WorldWideScience

Sample records for caves

  1. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  2. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  3. Clastic cave deposits in Botovskaya cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Hercman, H.; Osintsev, A.; Oberhänsli, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2008), s. 142-155. ISSN 1090-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * mineral magnetism * Botovskaya Cave Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2008 http://www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_70.htm

  4. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  5. Radon in Caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2005-01-01

    The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources,the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then,the instruments,both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into accounttheir respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the objectof regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations i...

  6. Speleothems and cave minerals in gypsum caves

    OpenAIRE

    Forti P.

    1996-01-01

    For many years gypsum karst was considered to contain little of interest from the point of view of chemical deposits. Relatively recently a general study of speleothems has begun within gypsum karst areas in different climatic zones around the world. So far this ongoing research has shown that gypsum karst can be very interesting in terms of its contained chemical deposits. In this chapter, all that is currently known about speleothems in gypsum caves is reported systematically, and the disti...

  7. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  8. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  9. Caves; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caves form the most extensive underground area in Earth crust. They are characterised by specific natural traits such as genesis, morphology, sinter filling, underground streams and lakes, speleoclimatic pattern, cave fauna, etc. Two types of caves are discerned: primeval-caves, which were generated along with the genesis of rocks and secondary, which were formed after the genesis of rocks under the effect of exogenous processes. The karstic caves are the most spectacular and largest caves. The area of karst territory (formed normally by different classes of limestone and dolomite rocks) in Slovakia is more than 2,700 km2. The map was compiled pursuing the List of Caves in Slovakia as of 31 December 1998 issued by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. The central register and documentation is in responsibility of the Slovak Museum of Nature Conservation and Speleology in Liptovsky Mikulas. This List has been prepared in co-operation with the team of employees of the Museum, Slovak Speleological Society, volunteers and other contributors. The List does not comprise the areas of anthropogenic origin and 3,946 caves are ordered by geomorphological units in alphabet order with quoted cadaster and district, sea level altitude of the entrance, length and depth of the cave system, genetic type, class of rocks, etc. More than 120 caves occur in other than karstic rocks. Pursuing the Act of the National Council of the SR No. 287/1944 on nature and landscape protection, caves represent natural monuments under the highest, i.e. fifth level of protection, while the most important ones were designated national nature monuments by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. The presented occurrence of caves was processed according to quantitative indicators in geomorphological units. (authors)

  10. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coate...

  11. Candoluminescence of cave gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet John R.; Hess John W.; White William B.

    2010-01-01

    A selection of gypsum specimens from a variety of caves as well as CaSO4 synthesized in the laboratory emit both a green and yellow candoluminescence when excited by a hydrogen diffusion flame. The green emission is attributed to dehydration of gypsum to bassanite and the yellow emission appears upon further dehydration to anhydrite. The source of the luminescence is ascribed to minor concentrations of Mn2+ in the gypsum.

  12. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.

    2006-01-01

    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  13. Microscopic fungi isolated from cave air and sediments in the Nerja Cave - preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema, 2014, s. 239-245. ISBN 978-1-138-02694-0 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microscopic fungi * cave air * cave sediments * Nerja Cave Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  15. Exposure to radon in Cuban tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective of estimating the dose, due to Radon-222, received by tour guides and other people who work inside some of the most important tourist caves in the Republic of Cuba, measurements of radon concentrations were carried out in four of these caves: Santo Tomas Cave, Tapiada Cave, Del Indio Cave and Jose Miguel Cave. All these caves are located in the Vinales Valley (Pinar del Rio City), a very important tourist area in the country. The relationship among radon concentration, the concentration of natural radionuclides inside the caves and the geologic characteristics of the specific locations was analyzed. In order to select the most appropriates measurement places, different criteria were taken into account: representatives points of the geology of the caves, level of gamma radiation, exchange of air, places of work inside the caves (cafeterias, restaurants and shops) and places more frequently visited by tour guides. The maximum radon concentration was found in Jose Miguel Cave with a value of 220 Bq/m3. The measurement of gamma dose rate inside the caves was carried out with a scintillation detector type Scintrex BGS-3 previously calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The radon concentrations were measured with the equipment Alpha Guard PQ2000/MC50 and SARAD RM2000, both also calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The obtained results indicated that, in the studied caves, the annual dose is not greater than 1 mSv considering a work year of 2000 hours. (author)

  16. The future of the CAVE

    KAUST Repository

    DeFanti, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  17. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  18. 3N Cave: Longest salt cave in the world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.; Vilhelm, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2006), s. 10-18. ISSN 0027-7010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt cave * salt karst * Iran * expedition Namak Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  20. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652. ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  1. DELINEATING KARST RECHARGE AREAS AT ONONDAGA CAVE STATE PARK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onondaga Cave State Park is located in the north central portion of the Ozarks near Leasburg, Missouri. The park is known for two extensive cave systems, Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave. Both of these cave systems have active streams (1-2 cfs at baseflow) which have unknown recharge areas. As a man...

  2. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo

    2010-01-01

    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  3. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.; Burri Ezio

    2000-01-01

    The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the ...

  4. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the ...

  5. Utilization of Bellae Prehistory Cave Complex

    OpenAIRE

    supriadi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is located in South Sulawesi. Bellae has rich archaeological heritage that make this cave complex important as cultural resource in South Sulawesi as well as in Indonesia generally. Nowadays, the Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is threatened by the local population as the sites are close to settlement. Furthermore, its archaeological potentials as well as the uniqueness of the complex which is situated in karstic area have attracted many parties to...

  6. Cave of the Astronomers at Xochicalco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Arnold

    The chimney built in the roof of the artificial large cave at Xochicalco, known as "Cave of the astronomers", has been interpreted as a solar zenithal observation tube. Nevertheless, different elements and especially the latitude of the site itself led the author to present a lunar hypothesis. Precise measurements of the impact of light inside the cave show the degree of precision that can be obtained in this camera obscura.

