, K; Thinová, L; Zdímal, V

    2008-01-01

    The dose from radon and its progeny remains a frequently discussed problem. ICRP 65 provides a commonly used methodology to calculate the dose from radon. Our work focuses on a cave environment and on assessing the doses in public open caves. The differences in conditions (aerosol size distribution, humidity, radon and its progeny ratio, etc.) are described by the so-called cave factor j. The cave factor is used to correct the dose for workers which is calculated using the ICRP 65 recommendation. In this work, the authors have brought together measured data of aerosol size distribution, unattached and attached fraction activity, and have calculated the so-called cave factor for the Bozkov dolomite cave environment. The dose conversion factors based on measured data and used for evaluating the cave factor were calculated by LUDEP software, which implements HRTM ICRP66.

  7. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  8. Cyathura specus, a new cave Isopod from Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1965-01-01

    During the years 1958-1960, several shipments of specimens collected in the Caguanes Caves of Cuba were sent to the United States National Museum by GILBERTO SILVA TABOADA. Mr. SILVA'S collections included 3 specimens of a blind anthurid isopod, which I determined to be a species of Cyathura, simila

  9. [A case of epidermoid tumor inside the Meckel's cave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, H; Ottomo, M; Nakamura, T; Yokota, A

    1997-10-01

    An epidermoid tumor inside the Meckel's cave is rare. The symptoms caused by this tumor include trigeminal neuralgia, facial hypesthesia and paresis of the 3rd, 4th and 6th nerves. A case of epidermoid tumor inside Meckel's cave was presented. A 54-year-old female who had complained of 3rd nerve palsy with right facial hypesthesia since 3 years before was referred to our clinic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the tumor at Meckel's cave. The tumor removal was performed using the orbito-zygomatic approach. To avoid injury of the internal carotid artery and nerves inside the cavernous sinus, removal of the tumor inside the capsule was carried out leaving the capsule. Postoperatively, the tumor removal was confirmed by MRI and improvement of the 3rd and the 5th nerve palsy was obtained three months after surgery. This case suggests that the capsule of the tumor inside the Meckel's cave should be allowed to remain to avoid injury of the adjacent 4th, 5th and 6th nerves and of the internal carotid artery.

  10. Sheet flow caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal lobes of sheet flows of pahoehoe lava sometimes form three-dimensional nests, initially separated by partitions consisting of accreted ‘skins” of each lobe. Melting breaks down these partitions, forming a uniform flow unit. In Kilauea Caldera we have found and mapped sizable drained cavities in low-slope sheet flows. Their general pattern includes three-dimensional nests, with partially melted septa evident in some examples. Christmas Cave is the most extensive found to date, with 632 meters surveyed on two levels. It is located at the lower end of an inflated sheet flow tongue which underwent local deflation as a result of drainage through the cave after its parameters were partially fixed. Small conduit remnants persist in its boundary ridges. The major part of the cave consists of wide, low nestled chambers. Meltdown of such partitions is one of the few emplacement mechanisms of thermal erosion which may not involve any mechanical element. Additional caves in this caldera are being identified and studied.

  11. Bacteria associated with the bleached and cave coral Oculina patagonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Omry; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    The relative abundance of bacteria in the mucus and tissues of Oculina patagonica taken from bleached and cave (azooxanthellae) corals was determined by analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from cloned libraries of extracted DNA and from isolated colonies. The results were compared to previously published data on healthy O. patagonica. The bacterial community of bleached, cave, and healthy corals were completely different from each other. A tight cluster (>99.5% identity) of bacteria, showing 100% identity to Acinetobacter species, dominated bleached corals, comprising 25% of the 316 clones sequenced. The dominant bacterial cluster found in cave corals, representing 29% of the 97 clones sequenced, showed 98% identity to an uncultured bacterium from the Great Barrier Reef. Vibrio splendidus was the most dominant species in healthy O. patagonica. The culturable bacteria represented 0.1-1.0% of the total bacteria (SYBR Gold staining) of the corals. The most abundant culturable bacteria in bleached, cave, and healthy corals were clusters that most closely matched Microbulbifer sp., an alpha-proteobacterium previously isolated from healthy corals and an alpha-protobacterium (AB026194), respectively. Three generalizations emerge from this study on O. patagonica: (1) More bacteria are associated with coral tissue than mucus; (2) tissue and mucus populations are different; (3) bacterial populations associated with corals change dramatically when corals lack their symbiotic zooxanthellae, either as a result of the bleaching disease or when growing in the absence of light.

  12. Study of firedamp release in sub-level caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, F.S.; Sanz Delgado, M.A.; Iturriaga Trenor, S.; Alberdi Vinas, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field work developed in the pits of 'Hullera Vasco-Leonesa' in Santa Lucia (Leon) to control firedamp release is described. Conclusions obtained concerning gas emission, irregularity and firedamp balance in sub-level caving winning faces are discussed. Some definitions of basic concepts in firedamp studies are also included. 7 figs.

  13. Inside the neutrino cave, close to the target complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows on the left the shielding of the target complex, T9 and T11 for the wide and narrow beams. The direction of the primary proton beam faces the camera. Between the shielding and the cave wall are housed the magnets cooling pipes. The pulley block allows displacements inside the shielding.

  14. Incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in cave tour guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, M; Bilban-Jakopin, C; Vrhovec, S

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and micronucleus tests (MN) were performed in 38 subjects, cave tour guides and in appropriate control group. The dominant type of chromosomal aberrations in tourist guides were chromosomal breaks (0.013 per cell) and acentric fragments (0.011 per cell). In the control group, these aberrations were present up to 0.008 on cells. Considering the analysed cells of the guides in total (33,556), the incidence of dicentric and rings range is below 0.0008 on cells, even though three dicentric and ring chromosoms were found already in the first 1000 in vitro metaphases of some guides. Only 0.0003 dicentrics and neither other translocations were found in control group (ambiental exposure). The incidence of micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked lymphocytes ranged from 12-32 per 500 CB cells in the cave tour guides and from 4-11 per 500 CB cells in control group. Measurements of radon and its daughters were performed at different locations in the cave. Annual doses from 40-60 mSv were estimated per 2000 work hours for cave guides. The changes found in the genome of somatic cells may be related to the exposure doses of radon and its daughters, although smoking should not be ignored.

  15. Designing a Virtual Reality Game for the CAVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    remains uncommon and expensive. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of VR games, and in particular games for the CAVE, now that affordable solutions are close to reach as more powerful hardware is available at low price. The focus is also on the methodology to be pursued while designing a VR game...

  16. The relationship between caves minerals and hypogene speleogenesis along the Cerna Valley (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onac, B. P.; Sumrall, J.; Tamas, T.; Povara, I.; Veres, D.; Darmiceanu, V.; Lascu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Over 100 caves are known to develop in the Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone that outcrops on both sides of the Cerna Valley in southwestern Romania. High temperature anomalies are rather uncommon in the cave environment; however, in certain caves in the lower part of Cerna Valley one can measure air temperatures as high as 40°C. This situation is due to the presence of thermal water pooling or flowing through the caves or to the hot steam that rises along fractures from deeper thermal water pools. During the long evolution of the thermo-mineral activity along the Cerna Valley interaction has occurred on a wide scale between the cave host rock or/and cave sediments and the ascending hot steam or/and thermal solutions of all types (mainly sulfide-rich). The present work documents the products of these processes and record the occurrence of twenty-four secondary cave minerals (both of primarily or replacement origin) precipitated under particular cave environments. Among these, glauberite, apjonite, halotrichite, pickeringite, rapidcreekite, tamarugite, and darapskite are the most interesting. The mineral samples were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope analyses with the scope of linking the cave minerals with possible hypogene speleogenetic processes. The isotopic measurements (δ34S) performed on sulfate speleothems contribute valuable information on both minerals and caves origin. Apart from two minerals (i.e., calcite and gypsum), which were identified in every cave investigated so far, all the others fall into three distinct associations that have resulted from specific reactions under highly particular settings in Diana (sulfate-dominated association), Adam (phosphate-dominated), and Great Sălitrari (sulfate/phosphate/nitrate-rich association) caves. These three remarkable cave occurrences are presented along with morphological features that confirm the

  17. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RADOLOVIĆ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian coastal karst abounds in submerged caves that host a variety of environmental conditions depending on the geomorphology, depth and submarine groundwater discharge. One example is the Y-Cave, a shallow, mostly submerged, horizontal cave on Dugi Otok Island, on the eastern Adriatic coast. This study was aimed at examining the temporal and spatial variability of the marine cave environment, including temperature, salinity, light intensity, cave morphology and hydrodynamism, along with the dissolutional effect caused by the mixing of sea and freshwater. The general distribution of organisms in the Y-Cave was positively correlated to the light gradient and reduced water circulation, thus the highest species diversity and abundance were recorded in the front part of the cave. The phylum Porifera was the most dominant group, and the poriferan species diversity in the cave ranks among the ten highest in the Mediterranean. The middle part of the cave, although completely dark, hosts an abundant population of the gastropod Homalopoma sanguineum and clusters of the gregarious brachiopod Novocrania anomala, whose presence could be connected to tidal hydrodynamics. The absence/scarcity of sessile marine organisms and pronounced corrosion marks at shallow depths inside the cave suggest a freshwater impact in the upper layers of the water column. A year long experiment with carbonate tablets revealed three different, independent ongoing processes affected by the position in the cave: bioaccumulation, dissolution and mechanical erosion. The results of long-term temperature readings also revealed water column stratification within the cave, which was not disturbed by either tidal or wave action. The shallow, partly submerged and relatively small Y-Cave is characterised by a suite of complex environmental conditions, which, together with the resulting distribution of organisms, are unique to this cave.

  18. A post-wildfire response in cave dripwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Gurinder; Treble, Pauline C.; Andersen, Martin S.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Coleborn, Katie; Baker, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Surface disturbances above a cave have the potential to impact cave dripwater discharge, isotopic composition and solute concentrations, which may subsequently be recorded in the stalagmites forming from these dripwaters. One such disturbance is wildfire; however, the effects of wildfire on cave chemistry and hydrology remains poorly understood. Using dripwater data monitored at two sites in a shallow cave, beneath a forest, in southwest Australia, we provide one of the first cave monitoring studies conducted in a post-fire regime, which seeks to identify the effects of wildfire and post-fire vegetation dynamics on dripwater δ18O composition and solute concentrations. We compare our post-wildfire δ18O data with predicted dripwater δ18O using a forward model based on measured hydro-climatic influences alone. This helps to delineate hydro-climatic and fire-related influences on δ18O. Further we also compare our data with both data from Golgotha Cave - which is in a similar environment but was not influenced by this particular fire - as well as regional groundwater chemistry, in an attempt to determine the extent to which wildfire affects dripwater chemistry. We find in our forested shallow cave that δ18O is higher after the fire relative to modelled δ18O. We attribute this to increased evaporation due to reduced albedo and canopy cover. The solute response post-fire varied between the two drip sites: at Site 1a, which had a large tree above it that was lost in the fire, we see a response reflecting both a reduction in tree water use and a removal of nutrients (Cl, Mg, Sr, and Ca) from the surface and subsurface. Solutes such as SO4 and K maintain high concentrations, due to the abundance of above-ground ash. At Site 2a, which was covered by lower-middle storey vegetation, we see a solute response reflecting evaporative concentration of all studied ions (Cl, Ca, Mg, Sr, SO4, and K) similar to the trend in δ18O for this drip site. We open a new avenue for

  19. Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genty Dominique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl that has provided several speleothempalaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring theVillars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and inthe hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explainsthe sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from thelower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring.A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations and thedrip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between twonearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a dailyscale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave airtemperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence ofthe outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoringover a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minorelements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, whichimplies a different seepage pathway

  20. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... behavior. This generalization is often driven by the representation language and very crude assumptions about completeness. As a result, parts of the model are “overfitting” (allow only for what has actually been observed) while other parts may be “underfitting” (allowfor much more behavior without strong...

  1. Asteroid mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  2. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species.

  3. Millennial Scale Cycles from Speleothems of the Gibraltar Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Meighan; Mattey, Dave; Atkinson, Tim; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Rock of Gibraltar contains many solution caves which initially formed near sea level and now span elevations to over 300m as a result of slow uplift over time. In the modern climate, Gibraltar holds an important position near the southern limit of the tracks taken by the depressions that deliver rainfall to Europe from the North Atlantic sector of the atmosphere. Monitoring in St. Michaels and Ragged Staff caves has been carried out since 2004 by monthly sampling and deployment of logging instruments which reveals that speleothem growth is most strongly influenced by seasonally reversing cave ventilation that permeates the entire rock. The results provide unprecedented insight into how cave environments respond to seasonal change, variations in sea level and neotectonic uplift and the ways that regional climate is recorded as chemical proxies in an evolving cave environment. We present an overview of the results of this proxy record of precipitation, sea level and environmental change, including new analysis within this 500ka record. A general mean isotopic composition of 1ka time slices have been stacked into a preliminary record from over twenty speleothems. Within this we look at higher resolution time slices to examine the occurrence of millennial scale cycles which occur within the Gibraltar record. During glacial maxima, the Gibraltar record shows elevated δ18O and associated higher δ13C caused by greater degassing or lower soil pCO2 from weakened vegetative activity during cool arid glacials. Highly resolved millennial scale warming events which seem to match the Greenland ice core record give insights into SST changes and atmospheric reorganization at Gibraltar.

  4. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  5. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  6. Mining Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  7. Caving performance through the integration of microseismic activity and numerical modeling at DOZ-PT Freeport, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rubio Enrique; Napitupulu Daulat

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an undergoing research at PT Freeport,Indonesia,in which the main goal is to use the microseismic information recorded as a result of mining to analyze cave propagation and stress performance on the actual production and fixed in-frastructure.At the moment,several numerical experiments have been conducted to correlate the mining activity with the microseis-mic events using the data collected during year 2005 and 2006.As a result of the preliminary analysis a micro-and a macrocracking envelop were proposed on the basis of computation of stress behavior at the location of the events.Stresses have been computed us-ing standard elastic continuous boundary element models.The correlation between the average source radius and the stress perform-ance has provided a method to propose a macrocracking criterion.Several techniques have been tested to nucleate the microseismic activity around different geological features.This last attempt was aimed to look at potential overstresses induced over the undercut and extraction level drifts.A method was devised to integrate the microseismicity into a 3-dimensional ride distribution model.This model has shown to be very effective to quantify the overstress induced as a result of computing volumetric microseismieity density.The volumetric microseismic model showed to induce overstress up to 10 MPa over a period of two months.The future work will concentrate on the calibration of the integrated model with actual damage observations made at the current mining infrastructure.

  8. Mineral Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy: The Ray Mine, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Vance, J. Sam; Livo, K. Eric; Green, Robert O.

    1998-01-01

    Mineral maps generated for the Ray Mine, Arizona were analyzed to determine if imaging spectroscopy can provide accurate information for environmental management of active and abandoned mine regions. The Ray Mine, owned by the ASARCO Corporation, covers an area of 5700 acres and is situated in Pinal County, Arizona about 70 miles north of Tucson near Hayden, Arizona. This open-pit mine has been a major source of copper since 1911, producing an estimated 4.5 million tons of copper since its inception. Until 1955 mining was accomplished by underground block caving and shrinkage stope methods. (excavation by working in stepped series usually employed in a vertical or steeply inclined orebody) In 1955, the mine was completely converted to open pit method mining with the bulk of the production from sulfide ore using recovery by concentrating and smelting. Beginning in 1969 a significant production contribution has been from the leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinnowing method of silicate and oxide ores. Published reserves in the deposit as of 1992 are 1.1 billion tons at 0.6 percent copper. The Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with ASARCO, and NASA/JPL obtained AVIRIS data over the mine in 1997 as part of the EPA Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) (Tom Mace, Principal Investigator). This AVIRIS data set is being used to compare and contrast the accuracy and environmental monitoring capabilities of remote sensing technologies: visible-near-IR imaging spectroscopy, multispectral visible and, near-IR sensors, thermal instruments, and radar platforms. The goal of this effort is to determine if these various technologies provide useful information for envirorunental management of active and abandoned mine sites in the arid western United States. This paper focuses on the analysis of AVIRIS data for assessing the impact of the Ray Mine on Mineral Creek. Mineral Creek flows to the Gila River. This paper discusses our preliminary AVIRIS mineral mapping

  9. Planning the Mine and Mining the Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, D. S.; Chen, N.

    2016-11-01

    Overview of best practices used in the terrestrial mining industry when developing a mine site towards production. The intent is to guide planners towards an effective and well constructed roadmap for the development of ISRU mining activities. A strawman scenario is presented as an illustration for lunar mining of water ice.

  10. Model test of the overburden deformation and failure law in close distance multi-seam mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-feng; SUI Wang-hua; XIA Xiao-hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on characteristic of the associated mining of multi-coal seam and the engineering geological characteristics of overburden, the mining impact pattern of multiseam mining and the dynamic fracture mechanism of overburden were characterized by applying the engineering geological mechanical model test. The related strata movement arameters and influence area of multi-seam mining were obtained, the strike boundary angle is 61°, the full extraction coefficient is 0.93, the greatest subsidence angle is 81°, the horizontal movement factor is 0.38, the deviation of inflection point/mining deep is 0.11.The development height of caving zone and water flowing fractured zone of multi-seam mining were calculated, is 32 m and 81.5 m separatly. The assess of influence degree of coal layer safety mining is that, there exists the possibility of water and sand inflow when mining, some messures for mine water prevention and control should be used, and the mining thickness should be local strictly limit.

  11. Search for an artificially buried karst cave entrance using ground penetrating radar: a successful case of locating the S-19 Cave in the Mt. Kanin massif (NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The S-19 Cave was with its explored depth of 177 m one of the most important caves of the Mt. Kanin massif, but after its discovery in 1974, a huge snow avalanche protection dyke was constructed across the cave entrance. To excavate the buried cave, the accurate location of the cave had to be determined first. Since the entrance coordinates were incorrect and no markers were available, application of geophysical techniques was necessary to do this. A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR with special 50 MHz rough terrain antennas was selected as the single suitable geophysical method for the given conditions where thick debris overlay a rugged limestone surface. Nevertheless, it was not possible to directly detect the relatively narrow cave entrance itself due to data resolution limits. However, a historical photo of the area showed that the cave entrance was located in a local depression, which therefore represented the main target of the GPR survey. Seven GPR profiles were measured across the rough and steep surface causing difficulties in traversing the area with sensitive research equipment. In all recorded radargrams a small depression was clearly imaged under debris, and recognized as a topographic feature with the cave entrance. Based on the GPR data interpretation, the exact location for digging was determined and the thickness of debris assessed at 6.5–7 m. A massive excavation by a dredger resulted in a successful opening of the cave entrance, confirming both its geophysically determined location and its estimated depth. The application of an advanced geophysical method was therefore proven successful in providing a solution to this specific case in karst exploration and an important cave was saved.

  12. Climate indexes of phytoliths from Homo erectus' cave deposits in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weiming; LIU Jinling; ZHOU Xiaodan

    2003-01-01

    A study on phytoliths and their climate indexes is carried out from Homo erectus' cave deposits in Hulu Cave, Nanjing. Evidence shows that phytolith assemblages of the cave deposits are dominated by the cold resistant types with a lower warm index, reflecting an overall cold inclined climate. This possibly connects the cave deposits with glacial climate to a great extent, which is in accordance with the northern fauna revealed by fossil mammals and temperate climate indicated by pollen assemblages. According to the distributional state of the phytoliths and their climate indexes on 4 profiles in the cave, it is revealed that profiles Ⅰ and Ⅱ display certain cold/warm, and dry/wet fluctuations; profile Ⅲ shows a humid and cold condition with the highest humility in the cave deposits; while profile Ⅳ indicates a possible quick accumulating process because of its stable climate indexes except for its bottom and top.

  13. A comparative study on the microbial activities in some caves from Padurea Craiului Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dora SAMUEL

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms represent a heterogeneous group, widely spread in different environments. Our goal in this study was to determine whether microorganisms are present in four particular Transylvanian caves, which are: Ungurului Cave, Izvor Cave, Lesianei Cave, and Moanei Cave, all situated in the Pădurea Craiului Mountains. All of those caves are often visited by tourists. In order to conceive this study we have collected and analyzed different samples, using enzymatic and microbiological methods; the samples were taken from the floor deposits, wall deposits and sludge. Some enzymatic activities were studied, such as: catalase activity, phosphatase activity, actual and potential dehydrogenase activity, urease activity as well as the non-enzymatic catalytic activity. We have also computed the EISQ – which is the enzymatic indicator of soil or sludge quality – based on the results obtained by studying the enzymatic activities.

  14. The engineering classification of karst with respect to the role and influence of caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltham Tony

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The engineering classification of karst defines various complexities of ground conditions, in terms of the hazards that they provide to potential construction. Karst is divided into five classes (from immature to extreme. The three key parameters within the classification are caves (size and extent, sinkholes (abundance and collapse frequency and rockhead (profile and relief. As one component of karst, caves are a hazard to foundation integrity, though natural surface collapses over caves are extremely rare. A cave roof is normally stable under engineering loading where the roof thickness is greater than 70% of the cave width. Construction can proceed over or around caves that are known. The main difficulty is finding unseen voids; ground investigation in mature karst may require extensive borehole probing, and microgravity is the most useful geophysical technique.

  15. Historic Gold Mining in the Apuseni Mountains Recorded in Stalagmite Geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montana PUȘCAȘ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In antiquity “Patrulaterul de Aur” (The Golden Quadrilateral, ca. 550 km2 of the Apuseni Mountains was one of Eurasia’s richest gold and silver mining region. It is estimated that 60 – 64 M ounces of gold have been extracted from Romania during the past 2 ka, about 75% of which was sourced from this particular area [1]. Activities such as mining and smelting of ores and the associated biomass burning produced ample amounts of aerosols that were carried downwind and accumulated as wet or dry deposition. Meteoric water remobilized these trace elements by leaching from the soil as solute or particle/colloidal phase in aqueous solution through the bedrock and into the cave. Here we present the trace elemental compositions (22 elements, obtained by means of LA-ICP-MS in a ca. 2 ka old stalagmite from the Frumoasă Cave (Trascău Mountains, SE Apuseni Mountains; Fig. 1 as a proxy for historical Au, Ag, and Cu mining and smelting. The most prominent sites (Roșia Montană, Zlatna, and Abrud where ores were extracted and/or processed over the past 2 ka are < 30 km upwind of the Frumoasă Cave.

