WorldWideScience

Sample records for caving mining

  1. Guano mining in Kenyan lava tunnel caves

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Commercial mining of bat guano for agricultural fertilizer only became possible in Kenya through discovery of major deposits in the lava tunnel caves of Mt. Suswa and the North Chyulu Hills in the early 1960’s. This paper provides historical information leading up to the guano mining, describes the cave deposits, outlines the mining under-takings, and provides information on the guano producing bats and insect faunas. The results of guano analyses, details of the tonnages extracted and sold t...

  2. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  3. Technology Research on the Fourth Panel Mining Large Height Fully-mechanized Caving Mining in Shangwan Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yingjie; Wang Xiaomou

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the 1-2 coal seam of Shangwan coal mine 4th panel, this research analyzed the feasibility of sublevel caving hydraulic support in the fully-mechanized mining face through estimation method and numerical simulation calculation. This paper also researched the several factors that affect the caving property of top-coal, such as coal thickness, coal hosting depth, top-coal joint fissure, parting condition and caving height. In the meantime, the FLAC3D was used ...

  4. Back-and-forth mining for hard and thick coal seams-research about the mining technology for fully mechanized caving working face of Datong Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhi-xin; YU Hong; YU Bin; SONG Hua-ling

    2005-01-01

    The article introduced the key technology, mining process, and back-and-forth mining method for the caving working face of hard-thick coal seams in Datcng mine, and researched this innovations process, optimized the systemic design and working face outplay, tried to perfect the caving mining technology of hard-thick coal seams further.

  5. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a-1 only in the copper mine. (authors)

  6. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia

  7. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan [WISFIR Laboratory, Earth Physics and Complex System Division, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Riyanto, Erwin [Geotechnical and Hydrology PT. Freeport Indonesia wonbin-ww@hotmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  8. Surface Movement Regularity of Super-Wide Mining Face With Top-Coal Caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Run-hou

    2005-01-01

    No.4326 super-wide panel of Wangzhuang Coal Mine ( in which the fully-mechanized top-coal caving longwall mining method was used) was monitored for dynamic characteristic of surface movement. The dynamic surface movement in and after mining was predicted by using the Mining Subsidence Prediction System. The results indicate that after mining, the surface above the super-wide panel reaches a state of full subsidence, making the No.309national highway above the panel be located on the flat bottom of the subsidence basin so that the influence of mining activity in both sides of 4326 panel on the national highway is the smallest.

  9. Study on dangers of methane in the gob of fully mechanized caving mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guang-li; WU Li-rong; ZOU De-yun

    2007-01-01

    Divided the gob gas in different types according to falling structure and spatial patterns of gob of the fully mechanized caving mining and analyzed its main form of harm.This passage preliminarily studied the law of unusual gush of gob gas of the fully mechanized caving mining. According to the basic condition for the gas explosion, made comprehensive analysis and appraisal about the oxygen condition, gas concentration distribute and fire source conditions. And find that there is the dangerous district of gas explosion in a certain area of the producing gob and give the three zone theory of gob gas explosion.

  10. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al. PMID:27086300

  11. Effects of caving-mining ratio on the coal and waste rocks gangue flows and the amount of cyclically caved coal in fully mechanized mining of super-thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ningbo; Liu Changyou; Pei Mengsong

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at determining the appropriate caving–mining ratio for fully mechanized mining of 20 m thick coal seam, this research investigated the effects of caving–mining ratio on the flow fields of coal and waste rocks, amount of cyclically caved coal and top coal loss by means of numerical modeling. The research was based on the geological conditions of panel 8102 in Tashan coal mine. The results indicated the loose coal and waste rocks formed an elliptical zone around the drawpoint. The ellipse enlarged with decreasing caving–mining ratio. And its long axis inclined to the gob gradually became vertical and facil-itating the caving and recovery of top coal. The top coal loss showed a cyclical variation;and the loss cycle was shortened with the decreasing in caving–mining ratio. Moreover, the mean squared error (MSE) of the amount of cyclically caved coal went up with increasing caving–mining ratio, indicating a growing imbalance of amount of cyclically caved coal, which could impede the coordinated mining and caving operations. Finally it was found that a caving–mining ratio of 1:2.51 should be reasonable for the conditions.

  12. Lung Deposition Calculations for Radioactive Aerosol Particles Originating from Caves and Uranium Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The present study simulates lung deposition of radioactive aerosol particles originating from the atmosphere of a therapeutic cave (Szemlohegyi cave, Budapest) and several uranium mines. Particle deposition patterns and surface densities have been calculated by the stochastic lung model of Koblinger and Hofmann. In the model, deposition can be caused by the simultaneous effects of Brownian motion, inertial impaction and gravitational settling. The calculations were carried out by considering the aerosol particle size distribution and radon concentration of the atmosphere of the cave and mines. The deposition was computed in the whole lung, in characteristic parts of the respiratory system such as extrathoracic, tracheobronchial, acinar and alveolar regions and in the singe airway generations at different flow rates for adults. The adverse health effects of inhaled radionuclides strongly depend from the local deposition density values in cellular dimensions. Thus we will built in the results to a cellular effects model of Balashazy and Hofmann for the simulation of the pathological effects of inhaled radionuclides for risk assessment. (author)

  13. Numerical modelling of surface subsidence associated with block cave mining using a finite element / discrete element approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vyazmensky, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen a major increase of interest in the block cave mining method which is characterized by extraction of a massive volume of rock usually accompanied by the formation of a significant surface depression above and in the vicinity of the mining operation. The ability to predict surface subsidence is important for mine planning, operational hazard assessment and evaluation of environmental and socio-economic impacts. Owing to problems of scale and lack of access, the fundament...

  14. Determining the effect of polluted mine water on the ecosystem health of a karstic cave environment in the Witwatersrand Basin / Gerhard Cornelis du Preez

    OpenAIRE

    Du Preez, Gerhard Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    The Wonderfontein Cave is located within the Witwatersrand Basin (Gauteng province, South Africa) and is associated with the river banks of the Wonderfontein Spruit. This cave system has for many years been subjected to the influx of polluted mine water. Since subterranean environments remain poorly studied, it is unknown what the effect of this might be on the associated ecosystem. Furthermore, water that enters the Wonderfontein Cave poses a severe health threat as it drains ...

  15. Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for

  16. Analysis on air-leakage law of goal in condition of ascending mining for top-coal caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li; WEN Hu; XIAO Yang; WANG Qiu-hong; WANG Zhen-ping; ZHANG Guang-wen

    2009-01-01

    Using the Jisan Coalmine's top-coal caving for the 3down coal seam with as-cending mining as the project background,the air-leakage characteristics of the goaf was analyzed.Through data fitting of the in situ observation,the models of gas seepage,diffu-sion and air-leakage in the goaf were established in ascending mining.The Computation Fluid Dynamics software Fluent was used to simulate the air-leakage law of the goaf.The results of the numerical simulation provide a basis for the use of the technology of ventila-tion and fire prevention in the working face of an ascending mining,which ensures the safety in production in the working face of the top-coal caving for 3down coal seam in the Jisan Coalmine.

  17. Control on mine pressure of thick and strong roof stratum movement in long wall thick coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Guang-zhe; ZHANG dian-chang; HE Tao

    2008-01-01

    The caving of thick and strong roof stratum causes tremendous rock pressurein mine. The results of the analysis on dynamic natures of actual measurements of somefields, of which the roof pressure can be caused by thick and strong stratum in long wallthick coal caving face, could present the relation between the collapse and movement ofthick and strong roof strata and surrounding rock pressure. In order to control the roofpressure effectively, the thick and strong roof strata, can be fractured and softened previ-ously by hydraulic fracturing and low-high pressure water infusion, fracturing and softeningmethod. The results of study can provide basis for strata control and safe management inlong wall thick coal caving face.

  18. Technical parameters of drawing and coal-gangue field movements of a fully mechanized large mining height top coal caving working face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang-you Liu; Bing-xiang Huang; Feng-feng Wu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mines

    2009-09-15

    Under fully mechanized, large mining height top coal caving conditions, the shield beam slope angle of the support increases due to the enlargement of the top coal breaking and caving space. This results in a change of the caving window location and dimensions and, therefore, the granular coal-gangue movement and flows provide new characteristics during top coal caving. The main inferences we draw are as follows. Firstly, after shifting the supports, the caved top coal layer line and the coal gangue boundary line become steeper and are clearly larger than those under common mining heights. Secondly, during the top coal caving procedure, the speed of the coal-gangue flow increases and at the same drawing interval, the distance between the coal-gangue boundary line and the top beam end is reduced. Thirdly, affected by the drawing ratio, the slope angle of the shield beam and the dimensions of the caving window, it is easy to mix the gangue. A rational drawing interval will cause the coal-gangue boundary line to be slightly behind the down tail boom lower boundary. This rational drawing interval under conditions of large mining heights has been analyzed and determined. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. USING GIS FOR CAVES MODELLING AND ANALYSIS. THE STUDY CASE OF ANINA MINING AREA (BANAT MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTUGYAN Laurențiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available GIS started to be used also in caves’ mapping, but the work in this area is quite less widespread as surface mapping. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to caves’ digital modelling and analysis, using GIS and geovisualization techniques. COMPASS program is a software package designed for editing, processing, analysing and visualizing data on computer mapping caves. The programs allow input caves, reviewing data, obtaining statistics on caves, view plans from different angles on the monitor, and finally these views can then be printed. In this paper, we obtain digital models for endokarstic landforms situated in a karstic area in the South-West of Romania. We convert the Speleological data from analog into digital data and then obtained a virtual model for 4 cavities. Modelling karst cavities using GIS software require certain advantages and disadvantages. As advantages we can observe the fact that employing such a program can export a cave modelling in various formats and can include the function of spatial analysis in various programs, and the introduction of such objects in the Web Free and accessible. The main drawback to COMPASS program is given the simplicity and the limitation in modelling caves’ galleries. This program gives the form of tubes, pipes, made from a variety of geometric shapes. For Anina Mining Area, where nowadays local authorities are trying to develop tourism as a branch of economic recovery, these digital data regarding the most important caves in the area could be very useful in the management plans and in the tourist strategies.

  20. The psychological impact of the risks of mines caving-in: anxiety, perception of the environment and access to information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has been conducted to assess the extent to which the risk of losing one's home or seeing it damaged due to a mine cave-in influences an individual's state of health and, in particular, of anxiety. According to the results, persons living in such risky situations have higher anxiety scores than members of a control group. Furthermore, their perception of the environment apparently affects their anxiety: the individuals most affected have a deteriorated perception of their environment. This study draws attention to the key role played by networks of associations, where inhabitants feel they can obtain reliable information. (authors)

  1. Three-dimensional experimental study of loose top-coal drawing law for longwall top-coal caving mining technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiachen Wang; Jinwang Zhang; Zhengyang Song; Zhaolong Li

    2015-01-01

    Based on the loose medium flow field theory, the loose top-coal drawing law of longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) mining technology is studied by using self-developed three-dimensional (3D) test device. The loose top-coal drawing test with shields and the controlled test without shields are performed in the condition without any boundary effect. Test results show that shields will cause reduction in drawing volume of coal in the LTCC mining. The deflection phenomenon of drawing body is also observed in the controlled test, which is verified that the deflection of drawing body is caused by shield. It is found that the deflection angle decreases with increasing caving height, with the maximum value of atail and the minimum value of 0. In addition, the formula to calculate the drawing volume is proposed subsequently. The deflection of drawing body is numerically simulated using particle flow code PFC3D and the proposed formula to calculate drawing volume in LTCC is also verified.

  2. Model approach to cause-effect relations between working face output and parameters assumed for mines using longwall mining with caving. [303 working faces in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajac, E.

    1977-01-01

    This report analyzes factors which influence efficiency of longwall mining with caving in Poland. Statistical data on 303 working faces were analyzed. Four groups of faces were compared: 148 faces with shearer loaders and friction props, 61 faces with shearer loaders and hydraulic props, 65 faces with shearer loaders and powered supports, 28 faces with coal plows and hydraulic props. Effects of the following factors on mining efficiency are analyzed: face height, length, advance rate and dip angles, coal workability, cutting depth, dimensions of a cutting drum, working time per month, average time for 1 passage of a shearer loader or a coal plow along the face, average number of passages per month, mining cost, etc. Mining efficiency was described by coal output per miner and day. Regression analysis and regression models were used. The analysis was carried out in 3 stages: description of characteristics, determining relation of 2 variables (dependent variable, working efficiency, the tested parameter), development of a linear model which describes effects of the variables which decisively influence mining efficiency. The models were verified. 5 refs.

  3. Geographical and geological data from caves and mines infected with white-nose syndrome (WNS) before September 2009 in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, a white fungus named Geomyces destructans has been observed on the muzzles, noses, ears, and (or) wings of bats in the eastern United States, and bat colonies that are infected with this fungus have experienced dramatic incidences of mortality. Although it is not exactly certain how and why these bats are dying, this condition has been named white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS appears to have spread from an initial infection site at a cave that is connected to a commercial cave in New York, and by the end of August 2009 was identified in at least 74 other sites in the eastern United States. Although detailed geographical and geological data are limited, a review of the available data shows that sites infected with WNS before September 2009 include both natural caves and mines. These infected sites extend from New Hampshire to Virginia, and known site elevations range from 84 to 2693 feet above sea level. In terms of geological setting, the infected sites include sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks of ages ranging from Precambrian to Jurassic. However, by the end of August 2009, no infected sites had been identified in strata of Mississippian, Cretaceous, or Triassic age. Meteorological data are sparse, but most of the recorded air temperatures in the known WNS-infected caves and mines range from 0 to 13.9 degrees C, and humidity measurements range from 68 to 100 percent. Although it is not certain which environmental parameters are important for WNS, it is hoped that the geographical and geological information presented in this paper will inform and clarify some of the debate about WNS, lead to greater understanding of the environmental parameters associated with WNS, and highlight the paucity of scientific data from caves in the eastern United States.

  4. SPELEOTHERAPY DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA ON THE WORLD CONTEXT AND PERSPECTIVES FOR USE OF SOME SALT MINES AND KARST CAVES FOR SPELEOTHERAPEUTIC AND BALNEOCLIMATIC TOURISM PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionca Iuri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Speleotherapy (ST is a relatively new method of complementary medicine, although, as is well known ancient tribes appreciated isolation in underwater caves, salt or karst caves, or possessing various ores and was officially recognized in the years 1950-1960 in Germany (K.Spannagel, 1961 and Poland (M. Skulimowski, 1965. Professor Mieczyslaw Skulimowski has granted of speleotherapy in "Wieliczka" Salt Mine, the name of subterraneotherapy, soon to be also called the Skulimowski method. Number of speleotherapeutic centers and speleotherapy symposiums has increased considerably (H.Trimmel, 1994. Speleotherapy in the underground now is an effective therapeutic method for the treatment of obstructive respiratory tract diseases, especially of patients with bronchial asthma (BA, the upward and effective practice in Central and Eastern Europe, but also in the West: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Hungary etc.

  5. Analysis on cost and profit of uranium mining in leaching in place after blasting and heap leaching on surface after sub-level caving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking the Uranium Mine No.794 as an example, the paper makes an economics analysis through simulations of geological, economic and technological parameters for both uranium mining methods leaching in place after blasting and heap leaching on surface after sub-level caving, and deduces the functional relationships between the cost and profit of unit product and the uranium ore grade for both the methods, and plots the curves of change of the cost and profit from the ore grade. Using the functional relationships and the plotted curves it is convenient to determine the reasonable cut-off uranium grade in the leaching in place after blasting and the mining methods to be selected for different average ore grades, when the recovery is given

  6. Estimation of general and set steps of roof caving in rock mass with excavations at mining. Numerical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, M.; Makarov, P.

    2016-04-01

    The results of 2D modelling of rock mass elements fracture are shown in the article. The results of modelling are in a good agreement with empirical and theoretical estimations of roof caving steps for the flat-dipping coal seams when the horizons are not so deep (less than 600 m). The estimations of the general and set steps of roof caving are given for the lava conditions at different lengths of the main roof containing sandstone.

  7. 放顶煤工作面初采直接过断层的技术研究%Technology of Caving Face Initial Mining Directly over the Fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鹏; 屈光凯; 常永峰

    2015-01-01

    23 下205综放工作面通过采取积极和行之有效的过断层措施和初采技术措施,确保了初采期间的放煤效果,提高了工作面的回采率,消除了因工作面老塘后部留煤而造成的发火隐患,实现该区段开采期间的安全生产.%By taking positive and effective over fault measures and initial mining technical measures, the coal caving effect of 23 下205 mechanized caving face is ensured in the initial mining stage, the recovery rate of mining face is improved, the combustion hazards caused by the mining face coal remains are eliminated, and the safe production of this sector is achieved in the mining period.

  8. Economic Valuation of Mining Heritage from a Recreational Approach: Application to the Case of El Soplao Cave in Spain (Geosite UR004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pérez-Álvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heritage tourism can increase incomes and stimulate the economy in former mining areas. Recreational tourism is one of the main sources of value of heritage. People from urban areas are willing to pay for access to these tourism options. The measurement of the economic impact of this availability is one of the main problems to confront, due to the immeasurable possibilities of heritage resources. The use of non-market values and their estimation by means of revealed preference methods should help to assess the economic value of this sort of resources from a recreational perspective. The travel cost method (TCM is widely used to value areas with recreational uses, such as lakes, beaches or forests, but there are not references to previous applications of this methodology in the field of mining heritage. In this work, TCM has been applied to obtain the economic value of El Soplao Cave (Geosite UR004, Cantabria, Spain as a recreational site, providing an estimated result of 34,961,162 euros.

  9. Study on the Caving Laws of Overlying Strata in Gypsum Mine Goaf and Its Risk Assessment%石膏矿采空区上覆岩层冒落规律与危险性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹洋; 李夕兵; 赵国彦; 周子龙; 刘希灵; 杨金林; 刘强

    2011-01-01

    为对上覆岩层冒落的危险性进行有效评价,在工程实勘的基础上,将石膏矿上覆岩层的自然冒落作为一个逐级发展的过程来处理,并根据普氏平衡拱理论对各级拱形作出2点假定,即冒落拱顶部弧线为抛物线,矿柱按θ角剥蚀.提出以临界松散系数K作为其危险性评价因子,并根据所建立的一般冒落拱模型,分别推导得到条带矿柱及间隔点柱区域关于K的计算公式.最后,将该评价因子用于工程实际,实现对邵东石膏矿采空区的危险性分级.该评价体系,即可对石膏矿地表塌陷作出有效预测,也可对石膏矿地表危险程度进行合理分级.%In order to make an effective assessment of the hazard which caused by the caving of overlying strata, based on field investigation, the caving of overlying strata over abandoned mine goaf was regarded as a step-by-step development process. Then, according to PU's equilibrium arch theories, two assumptions about the shape of arch at different levels were made, namely, the crown arc of the caving arch was parabola and the pillars were denuded at an angle of θ. Through further analysis, different developmental patterns of the caving arch were gotten, and a general caving arch model was established. Based on these, the critical loose coefficient K was proposed as the risk assessment factor, and the corresponding formula in the mined-out area reserving strip pillar and post pillar was derived from the general caving arch model respectively. At last, the risk assessment factor was applied to the engineering practice, and the risk classification of Shaodong gypsum mine was made. This evaluation system cannot only make an effective forecast for the surface collapse of gypsum mine, but also be used to rank the dangerous degree of gypsum mines surface.

  10. Sediment pore-water interactions associated with arsenic and uranium transport from the North Cave Hills mining region, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of historical U mining impacts is well documented for the North Cave Hills region of Harding County, South Dakota, USA. While previous studies reported watershed sediment and surface water As and U concentrations up to 90× established background concentrations, it was unclear whether or how localized changes in sediment redox behavior may influence contaminant remobilization. Five pore-water equilibration samplers (peepers) were spatially and temporally deployed within the study area to evaluate seasonal solid–liquid As and U distributions as a function of sediment depth. Pore-water and solid phase As and U concentrations, Fe speciation, Eh and pH were measured to ascertain specific geochemical conditions responsible for As and U remobilization and transport behavior. At a mine overburden sedimentation pond adjacent to the mine sites, high total aqueous As and U concentrations (4920 and 674 μg/L, respectively) were found within surface water during summer sampling; however pond dredging prior to autumn sampling resulted in significantly lower aqueous As and U concentrations (579 and 108 μg/L, respectively); however, both As and U still exceeded regional background concentrations (20 and 18 μg/L, respectively). At a wetlands-dominated deposition zone approximately 2 km downstream of the sedimentation pond, pore-water geochemical conditions varied seasonally. Summer conditions promoted reducing conditions in pore water, resulting in active release of As(III) to the water column. Autumn conditions promoted oxidizing conditions, decreasing pore-water As (Aspw) 5× and increasing Upw 10×. Peak U pore-water concentrations (781 μg/L) were 3.5× greater than determined for the surface water (226 μg/L), and approximately 40× background concentrations. At the Bowman–Haley reservoir backwaters 45 km downstream from the mine sites, As and U pore-water concentrations increased significantly between the summer and autumn deployments, attributed to

  11. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  12. Mycobiome of the bat white nose syndrome affected caves and mines reveals diversity of fungi and local adaptation by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans (Pd are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD and culture-independent (CI methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'. CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS. The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS.

  13. Trace element and stable isotope data from a flowstone in a natural cave of the mining district of SW Sardinia (Italy: evidence for Zn2+-induced aragonite precipitation in comparatively wet climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caddeo Guglielmo Angelo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A speleothem from Crovassa Azzurra, a mine cave in SW Sardinia (Italy, has been analysed for mineralogy, minor and traceelements and stable isotopes. It is composed of layers of primary calcite and aragonite, with a region of secondary calcite. The primarycarbonate is strikingly rich in Zn and Pb, presumably as the result of transport in solution from overlying Pb-Zn deposits. Immediatelybelow the transition between calcite and aragonite, concentrations of Zn, Cd and P increase. At the transition between aragonite andPb-rich aragonite, concentrations of Pb and P increase. Stable isotopes do not indicate an evolution toward drier periods for thesetwo transitions, conversely to what is normally observed in calcite-aragonite speleothems. On the contrary the combined observationof increase in P and metals derived from oxidation of sulphides and the variation of isotopic composition of aragonite and calcitesuggests that in this mine cave aragonite was deposited with increasing flowrate and thus more humid conditions. In addition, theeffect of Zn2+ or Pb2+ in inhibiting precipitation of calcite appears to have been more important than that of Mg2+.

  14. 王家山煤矿急倾斜煤层综放设备选型及回采工艺%Equipment Selection and Mining Technique of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining in Steep Inclined Seam of Wangjiashan Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨吉文

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the matched equipment selection of the hydraulic powered support, coal shearer and face conveyor and the safety reliable mining technique for the fully mechanized strike top coal caving mining in the steep inclined seam, according to the steep inclined seam deposit conditions and the mining technical features in Wangjiashan Mine, a 3D numerical simulation was applied to analyze the stressed process of the surrounding rock and the powered supports in the coal mining face and analyze the failure deformation features of the roof and top coal. In combination with the anti falling down and anti sliding requirements of the equipment applied in the coal mining face, the selection of the hydraulic powered support, coal shearer and face conveyor was preliminarily determined. With the site practices, the ZF4800/16/30 two leg chock-shield powered support was determined as the main part of the above three machine matched equipment. A mining technique including coal cutting from the upward to downward, the conveyor and powered support moving from downward to upward and the top coal caving from the downward to upward was summarized.%为了确定急倾斜煤层走向长壁综放开采"三机"(液压支架、采煤机和刮板输送机)配套选型及安全可靠的回采工艺,针对王家山煤矿急倾斜煤层赋存条件及开采技术特点,采用三维数值模拟,分析了采场围岩与支架受力过程,顶板及顶煤破坏变形特征,结合工作面设备防倒防滑需要,初步确定"三机"选型.通过现场实践,确定了ZF4800/16/30型2柱支撑掩护式支架为主体的"三机"配套,总结出了由上向下割煤、由下向上推刮板输送机并移架、由下向上放顶煤的回采工艺.

  15. 特厚煤层综放开采冲击地压防治技术与实践%Technology and Practices on Mine Pressure Bumping Prevention and Control of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining in Ultra Thick Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周澎

    2011-01-01

    According to the serious mine pressure bumping, gateway repair difficulty and other production problems of No. 250102 fully mechanized top coal caving mining face in Huating Mine, a series technical research and the prevention and control practices was conducted. The analysis showed that the deep mining depth, seam with pressure bumping tendency, hard and thick sandstone roof and irrational width of the gateway coal pillars would be main influence factors to cause the pressure bumping in the coal mining face. The comprehensive index was applied to judge the pressure bumping danger index as 0. 89 of the fully mechanized top coal caving mining face and the mining face would have a strong pressure bumping danger. Based on the early prediction, the micro seismic method was applied to monitor and measure the bumping danger zone. As for the bumping danger zone, the pressure releasing blasting in the gateway side wall, deep borehole blasting in the roof, dynamic water injection (8 ~ 13 MPa) and static water injection as well as other pressure releasing and danger control measures were comprehensively applied to reduce the mine pressure bumping behavior strength and to effectively reduce the pressure bumping occurred in the fully mechanized top coal caving mining face.%基于华亭煤矿250102综放工作面冲击地压显现强烈、巷道返修难度大,开展了一系列技术研究和防治实践.分析表明,大采深、煤层具有冲击倾向性、坚硬厚层砂岩顶板、护巷煤柱留宽不合理是导致该工作面发生冲击地压的主要因素,并采用综合指数法判定该综放面冲击危险指数0.89,具有强冲击地压危险性.在早期预测的基础上,采用微震法对冲击危险区域进行监测.对具备冲击危险的区域,综合采用巷帮煤体卸压爆破、顶板深孔爆破、动压注水(8~13 MPa)与静压注水等卸压解危措施,削弱了冲击地压显现强度,有效降低了综放工作面冲击地压的发生.

  16. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2015-11-01

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to (222)Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors. PMID:25948834

  17. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to 222Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors. (authors)

  18. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  19. 综放工作面顶板运移规律的采厚效应%Mining Thickness Effects on Roof Movement Law in Fully Mechanized Top-coal Caving Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雷

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, analysis was made on the laws of roof movement in fully mechanized caving face with the same cutting height and different seam thickness and in full-seam cutting by applying the method of combining the field observation and analogy simulation. The results showed that with the increase of coal seam thickness,the activity scope of surrounding rock would be wider in both the horizontal and vertical directions of the fully mechanized caving face,the distribution range of the abutment pressure would be larger and the peak point would move forward, and the concentration factor of the abutment pressure would decrease with the increase of the mining thickness;when the coal seam was lower,the weighing intensity of the face would be more moderate,but with the increase of the seam thickness,the strata behaviors would increase gradually,so there should be an upper limit of coal seam thickness of the fully mechanized top-coal caving mining. Based on the relevant provisions specified in“Safety Regulations in Coal Mine” and the influence of the working resistance of the powered support in the face on the cutting thickness, the determination method for the upper limit of coal seam thickness of the full-mechanized top-coal mining was proposed.%采用现场观测与相似模拟相结合的方法,对相同割煤高度、不同煤层厚度一次采全厚综放工作面的顶板运移规律进行了分析,结果表明:煤层厚度越大,围岩活动范围在综放工作面的横向与纵向越广,支承压力分布范围越大、峰值点前移,支承压力集中系数随采厚的增加而减小;当煤层厚度较小时,综放工作面来压强度比较缓和,但随煤层厚度的增大矿压显现逐渐增强,即综放开采一次采出的煤层厚度应有上限值。基于《煤矿安全规程》相关条款及综放支架工作阻力对采厚的影响,提出了综放开采上限值的确定方法。

  20. 特厚煤层大采高综放开采机采高度的确定与影响%Determination and influence of cutting height of coal by top coal caving method with great mining height in extra thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国法; 庞义辉; 刘俊峰

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the cutting height of coal on top caving with great mining height, the influence of dif- ferent cutting height on the support working resistance, the top-coal caving rules and the coal wall stability were stud- ied based on theoretical analysis and numerical simulation method. The results show that the ratio of mining height to caving height, coal wall stability, mine pressure appeared, top coal recovery rate and equipment investment should be fully considered to determine the cutting height. The support requires strength, top coal recovery rate, coal wall spalling positively correlate with the cutting height, which is not a linear relation. Due to the influence of top coal geological conditions and recovery rate, the rate of coal wall spalling large mining height fully-mechanized in the condition of the in top coal caving with great mining height is larger than same cutting height. The top coal caving with great mining height is a breakthrough, and is a new effective way to achieve safe and efficient mining in extra thick coal seam.%为了确定大采高综放开采合理的机采高度,基于理论分析与数值模拟计算方法,研究了不同机采高度对支架工作阻力、顶煤冒放规律、煤壁稳定性的影响。研究结果表明:大采高综放开采机采高度的确定应充分考虑采放比、煤壁稳定性、矿压显现、顶煤采出率及设备投资等。支架所需支护强度、顶煤采出率、煤壁片帮程度与机采高度成正相关性,但并不是简单的线性关系。由于受顶煤赋存条件及采出率等因素影响,相同采高大采高综放开采煤壁片帮几率要高于大采高综采。大采高综放开采是煤炭开采技术的新突破,是实现特厚煤层安全高效开采的有效途径。

  1. The Crystals Cave in a test tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, C.; Romero, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    It's quite easy to understand formation of crystals in Nature by evaporation of the solutions that contain minerals, but many times we have realised that our pupils hardly understand that precipitation is a process mostly caused by changing parameters in a solution, like pH, temperature, etc. and not necessarily depending on evaporation. We propose a hands-on activity using the context of the Cave of the Crystals in Naica's mine, Mexico. The Crystals Cave is a wonderful place where giant crystals of selenite (gypsum) have grown feeding from a supersaturated anhydrite solution1. Miners discovered the cave filled with hot water, and drained it to explore the gallery. The cave is now a giant laboratory where scientists are looking for the keys to understand geological processes. Teaching sequence (for students 15 years old) is as follows: DISCOVERING A MARVELLOUS PLACE: We showed our pupils several images and a short video of the Cave of the Crystals and ask them about the process that may have caused the phenomenon. Whole-class discussion. PRESENTING A CHALLENGE TO OUR STUDENTS: "COULD WE CREATE A CRYSTALS CAVE IN A TEST TUBE?" EXPERIMENTING TO IMITATE NATURE: Students tried to grow crystals simulating the same conditions as those in Naica's mine. We have chosen KNO3, a salt more soluble than gypsum. We added 85 g of salt to 200 ml of water (solubility of KNO3 at 25°C is 36 g per 100 gr of water) and heated it until it is dissolved. Afterwards, we poured the solution into some test tubes and other recipients and let them cool at room temperature. And they got a beautiful crystals cave!! THINKING A LITTLE MORE: we asked pupils some questions to make them think about the process and to predict what would happen in different situations. For example: a) What would happen with crystals if we heated the tubes again? or b) What would happen if we took the remaining solution from the tubes and keep it in the fridge? PROVING A NEW HYPOTHESIS: Pupils collected the remaining

  2. Clastic cave deposits in Botovskaya cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Hercman, H.; Osintsev, A.; Oberhänsli, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2008), s. 142-155. ISSN 1090-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * mineral magnetism * Botovskaya Cave Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2008 http://www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_70.htm

  3. 长壁全垮法开采和限厚条带开采对生态环境影响比较分析%Comparison of Long-wall Roof-caved Method and Strip Mining Method's Influence on Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹凤平

    2013-01-01

    以亭南矿为研究对象,采用《建筑物、水体、铁路及主要井巷煤柱留设与压煤开采规程》中模式,预测亭南矿全部垮落法开采和限厚条带开采2种不同开采方式的地表沉陷、移动变形等情况.通过类比分析得出条带开采对生态环境影响较小,对地表植被的生长、耕地农作物生产影响较小,条带开采生态环境影响区农作物减产量(232.4t)较全部垮落法开采减产量(345.2t)少112.8t,从而论证了煤炭开采技术的合理选择对生态环境保护和资源合理利用的重要意义.%Applying prediction method from Coal Mining Regulations under Buildings,Water Bodies and Railways and Width of Main Shaft Pillar,this paper predicted surface subsidence,movement and deformation of 2 different mining methods including roof-caved mining and strip mining in Tingnan Colliery.Result showed that the influence of strip mining on ecological environment,surface vegetation and crop was minor,crop production reduction amount of strip mining (232.4t) reduced 112.8t than that of roof-caved mining,which proved rationally selecting mining method had important significance for ecological environmental protection and resource utilization.

  4. Analysis of the dialectical relation between top coal caving and coal-gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-zheng; XIA Yong-jun; TANG Bing; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2009-01-01

    According to the different engineering mechanical states of top coal caving and normal stoping of gaseous loose thick coal seams, the dialectical relation between this caving method and dynamic disasters was analyzed by simulating the change of stress states in the process of top coal initial caving with different mining and caving ratios based on the ANSYS10.0. The variation of elastic energy and methane expansion energy during first top coal caving was analyzed by first weighting and periodic weighting and combining with coal stress and deformation distribution of top coal normal stoping as well as positive and negative examples in top coal caving of outburst coal seam. The research shows that the outburst risk increases along with the increase of the caving ratio in the initial mining stage. In the period of normal stoping, when the mining and caving ratio is smaller than 1:3 and hard and massive overlying strata do not exist (periodic weighting is not obvious), it is beneficial to control ground stress leading type outburst. Thus, it is unreasonable to prohibit top coal caving in dangerous and outburst prone areas.

  5. Economic Valuation of Mining Heritage from a Recreational Approach: Application to the Case of El Soplao Cave in Spain (Geosite UR004)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Pérez-Álvarez; Saúl Torres-Ortega; Pedro Díaz-Simal; Raúl Husillos-Rodríguez; Julio Manuel De Luis-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Heritage tourism can increase incomes and stimulate the economy in former mining areas. Recreational tourism is one of the main sources of value of heritage. People from urban areas are willing to pay for access to these tourism options. The measurement of the economic impact of this availability is one of the main problems to confront, due to the immeasurable possibilities of heritage resources. The use of non-market values and their estimation by means of revealed preference methods should ...

  6. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  7. Radon in Caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2005-01-01

    The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources,the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then,the instruments,both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into accounttheir respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the objectof regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations i...

  8. Speleothems and cave minerals in gypsum caves

    OpenAIRE

    Forti P.

    1996-01-01

    For many years gypsum karst was considered to contain little of interest from the point of view of chemical deposits. Relatively recently a general study of speleothems has begun within gypsum karst areas in different climatic zones around the world. So far this ongoing research has shown that gypsum karst can be very interesting in terms of its contained chemical deposits. In this chapter, all that is currently known about speleothems in gypsum caves is reported systematically, and the disti...

  9. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  10. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  11. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  12. A world review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlpine Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds that have been found in natural solution caves and mines worldwide. Such habitats provide frequent roost sites for bats, and in eastern North America the environmental conditions that support white-nose syndrome, a lethal fungal disease currently devastating bat populations. A list of 1029 species of fungi, slime moulds, and yeasts in 518 genera have been documented from caves and mines worldwide in 225 articles. Ascomycota dominate the cave environment. Most research has been conducted in temperate climates, especially in Europe. A mean of 17.9±24.4SD fungal species are reported per study. Questions remain about the origin and ecological roles of fungi in caves, and which, if any, are cave-specialists. In the northern hemisphere, caves are generally characterized by relatively stable, low temperatures and a lack of organic substrates. This environment favors communities of oligotrophic, psychrotolerant fungi. Data that may help explain how cave environmental features and faunas inf luence the introduction and transmission of cave fungi remains scant.