  7. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  8. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  9. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  10. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  11. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L

    2008-05-01

    Caves can be difficult to navigate and often require physical modification to allow easy access for visitors. Single entrance caves double the access impact of each visitor. Visitors in tourist caves have direct physical effects such as the introduction of concrete and steel structures; transport of mud, dust, and nutrients; installation of lights and the exhalation of water vapour and carbon dioxide into the air. Indirect physical effects include alteration of the microclimate, both through physical modifications that change the ventilation regime and through the presence of visitors leading to changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 within the cave environment. Anthropomorphic changes to cave physical environments to aid access or to reduce backtracking can have adverse effects on the internal microclimate of cave systems with subsequent changes to the cave environment affecting the quality of decorations and cave art and the diversity of cave fauna. Although often stated that caves operate at or near a constant temperature, closer examination indicates that cave temperatures are neither static nor constant. The degree of variation depends largely on the structure and physical characteristics of the cave. Air temperature and humidity gradients between the inside and outside cave environment can result in air density differences, which create airflow, which will in turn affect the cave microclimate. As part of the development of a management framework for King Solomons Cave, Tasmania, a study of the microclimate was carried out on behalf of Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Analysis of the variables showed significant differences in air temperature within each site and between sites. These differences range from 4 degrees C variation at one site to 0 degrees C at another site. The data were used to model potential airflow between the cave and the external environment. Results indicate that part of the cave is dominated by airflow between the chimney and the

  12. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km2. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  13. Speleogenesis of Selected Caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and Caves of Fenglin Karst in Qiubei, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanka (S)EBELA; Tadej SLABE; LIU Hong; Petr PRUNER

    2004-01-01

    Yunnan is famous for its attractive karst landscapes especially shilins, fengcong and fenglin. The development of caves beneath the shilins in the vicinity of Lunan is closely connected with the formation of shilins. Most of the waters percolating through shilins run through the caves beneath them and are responsible for their formation. The study of cave speleogenesis deepens knowledge about both the development of shilins and karst structure. In the vicinity of the Lunan Shilin, speleological, morphological and structural geological studies of four karst caves have been accomplished. At Puzhehei, Qiubei, which is characterised by numerous fenglin, fengcong and caves, speleological and morphological studies have been performed. Cave sediments for paleomagnetic analyses have been taken from all studied areas (samples CH 1-9). Karst caves in SE Yunnan are probably much older than the age of the cave sediments (<780,000 years B.P.). The studied areas are located in the vicinity of the Xiaojiang fault (N-S direction) and the Red River fault (NW-SE direction). The general directions of both active faults are assumed to influence the direction of the most frequent fissures as well as the cave passages near the Lunan Shilin. The Xiaojiang fault more strongly influences cave passage orientation, while the more distant Red River fault most strongly influences fissure orientation.

  14. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information disclosure... individual or organization assisting the land managing agency with cave management activities. To request... risk to cave resources of harm, theft, or destruction. (b) Requesting confidential...

  15. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ball Andrew S.; Kirby Greg; Bourne Steven; Cao Xiangsheng; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard Ramin; Adetutu Eric M.; Shahsavari Esamaeil; Thorpe Krystal

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits) and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access). Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey ...

  16. Does the Cave Environment Reduce Functional Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Camile Sorbo; Batalha, Marco Antonio; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2016-01-01

    Caves are not colonised by all taxa present in the surface species pool, due to absence of light and the tendency to food limitation when compared to surface communities. Under strong species sorting during colonisation and later by the restrictive environmental filter, traits that are not adaptive in subterranean habitats may be filtered out. We tested whether cave communities were assembled by the restrictive regime propitiated by permanent darkness or by competitive exclusion due to resource scarcity. When compared to surface communities, the restrictive subterranean regime would lead to lower functional diversity and phenotypic clustering inside the caves, and the opposite should be expected in the case of competitive exclusion. Using isopods (Oniscidea) as model taxa, we measured several niche descriptors of taxa from surface and cave habitats, used a multivariate measure of functional diversity, and compared their widths. We found phenotypic overdispersion and higher functional diversity in cave taxa when compared to surface taxa. On the one hand, the dry climate outside of caves hampered the survival of several taxa and their ecological strategies, not viable under severe desiccation risk, culminating in the clustering of functional traits. In contrast, this restriction does not occur inside of caves, where isopods find favourable conditions under lower predation pressures and more amenable environmental parameters that allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Our results showed that, at least for some taxa, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought. The high functional diversity we found inside caves adds an additional reason for the conservation of these sensitive environments. PMID:27003837

  17. Dose assessment from radon in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon measurements in tourist caves have traditionally being used in the studies of conservation of existent prehistoric artistic manifestations inside cavities. This kind of measurements can provide the grade, and partly the dynamics, of ventilation and renovation of the air of the caves. On the other hand, since 2001, Spanish law incorporated EURATOM basic standards for radiological protection, which include a request at the EC Member States to determine the working places on which exposure to natural radiation is significant. On Title VII (BOE 178/2001) radiation coming from natural sources has analogous role than radiation emitted from artificial ones used to. Because of the low ventilation rates existing at tourist caves, indoor radon concentration can be significantly high. In developed caves in which guides provide tours for the general public great care is needed for taking remedial actions concerning radon, because in some circumstances forced ventilation may alter the humidity inside the cave affecting some of the formations or paintings that attract tourists. Tourist guides can work about 1900 hours per year, so the only option to protect them and other cave workers from radon exposure is to apply an appropriate system of radiation protection mainly based on limitation of exposure by restricting the amount of time spent in the cave. From a previous radon measurement campaign carried out in caves at the region of Cantabria (Spain), those with higher concentration values were selected for a new survey. In this study more detailed radon measurements were performed in order to get more detailed information about monthly concentration variations, as well to determine the dose received by people working there. In dose assessment, specific characteristics of the cave concerning the behaviour of radon and its decay products are of main importance. Factors like unattached progeny fraction (fp), equilibrium factor (F) and particle concentration (Z) are

  18. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  19. Dating of processes in karst and caves implication for show caves prezentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel

    Liptovský Mikuláš: International Show Caves Association, 2011 - (Bella, P.; Gažík, P.), s. 34-41 ISBN 978-80-89310-59-3. [Congress International Show Caves Association /6./. Demänovská Valley (SK), 18.10.2010-23.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : karst * speleogenesis * karst sediments * dating methods * geochronology * show caves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. NAK WP-Cave project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WP-Cave is designed as an egg-shaped underground structure for intermediate storing and final disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Its height, when storing 1600 tonnes of spent fuel, is about 250 m and its diameter 110 m at mid-height. The waste storage has a compact layout and is surrounded by two engineered barriers. The innermost one is a 5 m-wide shield consisting of a mixture of bentonite clay and same which has a low hydraulic conductivity. This shield is surrounded by a so-called hydraulic cage, which initially drains the storage rock mass and, in the long-term diverts, the ground water flow past the storage. In this way an initial dry supervision period can be maintained. After sealing-off the storage and after water-filling, a stagnant chemical environment is established inside the bentonite-sand barrier preventing the disposed waste from being dissolved and from migrating to the geosphere. The programme, as outlined by the Project Board, has considered R and D questions with specific relation to the WP-Cave such as: properties of low-graded bentonite mixtures, function of the hydraulic cage, full-face boring of the storage, geomechanics of the storage and the bentonite-sand barrier, dry ventilation of the storage, temperature distributions and thermal stresses. An initial safety analysis has also been conducted. The hydraulic conductivity of low-grade bentonite mixtures has been measured in laboratory tests and found to be higher than expected. Tests of gas conductivity, for instance, confirm that only low gas pressures would build up inside the bentonite-sand barrier. The initial safety analysis indicates that a compact storage, such as that presented, would allow for the safe isolation of the spent nuclear fuel and would fulfull the radiation protection criterion of 0.1 mSv/year. With 27 refs. (Author)

  1. PERISCOPE: PERIapsis Subsurface Cave OPtical Explorer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar sub-surface exploration has been a topic of discussion since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter identified openings (cave skylights) on the surface of the moon...