  16. [Progress on the degeneration mechanism of cave fishes' eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xian; Ning, Tiao; Xiao, Heng

    2012-08-01

    Attempts to understand the degeneration of the eyes in cave fish has largely been explained by either various extents of gradual degeneration, ranging from partial to total loss, observed in various species or by acceleration of loss caused by dark environments. However, neither the theory of biological evolution developed by Charles Darwin nor the neutral theory of molecular evolution formulated by Kimura Motoo adequately explains these phenomena. Recent trends in utilizing multidisciplinary research, however, have yielded better results, helping reveal a more complex picture of the mechanisms of degeneration. Here, we summarize the current progress of the research via morphology and anatomy, development biology, animal behavior science and molecular genetics, and offer some perspectives on the ongoing research into the development and degeneration of eyes in cave fish.

  17. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyperthermic inner room beneath an adjoining tumulus with no connection evident on the surface. Two lengthy, sinuous hollow tumuli also are present in this part of the caldera. These findings support Walkers conclusions that hollow tumuli provide valuable insights into tumulus-forming mechanisms, and provide information about the processes of emplacement of pahoehoe sheet flows.

  18. Mineralogical data on bat guano deposits from three Romanian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Giurgiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical studies performed on crusts, nodules and earthy masses from the Romanian caves Gaura cu Muscă, Gaura Haiducească and Peștera Zidită have revealed the presence of three different phosphate associations. The minerals have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Five phosphates have been identified in the samples, with hydroxylapatite the only common mineral in all the three caves. Brushite, taranakite, leucophosphite and variscite are the other phosphates identified. Associated minerals include gypsum, calcite, quartz and illite-group minerals. Aside from differences in the lithology, the occurrences of the different phosphate minerals indicate variable pH and humidity conditions near or within the guano accumulations.

  19. The CAVES Project - Exploring Virtual Data Concepts for Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bourilkov, D

    2004-01-01

    The Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System (CAVES) project concentrates on the interactions between users performing data and/or computing intensive analyses on large data sets, as encountered in many contemporary scientific disciplines. In modern science increasingly larger groups of researchers collaborate on a given topic over extended periods of time. The logging and sharing of knowledge about how analyses are performed or how results are obtained is important throughout the lifetime of a project. Here is where virtual data concepts play a major role. The ability to seamlessly log, exchange and reproduce results and the methods, algorithms and computer programs used in obtaining them enhances in a qualitative way the level of collaboration in a group or between groups in larger organizations. The CAVES project takes a pragmatic approach in assessing the needs of a community of scientists by building series of prototypes with increasing sophistication. In extending the functionality of existi...

  20. Cave dwelling Onychophora from a Lava Tube in the Galapagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new population of velvet worms (Onychophora inhabiting a lava tube cave in the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos, is reported here. The population size is large, suggesting that they may be troglophilic. Its members are darkly pigmented, with no obvious troglomorphic features. Their 16S rRNA sequence showed no differences when compared to an unidentified species of surface velvet worm from the same island, thus supporting cave and surface populations belong to the same species. Based on the 16S rRNA data, the Galapagos velvet worms derived from an Ecuadorian/Colombian clade, as would be expected of ease of dispersal from the nearest mainland to the Galapagos Islands.

  1. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

    OpenAIRE

    D. Brent Jones; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos) approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they...

  2. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  3. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  4. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulec Janez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ≥ 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

  5. MEIOFAUNAL DIVERSITYAND NEMATODE ASSEMBLAGES IN TWO SUBMARINE CAVES OF A MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. APE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Submarine caves are environments of great ecological interest because of the occurrence of peculiar conditions, such as the attenuation of light and reduced water turnover, which can determine oligotrophic conditions from the entrance to the interior part of the cave. These environmental gradients may influence the distribution of the communities inhabiting submarine caves. In this study we investigated the meiofaunal community and nematode assemblages from the sediments inside and outside two submarine caves in Ustica Island Marine Protected Area (southwest Italy: Grotta Falconiera and Grotta dei Gamberi. Consistently with a general pattern of distribution reported by several studies on benthic organisms, our results showed a decrease in the abundance and changes in the taxa composition of the meiofaunal community along the exterior-interior axis of the caves, also highlighting the dissimilarity between the dark and semi-dark communities. We found a significant influence of the availability of organic matter (i.e. phytopigment concentrations on the distribution and composition of both the meiofauna and the nematode community inside the caves. Different nematode assemblages characterized the inside and the outside of the two caves, with species occurring exclusively in the sediment of both caves, particularly in the dark portions, and completely absent in the external sediments. Environmental features of submarine caves may affect food resources inside the caves and consequently trophic nematode assemblages. Our results showed a difference in feeding strategies between nematodes inhabiting the caves and those living outside, suggesting that in the two caves investigated, bacteria might represent the most important food source for nematodes.

  6. Epidermoid tumor within Meckel's cave--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, T; Dindorkar, K; Muzumdar, D; Goel, A

    2000-01-01

    A rare case of an epidermoid tumor lying within Meckel's cave is reported. A 27-year-old housewife presented with complaints of right facial hypesthesia for two and a half years. On examination she had partial loss of touch sensation in the right trigeminal nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor located at the right petrous apex and cavernous sinus. The epidermoid tumor was excised through a lateral basal subtemporal approach. The symptoms resolved following surgery.

  7. Tuberculoma in the Meckel's cave: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A; Nadkarni, T; Desai, A P

    1999-09-01

    A case of an intracranial tuberculoma located within the confines of the Meckel's cave is presented. The patient was young, non-immunocompromised and otherwise in good health. The granuloma mingled with the fibres of the trigeminal nerve. The lesion mimicked a trigeminal neurinoma in its clinical presentation, preoperative investigations and intraoperative consistency and vascularity. The rarity of the location and possible mode of transmission of infection to this site is discussed. The literature on this subject is briefly reviewed.

  8. Spontaneous Meckel's cave hematoma: A rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Concetta Alafaci; Giovanni Grasso; Francesca Granata; Daniele Marino; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Francesco Tomasello

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is vascular compression. However, other causes must be considered. Among these, spontaneous hematoma of the Meckel′s cave (MC) causing symptomatic TN is very rare. Case Description: We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-month history of left TN and diplopia. Neuroradiological examinations revealed a well-defined hematoma in the left MC. The patient underwent surgical decompression with a progressive ne...

  9. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  10. Research on Fire Prevention and Extinguishing of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Face in High Gas and Inflammable Coal Seam%高瓦斯易燃煤层综放工作面的防灭火研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝平

    2014-01-01

    为了有效控制易自燃煤层放顶煤工作面自然发火,通过对煤自然发火机理的研究,以某矿8826放顶煤综采工作面为例,分析了低位放顶煤工作面采有三种防灭火技术进行防灭火的具体方案,优化出高效率、低投入、可操作性强的三相泡沫防灭火技术措施,以更好地防止煤层自燃,值得推广使用。%To effectively control the spontaneous combustion of top coal caving mining faces with spontaneous combustion coal seam,based on the research of the mechanism of coal spontaneous combustion,the coal spontaneous combustion is analyzed by taking 8826 fully mechanized top coal caving face of a coal mine as the example.The ad-vantages and disadvantages are discussed in implementation process of various fire-fighting technology of low caving working face,three-phase foam fire-fighting technical measures of high efficiency,low cost and strong operability are optimized,in order to better prevent the spontaneous combustion of coal seam.

  11. Overlying strata movement rules and safety mining technology for the shallow depth seam proximity beneath a room mining goaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fangtian; Zhang Cun; Zhang Xiaogang; Song Qi

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the shallow depth seam proximity beneath a room mining goaf, due to that the shallow depth seam is exploited using the longwall mining and overlain by thin bedrock and thick loose sands, many accidents are likely to occur, including roof structure instability, roof step subsidence, damages of shield supports, and the face bumps triggered by the large area roof weighting, resulting in serious threats to the safety of underground miners and equipment. This paper analyses the overlying strata movement rules for the shallow seams using the physical simulation, the 3DEC numerical simulation and the field mea-surements. The results show that, in shallow seam mining, the overburden movement forms caved zone and fractured zone, the cracks develop continuously and reach the surface with the face advancing, and the development of surface cracks generally goes through four stages. With the application of loose blast-ing of residual pillars, reasonable mining height, and roof support and management, the safe, efficient and high recovery rate mining has been achieved in the shallow depth seam proximity beneath a room min-ing goaf.

  12. Critical caving erosion width for cantilever failures of river bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangui Wang; Shangfu Kuang; Jialin Su

    2016-01-01

    The cantilever failure is one of the typical bank failures, in which the lateral caving erosion at the bottom of the bank plays an important role. When the caving erosion width is larger than a certain value, the cantilever failures such as shear, toppling and stress failures may occur. In order to understand the condition of the cantilever failure, the collapse mechanisms of the cantilever failures are studied based on the bank stability theory and flume experiment. According to the bank stability equation with the lateral erosion, the critical caving erosion width (CCEW) formulas for the shear and toppling failures of simple slope bank were derived in this paper. The formulas show that the CCEW increases as the overhanging soil thickness and soil cohesion increase, and decreases as the crack depth on the bank surface and the slope angle of the bank increase. And these formulas were tested with experimental data, which shows the predicted values are good agreement with experimental data. The paper reveals a quantitative expression on the process of the river cantilever failure.

  13. Lesions in Meckel's cave: variable presentation and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D W; Menezes, A H

    1987-11-01

    A series of 12 patients with mass lesions arising from Meckel's cave is presented. Patients' age on presentation ranged from 13 months to 71 years. Nine of the 12 patients had symptoms referable to the fifth cranial nerve, but only three complained of facial pain. The 12 patients presented eight different pathological entities, including meningioma, lipoma, schwannoma, malignant melanotic schwannoma, arachnoid cyst, neurofibroma, epidermoid tumor, and chordoma. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were most useful in localizing the lesion to Meckel's cave. All 12 patients underwent a subtemporal approach to the lesion, and gross total removal was achieved in 11. Postoperative results were excellent with no increased neurological deficits seen 3 months postoperatively. Most patients had resolution of the cranial nerve deficits except for fifth nerve function, which was impaired in nine patients postoperatively. This series demonstrates that lesions in Meckel's cave can have a varied and unusual presentation, as well as an assortment of pathology. Total removal of lesions in this area resulted in relief of symptoms in most patients, with minimum morbidity.

  14. Measuring Light Air Ions in a Speleotherapeutic Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubal, Z.; Bartušek, K.; Szabó, Z.; Drexler, P.; Überhuberová, J.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with a methodology proposed for measuring the concentration of air ions in the environment of speleotherapeutic caves, and with the implementation of the AK-UTEE-v2 ionmeter. Speleotherapy, in the context of its general definition, is the medical therapy that utilizes the climate of selected caves to treat patients with health problems such as asthma. These spaces are characterized by the presence of high air humidity and they make extreme demands on the execution of the measuring device, the Gerdien tube (GT in the following) in particular, and on the amplifier electronics. The result is an automated measuring system using a GT with low-volume air flow, enabling long-term measuring of air ion concentration and determination of spectral ion characteristics. Interesting from the instrumentation viewpoint are the GT design, active shielding, and execution of the electrometric amplifier. A specific method for the calculation of spectral ion characteristics and the mode of automatic calibration were proposed and a procedure of automatic measurement in the absence of attendants was set up. The measuring system is designed for studying and long-term monitoring of the concentration of light negative ions in dependence on climatic conditions and on the mobility of ions occurring in the cave.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Resistivity Anomalies Caused by Underground Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, V.; Averbach, A.; Frid, M.; Dudkinski, D.; Liskevich, G.

    2017-03-01

    Geophysical prospecting of underground caves being performed on a construction site is often still a challenging procedure. Estimation of a likelihood level of an anomaly found is frequently a mandatory requirement of a project principal due to necessity of risk/safety assessment. However, the methodology of such estimation is not hitherto developed. Aiming to put forward such a methodology the present study (being performed as a part of an underground caves mapping prior to the land development on the site area) consisted of application of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) together with statistical analysis utilized for the likelihood assessment of underground anomalies located. The methodology was first verified via a synthetic modeling technique and applied to the in situ collected ERT data and then crossed referenced with intrusive investigations (excavation and drilling) for the data verification. The drilling/excavation results showed that the proper discovering of underground caves can be done if anomaly probability level is not lower than 90 %. Such a probability value was shown to be consistent with the modeling results. More than 30 underground cavities were discovered on the site utilizing the methodology.

  16. Development of opencast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szebenyi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The role and works of the Central Institute for Mining Development and its legal predecessors, the Mining Research Institute and Mines Design Institute, in relation with opencast lignite mining in Hungary, are summarized. Investigations aimed at the determination of the heating technical properties of lignites are reviewed. Different lignite mines, their geological features, production possibilities and development conditions are outlined.

  17. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  18. The significance of the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus P. Kritzinger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi Monachi Captivi should, in view of the similarities with the first cave episode and the high incidence of literary devices employed in it, be recognised for its value in the interpretation of this vita. The book was intended as a defence of, and an exhortation to a life of celibacy and this dual purpose is clearly demonstrated in both episodes in which a cave is used as the setting. The second cave episode has been neglected in the scholarly debate about the purpose of the book and this article attempts to set the record straight.

  19. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  20. A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Ramos Donato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation Index’ (CCI were established. We also used a rapid assessment protocol to measure cave vulnerability for prioritization of conservation/restoration actions (RAP-cr comparing natural cavities with the same lithology, due to “strictu sensu” peculiarities. Based on the protocols applied in caves of the municipality of Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, we concluded that the present method attended to the needs for the classification of the caves into categories of conservation/restoration status, using little time and financial effort, through rapid diagnostics that facilitate the comparisons. In this perspective, the CCI can be used to indicate areas that should be protected and caves that should be prioritized to have initiated activities of conservation and restoration.

  1. Phototrophic microorganisms in biofilm samples from Vernjika Cave, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Slađana; Jovanović, Jelena; Predojević, Dragana; Trbojević, Ivana; Blagojević, Ana; Subakov Simić, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    Caves represent specific natural monuments in terms of structure, complexity and beauty which can be found worldwide. Even though they are considered extreme environments, they are still a unique habitat for a large number of organisms that grow and proliferate here. Often can be seen that the cave walls are differently coloured as a consequence of the biofilm development. Biofilms represent complex communities of microorganisms that can develop on different kind of surfaces, including various rock surfaces. Each microbe species play a different role in a community, but their development on stone surfaces can cause substantial damage to the substrates through different mechanisms of biodeterioration and degradation. There is an increased interest in the phototrophic component of biofilms (aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae), especially cyanobacteria, an ancient microorganisms capable to survive the most diverse extreme conditions. These phototrophs can easily be found at cave entrances illuminated by direct or indirect sunlight and areas near artificial lights. Cyanobacteria and algae were investigated in biofilm samples taken from the entrance of Vernjika Cave in Eastern Serbia. Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were documented, with Cyanobacteria as a group with the highest number of recorded taxa. Chroococcalean species were the most diverse with the most frequently encountered species from the genus Gloeocapsa. Phormidium and Nostoc species were commonly recorded Oscillatoriales and Nostocles, respectively. Among Oscillatoriales species, it was noticed that one Phormidium species precipitates CaCO3 on it's sheats. Trebouxia sp. and Desmococcus olivaceus were frequently documented Chlorophyta, and representatives of Bacillariophyta were exclusively aerophytic taxa, mostly belonging to the genera Luticola and Humidophila. Measured ecological parameters, temperature and relative humidity, were influenced by the external climatic changes, while light

  2. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  3. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  4. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  5. Drip water electrical conductivity as an indicator of cave ventilation at the event scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew C; Wynn, Peter M; Barker, Philip A; Leng, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    The use of speleothems to reconstruct past climatic and environmental change through chemical proxies is becoming increasingly common. Speleothem chemistry is controlled by hydrological and atmospheric processes which vary over seasonal time scales. However, as many reconstructions using speleothem carbonate are now endeavouring to acquire information about precipitation and temperature dynamics at a scale that can capture short term hydrological events, our understanding of within cave processes must match this resolution. Monitoring within Cueva de Asiul (N. Spain) has identified rapid (hourly resolution) changes in drip water electrical conductivity (EC), which is regulated by the pCO2 in the cave air. Drip water EC is therefore controlled by different modes of cave ventilation. In Cueva de Asiul a combination of density differences, and external pressure changes control ventilation patterns. Density driven changes in cave ventilation occur on a diurnal scale at this site irrespective of season, driven by fluctuations in external temperature across the cave internal temperature threshold. As external temperatures drop below those within the cave low pCO2 external air enters the void, facilitating the deposition of speleothem carbonate and causing a reduction in measured drip water EC. Additionally, decreases in external pressure related to storm activity act as a secondary ventilation mechanism. Reductions in external air pressure cause a drop in cave air pressure, enhancing karst air draw down, increasing the pCO2 of the cave and therefore the EC measured within drip waters. EC thereby serves as a first order indicator of cave ventilation, regardless of changes in speleothem drip rates and karst hydrological conditions. High resolution monitoring of cave drip water electrical conductivity reveals the highly sensitive nature of ventilation dynamics within cave environments, and highlights the importance of this for understanding trace element incorporation into

  6. The genesis of a lava cave in the Deccan Volcanic Province (Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lava tubes and channels forming lava distributaries have been recognized from different parts of western Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP. Openings of smaller dimension have been documented from the pāhoehoe flows around Pune, in the western DVP. A small lava cave is exposed in Ghoradeshwar hill, near Pune. Detailed field studies of the physical characteristics, structure and morphology of the flows hosting the lava tube has been carried out. This is the first detailed documentation of a lava cave from the DVP. The lava cave occurs in a compound pāhoehoe flow of Karla Formation, characterized by the presence of lobes, toes and small scale features like squeeze-ups. Field observations and measurements reveal that the dimensions of the cave are small, with low roof and a maximum width of 108 cm. The cave morphology along the 20 m passage varies from circular to semi-circular, with a twilight zone to the north. The gentle micro-topography at Ghoradeshwar controlled the advancement of pāhoehoe lobes and toes within the sheet lobe. The pre-flow gradients towards the north led to the progression of flow from the east, where the cave opening is presently seen. Dimensions and related morphology of the lava cave suggest that it can be best described as a small sub-crustal cave formed by draining of an inflated of pāhoehoe lava lobe. At Ghoradeshwar, besides the natural lava cave, Buddhist caves carved in pāhoehoe lava flows are also observed, indicating that early man took advantage of the existing openings in pāhoehoe flows and sculpted the caves to suit their requirements.

  7. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  8. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  9. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  10. Mining review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  11. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  12. Wikipedia Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kotaro; Ito, Masahiro; Erdmann, Maike; Shirakawa, Masumi; Michishita, Tomoyuki; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    Wikipedia, a collaborative Wiki-based encyclopedia, has become a huge phenomenon among Internet users. It covers a huge number of concepts of various fields such as arts, geography, history, science, sports and games. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, Wikipedia's impressive characteristics are not limited to the scale, but also include the dense link structure, URL based word sense disambiguation, and brief anchor texts. Because of these characteristics, Wikipedia has become a promising corpus and a new frontier for research. In the past few years, a considerable number of researches have been conducted in various areas such as semantic relatedness measurement, bilingual dictionary construction, and ontology construction. Extracting machine understandable knowledge from Wikipedia to enhance the intelligence on computational systems is the main goal of "Wikipedia Mining," a project on CREP (Challenge for Realizing Early Profits) in JSAI. In this paper, we take a comprehensive, panoramic view of Wikipedia Mining research and the current status of our challenge. After that, we will discuss about the future vision of this challenge.

  13. High endemism at cave entrances: a case study of spiders of the genus Uthina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Tingting; Zheng, Guo; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries. Both bPTP and BPP identified the 13 clades as 13 separate species, while GMYC identified 19 species. Furthermore, our results revealed high endemism at cave entrances. Of the 13 provisional species, twelve (one known and eleven new) are endemic to one or a cluster of caves, and all of them occurred only at cave entrances except for one population of one species. The only widely distributed species, U. luzonica, mostly occurred in epigean environments while three populations were found at cave entrances. Additionally, eleven new species of the genus are described. PMID:27775081

  14. Tuberculoma of the Cavernous Sinus and Meckel's Cave in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V R Roopesh; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Verma, Surendra Kumar; Barathi, S Deepak; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar; Bidkar, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous infection of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave is extremely rare. In this report, we describe a patient with tuberculoma of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave, extending to the petrous apex. The patient underwent microsurgical excision of the lesion and antitubercular chemotherapy resulting in a good outcome. We describe the diagnostic difficulties and review the relevant literature.

  15. Extra-axial ependymoma of posterior fossa extending to the Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Fuat; Tuna, Hakan; Bozkurt, Melih; Deda, Haluk

    2005-06-01

    An extra-axial ependymoma extending from the left cerebellopontine corner to the Meckel's cave is reported. This lesion's clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics are presented. This tumor's infrequent extra-axial location, extension to the Meckel's cave and possible origin are discussed.

  16. Mineralogical analyses in various caves from the Băile Herculane area, the Cerna Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Marincea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to show results from the mineralogical analyses performed on samples from three caves in the Baile Herculane area. All minerals presented here are described for the first time in the cave from which they were sampled.

  17. Resource Documentation and Recharge Area Delineation of a Large Fluvial Karst System: Carroll Cave, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Located along Wet Glaize Creek in the central Missouri Ozarks, Toronto Spring is a distributary spring system where surface stream flow mixes with flow from the Carroll Cave system. Following recharge area delineations for Thunder River and Confusion Creek in Carroll Cave, flow from these rivers wa...