  13. Underground pressure study in longwall top-coal caving mining with light supports during residual mining%残采轻放面矿压显现规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迁; 李洪武; 马昌格; 贾光胜

    2000-01-01

    Author studies the feature of underground pressure and the law of top-coal movement in residual mining panel at No.3 seam, and analyses the adaptability of supports by means of measuring the support load and surveying the moving of base point in deep hole.%采用支护阻力测定、深孔基点观测等手段,对3#煤层残采区工作面开采的矿压显现特征、顶煤移动规律进行研究,对支架适应性等进行分析。

  14. Caves; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caves form the most extensive underground area in Earth crust. They are characterised by specific natural traits such as genesis, morphology, sinter filling, underground streams and lakes, speleoclimatic pattern, cave fauna, etc. Two types of caves are discerned: primeval-caves, which were generated along with the genesis of rocks and secondary, which were formed after the genesis of rocks under the effect of exogenous processes. The karstic caves are the most spectacular and largest caves. The area of karst territory (formed normally by different classes of limestone and dolomite rocks) in Slovakia is more than 2,700 km2. The map was compiled pursuing the List of Caves in Slovakia as of 31 December 1998 issued by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. The central register and documentation is in responsibility of the Slovak Museum of Nature Conservation and Speleology in Liptovsky Mikulas. This List has been prepared in co-operation with the team of employees of the Museum, Slovak Speleological Society, volunteers and other contributors. The List does not comprise the areas of anthropogenic origin and 3,946 caves are ordered by geomorphological units in alphabet order with quoted cadaster and district, sea level altitude of the entrance, length and depth of the cave system, genetic type, class of rocks, etc. More than 120 caves occur in other than karstic rocks. Pursuing the Act of the National Council of the SR No. 287/1944 on nature and landscape protection, caves represent natural monuments under the highest, i.e. fifth level of protection, while the most important ones were designated national nature monuments by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. The presented occurrence of caves was processed according to quantitative indicators in geomorphological units. (authors)

  15. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coate...

  16. Candoluminescence of cave gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet John R.; Hess John W.; White William B.

    2010-01-01

    A selection of gypsum specimens from a variety of caves as well as CaSO4 synthesized in the laboratory emit both a green and yellow candoluminescence when excited by a hydrogen diffusion flame. The green emission is attributed to dehydration of gypsum to bassanite and the yellow emission appears upon further dehydration to anhydrite. The source of the luminescence is ascribed to minor concentrations of Mn2+ in the gypsum.

  17. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.

    2006-01-01

    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  18. Recognition of microclimate zones through radon mapping, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations range from less than 185 to 3,515 Bq m-3 throughout Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Concentrations in the entrance passages and areas immediately adjacent to these passages are controlled by outside air temperature and barometric pressure, similar to other Type 2 caves. Most of the cave is developed in three geographic branches beneath the entrance passages; these areas maintain Rn levels independent of surface effects, an indication that Rn levels in deep, complex caves or mines cannot be simply estimated by outside atmospheric parameters. These deeper, more isolated areas are subject to convective ventilation driven by temperature differences along the 477-m vertical extent of the cave. Radon concentrations are used to delineate six microclimate zones (air circulation cells) throughout the cave in conjunction with observed airflow data. Suspected surface connections contribute fresh air to remote cave areas demonstrated by anomalous Rn lows surrounded by higher values, the presence of mammalian skeletal remains, CO2 concentrations and temperatures lower than the cave mean, and associated surficial karst features

  19. Microscopic fungi isolated from cave air and sediments in the Nerja Cave - preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema, 2014, s. 239-245. ISBN 978-1-138-02694-0 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microscopic fungi * cave air * cave sediments * Nerja Cave Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. 特厚煤层综放工作面区段煤柱合理宽度研究%Study on Rational Width of Sectional Coal Pillar Applied to Fully-Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining Face in Ultra Thick Seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰奕文

    2014-01-01

    针对塔山矿特厚煤层综放工作面与回采巷道对头施工过程中面临的区段煤柱合理宽度留设、回采动压影响范围确定等问题,采用理论分析、数值模拟及现场应力实测等手段对特厚煤层综放采场覆岩断裂结构、区段煤柱应力分布及区段煤柱合理宽度进行研究。采空区一侧煤体应力,应力剧烈影响范围30~35 m。煤柱应力现场实测表明,相邻工作面回采期间应力沿煤柱宽度大致呈单峰型、非对称分布,应力高峰区距8210回风巷21~30 m、距8208采空区8~17 m,采空区顶板运动稳定滞后距离120~130 m。结果表明,塔山矿特厚煤层综放面对头施工条件下留设38 m煤柱是安全的,从煤柱应力分布角度分析煤柱宽度可减小至30~32 m。%According to the sectional coal pillar rational width applied,mining dynamic influence scope determination and other problems occurred in a face to face construction process of fully-mechanized top coal caving mining face and a mining gateway in ultra thick seam of Tashan Mine,the theoretical analysis,numerical simulation,site stress measurement and other means were applied to study the breaking structure of an overburden strata,stress distribution of the sectional coal pillar and rational width of the sectional coal pillar. The stress in one side of the coal seam in the goaf had a serious influence scope of 30~35 m.The site measurement of the coal pillar stress showed dur-ing a mining period of an adjacent coal mining face,along the coal pillar width,the stress was in a unimodal asymmetric distribution,stress peak zone had a distance of 21~30 m to No.8210 air retuning gateway and had a distance of 8~17 m to No.8208 goaf and the roof move-ment in the goaf was stabilized with a delay distance of over 120~130 m.The study results showed that under the condition of the face to face to construction of the fully-mechanized top coal caving mining face in ultra thick seam of Tashan

  1. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  2. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  3. Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law

    OpenAIRE

    Weijian Yu; Bo Xu; Tao Feng; Xinyuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies) coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method a...

  4. The Caves of Naica: a decade of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)

  5. Exposure to radon in Cuban tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective of estimating the dose, due to Radon-222, received by tour guides and other people who work inside some of the most important tourist caves in the Republic of Cuba, measurements of radon concentrations were carried out in four of these caves: Santo Tomas Cave, Tapiada Cave, Del Indio Cave and Jose Miguel Cave. All these caves are located in the Vinales Valley (Pinar del Rio City), a very important tourist area in the country. The relationship among radon concentration, the concentration of natural radionuclides inside the caves and the geologic characteristics of the specific locations was analyzed. In order to select the most appropriates measurement places, different criteria were taken into account: representatives points of the geology of the caves, level of gamma radiation, exchange of air, places of work inside the caves (cafeterias, restaurants and shops) and places more frequently visited by tour guides. The maximum radon concentration was found in Jose Miguel Cave with a value of 220 Bq/m3. The measurement of gamma dose rate inside the caves was carried out with a scintillation detector type Scintrex BGS-3 previously calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The radon concentrations were measured with the equipment Alpha Guard PQ2000/MC50 and SARAD RM2000, both also calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The obtained results indicated that, in the studied caves, the annual dose is not greater than 1 mSv considering a work year of 2000 hours. (author)

  6. The future of the CAVE

    KAUST Repository

    DeFanti, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  7. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  8. Yukonite from the Grotta della Monaca cave, Sant'Agata di Esaro, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Anna; Pinto, Daniela; Vurro, Filippo;

    2009-01-01

    We report the first Italian occurrence of yukonite, a rare hydrated arsenate of calcium and ferric iron, from Grotta della Monaca cave, S. Agata di Esaro, Cosenza, Italy. We have studied samples of cotype yukonite from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada, for comparison. At Grotta della Monaca, yukon...

  9. 3N Cave: Longest salt cave in the world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.; Vilhelm, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2006), s. 10-18. ISSN 0027-7010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt cave * salt karst * Iran * expedition Namak Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  11. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652. ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  12. Numerical simulation on the delivery law of gob gas of fully mechanized caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-gang; ZHANG Wei; LIN Hai-fei

    2008-01-01

    According to the cover rock caving features, the gob of fully mechanized cavingface was divided into 3 zones: natural collected zone, pressure effecting zone and pressstable zone. Based on these and the gob gas flow control equation, and considered the in-fluence to the mining fissured zone of gas drainage, also made use of CFD software, wefound an not uniform 3D numerical model of gob gas seepage and got the gas emissionlaw in gob of fully mechanized caving face (with or without discharge measures), and thiscan guide the engineering practice in some aspects.

  13. DELINEATING KARST RECHARGE AREAS AT ONONDAGA CAVE STATE PARK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onondaga Cave State Park is located in the north central portion of the Ozarks near Leasburg, Missouri. The park is known for two extensive cave systems, Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave. Both of these cave systems have active streams (1-2 cfs at baseflow) which have unknown recharge areas. As a man...

  14. A brief history of exploration in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechuguilla Cave, a complex three-dimensional cave with a single known entrance, is located in remote desert terrain in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, in southeastern New Mexico, USA. The Guadalupe Mountains there contain uplifted limestone and dolomite rock in the Permian-age Capitan Reef complex. Hundreds of caves have been found in this region, but Lechuguilla Cave greatly exceeds the size of all others known. It was only a small pit mined for bat guano in the early twentieth century. In the 1970s the Cave Research Foundation performed digs at the bottom, where profuse air movement had been noted in the debris. This work ceased but another team of cavers visited in 1984, hearing and feeling the significant air, and began a digging project approved by the Park. The cavers dug into continuing passage in 1986. It was explored in three major branches, generally trending west/southwest to east/northeast, parallel to the reef face, with north-south connections along deep rift features. Depositional and corrosional events during sulfuric-acid speleogenesis created remarkable speleothems and speleogenesis, and the cave has often been called the Jewel of the Underground. The rapidly growing cave passed 80 km of surveyed length by 1990. Within the first ten years of exploration, 28 large-scale expeditions led to the cave reaching 113 km in length. From 1997 to 2013, 109 additional kilometers were mapped with smaller teams of up to 12 cavers per expedition. Exploration and mapping is now done in three to five expeditions per year, and recent work has focused on climbs and smaller leads such as tight crawls and fissures that were previously passed. Significant discoveries continue to be found using these techniques. The cave reaches a depth of 475 m and has been mapped to over 222 km in length. Exploration to the extreme ends is efficiently done with multi-day expeditions, using established camps in each branch. Cavers from the United States and dozens of other countries

  15. Behaviors of overlying strata in extra-thick coal seams using top-coal caving method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidents such as support failure and excessive deformation of roadways due to drastic changes in strata behaviors are frequently reported when mining the extra-thick coal seams Nos. 3–5 in Datong coal mine with top-coal caving method, which significantly hampers the mine's normal production. To understand the mechanism of strata failure, this paper presented a structure evolution model with respect to strata behaviors. Then the behaviors of strata overlying the extra-thick coal seams were studied with the combined method of theoretical analysis, physical simulation, and field measurement. The results show that the key strata, which are usually thick-hard strata, play an important role in overlying movement and may influence the mining-induced strata behaviors in the working face using top-coal caving method. The structural model of far-field key strata presents a “masonry beam” type structure when “horizontal O-X” breakage type happens. The rotational motion of the block imposed radial compressive stress on the surrounding rock mass of the roadway. This can induce excessive deformation of roadway near the goaf. Besides, this paper proposed a pre-control technology for the hard roof based on fracture holes and underground roof pre-splitting. It could effectively reduce stress concentration and release the accumulated energy of the strata, when mining underground coal resources with top-coal caving method.

  16. Model of strata structure over coal face with fully mechanised, sub-level caving and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    1996-12-31

    By analysing the rule of strata movement over the coal face with fully mechanised caving, this paper presents the structure of voussoir beam combined with semi-arch as the basic strata structure over the coal face with fully mechanised caving, and analyses the stability of the structure. Based on the analysis of stiffness and mechanical characteristics of supporting system of the face surrounding rock, the paper establishes the model of strata structure over the coal face with fully mechanised caving. The deformation feature of the bed layer and the influence of semi-arch structure is fully considered by this model. The model may be used to explain strata behaviour in the mining process of fully mechanised caving. The paper also introduces the application of the model to selecting and designing supports. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo

    2010-01-01

    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  18. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.; Burri Ezio

    2000-01-01

    The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the ...

  19. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the ...

  20. Utilization of Bellae Prehistory Cave Complex

    OpenAIRE

    supriadi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is located in South Sulawesi. Bellae has rich archaeological heritage that make this cave complex important as cultural resource in South Sulawesi as well as in Indonesia generally. Nowadays, the Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is threatened by the local population as the sites are close to settlement. Furthermore, its archaeological potentials as well as the uniqueness of the complex which is situated in karstic area have attracted many parties to...

  1. Cave of the Astronomers at Xochicalco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Arnold

    The chimney built in the roof of the artificial large cave at Xochicalco, known as "Cave of the astronomers", has been interpreted as a solar zenithal observation tube. Nevertheless, different elements and especially the latitude of the site itself led the author to present a lunar hypothesis. Precise measurements of the impact of light inside the cave show the degree of precision that can be obtained in this camera obscura.

  2. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  3. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  4. Radon exposure, chromosomal aberrations, and genetic polymorphisms in selected Slovak cave workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of work was genotoxic risk assessment of the Slovak show cave workers employed by the Slovak Caves Administration in Liptovsky Mikulas. They are guides or administrators of the four Slovak show caves: Vazecka, Demanovska, Bystrianska, and Harmanecka. We examined 51 workers exposed to radon, with average age 35.64 years ± 6.63 (SD) and average exposition time 9.78 years ± 6.27 (SD). They are 43 men (i.e. 84.31 %) and 9 women (i.e. 15.69 %). The control group consisted of 32 healthy workers from Faculty Hospital in Martin. The workers were not exposed to any genotoxic agents. The average age is 31.84 years ± 5.84(SD). From every subject we evaluated 100 mitosis, i.e. 5100 mitosis from exposed workers and 3200 mitosis from control subjects. In exposed group we found in 111 cells chromosomal aberrations, this present 2.18 % Ab.c. ± 0.19 (SEM), and in control 1st group 1.53 % ± 0.16 (SEM). There are 106 breaks (95.50%), and 5 exchanges (4.50%) on chromosomes. The highest number of Ab.c. we detected in workers of Vazecka (2.63 % Ab.c) and Bystrianska (2.00 % Ab.c.) caves. There is a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of Ab.c. in workers of cave Vazecka as compared to control. In 15 cases (i.e. 28.30 %) we found increase or high exposure to genotoxic agents, we found any difference between sex, and any dependence of the number of Ab.c. on age and time of exposure. The Vazecka cave workers showed three times higher mean effective doses all the year round (milliSievert) than workers additional caves. The measured values of radiation in the caves and mines exceeded the permissible limits and Regional Hygienist of the Central Slovakia declared in 1981 the risk zones and, at the same time, the monitoring of working atmosphere was initiated. Our evaluations referred to certain exposition of this carcinogen in cave workers too. The essence of prevention is based in the lowering of ionizing radiation and improvement of the sanitary-technical component

  5. Acadian biospeleology: composition and ecology of cave fauna of Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley Max

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate and invertebrate fauna, environment and habitats of caves and disused mines in Nova Scotia and southern NewBrunswick are provisionally catalogued and described, based on field collections made over many years. The area was glaciatedand the subterranean fauna consists of non-troglobites all of which have arrived and colonised the caves during or following finalrecession of the Pleistocene glaciers. The statistical composition of the fauna at the higher taxonomic level is similar to that inOntario, but is less species rich and there are some notable ecological and other differences. Porcupine dung accumulations are animportant habitat in the region, constituting a cold-temperate analogue of the diverse guano habitats of southern and tropical caves.Parietal assemblages are, as in other cold temperate regions, an important component of the invertebrate fauna but here includespecies derived directly from dung communities: another parallel with tropical guano caves. An unanticipated finding is the numberof non-indigenous species now utilising local caves. These appear to have colonised unfilled ecological niches, suggesting thatpost-glacial recolonisation of the subterranean habitat in Nova Scotia has been relatively delayed. Finally the general and regionalsignificance of the subterranean fauna is briefly discussed.

  6. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  7. Rational cutting height for large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Bingxiang; Li Hongtao; Liu Changyou; Xing Shijun; Xue Weichao

    2011-01-01

    Large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving is a new mining method that improves recovery ratio and single-pass production.It also allows safe and efficient mining.A rational cutting height is one key parameter of this technique.Numerical simulation and a granular-media model experiment were used to analyze the effect of cutting height on the rock pressure of a fully mechanized top-coal caving work face.The recovery ratio was also studied.As the cutting height increases the top-coal thickness is reduced.Changing the ratio of cutting to drawing height intensifies the face pressure and the top-coal shattering.A maximum cutting height exists under a given set of conditions due to issues with surrounding rock-mass control.An increase in cutting height makes the top-coal cave better and the recovery ratio when drawing top-coal is then improved.A method of adjusting the face rock pressure is presented.Changing the cutting to drawing height ratio is the technique used to control face rock pressure.The recovery ratio when cutting coal exceeds that when caving top-coal so the face recovery ratio may be improved by over sizing the cutting height and increasing the top-coal drawing ratio.An optimum ratio of cutting to drawing height exists that maximizes the face recovery ratio.A rational cutting height is determined by comprehensively considering the surrounding rock-mass control and the recovery ratio.At the same time increasing the cutting height can improve single pass mining during fully mechanized top-coal caving.

  8. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  9. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L

    2008-05-01

    Caves can be difficult to navigate and often require physical modification to allow easy access for visitors. Single entrance caves double the access impact of each visitor. Visitors in tourist caves have direct physical effects such as the introduction of concrete and steel structures; transport of mud, dust, and nutrients; installation of lights and the exhalation of water vapour and carbon dioxide into the air. Indirect physical effects include alteration of the microclimate, both through physical modifications that change the ventilation regime and through the presence of visitors leading to changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 within the cave environment. Anthropomorphic changes to cave physical environments to aid access or to reduce backtracking can have adverse effects on the internal microclimate of cave systems with subsequent changes to the cave environment affecting the quality of decorations and cave art and the diversity of cave fauna. Although often stated that caves operate at or near a constant temperature, closer examination indicates that cave temperatures are neither static nor constant. The degree of variation depends largely on the structure and physical characteristics of the cave. Air temperature and humidity gradients between the inside and outside cave environment can result in air density differences, which create airflow, which will in turn affect the cave microclimate. As part of the development of a management framework for King Solomons Cave, Tasmania, a study of the microclimate was carried out on behalf of Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Analysis of the variables showed significant differences in air temperature within each site and between sites. These differences range from 4 degrees C variation at one site to 0 degrees C at another site. The data were used to model potential airflow between the cave and the external environment. Results indicate that part of the cave is dominated by airflow between the chimney and the

  10. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km2. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  11. Speleogenesis of Selected Caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and Caves of Fenglin Karst in Qiubei, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanka (S)EBELA; Tadej SLABE; LIU Hong; Petr PRUNER

    2004-01-01

    Yunnan is famous for its attractive karst landscapes especially shilins, fengcong and fenglin. The development of caves beneath the shilins in the vicinity of Lunan is closely connected with the formation of shilins. Most of the waters percolating through shilins run through the caves beneath them and are responsible for their formation. The study of cave speleogenesis deepens knowledge about both the development of shilins and karst structure. In the vicinity of the Lunan Shilin, speleological, morphological and structural geological studies of four karst caves have been accomplished. At Puzhehei, Qiubei, which is characterised by numerous fenglin, fengcong and caves, speleological and morphological studies have been performed. Cave sediments for paleomagnetic analyses have been taken from all studied areas (samples CH 1-9). Karst caves in SE Yunnan are probably much older than the age of the cave sediments (<780,000 years B.P.). The studied areas are located in the vicinity of the Xiaojiang fault (N-S direction) and the Red River fault (NW-SE direction). The general directions of both active faults are assumed to influence the direction of the most frequent fissures as well as the cave passages near the Lunan Shilin. The Xiaojiang fault more strongly influences cave passage orientation, while the more distant Red River fault most strongly influences fissure orientation.

  12. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information disclosure... individual or organization assisting the land managing agency with cave management activities. To request... risk to cave resources of harm, theft, or destruction. (b) Requesting confidential...

  13. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ball Andrew S.; Kirby Greg; Bourne Steven; Cao Xiangsheng; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard Ramin; Adetutu Eric M.; Shahsavari Esamaeil; Thorpe Krystal

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits) and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access). Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey ...

  14. Does the Cave Environment Reduce Functional Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Camile Sorbo; Batalha, Marco Antonio; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2016-01-01

    Caves are not colonised by all taxa present in the surface species pool, due to absence of light and the tendency to food limitation when compared to surface communities. Under strong species sorting during colonisation and later by the restrictive environmental filter, traits that are not adaptive in subterranean habitats may be filtered out. We tested whether cave communities were assembled by the restrictive regime propitiated by permanent darkness or by competitive exclusion due to resource scarcity. When compared to surface communities, the restrictive subterranean regime would lead to lower functional diversity and phenotypic clustering inside the caves, and the opposite should be expected in the case of competitive exclusion. Using isopods (Oniscidea) as model taxa, we measured several niche descriptors of taxa from surface and cave habitats, used a multivariate measure of functional diversity, and compared their widths. We found phenotypic overdispersion and higher functional diversity in cave taxa when compared to surface taxa. On the one hand, the dry climate outside of caves hampered the survival of several taxa and their ecological strategies, not viable under severe desiccation risk, culminating in the clustering of functional traits. In contrast, this restriction does not occur inside of caves, where isopods find favourable conditions under lower predation pressures and more amenable environmental parameters that allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Our results showed that, at least for some taxa, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought. The high functional diversity we found inside caves adds an additional reason for the conservation of these sensitive environments. PMID:27003837

  15. Dose assessment from radon in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon measurements in tourist caves have traditionally being used in the studies of conservation of existent prehistoric artistic manifestations inside cavities. This kind of measurements can provide the grade, and partly the dynamics, of ventilation and renovation of the air of the caves. On the other hand, since 2001, Spanish law incorporated EURATOM basic standards for radiological protection, which include a request at the EC Member States to determine the working places on which exposure to natural radiation is significant. On Title VII (BOE 178/2001) radiation coming from natural sources has analogous role than radiation emitted from artificial ones used to. Because of the low ventilation rates existing at tourist caves, indoor radon concentration can be significantly high. In developed caves in which guides provide tours for the general public great care is needed for taking remedial actions concerning radon, because in some circumstances forced ventilation may alter the humidity inside the cave affecting some of the formations or paintings that attract tourists. Tourist guides can work about 1900 hours per year, so the only option to protect them and other cave workers from radon exposure is to apply an appropriate system of radiation protection mainly based on limitation of exposure by restricting the amount of time spent in the cave. From a previous radon measurement campaign carried out in caves at the region of Cantabria (Spain), those with higher concentration values were selected for a new survey. In this study more detailed radon measurements were performed in order to get more detailed information about monthly concentration variations, as well to determine the dose received by people working there. In dose assessment, specific characteristics of the cave concerning the behaviour of radon and its decay products are of main importance. Factors like unattached progeny fraction (fp), equilibrium factor (F) and particle concentration (Z) are

  16. Selection of technological parameters in borehole mining production by technical deep drilling and hydroexploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic Vladimir; Pinka Ján; Dimitrijevic Bojan

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows the estimate technological parameters for borehole hydro-production of sand by technical deep drilling slim well differently diameters, where are determinate calculation of radius of jet for selects hydro-monitor, the effect of hydro-caving, caving capacity, hydro-transport of pulp and drawings of the most important parts of necessary equipment for exploitation at the mining field exemplified by experimental borerhole hydro-mining of underlying quartz sand at surface open pit...

  17. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  18. Dating of processes in karst and caves implication for show caves prezentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel

    Liptovský Mikuláš: International Show Caves Association, 2011 - (Bella, P.; Gažík, P.), s. 34-41 ISBN 978-80-89310-59-3. [Congress International Show Caves Association /6./. Demänovská Valley (SK), 18.10.2010-23.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : karst * speleogenesis * karst sediments * dating methods * geochronology * show caves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. NAK WP-Cave project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WP-Cave is designed as an egg-shaped underground structure for intermediate storing and final disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Its height, when storing 1600 tonnes of spent fuel, is about 250 m and its diameter 110 m at mid-height. The waste storage has a compact layout and is surrounded by two engineered barriers. The innermost one is a 5 m-wide shield consisting of a mixture of bentonite clay and same which has a low hydraulic conductivity. This shield is surrounded by a so-called hydraulic cage, which initially drains the storage rock mass and, in the long-term diverts, the ground water flow past the storage. In this way an initial dry supervision period can be maintained. After sealing-off the storage and after water-filling, a stagnant chemical environment is established inside the bentonite-sand barrier preventing the disposed waste from being dissolved and from migrating to the geosphere. The programme, as outlined by the Project Board, has considered R and D questions with specific relation to the WP-Cave such as: properties of low-graded bentonite mixtures, function of the hydraulic cage, full-face boring of the storage, geomechanics of the storage and the bentonite-sand barrier, dry ventilation of the storage, temperature distributions and thermal stresses. An initial safety analysis has also been conducted. The hydraulic conductivity of low-grade bentonite mixtures has been measured in laboratory tests and found to be higher than expected. Tests of gas conductivity, for instance, confirm that only low gas pressures would build up inside the bentonite-sand barrier. The initial safety analysis indicates that a compact storage, such as that presented, would allow for the safe isolation of the spent nuclear fuel and would fulfull the radiation protection criterion of 0.1 mSv/year. With 27 refs. (Author)

  20. PERISCOPE: PERIapsis Subsurface Cave OPtical Explorer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar sub-surface exploration has been a topic of discussion since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter identified openings (cave skylights) on the surface of the moon...

  1. Application of fractal theory to top-coal caving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiences of underground coal mining in China show that coal in a thick hard coal seam with a hard roof, the so-called 'double hard coal seam', is difficult to be excavated by top-coal caving technique. In order to solve the problem, a top-coal weakening technique is proposed in this paper. In the present study, fractal geometry provides a new description of the fracture mechanism for blasting. By means of theoretical analysis of the relationship between the fractal dimension of blasting fragments and the dynamite specific energy, a mechanical model for describing the size distribution of top-coal and the dissipation of blasting energy is proposed. The theoretical results are in agreement with laboratory and in situ test results. Moreover, it is shown that the fractal dimension of coal fragments can be used as an index for optimizing the blasting parameters for a top-coal weakening technique

  2. Is it always dark in caves?

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not use...

  3. Tree-mould caves in Slovakia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaal Ludovit

    2003-01-01

    Four tube-shaped caves are described in this work, which origined in consequence of weathering the trees. Their length ranges from 5.8 to 17 m. All of them occur in neovolcanic rocks of Middle Slovakia, in epiclastic andesite conglomerates, breccias or in the tuffs. Some other caverns are close to the entrance of this caves, however they are inaccessible for a man. Thin rim of silicates (opal or chalcedony) occurs in some of them.

  4. Martel's routes in Mammoth cave, Kentucky, 1912.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Trevor R.

    2003-01-01

    Martel’s own copy of the Hovey 1912 guidebook to Mammoth Cave has his routes marked faintly in pencil on the printed cave plans. These plans are reproduced here, with his routes indicated on them. He generally followed the four standard tourist routes which now included Kaemper’s 1908 discoveries to Violet City, but instead of visiting the Maelstrom he went to Hovey’s Cathedral and Gerta’s Grotto.

  5. Magnetic Record in Cave Sediments: A Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2011 - (Petrovský, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Harinarayana, T.; Ivers, D.), s. 343-360. (IAGA special Sopron book series. Volume 1). ISBN 978-94-007-0322-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk MEB090908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * cave clastic sediments * speleothems * cave depositional systems Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  6. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  7. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  8. Influence of different mining layouts on the mechanical properties of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie; Heping; Zhao; Xiaoping; Liu; Jianfeng; Zhang; Ru; Xue; Dongjie

    2012-01-01

    Non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining are the most popular mining methods in coal exploitation,and the different mining layouts will change the stress state and failure mechanism of coal in front of the working face.In this paper,mining-induced mechanical behaviors under three mining layouts have been simulated in the laboratory to investigate the effects of mining layouts on the deformation and strength of coal.Furthermore,the coal failure mechanism under different mining layouts is analyzed microscopically.The experimental results indicate that the stage characteristics of the coal deformation are obvious.Under the serial action of non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining layouts,the values of radial deformation,volume strain and Poisson's ratio increase,while the peak strength and deformation modulus decrease at the same buried depth,and the peak strength under non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining is about 3.0,2.5 and 2.0 times of the initial confining pressure,respectively.The results also indicate that the trend of the coal deformation decreases with the increase of the buried depth under the same mining layout,while the strength and deformation modulus increase,and the failure mechanism under three mining layouts is dominated with shear/tensile failure.

  9. Influence Of different mining layouts on the mechanical properties of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Heping; Zhao Xiaoping; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Ru; Xue Dongjie

    2012-01-01

    Non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining are the most popular mining methods in coal exploitation,and the different mining layouts will change the stress state and failure mechanism of coal in front of the working face.In this paper,mining-induced mechanical behaviors under three mining layouts have been simulated in the laboratory to investigate the effects of mining layouts on the deformation and strength of coal.Furthermore,the coal failure mechanism under different mining layouts is analyzed microscopically.The experimental results indicate that the stage characteristics of the coal deformation are obvious.Under the serial action of non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining layouts,the values of radial deformation,volume strain and Poisson's ratio increase,while the peak strength and deformation modulus decrease at the same buried depth,and the peak strength under non-pillar mining,top-coal caving and protected coal seam mining is about 3.0,2.5 and 2.0 times of the initial confining pressure,respectively.The results also indicate that the trend of the coal deformation decreases with the increase of the buried depth under the same mining layout,while the strength and deformation modulus increase,and the failure mechanism under three mining layouts is dominated with shear/tensile failure.

  10. Lights and shadows on the conservation of a rock art cave: The case of Lascaux Cave.

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian Fabiola; Alabouvette Claude

    2009-01-01

    Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940. Twenty years after the first microbial contamination signs appeared. In the last forty years thecave suffered different fungal invasions. Here we discuss the past, present and future of the cave and the conservation of its rock artpaintings to the light of data obtained using culture-dependent and –independent methods.

  11. Time recorded in cave deposits - 10 Years of paleomagnetic research in Slovenian caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2007), s. 242-242. ISSN 0583-6050. [Time in karst. 14.03.2007-18.03.2007, Postojna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave deposits * karst * paleomagnetism * Slovenian caves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA; El sistema de la Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km{sup 2}. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  13. The Caves of Naica: a decade of research; Las Cuevas de Naica: una decada de investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazquez, F.; Calaforra, J. M.; Porti, P.; Badino, G.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)

  14. The show cave of Diros vs. wild caves of Peloponnese, Greece - distribution patterns of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Lamprinou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The karst cave ‘Vlychada’of Diros, one of the oldest show caves in Peloponnese, sustains extended phototrophic biofilms on various substrata – on rocks inside the cave including speleothems, and especially near the artificial lighting installation (‘Lampenflora’. After a survey of the main abiotic parameters (Photosynthetically Active Radiation -PAR, Temperature -T, Relative Humidity -RH, Carbon Dioxide -CO2 three clusters of sampling sites were revealed according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA: i the water gallery section predominately influenced by CO2, ii the dry passages influenced by RH and PAR, and iii the area by the cave exit at the dry section influenced by temperature. The collected samples from the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave revealed a total of 43 taxa of Cyanobacteria, with the unicellular/colonial forms being the most abundant. The applied non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling Ordination (nMDS of the cumulative species composition showed a clear distinction between the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave. Further comparison with previous data from other wild caves of Peloponnese (‘Kastria’, ‘Francthi’, and ‘Selinitsa’ was conducted revealing a distinction between the show cave and the wild ones. Apart from the human impact on cave ecosystems – through aesthetic alteration (‘greening’ of cave decorations by the ‘Lampenflora’, and by the cleaning treatments and restoration projects on the speleothems – identification of the organisms constituting the ‘Lampenflora’ might provide taxonomically and ecologically significant taxa.

  15. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

  16. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  17. Habitat Management Plan for Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Logan Cave NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Logan Cave NWR, to...

  18. Stability analysis of subgrade cave roofs in karst region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 赵明华; 曹文贵

    2008-01-01

    According to the engineering features of subgrade cave roof in karst region, the clamped beam model of subgrade cave roof in karst region was set up. Based on the catastrophe theory, the cusp catastrophe model for bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof and safe thickness of subgrade cave roof in karst region was established. The necessary instability conditions of subgrade cave roof were deduced, and then the methods to determine safe thickness of cave roofs under piles and bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof were proposed. At the same time, a practical engineering project was applied to verifying this method, which has been proved successfu1ly. At last, the major factors that affect the stability on cave roof under pile in karst region were deeply discussed and some results in quality were acquired.

  19. Undersafe: Monitoring safety parameters in touristic mines and caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcerisa, David; Sanmiquel, Lluís; Alfonso, Pura; Oliva, Josep

    2014-05-01

    Tourism is a key sector of the European economy, generating more than 5% of the EU GPD (Gross Domestic Product). Usually, underground touristic sites receive non-expert visitors; nevertheless these activities are poorly regulated or completely deregulated. Nowadays, safety is provided by underground expert professionals whom proceed to regular inspections and by basic safety infrastructures. Even with these measures, some potential personal and environmental dangers are always present and cannot be totally avoided. Therefore, there is a clear need of a new technological product for safety and environmental continuous monitoring of tourist underground attractions. So, the aim of the Undersafe project is to provide underground attractions with a novel and specifically tailored monitoring system, easy to use and maintain. One of the goals of the Undersafe project is to develop a rock falling detection based on a set of cost limited vibration sensors. Based on the technical needs, but with cost constraints, different types of potential sensors are considered: Underground microphone: It is placed in the surface or in the underground. It is based on the consideration that the impact of the stone generates a ground impact vibration which can be understood as a "noise" that is received by a microphone capsule. Airborne sound sensing microphone: It similarly applies to underground use of the microphones, but now the microphone is tested as for its traditional use (I.e. air sound detection). In such case, the microphone detects the environmental noise produced by the impact of the stone falling onto the ground, which will include the impact sound of the stone. Geophone: It is the de facto standard for ground vibrations. Although this technology was initially discarded due to its high cost, recently, low cost geophones have appeared in the market that allows its use inside the underground attractions. Accelerometers: These, can have enough sensibility to act as vibration sensors. Although the costs of the most sensible ones are out of the limits needed for our purposes, but some non-expensive accelerometers will be tested in real environment. All these systems have been tested and it can be concluded that results have been positive for the following technologies: piezoelectric, Electret (airborne and underground) and geophone. On the contrary, accelerometer and movement sensor provided negative results. The most sensible sensor that we have found is Electret that, in turn, is the most sensitive one to out of ground environmental noise (relevant in order to discard surface vibrations effect). All sensors can provide detections in a range of 15m. Low cost rock falling detectors, in cercles of 30 m of diameter are feasible. Also detection for longer distances, up to 80 meters, is feasible, but not advisable for low-cost application. Aknowledgements: Undersafe is an European project under the auspices of the EU 7h Framework Program. EDMA Innovation S.L. deeply contributed to the development of this study.