  2. Is it always dark in caves?

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not use...

  3. Tree-mould caves in Slovakia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaal Ludovit

    2003-01-01

    Four tube-shaped caves are described in this work, which origined in consequence of weathering the trees. Their length ranges from 5.8 to 17 m. All of them occur in neovolcanic rocks of Middle Slovakia, in epiclastic andesite conglomerates, breccias or in the tuffs. Some other caverns are close to the entrance of this caves, however they are inaccessible for a man. Thin rim of silicates (opal or chalcedony) occurs in some of them.

  4. Guano mining in Kenyan lava tunnel caves

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Commercial mining of bat guano for agricultural fertilizer only became possible in Kenya through discovery of major deposits in the lava tunnel caves of Mt. Suswa and the North Chyulu Hills in the early 1960’s. This paper provides historical information leading up to the guano mining, describes the cave deposits, outlines the mining under-takings, and provides information on the guano producing bats and insect faunas. The results of guano analyses, details of the tonnages extracted and sold t...

  5. Martel's routes in Mammoth cave, Kentucky, 1912.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Trevor R.

    2003-01-01

    Martel’s own copy of the Hovey 1912 guidebook to Mammoth Cave has his routes marked faintly in pencil on the printed cave plans. These plans are reproduced here, with his routes indicated on them. He generally followed the four standard tourist routes which now included Kaemper’s 1908 discoveries to Violet City, but instead of visiting the Maelstrom he went to Hovey’s Cathedral and Gerta’s Grotto.

  6. Magnetic Record in Cave Sediments: A Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2011 - (Petrovský, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Harinarayana, T.; Ivers, D.), s. 343-360. (IAGA special Sopron book series. Volume 1). ISBN 978-94-007-0322-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk MEB090908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * cave clastic sediments * speleothems * cave depositional systems Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  7. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  8. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  9. Lights and shadows on the conservation of a rock art cave: The case of Lascaux Cave.

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian Fabiola; Alabouvette Claude

    2009-01-01

    Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940. Twenty years after the first microbial contamination signs appeared. In the last forty years thecave suffered different fungal invasions. Here we discuss the past, present and future of the cave and the conservation of its rock artpaintings to the light of data obtained using culture-dependent and –independent methods.

  10. Time recorded in cave deposits - 10 Years of paleomagnetic research in Slovenian caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2007), s. 242-242. ISSN 0583-6050. [Time in karst. 14.03.2007-18.03.2007, Postojna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave deposits * karst * paleomagnetism * Slovenian caves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA; El sistema de la Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km{sup 2}. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  12. The show cave of Diros vs. wild caves of Peloponnese, Greece - distribution patterns of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Lamprinou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The karst cave ‘Vlychada’of Diros, one of the oldest show caves in Peloponnese, sustains extended phototrophic biofilms on various substrata – on rocks inside the cave including speleothems, and especially near the artificial lighting installation (‘Lampenflora’. After a survey of the main abiotic parameters (Photosynthetically Active Radiation -PAR, Temperature -T, Relative Humidity -RH, Carbon Dioxide -CO2 three clusters of sampling sites were revealed according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA: i the water gallery section predominately influenced by CO2, ii the dry passages influenced by RH and PAR, and iii the area by the cave exit at the dry section influenced by temperature. The collected samples from the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave revealed a total of 43 taxa of Cyanobacteria, with the unicellular/colonial forms being the most abundant. The applied non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling Ordination (nMDS of the cumulative species composition showed a clear distinction between the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave. Further comparison with previous data from other wild caves of Peloponnese (‘Kastria’, ‘Francthi’, and ‘Selinitsa’ was conducted revealing a distinction between the show cave and the wild ones. Apart from the human impact on cave ecosystems – through aesthetic alteration (‘greening’ of cave decorations by the ‘Lampenflora’, and by the cleaning treatments and restoration projects on the speleothems – identification of the organisms constituting the ‘Lampenflora’ might provide taxonomically and ecologically significant taxa.

  13. Habitat Management Plan for Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Logan Cave NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Logan Cave NWR, to...

  14. Stability analysis of subgrade cave roofs in karst region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 赵明华; 曹文贵

    2008-01-01

    According to the engineering features of subgrade cave roof in karst region, the clamped beam model of subgrade cave roof in karst region was set up. Based on the catastrophe theory, the cusp catastrophe model for bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof and safe thickness of subgrade cave roof in karst region was established. The necessary instability conditions of subgrade cave roof were deduced, and then the methods to determine safe thickness of cave roofs under piles and bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof were proposed. At the same time, a practical engineering project was applied to verifying this method, which has been proved successfu1ly. At last, the major factors that affect the stability on cave roof under pile in karst region were deeply discussed and some results in quality were acquired.

  15. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo–devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo–devo cave animal model syste...

  16. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  17. Final critical habitat for the Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod...

  18. Final Critical Habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia...

  19. Palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments in Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    Prague : Czech Speleological Society, 2009. s. 53-54. ISBN 978-80-254-4928-8. [International Congress of Speleology /15./ : Karst Horizons. 11.07.2009-26.07.2009, Kerrville] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * caves * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  20. Age of Cave Sediments in Slovenia: Results of dating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2009), s. 171-171. ISSN 1337-6748 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * dating * palaeomagnetic method * magnetostratigraphy * cave sediments ( Slovenia ) * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  1. Metabolically active Crenarchaeota in Altamira Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan M; Portillo, M Carmen; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2006-01-01

    Altamira Cave contains valuable paleolithic paintings dating back to 15,000 years. The conservation of these unique paintings is attracting increasing interest, and so, understanding microbial proliferation in Altamira Cave represents a prioritary objective. Here, we show for the first time that members of the Crenarchaeota were metabolically active components of developing microbial communities. RNA was extracted directly from the studied environment, and a number of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the low-temperature Crenarchaeota were detected. Although low-temperature Crenarchaeota detected in a variety of ecosystems by using molecular techniques remain uncultured, this RNA-based study confirms an active participation of the Crenarchaeota in cave biogeochemical cycles. PMID:16292522

  2. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m-3. Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m-3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems and may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentration. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentration observed in this study and the implications for viable actions. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  3. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m-3. Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m-3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems, therefore, may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentrations. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentrations observed in this study and the implications for viable actions

  4. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa and volcanic caves in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Declan Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    This paper looks at the history of the Cave Exploration Group of East Africa with special reference to the exploration of volcanic caves. It demonstrates that the group has concentrated on two main areas, the Chyulu HiIls and Mt. Suswa, although other areas have also been studied. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa has had to cope with various problems. The most important of which are related to the socio-economic conditions of a developing country. These problems have not prevented th...