  18. Geological conditions of origin of the Potočka zijalka cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Potočka zijalka cave on Mt. Ol{eva in Southern Karavanke during excavation of cave sediments of Würm age that contain cultural remains of the Cromagnon Man also large amounts of gravel were before the Badenian transgression, from the Central Alps during Miocene.

  19. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza

    Full Text Available Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching.

  20. Environmental Monitoring in the Mechara caves, Southeastern Ethiopia: Implications for Speleothem Palaeoclimate Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrat Asfawossen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of palaeoclimate records in speleothems depends on the understanding of the modern climate of the region, the geology, the hydrology above the caves, and the within-cave climate. Monitoring within-cave climate variability, geochemistry of speleothem-forming drip waters, and associated surface and groundwater, provides a modern baseline for interpretation of speleothem palaeohydrological and palaeoclimate records. Here, we present results of such monitoring of the Mechara caves in southeastern Ethiopia, conducted between 2004 and 2007. Results show nearly constant within-cave climate (temperature and humidity in all caves, which generally reflects the surface climate. Groundwater and surface water geochemistry is similar across the region (except slight modification by local lithological variations and modern drip water isotope data fall close to regional Meteoric Water Line, but speleothems further from equilibrium. Holocene and modern speleothems from these caves give high-resolution climate records, implying that the Mechara caves provide a suitable setting for the deposition of annually laminated speleothems that could record surface climate variability in a region where rainfall is sensitive to both the strength of the intertropical convergence zone as well as Indian Monsoon variability.

  1. [Spatial structure of the community of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) hibernating in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P; Kurmaeva, N M; Shepelev, A A; Il'in, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the spatial distribution and localization of bats have been studied during their hibernation in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka. The proportion of cave area occupied by bats varies from 70 to 93% in large caves (> 60000 m2), decreasing to 50% in medium-sized caves (10000-60000 m2) and to less than 30% in small caves (bats choose sites near cave openings, up to 25% prefer central parts, but most bats (about 66%) concentrate in the deepest parts of caves. Among wintering species, higher rates of occurrence and shelter occupancy are characteristic of Plecotus auritus. Myotis daubentonii, and M. mystacinus, whereas M. dasycneme and M. brandtii show the highest degree of aggregation. The optimal temperature range for the wintering of all bat species is 2-4 degrees C. Myotis brandtii, Eptesicus nilssonii, and M. daubentonii prefer to hibernate in open spaces of cave ceilings; M. mystacinus. E. serotinus, and Pl. auritus usually occupy the middle and upper parts of walls; while M. dasycneme and M. nattereri occur mainly in hollows on ceilings.

  2. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  3. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylenia Chiari

    Full Text Available Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  4. Paleontology. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] 1-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Mammoth Cave (Kentucky) was designated as a national park in 1941 because of its beautiful hills and valleys, scenic rivers, and the vast cave system located within its boundaries. Outstanding physiographic features include karst terrains, sandstone capped plateaus, and bluffs overlooking rivers and streams, which provide an unusually wide variety…

  5. The small but clear gravity signal above the natural cave 'Grotta Gigante' (Trieste, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Fabbri, Julius; Rossi, Lorenzo; Handi Mansi, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Gravity observations are a powerful means for detecting underground mass changes. The Italian and Slovenian Karst has a number of explored caves, several are also touristic due to their size (e.g. Grotta Gigante in Italy; Skocjianske Jame and Postojnska Jama in Slovenia). Just a few years ago another big cave was discovered by chance close to Trieste when drilling a tunnel for a motor-highway, which shows that more caves are expected to be discovered in coming years. We have acquired the gravity field above the Grotta Gigante cave, a cave roughly 100 m high and 200 m long with a traditional spring-gravity meter (Lacoste&Romberg) and height measurements made with GPS and total station. The GPS was made with two different teams and processing algorithms, to cross-check accuracy and error estimate. Some stations had to be surveyed with a classical instrument due to the vegetation which concealed the satellite positioning signal. Here we present the results of the positioning acquisitions and the gravity field. The cave produces a signal of 1.5 mGal, with a clear elongated concentric symmetry. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the Karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing caves. This will have a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will for example allow to plan the urban development at a safety distance from subsurface caves.

  6. 36 CFR 290.3 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... governmental agencies and the public, including those who utilize caves for scientific, educational, or..., or values. (1) Biota. The cave provides seasonal or yearlong habitat for organisms or animals, or... inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places because of their research importance for history...

  7. 78 FR 59923 - Cave Run Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cave Run Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing.... Project No.: 14376-001. c. Date Filed: July 21, 2013. d. Submitted By: Cave Run Energy, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cave Run Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Licking River, in Rowan and Bath...

  8. The freshwater crabs of Ethiopia, northeastern Africa, with the description of a new Potamonautes cave species (Brachyura: Potamonautidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumberlidge, N.; Clark, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent collection of freshwater potamonautid crabs from a newly-explored cave in Ethiopia included a new species of Potamonautes MacLeay, 1838, which is described. The new species is associated with caves but is not troglobitic because it has no special morphological adaptations for life in caves

  9. Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera spelaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2011-08-01

    The cave lion, Panthera spelaea, was widespread across northern Eurasia and Alaska/Yukon during the Late Pleistocene. Both morphology and DNA indicate an animal distinct from modern lions (probably at the species level) so that its disappearance in the Late Pleistocene should be treated as a true extinction. New AMS radiocarbon dates directly on cave lion from across its range, together with published dates from other studies - totalling 111 dates - indicate extinction across Eurasia in the interval ca. 14-14.5 cal ka BP, and in Alaska/Yukon about a thousand years later. It is likely that its extinction occurred directly or indirectly in response to the climatic warming that occurred ca. 14.7 cal ka BP at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1, accompanied by a spread of shrubs and trees and reduction in open habitats. Possibly there was also a concomitant reduction in abundance of available prey, although most of its probable prey species survived substantially later. At present it is unclear whether human expansion in the Lateglacial might have played a role in cave lion extinction. Gaps in the temporal pattern of dates suggest earlier temporary contractions of range, ca. 40-35 cal ka BP in Siberia (during MIS 3) and ca. 25-20 cal ka BP in Europe (during the 'Last Glacial Maximum'), but further dates are required to corroborate these. The Holocene expansion of modern lion ( Panthera leo) into south-west Asia and south-east Europe re-occupied part of the former range of P. spelaea, but the Late Pleistocene temporal and geographical relationships of the two species are unknown.

  10. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  11. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  13. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hudson, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gokhale, N. [Madge Networks, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  14. Stalagmites from Spannagel cave (Austria) and holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollweiler, N.; Mangini, A.; Spötl, C.; Scholz, D.; Mühlinghaus, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Spannagel cave is located around 2,500 m asl at the end of the Tux Valley in Tyrol (Austria) close to the Hintertux glacier. While the area above the cave is ice free at present, it was covered by ice during past glacials as well as during colder periods of Interglacials. Presently, the temperature inside the cave is between 1.8° and 2.0° C. We used the d18O time-series of three stalagmites which grew in small distance from each other. This speleothem record is not influenced by effects of kinetic isotope fractionation due to the low temperatures in the cave. The stalagmites were precisely dated with the U/Th-method. The combined record (COMNISPA, Vollweiler et al. 2006) shows substantial variability within the last 9 kyr with features like the Holocene Climatic Optimum between 7.5 and 6.5 kyr, the Mediaeval Warm Period between 1.2 and 0.7 kyr and the Roman Warm Period between 2.25 and 1.7 kyr. In contrast, periods of lower temperatures are visible between 7.9 and 7.5, 5.9 and 5.1, 3.5 and 3 kyr, and during the LIA between 600 and 150 yr. The period between 5.9 and 5.1 kyr has equivalence in many records from various regions in both hemispheres corresponding to global cooling. It also includes the time of the Alpine Iceman at 5.3 kyr. The timing of the climatic variations revealed by COMNISPA agrees approximately with that shown by other Alpine archives. Joerin et al. (2006) dated wood and peat samples which were released by melting Swiss Alpine glaciers located between Engadin and Valais. Both the d18O maxima and minima recorded in COMNISPA clearly have counterparts in the glacier recession record. Comparisons of COMNISPA with other archives have shown that our stalagmite curve does not only record local climate but also the history of European climate. The extremely high correlation to the Hematite Stained Grain record of Bond et al. (2001) suggests that COMNISPA is a good archive for climate in the North Atlantic region (Mangini et al. 2007). In addition

  15. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  16. Karst show caves – how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection – experiment in Postojna cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gabrovšek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave Early Warning and Measuring System. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an Early Warning System (EWS. One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organisation allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is a regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  17. National Underground Mines Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    08 019 726 LONG PARK 15 0502379 08 095 2904 GEO a1 MINE 0502383 08 085 2904 BESSIE 0 MINE 0502387 08 667 2904 PAYSTREAK 0502397 08 113 2904 BUENO MILL...35 061QUESTA MINE 2901267 35 055 43560 ’ RUDY NO, I S 2 2901364 35 031 MT, TAYLOR 2901375 35 061 0 MARQUEZ SHAFT 2901597 35 031 6534 MARIANO LAKE MINE

  18. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2007-09-15

    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  19. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral characteristics of dissolved organic carbon in cave drip waters and their responses to environment changes: Four cave systems as an example in Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE XingNeng; WANG ShiJie; ZHOU YunChao; LUO WeiJun

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the responses of fluorescence spectral characteristics of cave drip waters to modern environment and climate changes is key to the reconstructions of environmental and climatic changes using fluorescence spectral characteristics of speleothems. The fluorescence spectral characteristics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in four active cave systems were analyzed with a three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectral analysis method. We found that the fluorescence types of DOC were mainly of fulvic-like and protein-like fluorescences, both in soil waters and cave drip waters. The intensity of fulvic-like fluorescence was positively correlated with the concentrations of DOC, suggesting that the DOC of cave drip waters was derived from the overlying soil layer of a cave system. Compared with the other cave systems, the variation range of the excitation and emission wavelengths for fulvic-like fluorescence of cave drip waters in Liangfeng cave system that had forest vegetation was smaller and the excitation wavelength was longer, while its fluorescence intensity varied significantly. By contrast, the excitation and emission wavelengths and fluorescence intensity for that in Jiangjun cave system that had a scrub and tussock vegetation showed the most significant variation, while its excitation wavelength was shorter. This implies that the variation of vegetation overlying a cave appears to be a factor affecting the fluorescence spectral characteristics of cave drip waters.

  20. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  1. Mining and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisgyorgy, S.

    1986-01-01

    The realization of new mining projects should be preceded by detailed studies on the impact of mining activities on the environment. For defining the conditions of environmental protection and for making proper financial plans the preparation of an information system is needed. The possible social effects of the mining investments have to be estimated, first of all from the points of view of waste disposal, mining hydrology, subsidence due to underground mining etc.

  2. Detrital cave sediments record Late Quaternary hydrologic and climatic variability in northwestern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Tyler S.; van Hengstum, Peter J.; Horgan, Meghan C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

    2016-04-01

    Detrital sediment in Florida's (USA) submerged cave systems may preserve records of regional climate and hydrologic variability. However, the basic sedimentology, mineralogy, stratigraphic variability, and emplacement history of the successions in Florida's submerged caves remains poorly understood. Here we present stratigraphic, mineralogical, and elemental data on sediment cores from two phreatic cave systems in northwestern Florida (USA), on the Dougherty Karst Plain: Hole in the Wall Cave (HITW) and Twin Cave. Water flowing through these caves is subsurface flow in the Apalachicola River drainage basin, and the caves are located just downstream from Jackson Blue (1st magnitude spring, > 2.8 m3 s- 1 discharge). Sedimentation in these caves is dominated by three primary sedimentary styles: (i) ferromanganese deposits dominate the basal recovered stratigraphy, which pass upsection into (ii) poorly sorted carbonate sediment, and finally into (iii) fine-grained organic matter (gyttja) deposits. Resolving the emplacement history of the lower stratigraphic units was hampered by a lack of suitable material for radiocarbon dating, but the upper organic-rich deposits have a punctuated depositional history beginning in the earliest Holocene. For example, gyttja primarily accumulated in HITW and Twin Caves from ~ 5500 to 3500 cal yr. BP, which coincides with regional evidence for water-table rise of the Upper Floridian Aquifer associated with relative sea-level rise in the Gulf of Mexico, and evidence for invigorated drainage through the Apalachicola River drainage basin. Gyttja sediments were also deposited in one of the caves during the Bølling/Allerød climate oscillation. Biologically, these results indicate that some Floridian aquatic cave (stygobitic) ecosystems presently receive minimal organic matter supply in comparison to prehistoric intervals. The pre-Holocene poorly sorted carbonate sediment contains abundant invertebrate fossils, and likely documents a period

  3. Morphological and speleothemic development in Brujas Cave (Southern Andean Range, Argentine): palaeoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Peña, José Luis; Mikkan, Raúl; Osácar, Cinta; Quinif, Yves

    2004-02-01

    Brujas Cave, in the Southern Andean Range, is a well-known endokarstic site in Argentina. However, the origin and evolution of this cave system are poorly known. Based on morphological cave features as well as characteristics of cave deposits, we propose a meteogene drawdown cave genesis, including a change from phreatic to vadose conditions related to the high rate of fluvial downcutting in the area. During the vadose period, various cave-related deposits, including authogenic calcite and gypsum speleothems, allogenic volcanic ash and external tufas were deposited. Gypsum crusts are the oldest cave deposits identified (90.2-64.3 ky BP). Their origin, deduced from isotopic characteristics ( ∂34S=9.6‰), is related to the oxidation of pyrite contained in the Jurassic limestone bedrock as well as the dissolution of overlying Jurassic-Triassic evaporite formations. Gypsum crust deposition is associated with evaporation of water flowing and seeping into the cave during arid environmental conditions. Calcite deposits precipitated from flowing water under equilibrium conditions represent the main speleothem growth period (67.6-34 ky BP in age). Their stable isotope values ( ∂13C=-3‰ to -5‰ and ∂18O=-9‰ to -11‰) may indicate slightly humid and warm conditions related to the regional Minchin lacustrine phase and global oxygen isotope stage 3. Following this stage, a seismic event is evidenced by accumulations of broken stalactites. Seepage calcite speleothems covering cave walls were deposited under disequilibrium conditions by evaporation, probably during Holocene time. Finally, another more recent gypsum deposition period represented by gypsum balls has been differentiated. Micromorphological as well as isotopic ( ∂34S=5.6‰) data indicate that these gypsum forms are related to cyclic processes (solution-deposition) from water seeping into the cave under arid conditions. In addition, intense volcanic activity in the area during Holocene time is deduced

  4. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B

    2013-01-01

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds.

  5. Early Neanderthal constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaubert, Jacques; Verheyden, Sophie; Genty, Dominique; Soulier, Michel; Cheng, Hai; Blamart, Dominique; Burlet, Christian; Camus, Hubert; Delaby, Serge; Deldicque, Damien; Edwards, R Lawrence; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Lévêque, François; Maksud, Frédéric; Mora, Pascal; Muth, Xavier; Régnier, Édouard; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Santos, Frédéric

    2016-06-02

    Very little is known about Neanderthal cultures, particularly early ones. Other than lithic implements and exceptional bone tools, very few artefacts have been preserved. While those that do remain include red and black pigments and burial sites, these indications of modernity are extremely sparse and few have been precisely dated, thus greatly limiting our knowledge of these predecessors of modern humans. Here we report the dating of annular constructions made of broken stalagmites found deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwest France. The regular geometry of the stalagmite circles, the arrangement of broken stalagmites and several traces of fire demonstrate the anthropogenic origin of these constructions. Uranium-series dating of stalagmite regrowths on the structures and on burnt bone, combined with the dating of stalagmite tips in the structures, give a reliable and replicated age of 176.5 thousand years (±2.1 thousand years), making these edifices among the oldest known well-dated constructions made by humans. Their presence at 336 metres from the entrance of the cave indicates that humans from this period had already mastered the underground environment, which can be considered a major step in human modernity.

  6. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland.

  7. Step back! Niche dynamics in cave-dwelling predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Isaia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The geometry of the Hutchinson's hypervolume derives from multiple selective pressures defined, on one hand, by the physiological tolerance of the species, and on the other, by intra- and interspecific competition. The quantification of these evolutionary forces is essential for the understanding of the coexistence of predators in light of competitive exclusion dynamics. We address this topic by investigating the ecological niche of two medium-sized troglophile spiders (Meta menardi and Pimoa graphitica). Over one year, we surveyed several populations in four subterranean sites in the Western Italian Alps, monitoring monthly their spatial and temporal dynamics and the associated physical and ecological variables. We assessed competition between the two species by means of multi regression techniques and by evaluating the intersection between their multidimensional hypervolumes. We detected a remarkable overlap between the microclimatic and trophic niche of M. menardi and P. graphitica, however, the former -being larger in size- resulted the best competitor in proximity of the cave entrance, causing the latter to readjust its spatial niche towards the inner part, where prey availability is scarcer ("step back effect"). In parallel to the slight variations in the subterranean microclimatic condition, the niche of the two species was also found to be seasonal dependent, varying over the year. With this work, we aim at providing new insights about the relationships among predators, demonstrating that energy-poor environments such as caves maintain the potential for diversification of predators via niche differentiation and serve as useful models for theoretical ecological studies.

  8. Classification of Thermal Patterns at Karst Springs and Cave Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, A.J.; Covington, M.D.; Peters, Albert J.; Alexander, S.C.; Anger, C.T.; Green, J.A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Alexander, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Classification of thermal patterns at karst springs and cave streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Andrew J; Covington, Matthew D; Peters, Andrew J; Alexander, Scott C; Anger, Cale T; Green, Jeffrey A; Runkel, Anthony C; Alexander, E Calvin

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode.

  10. Features of deep cave sediments: their influence on fossil preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo, R.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse how physical and chemical deep-cave sediment features preserve the morphological and geochemical characteristics of paleontological materials. Detrital sediment chemistry and clast size are fundamental because they provide a soft, impervious and plastic environment in which fossil remains are transported with minimal erosion. Sediment mineralogy provides a carbonate- and phosphate-buffered environment in which molecules of biological origin hydrolyze slower than in open-air environments or even at cave entrance sites. Because permafrost did not develop in the Iberian Peninsula (at least at the altitudes of inhabited caves, sediment desiccation never took place. In addition, sediment -pores were not aerated, which protected fossil remains from air (oxygen-linked weathering. The annual-temperature variation inside sediment was negligible, which contributed to amino acid racemization dating. Collagen amino acid and amino acid racemization analysis of cave bear and man samples from cave sediments dated from different Oxygen Isotope Stages (4": Sidrón, Amutxate, Troskaeta, El Toll, Coro Tracito, Ekain, Lezetxiki, La Pasada, Eirós; 5": Reguerillo and Arrikrutz; 6"-7": Sima de los Huesos demonstrate that important amounts of almost intact collagen still remain in teeth dentine. Fossil DNA search seems to be very promising.En este trabajo se analiza el papel que juegan las características físicas y químicas de los sedimentos de galerías profundas de cuevas en la preservación de los caracteres morfológicos y paleobiomoleculares del material paleontológico incluido en dichos sedimentos. Los aspectos geoquímicos y de tamaño de grano del sedimento son críticos: las características generan un medio blando, plástico e impermeable que permite el transporte -mecánico sin grave deterioro del material (en coladas de barro; las características químicas mineralogía del sediment* proporcionan un ambiente con tampón fosfatado

  11. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  12. CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

    2000-07-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

  13. The tardigrade fauna of Australian marine caves: with descriptions of nine new species of Arthrotardigrada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Boesgaard, Tom M; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-05-28

    Marine caves are known to support a rich macrofauna; however, few studies have focused on meiofauna. Marine cave meiofaunal tardigrades have been reported from Japan and the Mediterranean Sea and a preliminary list of species including a redescription of Actinarctus neretinus Grimaldi de Zio, D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia, Vaccarella and Grimaldi, 1982 was reported from Fish Rock Cave and Jim's Cave on the coast of Australia. This study is the fourth in a series describing the unique meiofauna in two Australian submarine caves located off the coast of New South Wales, describing nine new species.        Only 67 tardigrades were collected from the two caves, yet these contained a high diversity of at least 16 different species which are quite different in the two caves. The fauna includes nine arthrotardigrade genera: Actinarctus, Batillipes, Dipodarctus, Halechiniscus, Raiarctus, Styraconyx, Tanarctus, Tholoarctus, and Wingstrandarctus. This fauna is different from that reported for the high energy beaches along the East Coast of Australia.        We describe nine new species comprising a single batillipedid and eight halechiniscids: Batillipes solitarius nov. sp., Dipodarctus australiensis nov. sp., Dipodarctus susannae nov. sp., Raiarctus jesperi nov. sp., Raiarctus katrinae nov. sp., Tanarctus hirsutospinosus nov. sp., Tholoarctus oleseni nov. sp., Wingstrandarctus stinae nov. sp. and Wingstrandarctus unsculptus nov. sp.

  14. In situ acetylene reduction activity of Scytonema julianum in Vapor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asencio Antonia Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation was measured in situ for the first time by acetylene reduction for a greyish mat composed of Scytonema julianum in cave- like environments. Mat-specific rates (129.9-215.7 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for daytime fixation and 65.1-120.6 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for nighttime fixation recorded in the Vapor cave differed considerably due to the energy reserves stored during photosynthesis being exhausted and used in the dark phase. The most influential environmental parameter for nitrogen fixation in the Vapor cave is temperature in the daytime and nighttime fixations. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria may contribute considerably to the overall nitrogen cycle in harsh environments such as caves. Nitrogenase activity in Scytonema julianum was roughly 30 times higher than that of Scytonema mirabile, which also grew in cave environments, which is due to the characteristics of each site. The entrance of Vapour cave (Spain faces SE, measures 0.75 x 0.6 m and opens to shafts of a total depth of 80 m. Its dimensions and environmental conditions (relative humidity up to 100%; maximum temperature, 43oC imply that it is isolated from external influences, and that the microclimate differs substantially from that experienced externally. Nitrogen fixation, photon flux density, relative humidity and temperature in the Vapor cave were taken hourly over a 24-hour period in winter.