  20. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo–devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo–devo cave animal model syste...

  1. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  2. Final critical habitat for the Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod...

  3. Final Critical Habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia...

  4. Palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments in Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    Prague : Czech Speleological Society, 2009. s. 53-54. ISBN 978-80-254-4928-8. [International Congress of Speleology /15./ : Karst Horizons. 11.07.2009-26.07.2009, Kerrville] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * caves * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. Age of Cave Sediments in Slovenia: Results of dating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2009), s. 171-171. ISSN 1337-6748 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * dating * palaeomagnetic method * magnetostratigraphy * cave sediments ( Slovenia ) * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  6. Metabolically active Crenarchaeota in Altamira Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan M; Portillo, M Carmen; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2006-01-01

    Altamira Cave contains valuable paleolithic paintings dating back to 15,000 years. The conservation of these unique paintings is attracting increasing interest, and so, understanding microbial proliferation in Altamira Cave represents a prioritary objective. Here, we show for the first time that members of the Crenarchaeota were metabolically active components of developing microbial communities. RNA was extracted directly from the studied environment, and a number of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the low-temperature Crenarchaeota were detected. Although low-temperature Crenarchaeota detected in a variety of ecosystems by using molecular techniques remain uncultured, this RNA-based study confirms an active participation of the Crenarchaeota in cave biogeochemical cycles. PMID:16292522

  7. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m-3. Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m-3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems and may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentration. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentration observed in this study and the implications for viable actions. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  8. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m-3. Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m-3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems, therefore, may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentrations. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentrations observed in this study and the implications for viable actions

  9. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa and volcanic caves in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Declan Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    This paper looks at the history of the Cave Exploration Group of East Africa with special reference to the exploration of volcanic caves. It demonstrates that the group has concentrated on two main areas, the Chyulu HiIls and Mt. Suswa, although other areas have also been studied. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa has had to cope with various problems. The most important of which are related to the socio-economic conditions of a developing country. These problems have not prevented th...

  10. Petrological Study as a Tool to Evaluate the Degradation of Speleothems in Touristic Caves, Castafiar de Ibor Cave, Caceres, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Rebeca; Martín Pérez, Andrea; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    In Castafiar cave the surface of most of the speleothems present dissolution and corrosion features. In touristic caves, this process has usually been related to the acidification of the atmospheric moisture caused by C02 from the breath of visitors. However, in Castafiar cave the process of corrosion has been also observed in rooms that are not visited by tourists. Petrological studies were carried out in the speleothems affected by surface corrosion in Castafiar cave. The res...

  11. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  12. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  13. CAVE-ohjelmiston kehitys Unity-pelimoottorille

    OpenAIRE

    Nivala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä kehitettiin ohjelmistolisäosat, joiden avulla Unity-pelimoottoria voidaan käyttää sisällön tuottamiseen Satavision-CAVE -järjestelmiin. Teoriaosassa tutkittiin kuinka CAVE-järjestelmä toimii ja miten sen vaatimat ominaisuudet olisi mahdollista toteuttaa Unity-pelimoottorilla. Käytännön osuus koostui vaadittavien lisäosien ohjelmoinnista. Lisäosien ominaisuuksina toteutettin virtuaalikameroiden perspektiivin korjaus, stereoskooppisen kuvan muodostus, käyttäjän optinen p...

  14. Is it always dark in caves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not used from underground life.

  15. The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, P.D.; Dennis, I. [Inst. for Groundwater Studies, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2010-07-01

    This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Atmospheric 222Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the 222Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of 222Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively

  17. MR imaging of the Meckel's cave: anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meckel's cave is a dural recess containing trigeminal nerve and ganglion, extending from the posterior fossa into the middle cranial fossa. Using MRI, internal architecture in the Meckel's cave can be discernible, even a small nodule within it can be detected. There are a wide spectrum of disease process occurring in and or in the vicinity of the Meckel's cave. Disease can be classified into pathology of the trigeminal nerve proper, within the trigeminal cistern and outside the trigeminmal cistern. These classification depending on the location will aid in interpretation of pathology of Meckel's cave. We will demonstrate the MR anatomy and various pathologies of the Meckel's cave.=20

  18. Study on gob-side entry retaining technique with roadside packing in longwall top-coal caving technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Xin-zhu(华心祝)

    2004-01-01

    Pointed out some technical difficulties of gob-side entry retaining with roadside packing in longwall top-coal caving technology (LTCT), and analyzed the function mechanism of roadside filling body. Theory analysis shows the mechanical properties of high water material fit for the feature of deformation of gob-side entry retaining in LTCT, and gob-side entry retaining in LTCT face is one of effective ways to increase the recovery ratio of mining district.

  19. Cave Features - MO 2006 Cave Density per 1:24,000 Quad (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This dataset contains the number of caves per 1:24,000 scale quadrangle (quad) in Missouri. Acknowledgement is made to the Missouri Speleological Society (MSS) for...

  20. Necessary prerequisites for the formation of caves to the surface in the caverns of the Morsleben radioactive waste repository (ERAM) and measures to avoid them. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment and operation of a repository require proof of the safe sealing of emplaced material against the biosphere also after discontinuance or containment and surveillance of the repository. In addition it has to be studied whether in a specific case caves to the surface can develop due to natural and/or tectogene conditions, which would create a connection between emplacement site and biosphere. Based on comparative considerations of the situation in the area of the mine repository and of potash and rock salt mines affected by caves to the surface, the hazards involved were assessed. The results of theoretical studies of the formation of earth subsidence in karst regions were also included into the above considerations, and conclusions were drawn for formation of caves to the surface in the area of the ERAM mines. (orig./HP)

  1. Radon measurements in the caves of Zonguldak (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are ∼20 caves of limestone origin in Zonguldak (Turkey). In this study, the results of atmospheric radon measurements performed for two caves are presented. These caves, Goekgoel and Cehennemagzi, are open to tourism. Goekgoel Cave is the longer, at nearly 3200 m in length. Cehennemagzi is a pit-type cave with a total length of 85 m. The radon measurements were performed for 2 months between July 2004 and September 2004 using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations were recorded as 1918.8 Bq m-3 in Goekgoel Cave and 657 Bq m-3 in Cehennemagzi Cave. The maximum value corresponds to a site located 400 m from the entrance of Goekgoel Cave. Mean effective dose values for tourists of 0.86 μSv per visit to Cehennemagzi Cave and 3.76 μSv to Goekgoel Cave were obtained. These results show that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for visitors to these two caves. (authors)

  2. Study of cave sediments in Budimirica Cave, Macedonia FYR – Correlation to late pleistocene environmental changes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Temovski, M.; Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Hercman, H.

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts ,, 2015 - (Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Gostinčar, P.). s. 150-151 ISBN 978-961-254-808-7. [International Karstological School Classical Karst /23./. 15.06.2015-19.06.2015, Postojna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Budimirica Cave * cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * Late Pleistocene * paleoenvironment Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://iks.zrc-sazu.si/datoteke/IKS-23-Guide-book-2015.pdf

  3. Magnetic fabric and mineralogy of cave deposits in Botovskaya Cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Hercman, H.; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Oberhänsli, H.; Osintsev, A.

    Vol. 3. Prague : Česká speleologická společnost, 2013 - (Filippi, M.; Bosák, P.), s. 96-98 ISBN 978-80-87857-09-0. [International Congress of Speleology /16./. Brno (CZ), 21.07.2013-28.07.2013] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * magnetic fabric * mineralogy * cave deposits Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  4. Food sources of selected terrestrial cave arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Nováková, Alena; Režňáková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-46. ISSN 1768-1448 Grant ostatní: Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * caves * Collembola * Diplopoda * feeding habits * Isopoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  5. Human remains from Geula Cave, Haifa

    OpenAIRE

    Arensburg, B

    2010-01-01

    Three human skeletal fragments were unearthed by Wreschner during archaeological excavations in the Mousterian cave of Geula, in Haifa, during the years 1958-1964. The remains and especially the frontal bone belong, according to their morphology, to an ancient Homo sapiens. These finds enhance the long term discussion on ancient sapiens and so-called Neanderthal relationships in the Levant.

  6. Data on the Limanu Cave mineralogy

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Dumitraş; Ştefan Marincea; Gabriel Diaconu

    2008-01-01

    By means of diphractometric X-rays analyses on powders, we emphasize an association of minerals in the Limanu Cave from South Dobrogea, made up of hydroxylapatite, brushite, calcite, gypsum and dolomite as the main minerals and quartz and illite as secondary minerals.

  7. The distribution of Radon concentration in caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentration in caves is known to vary within an extremely wide range. Here the distribution of the average values of radon concentration is examined and a power law describing is identified, i.e. radon concentration has a fractal dimension D=1.26. This fact means that concentrations are not grouped around a mean value, a characteristic common to many other phenomena.

  8. The antibiotic resistance in cave environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Petrásek, Jiří; Jirout, Jiří; Chroňáková, Alica; Kyselková, Martina; Volná, Lucie

    Košice : Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 2012. s. 41-42. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /21./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Košice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic resistance * cave environments Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Millipedes play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter in the subterranean environment. Despite the existence of several cave-adapted species of millipedes in adjacent geographic areas, their study has been largely ignored in Portugal. Over the last decade, intense fieldwork in ...

  10. Brief communication: beyond the South African cave paradigm--Australopithecus africanus from Plio-Pleistocene paleosol deposits at Taung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopley, Philip J; Herries, Andy I R; Baker, Stephanie Edwards; Kuhn, Brian F; Menter, Colin G

    2013-06-01

    Following the discovery of the "Taung Child" (Australopithecus africanus) in 1924 in the Buxton-Norlim Limeworks near Taung, the fossil-bearing deposits associated with the Dart and Hrdlička pinnacles have been interpreted as the mined remnants of cave sediments that formed within the Plio-Pleistocene Thabaseek Tufa: either as a younger cave-fill or as contemporaneous carapace caves. When combined with the Plio-Pleistocene dolomitic cave deposits from the "Cradle of Humankind," a rather restricted view emerges that South African early hominins derived from cave deposits, whereas those of east and central Africa are derived from fluvio-lacustrine and paleosol deposits. We undertook a sedimentological and paleomagnetic analysis of the pink-colored deposit (PCS) from which the "Taung Child" is purported to have derived and demonstrate that it is a calcrete, a carbonate-rich pedogenic sediment, which formed on the paleo-land surface. The deposit extends 100 s of meters laterally beyond the Dart and Hrdlička Pinnacles where it is interbedded with the Thabaseek Tufa, indicating multiple episodes of calcrete development and tufa growth. The presence of in situ rhizoconcretions and insect trace fossils (Celliforma sp. and Coprinisphaera sp.) and the distinctive carbonate microfabric confirm that the pink deposit is a pedogenic calcrete, not a calcified cave sediment. Paleomagnetic and stratigraphic evidence indicates that a second, reversed polarity, fossil-bearing deposit (YRSS) is a younger fissure-fill formed within a solutional cavity of the normal polarity tufa and pink calcrete (PCS). These observations have implications for the dating, environment, and taphonomy of the site, and increase the likelihood of future fossil discoveries within the Buxton-Norlim Limeworks. PMID:23633001

  11. Ground movements caused by deep underground mining in Guan-Zhuang iron mine, Luzhong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xiu; Wen, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Min

    2010-06-01

    It is difficult to calculate the accurate ground movement due to deep underground mining because of the complexity of the geotechnical environment. Guan-Zhuang iron mine is a pillarless sublevel caving mine operated by Luzhong Metallurgical Mining Company, south-east of Jinan, PR China. It mines the Zhangjiawa Seam at a depth of approximately 520 m. Although the towers are outside the conventional 'angle of draw' subsidence influence criteria, and have seen only negligible vertical displacement as a result of deep mining, there has been widespread evidence of regional horizontal displacement of the land surface, large distances away from the mining area. Possible explanations of these displacements include one or a combination of mechanisms such as pre-mining stress relaxation, regional joint patterns, soft rock strata, displacement toward active goaf areas. Luzhong Metallurgical Mining Company have been making precise measurements of distances near the shaft towers in the Guan-Zhuang iron mine since 2003. The results show horizontal displacements of up to 96 mm occur even when underground mining is about 0.8 km from the survey displacements. From an analysis of these and other survey results it is concluded that mining effects extend a long way from deep mining. The results also show that ground horizontal displacements are typically at least as great as the vertical component, that the maximum horizontal displacement occurs soon after undermining.

  12. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope (δ18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  13. Temperature as tracer of the hydraulic dynamic of an anchialine cave (coastal submerged cave) of Krka Estuary (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    A series of temperature, conductivity and water level loggers were used to characterize the hydraulic dynamic of a submerged cave (anchialine cave) in Krka Estuary. Litno Cave is a sub-horizontal gallery, less than 5 m in diameter and one meter below sea level. Apart from some sections that contain occasional air pockets under the ceiling, the cave is completely flooded. Outflow discharge through the cave is continuous during the year (>30 l/s). During several months vertical temperature profiles were measured in three locations inside the cave at 20, 60 and 100 m from the cave entrance, whereas another vertical profile was set in the estuary in front of the cave. Thermometers from the estuary measured thermal gradients to characterize position and evolution of the thermocline up to a depth of 3.5 m. Tides measured in the estuary are synchronous to those recorded in the cave and their amplitudes (20 to 40 cm in the estuary) are the same or smaller depending on cave outflow discharge. Records of cave water temperature show a non-linear response to tides due to the vertical displacement of the thermocline. During neap tides the thermocline was located in the aquifer below the cave, whereas during spring tides only thermometers in the top meter of the cave were not affected by the thermocline vertical displacement. After the first significant rains of the hydrological year, the freshwater contribution increased the cave outflow discharge by one order of magnitude. Thus, conductivity decreased in response to rains from 16000 ±1000 μS/cm to Project.

  14. Impacts of cave air ventilation and in-cave prior calcite precipitation on Golgotha Cave dripwater chemistry, southwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, Pauline C.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Griffiths, Alan; Baker, Andy; Meredith, Karina T.; Wood, Anne; McGuire, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem trace element chemistry is an important component of multi-proxy records of environmental change but a thorough understanding of hydrochemical processes is essential for its interpretation. We present a dripwater chemistry dataset (PCO2, alkalinity, Ca, SIcc, Mg and Sr) from an eight-year monitoring study from Golgotha Cave, building on a previous study of hydrology and dripwater oxygen isotopes (Treble et al., 2013). Golgotha Cave is developed in Quaternary aeolianite and located in a forested catchment in the Mediterranean-type climate of southwest Western Australia. All dripwaters from each of the five monitored sites become supersaturated with respect to calcite during most of the year when cave ventilation lowers PCO2 in cave air. In this winter ventilation mode, prior calcite precipitation (PCP) signals of increased Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in dripwater are attributed to stalactite deposition. A fast-dripping site displays less-evolved carbonate chemistry, implying minimal stalactite growth, phenomena which are attributed to minimal degassing because of the short drip interval (30 s). We employ hydrochemical mass-balance modelling techniques to quantitatively investigate the impact of PCP and CO2 degassing on our dripwater. Initially, we reverse-modelled dripwater solutions to demonstrate that PCP is dominating the dripwater chemistry at our low-flow site and predict that PCP becomes enhanced in underlying stalagmites. Secondly, we forward-modelled the ranges of solution Mg/Ca variation that potentially can be caused by degassing and calcite precipitation to serve as a guide to interpreting the resulting stalagmite chemistry. We predict that stalagmite trace element data from our high-flow sites will reflect trends in original dripwater solutes, preserving information on biogeochemical fluxes within our system. By contrast, stalagmites from our low-flow sites will be dominated by PCP effects driven by cave ventilation. Our poorly karstified system allows us

  15. The transport of CO2 into central Texas caves (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breecker, D.; Banner, J. L.; Larson, T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well established that CO2 is flushed out of caves by seasonal or synoptic temperature- and barometric pressure-driven ventilation. The mechanism by which CO2 is transported into caves is not as well studied and must be understood in order to quantify carbon (C) cycling through caves, soils and epikarst. Transport mechanisms into caves include gas and aqueous phase (i.e. drip-water) transport. We interpret δ13C values of cave-air CO2 and O2/Ar ratios of cave-air in order to distinguish between these transport mechanisms in three central Texas caves. Gas phase transport might allow cave-air to be used as a simple proxy for otherwise largely inaccessible epikarst air. Drip-water transport might allow measurements of individual drips to be scaled up to cave-integrated assessment of water flux, calcite precipitation, and degassing-related isotope fractionation using measurements of cave-air CO2. We start by assuming gas phase transport and then evaluate the consistency of the results. We apply to cave-air CO2 the theory for steady state soil CO2 transport, which involves mixing with atmospheric air and isotope fractionation by diffusion. This allows calculation of the C isotope composition of the reduced C source for cave-air CO2 (δ13Cr). Calculated cave-air δ13Cr values are consistent with observed soil δ13Cr values. For instance, where trees are evenly distributed at the surface, cave-air δ13Cr values (-24‰) remained within 1‰ of tree-dominated soil δ13Cr values and were 3.5 to 4.5 ‰ lower than grass-dominated soil δ13Cr values, suggesting that trees are the dominant C source. This internally consistent explanation suggests that CO2 diffuses and/or advects into these caves as a gas because aqueous transport into caves would likely result in different cave-air and soil δ13Cr values, as described next. The magnitude of the CO2(g) -HCO3-(aq) carbon isotope per mil fractionation factor is -8.4 ‰ at 20.5°C, the mean Inner Space Cavern drip

  16. A brief history of exploration in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, USA; Una historia abreviada de las exploraciones en la cueva Lechuguilla, Nuevo Mexico, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, J. T. M.; Davis, D. G.

    2016-07-01

    Lechuguilla Cave, a complex three-dimensional cave with a single known entrance, is located in remote desert terrain in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, in southeastern New Mexico, USA. The Guadalupe Mountains there contain uplifted limestone and dolomite rock in the Permian-age Capitan Reef complex. Hundreds of caves have been found in this region, but Lechuguilla Cave greatly exceeds the size of all others known. It was only a small pit mined for bat guano in the early twentieth century. In the 1970s the Cave Research Foundation performed digs at the bottom, where profuse air movement had been noted in the debris. This work ceased but another team of cavers visited in 1984, hearing and feeling the significant air, and began a digging project approved by the Park. The cavers dug into continuing passage in 1986. It was explored in three major branches, generally trending west/southwest to east/northeast, parallel to the reef face, with north-south connections along deep rift features. Depositional and corrosional events during sulfuric-acid speleogenesis created remarkable speleothems and speleogenesis, and the cave has often been called the Jewel of the Underground. The rapidly growing cave passed 80 km of surveyed length by 1990. Within the first ten years of exploration, 28 large-scale expeditions led to the cave reaching 113 km in length. From 1997 to 2013, 109 additional kilometers were mapped with smaller teams of up to 12 cavers per expedition. Exploration and mapping is now done in three to five expeditions per year, and recent work has focused on climbs and smaller leads such as tight crawls and fissures that were previously passed. Significant discoveries continue to be found using these techniques. The cave reaches a depth of 475 m and has been mapped to over 222 km in length. Exploration to the extreme ends is efficiently done with multi-day expeditions, using established camps in each branch. Cavers from the United States and dozens of other countries

  17. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed

  18. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  19. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m−3. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m−3. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration

  20. Baiyun Cave in Naigu Shilin, Yunnan Karst, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Baiyun cave is a 380 m long karst cave in the Naigu Shilin, situated 70 km southeast of Kunming,Yunnan Province, China. The prevailing orientations of the cave passages are N110°-120°E and N0°-10°W and those of the fissures in the cave are N30°-40°W and N20°-30°W. The cave is developed in the thick-bedded Lower Permian Qixia Formation. The cave has an active water flow and is currently at the near water-table stage. There are large amounts of different infills of cave sediments. The cave shows different stages of paragenesis. The palaeomagnetic analysis of cave sediments shows that their ages are younger than 780 ka B.P. (the Brunhes Chron). The upper part of the sampled profile belongs to the reverse Blake event (112.3-117.9 ka B.P.). The formation of the Baiyun cave is directly connected with the development of the Naigu Shilin. The formation of karst underground and surface features depends on the regional tectonic deformation and the Cenozoic extension of the study area.``

  1. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  2. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J.; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L. N.; Miller, Ana Z.; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E.; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  3. Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forti Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps man’s first motivation to explore caves, beyond using them as shelter, was the search for substances that were not availableelsewhere: most of them were minerals. However, for a long time it was believed that the cave environment was not very interestingfrom the mineralogical point of view. This was due to the fact that most cave deposits are normally composed of a singlecompound: calcium carbonate. Therefore, the systematic study of cave mineralogy is of only recent origin. However, although onlya limited number of natural cavities have been investigated in detail, about 350 cave minerals have already been observed, someof which are new to science. The presence of such unexpected richness is a direct consequence of the variety of rocks traversedby water or other fluids before entering a cave and the sediments therein. Different cave environments allow the development ofvarious minerogenetic mechanisms, the most important of which are double exchange reactions, evaporation, oxidation, hydrationdehydration,sublimation, deposition from aerosols and vapors, and segregation. The cave temperature and pH/Eh strictly controlmost of them, although some are driven by microorganisms. The cave environment, due to its long-term stability, can sometimesallow for the development of huge euhedral crystals, such as those found in the Naica caves (Mexico, but the presence of extremelysmall yet complex aggregates of different minerals is far more common. Future development in the field of cave mineralogy will likelybe focused mainly on hydrothermal and sulfuric-acid caves and on the role played by micro-organisms in controlling some of the mostimportant minerogenetic processes in caves.

  4. Comparison of carbonate cave pearls from periglacial zones of Demänovská Ice Cave (Nízke Tatry Mts., Slovakia) and Scarisoara Ice Cave (Bihor Mts., Romania)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Orvošová, M.; Vlček, L.; Filippi, Michal; Rohovec, Jan; Onac, B. P.; Persoiu, A.

    Wien : Technische Universität Wien, 2010 - (Spötl, C.; Luetscher, M.; Rittig, P.). s. 41-42 [International Workshop on Ice Caves /4./. 05.06.2010-11.06.2010, Obertraun] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : ice cave * cave pearls * cryogenic processes * C and O stable isotopes * caves (Slovakia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  5. Study of "3-Step Mining" Subsidence Control in Coal Mining Under Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Guang-li; ZHA Jian-feng; WU Bin; JIA Xin-guo

    2007-01-01

    Mining subsidence damage is the main factor of restricting coal mining under buildings. To control or ease effectively the degree of mining subsidence and deformation is essential to resolve this problem. Through analyzing both advantages and disadvantages of some technologies such as mining with stowing, partial extraction and grouting in separated beds of overburden, we used the principle of load replacement and propose a "3-step mining" method, a new pattern of controlling mining subsidence, which consists of: strip mining, i.e. grouting to fill and consolidate the caving zone and retained strip pillar mining. The mechanism of controlling mining subsidence by using the "3-step mining" pattern is analyzed. The effect of the control is numerically simulated. The preliminary analysis shows that the "3-step mining" can effectively control ground subsidence and deformation. By using this method, the ground subsidence factor can be controlled to a value of about 0.25. Coal recovery can reach 80%-90%. Coal mining without removing surface buildings can be realized and the economic loss resulting from ground subsidence can be greatly reduced.

  6. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

    2001-10-01

    Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art. PMID:11586348

  7. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and...

  8. Response of surface springs to longwall coal mining Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-extraction longwall coal mining creates zones in the overburden where strata bend, fracture, or cave into the mine void. These physical alterations to the overburden stratigraphy have associated effects on the hydrologic regime. The US Bureau of Mines (SBM) studied impacts to the local hydrologic system caused by longwall mining in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Surface springs in the vicinity of two coal mines were evaluated for alterations in flow characteristics as mining progressed. Fourteen springs located above the mines were included in the study. Eight of the springs were located over longwall panels, four were located over barrier pillars and mains, and two ere located outside the area disturbed by mining. Flow hydrographs for each spring were compared to climatic data and time of undermining to assess if mining in the vicinity had influenced flow. Heights of fracturing and caving in the overburden resulting from seam extraction were calculated using common subsidence formulas, and used in conjunction with elevations of springs to assess if fracturing influenced the water-bearing zones studied. One spring over a panel exhibited a departure from a normally-shaped hydrograph after being undermined. Springs located over other mine structures, or outside the mine area did not show discernible effects from mining. The limited response of the springs was attributed to site-specific conditions that buffered mining impacts including the elevation of the springs above the mine level, and presence of massive sandstones and swelling clays in the overburden materials

  9. State of the art and challenges in cave minerals studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan P. Onac; Paolo Forti

    2011-01-01

    The present note is an updated inventory of all known cave minerals as March 2011. After including the new minerals described since the last edition of the Cave Minerals of the World book (1997) and made the necessary corrections to incorporate all discreditations, redefinitions, or revalidation proposed by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclatures and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), we summed up 319 cave minerals, many of these only known from...

  10. Lava caves of the Republic of Mauritius, Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Middleton

    1998-01-01

    In their Underground Atlas, MIDDLETON & WALTHAM (1986) dismissed Mauritius as: “very old volcanic islands with no speleological interest”. Recent investigations indicate this judgement is inaccurate; there are over 50 significant caves, including lava tube caves up to 687 m long (one 665 m long was surveyed as early as 1769) and 35 m wide. Plaine des Roches contains the most extensive system of lava tube caves with underground drainage rising at the seashore. Notable fauna includes an insecti...

  11. Magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments: experience from Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr

    Aguadilla : Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Aguadilla, 2007. s. 96-96. [Descubriendo el mundo subterráno de América Latin a y el Caribe : Congreso FEPUR /1./ ; Congreso FEALC /5./. 29.07.2007-04.08.2007, Aguadilla] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * karst sediments * caves * dating * Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Cave speleothems as repositories of microbial biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; Jurado, Valme; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Fernández, Octavio; Calaforra, José M.; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-04-01

    The need to better understand the biodiversity, origins of life on Earth and on other planets, and the wide applications of the microbe-mineral interactions have led to a rapid expansion of interest in subsurface environments. Recently reported results indicated signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity which suggest that Mars's subsurface can house organic molecules or traces of microbial life, making the search for microbial life on Earth's subsurface even more compelling. Caves on Earth are windows into the subsurface that harbor a wide variety of mineral-utilizing microorganisms, which may contribute to the formation of biominerals and unusual microstructures recognized as biosignatures. These environments contain a wide variety of redox interfaces and stable physicochemical conditions, which enhance secondary mineral precipitation and microbial growth under limited organic nutrient inputs. Enigmatic microorganisms and unusual mineral features have been found associated with secondary mineral deposits or speleothems in limestone caves and lava tubes. In this study, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were conducted on cave speleothem samples to assess microbe-mineral interactions, evaluate biogenicity, as well as to describe unusual mineral formations and microbial features. Microbial mats, extracellular polymeric substances, tubular empty sheaths, mineralized cells, filamentous fabrics, as well as "cell-sized" etch pits or microborings produced by bacterial cells were observed on minerals. These features evidence microbe-mineral interactions and may represent mineralogical signatures of life. We can thus consider that caves on Earth are plausible repositories of terrestrial biosignatures where we can look for microbial signatures. Acknowledgments: AZM acknowledges the support from the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework

  13. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically 0.9 m, and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 µS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a pre-existing layer of higher salinity.

  14. TESTATE AMOEBAE COMMUNITIES FROM CAVES OF SOME TERRITORIES IN EUROPEAN RUSSIA AND NORTH-EASTERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Mazei, Yuri; Belyakova, Olga; Trulova, Alisa; Guidolin, Laura; Coppellotti, Olimpia

    2012-01-01

    The species composition of testate amoebae in caves from European Russia and North-East Italy was studied. Twenty-seven species were identified from various habitats inside caves (moist substratum on floor, guano, sediments of cave streams and pools, water droplets and bacterial mats on rocky surfaces). In caves of simple structure (without differing types of habitats), the species richness of testate amoebae was far lower than in that from habitats outside the caves. In heterogeneous caves, ...

  15. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  16. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  17. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability. PMID

  18. Shallow caves and blowholes on the Nullarbor Plain, Australia — Flank margin caves on a low gradient limestone platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Shannon; Webb, John A.; White, Susan

    2013-11-01

    The Nullarbor Plain of southern Australia is a very extensive limestone platform with relatively few large caves for its size, but contains thousands of blowholes, sub-circular vertical shafts up to 1-2 m in diameter, which often connect to similar-sized sub-horizontal passages. Recent detailed systematic surveys of large areas of the Nullarbor Plain have provided new distribution data showing that blowholes and associated shallow caves are concentrated in a 25-30 km-wide band located > 75 km inland. The known density of these features (up to 43/25 km2) underestimates the cave porosity because the strong draughts blowing from many of the blowholes indicate that they connect to extensive cave systems of small passages. These shallow caves are relict phreatic features; their entrances (blowholes) were opened as the land surface was lowered by denudation. The band of blowholes and caves is located along the Late Miocene (~ 6 Ma) shoreline across the Nullarbor, when there was a eustatic stillstand. The caves formed in the zone of enhanced dissolution at the seaward margin of the freshwater lens along the carbonate coastline, and can therefore be regarded as flank margin caves on a low gradient limestone platform; a flank margin setting relatively unknown prior to this study. The width of the band of flank margin caves, which is substantially greater than previously documented for this cave type, reflects the very low gradient of both the ground surface and water table, together with the influence of tidal fluctuations and regression of the shoreline. Flank margin cave development stopped when the sea retreated rapidly in the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene due to a period of tilting and uplift. The band of flank margin caves has high permeability and substantial porosity, and would therefore form an excellent, largely overlooked, type of palaeokarst petroleum reservoir.

  19. The prevention of mine accident and utilization of abandoned mine openings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jai; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Chung, So-Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. (1) Research on the prevention of mine accident (V): This research has been conducted to investigate 11 major operating coal mines in respect to mine safety. The safety inspection on 9 coal mines has already been done until 1998. In this year, two coal mines, Sangduck and Maro, were inspected and desirable counter measures were recommended. (2) Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings: The final goal of this study is to establish the model of utilization of abandoned mine openings, to design the utilization model, and to develop the utilization techniques. For these research targets, literature surveys, determination of major factors, and field surveys for candidate mines were performed during first research year. Now in this second year, the candidate mines were deeply surveyed, and finally conceptual design was made for one of these abandoned mines. The Gahak mine which is located in Kwangmyung city, Kyunggido, can be utilized as a bio-park and a cave land. (author). 33 refs., 104 tabs., 21 figs.

  20. Underground pressure appearance laws analysis for fully mechanized top coal slice caving on high-dipping thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng-li; CAO Guang-ming; LI Fu-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Taking Adaohai Coal Mine as the example, underground pressure appearance laws of fully mechanized top coal slice caving on high-dipping and thick coal seams. Through site visit, theoretical analysis and discrete element calculation, the research shows that, as the mining deepens, underground stress of lower sublevels is more obvious and higher than that of upper sublevels and is higher in the air return roadway than that in the air intake roadway in the area that is near to the top coal.Because the top coal is thick and gangue is caved above the support, underground pressure to the working face is relatively gentle. Immediate roof will mainly fall down along the floor. Main roof and the rock bed above the main roof will move to the mined out area along the fault in the early stage and then fall down with the mined out area later. In addition, roof pressure mainly periodically appears in two directions along the trend and the dip.

  1. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing

  2. Hydraulic support stability control of fully mechanized top coal caving face with steep coal seams based on instable critical angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TO Shi-hao; YUAN Yong; LI Nai-liang; DOU Feng-jin; WANG Fang-tian

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed the support instable mode of sliding, tripping, and so on, and believedthe key point of the support stability control of fully mechanized coal caving face with steepcoal seams was to maintain that the seam true angle was less than the hydraulic supportinstability critical angle. Through the layout of oblique face, the improvement of supportsetting load, the control of mining height and nonskid platform, the group support systemof end face, the advance optimization of conveyor and support, and the other control tech-nical measures, the true angle of the seam is reduced and the instable critical angle of thesupport is increased, the hydraulic support stability of fully mechanized coal caving facewith steep coal seams is effectively controlled.

  3. Speleogenesis of selected caves in the Lunan shilins and caves of the Fenglin Karst in Qiubei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Slabe, T.; Liu, H.; Pruner, Petr

    Postojna : Inštitut za raziskovanjekrasa, ZRC SAZU=Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2011 - (Knez, M.; Liu, H.; Slabe, T.), s. 139-152 ISBN 978-961-254-241-2. - (Carsologica. 12) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : speleogenesis * paleomagnetic analyses * caves * Lunan shilins and Fenglin Karst in Qiube (China) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  4. Environmental record in detrital cave sediments in the Botovskaya and Dolganskaya Jama caves (Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisá, Lenka; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Hercman, H.; Oberhansli, H.; Osincev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), A10273-A10273. ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave * sediments * micromorphology * magnetic properties * provenance Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/10273/EGU06-J-10273-2.pdf

  5. 3N Cave, new world’s longest cave in salt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filippi, Michal; Bruthans, J.; Vilhelm, Z.; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.

    Beirut : American University of Beirut, 2006. s. 15-15. [Middle-Eeast Speleology Symposium (MESS2) /2./. 21.04.2006-23.04.2006, Beirut] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt karst * salt cave * diapir * Iran Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr coal mining district, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kasper D.; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Erstling, Stefanie; Brüstle, Andrea; Wlecklik, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 four hard coal mines (at about 1000 m depth) were operating in Germany, three of them are in the Ruhr coal mining district. The mining method used (longwall mining in combination with caving) causes induced earthquakes due to the stress redistribution in the surrounding rock. Seismic events of magnitude 1.2 and larger are generally perceived by the population and thus trigger a wide interest. The Ruhr-University of Bochum routinely monitors the seismicity and its temporal evolution and energy release since the 1980s. The current seismological network consists of 14 stations (broad-band and short-period seismometers) in the Ruhr area. Six stations are located at the Ruhr-University Bochum at distances of approximately 20-40 km to the active coal fields. The remaining 8 stations are located in the vicinity of the mines (app. 1 to 5 km from the active mining). The magnitude of completeness is 0.9 throughout the entire Ruhr coal mining district with a local magnitude of completeness of 0.7 depending on the network configuration. In general, the identified earthquakes have a horizontal location uncertainty of 3 km. The routine detection and location of the seismicity is done by classical methods, e. g. based on first arrivals, and advanced methods like array techniques or cross-correlation of waveforms of master events with recorded seismograms from selected stations. Additionally selected event clusters are studied in more detail by reprocessing sub-datasets with methods like cluster analysis or consistent phase-picking. Reassessing this unique dataset of 30 years continuous recordings with newly developed methods and modern data processing techniques can provide new insights of the nature of mining induced seismicity. This methods may also be usable in the field of geothermal energy, unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs or underground storage of carbon dioxide which also deals with the detection and handling of large amounts of small magnitude earthquakes.