  5. Petrological Study as a Tool to Evaluate the Degradation of Speleothems in Touristic Caves, Castafiar de Ibor Cave, Caceres, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Rebeca; Martín Pérez, Andrea; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    In Castafiar cave the surface of most of the speleothems present dissolution and corrosion features. In touristic caves, this process has usually been related to the acidification of the atmospheric moisture caused by C02 from the breath of visitors. However, in Castafiar cave the process of corrosion has been also observed in rooms that are not visited by tourists. Petrological studies were carried out in the speleothems affected by surface corrosion in Castafiar cave. The res...

  6. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  7. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  8. CAVE-ohjelmiston kehitys Unity-pelimoottorille

    OpenAIRE

    Nivala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä kehitettiin ohjelmistolisäosat, joiden avulla Unity-pelimoottoria voidaan käyttää sisällön tuottamiseen Satavision-CAVE -järjestelmiin. Teoriaosassa tutkittiin kuinka CAVE-järjestelmä toimii ja miten sen vaatimat ominaisuudet olisi mahdollista toteuttaa Unity-pelimoottorilla. Käytännön osuus koostui vaadittavien lisäosien ohjelmoinnista. Lisäosien ominaisuuksina toteutettin virtuaalikameroiden perspektiivin korjaus, stereoskooppisen kuvan muodostus, käyttäjän optinen p...

  9. Is it always dark in caves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not used from underground life.

  10. Atmospheric 222Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the 222Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of 222Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively

  11. MR imaging of the Meckel's cave: anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meckel's cave is a dural recess containing trigeminal nerve and ganglion, extending from the posterior fossa into the middle cranial fossa. Using MRI, internal architecture in the Meckel's cave can be discernible, even a small nodule within it can be detected. There are a wide spectrum of disease process occurring in and or in the vicinity of the Meckel's cave. Disease can be classified into pathology of the trigeminal nerve proper, within the trigeminal cistern and outside the trigeminmal cistern. These classification depending on the location will aid in interpretation of pathology of Meckel's cave. We will demonstrate the MR anatomy and various pathologies of the Meckel's cave.=20

  12. Cave Features - MO 2006 Cave Density per 1:24,000 Quad (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This dataset contains the number of caves per 1:24,000 scale quadrangle (quad) in Missouri. Acknowledgement is made to the Missouri Speleological Society (MSS) for...

  13. Radon measurements in the caves of Zonguldak (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are ∼20 caves of limestone origin in Zonguldak (Turkey). In this study, the results of atmospheric radon measurements performed for two caves are presented. These caves, Goekgoel and Cehennemagzi, are open to tourism. Goekgoel Cave is the longer, at nearly 3200 m in length. Cehennemagzi is a pit-type cave with a total length of 85 m. The radon measurements were performed for 2 months between July 2004 and September 2004 using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations were recorded as 1918.8 Bq m-3 in Goekgoel Cave and 657 Bq m-3 in Cehennemagzi Cave. The maximum value corresponds to a site located 400 m from the entrance of Goekgoel Cave. Mean effective dose values for tourists of 0.86 μSv per visit to Cehennemagzi Cave and 3.76 μSv to Goekgoel Cave were obtained. These results show that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for visitors to these two caves. (authors)

  14. Study of cave sediments in Budimirica Cave, Macedonia FYR – Correlation to late pleistocene environmental changes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Temovski, M.; Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Hercman, H.

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts ,, 2015 - (Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Gostinčar, P.). s. 150-151 ISBN 978-961-254-808-7. [International Karstological School Classical Karst /23./. 15.06.2015-19.06.2015, Postojna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Budimirica Cave * cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * Late Pleistocene * paleoenvironment Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://iks.zrc-sazu.si/datoteke/IKS-23-Guide-book-2015.pdf

  15. Magnetic fabric and mineralogy of cave deposits in Botovskaya Cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Hercman, H.; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Oberhänsli, H.; Osintsev, A.

    Vol. 3. Prague : Česká speleologická společnost, 2013 - (Filippi, M.; Bosák, P.), s. 96-98 ISBN 978-80-87857-09-0. [International Congress of Speleology /16./. Brno (CZ), 21.07.2013-28.07.2013] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * magnetic fabric * mineralogy * cave deposits Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Food sources of selected terrestrial cave arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Nováková, Alena; Režňáková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-46. ISSN 1768-1448 Grant ostatní: Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * caves * Collembola * Diplopoda * feeding habits * Isopoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Human remains from Geula Cave, Haifa

    OpenAIRE

    Arensburg, B

    2010-01-01

    Three human skeletal fragments were unearthed by Wreschner during archaeological excavations in the Mousterian cave of Geula, in Haifa, during the years 1958-1964. The remains and especially the frontal bone belong, according to their morphology, to an ancient Homo sapiens. These finds enhance the long term discussion on ancient sapiens and so-called Neanderthal relationships in the Levant.

  18. Data on the Limanu Cave mineralogy

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Dumitraş; Ştefan Marincea; Gabriel Diaconu

    2008-01-01

    By means of diphractometric X-rays analyses on powders, we emphasize an association of minerals in the Limanu Cave from South Dobrogea, made up of hydroxylapatite, brushite, calcite, gypsum and dolomite as the main minerals and quartz and illite as secondary minerals.

  19. The distribution of Radon concentration in caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentration in caves is known to vary within an extremely wide range. Here the distribution of the average values of radon concentration is examined and a power law describing is identified, i.e. radon concentration has a fractal dimension D=1.26. This fact means that concentrations are not grouped around a mean value, a characteristic common to many other phenomena.

  20. The antibiotic resistance in cave environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Petrásek, Jiří; Jirout, Jiří; Chroňáková, Alica; Kyselková, Martina; Volná, Lucie

    Košice : Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 2012. s. 41-42. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /21./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Košice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic resistance * cave environments Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Millipedes play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter in the subterranean environment. Despite the existence of several cave-adapted species of millipedes in adjacent geographic areas, their study has been largely ignored in Portugal. Over the last decade, intense fieldwork in ...