  15. The use of passive seismological imaging in speleogenetic studies: an example from Kanaan Cave, Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehmé Carole

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many parameters that control the evolution of caves stands the volume of unconsolidated clay sediments generally produced by the alteration of the calcareous rocks. Here we introduce the use of a passive seismological imaging technique to investigate the clay deposits and estimate its total volume in a cave. Applied for the first time for speleogenesis studies, the HVSR (Horizontal / Vertical Spectral Ration is a geophysical technique that can help better interpret cave geomorphology. We apply seismological spectral techniques (H/V ratio on ambient noise vibrations to derive the clay volume, as well as its shape. This technique applied on the clay volume reveals some internal details, such as fallen blocks prior to the deposit accumulation and helps to understand deposit evacuation dynamics. The study focuses on the Kanaan Cave, located in Metn District, Lebanon, and reveals new stages related to the cave speleogenesis. This technique could be applied on ‘paragenetic’ caves where clay volume is frequently present in order to constrain the clay volume and reconstruct the buried floor shape of the cave, underneath the clay deposit.

  16. Rock fall simulation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Dart, Richard L.; Reichenbach, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Rock fall from limestone cliffs at Timpanogos Cave National Monument in American Fork Canyon east of Provo, Utah, is a common occurrence. The cave is located in limestone cliffs high on the southern side of the canyon. One fatality in 1933 led to the construction of rock fall shelters at the cave entrance and exit in 1976. Numerous rock fall incidents, including a near miss in 2000 in the vicinity of the trail below the cave exit, have led to a decision to extend the shelter at the cave exit to protect visitors from these ongoing rock fall events initiating from cliffs immediately above the cave exit. Three-dimensional rock fall simulations from sources at the top of these cliffs have provided data from which to assess the spatial frequencies and velocities of rock falls from the cliffs and to constrain the design of protective measures to reduce the rock fall hazard. Results from the rock fall simulations are consistent with the spatial patterns of rock fall impacts that have been observed at the cave exit site.

  17. Holocene palaeoecological changes recorded in mollusc-bearing cave sediments, the Cave above the Słupska Gate (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanek, M.; Krajcarz, M; Krajcarz, M.T.; Alexandrowicz, W.P.

    2016-07-01

    The Cave above the Słupska Gate (southern Poland) contains about 2m depth of mollusc-bearing deposits. Radiocarbon and archaeological dating indicate that these deposits accumulated during the Holocene (Preboreal to Subatlantic), although the earliest layers may date from the end of the Pleistocene. Eight layers of silts, sands and loess-like deposits were distinguished at the site. Seven of them contained identifiable snail shells, sometimes n large numbers, and sparse remains of vertebrates and archaeological artefacts. The molluscan assemblages retrieved from the cave contain over 40 taxa and 1,200 specimens. The balance of species distributed among 11 oogeographical groups enabled us to identify four assemblages which differ in their ecological structure and in the composition of the fauna. The oldest fauna (Late Glacial/Preboreal and/or Preboreal) with many shade-loving species is typical of a cool climate. Episodes of drying are evidenced by the loess-like deposits and the occurrence of open-country snails such as the glacial relic Vallonia tenuilabris. This species disappeared in the younger part of the Early Holocene, which is the most distinctive feature of the Słupsko Hill sequence. The Middle Holocene climatic optimum is characterised by abundantand diverse fauna which is typical of mixed and deciduous forests with distinct oceanic influences. The critical Discus ruderatus and Discus rotundatus succession reflects the general trends in European malacofaunas. The Late Holocene record may bear some hiatuses, but the shift away from a complete forest fauna is evident. (Author)

  18. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  19. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu; WU XianZhu; LI YiYin; DENG ChengLong; WU XiuJie; PEI ShuWen

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, three excavations have been carried out at a late Pleistocene human fossil site of Huan-glong Cave in Yunxi County, Hubei Province of China, which unearthed seven human teeth, dozens of stone tools, mammal fossils and other evidence indicating human activities. During the third excava-tion in 2006, in the same layer as the human teeth, we found some patches of black materials embed-ded in the deposit. We doubted that this black deposit layer is the remains of burning or even human use of fire at the cave. To further explore the possibility of human fire use at the Huanglong Cave, we examined samples directly taken from the black deposit layer and compared them with samples taken from several places in the cave using three methods: micromorphology, element content determination and deposit temperature analysis. Our results indicate that the contents of carbon element in the black deposit reach 64.59%-73.29%. In contrast, contents of carbon element of the comparative samples from other parts in the cave are only 5.82%-9.49%. The micromorphology analysis of the black de-posit samples reveals a plant structure like axial parenchyma, fibrocyte, uniseriate ray and vessel.High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that the stratum possibly underwent a high temperature in the nature. Based on these lab analyses, we are sure that the black layer in the Huanglong Cave is the remains of fire and combustion did occur in the cave 100000 years ago. Taking other evidence of human activities found in the Huanglong Cave into consideration, we believe that the evidence of fire from the Huanglong Cave was caused by the human activities of controlled use of fire.

  20. Technical study on bolt support of road driving next goaf in fully mechanized caving workface%综放沿空掘巷锚杆支护技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任润厚

    2001-01-01

    Through simulating numerical value to stress distribu tion of sidecoal in mine goaf in fully machanized caving workface and appling li miting equilibrium principle,this paper fix width of narrow pillar of road drivi ng next goaf and have a ratinal location of road.This paper raises control mecha nism of rock and scheme of bolt support in road driving next goaf in fully mecha nized caving workface and apply to engineering pracfice,it makes a good economic benefit of technique.%通过对综放面采空区侧煤体应力分布的数值模拟,运用极限平衡理论确定了沿空巷道窄煤柱的宽度,进行了合理的巷道定位。提出了综放沿空掘巷围岩控制机理和高强锚杆支护方案,并应用于工程实践,取得了良好的技术经济效果。

  1. Characteristics of ground behavior of fully mechanized caving faces in hard thick seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Yong-lu(索永录)

    2003-01-01

    It is showed in practice that the support load and its fluctuation is large, the periodic weighting is obvious and can be divided into two kinds, the large and small pressure, sometimes the behavior of the large pressure is very violent in hard thick seam caving faces. These are obviously different from those of the generally soft or medium hard seam caving feces. All above these are summarized, and the causes aroused these are researched. Finally the powered support selection of hard thick seam caving faces is discussed.

  2. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  3. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tmc@servidor.unam.mx; Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural. Xicontencatl y General Anaya s/n. (04120) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, D. [National Institute of Nuclear Research.. Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5 (52045), Salazar, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Institute of Geophysics, National University of Mexico, Circuito Institutos, CU (04510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cabrera, L. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern.

  4. An Experimental Study of the Thermal Behavior of the Courtyard Style Cave Dwelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳峰; 刘亚; 刘加平

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the courtyard on moderating the hush climate and improving the thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling, and the interaction amongst the ambient, the courtyard and its surrounding cave rooms were investigated. A field measurement was carried out in such a typical dwelling in the winter. The results presented in this paper prove the ability of this dwelling to transform an extreme winter environment outside cave rooms into a better outdoor community space and will be helpful for modern architects to seek a low cost housing solution with concern for sustainable development.

  5. Microbial activity in the subterranean environment of Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Carpa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Six cave material samples from Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains, were microbiologically andenzymologically analyzed. The microbiological analyses consisted in determining the presence ofoligotrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, nitrate and nitrite bacteria, denitrifiers and determining thepresence of micromycetes. In order to form a complete image on the microbial processes from this habitat,the bacteriological analyses were completed with quantitative and qualitative enzymological analyses. At allthe six samples of cave material the next quantitative enzymatic activities were performed: actual andpotential dehydrogenase, catalase and phosphatase. Only regarding the intensity of the processesdifferences were noticed. The qualitative enzymatic activities: amylase, dextranase, saccharase, maltaseand levanase, were not present at studied samples.

  6. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  7. [Paratrigeminal epidermoid originated in the meckel's cave (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Y; Morii, S; Tachibana, S; Saito, T; Ohwada, T

    1976-05-01

    We have reported a case of paratrigeminal epidermoid originated in the Meckel's cave. A 30 years old man was admitted to the department of neurosurgery with chief complaints of continuous right facial pain and numbness of entire right side of the face of three years duration. The positive neurological findings were hypesthesia over the distribution of the right trigeminal nerve, absence of the right corneal reflex and nystagmus on left lateral gaze. Caloric response was absent on the right side, however the audiogram showed normal. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was within normal limit. Electromyography showed giant spike in the right masseter and temporal muscles. Radiogram of the skull revealed a bone-destroying lesion over the medial florr of the right middle fossa involving the apex of the petrous bone (Fig 1). Right carotid angiography showed straightening and forward displacement of C4- C5 portion of the carotid siphon in the lateral view, and vertebral angiography showed displacement of basilar artery to the left side, upward displacement of the right posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar artery in the frontal view (Fig. 2, 3). At the time of operation, an epidermoid was identified in the Meckel's cave and totally removed microsurgically. Small amount of the tumor extending into the posterior fossa was also removed (Fig. 4, 5, 6, 7). Postoperative course was uneventfull except for an episode of headache and high fever of short duration, suggesting the signs of meningial irritation. Two months postoperativelly patient was relived of facial pain and was discharged with sensory impairment of the right trigeminal nerve distribution. Only 11 cases of paratrigeminal epidermoid, including the cases localized in the Meckel's cave have been reported in the past literatures (Table 1). In this paper we have discussed about the symptomatology and clinical data of paratrigeminal epidermoid and compared with those of trigeminal neurinoma, and meningioma originated

  8. Suitable Strategies for the Development of Sahoolan Watery Cave Geotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, tourism is one of the largest and most beneficial industries in the world and in many countries it is used as a development strategy. Geotourism or geological tourism is emerging as a new global phenomenon. It is a form of natural area tourism that specifically focuses on geology and landscape. Because of appropriate planning and recognizing advantages and limitations, this kind of tourism can play an important role in the national development and diversification of local economy. There is a wide variety of caves in Iran, including calcareous (karst, salt, ancient and human-made caves which Sahoolan is one of the most important of them. Though Sahoolan has a great range of potentials for geotourism development, geotourism is just emerging and taking its first developmental steps. So these questions arise: What are the potentialities and limitations of Geotourism development in this region? Which strategies are required for developing this type of tourism and following national and regional development?2. Theoretical Bases Geotourism is a new phenomenon in tourism industry. It is defined as tourism activity pertaining to geology and geomorphology, and the natural resources of landscape, landforms, fossil beds, rocks and minerals, with an emphasis on appreciating the processes that are creating and have created such features. Geotourism’s first definition appeared after 1990s. An early definition of geotourism was made by Thomas Hose. He specifically focused on geology and geomorphologic sites. The goal of geotourism is to maintain the character of place. It is not just travelling to undisturbed natural areas or to centers of human activity but travelling to destinations where nature and humans come together to produce a working landscape. The focus is to encourage visitation to an area by visitors who value the same working landscapes valued by the residents. Ideally, geotourism can be beneficial for both

  9. Sensing turbulent flow and heat transport in a cave conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, D.; Lucia, F. J.; Jennings, J. W.; Wilson, J. L.; Tyler, S. W.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Dwivedi, R.; Boston, P.; Burger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Cave systems provide an extreme example of complex subsurface porous media, dominated by flow through an interconnected network of conduits. Whether water or air-filled, these flow systems have been largely observed subjectively, with only a few simple quantitative measurements of flow and pressure. In the spring of 2008 a joint campaign of New Mexico Tech and the University of Nevada Reno entered the 210m deep, ~8m "diameter," keyhole shaped, subhorizontal, Left Hand Tunnel, a large air-filled conduit in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, with the intent to observe fluid flow with modern thermally-based instruments. The conduit experiences countercurrent, thermally stratified flow, with mean velocities in each layer less than 0.1m/s. It is part of a geothermally forced, large-scale convection cell. Two instruments were deployed. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) fiber optic cable was stretched over 1km of the tunnel, and partially suspended by balloons to the roof, to sense spatial and low-frequency (0.01Hz) temporal variations of temperature with a resolution approaching 0.05 degree C. The mean temperature difference between layers was on the order of 0.5 degree and the caveward (subhorizontal) temperature gradient was 1 degree/400m. Influences of connecting subvertical shafts, wet areas of the cave, human activity, and diurnal fluctuations were observed. The second instrument, a 7m tall tower with an array of eight 300Hz thermocouple temperature sensors, with a sensitivity approaching 0.005 degree, was deployed 200m into the tunnel and used to detect high- frequency temperature fluctuations associated with turbulence and the stratified flow. Turbulence structure of each layer was similar. Temperature fluctuation (and turbulence intensity?) was significantly greater near the boundary between layers and its steep vertical gradient of mean temperature. Results from this 3-day campaign, as limited as they are, suggest that there is a wealth of information and

  10. Filling mining technology in high water content%高水充填开采技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颂成

    2015-01-01

    By observed the deformation amount of roof and floor and mining stress under the use of different methods, the working face which used filling mining technology, was no periodic pressure and clear appearance phenomenon. Filling mining can timely support the roof; not form the caving zone in the overlying strata, and protecte the ecological environment.%应用充填技术对不同方法下的顶底板移近量和矿山应力进行了观测,工作面无周期来压和明显的矿山压力显现现象。充填开采能够及时支撑顶板,使其上覆岩层形不成垮落带,保护了生态环境。

  11. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15‰, and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10‰ suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature

  12. Meningioma involving Meckel's cave: transpetrosal surgical anatomy and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Steward, David L; Pensak, Myles L

    2002-09-01

    Meningiomas originating in Meckel's cave (MC) are uncommon lesions that represent 1% of all intracranial meningiomas. Innovations in skull base surgery have enabled resection of these lesions with less morbidity, but require an intimate knowledge of both lesional pathology and regional microneuroanatomy. To review the surgical and clinical considerations involved in the management of MC meningiomas, we retrospectively reviewed data from patients who underwent transpetrosal resection of primary MC meningiomas between 1984 and 1998. Of 146 patients who underwent transpetrosal removal of meningiomas, 7 were believed to have tumors originating in MC. All 7 patients presented with trigeminal dysfunction, facial pain, and/or headache. Complete tumor removal was achieved in 5 of the 7 patients. Facial hypoesthesia or anesthesia, paralysis of cranial nerve VI, and ophthalmoplegia were among the postoperative complications encountered. Meningiomas of MC represent treatable lesions whose diagnosis requires prompt imaging of patients with trigeminal dysfunction and symptoms of facial pain and headache.

  13. Debris flow hazard assessment for the Oregon Caves National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, John

    1983-01-01

    After experiencing a devastating debris flow in the Oregon Caves National Monument, the National Park Service needs an evaluation of the hazard of additional flows. Soil properties at six random sites were compared with those at the source of the debris flow. Although all sites had soils that could become unstable with sufficient moisture, soil at one site had properties similar to those at the scar and the potential for another flow was confirmed. The report suggests that winter weather conditions be closely monitored and compared to the antecedent conditions prior to the known failure. When the threshold for additional mass wasting is believed imminent, appropriate action can be taken to insure the safety of work personnel and the public. The peak streamflow that preceded the 5,200 cu yds of debris is estimated to have a 0.5 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. (USGS)

  14. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of time-series magnesium (δ26Mg isotope data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are placed against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rain water or snow as well as soil and hostrock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07 ‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15 ‰ and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04 ‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is in concert with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07 ‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10 ‰ record changes in outside air temperature as driving factor rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73 ‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43 ‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature affecting soil zone activity

  15. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  16. Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Cortes A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The large microclimatic stability is a basic characteristic of the subterranean karst systems and causes a high sensitivity to changesin environmental conditions. High-accuracy monitoring of Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain determined the temporal evolution of theaerodynamic processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. This cave is characterizedby a very stable microclimate, with high and relatively constant radon content (the mean value is 32200 Bq/m3, roughly, and thestandard deviation is 7600 Bq/m3 and a moderate and quite stable CO2 concentration (the mean value is 3730 ppm and the standarddeviation is 250 ppm. Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimaticprocesses are described with regard to the gas exchange between the cave and the outside atmosphere. There is a complexmicroclimatic functional relationship between the meteorological and cave microclimate conditions and the diffusion and flow of tracergases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Transient variations of tracer gas on cave airare controlled by natural barometric fluxes and anthropogenic forced ventilation due to uncontrolled opening of cave entrance. Theshort-term fluctuations of gas levels on cave air reveal distinct patterns during the exhalation process of theses gases from the netof fissures and pores to the cave atmosphere, depending on the isolation effect of soil and host rock.

  17. Antibiotic resistance is prevalent in an isolated cave microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirandeep Bhullar

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotics. The origin of the genes associated with this resistance is of significant importance to our understanding of the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. A growing body of evidence implicates environmental organisms as reservoirs of these resistance genes; however, the role of anthropogenic use of antibiotics in the emergence of these genes is controversial. We report a screen of a sample of the culturable microbiome of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, in a region of the cave that has been isolated for over 4 million years. We report that, like surface microbes, these bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics; some strains were resistant to 14 different commercially available antibiotics. Resistance was detected to a wide range of structurally different antibiotics including daptomycin, an antibiotic of last resort in the treatment of drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Enzyme-mediated mechanisms of resistance were also discovered for natural and semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotics via glycosylation and through a kinase-mediated phosphorylation mechanism. Sequencing of the genome of one of the resistant bacteria identified a macrolide kinase encoding gene and characterization of its product revealed it to be related to a known family of kinases circulating in modern drug resistant pathogens. The implications of this study are significant to our understanding of the prevalence of resistance, even in microbiomes isolated from human use of antibiotics. This supports a growing understanding that antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard wired in the microbial pangenome.

  18. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  19. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    sooner than a manager of lower type. Third, a non-operating gold mine is valued as being of the lowest type in the pool and all else equal, high-asymmetri mines are valued lower than low-asymmetri mines. In a qualitative sense these results are robust with respect to different assumptions (re cost......  Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  20. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  1. Digital Geologic Map of the Wind Cave quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Wind Cave quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map...

  2. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 and 2015 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  3. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  4. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Summary Report 2012 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012. Calls were classified using EchoClass(v1.1) software, but classification of...

  5. Contaminant analyses of water and sediment at Key Cave, Lauderdale County, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water and sediment samples were collected from Key Cave and analyzed for 20 metals and 78 organic chemicals. Results indicated the presence of p,p'-DDE and elevated...

  6. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 to 2015 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  7. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  8. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Summary Report 2012 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR in 2012. Calls were classified using EchoClass(v1.1) software, but classification of calls...

  9. True Color Orthophotography for Timpanogos Cave National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This imagery dataset was used to map the vegetation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument. This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery...

  10. Ice Caves in Hebrus Valles: A Target Location for the First Human Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Davila, A.; Fairen, A. G.; Rodriguez, A. P.; Rask, J.; Zavaleta, J.

    2016-09-01

    Caves at Hebrus Valles are an ideal exploration target on Mars as they provide shelter, water ice, more benign temperatures, and are interesting sites for astrobiology, ensuring critical resources for the establishment of a long-term human base.

  11. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  12. Free-living amoebae in sediments from the Lascaux Cave in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Sanchez A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lascaux Cave in France is an old karstic channel where the running waters are collected in a pool and pumped to the exterior. It is well-known that water bodies in the vicinity of humans are suspected to be reservoirs of amoebae and associated bacteria. In fact, the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba astronyxis, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba sp. and Hartmannella vermiformis were identif ied in the sediments of the cave using phylogenetic analyses and morphological traits. Lascaux Cave sediments and rock walls are wet due to a relative humidity near saturation and water condensation, and this environment and the presence of abundant bacterial communities constitute an ideal habitat for amoebae. The data suggest the need to carry out a detailed survey on all the cave compartments in order to determine the relationship between amoebae and pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Field Plot Points for Wind Cave National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Wind Cave NP were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 2 parts - (1) Physical Descriptive...

  14. Cultivating imagination: development and pilot test of a therapeutic use of an immersive virtual reality CAVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Nicolalde, F Daniel; Ponto, Kevin; Kinneberg, Megan; Freese, Vito; Paz, Dana

    2013-01-01

    As informatics applications grow from being data collection tools to platforms for action, the boundary between what constitutes informatics applications and therapeutic interventions begins to blur. Emerging computer-driven technologies such as virtual reality (VR) and mHealth apps may serve as clinical interventions. As part of a larger project intended to provide complements to cognitive behavioral approaches to health behavior change, an interactive scenario was designed to permit unstructured play inside an immersive 6-sided VR CAVE. In this pilot study we examined the technical and functional performance of the CAVE scenario, human tolerance of immersive CAVE experiences, and explored human imagination and the manner in which activity in the CAVE scenarios varied by an individual's level of imagination. Nine adult volunteers participated in a pilot-and-feasibility study. Participants tolerated 15 minute long exposure to the scenarios, and navigated through the virtual world. Relationship between personal characteristics and behaviors are reported and explored.

  15. Proposal: Conservation of Price's Potato Bean on Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to conduct monitoring response of Price's potato bean to overstory tree removal and understory grass control at Sauta Cave NWR.