  7. Radon Exposures in the Caves of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are more than a hundred volcanic caves and pits of various lengths on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The results are presented of atmospheric radon measurements performed in three of these caves and in three pits. One of the caves selected, El Viento Cave, is nearly 20 km in length and is the longest volcanic tube in the Canarian archipelago and the second longest in the world. The measurements were performed over two distinct periods during the year using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations range between 0.3 and 8 kBq.m-3, the maximum value corresponds to a site located at 1850 m from the mouth of El Viento Cave. Possible touristic development of these caves has been taken into account in estimating the effective doses for visitors and guides (considered separately). The values obtained range from 0.3 to 100 μSv per visit for visitors. The largest effective dose would correspond to that for guides at 41 mSv.y-1 in the Viento Cave. This result would make protection against radiological hazards obligatory if the cave were to be developed as a site for tourism. (author)

  8. Tectonic caves of Solai in the Kenyan Rift Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonic caves al Solai, Kenya, were explored in 1970. These lie in a complex geological area of the Great Rift Valley in columnar-faulted ignimbrite. Fissures are presumed to have been widened by later tectonic activity -e.g. the major earthquake of January, 1928. The caves and exploration are briefly described. Questions of formation, drainage and possibilities of steam reservoirs are discussed.

  9. The cave biota of Slovakia - introduction of a new monograph

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, L.; Elhottová, Dana; Mock, A.; Nováková, Alena; Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Lukešová, Alena; Mulec, J.; Košel, V.; Papáč, V.; Luptáčik, P.; Uhrin, M.; Višňovská, Z.; Hudec, I.; Gaál, Ľ.; Bella, P.

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2014. s. 34. [22 nd International Karstological School "Classical Karst". Karst and Microorganisms . 16.06.2014-20.06.2014, Postojna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cave habitat * cave organisms * conservation * monitoring * zoogeography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. PROCESSES INFLUENCING VARIABILITY IN CAVE DRIP WATER TEMPERATURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have investigated five months of epikarst storage drip water temperatures along with surface air temperature and rainfall at a small waterfall in Cave Spring Caverns, Kentucky. Falling from about 4 m, water temperatures are measured within seconds of entering the cave passage with two minute, and...

  11. Occupational and patient doses in the therapeutic cave, Tapolca (Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon concentration has been measured for three years in a hospital cave used for medical treatment of respiratory diseases. A mean value of the actual equilibrium factor measured in the cave in different seasons was used, different from the commonly used 0.4. The dose contribution to the patients and the staff was calculated using these data. The results of the dose assessment show that the staff in the hospital cave can receive doses up to the dose limit for occupational exposure (20 mSv y-1) when working 4 h per day in the cave. Patients receive 0.18-4.22 mSv committed effective dose during the treatment period depending on the exposure periods. The only solution to reduce the dose to the staff seems to be decreasing the time they spend underground, because intensive ventilation would disturb the special microclimate of the cave. (author)

  12. Influence of Mining Thickness on the Rationality of Upward Mining in Coal Seam Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of mining thickness on the rationality of upward mining in coal seam group. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate the influence of the mining thicknesses of initial mining seam on the destruction and pressure relief effect of the upper coal seam in a high-gas coal seam group. The mechanical model of the roof failure based on the mining thickness was established by assuming that the gob formed after adjacent panels have fully been caved is the infinite plane. On the basis of this model, an equation was derived to calculate the roof failure height of the panel. Considering the geological conditions of No. 9 and No. 12 coal seams of Zhaogezhuang Coal Mine, economic effectiveness, and proposed techniques, we concluded that the top layer (4 m of the No. 12 coal seam should be mined first. The top layer of the No. 9 coal seam should be subsequently mined. The topcaving technique was applied to the exploitation of the lower layer of the No. 12 coal seam. Practically monitored data revealed that the deformation and failure of the No. 2699 panel roadway was small and controllable, the amount of gas emission was reduced significantly, and the effect of upward mining was active. The results of this study provide theory basics for mine designing, and it is the provision of a reference for safe and efficient coal exploitation under similar conditions.

  13. Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh;

    Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds are...... gains and delays in the IAC can produce very different directionalities of the ears but it is still uncertain how interaural transmission gain and delay can be shaped by evolution by anatomical adaptations. A closer inspection of the zebra finch cranium using micro-CT scanning reveals that not only is...

  14. Reliability analysis of the velocity matching of coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗善明; 缪协兴

    2002-01-01

    The matching relationship between coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face is analyzed in detail from the angle of reliability. The coupling equation of reliability is established correspondingly, and the mathematical equation of the coefficient of velocity matching of coal cutting and caving is obtained, which meets a certain reliability demand for making the working procedure of coal caving not influence coal cutting of coal-cutter. The results show that the relationship between the coefficient of the velocity matching and the reliability of coal cutting and caving system is linear on the whole when R<0.9. It is pointed out that different numerical value should be selected for different coal face according to different demand for reliability.

  15. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  16. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France—both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  17. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  18. 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This characterization plan provides instructions for obtaining and analyzing samples for waste designation and disposal. The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave is located in the 100-C Area about 328 ft (100 m) southeast of the 105-C Reactor (Figure 1). The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave (Figure 2) is a reinforced concrete bunker approximately 70- ft (21.3-m) long, 7-ft (2.1-m) high, and 12-ft (3.6-m) wide, with triangular-shaped concrete ends 3-ft (0.9-m) high. The rod cave was used to store radiologically contaminated control-rod tips. If control rod tips are present, release of control rod activation products will not change expectations with respect to principal contaminants. The north portion of the cave is empty and the south portion contains two aluminum tubes that may contain rod tips (Figure 3). The caves are contaminated with activation and fission products (e.g., 60Co and 137Cs) common to the 100 Areas (see Appendix for data). Dose rates up to 0.7 mR/hr were measured in the south cave and 0.5 mR/hr in the north cave during an inspection of the facility in December 1996

  19. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  20. Accounting for kinetic isotope effects in Soreq Cave (Israel) speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affek, Hagit P.; Matthews, Alan; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Burstyn, Yuval; Zaarur, Shikma; Zilberman, Tami

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence that speleothem calcite grows out of isotopic equilibrium with cave drip water, with clumped isotope analysis providing a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium. This disequilibrium is primarily the result of CO2 degassing from a thin film of water, leading to irreversible 13C enrichment and reversible 18O enrichment and Δ47 depletion. Here we examine isotopic disequilibrium in Soreq Cave (Israel) using multiple modern-day and late Holocene speleothems. The variability observed in Δ47 is small, within the analytical uncertainty, but the Δ47-derived temperature is offset from the modern cave temperature by ∼4 °C, reflecting degassing related disequilibrium that is fairly constant spatially. δ18O is more heterogeneous, reflecting short-term variability in drip water δ18Ow combined with variability in the speleothem growth rates and related fractionation between dissolved carbonate species and the growing calcite mineral. This complexity, however, is markedly reduced by spatial or temporal averaging, enabling an interpretation of the cave paleoclimate record. We examine the Soreq Cave speleothems through a comparison with 2 types of thermometers: one is based on CaCO3 precipitation from a bulk solution and is typically used for calibration of the Δ47 and δ18O thermometers; a second that is based on CaCO3 precipitating at the surface of the solution thus focusing and amplifying the thin film characteristics of speleothem formation. Soreq Cave speleothems are intermediate between these thermometers, providing a cave-specific thermometer calibration.

  1. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Price

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  2. Microscopic fungi isolated from the Domica Cave system (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia). A review

    OpenAIRE

    Novakova Alena

    2009-01-01

    A broad spectrum, total of 195 microfungal taxa, were isolated from various cave substrates (cave air, cave sediments, bat droppingsand/or guano, earthworm casts, isopods and diplopods faeces, mammalian dung, cadavers, vermiculations, insect bodies, plantmaterial, etc.) from the cave system of the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia) using dilution, direct and gravitysettling culture plate methods and several isolation media. Penicillium glandicola, Trichoderma polysporum, Oidio...

  3. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Price

    2014-01-01

    Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  4. Diversity of cultured bacteria from the perennial ice block of Scarisoara Ice Cave, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Iţcuş; Mădălina-Denisa Pascu; Traian Brad; Aurel Perşoiu; Cristina Purcarea

    2016-01-01

    Cave ice ecosystems represent a poorly investigated glacial environment. Diversity of cave ice bacteria and their distribution in perennial ice deposits of this underground glacial habitat could constitute a proxy for microbial response to climatic and environmental changes. Scarisoara Ice Cave (Romania) hosts one of the oldest and largest cave ice blocks worldwide. Here we report on cultured microbial diversity of recent, 400, and 900 years-old perennial ice from this cave, representing the ...

  5. Pas de Vallgornera Cave, Majorca (Spain): one the largest littoral caves in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pas de Vallgornera cave is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands and one of the largest in Europe (more than 73 km long). It is found on the Miocene reef of Llucmajor Platform and its genesis is related to the development of normal faults and associated fracture systems with N 180° S and N 60° E orientation that took place during the Neogene. It is noteworthy for the abundance, variety and beauty of the speleothems, paleontological richness and to present evidence of hypogene basal recharge. Due to its singularity, it has served as the basis of several scientific studies on groundwater level fluctuations during the quaternary period and others related to the existence of one of most important paleontological sites in Mallorca as far as vertebrates are concerned. (Author)

  6. Reading the past from cave bat guano: Domica Cave palaeoecological research (NP Slovak Karst)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, J.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Novák, J.; Křováková, Kateřina; Šantrůček, J.; Elhottová, Dana; Kováč, L.; Krištůfek, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2009), s. 170. ISSN 1335-213X. [Vedecká konferencia Výskum, využívanie a ochrana jaskýň /7./. 10.11.2009-13.11.2009, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : bat guano * Domica Cave * palaeoecological research Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Fossil remains of a cave tube worm (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in an ancient cave in Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihevc, A.; Sket, B.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    Brasilia : Federatia Espeleological de America Latin a, 2001, s. -. [International Congress of Speleology /13./, Speleological Congress of Latin America and the Caribbean /4./, Brazilian Congress of Speleology /26./. Brasilia (BR), 15.07.2001-22.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3046108; GA MŠk ME 251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeomagnetism * Slovenia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. Fossil population structure and mortality analysis of the cave bears from Urşilor Cave, north-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Robu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in cave bear palaeobiology focusing on population structure and mortality analysis may improve our understanding regarding the ecology of this species which vanished at the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, prior to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, if assessed populations are large enough. Such population is available in Urşilor Cave, from north-western Romania, known as one of the most rich and complex European MIS3 cave bear sites. From the palaeontological excavation, situated at the lower level of the cave (= Scientific Reserve, more than 210 cave bear isolated lower molars, 160 mandibles and almost 180 canines were extracted and analyzed. The results obtained on the wear stages of the studied molars and mandibles indicated an “L”-shaped curve and suggest a non-attritional death pattern and a bone assemblage juvenile dominated. Moreover, the sex-ratio of upper and lower canines indicates a net dominance of females (5.4 females: 1 male. Although a “catastrophic” death pattern was obtained for cave bears, the animals seem to have died diachronically (non-simultaneously, over a time span of more than 6000 years. The triangular graph of age distribution is not appropriate for death assemblages from traps such as karst caves, where taphonomic processes like predation or scavenging would have played a less important role.

  9. Spatial organization and connectivity of caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Guglielmi, Yves; Camus, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The main particularity of karst systems is their hierarchical organization as three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drain. They are recognized as having a major influence on fluid flow at reservoir scale. However, a karstic network is generally hardly continuously observable and their great intrinsic heterogeneity makes their characterization very complex. This media can be only observed by speleological investigation, conditioned to human possibilities. As a result, only few parts can be observed and therefore it is required to model the non-observable parts for reservoir characterizations. To provide realistic 3D models, non-observable karstic features will be generated using parameters extracted from observed ones. Morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional karstic network provides quantitative measures that can (i) give information on speleogenesis processes, (ii) be used to compare different karst systems, (iii) be correlated with hydrogeological behavior and (iii) control the simulation of realistic karst networks. Recent work done on the subject characterize the karstic network as a whole, without genetic a-priori. However, most of observable caves appears to have a polygenic history due to modifications in boundary conditions and some different karst features can be observed in a same cavity. To study the geometrical organization of caves, we propose to analyze 3D speleological topographies for which speleogenetic context is known. This way, it is possible to characterize karst features according to speleogenetic processes. Several morphometric descriptors have been calculated on three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological works. Some parameters describe the existence of preferential direction of karstification and preferential flow paths, other parameters describe the complexity, geometry and connectivity of the three-dimensional karstic networks. Through the study of fifteen different caves, 150km of 3D data have been analyzed

  10. In-situ stress measurements and stress change monitoring to monitor overburden caving behaviour and hydraulic fracture pre-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puller Jesse W.; Mills Ken W.; Jeffrey Rob G.; Walker Rick J.

    2016-01-01

    A coal mine in New South Wales is longwall mining 300 m wide panels at a depth of 160–180 m directly below a 16–20 m thick conglomerate strata. As part of a strategy to use hydraulic fracturing to manage potential windblast and periodic caving hazards associated with these conglomerate strata, the in-situ stresses in the conglomerate were measured using ANZI strain cells and the overcoring method of stress relief. Changes in stress associated with abutment loading and placement of hydraulic fractures were also measured using ANZI strain cells installed from the surface and from underground. Overcore stress mea-surements have indicated that the vertical stress is the lowest principal stress so that hydraulic fractures placed ahead of mining form horizontally and so provide effective pre-conditioning to promote caving of the conglomerate strata. Monitoring of stress changes in the overburden strata during longwall retreat was undertaken at two different locations at the mine. The monitoring indicated stress changes were evi-dent 150 m ahead of the longwall face and abutment loading reached a maximum increase of about 7.5 MPa. The stresses ahead of mining change gradually with distance to the approaching longwall and in a direction consistent with the horizontal in-situ stresses. There was no evidence in the stress change monitoring results to indicate significant cyclical forward abutment loading ahead of the face. The for-ward abutment load determined from the stress change monitoring is consistent with the weight of over-burden strata overhanging the goaf indicated by subsidence monitoring.

  11. Magnetostratigraphy of Cave Sediments: Application and Limits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2003), s. 301-330. ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1042603; GA AV ČR KSK3046108; GA AV ČR IAA3013201; GA MŠk ME 251; GA ČR GA206/93/0276; GA ČR GA205/95/0841; GA MŠk OU95051; GA AV ČR EAR-9705718 Grant ostatní: Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)(HU) T 035004; National Science Foundation(US) INT-950737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * cave deposits Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2003

  12. Evidence of NAO control on subsurface ice accumulation in a 1200 yr old cave-ice sequence, St. Livres ice cave, Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Markus; Luetscher, Marc; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Schlatter, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Mid-latitude ice caves are assumed to be highly sensitive to climatic changes and thus represent a potentially interesting environmental archive. Establishing a precise chronology is, however, a prerequisite for the understanding of processes driving the cave-ice mass balance and thus allows a paleoenvironmental interpretation. At St. Livres ice cave (Jura Mountains, Switzerland), subfossil trees and organic material are abundant in the cave-ice deposit, therefore allowing the dating of indiv...

  13. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  14. What can molecular microbiology tell us about Lascaux cave?

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Valme; Bastian, Fabiola; ALABOUVETTE, Claude; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    2009-01-01

    5 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, 25 references. Pertenece al capítulo Symposium 5: Geomicrobiology of cave and karst environments.-- Simposio celebrado del 19 al 26 de julio, 2009, en Kerrville, Texas, U.S.A.

  15. Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Logan Cave NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  16. Contaminant concentrations in water and sediments from Shelta Cave

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shelta Cave is a cavern system which lies under the northwestern portion of the City of Huntsville, Alabama. The National Speleological Society owns property which...

  17. Center for Advanced Energy Studies: Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The laboratory contains a four-walled 3D computer assisted virtual environment - or CAVE TM — that allows scientists and engineers to literally walk into their data...

  18. The structure of the cave, stratigraphy, and depositional context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří

    Wien : Springer, 2006 - (Teschler-Nicola, M.), s. 27-40 ISBN 3-211-23588-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Mladeč caves * modern humans * Aurignacian Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. CHINA'S RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN COAL MINING,PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范维唐; 王成龙; 朱德仁

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art and outlook of coal mining and clean coal echnology in China. As the major mining method,underground mining accounts for 96% of the total production. Among the state own mines, the percentage of mechanized mining reached 71%. A rapid development of high-productive and high-profitable mines,especially those with longwall sublevel caving method, is described. The issues of heavy duty equipment, roof bolting, mine safety are also addressed. The Chinese government is paying more and more attention on the environmental problems inducing from coal mining,processing and utilization. A basic framework of clean coal technology is being formed and a wide range of technology is included.

  20. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-01

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the "cave factor" 1.5. The value of "cave factor" which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  1. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  2. Study on the forecasting and maintenance system of special railway subsidence in mine area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜富; 朱德明; 任占营

    2003-01-01

    The fully mechanized caving coal mining under the railway in mine area will result in difficulty maintenance of railway because of great distortion and subsidence speed of terrene and railway. If the subsidence forecasting is incorrect and maintenance measure is not suitable in the preceding and the process of mining, the normal operation of the railway in mine area will not be ensured and perhaps the safety accident will be resulted. The railway subsidence forecasting and maintenance system for fully mechanized caving coal face are studied and developed in this connection. Based on the accurate subsidence forecasting of the terrene and railway, the maintenance measure for track and switch turnout in railway is put forward in this system.

  3. Microbial communities and associated mineral fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cuezva Soledad; Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo; Canaveras Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, both on walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. The colonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes. Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of ...

  4. Karst geology and cave fauna of Austria: a concise review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard Christian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The state of cave research in Austria is outlined from the geological and zoological perspective. Geologic sections include the setting of karst regions, tectonic and palaeoclimatic control on karst, modern cave environments, and karst hydrology. A chapter on the development of Austrian biospeleology in the 20th century is followed by a survey of terrestrial underground habitats, biogeographic remarks, and an annotated selection of subterranean invertebrates.

  5. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyp...

  6. Virtual Reality Visualization by CAVE with VFIVE and VTK

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, N; Kusano, K; Ohno, Nobuaki; Kageyama, Akira; Kusano, Kanya

    2005-01-01

    The CAVE-type virtual reality (VR) system was introduced for scientific visualization of large scale data in the plasma simulation community about a decade ago. Since then, we have been developing a VR visualization software, VFIVE, for general CAVE systems. Recently, we have integrated an open source visualization library, the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), into VFIVE. Various visualization methods of VTK can be incorporated and used interactively in VFIVE.

  7. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  8. Karst geology and cave fauna of Austria: a concise review

    OpenAIRE

    Erhard Christian; Christoph Spötl

    2010-01-01

    The state of cave research in Austria is outlined from the geological and zoological perspective. Geologic sections include the setting of karst regions, tectonic and palaeoclimatic control on karst, modern cave environments, and karst hydrology. A chapter on the development of Austrian biospeleology in the 20th century is followed by a survey of terrestrial underground habitats, biogeographic remarks, and an annotated selection of subterranean invertebrates.

  9. Theoretical analysis on the deformation characteristics of coal wall in a longwall top coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Qingsheng; Tu Shihao; Li Zhaoxin; Tu Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of analyzing coal wall stability in 14101 fully mechanized longwall top coal cav-ing face in Majialiang coal mine, based on the torque equilibrium of the coal wall, shield support and the roof strata, an elastic mechanics model was established to calculate the stress applied on the coal wall. The displacement method was used to obtain the stress and deformation distributions of the coal wall. This study also researched the influence of support resistance, protective pressure to the coal wall, frac-ture position of the main roof and mining height on the coal wall deformation. The following conclusions are drawn:(1) The shorter the distance from the longwall face, the greater the vertical compressive stress and horizontal tensile stress borne by the coal wall. The coal wall is prone to failure in the form of com-pressive-shear and tension;(2) With increasing support resistance, the revolution angle of the main roof decreases linearly. As the support resistance and protective force supplied by the face guard increases, the maximum deformation of the coal wall decreases linearly;(3) As the face approaches the fracture posi-tion of the main roof, coal wall horizontal deformation increases significantly, and the coal wall is prone to instability;and (4) The best mining height of 14101 longwall face is 3.0 m.

  10. Use of resistivity measurements to detect urban caves in Mexico City and to assess the related hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Antonio-Carpio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century when Mexico City was much smaller than at present, there was non-regulated mining of building materials in a region of tuffs northwest of the city in an inhabited countryside. With the growth of the city during the XX century, this region was increasingly populated and in the 1970's many two-level bricks houses were built, without regard for underground caves created by the earlier extractions. Some ground sinkings in adjacent areas alarmed the residents who now are worried about this permanent hazard. An association of residents contracted a private company for a geophysical study in order to know the distribution of the caves. Resistivity measurements were taken in the area to detect the caves in order to alert city authorities. Resistivity data along most of the streets were collected with the array pole-dipole that consisted of three grounded electrodes. We performed 2-D dimensional inversions to the data in order to get a 2-D resistivity image of every street. This is similar to a resistivity cross-section of the ground but obtained from the inversion of pole-dipole and Schlumberger resistivity data simultaneously. Using the information of previous drills we modified our programming code in order to perform constrained inversion and to get more accurate resistivity models in agreement with the drills. From the resistivity models obtained for every street it was possible to produce a map which shows the horizontal distribution of the resistive bodies at a depth of 12m. These resistive bodies show coherent alignments that seem to correspond with a distributions of interconnected caves or tunnels used for extracting the sandy-tuffs. From these kind of interpretation method it was intended to get a more accurate horizontal distribution of the excavated areas in order to better know the urbanized area affected and lead the authorities to remedy the area with refill material.

  11. Human modifications on cave bear bones from the Gargas Cave (Hautes-Pyrénées, France).

    OpenAIRE

    Vercoutère, Carole; San Juan-Foucher, Cristina; Foucher, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we are going to examine seven cave bear remains modified by prehistoric men. These remains come from the Aurignacian and Gravettian levels of the Gargas Cave (Hautes-Pyrénées, France). They were discovered during the excavations carried out by H. Breuil and E. Cartailhac from 1911 to 1913. One Aurignacian artefact and three Gravettian objects were unpublished and other pieces were only briefly described in the 1958 publication (Breuil & Cheynier, 1958). These osseous artefacts ...

  12. New distribution record for the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes inermis inermis cope, from the Patoka River drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two specimens of the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes (Orconectes) inermis inermis Cope, were collected from a cave referred to as Audrey’s Cave on May 21, 2001...

  13. Data Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Discusses data mining (DM) and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD), taking the view that KDD is the larger view of the entire process, with DM emphasizing the cleaning, warehousing, mining, and visualization of knowledge discovery in databases. Highlights include algorithms; users; the Internet; text mining; and information extraction.…

  14. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  15. Eogenetic caves in conglomerate: an example from Udin Boršt, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Lipar Matej; Ferk Mateja

    2011-01-01

    Udin Boršt is a karstified terrace of carbonate rock, which is of fluvioglacial origin, and is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. There are 15 registered caves, which have been interpreted as caves in conglomerate, while karst of Udin Boršt itself was interpreted as conglomerate karst, shallow karst or isolated karst. In this article, caves in Udin Boršt have been interpreted as eogenetic caves. Based on porosity and bedding material, different types of caves and cave passages ha...

  16. Process Mining Versus Intention Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabandelou, Ghazaleh; Hug, Charlotte; Deneckere, Rebecca; Salinesi, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Process mining aims to discover, enhance or check the conformance of activity oriented process models from event logs. A new field of research, called intention mining, recently emerged. This new field has the same objectives than process mining but specifically addresses intentional process models. This paper aims to highlight the differences between these two fields of research and illustrates the use of mining techniques on a dataset of event logs, to discover an activity process model as ...

  17. Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cała, Marek; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Michał; Blajer, Mateusz; Cyran, Katarzyna; D'obyrn, Kajetan

    2016-03-01

    Stability of mining openings requires consideration of a number of factors, such as: geological structure, the geometry of the underground mining workings, mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in stress caused by the influence of neighbouring workings. Long-term prediction and estimation of workings state can be analysed with the use of numerical methods. Application of 3D numerical modelling in stability estimation of workings with complex geometry was described with the example of Crystal Caves in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Preservation of the Crystal Caves reserve is particularly important in view of their unique character and the protection of adjacent galleries which are a part of tourist attraction included in UNESCO list. A detailed 3D model of Crystal Caves and neighbouring workings was built. Application of FLAC3D modelling techniques enabled indication of the areas which are in danger of stability loss. Moreover, the area in which protective actions should be taken as well as recommendations concerning the convergence monitoring were proposed.

  18. Stability analysis of underground mining openings with complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cała Marek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stability of mining openings requires consideration of a number of factors, such as: geological structure, the geometry of the underground mining workings, mechanical properties of the rock mass, changes in stress caused by the influence of neighbouring workings. Long-term prediction and estimation of workings state can be analysed with the use of numerical methods. Application of 3D numerical modelling in stability estimation of workings with complex geometry was described with the example of Crystal Caves in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Preservation of the Crystal Caves reserve is particularly important in view of their unique character and the protection of adjacent galleries which are a part of tourist attraction included in UNESCO list. A detailed 3D model of Crystal Caves and neighbouring workings was built. Application of FLAC3D modelling techniques enabled indication of the areas which are in danger of stability loss. Moreover, the area in which protective actions should be taken as well as recommendations concerning the convergence monitoring were proposed.

  19. Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheeptham N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic caves have been little studied for their potential as sources of novel microbial species and bioactive compounds with new scaffolds. We present the f irst study of volcanic cave microbiology from Canada and suggest that this habitat has great potential for the isolation of novel bioactive substances. Sample locat ions were plot ted on a contour map that was compiled in ArcView 3.2. Over 400 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Helmcken Falls cave in Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia. From our preliminary screen, of 400 isolates tested, 1% showed activity against extended spectrum ß-lactamase E. coli, 1.75% against Escherichia coli, 2.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii, and 26.50% against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, 10.25% showed activity against Micrococcus luteus, 2% against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 9.25% against Mycobacterium smegmatis, 6.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 7.5% against Candida albicans. Chemical and physical characteristics of three rock wall samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy and f lame atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, and aluminum (Al were the most abundant components while magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and barium (Ba were second most abundant with cadmium (Cd and potassium (K were the least abundant in our samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of microscopic life forms in all three rock wall samples. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 82 isolates revealed that 65 (79.3% of the strains belong to the Streptomyces genus and 5 (6.1% were members of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia and Erwinia genera. Interestingly, twelve (14.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences showed similarity to unidentif ied ribosomal RNA sequences in the library databases, the sequences of these isolates need to be further investigated using the EzTaxon-e database (http://eztaxon-e. ezbiocloud.net/ to determine whether

  20. Feeding sources of invertebrates in the Ardovská Cave and Domica Cave systems - preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Lukešová, Alena; Hill, P.; Kováč, L.; Mock, A.; Luptáčik, P.

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005, s. 107-112. ISBN 80-86525-04-X. [Contributions to soil Zoology in Central Europe I. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. České Budějovice (CZ), 14.04.2003-16.04.2003] Grant ostatní: Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 1/0441/03; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 1/9202/02; Science and Technology Assistance Agency(SK) APVT-20-035802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : caves * actinomycetes * algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  2. Carbon dioxide seasonality in dynamically ventilated caves: the role of advective fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marek; Faimon, Jiří; Godissart, Jean; Ek, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The seasonality in cave CO2 levels was studied based on (1) a new data set from the dynamically ventilated Comblain-au-Pont Cave (Dinant Karst Basin, Belgium), (2) archive data from Moravian Karst caves, and (3) published data from caves worldwide. A simplified dynamic model was proposed for testing the effect of all conceivable CO2 fluxes on cave CO2 levels. Considering generally accepted fluxes, i.e., the direct diffusive flux from soils/epikarst, the indirect flux derived from dripwater degassing, and the input/output fluxes linked to cave ventilation, gives the cave CO2 level maxima of 1.9 × 10-2 mol m-3 (i.e., ˜ 440 ppmv), which only slightly exceed external values. This indicates that an additional input CO2 flux is necessary for reaching usual cave CO2 level maxima. The modeling indicates that the additional flux could be a convective advective CO2 flux from soil/epikarst driven by airflow (cave ventilation) and enhanced soil/epikarstic CO2 concentrations. Such flux reaching up to 170 mol s-1 is capable of providing the cave CO2 level maxima up to 3 × 10-2 mol m-3 (70,000 ppmv). This value corresponds to the maxima known from caves worldwide. Based on cave geometry, three types of dynamic caves were distinguished: (1) the caves with the advective CO2 flux from soil/epikarst at downward airflow ventilation mode, (2) the caves with the advective soil/epikarstic flux at upward airflow ventilation mode, and (3) the caves without any soil/epikarstic advective flux. In addition to CO2 seasonality, the model explains both the short-term and seasonal variations in δ13C in cave air CO2.

  3. Analysis of the Condition and Development Opportunities of Cave Tourism in Primorsko-Goranska County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Knežević

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines caves as morphological factors of tourism development in Primorsko-Goranska County. The primary aim is to promote cave heritage parallel with the development of cave tourism. The methodological framework is based on analyzing material in the archives of tourist boards, taking an inventory of cave resources (case study, conducting interviews, and making a SWOT analysis of cave tourism development. Research results show that caves represent a complex resource in the tourist trade of Primorsko-Goranska County, to which little importance has been attached up to date (priority being given to mass tourism. In the context of tourism development, caves fall into four groups. The first group comprises caves that have a long tradition, but show signs of aging as a tourism product. The second group includes caves that were once open to the public, but were later closed for some reason. The third group consists of caves on the seaside or seabed visited by speleologists-divers. The fourth group is made up of potential cave sites that have been evaluated as being attractive, but is located in hard-to-access areas, making their valorisation in tourism purpose more difficult. Only Lokvarka Cave has a substantial influence on the development of special interest tourism in Lokve, while in all other cases, the role of caves in the tourism offering needs to be revalorised.

  4. WP-Cave - assessment of feasibility, safety and development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to SKB R and D-programme 1986, alternative disposal methods will be investigated to provide a basis for selecting a site and a repository system for the Swedish spent nuclear fuel. The present report is a comparison between the WP-Cave and the reference concept KBS-3. The comparison has resulted in the following conclusions: - Both concepts are judged to be able to provide adequate safety. - A utilization of the potential of the WP-Cave requires, however, extensive development in areas where the current state of knowledge and available data are incomplete. - The higher temperatures in the WP-Cave lead to greater uncertainty as to long-term performance. Reducing this uncertainty would require many yaers of research and substantial resources. - Both repositories, including the barriers they incorporate, could be built with a normal adaption of available technology. -It is not possible to say today whether it would be simpler to find suitable sites for one design or the other. - The WP-Cave is considerably more expensive. A future research direction based on a concentrated emplacement of spent fuel along the lines of the WP-Cave is therefore judged to entail greater uncertainty as regards the possibilities of achieving acceptable safety and to require greater resources for research and development, at the same time as the costs of building the repository would be higher. The studies of the WP-Cave as an integral system should therfore be discontinued. Certain barrier designs in the WP-Cave could also be utulized in repository designs with lower temperature, for example the reduction potential of the steel canisters and the hydraulic cage's diversion of groundwater. Studies within these areas are being conducted within SKB and should continue

  5. Flow Classification and Cave Discharge Characteristics in Unsaturated Karst Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, G.; Mahmud, K.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we utilize the spatial array of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of the Golgotha Cave, SW Australia, developed in Quaternary aeolianite (dune limestone), with the aim of understanding infiltration water movement via the relationships between infiltration, stalactite morphology and groundwater recharge. Mahmud et al. (2015) used the Terrestrial LiDAR measurements to analyze stalactite morphology and to characterize possible flow locations in this cave. Here we identify the stalactites feeding the drip loggers and classify each as matrix (soda straw or icicle), fracture or combined-flow. These morphology-based classifications are compared with flow characteristics from the drip logger time series and the discharge from each stalactite is calculated. The total estimated discharge from each area is compared with infiltration estimates to better understand flow from the surface to the cave ceilings of the studied areas. The drip discharge data agrees with the morphology-based flow classification in terms of flow and geometrical characteristics of cave ceiling stalactites. No significant relationships were observed between the drip logger discharge, skewness and coefficient of variation with overburden thickness, due to the possibility of potential vadose-zone storage volume and increasing complexity of the karst architecture. However, these properties can be used to characterize different flow categories. A correlation matrix demonstrates that similar flow categories are positively correlated, implying significant influence of spatial distribution. The infiltration water comes from a larger surface area, suggesting that infiltration is being focused to the studied ceiling areas of each chamber. Most of the ceiling in the cave site is dry, suggesting the possibility of capillary effects with water moving around the cave rather than passing through it. Reference:Mahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to

  6. Analysis on Gateway Floor Heave Causes of Fully Mechanized Top Coal Caving Mining Face in Thick Seam and Study on Control Technology%厚煤层综放工作面巷道底鼓原因分析及控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琨; 韩拴祥; 陈跟马; 张进军; 冯晓光; 陈新年; 任建喜

    2013-01-01

    Base on a floor heave treatment project of the gateway in No.110 coal mining face in Da Mine of Binchang Mining Area as a technical background,the floor heave occurred mechanism of the gateway was studied and the gateway support design was studied according to the main causes of the floor heave occurred.A comprehensive floor heave control plan with "a tree root pile type leg binding steel tube + pressure releasing slot" was provided.A FLAC numerical simulation software was applied to verify the plan and a site industrial trial was conducted.The site monitoring and measuring results and the control effect showed that the plan would not only improve the support structure strength of the gateway,but could improve the stress environment of the gateway.%以彬长矿区大佛寺矿110工作面运输巷底鼓治理工程为技术背景,研究了巷道底鼓的发生机理,并针对引起底鼓的主要原因进行巷道支护设计研究,提出了“树根桩式锁脚钢管+泄压槽”底鼓综合治理方案,采用FLAG3D数值模拟软件对方案进行验证,进行了现场工业性试验.现场监测结果和治理效果表明,该方案不仅提高了巷道支护结构强度,也改善了巷道应力环境,底鼓治理效果良好,保证了煤矿的安全生产.