  2. The Crystals Cave in a test tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, C.; Romero, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    It's quite easy to understand formation of crystals in Nature by evaporation of the solutions that contain minerals, but many times we have realised that our pupils hardly understand that precipitation is a process mostly caused by changing parameters in a solution, like pH, temperature, etc. and not necessarily depending on evaporation. We propose a hands-on activity using the context of the Cave of the Crystals in Naica's mine, Mexico. The Crystals Cave is a wonderful place where giant crystals of selenite (gypsum) have grown feeding from a supersaturated anhydrite solution1. Miners discovered the cave filled with hot water, and drained it to explore the gallery. The cave is now a giant laboratory where scientists are looking for the keys to understand geological processes. Teaching sequence (for students 15 years old) is as follows: DISCOVERING A MARVELLOUS PLACE: We showed our pupils several images and a short video of the Cave of the Crystals and ask them about the process that may have caused the phenomenon. Whole-class discussion. PRESENTING A CHALLENGE TO OUR STUDENTS: "COULD WE CREATE A CRYSTALS CAVE IN A TEST TUBE?" EXPERIMENTING TO IMITATE NATURE: Students tried to grow crystals simulating the same conditions as those in Naica's mine. We have chosen KNO3, a salt more soluble than gypsum. We added 85 g of salt to 200 ml of water (solubility of KNO3 at 25°C is 36 g per 100 gr of water) and heated it until it is dissolved. Afterwards, we poured the solution into some test tubes and other recipients and let them cool at room temperature. And they got a beautiful crystals cave!! THINKING A LITTLE MORE: we asked pupils some questions to make them think about the process and to predict what would happen in different situations. For example: a) What would happen with crystals if we heated the tubes again? or b) What would happen if we took the remaining solution from the tubes and keep it in the fridge? PROVING A NEW HYPOTHESIS: Pupils collected the remaining

  3. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope (δ18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  4. Temperature as tracer of the hydraulic dynamic of an anchialine cave (coastal submerged cave) of Krka Estuary (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    A series of temperature, conductivity and water level loggers were used to characterize the hydraulic dynamic of a submerged cave (anchialine cave) in Krka Estuary. Litno Cave is a sub-horizontal gallery, less than 5 m in diameter and one meter below sea level. Apart from some sections that contain occasional air pockets under the ceiling, the cave is completely flooded. Outflow discharge through the cave is continuous during the year (>30 l/s). During several months vertical temperature profiles were measured in three locations inside the cave at 20, 60 and 100 m from the cave entrance, whereas another vertical profile was set in the estuary in front of the cave. Thermometers from the estuary measured thermal gradients to characterize position and evolution of the thermocline up to a depth of 3.5 m. Tides measured in the estuary are synchronous to those recorded in the cave and their amplitudes (20 to 40 cm in the estuary) are the same or smaller depending on cave outflow discharge. Records of cave water temperature show a non-linear response to tides due to the vertical displacement of the thermocline. During neap tides the thermocline was located in the aquifer below the cave, whereas during spring tides only thermometers in the top meter of the cave were not affected by the thermocline vertical displacement. After the first significant rains of the hydrological year, the freshwater contribution increased the cave outflow discharge by one order of magnitude. Thus, conductivity decreased in response to rains from 16000 ±1000 μS/cm to Project.

  5. Impacts of cave air ventilation and in-cave prior calcite precipitation on Golgotha Cave dripwater chemistry, southwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, Pauline C.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Griffiths, Alan; Baker, Andy; Meredith, Karina T.; Wood, Anne; McGuire, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem trace element chemistry is an important component of multi-proxy records of environmental change but a thorough understanding of hydrochemical processes is essential for its interpretation. We present a dripwater chemistry dataset (PCO2, alkalinity, Ca, SIcc, Mg and Sr) from an eight-year monitoring study from Golgotha Cave, building on a previous study of hydrology and dripwater oxygen isotopes (Treble et al., 2013). Golgotha Cave is developed in Quaternary aeolianite and located in a forested catchment in the Mediterranean-type climate of southwest Western Australia. All dripwaters from each of the five monitored sites become supersaturated with respect to calcite during most of the year when cave ventilation lowers PCO2 in cave air. In this winter ventilation mode, prior calcite precipitation (PCP) signals of increased Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in dripwater are attributed to stalactite deposition. A fast-dripping site displays less-evolved carbonate chemistry, implying minimal stalactite growth, phenomena which are attributed to minimal degassing because of the short drip interval (30 s). We employ hydrochemical mass-balance modelling techniques to quantitatively investigate the impact of PCP and CO2 degassing on our dripwater. Initially, we reverse-modelled dripwater solutions to demonstrate that PCP is dominating the dripwater chemistry at our low-flow site and predict that PCP becomes enhanced in underlying stalagmites. Secondly, we forward-modelled the ranges of solution Mg/Ca variation that potentially can be caused by degassing and calcite precipitation to serve as a guide to interpreting the resulting stalagmite chemistry. We predict that stalagmite trace element data from our high-flow sites will reflect trends in original dripwater solutes, preserving information on biogeochemical fluxes within our system. By contrast, stalagmites from our low-flow sites will be dominated by PCP effects driven by cave ventilation. Our poorly karstified system allows us

  6. The transport of CO2 into central Texas caves (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breecker, D.; Banner, J. L.; Larson, T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well established that CO2 is flushed out of caves by seasonal or synoptic temperature- and barometric pressure-driven ventilation. The mechanism by which CO2 is transported into caves is not as well studied and must be understood in order to quantify carbon (C) cycling through caves, soils and epikarst. Transport mechanisms into caves include gas and aqueous phase (i.e. drip-water) transport. We interpret δ13C values of cave-air CO2 and O2/Ar ratios of cave-air in order to distinguish between these transport mechanisms in three central Texas caves. Gas phase transport might allow cave-air to be used as a simple proxy for otherwise largely inaccessible epikarst air. Drip-water transport might allow measurements of individual drips to be scaled up to cave-integrated assessment of water flux, calcite precipitation, and degassing-related isotope fractionation using measurements of cave-air CO2. We start by assuming gas phase transport and then evaluate the consistency of the results. We apply to cave-air CO2 the theory for steady state soil CO2 transport, which involves mixing with atmospheric air and isotope fractionation by diffusion. This allows calculation of the C isotope composition of the reduced C source for cave-air CO2 (δ13Cr). Calculated cave-air δ13Cr values are consistent with observed soil δ13Cr values. For instance, where trees are evenly distributed at the surface, cave-air δ13Cr values (-24‰) remained within 1‰ of tree-dominated soil δ13Cr values and were 3.5 to 4.5 ‰ lower than grass-dominated soil δ13Cr values, suggesting that trees are the dominant C source. This internally consistent explanation suggests that CO2 diffuses and/or advects into these caves as a gas because aqueous transport into caves would likely result in different cave-air and soil δ13Cr values, as described next. The magnitude of the CO2(g) -HCO3-(aq) carbon isotope per mil fractionation factor is -8.4 ‰ at 20.5°C, the mean Inner Space Cavern drip