  16. Cave-dwelling cyclopoids (Crustacea, Copepoda) from Venezia Giulia (northeastern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoch, Fabio

    1987-01-01

    Description of some troglobiont cyclopids from cave waters of Venezia Giulia (northeastern Italy). Acanthocyclops gordani Petkovski, Acanthocyclops venustus stammen (Kiefer), Acanthocyclops troglophilus (Kiefer), Diacyclops charon (Kiefer) and Diacyclops tantalus (Kiefer), are recorded for the first

  17. Hominin-bearing caves and landscape dynamics in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Berger, Lee R.

    2013-02-01

    This paper provides constraints on the evolution of the landscape in the Cradle of Humankind (CoH), UNESCO World Heritage Site, South Africa, since the Pliocene. The aim is to better understand the distribution of hominin fossils in the CoH, and determine links between tectonic processes controlling the landscape and the evolution and distribution of hominins occupying that landscape. The paper is focused on a detailed reconstruction of the landscape through time in the Grootvleispruit catchment, which contains the highly significant fossil site of Malapa and the remains of the hominin species Australopithicus sediba. In the past 4 My the landscape in the CoH has undergone major changes in its physical appearance as a result of river incision, which degraded older African planation surfaces, and accommodated denudation of cover rocks (including Karoo sediments and various sil- and ferricretes) to expose dolomite with caves in which fossils collected. Differentially weathered chert breccia dykes, calibrated with 10Be exposure ages, are used to estimate erosion patterns of the landscape across the CoH. In this manner it is shown that 2 My ago Malapa cave was ˜50 m deep, and Gladysvale cave was first exposed; i.e. landscape reconstructions can provide estimates for the time of opening of cave systems that trapped hominin and other fossils. Within the region, cave formation was influenced by lithological, layer-parallel controls interacting with cross-cutting fracture systems of Paleoproterozoic origin, and a NW-SE directed extensional far-field stress at a time when the African erosion surface was still intact, and elevations were probably lower. Cave geometries vary in a systematic manner across the landscape, with deep caves on the plateau and cave erosion remnants in valleys. Most caves formed to similar depths of 1400-1420 mamsl across much of the CoH, indicating that caves no longer deepened once Pliocene uplift and incision occurred, but acted as passive

  18. A Re-appraisal of the Stratigraphy, Palaeontology and Dating of Cow Cave, Chudleigh, Devon, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Jim W.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cow Cave is an important Quaternary paleontological site in Chudleigh Gorge, Devon, UK., now known to have a sequence of cave-earths and stalagmite floors that range in age from Upper Middle Pleistocene (~MIS 7 interglacial through to the Holocene (Flandrian and the present day. Excavations in 1927-1934, and again in 1962-3, have provided a rich fauna, with some artefacts. Here, the stratigraphy of the deposits is now more fully described and the faunal remains are considered in their stratigraphical contexts. Data supporting the existence of former cave entrances are presented along with an analysis of the processes of sedimentation and taphonomy with their climatic interpretations. Based on recent U-Th dating of a critical Stalagmite horizon, a chronology of the mid-Pleistocene to Holocene sequence is discussed. Finally, further excavation in Cow Cave and nearby sites is recommended.

  19. Reassessing Coxcatlan Cave and the early history of domesticated plants in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2005-07-05

    Reanalysis and direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of the cucurbit assemblage from Coxcatlan Cave provide information on the timing and sequence of the initial appearance of three domesticated plants in the Tehuacán Valley (Puebla, Mexico) and allow reassessment of the overall temporal context of plant domestication in Mexico. Cucurbita pepo is the earliest documented domesticate in the cave, dating to 7,920 calibrated calendrical (cal) years B.P. The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is dated at 7,200 cal years B.P. Cucurbita argyrosperma does not appear until 2,065 cal years B.P. The earlier identification of Cucurbita moschata specimens is not confirmed. Seventy-one radiocarbon dates, including 23 accelerator mass spectrometry dates on cucurbits, provide ample evidence of postdepositional vertical displacement of organic materials in the western half of Coxcatlan Cave, but they also indicate that the eastern half of the cave was largely undisturbed.

  20. On the adaptations to cave life of some different animal groups (first note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the major and common adaptations to the cave environment ofdifferent animal groups. The common features are: anophthalmia, depigmentation, apterism in the caseof insects, body shape and ecophysiological adaptations.

  1. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  2. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  3. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  4. A multi-year monitoring project of the high-altitude Cenote ice cave, Dolomites, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; Santagata, Tommaso; Spötl, Christoph; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Dal Molin, Luca; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Cenote ice cave hosts one of the most voluminous cave glaciers of the Dolomites. This 280 m-deep abyss was discovered in 1994 after the entrance had opened as a result of the abrupt emptying of a small lake at 2940 m a.s.l. in the Regional Park of Fanes, Sennes and Braies. The cave consists of a massive, 130 m-thick layered ice deposit carved by meltwater tunnels and chimneys excavated from below by ascending air. At the lower limit of the cave glacier a shaft opens - ice-free and 165 m deep - leading into a dome occupied by a cave rock glacier with typical terminal tongue embankments. A research project was launched to monitor long-term movements and volume changes of this ice deposit as well as to understand the cave microclimate and the potential for future palaeoclimate studies. During October 2015 a first expedition performed a complete survey of the final chamber using a Leica HDS7000, a phase difference laser scanner equipped with a dual axis compensator, on-board control, a wavelenght of 1.5 microns, a laser "CLASS 1" with a flow rate of 187 m and a resolution of 0.1 mm. A scan station was performed also at 110 m above the bottom of the shaft to map in detail the lower side of the hanging ice glacier. This survey has provided the detailed volume of the chamber (420,000 m3) as well as a first record of the position of the ice masses hanging on the ceiling and of the rock glacier at the bottom. Barometric, temperature and humidity dataloggers have been installed in the cave to record the microclimate. In addition pollen traps have been installed to study the present flux of pollen at the surface and inside the cave, while preliminary analyses on pollen grains preserved in the ice are being carried out. The Cenote ice cave research project aims to shed light on the climate evolution of the Dolomites during the last hundreds or possibly thousands of years, as well as on the more recent environmental changes that lead to the upward melting of the cave

  5. American mines, methods and men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.C.A. (Thames Water Utilities (UK))

    1992-04-01

    The paper is based on the author's visits to a number of American mines, to see their mining machinery and to discuss with mine management their industrial relations problems. The paper gives a brief review of American mines, methods and men and is in the form of a diary. Mines visited are: Ohio Valley Coal Company; Big John Mine; Pittsburgh Research Center of the US Bureau of Mines; Martinka Mine; Robin Hood Complex No 9 Mine (Boone County, West Virginia), Green Briar Mine (Virginia); Martin County Coal (Kentucky); Wabash Mine (Keensburgh, Illinois); Galatia Mine (Harrisburgh, Illinois); and William Station Mine (Sturgis, Kentucky). Details given include mining methods productivity and staffing levels. The mining machinery is described in detail in a separate article. 5 figs.

  6. Data Mining for CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  7. Image–guided resection of small lesions in the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, M.; Krauss, J K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective The microsurgical resection of tumors or vascular lesions in the cavernous sinus and the neighbouring Meckel's cave has been considered as hazardous because of often associated cranial nerve morbidity. Despite increasing consent that many of such tumors should not undergo surgical therapy, the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave may harbour small lesions of various origin, which are amenable for surgical resection. Surgery in this anatomical area needs a...

  8. Blind flight? A new troglobiotic orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Trond Andersen; Viktor Baranov; Linn Katrine Hagenlund; Marija Ivković; Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte; Martina Pavlek

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous belie...

  9. Virtual reality and the CAVE: Taxonomy, interaction challenges and research directions

    OpenAIRE

    Muhanna A. Muhanna

    2015-01-01

    One of the main goals of virtual reality is to provide immersive environments that take participants away from the real life into a virtual one. Many investigators have been interested in bringing new technologies, devices, and applications to facilitate this goal. Few, however, have focused on the specific human–computer interaction aspects of such environments. In this article we present our literature review of virtual reality and the Cave Automated Virtual Environment (CAVE). In particula...

  10. Marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea: a sponge biodiversity reservoir within a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    Full Text Available Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%, generic (70%, and species level (47.5%, the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each, 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection.

  11. Cockroaches (Insecta, Blattodea from caves of Polillo Island (Philippines, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian C. Lucanas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches collected during a protracted series of fieldwork in several limestone caves in Polillo Island, Philippines were taxonomically studied. A new species of Nocticola (Nocticolidae, N. gonzalezi Lucañas & Lit, sp. n., is described. The male of Periplaneta banksi Hanitsch (Blattidae is described for the first time. Altogether, the present cave cockroach fauna of the island consists of six species.

  12. A Low-Power Sensor Network for Long Duration Monitoring in Deep Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A.; Johnson, I.; Bick, T.; Winclechter, C.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Teare, S. W.; Arechiga, R. O.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring deep and inaccessible caves is important and challenging for a variety of reasons. It is of interest to study caves environments for understanding cave ecosystems, and human impact on the ecosystems. Caves may also hold clues to past climate changes. Cave instrumentation must however carry out its job with minimal human intervention and without disturbing the fragile environment. This requires unobtrusive and autonomous instrumentation. Earth-bound caves can also serve as analogs for caves on other planets and act as testbeds for autonomous sensor networks. Here we report on a project to design and implement a low-power, ad-hoc, wireless sensor network for monitoring caves and similar environments. The implemented network is composed of individual nodes which consist of a sensor, processing unit, memory, transceiver and a power source. Data collected at these nodes is transmitted through a wireless ZigBee network to a central data collection point from which the researcher may transfer collected data to a laptop for further analysis. The project accomplished a node design with a physical footprint of 2 inches long by 3 inches wide. The design is based on the EZMSP430-RF2480, a Zigbee hardware base offered by Texas Instruments. Five functioning nodes have been constructed at very low cost and tested. Due to the use of an external analog-to-digital converter the design was able to achieve a 16-bit resolution. The operational time achieved by the prototype was calculated to be approximately 80 days of autonomous operation while sampling once per minute. Each node is able to support and record data from up to four different sensors.

  13. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in caves of the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice A. B. Galati

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phlebotomine species captured during the period from January 1998 to June 2000 in 12 caves located in the Serra da Bodoquena, situated in the south central region of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Three of the caves are situated further north (in Bodoquena county, seven in the central area (Bonito county and two in the south (Jardim county. These last two caves and three of those in Bonito are located at the west side of the ridge. Eighteen species of phlebotomines were captured within the caves: Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932, Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942, Brumptomyia galindoi (Fairchild & Hertig, 1947, Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989, Lutzomyia almerioi Galati & Nunes, 1999, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Martinsmyia oliveirai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1970, Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962, Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942, Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar, 1929, Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939, Psathyromyia campograndensis (Oliveira, Andrade-Filho, Falcão & Brazil, 2001, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944, Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929, Pintomyia kuscheli (Le Pont, Martinez, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin, 1998, Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927 and Sciopemyia sp. A total of 29,599 phlebotomine sandflies was obtained. Lutzomyia almerioi was absolutely predominant (91.5% over the other species on both sides of the Bodoquena ridge, with the exception of the southern caves in which it was absent. It presents summer predominance, with nocturnal and diurnal activities. The species breeds in the caves and was captured during daytime both in the dark area and in the mouth of the caves. Martinsmyia oliveirai, the second most frequent sandfly, also presents a summer peak and only predominated over the other species in one cave, in which there

  14. Retreat and extinction of the Late Pleistocene cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Mateusz; Popović, Danijela; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Marciszak, Adrian; Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Nadachowski, Adam; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato) is a typical representative of Pleistocene megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Last Glacial. Detailed knowledge of cave bear extinction could explain this spectacular ecological transformation. The paper provides a report on the youngest remains of the cave bear dated to 20,930 ± 140 14C years before present (BP). Ancient DNA analyses proved its affiliation to the Ursus ingressus haplotype. Using this record and 205 other dates, we determined, following eight approaches, the extinction time of this mammal at 26,100-24,300 cal. years BP. The time is only slightly earlier, i.e. 27,000-26,100 cal. years BP, when young dates without associated collagen data are excluded. The demise of cave bear falls within the coldest phase of the last glacial period, Greenland Stadial 3. This finding and the significant decrease in the cave bear records with cooling indicate that the drastic climatic changes were responsible for its extinction. Climate deterioration lowered vegetation productivity, on which the cave bear strongly depended as a strict herbivore. The distribution of the last cave bear records in Europe suggests that this animal was vanishing by fragmentation into subpopulations occupying small habitats. One of them was the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland in Poland, where we discovered the latest record of the cave bear and also two other, younger than 25,000 14C years BP. The relatively long survival of this bear in karst regions may result from suitable microclimate and continuous access to water provided by deep aquifers, indicating a refugial role of such regions in the Pleistocene for many species.

  15. Immersive Collaborative Analysis of Network Connectivity: CAVE-style or Head-Mounted Display?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeil, Maxime; Dwyer, Tim; Klein, Karsten; Laha, Bireswar; Marriott, Kim; Thomas, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    High-quality immersive display technologies are becoming mainstream with the release of head-mounted displays (HMDs) such as the Oculus Rift. These devices potentially represent an affordable alternative to the more traditional, centralised CAVE-style immersive environments. One driver for the development of CAVE-style immersive environments has been collaborative sense-making. Despite this, there has been little research on the effectiveness of collaborative visualisation in CAVE-style facilities, especially with respect to abstract data visualisation tasks. Indeed, very few studies have focused on the use of these displays to explore and analyse abstract data such as networks and there have been no formal user studies investigating collaborative visualisation of abstract data in immersive environments. In this paper we present the results of the first such study. It explores the relative merits of HMD and CAVE-style immersive environments for collaborative analysis of network connectivity, a common and important task involving abstract data. We find significant differences between the two conditions in task completion time and the physical movements of the participants within the space: participants using the HMD were faster while the CAVE2 condition introduced an asymmetry in movement between collaborators. Otherwise, affordances for collaborative data analysis offered by the low-cost HMD condition were not found to be different for accuracy and communication with the CAVE2. These results are notable, given that the latest HMDs will soon be accessible (in terms of cost and potentially ubiquity) to a massive audience.

  16. “Spray Technique: Tracing the Sketch Traditions of Limestone Cave in Lenggong, Perak”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological research provides the widest opportunity for researchers to analyse various aspects and disciplines appropriate to the subject and the object of choice. Subject and object selection is the work of exploration artefacts found in particular sites and archaeological heritage. Exploration and excavation on of a world heritage site such as Lenggong enables researchers to uncover various archaeological artefacts that are rich and meaningful. To find evidence of the strength and benefits of an artefact, further studies on each artefact should be carried out continuously. This essay will track the wisdom of the ancient artists use to produce paintings in a limestone cave in Lenggong, Perak, using spray techniques. Some artefacts that are identified as cave paintings show a very interesting sketch technique that are unique and special. This essay will also examine some of the cave paintings in other caves in Perak and also other caves in several countries as comparison. Studies involving cave paintings in Malaysia are new compared to Western countries. Thus, the study of one of the technique which is spray technique can open the eyes of the audience to acknowledge and recognise the ancient heritage. It also hoped that this study is able to increase the body of knowledge that goes beyond the boundaries of the arts district and the country.

  17. Meckel's cave access: anatomic study comparing the endoscopic transantral and endonasal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in endonasal endoscopy have facilitated the surgical access to the lateral skull base including areas such as Meckel's cave. This approach has been well documented, however, few studies have outlined transantral specific access to Meckel's. A transantral approach provides a direct pathway to this region obviating the need for extensive endonasal and transsphenoidal resection. Our aim in this study is to compare the anatomical perspectives obtained in endonasal and transantral approaches. We prepared 14 cadaveric specimens with intravascular injections of colored latex. Eight cadavers underwent endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches to Meckel's cave. Six additional specimens underwent an endoscopic transantral approach to the same region. Photographic evidence was obtained for review. 30 CT scans were analyzed to measure comparative distances to Meckel's cave for both approaches. The endoscopic approaches provided a direct access to the anterior and inferior portions of Meckel's cave. However, the transantral approach required shorter instrumentation, and did not require clearing of the endonasal corridor. This approach gave an anterior view of Meckel's cave making posterior dissection more difficult. A transantral approach to Meckel's cave provides access similar to the endonasal approach with minimal invasiveness. Some of the morbidity associated with extensive endonasal resection could possibly be avoided. Better understanding of the complex skull base anatomy, from different perspectives, helps to improve current endoscopic skull base surgery and to develop new alternatives, consequently, leading to improvements in safety and efficacy.

  18. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  19. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  20. A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

  1. SAFETY MEASURES OF MAIN CHUTE IN DAHONGSHAN COPPER MINE%大红山铜矿主溜井安全处理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟兵; 吕力行

    2013-01-01

    大红山铜矿主溜井发生严重垮塌,需要进行加固修复.为了保证进入溜井内修复作业人员安全生产必须预先对破碎井壁进行处理.介绍了处理方案和流程,为类似安全处理提供借鉴.%The main chute in DaHongShan copper mine is caving severely, which needs to be rehabilitated and strengthened. In order to ensure the workers' safety working in the chute, safety treatment to the caving wellbore must be done well before the next step. This paper introduces the proposal and procedure, which provides references for other similar mines.

  2. Variations of karst underground air temperature induced by various factors (Cave of Županova jama, Central Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravbar, Natasa; Kosutnik, Jure

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of air temperature ( T) monitoring, basic statistical and time series analysis was employed to evaluate thermal states of cave atmosphere variations. Long-term, seasonal and event comparative analysis as well as spectral and cross-correlation analysis was conducted. The results show the relative stability of air T in the isolated part of the cave, whereas variable air T was observed in the parts close to entrances and the surface. The distinctive seasonality in this part of the cave demonstrates that air convection is a driving force for the heat exchange between the cave and the surrounding environment. External air T and heat conducted through the rock walls are also an important factor influencing the cave climate, while heat released by the ice deposit and by water infiltrating through the cave ceiling has a negligible effect. Occasional irregular variations in daily patterns are caused by human impact.

  3. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cave-dwelling invertebrates were studied according to their composition, biodiversity, distribution and threats in the Atlantic Forest Central Biodiversity Corridor, a priority area for conservation actions in Brazil. Twelve obligate cave species were found, plus 495 troglophile species. Araneae (103 spp., Coleoptera (61 spp., Diptera (56 spp. and Lepidoptera (38 spp. were the richest taxa. The richness was higher in the carbonate caves (63 spp., sd = 16.7 and the highest diversity in granitic caves (H´= 2.68, sd = 0.5. The spatial turnover was 63.45 and similarity less than 30%. The total richness was correlated with the linear extension of the caves (Rs = 0.757, p ≤ 0.05. Surrounding area deforestation and religious and tourist use were the main threats. Emergency attention is recommended regarding protective actions, management and conservation of caves of extremely high biological importance.

  4. Mining text data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2012-01-01

    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  5. Distribution laws of abutment pressure around fully mechanized top-coal caving face by in-situ measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Ju-cai

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain the distribution rules of abutment pressure around the 1151 (3) fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC) face of Xieqiao Colliery, the KSE-Ⅱ-1 type bore-hole stress gauges were installed in the tailentry and headentry to measure the mining-induced stress. The distribution rules of the front and side abutment pressure were demonstrated. The results show that distribution rules of stress are obviously different in the vicinity of the face and entries. The peak value of abutment pressure in the protective coal pillar and face are located commonly in front of the working face along the strike, and they are located at the stress-decreased zone near the face. There is no stress peak value in the lateral coal mass beside the headentry in front of the face on the strike, and the peak value of abutment pressure appears at the rear area of the face. There are stress peak values both in the protective coal pillar and in the lateral coal mass beside the headentry to the dip.

  6. Investigation on the stress field characteristic of top coal at FMTC faces under the influence of caving thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; CHANG Ju-cai; YANG Ke

    2007-01-01

    In the background of the technology condition and the geological condition of the 1151(3) fully mechanized top-coal caving face (FMTC face), and by means of taking nonlinear 3D numerical simulation, the stress redistribution rules of top coal with different thick coal seam were obtained by investigation on the numerical simulation of the redistributions of the stress with different coal seam's thickness. The research showes that there exists a certain difference on the stress distributions of the top coal at face, the maximum principal stress is located near to the tailentry's corner. The vertical stress's peak of the top coal decreases and the distance ahead of face position increases as the once mining thickness of the coal seam increases. At the same coal seam, the vertical stresses' peak of top coal gradually decreases from the top to the bottom, the peak's position is basically the same and its changes are gradually obvious with the thickness of coal seam increasing. The vertical stress of top coal places in a low stress state at a certain range ahead of face and over the face, which reveals the essence that the support loads are generally low under the condition of FMTC. The study supplies the theoretical foundation for the support design and selection, the theory of top coal's fragmentation, the movement rules of top coal and improving the recovery of top coal.

  7. Data mining in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  8. Commercial Data Mining Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  9. Data mining in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  10. Understanding of δ13C behavior and its significance in the Furong Cave system through a 10-year cave monitoring study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Li, H. C.; Li, T.; Li, X.; Yuan, N.; Zhang, T.