  7. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John

    2016-05-01

    The steeply-dipping-dolostone-hosted caves of the Sierra de Arnero (N Spain) contain low-gradient relict canyons with up to ten mapped levels of ferromanganese stromatolites and associated wall notches over a vertical range of 85 m, the highest occurring ~ 460 m above base level. Despite a plausible speleogenetic contribution by pyrite oxidation, and the irregular cave-wall mesomorphologies suggestive of hypogenic speleogenesis, the Arnero relict caves are dominantly epigenic, as indicated by the conduit pattern and the abundant allogenic sediments. Allogenic input declined over time due to a piracy-related decrease in the drainage area of allogenic streams, explaining the large size of the relict Arnero caves relative to the limited present-day outcrop area of the karstified carbonates. Allogenic-sediment input also explains the observed change from watertable canyons to phreatic conduits in the paleo-downstream direction. Stromatolites and notches arguably formed in cave-stream passages at the watertable. The best-defined paleo-watertables show an overall slope of 1.7°, consistent with the present-day relief of the watertable, with higher-slope segments caused by barriers related to sulfide mineralization. The formation of watertable stromatolites favored wall notching by the combined effect of enhanced acidity by Mn-Fe oxidation and shielding of cave floors against erosion. Abrasive bedload further contributed to notch formation by promoting lateral mechanical erosion and protecting passage floors. The irregular wallrock erosional forms of Arnero caves are related partly to paragenesis and partly to the porous nature of the host dolostones, which favored irregular dissolution near passage walls, generating friable halos. Subsequent mechanical erosion contributed to generate spongework patterns. The dolostone porosity also contributes to explain the paradox that virtually all Arnero caves are developed in dolostone despite being less soluble than adjacent

  8. ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States)]. E-mail: anne.r.skinner@williams.edu; Blackwell, B.A.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Martin, Sara [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Ortega, A. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Golovanova, L.V. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Doronichev, V.B. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Mezmaiskaya Cave has yielded more than 10,000 artifacts, thousands of very well preserved faunal remains, and hominin remains, found in seven Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) and three Upper Paleolithic levels. A complete Neanderthal infant skeleton was preserved in anatomical juxtaposition lying on a large limestone block, overlain by the earliest Mousterian layer, Layer 3. Twenty-four skull fragments from a 1-2 year-old Neanderthal infant, showing post-mortem deformation, occurred in a pit originating in the Mousterian Layer 2 and penetrating into underlying layers 2A and 2B(1). Bone from Layer 2A was dated by AMS {sup 14}C at 35.8-36.3{+-}0.5 kyr BP. Direct dating of Neanderthal bone from Layer 3 gave an age of 29 kyr, but that is now considered to be due to contamination by modern carbon. Fourteen large mammal teeth from Layers 2 through 3 have been dated by standard electron spin resonance (ESR). Low U concentrations in both the enamel and dentine ensure that ESR ages do not depend significantly on the U uptake model, but do depend strongly on the sedimentary dose rates. Assuming a sedimentary water concentration equal to 20 wt%, ESR ages for the Mousterian layers range from 36.2 to 73.0{+-}5.0 ka.

  9. Building 887: An Aladdin's Cave for Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Building 887 on the Prévessin site is home to numerous experiments bringing together physicists and engineers from around the world. Its diversity makes the huge building a replica of CERN in miniature. The Installation unit of the SL EA group in front of the support structure for the ATLAS muon chambers. From left to right, seated: Pierre Gimenez, Yves Bonnet, Yves Naveau, Alain Pinget, Christian Becquet, Camille Adenot; standing: Philippe Guillot, Thierry Reynes, Monserrat Zurita-Perez, Claude Ferrari et Denis Gacon. The big wheel to be used for the ATLAS muon chambers (see below) is much the most spectacular installation currently occupying Building 887. But it is far from being the only attraction. Push open the heavy doors of this immense hall and it is a bit like entering a physicists' Aladdin's cave. The building, 55 metres wide and 300 metres long, is a treasure trove of engineering and technology, a CERN in miniature, housing dozens of collaborations from all over the world. With its 150...

  10. Progress in the research and application of coal mining with stowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junker Martin; Witthaus Holger

    2013-01-01

    The development and achievements of modern coal mining with stowing are discussed in this paper.The necessity of developing coal mining with stowing is briefly summarized and internal damage within the strata and external damage on surface induced by longwall working with caving are discussed.Technological features of coal mining with pneumatic stowing in Germany,and fully mechanised coal mining with solid dense stowing in China,are discussed.In German hard coal mining stowing technologies are for technical,infrastructural and economical reasons not applicable.The discussion includes the stowing material transportation system,the stowing machine,and processes at the face.Progressiveness and application universality of China's fully mechanised coal mining with solid dense stowing are illustrated through practical examples with different conditions.Obviously,the fully mechanised coal mine with solid dense stowing can be improved by automaion systems.This paper discusses further developmental potential of the technology.

  11. Study on the dynamic height of caved zone based on porosity%基于空隙率的冒落带动态高度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏小刚; 黄庆享

    2014-01-01

    基于冒落带的形成过程,对冒落带的动态高度进行了系统的研究。研究表明,冒落带最终冒落高度主要取决于垮落岩石散体残余碎胀系数的大小,而残余碎胀系数的大小决定于垮落岩石散体的空隙率。据此,建立了基于分形几何的空隙率计算模型,并在所建的空隙率计算模型基础上,给出了残余碎胀系数与岩体初始碎胀系数的关系,推导出冒落岩石散体充填整个采空区最终冒带高度的计算模型。最后,结合工程实例,对所建模型进行了验证。%Based on the formation process of caved zone, the dynamic height of caved zone is studied systematically. The studies have shown that the ultimate caving height mainly depends on residual bro-ken expansion coefficient of breaking down rock dispersions, while the residual broken expansion coef-ficient is determined by the porosity of breaking down rock dispersions. Accordingly, the porosity cal-culation model is set up by fractal geometry. The relationship between residual broken expansion coef-ficient and initial broken expansion coefficient of rock is given based on the porosity calculation model. The calculation model of ultimate caved zone height of caving rock filling the whole mined-out area is deduced. At last, the model is verified by an engineering example.

  12. Volcanic caves: priorities for conserving the Azorean endemic troglobiont species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cañete Enrique P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics and drivers of ventilation in caves are of growing interest for different f ields of science. Accumulated CO2 in caves can be exchanged with the atmosphere, modifying the internal CO2 content, affecting stalagmite growth rates, deteriorating rupestrian paintings, or creating new minerals. Current estimates of cave ventilation neglect the role of high CO2 concentrations in determining air density – approximated via the virtual temperature (Tv –, affecting buoyancy and therefore the release or storage of CO2. Here we try to improve knowledge and understanding of cave ventilation through the use of Tv in CO2-rich air to explain buoyancy for different values of temperature (T and CO2 content. Also, we show differences between T and Tv for 14 different experimental sites in the vadose zone, demonstrating the importance of using the correct def inition of Tv to determine air buoyancy in caves. The calculation of Tv (including CO2 effects is currently available via internet using an excel template, requiring the input of CO2 (%, air temperature (oC and relative humidity (%.

  13. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Gregor, M.; Schlögl, J.; Šmída, B.; Liščák, P.; Brewer-Carías, Ch.; Vlček, L.

    2011-09-01

    Venezuelan table mountains (tepuis) host the largest arenite caves in the world. The most frequently used explanation of their origin so far was the "arenization" theory, involving dissolution of quartz cement around the sand grains and subsequent removing of the released grains by water. New research in the two largest arenite cave systems - Churi-Tepui System in Chimanta Massif and Ojos de Cristal System in Roraima Tepui showed that quartz dissolution plays only a minor role in their speleogenesis. Arenites forming the tepuis are not only quartzites but they display a wide range of lithification and breakdown, including also loose sands and sandstones. Speleogenetic processes are mostly concentrated on the beds of unlithified sands which escaped from diagenesis by being sealed by the surrounding perfectly lithified quartzites. Only the so-called "finger-flow" pillars testify to confined diagenetic fluids which flowed in narrow channels, leaving the surrounding arenite uncemented. Another factor which influenced the cave-forming processes by about 30% was lateritization. It affects beds formed of arkosic sandstones and greywackes which show strong dissolution of micas, feldspars and clay minerals, turning then to laterite ("Barro Rojo"). The main prerequisite to rank caves among karst phenomena is dissolution. As the dissolution of silicate minerals other than quartz appears to play not only a volumetrically important role but even a trigger role, these arenitic caves may be ranked as karst.

  14. Ice caves on Earth - analogues for (sub) surface conditions on Mars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Persoiu, A.; Onac, B. P.; Wynn, J. G.; Žák, Karel

    Houston : Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011. s. 8016-8016. [International Planetary Cave Research Workshop /1./. 25.10.2011-28.10.2011, Carlsbad] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : caves * ice caves * geology * astrophysics Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/caves2011/pdf/8016.pdf

  15. Hominid exploitation of the environment and cave bear populations. The case of Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth in Amutxate cave (Aralar, Navarra-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Trinidad; Ortiz, José E; Cobo, Rafael; de Hoz, Pedro; García-Redondo, Ana; Grün, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Cave bears (Ursus deningeri and U. spelaeus) and hominids (Homo heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens) were potential competitors for environmental resources (subterranean and open air). Here, we examined the age at death of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth) specimens from Amutxate cave in order to shed light on the effect of resource sharing between cave bears and hominids. After studying dental wear of the deciduous and permanent dentitions, the ontogenetic development of mandibles, and incremental layers of cement (annuli), we defined five age groups differentiated by marked development and size gaps. Our findings indicate that after hibernating, bears abandoned the den, thereby leaving the subterranean environment (caves) free for temporary hominid occupation-this would explain the subtle traces of hominid presence in many dens. However, a simple calculation based on age at death of subadult and adult cave bear specimens in Amutxate cave, extrapolated to the whole cave area, showed that the area surrounding this cave hosted bears for at least 9,000 years. This length of habitation, quite similar to the time-span derived from amino acid racemization and electron spin resonance, indicates that bear populations in the Amutxate cave constituted a serious constraint for hominid exploitation of the environment. PMID:16996576

  16. Graph mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Graph mining is the study of how to perform data mining and machine learning on data represented with graphs. One can distinguish between, on the one hand, transactional graph mining, where a database of separate, independent graphs is considered (such as databases of molecules and databases of images), and, on the other hand, large network analysis, where a single large network is considered (such as chemical interaction networks and concept networks).

  17. Cave sediments in Slovenia: Results of 10 Years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2010), s. 173-186. ISSN 0560-3137 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * karst and cave evolution * karst * karst (Slovenia) * cave evolution Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. Fossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments - a study of four cave sites from Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, O. T.; Constantin, S.; Panaiotu, C.; Roban, R. D.; Frenzel, P.; Miko, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fossil invertebrates from cave sediments have been recently described as a potential new proxy for paleoenvironment and used in cross-correlations with alternate proxy records from cave deposits. Here we present the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves from two climatically different regions of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. Some of the identified taxa are new to science, and most of them are indicative for either warm and/or cold stages or dry and/or wetter oscillations. In two caves the fossil invertebrates records indicate rapid climate oscillations during times known for a relatively stable climate. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures and hydraulic regimes could be gathered. This paper analyzes the potential of fossil invertebrate records as a paleoenvironmental proxy, potential problems and pitfalls.

  19. Microbial Communities and Associated Mineral Fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuezva Soledad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, bothon walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. Thecolonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes.Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of rhombohedral calcite crystals, andspheroid to hemispheroid CaCO3 elements. Colonies distribution seems to be controlled by microenvironmental conditions inside thecavity. The areas of the cave showing higher temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration fluctuations presented a minorbiomineralization capability.

  20. Insights into Neandertals and Denisovans from Denisova Cave

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Denisova Cave is located in the Altai mountains of Russia. Excavations from this cave have yielded two large hominin molars and three hominin phalanxes from the Pleistocene. One of the phalanxes (Denisova 3) had extraordinary DNA preservation allowing the sequencing of high quality nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes and has been shown to belong to a young girl from hereto unknown sister group of Neandertals, called Denisovans. The mtDNA of Denisova 3 surprisingly split from the mtD...

  1. Luminescence of Speleothems in Italian Gypsum Caves: Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Shopov, Yavor Y; Forti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence of 3 speleothem samples from the Acquafredda karst system and 1 from the Novella Cave (Gessi Bolognesi Natural Park, Italy) has been recorded using excitation by impulse Xe- lamp. All these carbonate speleothems are believed to be formed only from active CO2 from the air, because the bedrock of the cave consist of gypsum and does not contain carbonates. The obtained photos of luminescence record the climate changes during the speleothem growth. U/Th and 14C dating proved that studied speleothems started to grow since about 5,000 years ago. The detailed analyses of the luminescence records is still in progress.

  2. 3D reconstruction method and connectivity rules of fracture networks generated under different mining layouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ru; Ai Ting; Li Hegui; Zhang Zetian; Liu Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In current research, a series of triaxial tests, which were employed to simulate three typical mining lay-outs (i.e., top-coal caving, non-pillar mining and protected coal seam mining), were conducted on coal by using MTS815 Flex Test GT rock mechanics test system, and the fracture networks in the broken coal samples were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by employing CT scanning and 3D reconstruc-tion techniques. This work aimed at providing a detail description on the micro-structure and fracture-connectivity characteristics of rupture coal samples under different mining layouts. The results show that: (i) for protected coal seam mining layout, the coal specimens failure is in a compression-shear manner and oppositely, (ii) the tension-shear failure phenomenon is observed for top-coal caving and non-pillar mining layouts. By investigating the connectivity features of the generated fractures in the direction of r1 under different mining layouts, it is found that the connectivity level of the fractures of the samples corresponding to non-pillar mining layout was the highest.

  3. Mining`s global tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.; Grimstone, L.; MacBeth, A.

    1995-05-01

    Consists of an edited extract of the chapter `Mining Today, Australia`s Tomorrow - Exploration and Mining Globally to 2020` from the CSIRO book. `Challenge to change: Australia in 2020`. Forecasts the state of the Australian mineral industry in 2020 covering aspects such as: exploration concepts and area selection; excavation design and engineering; developments in mining technology and equipment; environmental management; and minerals processing. Presents an optimistic view of the long-term future of the Australian mining industry. Predicts that by 2020 Australia will emerge as the leader of an Austral/Asian trading bloc incorporating India, SE Asia, Pacific islands, Australia and New Zealand.

  4. Surviving cave bats: auditory and behavioural defences in the Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H; Jackson, Matt E; Jacobs, David S; Pavey, Chris R; Burwell, Chris J

    2008-12-01

    The Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans shares its subterranean day roosts (caves and abandoned mines) with insectivorous bats, some of which prey upon it. The capacity of this moth to survive is assumed to arise from its ability to listen for the bats' echolocation calls and take evasive action; however, the auditory characteristics of this moth or any tropically distributed Australian moth have never been examined. We investigated the ears of S. spectans and determined that they are among the most sensitive ever described for a noctuid moth. Using playbacks of cave-recorded bats, we determined that S. spectans is able to detect most of the calls of two co-habiting bats, Rhinolophus megaphyllus and Miniopterus australis, whose echolocation calls are dominated by frequencies ranging from 60 to 79 kHz. Video-recorded observations of this roost site show that S. spectans adjusts its flight activity to avoid bats but this defence may delay the normal emergence of the moths and leave some 'pinned down' in the roosts for the entire night. At a different day roost, we observed the auditory responses of one moth to the exceptionally high echolocation frequencies (150-160 kHz) of the bat Hipposideros ater and determined that S. spectans is unable to detect most of its calls. We suggest that this auditory constraint, in addition to the greater flight manoeuvrability of H. ater, renders S. spectans vulnerable to predation by this bat to the point of excluding the moth from day roosts where the bat occurs. PMID:19043053

  5. Seasonal variations of 14C and δ13C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Masayo; Kato, Tomomi; Horikawa, Keiji; Nakamura, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem 14C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric 14C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of 14C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem 14C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO2. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in 14C and δ13C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the 14C and δ13C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different 14C concentrations and δ13C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO2, and flow paths. Further, the 14C and δ13C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The 14C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: 14C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in 14C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using 14C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  6. Time-domain characteristics of overlying strata failure under condition of longwall ascending mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Shun; Li Xuehua; Mao Yanxin; Li Chengjun

    2013-01-01

    Ascending mining is one of the most effective ways to solve problems of water inrush,gas outburst and rock burst in coal seams mining.In order to reveal the law of motion and spatiotemporal relationship of overlaying strata,field measurement has been done in a mine.Long distance drillings were constructed from 4# coal seam to 6# coal seam at several certain typical positions,and movement and failure law of overlying strata after mining was analyzed by drilling video and observing the fluid leakage.Besides,we also analyzed the spatiotemporal development law of overlying strata failure with different mining heights and time intervals in the lower coal seam.The results show that:ascending mining is significantly affected by time-domain characteristics of overlaying strata failure after the lower coal seam's mining,height equations of caving zone and fractured zone are given in this paper,and the feasibility of ascending mining was compartmentalized concretely according to the spatiotemporal relationship.Research methods and conclusions of this paper have certain referential significance for the study of ascending mining,mining under water,mining under building,mining under railway and stress-relief mining.

  7. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. It is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  8. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  9. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are common members of bacterial communities in Altamira Cave (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, M Carmen; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2009-01-15

    The conservation of paleolithic paintings such as those in Altamira Cave (Spain) is a primary objective. Recent molecular studies have shown the existence of unknown microbial communities in this cave including anaerobic microorganisms on cave walls. Herein, we analyzed an anaerobic microbial group, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), from Altamira Cave with potential negative effects on painting conservation. In the present work, the communities of bacteria and SRB were studied through PCR-DGGE analysis. Data suggest that SRB communities represent a significant, highly diverse bacterial group in Altamira Cave. These findings represent a first report on this physiological group on caves with paleolithic paintings and their potential biodegradation consequences. Expanding our knowledge on microbial communities in Altamira Cave is a priority to design appropriate conservation strategies. PMID:19027143

  10. Assessment of the dose from radon and its decay products in the Bozkov dolomite cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose from radon and its progeny remains a frequently discussed problem. ICRP 65 provides a commonly used methodology to calculate the dose from radon. Our work focuses on a cave environment and on assessing the doses in public open caves. The differences in conditions (aerosol size distribution, humidity, radon and its progeny ratio, etc.) are described by the so-called cave factor j. The cave factor is used to correct the dose for workers which is calculated using the ICRP 65 recommendation. In this work, the authors have brought together measured data of aerosol size distribution, unattached and attached fraction activity, and have calculated the so-called cave factor for the Bozkov dolomite cave environment. The dose conversion factors based on measured data and used for evaluating the cave factor were calculated by LUDEP software, which implements HRTM ICRP66. (authors)

  11. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  12. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Hercman, H.; Orvošová, M.; Jačková, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2009), s. 139-152. ISSN 0392-6672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cryogenic cave carbonate * U-series dating * carbon and oxygen stable isotopes * Western Carpathians * Nízké Tatry Mts. Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.900, year: 2009 http://www.ijs.speleo.it/pdf/71.589.38(2)_Zak.et.al.pdf

  13. Blow Hole Cave: An unroofed cave on San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, and its importance for detection of paleokarst caves on fossil carbonate platforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Mylroie, J. E.; Hladil, Jindřich; Carew, J. L.; Slavík, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2002), s. 51-74. ISSN 0583-6050. [Karstological School - Classical Karst: Types of Karst /10./. Pstojna, 26.06.2002-28.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013809; GA AV ČR IAA3013209 Keywords : carbonate platforms * unroofed caves * gamma-ray spectrometry and wellogging Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://carsologica.zrc-sazu.si/downloads/313/slavik.pdf

  14. Inside the neutrino cave, close to the target complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows on the left the shielding of the target complex, T9 and T11 for the wide and narrow beams. The direction of the primary proton beam faces the camera. Between the shielding and the cave wall are housed the magnets cooling pipes. The pulley block allows displacements inside the shielding.

  15. Evaluation of the Bozkov Dolomite Cave Guides Potential Dose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thinová, L.; Berka, Z.; Brandejsová, E.; Milka, D.; Froňka, A.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    Prague, 2003. s. 495. [International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States /6./. 01.09.2003-04.09.2003, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : radon concentration * cave * effective dose Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  16. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp

    OpenAIRE

    Sridevi Ankisetty; Marc Slattery

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  17. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not be larger than one-quarter inch. (3) Live bait. (i) Worms are the only form of live bait which may... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  18. Modelling cave flow hydraulics in the Notranjski Kras, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Gabrovsek, Franci

    2015-04-01

    The Notranjski Kras region is a karst region in western Slovenia, developed in Cretaceous limestone. The region is characterised by hilly relief, with peaks reaching 1300 m elevation. Several well-developed cave systems drain the karst aquifer, providing preferential flow pathes along two sections: The Pivka River, which sinks into Postojnska Jama and reappears in Planinska Jama, and the Stržen and Cerkniščica rivers, which sink into Karlovica Jama, flow through Zelške Jama and Tkalca Jama and also reappear in Planinska Jama. Both sub-surface flow pathes merge in Planinska Jama, providing water for the Unica river. The Unica river leaves Planinska Jama via a large karst srping and passes through Planinsko Polje, disappearing again through two groups of ponors, finally emerging in the Ljubljanka Springs at around 300 m asl. The sub-surface flow path through the Postojnska Jama cave system has been monitored with 7 stations distributed along the flow path, monitoring stage and temperature. We have used the stage data to model flow through the cave system with the program package SWMM, simulating the active parts of Postojnska Jama with simplified geometry. From the comparison of stage observations and predictions, we identified key sections in the cave, which control the sub-surface flow, such as passage constrictions, sumps and by-passes. Using a formal inverse procedure, we determined the geometry of this key sections by fitting predicted to observed stages, and we achieved a very high degree of correlation.

  19. Microbiome of diverse sediments in Slovakian wild caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Petrásek, Jiří; Jirout, Jiří; Volná, Lucie; Elhottová, Dana

    Košice: Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 2012. s. 33-34. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /21./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Košice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microbiota * sediments * Slovakian wild caves Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. New localities of coarsely crystalline cryogenic cave carbonates in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvošová, M.; Vlček, L.; Žák, Karel

    Vol. 3. Prague : Česká speleologická společnost, 2013 - (Filippi, M.; Bosák, P.), s. 490-495 ISBN 978-80-87857-09-0. [International Congress of Speleology /16./. Brno (CZ), 21.07.2013-28.07.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * carbonates * cryogenic carbonates Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineral ogy

  1. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  2. Diving investigations of Bermuda’s deep water caves

    OpenAIRE

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed gas rebreathers allowed divers to explore the shelf edge of the Bermuda sea mount at depths from 60 to 136 m to search for potential refugia of anchialine taxa during Pleistocene periods of sea level regression. Divers discovered karst and sea level features including a remnant natural bridge cave, drowned coral reefs, wave-cut notches and high relief escarpments.

  3. Degassification and methane drainage in thick and vertical coal seams worked by horizontal sublevel caving method; Drenaje y Desgasificacion de Grisu en Capas de Carbon Potentes y Verticales, Explotadas por subniveles Horizontales con sutiraje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The present trend of the working in spanish coal underground mines is directed towards the utilization, if the deposit characteristics permit it, of mining method by horizontal sublevels with caving. The application of this method involves an important coal volume in specific situations inside the workings cycle (shots, roof cavings, workings beginning, etc). Therefore, those considerable quantities of coal put into circulation, joined to high firedamp concentration desorbable of coal seam, produce in a instantaneous way large volumes of firedamp in the mine atmosphere with the consequent associated risk for the mine people, the stoppage of the works and its evacuation. These aforementioned risks could be avoided, or at least decreased to a great extent, through a methane capture before its circulation in openings caused by the mining works or by draining from accumulation rooms. During the last years, basically in EU countries, some researches have been accomplished about previous Degassification and methane capture in longwall faces of horizontal seams. In these researches have been studied the methane capture both from surface and from underground. In sublevel caving workings, substantially different from longwall faces workings, the techniques and capture systems utilized in the first one are not applicable to the second. The field works and measurements of this project have been mainly carried out in two mining companies located at the north of Spain, the Mina la Camocha S. A. and the S. A. Hullera Vasco Leonesa. Many methane capture tests by means of boreholes in coal seam have been carried out to determine the influence that capture boreholes exert in degassification of coal panel. Otherwise, many firedamp drainage tests in accumulation rooms have been also carried out, and a small-scale system that makes possible the capture in safe conditions have been defined and tested. (Author)

  4. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RADOLOVIĆ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian coastal karst abounds in submerged caves that host a variety of environmental conditions depending on the geomorphology, depth and submarine groundwater discharge. One example is the Y-Cave, a shallow, mostly submerged, horizontal cave on Dugi Otok Island, on the eastern Adriatic coast. This study was aimed at examining the temporal and spatial variability of the marine cave environment, including temperature, salinity, light intensity, cave morphology and hydrodynamism, along with the dissolutional effect caused by the mixing of sea and freshwater. The general distribution of organisms in the Y-Cave was positively correlated to the light gradient and reduced water circulation, thus the highest species diversity and abundance were recorded in the front part of the cave. The phylum Porifera was the most dominant group, and the poriferan species diversity in the cave ranks among the ten highest in the Mediterranean. The middle part of the cave, although completely dark, hosts an abundant population of the gastropod Homalopoma sanguineum and clusters of the gregarious brachiopod Novocrania anomala, whose presence could be connected to tidal hydrodynamics. The absence/scarcity of sessile marine organisms and pronounced corrosion marks at shallow depths inside the cave suggest a freshwater impact in the upper layers of the water column. A year long experiment with carbonate tablets revealed three different, independent ongoing processes affected by the position in the cave: bioaccumulation, dissolution and mechanical erosion. The results of long-term temperature readings also revealed water column stratification within the cave, which was not disturbed by either tidal or wave action. The shallow, partly submerged and relatively small Y-Cave is characterised by a suite of complex environmental conditions, which, together with the resulting distribution of organisms, are unique to this cave.

  5. Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genty Dominique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl that has provided several speleothempalaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring theVillars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and inthe hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explainsthe sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from thelower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring.A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations and thedrip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between twonearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a dailyscale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave airtemperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence ofthe outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoringover a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minorelements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, whichimplies a different seepage pathway

  6. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  7. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  8. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M.; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species. PMID:27280416

  9. [Variation Characteristics of Cave Water Hydrogeochemistry in Naduo Cave of Guizhou and Its Implications for Environment Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Jian-li; Wang, Jia-lu; Jiang, Xian-shu; Mao, Qing-ya; Chen, Zhi-qiu; Liu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    During the period from December 2012 to December 2014, three dripping water sites (S1, S2, S3) and one pool water site (SC) have been selected for a long-term monitoring of geochemical indexes in Naduo Cave, Guanling county of Guizhou Province, China. Based on the local meteorological data, this paper analyzed the seasonal change of hydro-geochemical indicators and their feedbacks to climate events. The results indicated that the hydro-geochemical type of cave water was HCO₃⁻-Ca²⁺. Dripping water and pool water were in deposition all the year, except in the month with the maximum precipitation. There were some discrepancies of main ions' concentration among three dripping water sites due to the difference of the migration pathways and migration time. Affected by mixed water and high CO₂ concentration of cave air, the ion concentration of pool water was higher than dripping water, and there was considerable fluctuation. The geochemistry indexes of water in Naduo Cave showed extraordinary seasonal variation rules and could perfectly respond to the external climate environment. The concentration of ions was sensitive to the response of the annual precipitation change caused by extreme climate events. During the rainy season, the concentrations of Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺ and SO₄²⁻ in 2013 were relatively higher and more stable than those in 2014. The response time and susceptivity of each monitoring site were inconsistent. PMID:27011980

  10. Cryogenic carbonate precipitation in caves: Jaskyňa Studného Vetra Cave (Low Tatras, Slovakia) case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvošová, M.; Žák, Karel

    Wroclaw : Sosnowiec, 2007 - ( Socha, P.; Stefaniak, K.; Tyc, A.). s. 104-105 ISBN 978-83-87431-84-6. [Karst and Cryokarst, Speleological School /25./ and GLACKIPR Symposium /8./. 19.03.2007-26.03.2007, Sosnowiec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cryogenic carbonate * cave * Low Tatra Mts. Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. FROM DATA MINING TO BEHAVIOR MINING

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENGXIN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge economy requires data mining be more goal-oriented so that more tangible results can be produced. This requirement implies that the semantics of the data should be incorporated into the mining process. Data mining is ready to deal with this challenge because recent developments in data mining have shown an increasing interest on mining of complex data (as exemplified by graph mining, text mining, etc.). By incorporating the relationships of the data along with the data itself (rathe...

  12. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  13. Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method and backfill method and then gaining that backfill mining method is beneficial to improve the protection level of surface buildings and facilities. Then, using the theory of strata control and method of related mechanics to analyze the strata movement law and strata control principle of backfill mining, considering that supporting role of backfill body is mainly on lateral reinforcement of coal pillar and vertical supporting role of overlying strata, forming a cooperative control system of "bearing strata + coal pillar + backfill body" and deducing the equilibrium equations when it is in steady state. At last, using the numerical analysis method, respectively analyzing the surface subsidence of the corresponding important buildings of the three profiles of C-8 exploration line ,C-6 exploration line and A-A (cross section of the profile of C-8 exploration line after using backfill coal mining in 24 mining district. The results show that: the surface subsidence and horizontal deformation basically control within 30 mm and the surface deformation curvature of buildings generally in 0.1×10-3 /km in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, which accord with the relevant standards and requirements.

  14. Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowberry, Matt D; Martí, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco J; Briestenský, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Cave radon concentration measurements reflect the outcome of a perpetual competition which pitches flux against ventilation and radioactive decay. The mass balance equations used to model changes in radon concentration through time routinely treat flux as a constant. This mathematical simplification is acceptable as a first order approximation despite the fact that it sidesteps an intrinsic geological problem: the majority of radon entering a cavity is exhaled as a result of advection along crustal discontinuities whose motions are inhomogeneous in both time and space. In this paper the dynamic nature of flux is investigated and the results are used to predict cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The first part of our numerical modelling procedure focuses on calculating cave air flow velocity while the second part isolates flux in a mass balance equation to simulate real time dependence among the variables. It is then possible to use this information to deliver an expression for computing cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The dynamic variables in the numerical model are represented by the outer temperature, the inner temperature, and the radon concentration while the static variables are represented by the radioactive decay constant and a range of parameters related to geometry of the cavity. Input data were recorded at Driny Cave in the Little Carpathians Mountains of western Slovakia. Here the cave passages have developed along splays of the NE-SW striking Smolenice Fault and a series of transverse faults striking NW-SE. Independent experimental observations of fault slip are provided by three permanently installed mechanical extensometers. Our numerical modelling has revealed four important flux anomalies between January 2010 and August 2011. Each of these flux anomalies was preceded by conspicuous fault slip anomalies. The mathematical procedure outlined in this paper will help to improve our understanding of radon migration

  15. A multi-method approach for speleogenetic research on alpine karst caves. Torca La Texa shaft, Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Giralt, Santiago; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica

    2015-10-01

    Speleogenetic research on alpine caves has advanced significantly during the last decades. These investigations require techniques from different geoscience disciplines that must be adapted to the methodological constraints of working in deep caves. The Picos de Europa mountains are one of the most important alpine karsts, including 14% of the World's Deepest Caves (caves with more than 1 km depth). A speleogenetic research is currently being developed in selected caves in these mountains; one of them, named Torca La Texa shaft, is the main goal of this article. For this purpose, we have proposed both an optimized multi-method approach for speleogenetic research in alpine caves, and a speleogenetic model of the Torca La Texa shaft. The methodology includes: cave surveying, dye-tracing, cave geometry analyses, cave geomorphological mapping, Uranium series dating (234U/230Th) and geomorphological, structural and stratigraphical studies of the cave surroundings. The SpeleoDisc method was employed to establish the structural control of the cavity. Torca La Texa (2653 m length, 215 m depth) is an alpine cave formed by two cave levels, vadose canyons and shafts, soutirage conduits, and gravity-modified passages. The cave was formed prior to the Middle Pleistocene and its development was controlled by the drop of the base level, producing the development of the two cave levels. Coevally to the cave levels formation, soutirage conduits originated connecting phreatic and epiphreatic conduits and vadose canyons and shafts were formed. Most of the shafts were created before the local glacial maximum (43-45 ka) and only two cave passages are related to dolines developed in recent times. The cave development is strongly related to the structure, locating the cave in the core of a gentle fold with the conduits' geometry and orientation controlled by the bedding and five families of joints.

  16. Coastal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  17. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    The origin of anchialine and marine cave fauna is still a highly debated topic in Evolutionary Biology. Restricted and disjunct distribution and uncertain affinities of some marine cave endemic lineages have favored their interpretation as living fossils, surviving the extinction of their coastal...... relatives in cave subterranean ecological refugia. Active colonization and ecological speciation to particular cave niches has been alternatively suggested, but the evaluation of that scenario is obscured by the dominance of crustaceans in anchialine habitats, ecologically similar out and inside caves. The...... main goal of this thesis is to explore the evolutionary processes behind colonization and adaptation to submarine cave ecosystems in the Atlantic Ocean using annelids as a model, mainly when they involved ancestrally interstitial forms. In order to do that, we studied selected lineages of annelids with...

  18. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  19. Cave dwelling Onychophora from a Lava Tube in the Galapagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new population of velvet worms (Onychophora inhabiting a lava tube cave in the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos, is reported here. The population size is large, suggesting that they may be troglophilic. Its members are darkly pigmented, with no obvious troglomorphic features. Their 16S rRNA sequence showed no differences when compared to an unidentified species of surface velvet worm from the same island, thus supporting cave and surface populations belong to the same species. Based on the 16S rRNA data, the Galapagos velvet worms derived from an Ecuadorian/Colombian clade, as would be expected of ease of dispersal from the nearest mainland to the Galapagos Islands.

  20. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyperthermic inner room beneath an adjoining tumulus with no connection evident on the surface. Two lengthy, sinuous hollow tumuli also are present in this part of the caldera. These findings support Walkers conclusions that hollow tumuli provide valuable insights into tumulus-forming mechanisms, and provide information about the processes of emplacement of pahoehoe sheet flows.

  1. Designing a Virtual Reality Game for the CAVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    remains uncommon and expensive. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of VR games, and in particular games for the CAVE, now that affordable solutions are close to reach as more powerful hardware is available at low price. The focus is also on the methodology to be pursued while designing a VR game......Virtual Reality has for many years been a technology which has stagnated in application and software development for games. What was possible and created ten years ago for games in VR environments is still being developed. The applications available for VR environments have increased...... but they mostly remain related to scientific purposes while computer games in VR only show a part of their actual potential. The game industry has begun to see the possibilities of VR games in a near future with the implementation of some popular games to a CAVE system. However, a full immersion VR solution still...

  2. Hydrodynamic view of wave-packet interference: quantum caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E

    2009-06-26

    Wave-packet interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism using a hydrodynamic description. Quantum interference leads to the formation of the topological structure of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. These caves consist of the vortical and stagnation tubes originating from the isosurfaces of the amplitude of the wave function and its first derivative. Complex quantum trajectories display counterclockwise helical wrapping around the stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near the vortical tubes. The string of alternating stagnation and vortical tubes is sufficient to generate divergent trajectories. Moreover, the average wrapping time for trajectories and the rotational rate of the nodal line in the complex plane can be used to define the lifetime for interference features. PMID:19659057

  3. The CAVES Project - Exploring Virtual Data Concepts for Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bourilkov, D

    2004-01-01

    The Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System (CAVES) project concentrates on the interactions between users performing data and/or computing intensive analyses on large data sets, as encountered in many contemporary scientific disciplines. In modern science increasingly larger groups of researchers collaborate on a given topic over extended periods of time. The logging and sharing of knowledge about how analyses are performed or how results are obtained is important throughout the lifetime of a project. Here is where virtual data concepts play a major role. The ability to seamlessly log, exchange and reproduce results and the methods, algorithms and computer programs used in obtaining them enhances in a qualitative way the level of collaboration in a group or between groups in larger organizations. The CAVES project takes a pragmatic approach in assessing the needs of a community of scientists by building series of prototypes with increasing sophistication. In extending the functionality of existi...