  7. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  8. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m−3. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m−3. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration

  9. Baiyun Cave in Naigu Shilin, Yunnan Karst, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Baiyun cave is a 380 m long karst cave in the Naigu Shilin, situated 70 km southeast of Kunming,Yunnan Province, China. The prevailing orientations of the cave passages are N110°-120°E and N0°-10°W and those of the fissures in the cave are N30°-40°W and N20°-30°W. The cave is developed in the thick-bedded Lower Permian Qixia Formation. The cave has an active water flow and is currently at the near water-table stage. There are large amounts of different infills of cave sediments. The cave shows different stages of paragenesis. The palaeomagnetic analysis of cave sediments shows that their ages are younger than 780 ka B.P. (the Brunhes Chron). The upper part of the sampled profile belongs to the reverse Blake event (112.3-117.9 ka B.P.). The formation of the Baiyun cave is directly connected with the development of the Naigu Shilin. The formation of karst underground and surface features depends on the regional tectonic deformation and the Cenozoic extension of the study area.``

  10. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  11. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J.; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L. N.; Miller, Ana Z.; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E.; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  12. Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forti Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps man’s first motivation to explore caves, beyond using them as shelter, was the search for substances that were not availableelsewhere: most of them were minerals. However, for a long time it was believed that the cave environment was not very interestingfrom the mineralogical point of view. This was due to the fact that most cave deposits are normally composed of a singlecompound: calcium carbonate. Therefore, the systematic study of cave mineralogy is of only recent origin. However, although onlya limited number of natural cavities have been investigated in detail, about 350 cave minerals have already been observed, someof which are new to science. The presence of such unexpected richness is a direct consequence of the variety of rocks traversedby water or other fluids before entering a cave and the sediments therein. Different cave environments allow the development ofvarious minerogenetic mechanisms, the most important of which are double exchange reactions, evaporation, oxidation, hydrationdehydration,sublimation, deposition from aerosols and vapors, and segregation. The cave temperature and pH/Eh strictly controlmost of them, although some are driven by microorganisms. The cave environment, due to its long-term stability, can sometimesallow for the development of huge euhedral crystals, such as those found in the Naica caves (Mexico, but the presence of extremelysmall yet complex aggregates of different minerals is far more common. Future development in the field of cave mineralogy will likelybe focused mainly on hydrothermal and sulfuric-acid caves and on the role played by micro-organisms in controlling some of the mostimportant minerogenetic processes in caves.

  13. Comparison of carbonate cave pearls from periglacial zones of Demänovská Ice Cave (Nízke Tatry Mts., Slovakia) and Scarisoara Ice Cave (Bihor Mts., Romania)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Orvošová, M.; Vlček, L.; Filippi, Michal; Rohovec, Jan; Onac, B. P.; Persoiu, A.

    Wien : Technische Universität Wien, 2010 - (Spötl, C.; Luetscher, M.; Rittig, P.). s. 41-42 [International Workshop on Ice Caves /4./. 05.06.2010-11.06.2010, Obertraun] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : ice cave * cave pearls * cryogenic processes * C and O stable isotopes * caves (Slovakia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

    2001-10-01

    Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art. PMID:11586348

  15. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and...

  16. State of the art and challenges in cave minerals studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan P. Onac; Paolo Forti

    2011-01-01

    The present note is an updated inventory of all known cave minerals as March 2011. After including the new minerals described since the last edition of the Cave Minerals of the World book (1997) and made the necessary corrections to incorporate all discreditations, redefinitions, or revalidation proposed by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclatures and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), we summed up 319 cave minerals, many of these only known from...

  17. Lava caves of the Republic of Mauritius, Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Middleton

    1998-01-01

    In their Underground Atlas, MIDDLETON & WALTHAM (1986) dismissed Mauritius as: “very old volcanic islands with no speleological interest”. Recent investigations indicate this judgement is inaccurate; there are over 50 significant caves, including lava tube caves up to 687 m long (one 665 m long was surveyed as early as 1769) and 35 m wide. Plaine des Roches contains the most extensive system of lava tube caves with underground drainage rising at the seashore. Notable fauna includes an insecti...

  18. Magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments: experience from Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr

    Aguadilla : Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Aguadilla, 2007. s. 96-96. [Descubriendo el mundo subterráno de América Latin a y el Caribe : Congreso FEPUR /1./ ; Congreso FEALC /5./. 29.07.2007-04.08.2007, Aguadilla] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * karst sediments * caves * dating * Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Cave speleothems as repositories of microbial biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; Jurado, Valme; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Fernández, Octavio; Calaforra, José M.; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-04-01

    The need to better understand the biodiversity, origins of life on Earth and on other planets, and the wide applications of the microbe-mineral interactions have led to a rapid expansion of interest in subsurface environments. Recently reported results indicated signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity which suggest that Mars's subsurface can house organic molecules or traces of microbial life, making the search for microbial life on Earth's subsurface even more compelling. Caves on Earth are windows into the subsurface that harbor a wide variety of mineral-utilizing microorganisms, which may contribute to the formation of biominerals and unusual microstructures recognized as biosignatures. These environments contain a wide variety of redox interfaces and stable physicochemical conditions, which enhance secondary mineral precipitation and microbial growth under limited organic nutrient inputs. Enigmatic microorganisms and unusual mineral features have been found associated with secondary mineral deposits or speleothems in limestone caves and lava tubes. In this study, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were conducted on cave speleothem samples to assess microbe-mineral interactions, evaluate biogenicity, as well as to describe unusual mineral formations and microbial features. Microbial mats, extracellular polymeric substances, tubular empty sheaths, mineralized cells, filamentous fabrics, as well as "cell-sized" etch pits or microborings produced by bacterial cells were observed on minerals. These features evidence microbe-mineral interactions and may represent mineralogical signatures of life. We can thus consider that caves on Earth are plausible repositories of terrestrial biosignatures where we can look for microbial signatures. Acknowledgments: AZM acknowledges the support from the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework

  20. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically 0.9 m, and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 µS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a pre-existing layer of higher salinity.