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how speleothem δ13C to reflect paleoclimate and paleovegetation changes calls for understanding of δ13C behavior in a cave system. We have conducted a monitoring study in Furong Cave, Chongqing, China since 2005 involving multiple sites in the overlying soil and inside the cave. The measured proxies include pCO2 of the atmosphere, soil and cave air; dripping rate, pH, electronic conductivity, Ca2+, HCO3-, d13CDIC of the dripwaters; and deposition rate, d13C of seasonally selected carbonate deposits. The many observations from this study are: (1) Soil pCO2 is close to the atmospheric pCO2 in winter and reaches >10000 ppm during the summer due to high productivity under warm and wet climates. (2) The pCO2 in cave air is slightly higher than Soil pCO2 and atmospheric pCO2 in winter (400~900 ppm), but elevates up to ~2000 ppm around October due to seepage of soil CO2 into the cave. The cave air pCO2 exhibits double peaks following the seasonal rainfall (1st peak in April-June controlled by Indian monsoon and 2nd peak in July-September influenced by the North Western Pacific monsoon). The cave air pCO2 has about 2-3 month lag to the soil pCO2. (3) Under the influence of soil CO2 and rainfall, the d13CDIC of drpiwaters are depleted in the summer and enriched during the winter. During 2009-2011, southwestern China experienced extremely drought due to summer monsoon failure. The d13CDIC of dripwater in Furong Cave was strongly enriched because of low soil CO2 productivity, less transportation of soil CO2 into the cave, and high CO2 ratio from bedrock input. Dripping rate does not affect the d13CDIC significantly. (4) The d13C of speleothems is controlled by the open/closed system of the seepage pathway on the first order. Monitoring site MP1 owns a relatively open system shown by fast dripping rates, low Ca and HCO3- contents, and low carbonate deposition rate. The d13C of modern deposits from this site not only shows the seasonal variation following

  11. Influence of Barometric Pressure Changes on Ventilation Conditions in Deep Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Stanisław

    2014-10-01

    Barometric air pressure and its changes have a critical impact on ventilation conditions in the underground workings of deep mines. Changes in pressure are particularly important because they are responsible for the transient states of ventilation conditions, therefore, assessing the scale of pressure change is essential. Unfortunately, previously for many years in the Polish mining industry barometric pressure was recorded only on tapes of mechanical barographs by the ventilation department on the surface and therefore such dependencies of methane concentration due to barometric pressure changes have not been properly documented. Today, after the implementation in mines of instruments enabling the monitoring of absolute pressure in the workings of mines (Wasilewski, 2009) the conditions have been created to study the influence of pressure changes on changes of air parameters in the mine workings. Barometric pressure changes were observed and recorded over a course of approximately two years using monitoring system that utilized high accuracy pressure sensors on the surface and in selected workings of an underground mine. This paper presents a statistical analysis of the data that we generated from assessing pressure changes on the surface and at selected underground points in the mine. In the article, which presents the results of the first part of the study, some examples of when significant changes in pressure prior to the tragic events, which were not accompanied by changes in the methane concentration in mine workings, will also be shown. Interestingly, we found that the relationship between methane ignitions and explosions in longwall gob mined via the cave-in method is associated with changes in the barometric pressure. Several instances of methane ignitions and explosions in the gob of cave-in longwalls in recent years were compared with background barometric pressure changes. Research carried out in within the strategic project "Improving work safety in

  12. Studying surface movements in working bed Sloistiy-II at the Anadyrskaya mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenbaum, M.A.; Gromov, Yu.V.; Shatrov, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of surface movement during working of the bed SloistiyII in the field of the Anadyrskaya mine by mechanized complex KM-81 E. It is shown that simultaneously with collapse of the main roofing, the entire rock mass subsides to the earth's surface with the formation on it of cave-ins and rupture fractures. For the first time for conditions of permafrost, values are defined for the initial parameters and angles of advance which should be used in solving different types of geochemical problems.

  13. Hydrochemical controls on aragonite versus calcite precipitation in cave dripwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Lozano, Rafael P.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the paleoclimatic relevance of primary calcite to aragonite transitions in stalagmites, the relative role of fluid Mg/Ca ratio, supersaturation and CO32- concentration in controlling such transitions is still incompletely understood. Accordingly, we have monitored the hydrochemistry of 50 drips and 8 pools that are currently precipitating calcite and/or aragonite in El Soplao and Torca Ancha Caves (N. Spain), investigating the mineralogy and geochemistry of the CaCO3 precipitates on the corresponding natural speleothem surfaces. The data reveal that, apart from possible substrate effects, dripwater Mg/Ca is the only obvious control on CaCO3 polymorphism in the studied stalagmites and pools, where calcite- and aragonite-precipitating dripwaters are separated by an initial (i.e. at stalactite tips) Mg/Ca threshold at ≈1.1 mol/mol. Within the analyzed ranges of pH (8.2-8.6), CO32- concentration (1-6 mg/L), supersaturation (SIaragonite: 0.08-1.08; SIcalcite: 0.23-1.24), drip rate (0.2-81 drops/min) and dissolved Zn (6-90 μg/L), we observe no unequivocal influence of these parameters on CaCO3 mineralogy. Despite the almost complete overlapping supersaturations of calcite- and aragonite-precipitating waters, the latter are on average less supersaturated because the waters having Mg/Ca above ∼1.1 have mostly achieved such high ratios by previously precipitating calcite. Both calcite and aragonite precipitated at or near oxygen isotopic equilibrium, and Mg incorporation into calcite was consistent with literature-based predictions, indicating that in the studied cases CaCO3 precipitation was not significantly influenced by strong kinetic effects. In the studied cases, the calcites that precipitate at ∼11 °C from dripwaters with initial Mg/Ca approaching ∼1.1 incorporate ∼5 mol% MgCO3, close to the published value above which calcite solubility exceeds aragonite solubility, suggesting that aragonite precipitation in high-relative-humidity caves is

  14. Bacteria, fungi and biokarst in Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K. I.; Northup, D. E.; Pollastro, R. M.; Wright, W. G.; Larock, E. J.

    1995-02-01

    Lechuguilla Cave is a deep, extensive, gypsumand sulfur-bearing hypogenic cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, most of which (>90%) lies more than 300 m beneath the entrance. Located in the arid Guadalupe Mountains, Lechuguilla's remarkable state of preservation is partially due to the locally continuous Yates Formation siltstone that has effectively diverted most vadose water away from the cave. Allocthonous organic input to the cave is therefore very limited, but bacterial and fungal colonization is relatively extensive: (1) Aspergillus sp. fungi and unidentified bacteria are associated with iron-, manganese-, and sulfur-rich encrustations on calcitic folia near the suspected water table 466 m below the entrance; (2) 92 species of fungi in 19 genera have been identified throughout the cave in oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) “soils” and pools; (3) cave-air condensate contains unidentified microbes; (4) indigenous chemoheterotrophic Seliberius and Caulobacter bacteria are known from remote pool sites; and (5) at least four genera of heterotrophic bacteria with population densities near 5×105 colony-forming units (CFU) per gram are present in ceiling-bound deposits of supposedly abiogenic condensation-corrosion residues. Various lines of evidence suggest that autotrophic bacteria are present in the ceiling-bound residues and could act as primary producers in a unique subterranean microbial food chain. The suspected autotrophic bacteria are probably chemolithoautotrophic (CLA), utilizing trace iron, manganese, or sulfur in the limestone and dolomitic bedrock to mechanically (and possibly biochemically) erode the substrate to produce residual floor deposits. Because other major sources of organic matter have not been detected, we suggest that these CLA bacteria are providing requisite organic matter to the known heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the residues. The cavewide bacterial and fungal distribution, the large volumes of corrosion residues

  15. Astyanax mexicanus, the Blind Mexican Cave Fish: A Model for Studies in Development and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Richard

    2008-11-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe perpetual darkness of caves has two important consequences for permanent inhabitants. First, eyes and pigmentation lose their primary functions. Second, in the absence of photosynthesis, food is rare. For these reasons, cave-adapted species typically have reduced eyes and pigmentation and increased or more efficient metabolisms. Additionally, other senses are usually augmented to compensate for the loss of vision. Identifying the genetic bases underlying these phenotypic changes will enhance our understanding of the specific pathways involved in control of these phenotypes and, in general, the evolutionary process. Unfortunately, the genetics of most cave animals cannot be studied because they are not easily bred. Blind Mexican tetras, Astyanax mexicanus, are the valuable exception to this rule because fish from the various cave populations are fully interfertile with one another and with eyed sister forms still living in nearby surface streams. Hybrids between surface and cave forms permit genetic analysis of their differences, and study of the pure forms as well as of hybrids allows study of their developmental differences. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis has already identified some specific genes responsible for differences between cave and surface forms as well as other likely candidates; more will be added in the future. This system is a valuable addition to the array of existing models for the study of developmental and evolutionary genetics because cave populations are repositories of numerous naturally occurring mutations affecting development of the eyes and other senses, pigmentation, bone structure, metamerism, and metabolism. These alleles have been prescreened by natural selection for high viability, which simplifies their study. In contrast, new alleles obtained through mutagenesis in other model species are typically burdened with lower viability.

  16. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Niemiller

    Full Text Available Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species and 20% of stygobionts (eight species known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV. Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in

  17. Diversity of cultured bacteria from the perennial ice block of Scarisoara Ice Cave, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Iţcuş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cave ice ecosystems represent a poorly investigated glacial environment. Diversity of cave ice bacteria and their distribution in perennial ice deposits of this underground glacial habitat could constitute a proxy for microbial response to climatic and environmental changes. Scarisoara Ice Cave (Romania hosts one of the oldest and largest cave ice blocks worldwide. Here we report on cultured microbial diversity of recent, 400, and 900 years-old perennial ice from this cave, representing the first characterization of a chronological distribution of cave-ice bacteria. Total cell density measured by SYBR Green I epifluorescence microscopy varied in the 2.4 x 104 – 2.9 x 105 cells mL-1 range. The abundance of cultured bacteria (5 x 102 – 8 x 104 CFU mL-1 representing 0.3-52% of the total cell number decreased exponentially with the ice age, and was higher in organic rich ice sediments. Cultivation at 4˚C and 15˚C using BIOLOG EcoPlates revealed a higher functional diversity of cold-active bacteria, dependent on the age, sediment content and physicochemical properties of the ice. The composition dissimilarity of ice microbiota across the ice block was confirmed by growth parameter variations when cultivated in different liquid media at low and high temperatures. PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments from the cultured ice samples led to the identification of 77 bacterial amplicons belonging to Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, showing variation in distribution across the ice layers. Several identified OTUs were homologous to those identified in other glacial and karst environments and showed partial conservation across the ice block. Moreover, our survey provided a glimpse on the cave-ice hosted bacteria as putative biomarkers for past climate and environmental changes.

  18. Orthothermographies and 3D modeling as potential tools in ice caves studies: the Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Berenguer-Sempere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many studies focused on the investigation of climatic and glaciological condition of ice caves. Here we present another way to address these studies, applying some methods already used in fields other than geomorphology. The versatility and accuracy provided by the use of modern topography and thermography techniques, using Terrestrial Laser Scanner and current thermographic cameras- and the creation of 3D thermographic models and orthothermographies derived from them - is shown to be a useful tool as it is difficult to obtain data from fieldwork and traditional methods used in caves. This paper presents the potential uses of combined TLS and thermographic techniques for monitoring some important climatological parameters in the sensitive periglacial environment of the Iberian Atlantic high mountains: Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain. A systematic application of such combined technologies to these kind of caves, is expected to contribute to a quantitative and concise characterization of the evolution of the ice as shown by the results of this study.

  19. Diversity of cultivable bacteria involved in the formation of macroscopic microbial colonies (Cave silver on the walls of a cave in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagajana Herzog Velikonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic caves often support white, yellow, grey or pink microbial colonies that are termed ‘cave silver’ by speleologists. Using various sample pre-treatments and culture media, a wide variety of bacteria associated with these colonies were recovered from a cave in Slovenia, Pajsarjeva jama. Decreasing the inoculum size resulted in significant increases in viable counts, while pre-treatments had the opposite effect with the exception of microwave irradiation. While all growth media yielded viable counts, the maximal counts were observed on a low-nutrient TWA medium. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of OTU representatives, the majority of the 80 isolates examined belonged to Streptomyces (25%, Micrococcus (16% and Rhodococcus (10% Other abundant groups were Pseudomonas (9%, Agrobacterium (8%, Lysobacter (6% and Paenibacillus (5%, while members of genera Microbacterium, Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Kocuria, Oerskovia, Sphingomonas, Aerococcus, and Bosea represented a minor portion of cultivable diversity encountered. Members of Streptomyces and Agrobacterium were common to all samples. Although these microorganisms readily form colonies under laboratory conditions, they were unrelated to abundant environmental phylotypes recovered from same samples in a previous study. However, the comparative 16S rRNA analysis showed that microorganisms highly related to the ones obtained in this study were cultivated from other subterranean environments indicating that they might represent true microbial cave dwellers.

  20. Data mining, mining data : energy consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Most modern mining operations are accumulating large amounts of data on production and business processes. Data, however, provides value only if it can be translated into information that appropriate users can utilize. This paper emphasized that a new technological focus should emerge, notably how to concentrate data into information; analyze information sufficiently to become knowledge; and, act on that knowledge. Researchers at the Mining Information Systems and Operations Management (MISOM) laboratory at the University of Arizona have created a method to transform data into action. The data-to-action approach was exercised in the development of an energy consumption model (ECM), in partnership with a major US-based copper mining company, 2 software companies, and the MISOM laboratory. The approach begins by integrating several key data sources using data warehousing techniques, and increasing the existing level of integration and data cleaning. An online analytical processing (OLAP) cube was also created to investigate the data and identify a subset of several million records. Data mining algorithms were applied using the information that was isolated by the OLAP cube. The data mining results showed that traditional cost drivers of energy consumption are poor predictors. A comparison was made between traditional methods of predicting energy consumption and the prediction formed using data mining. Traditionally, in the mines for which data were available, monthly averages of tons and distance are used to predict diesel fuel consumption. However, this article showed that new information technology can be used to incorporate many more variables into the budgeting process, resulting in more accurate predictions. The ECM helped mine planners improve the prediction of energy use through more data integration, measure development, and workflow analysis. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Application of micro-seismic monitoring technology in mining engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jian; Wang Lianguo; Hou Huaqiang

    2012-01-01

    Micro-seismic phenomena,occurring when rock masses are subjected to forces and failures,allow the determination of their unstable states and failure zones by analyzing micro-seismic signals.We first present the principles of micro-seismic monitoring and location,as well as an underground explosion-proof micro-seismic monitoring system.Given a practical engineering application,we describe the application of micro-seismic monitoring technology in determining the height of a "two-zone" overburden,i.e.,a caving zone and a fracture zone,the width of a coal-pillar section and the depth of failure of a floor.The workfaces monitored accomplished safe and highly efficient mining based on our micro-seismic monitoring results and provide direct proof of the reliability and validity of micro-seismic monitoring technology.

  2. Experimental research on overlying strata movement and fracture evolution in pillarless stress-relief mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua Xue; Hanpeng Wang; Wei Zhou; Bo Ren; Changrui Duan; Dongsheng Deng

    2015-01-01

    In multiple seams mining, the seam with relatively low gas content (protective seam) is often extracted prior to mining its overlying and/or underlying seams of high gas content and low permeability to minimize the risk of high gas emission and outbursts of coal and gas. A key to success with this mining sequence is to gain a detailed understanding of the movement and fracture evolution of the overlying and underlying strata after the protective seam in extracted. In Zhuji mine, the No. 11-2 seam is extracted as a protective seam with the pillarless mining method by retaining goaf-side roadways prior to its overlying No. 13-1 seam. An investigation has been undertaken in the panel 1111(1) of Zhuji mine to physically simulate the movement and fracture evolution of the overlying strata after the No. 11-2 seam is extracted. In the physical simulation, the displacement, strain, and deformation and failure process of the model for simulation were acquired with various means such as grating displacement meter, strain gauges, and digital photography. The simulation result shows that:(1) Initial caving interval of the immediate roof was 21.6 m, the first weighting interval was 23.5–37.3 m with the average interval of 33.5 m, and the periodic weighting interval of the main roof was in a range of 8.2–20.55 m and averaged at 15.2 m. (2) The maximum height of the caving zone after the extraction of No. 11-2 seam was 8.0 m, which was 4 times of the seam mining height and the internal strata of the caving zone collapsed irregularly. The mining-induced fractures developed 8–30 m above the mined No. 11-2 seam, which was 7.525 times of the seam mining height, the fracture zone was about 65? upward from the seam open-off cut toward the goaf, the height of longitudinal joint growth was 4–20 times of the mining seam height, and the height of lateral joint growth was 20–25 times of the mining seam height. (3) The ‘‘arch-in-arch’’ mechanical structure of the internal

  3. The δ13C evolution of cave drip water along discreet flow paths in a central Texas cave: Quantifying kinetic isotope fractionation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickler, P. J.; Carlson, P. E.; Banner, J.; Breecker, D.; Stern, L. A.; Baseman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Gaps remain in our understanding of in-cave processes that influence cave water chemistry during speleothem formation. Quantifying environmental controls on the isotopic and chemical evolution of karst groundwater would improve the accuracy of speleothem-based paleoclimate reconstructions. In this study, drip water chemical evolution along flow paths was sampled monthly at two locations in Inner Space Cavern, Texas, over a period of 8 months. In each of the two locations, cave water drips off a stalactite, flows along a flowstone and subsequently drips off a lower stalactite, allowing cave water to be sampled at two points, 1-2 meters apart, along each flow path. The chemical and isotopic evolution of drip water along its flow path shows seasonality, where 1) summer months (high cave-air pCO2) have small variations in δ13C values along the flow paths, high and relatively invariant DIC and Ca values,; and 2) winter months (low cave-air pCO2) generally have large increases in DIC δ13C values along the flow paths, lower DIC and Ca values. The magnitude of the increase in DIC δ13C values along the flow paths, CO2 degassing and calcite precipitation which is controlled by the pCO2 gradient between drip water and cave air. If the DIC loss is less than 15%, then the evolution of the δ13C value of the DIC reservoir can be modelled using a Rayleigh distillation model and equilibrium fractionation factors between (CO2(g)-HCO3-(aq)) and (CaCO3-HCO3-(aq)). As the loss of the DIC reservoir increases above 15% the DIC δ13C values become progressively higher such that the ɛ (CO2(g)-HCO3-(aq)) values needed to model the observed results change from equilibrium values of ~8‰ to non-equilibrium values up to ~25‰. The variance in magnitude of carbon isotope fractionation during CO2 degassing cannot be attributed to changes in temperature, and thus we infer significant kinetic isotope effects at higher rates of DIC loss.

  4. Using isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon species and water to separate sources of recharge in a cave spring, northwestern Arkansas, USA Blowing Spring Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine Joy; Pollock, Erik; Hays, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Blowing Spring Cave in northwestern Arkansas is representative of cave systems in the karst of the Ozark Plateaus, and stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) and inorganic carbon (δ13C) were used to quantify soil-water, bedrock-matrix water, and precipitation contributions to cave-spring flow during storm events to understand controls on cave water quality. Water samples from recharge-zone soils and the cave were collected from March to May 2012 to implement a multicomponent hydrograph separation approach using δ18O and δ2H of water and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C–DIC). During baseflow, median δ2H and δ18O compositions were –41.6‰ and –6.2‰ for soil water and were –37.2‰ and –5.9‰ for cave water, respectively. Median DIC concentrations for soil and cave waters were 1.8 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively, and median δ13C–DIC compositions were –19.9‰ and –14.3‰, respectively. During a March storm event, 12.2 cm of precipitation fell over 82 h and discharge increased from 0.01 to 0.59 m3/s. The isotopic composition of precipitation varied throughout the storm event because of rainout, a change of 50‰ and 10‰ for δ2H and δ18O was observed, respectively. Although, at the spring, δ2H and δ18O only changed by approximately 3‰ and 1‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of precipitation and pre-event (i.e., soil and bedrock matrix) water were isotopically similar and the two-component hydrograph separation was inaccurate, either overestimating (>100%) or underestimating (<0%) the precipitation contribution to the spring. During the storm event, spring DIC and δ13C–DIC decreased to a minimum of 8.6 mg/L and –16.2‰, respectively. If the contribution from precipitation was assumed to be zero, soil water was found to contribute between 23 to 72% of the total volume of discharge. Although the assumption of negligible contributions from precipitation is unrealistic, especially in karst systems where rapid flow

  5. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  6. Meningeal melanocytoma of Meckel's cave associated with ipsilateral Ota's nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, A R; Villani, M; Angiari, P; Peserico, L

    1983-06-15

    A case of meningeal melanocytoma of the left Meckel's cave associated with ipsilateral Ota's nevus in a 43-year-old woman, was studied by light and electron microscopy. The cells of the tumor were characterized by the presence of dendritic cytoplasmic processes, melanosomes and premelanosomes; hence, they were deemed as neoplastic melanocytes. Moreover, the tumor was lacking in histologic and ultrastructural features of pigmented meningioma, melanotic Schwannoma and primary meningeal melanoma. The prolonged clinical course was different from primary and metastatic malignant melanomas of the meninges. The best treatment appears to be radical excision, when possible; otherwise, the local or partial enucleation followed by radiation therapy has been found to be the best curative to date. On the whole, meningeal melanocytoma cannot be considered as entirely benign, given its morphologic patterns that resemble those of uveal melanoma, and its potential for recurrence. The association of this tumor with Ota's nevus is referred to as having a common origin from an arrested migration of melanoblasts at different stages.

  7. Intradural chordoma of the Meckel's cave: a challenging differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Valeria; Caffo, Maria; Alafaci, Concetta; Granata, Francesca; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Chordomas are midline tumors that arise from embryonic remnants of the notochord and are considered to be malignant tumors because of their tendency to invade and destroy the involved bone. Cases of intradural chordomas without bone involvement have been rarely described with a predilection for prepontine location. The absence of bony invasion renders the complete excision of these tumors more feasible and is related to their better prognosis in comparison to conventional chordomas. Herein we report the first intradural chordoma arising in the Meckel's cave. The intradural location of the lesion, outside midline structures, in the absence of bone infiltration, made the differential diagnosis versus other meningeal lesions such as chordoid meningioma challenging. The intense and strong immunohistochemical expression of pan-cytokeratins, S100, cytokeratin-19 and of the notochordal marker brachyury allowed differential diagnosis toward other tumors showing chordoid morphology. The expression of brachyury, which had not been previously analyzed in intradural chordoma, definitely links the histogenesis of this neoplasia to the notochord, similar to that of conventional chordoma. We also show that, different from conventional chordoma, intradural chordoma does not express the metallo-proteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9, which may account for its indolent biological behavior.

  8. Sphingolipid signalling domains floating on rafts or buried in caves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, R T

    2000-02-01

    Ceramide is a novel lipid mediator involved in regulating cell growth, cell differentiation and cell death. Many studies have focused on characterizing the stimulus-induced production of ceramide and identifying putative downstream molecular targets. However, little remains known about the localization of the regulated production of ceramide through sphingomyelin metabolism in the plasma membrane. Additionally, it is unclear whether a localized increase in ceramide concentration is necessary to facilitate downstream signalling events initiated by this lipid. Recent studies have suggested that detergent-insoluble plasma membrane domains may be highly localized sites for initiating signal transduction cascades by both tyrosine kinase and sphingolipid signalling pathways. These domains are typically enriched in both sphingolipids and cholesterol and have been proposed to form highly ordered lipid rafts floating in a sea of glycerophospholipids. Alternatively, upon integration of the cholesterol binding protein caveolin, these domains may also form small cave-like structures called caveolae. Emerging evidence suggests that the enhanced sphingomyelin content of these lipid domains make them potential substrate pools for sphingomyelinases to produce a high local concentration of ceramide. The subsequent formation of ceramide microdomains in the plasma membrane may be a critical factor in regulating downstream signalling through this lipid messenger.