  4. Mineralogical data on bat guano deposits from three Romanian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Giurgiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical studies performed on crusts, nodules and earthy masses from the Romanian caves Gaura cu Muscă, Gaura Haiducească and Peștera Zidită have revealed the presence of three different phosphate associations. The minerals have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Five phosphates have been identified in the samples, with hydroxylapatite the only common mineral in all the three caves. Brushite, taranakite, leucophosphite and variscite are the other phosphates identified. Associated minerals include gypsum, calcite, quartz and illite-group minerals. Aside from differences in the lithology, the occurrences of the different phosphate minerals indicate variable pH and humidity conditions near or within the guano accumulations.

  5. Thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling in winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. [Department of Building Engineering and Surveying, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Liu, Y. [Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2002-07-01

    The presence of the courtyard transfers an extreme winter environment outside cave dwellings into a better outdoor community space. This study examines the interaction amongst the cave rooms, the courtyard and the ambient, via two approaches applied in a typical such type of dwelling: site measurement and computer modelling. The site measurement was undertaken to investigate the dynamic feature of such dwelling by monitoring hourly changes of air temperatures over the building complex with some of the key weather data. The computer modelling, based on two specifically developed theoretical models and validated by the data of the site measurement, was to analyse the mean effects of a number of key design parameters on thermal environment in such type of dwellings. Conclusions drawn from this study are to help modern architects design for a better thermal environment in these typical North China dwellings, traditional yet popular. (author)

  6. Studies of condensation/evaporation processes in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas Chris R.; Schmekal Antje Anna

    2006-01-01

    The condensation/evaporation process is important in caves, especially in tourist caves where there is carbon dioxide enriched air caused by visitors. The cycle of condensation and evaporation of condensate is believed to enhance condensation corrosion. The problem is condensation is difficult to measure. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and modelling condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of ...

  7. Cave ventilation is influenced by variations in the CO2-dependent virtual temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Domingo, Francisco; Kowalski, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics and drivers of ventilation in caves are of growing interest for different fields of science. Accumulated CO2 in caves can be exchanged with the atmosphere, modifying the internal CO2 content, affecting stalagmite growth rates, deteriorating rupestrian paintings or creating new minerals. Current estimates of cave ventilation neglect the role of high CO2 concentrations in determining air density ??? approximated via the virtual temperature (Tv) ???, affecting buoyancy and therefore the...

  8. Hydrological and tectonic strain forces measured from a karstic cave using extensometers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ping; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Quinif, Yves; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Meus, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor the hydrological strain forces of the karst micro fissure networks and local fault activities, six capacitive extensometers were installed inside a karstic cave near the midi-fault in Belgium. From 2004 to 2008, the nearby Lomme River experienced several heavy rains, leading to flooding inside the Rochefort cave. The highest water level rose more than thirteen meters, the karstic fissure networks were filled with water, which altered the pore pressure of the cave. The stra...

  9. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  10. Structural and functional organization of the visual system in the microphthalmic cave beetle Ptomaphagus hirtus

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Friedrich; Elke K Buschbeck

    2013-01-01

    Strongly cave adapted animal species are invariably characterized by strong eye reduction (microphthalmy) to the complete loss of eyes (anophthalmy). Recent studies of cave adaptation have focused on the causes and mechanisms underlying the regressive evolution of the visual system but little attention has been paid to aspects of vision, which can remain conserved in the low-light level ecologies of caves. The small carrion beetle genus Ptomaphagus (Staphyliniformia: Leiodidae) includes both ...

  11. The engineering classification of karst with respect to the role and influence of caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Waltham Tony

    2002-01-01

    The engineering classification of karst defines various complexities of ground conditions, in terms of the hazards that they provide to potential construction. Karst is divided into five classes (from immature to extreme). The three key parameters within the classification are caves (size and extent), sinkholes (abundance and collapse frequency) and rockhead (profile and relief). As one component of karst, caves are a hazard to foundation integrity, though natural surface collapses over caves...

  12. Environmental Monitoring in the Mechara caves, Southeastern Ethiopia: Implications for Speleothem Palaeoclimate Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Asrat Asfawossen; Baker Andy; Leng Melanie J.; Gunn John; Umer Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The interpretation of palaeoclimate records in speleothems depends on the understanding of the modern climate of the region, the geology, the hydrology above the caves, and the within-cave climate. Monitoring within-cave climate variability, geochemistry of speleothem-forming drip waters, and associated surface and groundwater, provides a modern baseline for interpretation of speleothem palaeohydrological and palaeoclimate records. Here, we present results of such monitoring of th...

  13. Direct measurement of present-day tectonic movement and associated radon flux in Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Vaupotič, J.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 21-34. ISSN 1090-6924 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk MEB091005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fault displacements * radon flux * Postojna Cave Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2010 www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_72.htm

  14. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulec Janez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ≥ 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

  15. Cave sediments in Slovenia: results of 10 years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2009), s. 162-162. ISSN 1335-213X. [Vedecká konferencia Výskum, využívanie a ochrana jaskýň /7./. 10.11.2009-13.11.2009, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : caves * palaeomannetic research * cave sediments * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Nipam H.; Protas, Meredith E.; Trontelj, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established...

  17. Reconstruction of bomb 14C time history recorded in the stalagmite from Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The karstic caves provide valuable resources for reconstruction of environmental conditions on the continent in the past. This is possible due to the great stability of climatic conditions within a cave. Secondary minerals deposited in caves, known as speleothems, preserve records of long-term climatic and environmental changes at the site of their deposition and in the vicinity. The purity of speleothems and their chemical and physical stability make them exceptionally well suited for detailed geochemical and isotopic analysis

  18. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    F. Obleitner; C. Spötl

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria) during a full annual cycle. The data show the basic features of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the cave ice is largely determined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes withdraw energy from the surface. This is more pronounced...

  19. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  20. Anchialine Cave Environments: a novel chemosynthetic ecosystem and its ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Pakes, Michal Joey

    2013-01-01

    It was long thought that dark, nutrient depleted environments, such as the deep sea and subterranean caves, were largely devoid of life and supported low-density assemblages of endemic fauna. The discovery of hydrothermal vents in the 1970s and their subsequent study have revolutionized ecological thinking about lightless, low oxygen ecosystems. Symbiosis between chemosynthetic microbes and their eukaryote hosts has since been demonstrated to fuel a variety of marine foodwebs in extreme envir...

  1. Searching for Chambers and Caves in Teotihuacan's Sun Pyramid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a status report of a search for caves in the Sun pyramid in Teotihuacan, Mexico is presented. From an archeological perspective the main goal is to gather evidence to determine whether the pyramid was a state or a funerary temple. The general layout of the detector that is being built is an updated version of the one originally proposed by Alvarez et al.

  2. The CAVES Project - Exploring Virtual Data Concepts for Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bourilkov, Dimitri

    2004-01-01

    The Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System (CAVES) project concentrates on the interactions between users performing data and/or computing intensive analyses on large data sets, as encountered in many contemporary scientific disciplines. In modern science increasingly larger groups of researchers collaborate on a given topic over extended periods of time. The logging and sharing of knowledge about how analyses are performed or how results are obtained is important throughout the...

  3. Recent micro-tectonic movement from three karst caves, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    Thessaloniki : Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2010 - (Christofides, G.; Kantiranis, N.; Kostopoulos, D.; Chatzipetros, A.), s. 513-518 ISBN 978-960-9502-01-6. [Congress of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association /19./. Thessaloniki (GR), 23.09.2010-26.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : activ tectonics * cave * Slovenia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  4. Searching for Chambers and Caves in Teotihuacan's Sun Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Arrieta, E.; Barba P., L.; Becerril, A. D.; Belmont, E.; Carrillo, I.; Cabrera M., J. I.; Esquivel, O.; Grabski, V.; López R., J. M.; Manzanilla N., L.; Martínez D., A.; Menchaca R., A.; Moreno, M.; Núñez C., R.; Plascencia, J. C.; Rangel, M.; Villoro, M.

    2003-06-01

    In this work a status report of a search for caves in the Sun pyramid in Teotihuacan, México is presented. From an archeological perspective the main goal is to gather evidence to determine whether the pyramid was a state or a funerary temple. The general layout of the detector that is being built is an updated version of the one originally proposed by Alvarez et al..

  5. Measuring the Willingness to Pay for Fresh Water Cave Diving

    OpenAIRE

    William L. Huth; O. Ashton Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Fresh water springs are unique natural resources that are contained within public lands across the United States. Natural resource management on public lands generates many interesting policy issues as the competing goals of conservation, recreational opportunity provision, and revenue generation often clash. As demand for recreational cave diving sites increases, the paper provides natural resource site managers with the first statistical estimate of divers’ willingness to pay to dive fresh ...

  6. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  7. Sentinel Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten

    This thesis introduces the novel concept of sentinel rules (sentinels). Sentinels are intended to represent the relationships between the data originating from the external environment and the data representing the critical organizational performance. The intention with sentinels is to warn...... into geography dimension) combined with a decrease in the money invested in customer support for laptop computers (drilldown into product dimension) is observed. The work leading to this thesis progressed from algorithms for regular sentinel mining with only one source and one target measure, into algorithms...... for mining generalized and multidimensional sentinels with multiple source measures. Furthermore, the mining algorithms became capable of automatically fitting the best warning periods for a given sentinel. Aside from expanding the capabilities of the algorithms, the work demonstrates a significant...

  8. Cave levels, safe yield and turnover time in karst aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The presence of cave levels where ground water flow is organized is a typical feature of karstic carbonate aquifers. These cave levels are high conductive paths within a capacitive matrix that differentiates flow velocities, transit times and therefore, the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. These two extreme transmissive end points allowed the application of double porosity models to solve flow and transport equations although actually karst aquifers are multiple-porosity systems where flow is rigorously hierarchised. The application of environmental stable and radioactive isotopic models to several Cuban karstic aquifers have shown a well defined stratification of flow varying from three months to 100 years. These so large transit times for 3H suggest that - isotopically - the system is far from steady state conditions and, therefore, the exploitation of the aquifers horizons is strongly restricted by these low renewable resources. While associated with well defined cave systems, transit time of groundwater in karst aquifers is a variable to be considered in the estimation of safe yield and in the engineering measures, as artificial recharge, designed for improve the sustainability of water resources. Depletion of water resources in karst aquifers of the humid tropics could be associated to the exploitation of isotopic 'old' waters not linked with the present hydrologic cycle. (author)

  9. MRI diagnosis of primary tumors in Molkick cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the MRI characteristics of primary tumors in Meckel cave (MC), and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the changes of MC and adjacent structures. Methods: 14 pathologically confirmed primary tumors in Meckel cave were studied. Pre-contrast MRI scan was performed in 4 cases, post-contrast MRI scan in 2 cases, both pre- and post-contrast MRI scan in 8 cases. Results: (1) Schwannoma was the most common tumor, and followed by meningeoma, fibroneuroma, and cholesteatoma. (2) The meningeoma and cholesteatoma had characteristic signal in MRI, some Schwannoma and fibroneuroma had similar MRI demonstrations. (3) The change of MC included cave enlargement, bulging dural walls, trigeminal cistern narrowing or obliteration, loss of fibers-background contrast. (4) The changes of adjacent structures included compression of temporal lobe, pons, basilar artery, cerebellar hemisphere, and the forth ventricle, cavernous sinus narrowing, and petrous pyramid hone absorption. Conclusions: The signals of tumors were helpful to establish the diagnosis, and can be used to estimate the tumor pathological components, the changes of MC and adjacent structure can be used in localizing the tumors. (authors)

  10. 3-D numerical modelling of stresses around a longwall panel with top coal caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasitli, N.E.; Unver, B. [University of Hacettepe, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2005-06-01

    There is a considerable amount of lignite reserve in the form of thick seams in Turkey. It is rather complicated to predict the characteristics of strata response to mining operation in thick seams. However, a comprehensive evaluation of ground behaviour is a prerequisite for maintaining an efficient production, especially when top coal winning by means of caving behind the face is applied. A comprehensive modelling of deformations and induced stresses is vital for the selection of optimum production strategy. In this study, numerical modelling and analysis of a longwall panel at Omerler underground coalmine have been carried out by using the software called FLAC(3D) developed based on the finite difference technique. Firstly, a 3-D numerical model of the M3 panel has been prepared. Secondly, induced stresses formed around the longwall face have been determined as a function of face advance where the face was located at the bottom of thick coal-seam. Results obtained from modelling studies have revealed that the front abutment vertical stress was maximum at 7 metres in front of the face and magnitude of front abutment stress was found to increase up to a distance of 200 metres away from the face start line. As the face was further advanced after 200 m from the face start line, there was not any significant change in the characteristics of front abutment stresses. Results of numerical analysis of the panel were in good agreement with in situ observations.

  11. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  12. Modern systematics and environmental significance of stable isotopic variations in Wanxiang Cave, Wudu, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pingzhong; LONG Lude; Kathleen R. Johnson; CHEN Yimeng; CHEN Fahu; Lynn Ingram; ZHANG Xinli; ZHANG Chengjun; WANG Sumin; PANG Fushun

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the stable isotopic compositions from the cave dripwater and actively forming soda straw stalactites collected from Wanxiang Cave, Wudu,Gansu, located on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Loess Plateau transition zone, China. The δ18Odw and δDdw of dripwater samples in the cave plot directly on the local MWL,constructed by using GNIP data from 3 sites surrounding the cave regions (Lanzhou, Xi'an, and Chengdu), the nearest site to the cave, suggesting that there is a close relationship between the δ18Odw of the cave water and the δ18O of the pre cipitations. Using the measured δ18Odw and δ18Omc values from the mid-farthest parts from the cave entrance and the carbonate paleotemperature equation, the calculated temperatures range from 8.9 to 12.4℃, with the mean value of 10.7℃ and the temperature calculated at 8 locations in the farthest part of the cave is in the range of 10.1-12.4℃, with the mean value of 11.5℃, being consistent with the survey value(10.99℃)in the cave, slightly lower than the mean annual temperature (14.4℃) in Wudu. This suggests that modern speleothems are forming under isotopic equilibrium and their isotopic composition accurately reflects the mean annual temperature at the surface, indicating that the isotopic composition of the modern speleothems records local temperature change with credibility.

  13. Response of ice caves to weather extremes in the southeastern Alps, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Fontana, D.; Forte, E.; Potleca, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-05-01

    High altitude karstic environments often preserve permanent ice deposits within caves, representing the lesser-known portion of the cryosphere. Despite being not so widespread and easily reachable as mountain glaciers and ice caps, ice caves preserve much information about past environmental changes and climatic evolution. We selected 1111 ice caves from the existing cave inventory, predominantly but not exclusively located in the periglacial domain where permafrost is not dominant (i.e., with mean annual air temperature fact be crucial in the future mass balance evolution of such permanent ice deposits.

  14. Sediment flushing in Mystic Cave, West Virginia, USA, in response to the 1985 Potomac Valley flood

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gundy J. J.; White W.B.

    2009-01-01

    The great November 5, 1985 Potomac Valley flood was responsible for the release of 1800 m3 of alluvial and colluvial sediment from the walls of the entrance doline of Mystic Cave. Flood waters were sufficiently powerful to flush the entire mass of sediment not only into the cave but through the cave. Remnants of the sediment mass in the form of sand bars and a few cobbles wedged in speleothems were the only evidence in the cave that the huge mass of sediment had moved through. The sediment mo...

  15. The Genetic Types of Baiyun Cave in Lincheng County of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping; SUN; Jian; WANG; Xiaoman; ZHANG; Qianhua; ZHENG; Huafang; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Baiyun Karst Caverns in Lincheng County,Hebei Province,is a rare karst caverns in subhumid climate region of the north.It was developed in carbonatite strata,particularly in Zhangxia formation of the Middle Cambrain series.Erosion-corrosion landscape and chemical deposition landscape are abundant,They are various shapes,curtain drapery,cave flag,cave shield,stalactite,stalagmite,cave flowers,botryoid,soda straw are developed,especially heligmite,soda straw,cave flowers are the most characteristic.

  16. Generation and dispersal of carbon dioxide in the caves and karst of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, T.; Mattey, D.; Latin, J.-P.; Ainsworth, M.; Durell, R.

    2012-04-01

    The gases in the soil, in caves and in the smaller voids of the vadose zone in karstic limestones are all generally enriched in CO2 relative to open atmosphere. The concentrations and fluxes of CO2 in cave air have a close relationship with the deposition of speleothem calcite but there are still very few detailed studies that trace the generation and dispersal of CO2 in whole karst systems, i.e. as a gas and in dissolved form within a linked system comprising soil, caves and the vadose zone. The Rock of Gibraltar forms a N-S trending ridge 2.5 km long within which solution caves are present at altitudes extending from below sea level to over 300m asl. Cave monitoring has been carried out since 2004 and focuses on two cave systems: St Michaels Cave (SMC) located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. Monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Advective flow is upwards during winter months, resulting in low pCO2 at sea level and high pCO2 in caves near the top of the rock and the flow reverses in summer, ventilating high-level caves and raising cave air pCO2 at lower altitudes. In this talk we focus on geochemical tracing of CO2 generation and dispersal using the abundance and carbon isotopic compositions of gaseous CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The results of a four-year study at SMC are not consistent with the generally accepted view that CO2in cave air originates by degassing of dripwater that has acquired CO2primarily from the soil zone. We demonstrate the importance of deep vadose zone air as a source of CO2 in karst systems and show that in St. Michaels Cave the abundance and isotopic composition of CO2 of the cave atmosphere is primarily controlled by mixing

  17. Data on the Environmental Conditions and Diversity of the Animal Ecological Groups in Gargina Dupka Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Air and water temperature, air humidity and water oxygen levels were studied in Gargina Dupka Cave (Rhodopes Mts., Bulgaria. These environmental factors were considered for three zones of the cave: 1 – cave entrance, 2 – typical cave in the central gallery, and 3 – an area occupied by bat guano. During two visits all animals were collected from these areas. In the laboratory, after identification they were classified according to their ecological features as: relation to light, way of moving, diet, and substrates on which they were collected.

  18. The function of radon in curing respiratory diseases in the therapeutic cave of Tapolca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to spend some time in a cave for curing respiratory diseases. Some ascribe the healing effect partly to radon. In Hungary in the Hospital Cave of Tapolca the mean radon concentration shows 17 times difference in the winter and in the summer period. The change of the forced exhaled volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was examined measured by 1824 patients in this cave. By 70% of the patients the FEV1 value improved, by 30% it became worse but these were independent from the radon concentration of the cave. Therefore, radon concentration has no positive effect during the treatments performed in Tapolca. (author)

  19. A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Ramos Donato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation Index’ (CCI were established. We also used a rapid assessment protocol to measure cave vulnerability for prioritization of conservation/restoration actions (RAP-cr comparing natural cavities with the same lithology, due to “strictu sensu” peculiarities. Based on the protocols applied in caves of the municipality of Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, we concluded that the present method attended to the needs for the classification of the caves into categories of conservation/restoration status, using little time and financial effort, through rapid diagnostics that facilitate the comparisons. In this perspective, the CCI can be used to indicate areas that should be protected and caves that should be prioritized to have initiated activities of conservation and restoration.

  20. Hydrologic and microclimate characterizations of Thornton’s Cave, West-Central Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien K. McGee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cave’s environment is controlled by a suite of factors unique to the environments in which they formed, including, but not limited to, regional geologic and climate settings. These factors collectively owe to wide variations in cave biology, geomorphology and overall speleogenesis. This report combines local climate, hydrologic, and CO2 data collected over the course of a two-year study at Thornton’s Cave, a partially-flooded cave in the West-Central Florida karst belt, to characterize its current environment and yield insight regarding how changes in regional climate and hydrology impact its past and future speleogenesis. Data loggers continuously monitoring cave and surface air temperatures, water levels and surface rainfall documented immediate responses in the cave to long- and short-term fluctuations in these parameters at the surface. Atmospheric CO2 in the cave and at the surface demonstrate seasonal trends, though the cave maintains higher concentrations and lower δ13C of CO2 than the surface, suggesting decomposition of organic matter, and to a lesser degree macroorganisms are contributing proportionally more CO2 to the cave. Collectively, these interpretations provide insight on the impact of surface processes on cave formation here, and suggest that a biotic model of speleogenesis using bacterially-sourced CO2 as a component of dissolution may be possible. Further, they can be used to further the understanding of the karstification in West-Central Florida and analogous karst regions.

  1. The significance of the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus P. Kritzinger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi Monachi Captivi should, in view of the similarities with the first cave episode and the high incidence of literary devices employed in it, be recognised for its value in the interpretation of this vita. The book was intended as a defence of, and an exhortation to a life of celibacy and this dual purpose is clearly demonstrated in both episodes in which a cave is used as the setting. The second cave episode has been neglected in the scholarly debate about the purpose of the book and this article attempts to set the record straight.

  2. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  3. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Bona, F; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Badino, G; Isaia, M

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. PMID:26112916

  4. Analysis on the cavability and recovery of top coal in fully mechanized caving face with thick seam%厚煤层综放工作面顶煤冒放性及回收率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝雷; 武光辉; 袁西亚; 许永刚; 余智秘

    2015-01-01

    The lower recovery ratio of top-coal in fully mechanized caving face is a main problem , and improving the recov-ery ratio of top-coal has great significance to the high production and high efficiency of fully mechanized caving mining . Based on actual practice of №401102 fully mechanized caving face in Hujiahe Mine , the crushing mechanism and cavability of top-coal was researched , and the influence of different way of moving supports to the recovery ratio of top -coal is analyzed too.%顶煤回收率偏低一直是困扰综放开采的一个核心问题,提高综放工作面顶煤回收率对实现综放开采高产高效具有重大意义。本文结合胡家河煤矿401102综放工作面的实际情况,对顶煤破碎机理和冒放性进行了研究,并分析了不同移架方式对顶煤回收率的影响。

  5. History of caves in the Ledové sluje (Ice Caves) locality, Podyjí National Park, Czechia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuda, František; Divíšek, Jan

    Vol. 13. Ostrava: Katedra fyzické geografie a geoekologie Přírodovědecké fakulty Ostravské univerzity, 2015 - (Lenart, J.). s. 50-50 ISBN 978-80-7464-765-9. [International Symposium on Pseudokarst /13./. 16.09.2015-19.09.2015, Kunčice pod Ondřejníkem] Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : speleology * Podyjí National Park * Pseudokarst caves Ledové sluje Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  6. The characteristics of soft rocks and their effect on the long term stability of abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that some caving, collapses and subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The authors present the experimental results on the characteristics of soft rocks from abandoned lignite mines in Tokai Region as well as the results of some analyses of their effects on the long-term stability of abandoned lignite mines. (authors)

  7. Tono mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report provides a comprehensive presentation of the Geoscientific studies (GS)' performed since 1986, and a new work on the Earthquake frontier research for terrestrial subsurface (EFR)' plan performed since 1995 in and around the Tono mine in Gifu prefecture. Main objects of GS in Tono area to provide sufficient informations on deep underground geological environment for its performance assessment and to develop some methods on site characterization. At present, some major studies are under progress in such fields as hydrology, hydro-geochemistry, isotope chemistry of groundwater, nuclide retardation, mine-by experiments, and development on instruments. And, EFR is divided to three categories, two of which have been performed at Tono mine under their names of the 'Development of ACROSS (Accurately controlled routinely operated signal system) for detecting microscale crustal movements' and the 'Studies of precursory and co-seismic changes in rock stress, water level and groundwater chemistry'. Here were shown on geology and geoscientific studies on Tono mine and on earthquake frontier research for terrestrial subsurface. (G.K.)

  8. Historic Gold Mining in the Apuseni Mountains Recorded in Stalagmite Geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montana PUȘCAȘ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In antiquity “Patrulaterul de Aur” (The Golden Quadrilateral, ca. 550 km2 of the Apuseni Mountains was one of Eurasia’s richest gold and silver mining region. It is estimated that 60 – 64 M ounces of gold have been extracted from Romania during the past 2 ka, about 75% of which was sourced from this particular area [1]. Activities such as mining and smelting of ores and the associated biomass burning produced ample amounts of aerosols that were carried downwind and accumulated as wet or dry deposition. Meteoric water remobilized these trace elements by leaching from the soil as solute or particle/colloidal phase in aqueous solution through the bedrock and into the cave. Here we present the trace elemental compositions (22 elements, obtained by means of LA-ICP-MS in a ca. 2 ka old stalagmite from the Frumoasă Cave (Trascău Mountains, SE Apuseni Mountains; Fig. 1 as a proxy for historical Au, Ag, and Cu mining and smelting. The most prominent sites (Roșia Montană, Zlatna, and Abrud where ores were extracted and/or processed over the past 2 ka are < 30 km upwind of the Frumoasă Cave.

  9. Stop No. 1/C: Tvarožné díry Caves (Dwarf Caves, Quarglöcher), underground excursion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouhrabka, V.; Bosák, Pavel

    Kraków: Sekcja Speleologiczna Polskiego Towarzystwa Przyrodników im. Kopernika, 2014 - (Stefaniak, K.; Ratajczak, U.; Wróblewski, W.), s. 32-36 ISBN 978-83-933874-1-0. [Sympozjum Speleologiczne /40./. Kraków (PL), 20.10.2006-22.10.2006] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karst * caves * cave sediments * light minerals * heavy minerals * Tvarožné díry Caves * Kralický Sněžník Mt., * northern Moravia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  11. Origin of caves and notches observed on the Antalya Tufa Cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Emine Sukran, Okudan; Uzunsakal, Levent

    2010-05-01

    This study aims the investigation of caves and notches observed on the Antalya tufa cliffs from the geological, biological and morphological points of view. Through observations, sampling and measurements on the 13 km long Antalya cliffs, geological and biological definitions have been made. Through topographical surveys morphology of caves have been determined. The caves on Antalya tufa cliffs are of three origin; 1) The sea caves occurred due to wave action on weak parts of the tufa, 2) The flank margin caves occurred due to mixing corrosion, 3) The caves occurred as blind holes behind tufa curtains which deposited on tufa cascade environment of deposition. In this study more attention has been paid on porosity development and related cave formation due to mixing corrosion. The mixing corrosion is a process in which mixed water dissolves calcium carbonate rock where groundwater and sea water interfere. Cavities which occur in this process can join together and form big chambers. When rock load on this chambers exceeds rocks strength, the roof may collapse and fall into the chamber. This fallen block is also subject to further dissolution resulting in enlargement of the cave. The idea that the flank margin caves have been formed on Antalya cliffs due to mixing corrosion have been proven making in-situ water chemistry tests. Entrances of the caves on the cliffs are concentrated between present sea level and 5 m below this level. Similarly, on the sea level caves depth of the caves is around 5 m. Starting from a time of constant sea level, and following sea level rise, mixing corrosion and flank margin cave development should have been continued. Formation of notches on the Antalya tufa cliffs should have been affected by wave direction, wave force, rock strength and bioerosion-bioconstruction. From the biological point of view, rocks on the notches and caves serve as substrate for various organisms. Especially notches are the places where covering organisms live

  12. Hypogene speleogenesis in dolomite host rock by CO2-rich fluids, Kozak Cave (southern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph; Desch, Angelika; Dublyansky, Yuri; Plan, Lukas; Mangini, Augusto

    2016-02-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that cave formation by deep-seated groundwater (hypogene) is a more common process of subsurface water-rock interaction than previously thought. Fossil hypogene caves are identified by a characteristic suite of morphological features on different spatial scales. In addition, mineral deposits (speleothems) may provide clues about the chemical composition of the paleowater, which range from CO2-rich to sulfuric acid-bearing waters. This is one of the first studies to examine hypogene cave formation in dolomite. Kozak Cave is a fossil cave near the Periadriatic Lineament, an area known for its abundance of CO2-rich springs. The cave displays a number of macro-, meso- and micromorphological elements found also in other hypogene caves hosted in limestone, marble or gypsum, including cupolas, cusps, Laughöhle-type chambers and notches. The existance of cupolas and cusps suggests a thermal gradient capable of sustaining free convection during a first phase of speleogenesis, while triangular cross sections (Laughöhle morphology) indicate subsequent density-driven convection close to the paleowater table. Notches mark the final emergence of the cave due to continued rock uplift and valley incision. Very narrow shafts near the end of the cave may be part of the initial feeder system, but an epigene (vadose) overprint cannot be ruled out. Vadose speleothems indicate that the phreatic phase ended at least about half a million years ago. Drill cores show no evidence of carbon or oxygen isotope alteration of the wall rock. This is in contrast to similar studies in limestone caves, and highlights the need for further wall-rock studies of caves hosted in limestone and dolomite.

  13. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  14. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  15. Model test of the overburden deformation and failure law in close distance multi-seam mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-feng; SUI Wang-hua; XIA Xiao-hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on characteristic of the associated mining of multi-coal seam and the engineering geological characteristics of overburden, the mining impact pattern of multiseam mining and the dynamic fracture mechanism of overburden were characterized by applying the engineering geological mechanical model test. The related strata movement arameters and influence area of multi-seam mining were obtained, the strike boundary angle is 61°, the full extraction coefficient is 0.93, the greatest subsidence angle is 81°, the horizontal movement factor is 0.38, the deviation of inflection point/mining deep is 0.11.The development height of caving zone and water flowing fractured zone of multi-seam mining were calculated, is 32 m and 81.5 m separatly. The assess of influence degree of coal layer safety mining is that, there exists the possibility of water and sand inflow when mining, some messures for mine water prevention and control should be used, and the mining thickness should be local strictly limit.

  16. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  17. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  18. The State Council's decision interpreting the provisions of the mining code about mine shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In line with the special police powers granted by article 77 of the Mining Code, administrative authorities may issue orders to a mine operator to undertake measures for ensuring public safety and security and for reinforcing the solidity of public and private buildings. When major risks to the security of goods and persons crop up following warrants for executing such orders, administrative authorities can step in once again and either take, till the expiration of mining rights, new measures, or else order, when risks of cave-ins have been identified, an operator to set up and run the equipment necessary for supervising and preventing these risks until these duties are transferred to the state. However a decision by the State Council on 22 October 2003 formulates a reservation: if the administration has not used the procedure for definitively shutting down a mine to identify all risks and to order the operator the measures for ensuring security in line with all known risks, then the administration itself will carry the responsibility for implementing such measures. (authors)

  19. Determining of Basic Roof Strata and Limit Span in Fully Mechanized Caving Face%综放工作面基本顶层位与极限跨距确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师皓宇; 田多

    2016-01-01

    为确定中煤平朔集团井工一矿4106综放工作面基本顶层位和极限跨距,考虑基本顶沉降值、采空区残留浮煤厚度、碎胀系数等因素,初步确定了采空区的冒落带理论高度;根据覆岩结构向高位转移后的平衡条件,判断顶板上方13.12 m以远的粗砂岩为基本顶1;根据组合梁等理论公式,计算了该工作面顶煤、直接顶、基本顶的载荷值,确定了顶煤、直接顶、基本顶的初次垮落步距、周期垮落步距,结果与矿压观测结果基本吻合。%For determining basic roof strata and Limit Span of 4106 Fully Mechanized Caving Face in Pingshuo Coal Industry Company No .1 Coal Mine , considered sedimentation value of basic roof and residual floating coal thickness of mined out area and coefficient of expansion , preliminary determined theoretical height of mined out area.According to the equilibrium condition of overlying rock structure shift to high strata , Judge basic roof 1 is sandstone beyond roof 13.12 m distance.According to combination beam theory formula , calcu-lated load value of top coal&the immediate roof&basic roof in the face , initial caving step distance and peri-odic caving step distance , The results are in agreement with the results of mine pressure observation .

  20. Overlying strata movement rules and safety mining technology for the shallow depth seam proximity beneath a room mining goaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fangtian; Zhang Cun; Zhang Xiaogang; Song Qi

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the shallow depth seam proximity beneath a room mining goaf, due to that the shallow depth seam is exploited using the longwall mining and overlain by thin bedrock and thick loose sands, many accidents are likely to occur, including roof structure instability, roof step subsidence, damages of shield supports, and the face bumps triggered by the large area roof weighting, resulting in serious threats to the safety of underground miners and equipment. This paper analyses the overlying strata movement rules for the shallow seams using the physical simulation, the 3DEC numerical simulation and the field mea-surements. The results show that, in shallow seam mining, the overburden movement forms caved zone and fractured zone, the cracks develop continuously and reach the surface with the face advancing, and the development of surface cracks generally goes through four stages. With the application of loose blast-ing of residual pillars, reasonable mining height, and roof support and management, the safe, efficient and high recovery rate mining has been achieved in the shallow depth seam proximity beneath a room min-ing goaf.

  1. Sediments of Biśnik Cave (Poland): Lithology and stratigraphy of the Middle Palaeolithic site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajcarz, M. T.; Bosák, Pavel; Šlechta, Stanislav; Pruner, Petr; Komar, M.; Dresler, J.; Madeyska, T.

    326/327, April (2014), s. 6-19. ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karsology * caves * Biśnik Cave (Poland) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2014

  2. Aerosol particle size distribution in building and caves: impact to the radon-related dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of evaluation of the aerosol particle size spectra observed in the Bozkov cave are presented and compared with the spectra observed in residential areas. The radon-to-dose conversion factor is discussed, as is the correction factor referred to as the cave factor. (P.A.)

  3. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences. PMID:21642344

  4. Sa Cova d'es Carritx: a new p rehistoric cult cave on Menorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth D. Whitehouse

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 a previously unknown cave was discovered on the island of Menorca in the western Mediterranean. It was found to contain h uman skeletal remains and an extraordinary collection of artefacts made of wood and horn, some of which contained human hair. The cave appears to have been used during the first millennium BC for ritual purposes.

  5. Cross-formational flow, diffluence and transfluence observed in St. Beatus Cave and Sieben Hengste (Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Hauselmann Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Observations in St. Beatus Cave and neighbouring caves revealed complex water flowpaths that can be used for explaining thebehaviour of tracing experiments. The observations prove that even in vadose conditions, cross-formational flow, diffluences andtransfluences are a quite common feature. Therefore, also the vadose karst has a very complex organisation.

  6. Principles of palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic methods applied to the cave sediment dating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2004 - (Mihevc, A.; Zupan Hajna, N.). s. 60-61 [International Karstological School "Classical karst". Dating of cave sediments /12./. 21.06.2004-24.06.2004, Postojna] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013201 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * cave sediments Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. Cave sediments in Slovenia: Results of 10 years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2009), s. 173-186. ISSN 0560-3137 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * karst and cave evolution * karst ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  8. Cross-formational flow, diffluence and transfluence observed in St. Beatus Cave and Sieben Hengste (Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauselmann Philipp

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations in St. Beatus Cave and neighbouring caves revealed complex water flowpaths that can be used for explaining thebehaviour of tracing experiments. The observations prove that even in vadose conditions, cross-formational flow, diffluences andtransfluences are a quite common feature. Therefore, also the vadose karst has a very complex organisation.

  9. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  10. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Lundberg, Johannes; Ivarsson, Magnus; Campos, Paula; Nylander, Johan A A; Sallstedt, Therese; Dalen, Love

    2016-01-01

    Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i) an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii) functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii) taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching. PMID:26985997

  11. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza

    Full Text Available Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching.