  1. TESTATE AMOEBAE COMMUNITIES FROM CAVES OF SOME TERRITORIES IN EUROPEAN RUSSIA AND NORTH-EASTERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Mazei, Yuri; Belyakova, Olga; Trulova, Alisa; Guidolin, Laura; Coppellotti, Olimpia

    2012-01-01

    The species composition of testate amoebae in caves from European Russia and North-East Italy was studied. Twenty-seven species were identified from various habitats inside caves (moist substratum on floor, guano, sediments of cave streams and pools, water droplets and bacterial mats on rocky surfaces). In caves of simple structure (without differing types of habitats), the species richness of testate amoebae was far lower than in that from habitats outside the caves. In heterogeneous caves, ...

  2. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2015-11-01

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to (222)Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors. PMID:25948834

  3. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to 222Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors. (authors)

  4. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  5. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  6. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability. PMID

  7. Shallow caves and blowholes on the Nullarbor Plain, Australia — Flank margin caves on a low gradient limestone platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Shannon; Webb, John A.; White, Susan

    2013-11-01

    The Nullarbor Plain of southern Australia is a very extensive limestone platform with relatively few large caves for its size, but contains thousands of blowholes, sub-circular vertical shafts up to 1-2 m in diameter, which often connect to similar-sized sub-horizontal passages. Recent detailed systematic surveys of large areas of the Nullarbor Plain have provided new distribution data showing that blowholes and associated shallow caves are concentrated in a 25-30 km-wide band located > 75 km inland. The known density of these features (up to 43/25 km2) underestimates the cave porosity because the strong draughts blowing from many of the blowholes indicate that they connect to extensive cave systems of small passages. These shallow caves are relict phreatic features; their entrances (blowholes) were opened as the land surface was lowered by denudation. The band of blowholes and caves is located along the Late Miocene (~ 6 Ma) shoreline across the Nullarbor, when there was a eustatic stillstand. The caves formed in the zone of enhanced dissolution at the seaward margin of the freshwater lens along the carbonate coastline, and can therefore be regarded as flank margin caves on a low gradient limestone platform; a flank margin setting relatively unknown prior to this study. The width of the band of flank margin caves, which is substantially greater than previously documented for this cave type, reflects the very low gradient of both the ground surface and water table, together with the influence of tidal fluctuations and regression of the shoreline. Flank margin cave development stopped when the sea retreated rapidly in the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene due to a period of tilting and uplift. The band of flank margin caves has high permeability and substantial porosity, and would therefore form an excellent, largely overlooked, type of palaeokarst petroleum reservoir.

  8. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing

  9. Speleogenesis of selected caves in the Lunan shilins and caves of the Fenglin Karst in Qiubei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Slabe, T.; Liu, H.; Pruner, Petr

    Postojna : Inštitut za raziskovanjekrasa, ZRC SAZU=Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2011 - (Knez, M.; Liu, H.; Slabe, T.), s. 139-152 ISBN 978-961-254-241-2. - (Carsologica. 12) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : speleogenesis * paleomagnetic analyses * caves * Lunan shilins and Fenglin Karst in Qiube (China) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Environmental record in detrital cave sediments in the Botovskaya and Dolganskaya Jama caves (Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisá, Lenka; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Hercman, H.; Oberhansli, H.; Osincev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), A10273-A10273. ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave * sediments * micromorphology * magnetic properties * provenance Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/10273/EGU06-J-10273-2.pdf

  11. 3N Cave, new world’s longest cave in salt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filippi, Michal; Bruthans, J.; Vilhelm, Z.; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.

    Beirut : American University of Beirut, 2006. s. 15-15. [Middle-Eeast Speleology Symposium (MESS2) /2./. 21.04.2006-23.04.2006, Beirut] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt karst * salt cave * diapir * Iran Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Radon Exposures in the Caves of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are more than a hundred volcanic caves and pits of various lengths on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The results are presented of atmospheric radon measurements performed in three of these caves and in three pits. One of the caves selected, El Viento Cave, is nearly 20 km in length and is the longest volcanic tube in the Canarian archipelago and the second longest in the world. The measurements were performed over two distinct periods during the year using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations range between 0.3 and 8 kBq.m-3, the maximum value corresponds to a site located at 1850 m from the mouth of El Viento Cave. Possible touristic development of these caves has been taken into account in estimating the effective doses for visitors and guides (considered separately). The values obtained range from 0.3 to 100 μSv per visit for visitors. The largest effective dose would correspond to that for guides at 41 mSv.y-1 in the Viento Cave. This result would make protection against radiological hazards obligatory if the cave were to be developed as a site for tourism. (author)

  13. Tectonic caves of Solai in the Kenyan Rift Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonic caves al Solai, Kenya, were explored in 1970. These lie in a complex geological area of the Great Rift Valley in columnar-faulted ignimbrite. Fissures are presumed to have been widened by later tectonic activity -e.g. the major earthquake of January, 1928. The caves and exploration are briefly described. Questions of formation, drainage and possibilities of steam reservoirs are discussed.

  14. The cave biota of Slovakia - introduction of a new monograph

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, L.; Elhottová, Dana; Mock, A.; Nováková, Alena; Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Lukešová, Alena; Mulec, J.; Košel, V.; Papáč, V.; Luptáčik, P.; Uhrin, M.; Višňovská, Z.; Hudec, I.; Gaál, Ľ.; Bella, P.

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2014. s. 34. [22 nd International Karstological School "Classical Karst". Karst and Microorganisms . 16.06.2014-20.06.2014, Postojna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cave habitat * cave organisms * conservation * monitoring * zoogeography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. PROCESSES INFLUENCING VARIABILITY IN CAVE DRIP WATER TEMPERATURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have investigated five months of epikarst storage drip water temperatures along with surface air temperature and rainfall at a small waterfall in Cave Spring Caverns, Kentucky. Falling from about 4 m, water temperatures are measured within seconds of entering the cave passage with two minute, and...

  16. Occupational and patient doses in the therapeutic cave, Tapolca (Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon concentration has been measured for three years in a hospital cave used for medical treatment of respiratory diseases. A mean value of the actual equilibrium factor measured in the cave in different seasons was used, different from the commonly used 0.4. The dose contribution to the patients and the staff was calculated using these data. The results of the dose assessment show that the staff in the hospital cave can receive doses up to the dose limit for occupational exposure (20 mSv y-1) when working 4 h per day in the cave. Patients receive 0.18-4.22 mSv committed effective dose during the treatment period depending on the exposure periods. The only solution to reduce the dose to the staff seems to be decreasing the time they spend underground, because intensive ventilation would disturb the special microclimate of the cave. (author)

  17. Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh;

    Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds are...... gains and delays in the IAC can produce very different directionalities of the ears but it is still uncertain how interaural transmission gain and delay can be shaped by evolution by anatomical adaptations. A closer inspection of the zebra finch cranium using micro-CT scanning reveals that not only is...