  9. Pleistocene Deposits in Pierre Saint-Martin Cave, French Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinif, Yves; Maire, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Pleistocene deposits in alpine Pierre Saint-Martin cave are preserved in an abandoned river gallery. The deposits, 300 m long and 25 m high, are composed of a lower unit of fallen blocks overlain by debris flows, a main unit of laminated clay, and a series of river terraces inset into these units. The lower and main units are each overlain by speleothems. The lower unit represents a cold period, probably isotope stage 10. Corroded speleothems above it have given U/Th ages greater than 300,000-330,000 yr B.P. The main unit, with carbonate-rich varves devoid of pollen, represents a glaciation that occurred before 225,000 yr B.P. and probably correlates with stage 8, even though such a glaciation has not been previously recognized in the Pyrenees. The river terraces, covered by many noncorroded speleothems, probably formed during stage 7 (U/Th ages between 194,000 and 211,000-225,000 yr B.P.). Subsequent sinking of an underground river protected the deposits from erosion.

  10. Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave. With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were

  11. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaretto, E. E-mail: elisa@wis.weizmann.ac.il; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S.K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the {sup 14}C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1x10{sup -14}, in isotopic abundances for both {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al respectively (corresponding to {approx}5 x 10{sup 5} atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  12. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using 10Be and 26Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaretto, E.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S. K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S.

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the 14C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes 10Be and 26Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract 10Be and 26Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1×10 -14, in isotopic abundances for both 10Be and 26Al respectively (corresponding to ˜5 × 10 5 atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that 10Be and 26Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  13. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  14. Foraminifera in elevated Bermudian caves provide further evidence for +21 m eustatic sea level during Marine Isotope Stage 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, Peter J.; Scott, David B.; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.

    2009-09-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 deposits in small Bermudian caves at +21 m above modern sea level: (1) a +21 m MIS 11 eustatic sea-level highstand, and (2) a MIS 11 mega-tsunami event. Importantly, the foraminifera reported in these caves have yet to be critically evaluated within a framework of coastal cave environments. After statistically comparing foraminifera in modern Bermudian littoral caves and the MIS 11 Calonectris Pocket A (+21 m cave) to the largest available database of Bermudian coastal foraminifera, the assemblages found in modern littoral caves - and Calonectris Pocket A - cannot be statistically differentiated from lagoons. This observation is expected considering littoral caves are simply sheltered extensions of a lagoon environment in the littoral zone, where typical coastal processes (waves, storms) homogenize and rework lagoonal, reefal, and occasional planktic taxa. Fossil protoconchs of the Bermudian cave stygobite Caecum caverna were also associated with the foraminifera. These results indicate that the MIS 11 Bermudian caves are fossil littoral caves (breached flank margin caves), where the total MIS 11 microfossil assemblage is preserving a signature of coeval sea level at +21 m. Brackish foraminifera ( Polysaccammina, Pseudothurammina) and anchialine gastropods (˜95%, >300 individuals) indicate a brackish anchialine habitat developed in the elevated caves after the prolonged littoral environmental phase. The onset of sea-level regression following the +21 m highstand would first lower the ancient brackish Ghyben-Herzberg lens (<0.5 m) and flood the cave with brackish water, followed by drainage of the cave to create a permanent vadose environment. These interpretations of the MIS 11 microfossils (considering both taphonomy and paleoecology) are congruent with the micropaleontological, hydrogeological and physical mechanisms influencing modern Bermudian coastal cave environments. In

  15. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  16. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  17. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  18. Land Mines (Landminen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-02

    making contact with the safety pin of the pull fuze 42. Two locking bolts held the upper and lower case in position during transport, so that there... safety pin out of the extended striker, thus releasing it. These mines were filled with 200 g of explosives. This type of mine was the model for the...by inserting the detonator slide. However, the mine is not fully armed until the safety pin is removed and reinserted until it makes contact with the

  19. Evaluating the Carrying Capacity in The Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija is a multidesignation site, located in south western part of Slovenia. In 1986 the Škocjanske jame - Škocjan Caves were listed in UNESCO world heritage list, in 1996 the Government of Republic Slovenia established the Regional Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija. In 1999 the underground course of The Reka River in Škocjan Caves was designated a Ramsar site as first underground wetland of international importance. The park lies within three locations Natura 2000. In 2004 Park Škocjanske jame became a MAB locality as The Karst Biosphere Reserve. The tourist activity was already developed in the early 19th century. Today's research projects are focused on quality of caves microclimate, in order to enable the cave to remain as pristine as possible due to tourism and on the other hand to provide safe environment for people who work in the caves, and on quality of the water that flows from buffer zone to the underground world an then to the sea in Italy. The tourist activity increased during the past years. With the aim of nature conservation and protection the management plan was developed and special programme of monitoring started in order to detect changes in the environment due to the anthropogenic impact. In the park we consider the estimation of the carrying capacity as a key element for preparation of proper management guidelines for the tourism development in site. The caves system is rich in several halls and tunnels and distinguishes the caves for its variety of dimensions. There are several limitations of the visits and number of visitors. They merely depend on spatial characteristic of the caves and its surroundings and on human resources of the experts stuff that is in charge of guiding tourists groups to the caves. There is no simple formula that could be used for evaluation of capacity on general, but detailed studies of several locations and suitable description of parameters could give us an idea of proposing the

  20. A REVIEW ON TEXT MINING IN DATA MINING

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Data mining is the knowledge discovery in databases and the gaol is to extract patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data. The important term in data mining is text mining. Text mining extracts the quality information highly from text. Statistical pattern learning is used to high quality information. High –quality in text mining defines the combinations of relevance, novelty and interestingness. Tasks in text mining are text categorization, text clustering, entity extraction and sentim...

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF SOIL MESOFAUNA AND MACROFAUNA IN GRODA CAVE, GUNUNGKIDUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Prasetyo

    2017-01-01

      The number of soil macrofauna and mesofauna in Groda Cave can be used as an indicator of bats abundance since bat droppings are food for macrofauna and mesofauna soils. The purpose of this study are to determine the community structure of Groda Cave soil macrofauna and mesofauna  and its correlation with the content of N, P, K. The method used is the observation, taking of macrofauna and mesofauna soils using pit fall traps and tool green technique. Testing the N, P, K of the soil was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP Yogyakarta. The analysis technique used Shannon diversity index-Wienner, Margaleff wealth index, frequency of attendance of  macrofauna and mesofauna soils and its correlation with N, P, K of the land in Groda Cave. The results obtained are that six families mesofauna and 20 families macrofauna soils with moderate diversity index, the highest wealth index was in the Margaleff lit zone, the frequency of the highest attendance in the light zone is Formicidae (0.12, ie dim zones Isotomidae and Diptera (a brown (0.04 and the dark zone is Gryllacididae (0.05. The correlation showed the more the content of N, P, K, the fewer mesofauna and macrofauna soils were found. The uniqueness found in this study is the discovery of one species of Isotomidae in Groda Cave, which has been considered spreading only in Sulawesi, Sumatera, Bali, Lombok, Ternate and Papua.   Keywords: community structure, mesofauna soil, macrofauna soil, Groda Cave

  2. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400-200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-08-11

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator-prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the highest quality parts of large prey was delayed until the food could be moved to the cave and processed with the aid of blade cutting tools and fire. Delayed consumption of high-quality body parts implies that the meat was shared with other members of the group. The types of cut marks on upper limb bones indicate simple flesh removal activities only. The Qesem cut marks are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant, suggesting that more (skilled and unskilled) individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones at Qesem Cave. Among recent humans, butchering of large animals normally involves a chain of focused tasks performed by one or just a few persons, and butchering guides many of the formalities of meat distribution and sharing that follow. The results from Qesem Cave raise new hypotheses about possible differences in the mechanics of meat sharing between the late Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic.

  3. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins Greg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

  4. Hearth-side socioeconomics, hunting and paleoecology during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran

    2011-02-01

    The late Lower Paleolithic archaeofaunas of Qesem Cave in the southern Levant span 400-200 ka and associate with Acheulo-Yabrudian (mainly Amudian) industries. The large mammals are exclusively Eurasian in origin and formed under relatively cool, moist conditions. The zooarchaeological findings testify to large game hunting, hearth-centered carcass processing and meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic, not unlike the patterns known from Middle and Upper Paleolithic caves in the region. Well-defined hearth features are rarely preserved in Qesem Cave, but the heterogeneous distributions of burned bones indicate areas of frequent hearth rebuilding throughout the occupation sequence. The hominins delayed consumption of high quality body parts until they could be moved to the cave, where hearths were hubs of processing activities and social interaction. Paradoxically, the cut marks on the Qesem bones are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant. These results suggest that several individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones and that the social mechanics of meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave differed from those typical of both the Middle and Upper Paleolithic in the region.

  5. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomova Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocapacity of bacteria inhabiting karstic caves to produce valuable biologically active compounds is still slightly investigated. A total of 46 culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated under aerobic conditions from the Gallery with pre-historical drawings in Magura Cave, Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bacterial isolates aff iliated with Proteobacteria (63%, followed by Actinobacteria (10.9%, Bacteroidetes (10.9%, and Firmicutes (6.5%. A strong domination of Gram-negative bacteria (total 81% belonging to nine genera: Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Commamonas, Acinetobacter, Obesumbacterium, and Myroides, was observed. Gram-positive isolates were represented by the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Micrococcus. One isolate showed a signif icant phylogenetic distance to the closest neighbor and could represent а novel species. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates from Magura Cave were investigated for hydrolytic enzymes production, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Predominance of producers of protease (87%, followed by xanthan lyase (64%, lipase (40%, β-glycosidase (40%, and phytase (21% was observed. Over 75% of the isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave could be a valuable source of industrially relevant psychrotolerant enzymes and bioactive metabolites. This study is a f irst report on the taxonomic composition and biological activity of culturable bacteria inhabiting a cave in Bulgaria.

  6. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of cave deposits at the Xiaogushan prehistoric site, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Fu; Huang, Wei-Wen; Yuan, Bao-Yin; Fu, Ren-Yi; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2010-11-01

    The Xiaogushan cave site is one of the most important prehistoric sites in North China. The stone and bone artifacts found in the cave are similar to European contemporaneous artifacts. Cave deposits consist of five layers that have been dated from 46,353 ± 1179 to 4229 ± 135 cal. yr BP, using radiocarbon dating techniques on charcoal and bone samples collected from Layers 2-5. In this paper, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques were applied to date six samples taken from Layers 1-3. The luminescence properties of the fine-grained and coarse-grained quartz extracts indicate that the materials are suitable for OSL dating using a single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol. The OSL ages obtained are broadly consistent with the stratigraphy and the associated calibrated radiocarbon ages. The dating results show that the cave was first occupied by humans about 70 ka. The human occupation of the cave may be related to climate change. An occupation hiatus is inferred to between ∼ 17 to ∼ 10 ka. The stone and bone artifacts found in Layers 2 and 3 may indicate the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transitions in the region.

  7. Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, (Mallorca, Spain: history of exploration and cave description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Merino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera lies in the Llucmajor municipality, in southern Mallorca, and is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands. Currently its surveyed length is over 74,000 metres, including more than 17,000 of underwater extensions. The cave was discovered accidentally in 1968, but it was in 2004 when a major breakthrough shed light on its real extension and importance. The cave roughly shows two tiers of passages, apart from the underwater extensions, the first one is between 7 and 11 m above the mean sea level, the second one is about at the water table level. The importance of the cave is not only related to its extension, but also to the presence of a wide variety of speleothems and outstanding solutional morphologies that evidence a complex evolution. The cave is under the protection of Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Govern de les Illes Balears (the Regional Environmental Authority and was declared Site of Community Importance, within the Natura 2000 Network

  8. Genesis of folia in a non-thermal epigenic cave (Matanzas, Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia Maria; De Waele, Jo; Melendres, Osmany Ceballo; Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Gonzales, Esteban Ruben Grau; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Torriani, Stefano; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Folia are an unusual speleothem type resembling inverted cups or bracket fungi. The mechanism of folia formation is not fully understood and is the subject of an ongoing debate. This study focuses on an occurrence of folia present in Santa Catalina Cave, a non-thermal epigenic cave located close to Matanzas (Cuba). The sedimentology, morphology, petrology, permeability and geochemistry of these folia have been studied to gain new insight on the processes leading to their development. It is concluded that folia in Santa Catalina Cave formed at the top of a fluctuating water body, through CO2-degassing or evaporation, which may have been enhanced by the proximity to cave entrances. Two observations strongly support our conclusions. (1) When compared to other subaqueous speleothems (e.g. cave clouds) present in the same rooms, folia occur exclusively within a limited vertical interval that likely represents an ancient water level. Folia occur together with calcite rafts and tower cones that developed, respectively, on top of and below the water level. This suggests that a fluctuating interface is required for folia formation. (2) The measured permeability of the folia is too high to trap gas bubbles. Thus, in contrast to what has been proposed in other studies, trapped bubbles of CO2 cannot be invoked as the key factor determining the genesis and morphology of folia in this subaqueous environment.

  9. Microbial Diversity and Population Structure of Extremely Acidic Sulfur-Oxidizing Biofilms From Sulfidic Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Stoffer, T.; Lyon, E. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Extremely acidic (pH 0-1) microbial biofilms called snottites form on the walls of sulfidic caves where gypsum replacement crusts isolate sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms from the buffering action of limestone host rock. We investigated the phylogeny and population structure of snottites from sulfidic caves in central Italy using full cycle rRNA methods. A small subunit rRNA bacterial clone library from a Frasassi cave complex snottite sample contained a single sequence group (>60 clones) similar to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Bacterial and universal rRNA clone libraries from other Frasassi snottites were only slightly more diverse, containing a maximum of 4 bacterial species and probably 2 archaeal species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of snottites from Frasassi and from the much warmer Rio Garrafo cave complex revealed that all of the communities are simple (low-diversity) and dominated by Acidithiobacillus and/or Ferroplasma species, with smaller populations of an Acidimicrobium species, filamentous fungi, and protists. Our results suggest that sulfidic cave snottites will be excellent model microbial ecosystems suited for ecological and metagenomic studies aimed at elucidating geochemical and ecological controls on microbial diversity, and at mapping the spatial history of microbial evolutionary events such as adaptations, recombinations and gene transfers.

  10. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves--a curiosity among Arachnida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Smrž

    Full Text Available To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces. We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.

  11. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi) feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves--a curiosity among Arachnida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrž, Jaroslav; Kováč, Ĺubomír; Mikeš, Jaromír; Lukešová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi) have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces). We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.

  12. Hundreds of automatic drip counters reveal infiltration water discharge characteristics in Australian caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Coleborn, K.; Mahmud, K.; Markowska, M.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the timing and character of cave drip water discharge is crucial for our understanding of speleothem climate proxies. Since 2010, we have established a long-term, national monitoring program of drip water infiltration onto cave stalagmites using automated Stalagmate© loggers. Five karst regions, from semi-arid to sub-tropical climates, have been instrumented. Over 200 loggers (between 10 and 40 per cave) have collected data on the timing and amount of drip water infiltration, from sites of contrasting limestone geology. Here, we present results demonstrating the timing and characteristics of drip water discharge from 2010 to present. At the semi-arid Cathedral Cave, with a range of depths from 0-40 m, there is a decreasing frequency of recharge events with depth below ground surface. High-intensity, long-duration rainfall events are confirmed to be the primary driver of infiltration events at semi-arid sites, whereas annual rainfall amount is the primary driver at a Mediterranean climate site with high primary porosity. Inter-annual variability in the frequency and relative amount of drip water infiltration is compared to climate forcing variables such as the ENSO and surface temperature. Our cave observatory system helps improve our understanding of the drip water recharge process, drip-water related speleothem proxy records, and provides a baseline monitoring network for diffuse groundwater recharge during a period of climate change.

  13. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Manconi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present synthesis focuses on the so called ‘horny sponges’ recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was recorded in 105 Mediterranean marine caves hosting four orders of horny sponges belonging to 9 families, 19 genera and 40 species. Species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea harboured in marine caves are 14 with an endemicity value of 35%. For each species morphological descriptions are supported by illustrations both original and from the literature, including the diagnostic traits of the skeleton by light and scanning electron microscopy giving further characterization at the specific level. A detailed map together with a list of all caves harbouring horny sponges is also provided with geographic coordinates.

  14. Development of a time-dependent energy model to calculate the mining-induced stress over gates and pillars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Rezaei; Mohammad Farouq Hossaini; Abbas Majdi

    2015-01-01

    Generally, longwall mining-induced stress results from the stress relaxation due to destressed zone that occurs above the mined panel. Knowledge of induced stress is very important for accurate design of adjacent gateroads and intervening pillars which helps to raise the safety and productivity of longwall mining operations. This study presents a novel time-dependent analytical model for determination of the longwall mining-induced stress and investigates the coefficient of stress concentration over adjacent gates and pillars. The model is developed based on the strain energy balance in longwall mining incorporated to a rheological constitutive model of caved materials with time-varying parameters. The study site is the Tabas coal mine of Iran. In the proposed model, height of destressed zone above the mined panel, total longwall mining-induced stress, abutment angle, induced vertical stress, and coeffi-cient of stress concentration over neighboring gates and intervening pillars are calculated. To evaluate the effect of proposed model parameters on the coefficient of stress concentration due to longwall mining, sensitivity analysis is performed based on the field data and experimental constants. Also, the results of the proposed model are compared with those of existing models. The comparative results confirm a good agreement between the proposed model and the in situ measurements. According to the obtained results, it is concluded that the proposed model can be successfully used to calculate the longwall mining-induced stress. Therefore, the optimum design of gate supports and pillar dimensions would be attainable which helps to increase the mining efficiency.

  15. Development of a time-dependent energy model to calculate the mining-induced stress over gates and pillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, longwall mining-induced stress results from the stress relaxation due to destressed zone that occurs above the mined panel. Knowledge of induced stress is very important for accurate design of adjacent gateroads and intervening pillars which helps to raise the safety and productivity of longwall mining operations. This study presents a novel time-dependent analytical model for determination of the longwall mining-induced stress and investigates the coefficient of stress concentration over adjacent gates and pillars. The model is developed based on the strain energy balance in longwall mining incorporated to a rheological constitutive model of caved materials with time-varying parameters. The study site is the Tabas coal mine of Iran. In the proposed model, height of destressed zone above the mined panel, total longwall mining-induced stress, abutment angle, induced vertical stress, and coefficient of stress concentration over neighboring gates and intervening pillars are calculated. To evaluate the effect of proposed model parameters on the coefficient of stress concentration due to longwall mining, sensitivity analysis is performed based on the field data and experimental constants. Also, the results of the proposed model are compared with those of existing models. The comparative results confirm a good agreement between the proposed model and the in situ measurements. According to the obtained results, it is concluded that the proposed model can be successfully used to calculate the longwall mining-induced stress. Therefore, the optimum design of gate supports and pillar dimensions would be attainable which helps to increase the mining efficiency.

  16. Subterranean medicine: an inquiry into underground medical treatment protocols in cave rescue situations in national parks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, K; Shalit, M

    2000-01-01

    Caving and spelunking have become increasingly popular over the years, with hundreds of thousands of amateur spelunkers across the country visiting caves. National parks in the United States offer hundreds of caves for all levels of spelunkers and, in fact, many national parks boast caves as either their main or major attraction. In an effort to increase visitor safety and establish subterranean medical treatment protocols, we began an investigation into cave rescue, medical protocols, previously published recommendations concerning cave safety, and visitor and rescue statistics in the national parks. Our inquiry provided little guidance from either the literature or the present US National Parks database for treating underground injuries. However, 2 predominant trends did appear. First, despite the nearly 2 million visitors to the caves in the 14 parks surveyed, there were only about 200 total calls for medical care. The vast number of those calls were for minor injuries. Second, no strict evidence-based treatment protocols for underground injuries exist, probably because they are not feasible. A caving incident database for the national parks would facilitate suggestions for preventative measures for the minor injuries and would help catalog the creative solutions for the rare serious subterranean medical incident.

  17. Protecting the Water Quality of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri, Through Groundwater Recharge Area Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cave...

  18. Some brief considerations concerning the caves from Bistriţa-Năsăud county (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel-Claudiu Gavriloaie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Bistriţa-Năsăud county (Romania there are several interesting caves, most of them beinglocated in Rodnei Mountains. They are generally researched only for scientific issues, being closed for thepublic. In this paper we briefly discuss about 4 of these caves.

  19. Prediction of subsurface fracture in mining zone of Papua using passive seismic tomography based on Fresnel zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiadi, Herlan; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen [WISFIR Lab., Physics of Complex System, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Riyanto, Erwin [PT Freeport Indonesia, Tembagapura, Indonesia herlansetiadi@yahoo.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Fracture prediction in a block cave of underground mine is very important to monitor the structure of the fracture that can be harmful to the mining activities. Many methods can be used to obtain such information, such as TDR (Time Domain Relectometry) and open hole. Both of them have limitations in range measurement. Passive seismic tomography is one of the subsurface imaging method. It has advantage in terms of measurements, cost, and rich of rock physical information. This passive seismic tomography studies using Fresnel zone to model the wavepath by using frequency parameter. Fresnel zone was developed by Nurhandoko in 2000. The result of this study is tomography of P and S wave velocity which can predict position of fracture. The study also attempted to use sum of the wavefronts to obtain position and time of seismic event occurence. Fresnel zone tomography and the summation wavefront can predict location of geological structure of mine area as well.