  12. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: A new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moldovan, O.T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 1825-1837. ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil invertebrates * Oribatida * Pliocene/Pleistocene * caves * caves (Slovenia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  13. Roncus hajnehaj n. sp. (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones, a new endemic cave pseudoscorpion from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić B.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of cave-dwelling pseudoscorpions pertaining to the genus Roncus L. Koch, 1873 from Montenegro is erected. Its relations with close congeners are briefly discussed. The new species, Roncus hajnehaj n. sp., is an endemic form presently known only from its type locality (Haj Nehaj Pećina Cave, nr. Sutomore, Montenegro.

  14. Geological conditions of origin of the Potočka zijalka cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Potočka zijalka cave on Mt. Ol{eva in Southern Karavanke during excavation of cave sediments of Würm age that contain cultural remains of the Cromagnon Man also large amounts of gravel were before the Badenian transgression, from the Central Alps during Miocene.

  15. New results of paleomagnetic research in the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave, Slovakia and their speleogenetic interpretation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Bella, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2015), s. 56-56. ISSN 1335-213X. [ Scientific Conference Research, Use and Protection of Caves /10./. 22.09.2015-25.09.2015, Rožňava - Bódvaszilas] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * Ochtinská Aragonite Cave * palaeomagnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  16. Making a living while starving in the dark: metagenomic insights into the energy dynamics of a carbonate cave

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Marianyoly; Legatzki, Antje; Neilson, Julia W; Fryslie, Brandon; Nelson, William M; Wing, Rod A; Soderlund, Carol A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate caves represent subterranean ecosystems that are largely devoid of phototrophic primary production. In semiarid and arid regions, allochthonous organic carbon inputs entering caves with vadose-zone drip water are minimal, creating highly oligotrophic conditions; however, past research indicates that carbonate speleothem surfaces in these caves support diverse, predominantly heterotrophic prokaryotic communities. The current study applied a metagenomic approach to elucidate the commu...

  17. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  18. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, A W G; Hoffmann, D L; García-Diez, M; Pettitt, P B; Alcolea, J; De Balbín, R; González-Sainz, C; de las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A; Montes, R; Zilhão, J

    2012-06-15

    Paleolithic cave art is an exceptional archive of early human symbolic behavior, but because obtaining reliable dates has been difficult, its chronology is still poorly understood after more than a century of study. We present uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying or underlying art found in 11 caves, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo, Spain. The results demonstrate that the tradition of decorating caves extends back at least to the Early Aurignacian period, with minimum ages of 40.8 thousand years for a red disk, 37.3 thousand years for a hand stencil, and 35.6 thousand years for a claviform-like symbol. These minimum ages reveal either that cave art was a part of the cultural repertoire of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or that perhaps Neandertals also engaged in painting caves. PMID:22700921

  19. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  20. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulecal-Pektas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces. PMID:27281996

  2. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m-3. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  3. How old are cave deposits abundant in Pleistocene fauna preserved in the Bone Passage in the Sloupsko-šošůvská Cave (Moravian Karst)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Šroubek, P.; Diehl, J. F.; Hercman, H.; Nowicki, T.; Pruner, Petr; Venhodová, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2007), s. 37-41. ISBN 80-210-4097-1. ISSN 1211-281X. [International Cave Bear Symposium /13./. Brno, 20.09.2007-24.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/95/0841 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave deposits * Pleistocene fauna * Moravian Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  4. Large-scale and high-resolution 3-D cave mapping by terrestrial laser scanning: a case study of the Domica Cave, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Gallay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and modelling the complicated geometry of caves is a challenging task that has traditionally been undertaken by tacheometric surveying methods. These methods are excellent for capturing the general shape of a cave system but they are not suitable for high-speed, high-resolution mapping of complex surfaces found in this environment. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS technologies can acquire millions of points represented by 3-D coordinates, at very high spatial densities on complex multifaceted surfaces within minutes. In the last few years, advances in measurement speed, reduction in size / cost and increased portability of this technology has revolutionised the collection of 3-D data. This paper discusses the methodological framework and the advantages / disadvantages of adopting terrestrial laser scanning to rapidly map a complex cave system on the example of the Domica Cave in Slovakia. This cave originated in the largest karst region in the West Carpathians. The collected data set or ‘point cloud’ contains over 11.9 billion measured points, captured in 5 days from 327 individual scanning positions. The dataset represents almost 1600 m of the cave passages. Semi-automatic registration of these scans was carried out using reference spheres placed in each scene and this method archived an overall registration error of 2.24 mm (RMSE. Transformation of the final registered point cloud from its local coordinate system to the national cartographic system was achieved with total accuracy of 21 mm (RMSE. This very detailed data set was used to create a 3-D cave surface model needed for volumetric analyses. In the future, it will be used for spatial analyses or simulating the interaction of surface and subsurface processes contributing to the development of the cave system on the basis of a 3-D GIS platform.

  5. Spontaneous Meckel's cave hematoma: A rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafaci, Concetta; Grasso, Giovanni; Granata, Francesca; Marino, Daniele; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Tomasello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is vascular compression. However, other causes must be considered. Among these, spontaneous hematoma of the Meckel's cave (MC) causing symptomatic TN is very rare. Case Description: We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-month history of left TN and diplopia. Neuroradiological examinations revealed a well-defined hematoma in the left MC. The patient underwent surgical decompression with a progressive neurological improvement. Conclusion: Despite the number of lesions potentially affecting the MC, spontaneous hemorrhage is rare but should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26539319

  6. The Paleoindian Bison Assemblage from Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan C. Driver; Vallieres, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    A small assemblage of bison bones from the Palaeoindian (10,700 to 9500 BP) components at Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia is dominated by elements from the middle and lower limbs. The skeletal element frequencies are not typical of a kill site. The lithic assemblage, the lack of evidence for burning, and the ratio of long bone shaft fragments to epiphyses suggest that the assemblage was not produced at a residential site nor at a specialized processing area. We propose that the assemblage...

  7. Agraphorura calvoi n. sp. from Venezuelan caves (Collembola: Onychiuridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Arbea Javier I.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Agraphorura (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) from caves in the Nort-West of Venezuela is described. A.calvoi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: antennal organ III with four papillae, 32/133/33343 dorsal pseudocellar formula, 3/000/0112 ventral pseudocellar, subcoxae each with two pseudocelli, postantennalorgan with 7-9 vesicles, unguiculus with a basal lamella, tibiotarsi I-III with 19,19,18 setae (distal whorl o...

  8. Age of Dinaric karst cave sediments in SW Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    Sarajevo : Fakultet drušstvenih znanosti dr. Milenko Brkic Sveučiílišta Hercegovina, 2012 - (Lučic, I.; Mulaomerovič, J.), s. 13-28 ISBN 978-9958-0910-0-1. [Man and Karst 2011. Bijakovici- Medugorje (SI), 13.10.2011-16.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : age of the karst * cave sediments * paleomagnetic dating * Dinaric karst * karst ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m-3 were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m-3. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 μSv in summer and 2.5 μSv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv

  10. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtijari, M. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Vaupotic, J.; Gregoric, A.; Stegnar, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobal, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kobal@ijs.si

    2008-02-15

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m{sup -3} were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m{sup -3}. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 {mu}Sv in summer and 2.5 {mu}Sv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv.

  11. 7500 years of prehistoric footwear from arnold research cave, missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff; DeHart; O'Brien

    1998-07-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometer dating of an assemblage of fibrous and leather footwear from Arnold Research Cave in central Missouri documents a long sequence of shoe construction by prehistoric Midwestern peoples, beginning perhaps as early as 8300 calendar years before the present (cal years B.P.). An earlier fibrous sandal form dates from 8325 to 7675 cal years B.P., and later fibrous or leather slip-ons span the period from 5575 to 1070 cal years B.P. The assemblage adds to a growing picture of the highly varied nature of prehistoric footwear production in the United States throughout the Holocene. PMID:9651246

  12. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  13. Changes in the inhabitation of the Biśnik Cave during the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrek, Krzysztof; Sudoł, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The Biśnik Cave lies on the left western slope of the Wodąca Valley, which is part of the Niegownice-Smoleń hills, situated in the central part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. The cave consists of several chambers joined by corridors, and a number of entrances. Interdisciplinary research (archaeology, sedimentology, geomorphology and paleozoology) carried out since 1992 has dealt with the exploration of the following elements of the cave system: the main chamber, side shelter, side chamber and the area underneath the overhang. The Biśnik Cave is currently the oldest cave site in Poland with a well-preserved cross-section of sediments formed in separate stages of climatic changes, starting with the period preceding the Odra Glaciation to the Holocene. The oldest traces of settlement of Palaeolithic man go as far back as over 400,000 years ago. The most interesting mid-Palaeolithic sequence of the cave inhabitation comprises 17 cultural levels preserved in the form of stone and bone artefacts' concentrations, hearth remains and fragments of animal bones of post-consumption character. The attempts to date separate levels using the uranium-thorium dating method, electronic paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence method are very relevant. Scientific value of the Biśnik Cave turns it into a sample mid-Palaeolithic site in this part of Europe. A three-dimensional localisation of all finds made it possible to prepare a detailed map of the artefacts' distribution in the consecutive sedimentary layers. This, in turn, enabled the reconstruction of changes of the cave inhabitation by man. The correlation of those changes with the description of climatic conditions in the period of formation of sedimentary layers helped link the cave inhabitation methods with natural conditions dominating the area of the Biśnik Cave at that time.

  14. Karst show caves – how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection – experiment in Postojna cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gabrovšek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave Early Warning and Measuring System. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an Early Warning System (EWS. One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organisation allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is a regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  15. Karst show caves - how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection - experiment in Postojna Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovšek, F.; Grašič, B.; Božnar, M. Z.; Mlakar, P.; Udén, M.; Davies, E.

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of delay- and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave early warning and measuring system. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an early warning system (EWS). One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection) on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train without stopping passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organization allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  16. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  17. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  18. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  19. Detrital cave sediments record Late Quaternary hydrologic and climatic variability in northwestern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Tyler S.; van Hengstum, Peter J.; Horgan, Meghan C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

    2016-04-01

    Detrital sediment in Florida's (USA) submerged cave systems may preserve records of regional climate and hydrologic variability. However, the basic sedimentology, mineralogy, stratigraphic variability, and emplacement history of the successions in Florida's submerged caves remains poorly understood. Here we present stratigraphic, mineralogical, and elemental data on sediment cores from two phreatic cave systems in northwestern Florida (USA), on the Dougherty Karst Plain: Hole in the Wall Cave (HITW) and Twin Cave. Water flowing through these caves is subsurface flow in the Apalachicola River drainage basin, and the caves are located just downstream from Jackson Blue (1st magnitude spring, > 2.8 m3 s- 1 discharge). Sedimentation in these caves is dominated by three primary sedimentary styles: (i) ferromanganese deposits dominate the basal recovered stratigraphy, which pass upsection into (ii) poorly sorted carbonate sediment, and finally into (iii) fine-grained organic matter (gyttja) deposits. Resolving the emplacement history of the lower stratigraphic units was hampered by a lack of suitable material for radiocarbon dating, but the upper organic-rich deposits have a punctuated depositional history beginning in the earliest Holocene. For example, gyttja primarily accumulated in HITW and Twin Caves from ~ 5500 to 3500 cal yr. BP, which coincides with regional evidence for water-table rise of the Upper Floridian Aquifer associated with relative sea-level rise in the Gulf of Mexico, and evidence for invigorated drainage through the Apalachicola River drainage basin. Gyttja sediments were also deposited in one of the caves during the Bølling/Allerød climate oscillation. Biologically, these results indicate that some Floridian aquatic cave (stygobitic) ecosystems presently receive minimal organic matter supply in comparison to prehistoric intervals. The pre-Holocene poorly sorted carbonate sediment contains abundant invertebrate fossils, and likely documents a period

  20. The biogeochemical role of Actinobacteria in Altamira Cave, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuezva, Soledad; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Porca, Estefania; Pašić, Lejla; Jurado, Valme; Hernandez-Marine, Mariona; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Hermosin, Bernardo; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    The walls and ceiling of Altamira Cave, northern Spain, are coated with different coloured spots (yellow, white and grey). Electron microscopy revealed that the grey spots are composed of bacteria and bioinduced CaCO(3) crystals. The morphology of the spots revealed a dense network of microorganisms organized in well-defined radial and dendritic divergent branches from the central area towards the exterior of the spot, which is coated with overlying spheroidal elements of CaCO(3) and CaCO(3) nest-like aggregates. Molecular analysis indicated that the grey spots were mainly formed by an unrecognized species of the genus Actinobacteria. CO(2) efflux measurements in rocks heavily covered by grey spots confirmed that bacteria-forming spots promoted uptake of the gas, which is abundant in the cave. The bacteria can use the captured CO(2) to dissolve the rock and subsequently generate crystals of CaCO(3) in periods of lower humidity and/or CO(2). A tentative model for the formation of these grey spots, supported by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy data, is proposed. PMID:22500975

  1. Step back! Niche dynamics in cave-dwelling predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Isaia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The geometry of the Hutchinson's hypervolume derives from multiple selective pressures defined, on one hand, by the physiological tolerance of the species, and on the other, by intra- and interspecific competition. The quantification of these evolutionary forces is essential for the understanding of the coexistence of predators in light of competitive exclusion dynamics. We address this topic by investigating the ecological niche of two medium-sized troglophile spiders (Meta menardi and Pimoa graphitica). Over one year, we surveyed several populations in four subterranean sites in the Western Italian Alps, monitoring monthly their spatial and temporal dynamics and the associated physical and ecological variables. We assessed competition between the two species by means of multi regression techniques and by evaluating the intersection between their multidimensional hypervolumes. We detected a remarkable overlap between the microclimatic and trophic niche of M. menardi and P. graphitica, however, the former -being larger in size- resulted the best competitor in proximity of the cave entrance, causing the latter to readjust its spatial niche towards the inner part, where prey availability is scarcer ("step back effect"). In parallel to the slight variations in the subterranean microclimatic condition, the niche of the two species was also found to be seasonal dependent, varying over the year. With this work, we aim at providing new insights about the relationships among predators, demonstrating that energy-poor environments such as caves maintain the potential for diversification of predators via niche differentiation and serve as useful models for theoretical ecological studies.

  2. Classification of Thermal Patterns at Karst Springs and Cave Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, A.J.; Covington, M.D.; Peters, Albert J.; Alexander, S.C.; Anger, C.T.; Green, J.A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Alexander, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Features of deep cave sediments: their influence on fossil preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo, R.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse how physical and chemical deep-cave sediment features preserve the morphological and geochemical characteristics of paleontological materials. Detrital sediment chemistry and clast size are fundamental because they provide a soft, impervious and plastic environment in which fossil remains are transported with minimal erosion. Sediment mineralogy provides a carbonate- and phosphate-buffered environment in which molecules of biological origin hydrolyze slower than in open-air environments or even at cave entrance sites. Because permafrost did not develop in the Iberian Peninsula (at least at the altitudes of inhabited caves, sediment desiccation never took place. In addition, sediment -pores were not aerated, which protected fossil remains from air (oxygen-linked weathering. The annual-temperature variation inside sediment was negligible, which contributed to amino acid racemization dating. Collagen amino acid and amino acid racemization analysis of cave bear and man samples from cave sediments dated from different Oxygen Isotope Stages (4": Sidrón, Amutxate, Troskaeta, El Toll, Coro Tracito, Ekain, Lezetxiki, La Pasada, Eirós; 5": Reguerillo and Arrikrutz; 6"-7": Sima de los Huesos demonstrate that important amounts of almost intact collagen still remain in teeth dentine. Fossil DNA search seems to be very promising.En este trabajo se analiza el papel que juegan las características físicas y químicas de los sedimentos de galerías profundas de cuevas en la preservación de los caracteres morfológicos y paleobiomoleculares del material paleontológico incluido en dichos sedimentos. Los aspectos geoquímicos y de tamaño de grano del sedimento son críticos: las características generan un medio blando, plástico e impermeable que permite el transporte -mecánico sin grave deterioro del material (en coladas de barro; las características químicas mineralogía del sediment* proporcionan un ambiente con tampón fosfatado

  4. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  5. MORPHOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF SWIFTLET’S NEST NATURAL HABITATS (CAVE IN GUNONG PUNGKI TADU RAYA THE DISTRICT NAGAN RAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nazaruddin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by survey method with 2 stages of research. Data was collected through observation and recording. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis. Observations showed that the outside surface of the cave there are many species of plants totaling 131 trees of 21 species and 39 animals of 11 species that live on the surface of the cave swiftlet habitat. The inner surface is generally smooth and watery caves and has temperature and humidity are very cool compared to the outside surface of the cave. On walls and ceilings inside the cave there are small bumps that are used to create a nest swiftlet. The surface of the cave has a light intensity of 001 foot candles. The conclusion obtained is the outer surface of bird's nest cave has a surface is not flat and overgrown with various species of trees, while the inside has a surface with small protrusions with holes not too deep.

  6. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  7. Identification of flood events inside karst cavities: Fria Cave (Asturias - NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Lemos, Saul; Stoll, Heather

    2013-04-01

    Fluvial records may be well preserved in subterranean karst drainage networks and fluvial deposits cemented in speleothems may provide good chronology of past flood events. In several karst systems in Asturias (NW. Spain), moments of extreme precipitation events produce deposits from flood events in the bed and walls of caves which we propose are also recorded in the calcium carbonate stalagmites growing in the cave. The final stretch of the studied cave (Fria Cave), with a development of 360 m in length, intersects a small perennial stream which in our observation has maintained a minimum discharge of about 0.022 m3/s but periodically overflows into the vadose cave passage. Immediately after a flood overflow event, water marks and foam detritus are visible at various levels on the cave walls and corresponding to heights of bottlenecks in overflow drainage through the cave passage. Flood events deposit sand on terraces on the cave wall and move large volumes of sand in the cave bed. These extreme events leave a long-term record in i) wall coloration or water marks on the cave walls; and ii) detrital particles preserved as inclusions inside the stalagmites. Throughout this cave, it is possible to recognize chromatic changes in the walls, such as manganese oxide stains, which coincide with one of the water marks left during a recent flood event. The most salient manganese oxide on the walls rises up to 1.5 m measured from the thalweg and we interpreted it as the result of a frequent process of wetting - drying related to frequent flooding of the cave. Since 3-4 ka, drapery flowstone has been deposited over this oxide coating in some parts of the cave and the drapery remains free of oxide coating. We interpret this as indicating a reduction in the frequency and/or duration of flooding to this height, coincident with a regional drying trend in late Holocene. Stalagmites growing in the bed of the cave appear to trap fluvial sediments like sand or silts particles, which

  8. In situ acetylene reduction activity of Scytonema julianum in Vapor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asencio Antonia Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation was measured in situ for the first time by acetylene reduction for a greyish mat composed of Scytonema julianum in cave- like environments. Mat-specific rates (129.9-215.7 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for daytime fixation and 65.1-120.6 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for nighttime fixation recorded in the Vapor cave differed considerably due to the energy reserves stored during photosynthesis being exhausted and used in the dark phase. The most influential environmental parameter for nitrogen fixation in the Vapor cave is temperature in the daytime and nighttime fixations. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria may contribute considerably to the overall nitrogen cycle in harsh environments such as caves. Nitrogenase activity in Scytonema julianum was roughly 30 times higher than that of Scytonema mirabile, which also grew in cave environments, which is due to the characteristics of each site. The entrance of Vapour cave (Spain faces SE, measures 0.75 x 0.6 m and opens to shafts of a total depth of 80 m. Its dimensions and environmental conditions (relative humidity up to 100%; maximum temperature, 43oC imply that it is isolated from external influences, and that the microclimate differs substantially from that experienced externally. Nitrogen fixation, photon flux density, relative humidity and temperature in the Vapor cave were taken hourly over a 24-hour period in winter.

  9. The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system in the western Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system (SMI) is located within the Khipstinsky karstic massif, in the Western Caucasus. The cave is a branched, arborescent system of cave channels through which underground water streams flow and change in an upwards direction in sub-vertical shafts. Now 3 such shafts, which have a connection with the cave river, are being studied: the Snezhnaya (1970 m a.s.l.), the Mezhennogo (2 015 m a.s.l.) and the Illyuziya (2 389 m a.s.l.). The SMI cave system has been investigated since 1971 and the currently known depth of the system is 1 760 m, the extent of the galleries ≥32 km, the volume ≥2.7 million m3, the specific volume - 84 m3/m. The size of the biggest cave chamber the Thronnyj - is 309x109x40 m. The average discharge of the underground river is about 500 l/s. The temperature in the cavity changes from 0 to 6.5 degree centigrade. Research on the SMI cave system continues. (Author)

  10. Microbial Diversity in a Venezuelan Orthoquartzite Cave is Dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel A Barton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave, an orthoquartzite (SiO4 cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrate the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82-84% by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%, which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in Roraima Sur Cave is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems.

  11. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu; WU XianZhu; LI YiYin; DENG ChengLong; WU XiuJie; PEI ShuWen

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, three excavations have been carried out at a late Pleistocene human fossil site of Huan-glong Cave in Yunxi County, Hubei Province of China, which unearthed seven human teeth, dozens of stone tools, mammal fossils and other evidence indicating human activities. During the third excava-tion in 2006, in the same layer as the human teeth, we found some patches of black materials embed-ded in the deposit. We doubted that this black deposit layer is the remains of burning or even human use of fire at the cave. To further explore the possibility of human fire use at the Huanglong Cave, we examined samples directly taken from the black deposit layer and compared them with samples taken from several places in the cave using three methods: micromorphology, element content determination and deposit temperature analysis. Our results indicate that the contents of carbon element in the black deposit reach 64.59%-73.29%. In contrast, contents of carbon element of the comparative samples from other parts in the cave are only 5.82%-9.49%. The micromorphology analysis of the black de-posit samples reveals a plant structure like axial parenchyma, fibrocyte, uniseriate ray and vessel.High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that the stratum possibly underwent a high temperature in the nature. Based on these lab analyses, we are sure that the black layer in the Huanglong Cave is the remains of fire and combustion did occur in the cave 100000 years ago. Taking other evidence of human activities found in the Huanglong Cave into consideration, we believe that the evidence of fire from the Huanglong Cave was caused by the human activities of controlled use of fire.

  12. Is global warming affecting cave temperatures? Experimental and model data from a paradigmatic case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Lojen, Sonja; Krklec, Kristina; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian J.

    2015-08-01

    This research focuses on the mechanisms that transfer the variations in surface atmospheric temperature into caves to evaluate whether they record the warming trend of recent decades. As a study case, we use the data from a hall in Postojna Cave (Slovenia), which was monitored from 2009 to 2013. The low-frequency thermal variability of this cave chamber is dominated by the conduction of heat from the surface through the bedrock. We implemented a thermal conduction model that reproduces low-frequency thermal gradients similar to those measured in the cave. At the 37 m depth of this chamber, the model confirms that the bedrock is already recording the local expression of global warming with a delay of 20-25 years, and predicts a cave warming during the coming decades with a mean rate of 0.015 ± 0.004 C year-1. However, because of the transfer of surface atmosphere thermal variability depends on the duration of the oscillations, the thermal anomalies with periods 7-15 years in duration have delay times <10 years at the studied hall. The inter-annual variability of the surface atmospheric temperature is recorded in this cave hall, although due to the different delay and amplitude attenuation that depends on the duration of the anomalies, the cave temperature signal differs significantly from that at the surface. As the depth of the cave is a major factor in thermal conduction, this is a principal control on whether or not a cave has already recorded the onset of global warming.

  13. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  14. New rock and portable art finds in La Cullalvera cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda DÍAZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological activities carried out in the vestibule of La Cullalvera cave during the conditioning of the site for touristic use have lead to the discovery of a new cave painting, a figure of a horse in red traits. Some pieces of portable art have been also found, including a fragment of a small bone plaquette with a series of engraved “claviform” signs that show a clear parallel with the signs of the same type painted in red in the inner gallery of the cave. The formal and stylistic characteristics of the findings point to a Magdalenian chronology.

  15. Microbial activity in the subterranean environment of Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Carpa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Six cave material samples from Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains, were microbiologically andenzymologically analyzed. The microbiological analyses consisted in determining the presence ofoligotrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, nitrate and nitrite bacteria, denitrifiers and determining thepresence of micromycetes. In order to form a complete image on the microbial processes from this habitat,the bacteriological analyses were completed with quantitative and qualitative enzymological analyses. At allthe six samples of cave material the next quantitative enzymatic activities were performed: actual andpotential dehydrogenase, catalase and phosphatase. Only regarding the intensity of the processesdifferences were noticed. The qualitative enzymatic activities: amylase, dextranase, saccharase, maltaseand levanase, were not present at studied samples.

  16. Interpretation of Simulations in Interactive VR Environments: Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    of architectural concepts. Architects need to heed the dynamics set in motion by these technologies and especially of how laypersons interpret building forms and their simulations in interactive VR environments. The article presents a study which compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical...... environment, CAVE and Panorama. In a report, statistical analysis and discussion of the results, the paper addresses three hypothetical assertions - that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and Panorama are quantifiably different, that differences are attributable to...... asserted that perception of shape and distance display here fundamental conditions of the CAVE and Panorama....

  17. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern

  18. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  19. Isotopic variability of cave bears (δ15N, δ13C) across Europe during MIS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcarz, Magdalena; Pacher, Martina; Krajcarz, Maciej T.; Laughlan, Lana; Rabeder, Gernot; Sabol, Martin; Wojtal, Piotr; Bocherens, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Collagen, the organic fraction of bone, records the isotopic parameters of consumed food for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). This relationship of isotopic signature between diet and tissue is an important tool for the study of dietary preferences of modern and fossil animal species. Since the first information on the isotopic signature of cave bear was reported, numerous data from Europe have become available. The goal of this work is to track the geographical variation of cave bear collagen isotopic values in Europe during Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (about 60,000-25,000 yr BP). In this study the results of new δ13C and δ15N isotopic analyses of cave bear collagen from four Central-Eastern European sites are presented, as well as a review of all published isotopic data for cave bears of the same period. The main conclusion is a lack of geographical East-West pattern in the variations of δ13C and δ15N values of cave bear collagen. Moreover, no relationship was found between cave bear taxonomy and isotopic composition. The cave bears from Central-Eastern Europe exhibit δ13C and δ15N values near the average of the range of Central, Western and Southern European cave bears. Despite the fact that most cave bear sites follow an altitudinal gradient, separate groups of sites exhibit shift in absolute values of δ13C, what disturbs an altitude-related isotopic pattern. The most distinct groups are: high Alpine sites situated over 1500 m a.s.l. - in terms of δ13C; and two Romanian sites Peştera cu Oase and Urşilor - in case of δ15N. Although the cave bear isotopic signature is driven by altitude, the altitudinal adjustment of isotopic data is not enough to explain the isotopic dissimilarity of these cave bears. The unusually high δ15N signature of mentioned Romanian sites is an isolated case in Europe. Cave bears from relatively closely situated Central-Eastern European sites and other Romanian sites are more similar to Western European than to Romanian

  20. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tmc@servidor.unam.mx; Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural. Xicontencatl y General Anaya s/n. (04120) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, D. [National Institute of Nuclear Research.. Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5 (52045), Salazar, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Institute of Geophysics, National University of Mexico, Circuito Institutos, CU (04510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cabrera, L. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern.

  1. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of Teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the Sun Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T; Martinez, G; Mendoza, D; Juarez, F; Cabrera, L

    2005-01-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern. PMID:15996472

  2. Suitable Strategies for the Development of Sahoolan Watery Cave Geotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, tourism is one of the largest and most beneficial industries in the world and in many countries it is used as a development strategy. Geotourism or geological tourism is emerging as a new global phenomenon. It is a form of natural area tourism that specifically focuses on geology and landscape. Because of appropriate planning and recognizing advantages and limitations, this kind of tourism can play an important role in the national development and diversification of local economy. There is a wide variety of caves in Iran, including calcareous (karst, salt, ancient and human-made caves which Sahoolan is one of the most important of them. Though Sahoolan has a great range of potentials for geotourism development, geotourism is just emerging and taking its first developmental steps. So these questions arise: What are the potentialities and limitations of Geotourism development in this region? Which strategies are required for developing this type of tourism and following national and regional development?2. Theoretical Bases Geotourism is a new phenomenon in tourism industry. It is defined as tourism activity pertaining to geology and geomorphology, and the natural resources of landscape, landforms, fossil beds, rocks and minerals, with an emphasis on appreciating the processes that are creating and have created such features. Geotourism’s first definition appeared after 1990s. An early definition of geotourism was made by Thomas Hose. He specifically focused on geology and geomorphologic sites. The goal of geotourism is to maintain the character of place. It is not just travelling to undisturbed natural areas or to centers of human activity but travelling to destinations where nature and humans come together to produce a working landscape. The focus is to encourage visitation to an area by visitors who value the same working landscapes valued by the residents. Ideally, geotourism can be beneficial for both

  3. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ganapathi Babu; A.Komali; V.Mythry; A.S.K.Ratnam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

  4. Mining machine safari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-11-01

    New South African and other mining equipment on display at the Electra 98 exhibition is described. Products include: cutting machines; shovels; crushing machines; drilling equipment; control systems; moon buggy inspection vehicles; remote control underground mining machines; longwall shearers; mining software; scrapedozers; continuous miners; sprays; mine haulage equipment; milling machines; flotation plant; mud removal systems; chains; vehicle exhaust filters and continuous miner monitoring systems.

  5. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B

    2013-01-01

    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds. PMID:24730174

  6. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  7. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15‰, and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10‰ suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature

  8. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of time-series magnesium (δ26Mg isotope data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are placed against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rain water or snow as well as soil and hostrock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07 ‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15 ‰ and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04 ‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is in concert with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07 ‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10 ‰ record changes in outside air temperature as driving factor rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73 ‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43 ‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature affecting soil zone activity

  9. CCC-based muon telescope for examination of natural caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oláh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for geophysical applications: searching for large scale underground rock/soil inhomogeneities and underground cavities. The designed muon telescope called a muon tomograph is based on the recently developed closed cathode chamber (CCC technology, which provides a cheap, easy handling, portable, and power efficient detector system able to work even in extreme conditions (e.g. high humidity, low/high temperature. The muon telescope has a detection surface of approximately 0.1 m2 with a 10 mrad angular resolution. Tests have been performed in natural caves and artificial tunnel systems as well. In this paper a summary of the first results on tomographic cavities are presented and the geophysical and possible industrial use of the cosmic muon tomographic technology is indicated.

  10. CCC-based muon telescope for examination of natural caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oláh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for geophysical application: searching for large scale underground rock/soil inhomogeneities and underground cavities. The designed muon telescope called Muontomograph is based on the recently developed Closed Cathode Chamber (CCC technology, which provides a cheap, easy handling, portable, and power efficient detector system, able to work even at extreme conditions (e.g. high humidity, low/high temperature. The muon telescope has about 0.1 m2 detection surface with 10 mrad angular resolution. Tests have been performed in natural caves and artificial tunnel systems as well. In the paper a summary of the first results on tomographed cavities are presented and the geophysical and possible industrial use of the cosmic muon tomograph technology is indicated.

  11. Mine mapping and layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides a study aid to mine engineering students combining graphical techniques of mine mapping, mine design, and mine layout, as well as supplemental techniques needed for adequate mine design. The book reviews cartographic techniques, the fundamentals of plane surveying, standard drafting room practices, guidelines for mine map symbolization and production, mine entry nomenclature, and details of topographic map production. Supplemental techniques include methods of achieving functional performance in the layout of a mine, statistical mapping of exploratory data, and techniques of descriptive geometry. Designs of ventilation, transportation, drainage, and electrical supply systems of mines are discussed in the final chapters. An appendix discusses mine mapping symbols. 105 references, 234 figures, 16 tables.

  12. Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Cortes A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The large microclimatic stability is a basic characteristic of the subterranean karst systems and causes a high sensitivity to changesin environmental conditions. High-accuracy monitoring of Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain determined the temporal evolution of theaerodynamic processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. This cave is characterizedby a very stable microclimate, with high and relatively constant radon content (the mean value is 32200 Bq/m3, roughly, and thestandard deviation is 7600 Bq/m3 and a moderate and quite stable CO2 concentration (the mean value is 3730 ppm and the standarddeviation is 250 ppm. Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimaticprocesses are described with regard to the gas exchange between the cave and the outside atmosphere. There is a complexmicroclimatic functional relationship between the meteorological and cave microclimate conditions and the diffusion and flow of tracergases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Transient variations of tracer gas on cave airare controlled by natural barometric fluxes and anthropogenic forced ventilation due to uncontrolled opening of cave entrance. Theshort-term fluctuations of gas levels on cave air reveal distinct patterns during the exhalation process of theses gases from the netof fissures and pores to the cave atmosphere, depending on the isolation effect of soil and host rock.

  13. Late Quaternary cave bears and brown bears in Europe: implications for distribution, chronology, and extinction based on a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, Martina

    2010-05-01

    Cave bear remains are one of the most numerous fossils found in European caves. Despite their frequency of occurrence, many aspects of cave bear palaeontology still remain poorly understood. New methodological approaches and ongoing studies led to controversial results and discussion about its taxonomy, palaeoecology, and final extinction. Are we dealing with one single or several species of cave bears? Was cave bear exclusively vegetarian or after all more omnivorous? Did he go extinct before or after the Late Glacial Maximum? Was cave bear restricted to Europe or did he also occur in Asia? Late Pleistocene brown bears, on the other hand, are often rare and little is known about the possible co-occurrence of cave and brown bears during the Late Pleistocene. Based on direct radiocarbon dates the distribution pattern of both, cave and brown bears is reconstructed during the Late Pleistocene in Europe. In addition, the reasons for the achieved pattern will be tested leading to the main question - why did cave bear become extinct while brown bears survived until today? To answer this question palaeobiological data of Late Pleistocene cave and brown bears will be tested against results from isotope analyses, while aDNA data may contribute to the question of distinct local population or even species of bears. The current state of evidence will be presented and on the basis of resulting pattern implications for further multi-disciplinary studies will be discussed.

  14. Altamira cave Paleolithic paintings harbor partly unknown bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2002-05-21

    Since it has been reported that microorganisms can affect painting pigments, Paleolithic painting microbiology deserves attention. The present study is the first report on the bacterial colonization of the valuable Paleolithic paintings in the famous Altamira cave (Spain). One sample taken from a painting area in the Polychromes Hall was analyzed culture-independently. This was the first time microbiologists were allowed to take sample material directly from Altamira paintings. Identification methods included PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The applied approach gave insight into a great bacterial taxonomic diversity, and allowed the detection of unexpected and unknown bacteria with potential effects on the conservation of the painting. Regarding the number of 29 visible DGGE bands in the community fingerprint, the numbers of analyzed clones described about 72% of the phylogenetic diversity present in the sample. Thirty-eight percent of the sequences analyzed were phylogenetically most closely related to cultivated bacteria, while the majority (62%) were most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones. Bacteria identified in Altamira were related with sequence similarities between 84.8 and 99.4% to members of the cosmopolitan Proteobacteria (52.3%), to members of the Acidobacterium division (23.8%), Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides phylum (9.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (4.8%), Planctomycetales (4.8%) and Actinobacteria (4.8%). The high number of clones most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones showed the broad spectrum of unknown and yet to be cultivated bacteria in Altamira cave. PMID:12052543

  15. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called stone on stone, explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  16. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analysed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb derived tritium removing any ice accumulated, since at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses made radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a maximum ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 4 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cyro-calcite layers, a extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  17. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 2 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cryocalcite layers, extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  18. Microbial diversity in a Venezuelan orthoquartzite cave is dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales) and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Hazel A; Giarrizzo, Juan G; Suarez, Paula; Robertson, Charles E; Broering, Mark J; Banks, Eric D; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Venkateswaran, Kasthisuri

    2014-01-01

    The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave (RSC), an orthoquartzite (SiO4) cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrates the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82-84%) by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%), which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in RSC is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems. PMID:25505450

  19. Semantic web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Stumme, Gerd; Hotho, Andreas; Berendt, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. This survey analyzes the convergence of trends from both areas: an increasing number of researchers is working on improving the results of Web Mining by exploiting semantic structures in the Web, and they make use of Web Mining techniques for building the Semantic Web. Last but not least, these techniques can be used for mining the Semantic Web itself. The Semantic Web is t...