  20. Hydrological and tectonic strain forces measured from a karstic cave using extensometers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ping; Quinif, Yves; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Meus, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor the hydrological strain forces of the karst micro fissure networks and local fault activities, six capacitive extensometers were installed inside a karstic cave near the midi-fault in Belgium. From 2004 to 2008, the nearby Lomme River experienced several heavy rains, leading to flooding inside the Rochefort cave. The highest water level rose more than thirteen meters, the karstic fissure networks were filled with water, which altered the pore pressure of the cave. The strain response to the hydrological induced pore pressure changes are separately deduced from fifteen events when the water level exceeded six meters. The strain measured from the extensometer show a linear contraction during the water recharge and a nonlinear exponential extension releasing during the water discharge. The sensitivity and stability of the sensor are constrained by comparing continuously observed tidal strain waves with a theoretical model. Finally, a local fault deformation rate around $0.03 \\pm 0.002$mm/yr i...

  1. [Cranio-orbital zygomatic extradural approach for cavernous sinus or Meckel's cave tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, T; Mukawa, J; Mekaru, S; Koga, H

    1996-06-01

    Direct surgery to cavernous sinus (CS) lesions has become one of the optimal treatments based on advancement in microsurgical anatomy and imaging modality, and the progress of microsurgical techniques. We have removed the CS or Meckel's cave tumors extradurally when they do not extend intradurally, using modified Al-Mefty's cranio-orbital zygomatic craniotomy. Three CS tumors; trigeminal neurofibroma, squamous cell carcinoma and chondrosarcoma, and a Meckel's cave meningioma were reported. Total removal was achieved in all but one (case 4). Postoperative complications were permanent ophthalmoplegia in one, transient ophthalmoplegia in one, subcutaneous CSF accumulation in two and trigeminal dysfunction in one. The extradural approach can be the first choice of methods for total removal of tumors when they are confined to the CS or Meckel's cave.

  2. A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam, part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail extending towards the entrance. The dark blue-green colour down the centre suggests that cyanobacterial growth follows the track of the wind-deflected roof drip. The dry silty cave sediment provides material for accretion onto the biological mat. This is the only example known from Borneo and one of the very few known from outside of Australia.

  3. On some new cave-dwelling ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechini from eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbica Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The following new cavernicolous ground beetle taxa are described from three caves in eastern Serbia: Duvalius (Paraduvalius trifunovici sp. n., from the Mandina Pećina Cave, village of Zlot, near Bor, Kučajske Planine Mts., D. (P. rtanjensis sp. n., from the Golema Porica Pit, Mt. Rtanj, and Glabroduvalius gen. n., G. tupiznicensis sp. n., from the Gornja Lenovačka Pećina Cave, village of Lenovac, near Zaječar, Mt. Tupižnica. The new taxa are easily distinguished from related organisms. All important morphological features have been listed, along with the diagnoses and illustrations of the taxa. The new taxa are relicts and endemics of eastern Serbia and probably belong to old phyletic lineages of Tertiary or even pre-Tertiary origin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038, br. 43001 i br. 43002

  4. Nanosize radon short-lived decay products in the air of the Postojna Cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaupotic, Janja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Radon Center, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: janja.vaupotic@ijs.si

    2008-04-01

    At two points in the Postojna Cave, short-term monitoring in summer and in winter of air concentrations of radon and radon decay products, equilibrium factor, unattached fraction of radon decay products (f{sub un}), barometric pressure, relative air humidity in the cave and air temperature in the cave and outdoor has been carried out, with the emphasis on f{sub un}. Dose conversion factors, calculated on the basis of f{sub un} values obtained (ranging from 0.09 to 0.65) exceed 5 mSv WLM{sup -1}, by a factor of 11.5-14.0 in summer and of 3.0-4.0 in winter for mouth breathing, and 3.1-3.5 in summer and 1.5-1.7 in winter for nasal breathing.

  5. Organic matter of fossil origin in the amberine speleothems from El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gázquez Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual amberine-coloured speleothems were recently found in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Spain. Chromophore elements such as Fe, Mn, Cd, Co or Ti were not present in significant quantities. Rather, our data show that their colour comes from leachates of fossilized organic material hosted in the carbonaceous Urgonian facies of the host rock. These leachates are related to the Cretaceous amber deposit that has been recently discovered in the vicinity of El Soplao Cave. The presence of humic and fulvic acids of fossil origin were confirmed by IR and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the carbonaceous strata and the speleothems. In addition, the mineralogy of the amberine speleothems was studied. Alternating bands made of calcite and aragonite reveal that periods of humidity and aridity occurred within the cave during the speleothem genesis.

  6. Microgravity and Electrical Resistivity Techniques for Detection of Caves and Clandestine Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, N. C.; Croft, L. A.; Cesin, G. L.; Wilson, S.

    2006-05-01

    The Center for Cave and Karst Studies, CCKS, has been using microgravity to locate caves from the ground's surface since 1985. The geophysical subsurface investigations began during a period when explosive and toxic vapors were rising from the karst aquifer under Bowling Green into homes, businesses, and schools. The USEPA provided the funding for this Superfund Emergency, and the CCKS was able to drill numerous wells into low-gravity anomalies to confirm and even map the route of caves in the underlying limestone bedrock. In every case, a low-gravity anomaly indicated a bedrock cave, a cave with a collapsed roof or locations where a bedrock cave had collapsed and filled with alluvium. At numerous locations, several wells were cored into microgravity anomalies and in every case, additional wells were drilled on both sides of the anomalies to confirm that the technique was in fact reliable. The wells cored on both sides of the anomalies did not intersect caves but instead intersected virtually solid limestone. Microgravity also easily detected storm sewers and even sanitary sewers, sometimes six meters (twenty feet) beneath the surface. Microgravity has also been used on many occasions to investigate sinkhole collapses. It identified potential collapse areas by detecting voids in the unconsolidated material above bedrock. The system will soon be tested over known tunnels and then during a blind test along a section of the U.S. border at Nogales, Arizona. The CCKS has experimented with other geophysical techniques, particularly ground penetrating radar, seismic and electrical resistivity. In the late 1990s the CCKS started using the Swift/Sting resistivity meter to perform karst geophysical subsurface investigations. The system provides good depth to bedrock data, but it is often difficult to interpret bedrock caves from the modeled data. The system typically used now by the CCKS to perform karst subsurface investigations is to use electrical resistivity traverses

  7. Investigating the feasibility of Visualising Complex Space Weather Data in a CAVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, S.; Habash Krause, L.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of visualising complex space weather data in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). Space weather is increasingly causing disruptions on Earth, such as power outages and disrupting communication to satellites. We wanted to display this space weather data within the CAVE since the data from instruments, models and simulations are typically too complex to understand on their own, especially when they are of 7 dimensions. To accomplish this, I created a VTK to NetCDF converter. NetCDF is a science data format, which stores array oriented scientific data. The format is maintained by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and is used extensively by the atmospheric and space communities.

  8. Interpretation of Simulations in Interactive VR Environments: Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2006-01-01

     Virtual reality (VR) applications are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced. By introducing an open and inclusive approach, they encourage a creative dialogue with the users of residential schemes and other buildings and allow competition juries a more thorough understandin...... that perception of shape and distance display here fundamental conditions of the CAVE and Panorama....... of architectural concepts. Architects need to heed the dynamics set in motion by these technologies and especially of how laypersons interpret building forms and their simulations in interactive VR environments. The article presents a study which compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment......, CAVE and Panorama. In a report, statistical analysis and discussion of the results, the paper addresses three hypothetical assertions - that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and Panorama are quantifiably different, that differences are attributable to prior...

  9. Normal and anomalous behaviour of electric, magnetic and seismoacoustic signals recorded in the Amare cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Plastino

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987 multichannel instrumentation has been recording electromagnetic and seismoacoustic emissions in the Amare cave (Gran Sasso í L'Aquila. Equipment detecting RMC (Principality of Monaco longwave broadcasting (216 kHz has been operating in the same place. Data collected during this period have pointed out two different phenomena called «quiet» and «perturbed» that characterize the normal behaviour of the cave. On 25 August 1992 an earthquake with M = 3.9 occurred in the Gran Sasso area and on 4 June 1993 an earthquake with M = 4.3 occurred in Umbria, 100 km to north of the Amare cave. Before these earthquakes, electromagnetic, seismoacoustic, and RMC data showed anomalies. Here we present the observed phenomenology and discuss the possibility that the anomalies can be considered precursors of the earthquakes.

  10. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gammage, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M. [El Hombre y su Ambiente, UAM-Xochimilco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm{sup -3}, an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves.

  11. Illumina-based analysis of bacterial community in Khuangcherapuk cave of Mizoram, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit De Mandal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial community of the Khuangcherapuk cave sediment was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 533,120 raw reads with an average base quality (Phred score 36.75 and G + C content is 57.61%. A total of 18 bacterial phyla were detected with following abundant genus — Mycobacterium (21.72%, Rhodococcus (7.09%, Alteromonas (1.42%, Holomonas (0.7% and Salinisphaera (0.20%. Majority portion of the sequences (68% is unclassified at the genus level indicating the possibilities for the presence of novel species in this cave. This study reports the cave bacterial diversity from the biodiversity hotspot region of Eastern Himalayas. Metagenome sequence data are available at NCBI under the Bioproject database with accession no. SRP056890.

  12. Multiparametric surveillance of conservation measures at subterranean rock-art sites: case of Altamira cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Anton, E.; Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Canaveras, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Altamira cave (North of Spain) contains one of the most worldwide important representations of Palaeolithic art. Changes introduced in the cave environment due to the numerous conditioning projects and massive amounts of visitors in the past led in severe disruptions on the pattern of energy-matter exchange with the external atmosphere. Once the Altamira Cave was definitely closed to visitors in 2002, several conservation actions were progressively carried out with the aim to reinforce the isolation of the main cave emplacement with rock art (Polychrome Hall) and, therefore, limiting the dispersion of microorganisms and the supply of nutrients by airflow, water condensation on rock surfaces or seepage water. Main preservation measure was the installation of new access doors equipped with a thermal insulation system. Multi-annual instrumental monitoring of the atmosphere-soil-cave system has allowed us to control the degree of environmental recovery of cave environment and its trend towards the equilibrium and quasi-natural conditions. The monitoring program was focused on the main microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, radon, air velocity, among others) in several profiles from floor to ceiling along the main rooms of the cave. Since the entrance system was modified in 2008 several changes in cave environment have been registered. Absolute annual values of temperature, velocity of air and their annual ranges variation have progressively been reduced. Observed 222Rn and CO2 convective short period fluctuations have been reduced, mainly during the winter season. The beginning of the degassing period in the cave has been delayed. Differences between inner and outer zones of the cavity have increased reaching the maximum value during the summer season (period of greater connexion with outside environment). For instance: in Polychrome Hall the range temperature falls from 1.41oC in 2007-2008 to 1.28oC in 2010-2011; in Crossing Hall

  13. Middle Pleistocene hominin teeth from Longtan Cave, Hexian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xing

    Full Text Available Excavations at the Longtan Cave, Hexian, Anhui Province of Eastern China, have yielded several hominin fossils including crania, mandibular fragments, and teeth currently dated to 412 ± 25 ka. While previous studies have focused on the cranial remains, there are no detailed analyses of the dental evidence. In this study, we provide metric and morphological descriptions and comparisons of ten teeth recovered from Hexian, including microcomputed tomography analyses. Our results indicate that the Hexian teeth are metrically and morphologically primitive and overlap with H. ergaster and East Asian Early and mid-Middle Pleistocene hominins in their large dimensions and occlusal complexities. However, the Hexian teeth differ from H. ergaster in features such as conspicuous vertical grooves on the labial/buccal surfaces of the central incisor and the upper premolar, the crown outline shapes of upper and lower molars and the numbers, shapes, and divergences of the roots. Despite their close geological ages, the Hexian teeth are also more primitive than Zhoukoudian specimens, and resemble Sangiran Early Pleistocene teeth. In addition, no typical Neanderthal features have been identified in the Hexian sample. Our study highlights the metrical and morphological primitive status of the Hexian sample in comparison to contemporaneous or even earlier populations of Asia. Based on this finding, we suggest that the primitive-derived gradients of the Asian hominins cannot be satisfactorily fitted along a chronological sequence, suggesting complex evolutionary scenarios with the coexistence and/or survival of different lineages in Eurasia. Hexian could represent the persistence in time of a H. erectus group that would have retained primitive features that were lost in other Asian populations such as Zhoukoudian or Panxian Dadong. Our study expands the metrical and morphological variations known for the East Asian hominins before the mid-Middle Pleistocene and

  14. Middle Pleistocene hominin teeth from Longtan Cave, Hexian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Song; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Zhang, Yingqi; Fan, Xiaoxiao; Zheng, Longting; Huang, Wanbo; Liu, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Excavations at the Longtan Cave, Hexian, Anhui Province of Eastern China, have yielded several hominin fossils including crania, mandibular fragments, and teeth currently dated to 412 ± 25 ka. While previous studies have focused on the cranial remains, there are no detailed analyses of the dental evidence. In this study, we provide metric and morphological descriptions and comparisons of ten teeth recovered from Hexian, including microcomputed tomography analyses. Our results indicate that the Hexian teeth are metrically and morphologically primitive and overlap with H. ergaster and East Asian Early and mid-Middle Pleistocene hominins in their large dimensions and occlusal complexities. However, the Hexian teeth differ from H. ergaster in features such as conspicuous vertical grooves on the labial/buccal surfaces of the central incisor and the upper premolar, the crown outline shapes of upper and lower molars and the numbers, shapes, and divergences of the roots. Despite their close geological ages, the Hexian teeth are also more primitive than Zhoukoudian specimens, and resemble Sangiran Early Pleistocene teeth. In addition, no typical Neanderthal features have been identified in the Hexian sample. Our study highlights the metrical and morphological primitive status of the Hexian sample in comparison to contemporaneous or even earlier populations of Asia. Based on this finding, we suggest that the primitive-derived gradients of the Asian hominins cannot be satisfactorily fitted along a chronological sequence, suggesting complex evolutionary scenarios with the coexistence and/or survival of different lineages in Eurasia. Hexian could represent the persistence in time of a H. erectus group that would have retained primitive features that were lost in other Asian populations such as Zhoukoudian or Panxian Dadong. Our study expands the metrical and morphological variations known for the East Asian hominins before the mid-Middle Pleistocene and warns about the

  15. Newly recognized Pleistocene human teeth from Tabun Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppa, Alfredo; Grün, Rainer; Stringer, Chris; Eggins, Stephen; Vargiu, Rita

    2005-09-01

    Seven human teeth from Tabun Cave, Israel, curated at the Natural History Museum London since 1955, are of uncertain provenance and identity. They are all from the upper dentition, without duplications, and are characterized by a similar preservation. The Catalogue of Fossil Hominids (1975) suggested that they might have derived from Tabun Layer A (Bronze Age to Recent). However, one of us (AC) noted some distinctive features of these teeth that warranted further study. They are here assigned to a single individual, Tabun BC7. Their morphology and metrics were then compared with the frequency of Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene groups from Europe, North Africa and Middle East. A fragment of the right M3 crown of Tabun BC7 was removed for ESR and U-analysis, and it was determined that only samples from Layer B have similar dose values. Using the sediment dose values of layer B, preliminary age estimates of 82 +/- 14 ka (early U-uptake) and 92+/-18 ka (linear uptake) were obtained. U-series disequilibrium determined from other samples attributed to Layer B resulted in a U-uptake history close to linear uptake, giving a very comparable age estimate of 90(+30)(-16) ka. The dose value previously obtained on an enamel fragment from the Tabun C1 dentition is nearly double the value measured for BC7, and tentative age estimates for C1 were in the range of 143+/-37 ka. However, due to uncertainties in the exact provenance of the human fossils, we cannot confirm that C1 is older than the new tooth sampled here, and both C1 and BC7 can be attributed to Layer B on chronological grounds. On the basis of chronology, dental morphology and metrics, the specimen named Tabun BC7 was identified as a probable Neanderthal.

  16. Seasonal variations of {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: minami@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kato, Tomomi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Horikawa, Keiji [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Toyama University, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem {sup 14}C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric {sup 14}C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of {sup 14}C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem {sup 14}C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO{sub 2}. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different {sup 14}C concentrations and δ{sup 13}C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO{sub 2}, and flow paths. Further, the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The {sup 14}C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: {sup 14}C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in {sup 14}C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using {sup 14}C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  17. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

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    D. Brent Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they were omnivorous and may have consumed more bone than U. arctos. Here, we used dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA to further interpret the diet of the cave bear. Microscopic wear features were assessed and compared to modern ursids, including the cave bears’ closest living relative, U. arctos. Results suggest that U. spelaeus consumed a diet with a diversity of textural properties, similar to most other bears and only distinguishable from the hyper-carnivorous polar bear (Ursus maritimus. Further, only U. maritimus can be distinguished from all bear species here examined (i.e., the giant panda bear, Ailuropoda melanoleuca; sun-bear, Ursus malayanus; spectacled bear, Tremarctos ornatus; American black bear, Ursus americanus; and U. arctos, with significantly greater area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc of microwear surfaces. The DMTA of A. melanoleuca also has significantly lower Asfc than T. ornatus and U. americanus, consistent with observed dietary behavior. As modern bears vary their diets seasonally and across their range, it may be difficult to characterize the dietary ecology of extinct bears using dental microwear alone. Nevertheless, DMTA here demonstrates that U. spelaeus had a diet distinct from the hyper-carnivorous U. maritimus and instead likely consumed food with textural properties most similar to other herbivorous/omnivorous bears. Lastly, the European cave bear and North American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus may have had

  18. Linking speleothem and soil magnetism in the Pau d'Alho cave (central South America)

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    Jaqueto, Plinio; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Novello, Valdir F.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Karmann, Ivo; Strauss, Becky E.; Feinberg, Joshua M.

    2016-10-01

    Mineral magnetism of Pau d'Alho cave sediments, soils outside the cave, and in the stalagmite #6 (ALHO6) in Midwest Brazil is presented. This high growth-rate speleothem ( 168 mm/ka) encompasses the past 1355 years. Oxygen and carbon isotope data from the same stalagmite allow for a direct comparison of the magnetic signal with changes in paleoprecipitation and soil dynamics at the surface. Magnetic experiments include isothermal remanent magnetization, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, hysteresis loops, first-order reversal curves, and low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The main magnetic remanence carriers in ALHO6 are magnetite and goethite, with a nearly constant relative proportion. Remanent coercivities of magnetite in all our samples are within 14-17 mT for an average grain-size of 1-2 µm, in the range of pedogenic magnetite, thus suggesting the detrital grains deposited in the stalagmite were produced in the soil above the cave. Magnetic remanence variations follow δ13C and δ18O data, suggesting a climatic control on the input of magnetic minerals into the Pau d'Alho cave system. The concentration of magnetic minerals in the stalagmite is governed by soil erosion above the cave, which by its turn is controlled by soil erosion and vegetation cover. Dry periods are associated with less stable soils and result in higher mineral fluxes carried into karst systems. Conversely, wetter periods are associated with soils topped by denser vegetation that retains micrometer-scale pedogenic minerals and thus reduces detrital fluxes into the cave.

  19. Sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae from caves in the state of Rondônia, Brazil

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    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study had the aim of ascertaining the sandfly fauna and possible presence ofLeishmania in these insects, collected in caves in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Collections were conducted in eight caves located in two different areas of this state. Leishmania in the sandflies collected was detected using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. This was the first study on sandflies from caves in Rondônia and, among the total of 1,236 individuals collected, 24 species and 10 genera were identified. The speciesEvandromyia georgii was collected for the first time in Rondônia and the most abundant species were Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis with 448 individuals (36.2%, followed by T. octavioi with 283 (22.9% and E. georgii with 179 (14.5%. For the PCR, 17 pools were analyzed and five pools were positive (forT. auraensis in three pools and for Nyssomyia shawi and N. antunesi in one pool each. The kDNA region was amplified and the presence of Leishmania DNA was confirmed. The sandfly fauna in these caves can be considered diverse in comparison with similar studies in other regions. It may be that some species use caves as a temporary shelter and breeding site, while other species live exclusively in this environment. The detection of LeishmaniaDNA indicates that this pathogen is circulating in cave environments and that further studies are needed in order to ascertain the risks of infection by leishmaniasis in these locations with high touristic potential.

  20. CAVE2: a hybrid reality environment for immersive simulation and information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febretti, Alessandro; Nishimoto, Arthur; Thigpen, Terrance; Talandis, Jonas; Long, Lance; Pirtle, J. D.; Peterka, Tom; Verlo, Alan; Brown, Maxine; Plepys, Dana; Sandin, Dan; Renambot, Luc; Johnson, Andrew; Leigh, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid Reality Environments represent a new kind of visualization spaces that blur the line between virtual environments and high resolution tiled display walls. This paper outlines the design and implementation of the CAVE2TM Hybrid Reality Environment. CAVE2 is the world's first near-seamless flat-panel-based, surround-screen immersive system. Unique to CAVE2 is that it will enable users to simultaneously view both 2D and 3D information, providing more flexibility for mixed media applications. CAVE2 is a cylindrical system of 24 feet in diameter and 8 feet tall, and consists of 72 near-seamless, off-axisoptimized passive stereo LCD panels, creating an approximately 320 degree panoramic environment for displaying information at 37 Megapixels (in stereoscopic 3D) or 74 Megapixels in 2D and at a horizontal visual acuity of 20/20. Custom LCD panels with shifted polarizers were built so the images in the top and bottom rows of LCDs are optimized for vertical off-center viewing- allowing viewers to come closer to the displays while minimizing ghosting. CAVE2 is designed to support multiple operating modes. In the Fully Immersive mode, the entire room can be dedicated to one virtual simulation. In 2D model, the room can operate like a traditional tiled display wall enabling users to work with large numbers of documents at the same time. In the Hybrid mode, a mixture of both 2D and 3D applications can be simultaneously supported. The ability to treat immersive work spaces in this Hybrid way has never been achieved before, and leverages the special abilities of CAVE2 to enable researchers to seamlessly interact with large collections of 2D and 3D data. To realize this hybrid ability, we merged the Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) - a system for supporting 2D tiled displays, with Omegalib - a virtual reality middleware supporting OpenGL, OpenSceneGraph and Vtk applications.