  20. CROSSING SUPPORT OF THE DRIFT AND CROSSCUTS IN SUBLEVEL BAUXITE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Majić

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The report discusses the excavation method in underground bauxite exploitation of the Bauxite Mine Posušjc, as well as the experiences in crossing support of drifts and crosscuts till now, where it came in about 6% cases to the breakage of the frame support and to crossing ceiling caving. On the basis of such biggest caving, the estimate and dimensioning of critical support elements (runner and bar were performed. The possibility of supporting by bolting and stell plate was also considered. For the central part of the crosscut the use of bolts was assumed, which are fixed in the up-face. and for the rest of crossing the expansion shell anchors. For the latter, the estimate for anchoring elements was elaborated. Technical, safety and economic advantage of the bolts support is proved when compared with the frame support (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  2. The first radiometric dating of Norwegian stalagmites - evidence of pre-Weichselian karst caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speleogenetic theories of karst caves in Norway are divergent, and the caves considered are probably of different ages and polygenetic in origin. Uranium decay series dating of speleotherms is a recently developed method that has not earlier been applied to material from Norway. This paper pres;ents the dating of two stalagmite samples one with age of 2,600+-1,100, and the other with a growth range of 91,000+23,300-20,400 years B.P., respectively. This demonstrates that at least one cave is of pre-Weichselian age. Correlation of the results with other Pleistocene chronoligies is discussed, as well as the consequences of stalagmite datings for interpretation of cave and land surface development through glacials. (Auth.)

  3. On the adaptations to cave life of some different animal groups (first note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the major and common adaptations to the cave environment ofdifferent animal groups. The common features are: anophthalmia, depigmentation, apterism in the caseof insects, body shape and ecophysiological adaptations.

  4. True Color Orthophotography for Timpanogos Cave National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This imagery dataset was used to map the vegetation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument. This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery...

  5. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 and 2015 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  6. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 to 2015 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  7. Contaminant analyses of water and sediment at Key Cave, Lauderdale County, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water and sediment samples were collected from Key Cave and analyzed for 20 metals and 78 organic chemicals. Results indicated the presence of p,p'-DDE and elevated...

  8. Field Plot Points for Wind Cave National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Wind Cave NP were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 2 parts - (1) Physical Descriptive...

  9. Digital Geologic Map of the Wind Cave quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Wind Cave quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map...

  10. Hominin-bearing caves and landscape dynamics in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Berger, Lee R.

    2013-02-01

    This paper provides constraints on the evolution of the landscape in the Cradle of Humankind (CoH), UNESCO World Heritage Site, South Africa, since the Pliocene. The aim is to better understand the distribution of hominin fossils in the CoH, and determine links between tectonic processes controlling the landscape and the evolution and distribution of hominins occupying that landscape. The paper is focused on a detailed reconstruction of the landscape through time in the Grootvleispruit catchment, which contains the highly significant fossil site of Malapa and the remains of the hominin species Australopithicus sediba. In the past 4 My the landscape in the CoH has undergone major changes in its physical appearance as a result of river incision, which degraded older African planation surfaces, and accommodated denudation of cover rocks (including Karoo sediments and various sil- and ferricretes) to expose dolomite with caves in which fossils collected. Differentially weathered chert breccia dykes, calibrated with 10Be exposure ages, are used to estimate erosion patterns of the landscape across the CoH. In this manner it is shown that 2 My ago Malapa cave was ˜50 m deep, and Gladysvale cave was first exposed; i.e. landscape reconstructions can provide estimates for the time of opening of cave systems that trapped hominin and other fossils. Within the region, cave formation was influenced by lithological, layer-parallel controls interacting with cross-cutting fracture systems of Paleoproterozoic origin, and a NW-SE directed extensional far-field stress at a time when the African erosion surface was still intact, and elevations were probably lower. Cave geometries vary in a systematic manner across the landscape, with deep caves on the plateau and cave erosion remnants in valleys. Most caves formed to similar depths of 1400-1420 mamsl across much of the CoH, indicating that caves no longer deepened once Pliocene uplift and incision occurred, but acted as passive

  11. Seasonality of use of Za Hájovnou Cave by bears and lions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 70, 1-2 (2014), s. 103-106. ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Middle Pleistocene * thin sections * seasonality * caves * the Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. Using the CAVE virtual-reality environment as an aid to 3-D electromagnetic field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems in three-dimensional (3-D) field computation is visualizing the resulting 3-D field distributions. A virtual-reality environment, such as the CAVE, (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) is helping to overcome this problem, thus making the results of computation more usable for designers and users of magnets and other electromagnetic devices. As a demonstration of the capabilities of the CAVE, the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW), an insertion device being designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) now being commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), wa made visible, along with its fields and beam orbits. Other uses of the CAVE in preprocessing and postprocessing computation for electromagnetic applications are also discussed

  13. Near-IR Reflectance Spectra in a Lava Tube Cave from a Robotic Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanover, N. J.; Uckert, K.; Voelz, D. G.; Xiao, X.; Hull, R.; Boston, P. J.; Parness, A.; Abcouwer, N.; Willig, A.; Fuller, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present preliminary field measurements of biovermiculations and other mineral deposits made at a lava tube cave in El Malpais National Monument, NM, using a rock climbing robot equipped with a near-infrared point spectrometer.

  14. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Summary Report 2012 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR in 2012. Calls were classified using EchoClass(v1.1) software, but classification of...

  15. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  16. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Summary Report 2012 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012. Calls were classified using EchoClass(v1.1) software, but classification of...

  17. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  18. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi) feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves - a curiosity among Arachnida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Lukešová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2013), e75989. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microwhip scorpions * heterotrophic cyanobacteria * Slovak caves Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  19. A multi-year monitoring project of the high-altitude Cenote ice cave, Dolomites, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; Santagata, Tommaso; Spötl, Christoph; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Dal Molin, Luca; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Cenote ice cave hosts one of the most voluminous cave glaciers of the Dolomites. This 280 m-deep abyss was discovered in 1994 after the entrance had opened as a result of the abrupt emptying of a small lake at 2940 m a.s.l. in the Regional Park of Fanes, Sennes and Braies. The cave consists of a massive, 130 m-thick layered ice deposit carved by meltwater tunnels and chimneys excavated from below by ascending air. At the lower limit of the cave glacier a shaft opens - ice-free and 165 m deep - leading into a dome occupied by a cave rock glacier with typical terminal tongue embankments. A research project was launched to monitor long-term movements and volume changes of this ice deposit as well as to understand the cave microclimate and the potential for future palaeoclimate studies. During October 2015 a first expedition performed a complete survey of the final chamber using a Leica HDS7000, a phase difference laser scanner equipped with a dual axis compensator, on-board control, a wavelenght of 1.5 microns, a laser "CLASS 1" with a flow rate of 187 m and a resolution of 0.1 mm. A scan station was performed also at 110 m above the bottom of the shaft to map in detail the lower side of the hanging ice glacier. This survey has provided the detailed volume of the chamber (420,000 m3) as well as a first record of the position of the ice masses hanging on the ceiling and of the rock glacier at the bottom. Barometric, temperature and humidity dataloggers have been installed in the cave to record the microclimate. In addition pollen traps have been installed to study the present flux of pollen at the surface and inside the cave, while preliminary analyses on pollen grains preserved in the ice are being carried out. The Cenote ice cave research project aims to shed light on the climate evolution of the Dolomites during the last hundreds or possibly thousands of years, as well as on the more recent environmental changes that lead to the upward melting of the cave

  20. Study of the prediction model of coal spontaneous combustion in the gate close to gob of fully mechanized longwall top-coal caving face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, J.; Xu, J.; Wen, H.; Zhang, X. [Xian Science and Technology Institute, Xian (China)

    2001-02-01

    According to the self ignition environment and conditions in the roadway of fully mechanised working face, the physical model of spontaneous combustion of loose coal at the gates has been simplified. On this basis, a 2-D prediction model of spontaneous combustion of coal is developed, and the determination of the boundary conditions of the models is analysed. The numerical solution of the model is put forward and the calculation result is used to predict the spontaneous combustion of coal at the gate in fully mechanised caving face. The model was applied to forecast the spontaneous combustion at the tailgate of working face 4308 in Dongtan Coal Mine, and the prediction accuracy was found to be above 88.9%. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Lower stratigraphical sequence of Lezetxiki cave (Arrasate, Basque Country). A necessary reflection

    OpenAIRE

    David ÁLVAREZ-ALONSO; Álvaro ARRIZABALAGA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show a synthesis of the information related to lower levels of Lezetxiki cave which was obtained during J. M. de Barandiaran’s works. As a necessary reflection about the problems which posed this sequence of levels, not only for an archaeostratigraphical and geochronological point of view, but also in the Ancient Cantabrian Palaeolithic general context. Under the new excavations that have been conducted since 1996 in the cave, is appropriate to make this reflection about the ...

  2. Marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea: a sponge biodiversity reservoir within a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    Full Text Available Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%, generic (70%, and species level (47.5%, the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each, 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection.

  3. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Manconi; Barbara Cadeddu; Fabio Ledda; Roberto Pronzato

    2013-01-01

    The present synthesis focuses on the so called ‘horny sponges’ recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was reco...

  4. New radiometric dates for the Prehistory of Northwestern Iberia: Valdavara Cave (Becerreá, Lugo)

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero Rodríguez, Manuel; Alonso Fernández, Susana; Alonso Fernández, Carmelo; Ameijenda Iglesias, Alicia; Blain, Hugues Alexandre; Fábregas Valcarce, Ramón; Gómez Merino, Gala; de Lombera Hermida, Arturo; Juan M. López-García; Lorenzo Merino, Carlos; Lozano Ruiz, Marina; Rodríguez Rellán, Carlos; Rosell i Ardèvol, Jordi; Serna González, María R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to make known the first results of the excavations in Valdavara Cave (Becerreá, Lugo), paying special attention to the radiometric dating that places this cave among the few Galician sites with Upper Palaeolithic dates. During the excavation carried out in 2007, two archaeological locations were documented in the same karstic system (Valdavara 1 and Valdavara 2). The test pit initiated in Valdavara 1 allowed us to identify so far two stratigraphic units: an upper uni...

  5. Identification of depositional hiatuses in karst infillings – Example from Divje babe I cave (Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Turk

    2011-01-01

    The Divje babe I cave is world known Paleolithic site in western Slovenia. In this paper, special interest is given to the identification of sedimentary hiatuses in karst infillings. Hiatuses can be the most reliably identified by detailed radiometric dating throughout the profile. However, this method is very expensive from economical point of view. New approach was developed in Divje babe I cave. Study of morphological characteristics of clast, may revealthe position of hiatuses. Four presu...

  6. Sedimentary archives opened in the Holštejnsá Cave, Moravian Karst (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Hercman, H.; Žák, Karel; Šlechta, Stanislav

    Stuttgart : Schweizerbart Science Publisher, 2013 - (Žák, J.; Zulauf, G.; Röhling, H.). s. 60-60 ISBN 978-3-510-49231-2. ISSN 1860-1782. [Joint conference of the Czech and German geological societes held. 16.10.2013-19.10.2013, Plzeň (Pilsen)] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * Moravian Karst * Holštejnská Cave Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400–200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Stiner, Mary C.; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator–prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the high...

  8. Carbon dioxide concentration in air within the Nerja cave (Malaga, Andalusia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Liñán

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available From 2001 to 2005 the CO2 concentration of the air in the interior and exterior of the Nerja Cave was studied and its relation with the air temperature and visitor number. The average annual CO2 concentration outside of the cave is 320 ppmv, whilst inside, the mean concentration increases to 525 ppmv during autumn and winter, and in the order of 750 ppmv during spring and summer. The temporal variation of CO2 content in the air of the cave is strongly influenced by its degree of natural ventilation which is, in turn, determined by the difference between external and internal air temperatures. During autumn, winter and spring, a positive correlation between the CO2 content of the air inside the cave and the temperature difference between the external and internal air was observed, such that when this difference increased, there was a higher level of CO2 within the cave. Then, the ventilation is high and CO2 levels are mainly of human origin. During summer, there was a negative correlation between CO2 and the temperature difference between the air outside and that inside the cave: when the temperature difference increases, the CO2 content within the cave is lower. At this time of the year, the renovation of the air is much slower due to the lower ventilation. A positive correlation between CO2 concentration of the air in the cave and the visitor number can only be observed during August, the month that receives the most visits throughout the year averaging 100,000.

  9. Analyzing airflow in static ice caves by using the calcFLOW method

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christiane; Meyer, Ulrich; Pflitsch, Andreas; Maggi, Valter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to detect airflow through ice caves and to quantify the corresponding airflow speeds by the use of temperature loggers. The time series of temperature observations at different loggers are cross-correlated. The time shift of best correlation corresponds to the travel time of the air and is used to derive the airflow speed between the loggers. We apply the method to test data observed inside Schellenberger Eishöhle (ice cave). The successf...

  10. Lava caves of Grande Comore, Indian Ocean: an initial reconnaissance, September 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Middleton

    1998-01-01

    What are believed to have been the first speleological investigations in the Comoros Islands were carried out on Grande Comore island between 7 and 13 September 1997. A number of caves were located with the help of local informants and the more significant ones surveyed. Exploration of some caves was not able to be completed. The potential for further significant discoveries is believed to be high.

  11. Amphipods from marine cave sediments of the southern Iberian Peninsula: diversity and ecological distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Guerra-Garc??a, Jos?? Manuel; S??nchez-Tocino, Luis; Garc??a-G??mez, Jos?? Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the amphipod assemblages of six marine caves on the Mediterranean coast of southern Spain. Replicate samples were taken both inside and outside each marine cave in order to characterize the amphipod fauna and the physicochemical properties of the sediment. As a result, 44 amphipods species were identified. The high number of species found in a relatively limited area highlighted the richness of the Alboran Sea fauna, which is mainly due to the mixture of species fro...

  12. Patterns of Cave Biodiversity and Endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiller, Matthew L.; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20...

  13. Biharian micromammalian faunal assemblages in Koněprusy caves (Czech Republic): review and new data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Jan; Čermák, Stanislav; Fejfar, O.; Horáček, I.

    Bratislava : Comenius University, 2009 - (Sabol, M.). s. 47-47 [International Cave Bear Symposium /15./. 17.09.2009-20.09.2009, Spišská Nová Ves] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Koněprusy caves * Biharian * fauna * micromammals * mammals Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    F. Obleitner; Ch. Spötl

    2010-01-01

    Meteorological and glaciological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria) during a full annual cycle. The observed meteorological conditions feature the basic characteristics of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the ice is largely predetermined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes w...

  15. The Koněprusy caves and the Golden Horse Hill

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav

    s. l: Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science Masaryk University ; LABRYS o.p.s, [2010] - (Kadlec, J.), s. 41-43 [Summer School of Quaternary Studies /6./. Czech Republic (CZ), 19.06.2010-26.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Koněprusy cave * Golden Horse Hill * cave system Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Bacterial metabolism of methylated amines and identification of novel methylotrophs in Movile Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischer, Daniela; Kumaresan, Deepak; Johnston, Antonia; El Khawand, Myriam; Stephenson, Jason; Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Alexandra M; Chen, Yin; Colin Murrell, J

    2015-01-01

    Movile Cave, Romania, is an unusual underground ecosystem that has been sealed off from the outside world for several million years and is sustained by non-phototrophic carbon fixation. Methane and sulfur-oxidising bacteria are the main primary producers, supporting a complex food web that includes bacteria, fungi and cave-adapted invertebrates. A range of methylotrophic bacteria in Movile Cave grow on one-carbon compounds including methylated amines, which are produced via decomposition of organic-rich microbial mats. The role of methylated amines as a carbon and nitrogen source for bacteria in Movile Cave was investigated using a combination of cultivation studies and DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-monomethylamine (MMA). Two newly developed primer sets targeting the gene for gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase (gmaS), the first enzyme of the recently-discovered indirect MMA-oxidation pathway, were applied in functional gene probing. SIP experiments revealed that the obligate methylotroph Methylotenera mobilis is one of the dominant MMA utilisers in the cave. DNA-SIP experiments also showed that a new facultative methylotroph isolated in this study, Catellibacterium sp. LW-1 is probably one of the most active MMA utilisers in Movile Cave. Methylated amines were also used as a nitrogen source by a wide range of non-methylotrophic bacteria in Movile Cave. PCR-based screening of bacterial isolates suggested that the indirect MMA-oxidation pathway involving GMA and N-methylglutamate is widespread among both methylotrophic and non-methylotrophic MMA utilisers from the cave. PMID:25050523

  17. BlenderCAVE: A multimodal scene graph editor for Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier-Quinot, David; Touraine, Damien; Katz, Brian,

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the BlenderCAVE project, which extends the 3D creation content software Blender and its Game Engine (BGE) to Virtual Reality (VR) applications. Based on a multi-screen non-stereoscopic adaptation of the BGE [Gascon et al., 2010], BlenderCAVE now integrates a complete framework dedicated to Virtual Reality (VR), compatible with the three main Operating Systems for any given VR architecture configuration. It has been developed by audio and VR researchers with support from th...

  18. Linkages between Holocene paleoclimate and paleohydrogeology preserved in a Yucatan underwater cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, Peter J.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Beddows, Patricia A.; Gabriel, Jeremy J.

    2010-09-01

    Three sediment cores spanning the last 4200 years from Aktun Ha Cave on the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) demonstrate that underwater caves can document changes to regional hydrogeology and climate. Benthic microfossils (testate amoebae, foraminifera), organic matter geochemistry (δ 13C, δ 15N, C/N), and particle size distributions were analyzed. However, microfossil paleoecology proved the most useful for indicating three salinity phases in the Aktun Ha sediment cores. Phase 1 (>4300 yr BP) contains predominantly foraminifera ( Physalidia simplex, 78%) that indicate the meteoric lens flooding the cave was initially brackish (salinity >3.5 g L -1). Phase 2 (2800-4300 Cal yr BP) has both freshwater testate amoebae ( Centropyxis spp. 40%) and P. simplex (42%), which indicates a slight freshening of the meteoric lens to 1.5-2 g L -1. Phase 3 (cenote. The δ 15N values ranged from 1.5 to 3.5‰ with observed cycles likely from intervals of increased terrestrial OM input into the cave during high rainfall events (e.g., hurricanes). The observed paleoenvironmental shifts in the cave correlate well with regional precipitation patterns, aquifer recharge, and storm activity caused by southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Therefore, regional climate change impacted eastern Yucatan groundwater during the mid to late Holocene. However, decelerating Holocene sea-level rise and aquifer occlusion are likely contributing factors. These results demonstrate that underwater cave sediments and microfossils can be useful proxies for aquifer evolution and climate change.

  19. Monitoring of radon gas in caves of the Yorkshire Dales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of vocational training courses are held in caves in the Yorkshire Dales region of the United Kingdom. The instructors and students involved in these courses have the potential to be exposed to enhanced levels of radon (222Rn) and its progeny as a result of their occupations. A prior radiological risk assessment for the training courses recommended that an environmental monitoring programme be carried out to establish the radon concentrations in the caves, and that the caving instructors wear personal radon dosemeters. Radon gas concentrations varied seasonally, being at their highest in summer and their lowest in winter. The lowest result was 40 Bq m-3 recorded in Lower Longchurn cave during winter, whilst the highest result was 4440 Bq m-3 recorded in Crackpot cave during the summer. As the individuals involved in the caving are entering atmospheres with radon gas concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m-3, the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 (GB Parliament 2000 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (London: Stationary Office) SI 1999/3232) apply. A system of work is therefore in place to control exposure to radon. This system of work stipulates an initial dose investigation level of 1 mSv, a second dose investigation level of 2 mSv and an annual dose limit of 6 mSv. The highest annual dose recorded to date is 2.2 mSv, although the average (median) annual dose is only 0.5 mSv.

  20. Minerals and speleothems of the József-hegy Cave (Budapest, Hungary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leél-Őssy Szabolcs

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the József-hegy Cave, a cave of hydrothermal origin with an abundance of minerals unknown so far in Hungarycame to light. Diversity and the frequency of the occurrence of crystals make this cave similar to the Lechuguilla Cave, even ifthe dimensions of the mineral precipitations and the passages do not compare in scale. The variety and mass of carbonates andsulphates are surprising. This paper describes the minerals and speleothems of the József-hegy Cave, their occurrence and genesis,including determined ages. The 41 U/Th measurements suggest that speleothems begun to develop in the upper level of the cavemore than 350 ka ago. Some of these dated old speleothems were developing in dry passages, thus the uppermost passages of theJózsef-hegy Cave have been dry at least for 350 ka. The karst water level was still at the main passage 200 ka ago and dropped to120 m asl by the time of ~100 ka before present.

  1. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

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    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  2. A forward model of cave dripwater δ18O and application to speleothem records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speleothem oxygen isotope records in arid regions are typically interpreted as indicators of the total precipitation amount and/or its seasonal balance. Such studies rarely address the potential influence of groundwater mixing processes on δ18O variability of cave dripwater. Here, we develop a model of oxygen isotopes in dripwater, which we compare to water and stalagmite measurements from Cave of the Bells, Arizona. We simulate moisture flux from surface to cave as a two-layer 'leaky-bucket' model. In observations and the model, fed with modern climate data, dripwater δ18O is most comparable to that of winter precipitation. We show that seasonality and duration of the regional summer monsoon affect how much summer precipitation reaches the cave. We employ a Monte Carlo method to specify statistically realistic ranges for input climate variables and produce time series and variance spectra of cave drips. The spectra of our synthetic δ18O series exhibit a high degree of variance at decadal to multidecadal frequencies, despite being driven by synthetic data that includes only a seasonal cycle. This suggests that some background level of variance in speleothem δ18O records could be due to nonclimatic processes, such as subsurface water storage and mixing. Interpreting climatic vs. nonclimatic controls on speleothem δ18O variance could be achieved by replicating records from different caves.

  3. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

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    Moseley M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  4. Microhabitat use, population densities, and size distributions of sulfur cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana

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    Jonas Jourdan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cueva del Azufre in Tabasco, Mexico, is a nutrient-rich cave and its inhabitants need to cope with high levels of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and extreme hypoxia. One of the successful colonizers of this cave is the poeciliid fish Poecilia mexicana, which has received considerable attention as a model organism to examine evolutionary adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Nonetheless, basic ecological data on the endemic cave molly population are still missing; here we aim to provide data on population densities, size class compositions and use of different microhabitats. We found high overall densities in the cave and highest densities at the middle part of the cave with more than 200 individuals per square meter. These sites have lower H2S concentrations compared to the inner parts where most large sulfide sources are located, but they are annually exposed to a religious harvesting ceremony of local Zoque people called La Pesca. We found a marked shift in size/age compositions towards an overabundance of smaller, juvenile fish at those sites. We discuss these findings in relation to several environmental gradients within the cave (i.e., differences in toxicity and lighting conditions, but we also tentatively argue that the annual fish harvest during a religious ceremony (La Pesca locally diminishes competition (and possibly, cannibalism by large adults, which is followed by a phase of overcompensation of fish densities.

  5. “Spray Technique: Tracing the Sketch Traditions of Limestone Cave in Lenggong, Perak”

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    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological research provides the widest opportunity for researchers to analyse various aspects and disciplines appropriate to the subject and the object of choice. Subject and object selection is the work of exploration artefacts found in particular sites and archaeological heritage. Exploration and excavation on of a world heritage site such as Lenggong enables researchers to uncover various archaeological artefacts that are rich and meaningful. To find evidence of the strength and benefits of an artefact, further studies on each artefact should be carried out continuously. This essay will track the wisdom of the ancient artists use to produce paintings in a limestone cave in Lenggong, Perak, using spray techniques. Some artefacts that are identified as cave paintings show a very interesting sketch technique that are unique and special. This essay will also examine some of the cave paintings in other caves in Perak and also other caves in several countries as comparison. Studies involving cave paintings in Malaysia are new compared to Western countries. Thus, the study of one of the technique which is spray technique can open the eyes of the audience to acknowledge and recognise the ancient heritage. It also hoped that this study is able to increase the body of knowledge that goes beyond the boundaries of the arts district and the country.

  6. Studies of condensation/evaporation processes in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand

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    de Freitas Chris R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The condensation/evaporation process is important in caves, especially in tourist caves where there is carbon dioxide enriched air caused by visitors. The cycle of condensation and evaporation of condensate is believed to enhance condensation corrosion. The problem is condensation is difficult to measure. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and modelling condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of the condensate as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux are tested and used to collect 12 months of data. The study site is the Glowworm tourist cave in New Zealand. The work describes an explanatory model of processes leading to condensation using data based on measurements of condensation and evaporation as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux. The results show that the model works well. However, one of the most important messages from the research reported here is the introduction of the condensation sensor. The results show that condensation in caves can actually be measured and monitored, virtually in real time. In conjunction with the recent developments in data logging equipment, this opens exciting perspectives in cave climate studies, and, more generally, in hydrogeological studies in karst terrains.

  7. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

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    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  8. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities

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    Marconi Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cave-dwelling invertebrates were studied according to their composition, biodiversity, distribution and threats in the Atlantic Forest Central Biodiversity Corridor, a priority area for conservation actions in Brazil. Twelve obligate cave species were found, plus 495 troglophile species. Araneae (103 spp., Coleoptera (61 spp., Diptera (56 spp. and Lepidoptera (38 spp. were the richest taxa. The richness was higher in the carbonate caves (63 spp., sd = 16.7 and the highest diversity in granitic caves (H´= 2.68, sd = 0.5. The spatial turnover was 63.45 and similarity less than 30%. The total richness was correlated with the linear extension of the caves (Rs = 0.757, p ≤ 0.05. Surrounding area deforestation and religious and tourist use were the main threats. Emergency attention is recommended regarding protective actions, management and conservation of caves of extremely high biological importance.

  9. Impacts of Alterations of Organic Inputs on the Bacterial Community within the sediments of Wind Cave, South Dakota, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chelius Marisa K.; Beresford Guy; Horton Howard; Quirk Megan; Selby Greg; Simpson Rodney T.; Horrocks Rodney; Moore John C.

    2009-01-01

    Wind Cave (WICA) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, like many mostly dry caves in temperate regions is an energy-starved system.The biotic communities that reside in these systems are low in diversity and simple in structure, and sensitive to changes in externalinputs of organic matter. Caves open to tourist traffic offer an opportunity to study the impacts of organic matter amendments in theform of human and rodent hair and dander, clothing lint, material from rodent activity (nesting mater...

  10. A mining pearl of Saxon ore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine 371 of the Soviet-German WISMUT company, i.e.: Half of the capital with the unissued shares has now been inherited, according to the Russo-German Treaty of 1953 and in connection with German reunification by the Federal German Republic, with all the consequences with regard to mining supervision, results of mining, mining/social aspects and looking after the spoil. In addition, there will probably be the marketing of remaining uranium concentrates, because the Soviet Union will leave the company at the end of 1990. (orig./HS)

  11. Investigation on the stress field characteristic of top coal at FMTC faces under the influence of caving thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; CHANG Ju-cai; YANG Ke

    2007-01-01

    In the background of the technology condition and the geological condition of the 1151(3) fully mechanized top-coal caving face (FMTC face), and by means of taking nonlinear 3D numerical simulation, the stress redistribution rules of top coal with different thick coal seam were obtained by investigation on the numerical simulation of the redistributions of the stress with different coal seam's thickness. The research showes that there exists a certain difference on the stress distributions of the top coal at face, the maximum principal stress is located near to the tailentry's corner. The vertical stress's peak of the top coal decreases and the distance ahead of face position increases as the once mining thickness of the coal seam increases. At the same coal seam, the vertical stresses' peak of top coal gradually decreases from the top to the bottom, the peak's position is basically the same and its changes are gradually obvious with the thickness of coal seam increasing. The vertical stress of top coal places in a low stress state at a certain range ahead of face and over the face, which reveals the essence that the support loads are generally low under the condition of FMTC. The study supplies the theoretical foundation for the support design and selection, the theory of top coal's fragmentation, the movement rules of top coal and improving the recovery of top coal.

  12. Hypogenic origin, geologic controls and functional organization of a giant cave system in Precambrian carbonates, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchouk, Alexander; Auler, Augusto S.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Cazarin, Caroline L.; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Dublyansky, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on speleogenesis of the Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR), the longest caves in South America occurring in the Neoproterozoic Salitre Formation in the São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil. We employ a multidisciplinary approach integrating detailed speleomorphogenetic, lithostratigraphic and geological structure studies in order to reveal the origin of the caves, their functional organization and geologic controls on their development. The caves developed in deep-seated confined conditions by rising flow. The overall fields of passages of TBV and TBR caves represent a speleogenetically exploited large NE-SW-trending fracture corridor associated with a major thrust. This corridor vertically extends across the Salitre Formation allowing the rise of deep fluids. In the overall ascending flow system, the formation of the cave pattern was controlled by a system of sub-parallel anticlines and troughs with NNE-SSW dominant orientation, and by vertical and lateral heterogeneities in fracture distribution. Three cave-stratigraphic stories reflect the actual hydrostratigraphy during the main phase of speleogenesis. Cavities at different stories are distinct in morphology and functioning. The gross tree-dimensional pattern of the system is effectively organized to conduct rising flow in deep-seated confined conditions. Cavities in the lower story developed as recharge components to the system. A laterally extensive conduit network in the middle story formed because the vertical flow from numerous recharge points has been redirected laterally along the highly conductive unit, occurring below the major seal - a scarcely fractured unit. Rift-like and shaft-like conduits in the upper story developed along fracture-controlled outflow paths, breaching the integrity of the major seal, and served as outlets for the cave system. The cave system represents a series of vertically organized, functionally largely independent clusters of cavities

  13. 222 Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The 222Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m-3 to 6607 Bq.m-3 and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a-1 for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a-1 for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a-1. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a-1 suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  14. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

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    Matthew L Niemiller

    Full Text Available Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species and 20% of stygobionts (eight species known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV. Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in

  15. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, Matthew L; Zigler, Kirk S

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20% of stygobionts (eight species) known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species) known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP) and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA) ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV). Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species) of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in Tennessee. PMID

  16. Organochlorine insecticide residues in the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Bracken Cave, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Martin, C.O.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-nine free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana ) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and analyzed for organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Residues of DDE in the brain were greater in 12 young collected from the floor than in 15 young taken from the ceiling, but food deprivation, not higher residues in the brain, apparently caused young to fall....Among 18 pregnant females, residues of DDE and DDT were highest in yearlings. The first lactation by yearlings caused their residue loads to drop sharply. Thereafter, increasing age was accompanied by increasing residues but amounts generally did not exceed those in yearlings.....Residue levels in embryos were a function both of levels in the female parent and degree of embryonic development. Residues accumulated rapidly in nursing young, and lactating females may excrete from 1.3 to 16.2 (mean = 4.3) micrograms of DDE in milk per day. Maximum individual residue loads may be attained toward the end of nursing, and mobilization of these residues during southward migration may subject Bracken Cave free-tails to maximum lifetime residues in the brain....Comparison of our data with residue data for the free-tail population at Eagle Creek Cave (Arizona) in 1970 produced the following conclusions: ( 1) residues of DDE appeared similar in pregnant females, embryos, lactating females, and fallen young for the two populations; (2) residues of DDT and dieldrin appeared greater in pregnant females at Bracken Cave; (3) DDE and DDT occurred at greater levels in guano samples from Bracken Cave. On this basis, the population decline observed at Eagle Creek Cave between 1963 and 1969 does not appear to be related to the residues observed in the 1970 samples taken from that cave.

  17. Report of a three-year monitoring programme at Heshang Cave, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyong Hu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Heshang Cave is situated in central China (30º27’N, 110º25’E; 294 m in the middle reaches of the Yangtze Valley, a region stronglyimpacted by the East Asian Monsoon. It contains large annually-laminated Holocene and late Pleistocene stalagmites which capture pastmonsoon behaviour with seasonal resolution, and could enhance understanding of the amplitude and frequency of monsoon behaviour indifferent climate states. In this paper, we present results of a 3-year monitoring programme at Heshang. T loggers outside the cave agree closely with T data from nearby meteorological stations. T at the site of growth of the largest recovered stalagmite averages 18ºC (identical to mean annual T outside the cave with a seasonal amplitude of 5ºC (about one fifth of the external cycle. Rainfall measurements from a station 3 km from the cave indicate strong summer monsoon rain in 2004 and 2005, but rather weaker summer rain (by ≈30% in 2006.Drip rate at the monitoring site has a base flow of 14 drips/minute and shows a sharp increase to ≈40 drips/minute early in the summerrains of 2004 and 2005, followed by a gradual return to base-flow as the monsoon weakens. This abrupt change presumably representsthreshold behaviour in the hydrological system. This threshold is not passed in 2006 and there is no abrupt increase in drip rate, indicating the sensitivity of this site (and presumably of speleothem chemistry in this cave to monsoon rainfall. Results are also reported from a 10-month deployment of a Stalagmate drip counter, and for CO2 levels in Heshang Cave. Overall, this monitoring work represents an essential dataset for interpretation of the chemistry of drip waters, of carbonates grown on glass slides and, ultimately, of long speleothem records of past climate from Heshang Cave.

  18. Mining Ostrava '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of the Proceedings contains 55 contributions, out of which 2 deal with environmental impacts of undermining during coal mining, and of shocks and vibrations during underground coal mining. (Z.S.)

  19. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined...

  20. Orthothermographies and 3D modeling as potential tools in ice caves studies: the Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Berenguer-Sempere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many studies focused on the investigation of climatic and glaciological condition of ice caves. Here we present another way to address these studies, applying some methods already used in fields other than geomorphology. The versatility and accuracy provided by the use of modern topography and thermography techniques, using Terrestrial Laser Scanner and current thermographic cameras- and the creation of 3D thermographic models and orthothermographies derived from them - is shown to be a useful tool as it is difficult to obtain data from fieldwork and traditional methods used in caves. This paper presents the potential uses of combined TLS and thermographic techniques for monitoring some important climatological parameters in the sensitive periglacial environment of the Iberian Atlantic high mountains: Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain. A systematic application of such combined technologies to these kind of caves, is expected to contribute to a quantitative and concise characterization of the evolution of the ice as shown by the results of this study.