  18. Reliability analysis of the velocity matching of coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗善明; 缪协兴

    2002-01-01

    The matching relationship between coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face is analyzed in detail from the angle of reliability. The coupling equation of reliability is established correspondingly, and the mathematical equation of the coefficient of velocity matching of coal cutting and caving is obtained, which meets a certain reliability demand for making the working procedure of coal caving not influence coal cutting of coal-cutter. The results show that the relationship between the coefficient of the velocity matching and the reliability of coal cutting and caving system is linear on the whole when R<0.9. It is pointed out that different numerical value should be selected for different coal face according to different demand for reliability.

  19. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France—both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  20. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  1. 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This characterization plan provides instructions for obtaining and analyzing samples for waste designation and disposal. The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave is located in the 100-C Area about 328 ft (100 m) southeast of the 105-C Reactor (Figure 1). The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave (Figure 2) is a reinforced concrete bunker approximately 70- ft (21.3-m) long, 7-ft (2.1-m) high, and 12-ft (3.6-m) wide, with triangular-shaped concrete ends 3-ft (0.9-m) high. The rod cave was used to store radiologically contaminated control-rod tips. If control rod tips are present, release of control rod activation products will not change expectations with respect to principal contaminants. The north portion of the cave is empty and the south portion contains two aluminum tubes that may contain rod tips (Figure 3). The caves are contaminated with activation and fission products (e.g., 60Co and 137Cs) common to the 100 Areas (see Appendix for data). Dose rates up to 0.7 mR/hr were measured in the south cave and 0.5 mR/hr in the north cave during an inspection of the facility in December 1996

  2. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  3. Accounting for kinetic isotope effects in Soreq Cave (Israel) speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affek, Hagit P.; Matthews, Alan; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Burstyn, Yuval; Zaarur, Shikma; Zilberman, Tami

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence that speleothem calcite grows out of isotopic equilibrium with cave drip water, with clumped isotope analysis providing a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium. This disequilibrium is primarily the result of CO2 degassing from a thin film of water, leading to irreversible 13C enrichment and reversible 18O enrichment and Δ47 depletion. Here we examine isotopic disequilibrium in Soreq Cave (Israel) using multiple modern-day and late Holocene speleothems. The variability observed in Δ47 is small, within the analytical uncertainty, but the Δ47-derived temperature is offset from the modern cave temperature by ∼4 °C, reflecting degassing related disequilibrium that is fairly constant spatially. δ18O is more heterogeneous, reflecting short-term variability in drip water δ18Ow combined with variability in the speleothem growth rates and related fractionation between dissolved carbonate species and the growing calcite mineral. This complexity, however, is markedly reduced by spatial or temporal averaging, enabling an interpretation of the cave paleoclimate record. We examine the Soreq Cave speleothems through a comparison with 2 types of thermometers: one is based on CaCO3 precipitation from a bulk solution and is typically used for calibration of the Δ47 and δ18O thermometers; a second that is based on CaCO3 precipitating at the surface of the solution thus focusing and amplifying the thin film characteristics of speleothem formation. Soreq Cave speleothems are intermediate between these thermometers, providing a cave-specific thermometer calibration.

  4. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Price

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  5. Microscopic fungi isolated from the Domica Cave system (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia). A review

    OpenAIRE

    Novakova Alena

    2009-01-01

    A broad spectrum, total of 195 microfungal taxa, were isolated from various cave substrates (cave air, cave sediments, bat droppingsand/or guano, earthworm casts, isopods and diplopods faeces, mammalian dung, cadavers, vermiculations, insect bodies, plantmaterial, etc.) from the cave system of the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia) using dilution, direct and gravitysettling culture plate methods and several isolation media. Penicillium glandicola, Trichoderma polysporum, Oidio...

  6. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Price

    2014-01-01

    Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  7. Diversity of cultured bacteria from the perennial ice block of Scarisoara Ice Cave, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Iţcuş; Mădălina-Denisa Pascu; Traian Brad; Aurel Perşoiu; Cristina Purcarea

    2016-01-01

    Cave ice ecosystems represent a poorly investigated glacial environment. Diversity of cave ice bacteria and their distribution in perennial ice deposits of this underground glacial habitat could constitute a proxy for microbial response to climatic and environmental changes. Scarisoara Ice Cave (Romania) hosts one of the oldest and largest cave ice blocks worldwide. Here we report on cultured microbial diversity of recent, 400, and 900 years-old perennial ice from this cave, representing the ...

  8. Pas de Vallgornera Cave, Majorca (Spain): one the largest littoral caves in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pas de Vallgornera cave is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands and one of the largest in Europe (more than 73 km long). It is found on the Miocene reef of Llucmajor Platform and its genesis is related to the development of normal faults and associated fracture systems with N 180° S and N 60° E orientation that took place during the Neogene. It is noteworthy for the abundance, variety and beauty of the speleothems, paleontological richness and to present evidence of hypogene basal recharge. Due to its singularity, it has served as the basis of several scientific studies on groundwater level fluctuations during the quaternary period and others related to the existence of one of most important paleontological sites in Mallorca as far as vertebrates are concerned. (Author)

  9. Reading the past from cave bat guano: Domica Cave palaeoecological research (NP Slovak Karst)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, J.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Novák, J.; Křováková, Kateřina; Šantrůček, J.; Elhottová, Dana; Kováč, L.; Krištůfek, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2009), s. 170. ISSN 1335-213X. [Vedecká konferencia Výskum, využívanie a ochrana jaskýň /7./. 10.11.2009-13.11.2009, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : bat guano * Domica Cave * palaeoecological research Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Fossil remains of a cave tube worm (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in an ancient cave in Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihevc, A.; Sket, B.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    Brasilia : Federatia Espeleological de America Latin a, 2001, s. -. [International Congress of Speleology /13./, Speleological Congress of Latin America and the Caribbean /4./, Brazilian Congress of Speleology /26./. Brasilia (BR), 15.07.2001-22.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3046108; GA MŠk ME 251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeomagnetism * Slovenia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. Fossil population structure and mortality analysis of the cave bears from Urşilor Cave, north-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Robu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in cave bear palaeobiology focusing on population structure and mortality analysis may improve our understanding regarding the ecology of this species which vanished at the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, prior to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, if assessed populations are large enough. Such population is available in Urşilor Cave, from north-western Romania, known as one of the most rich and complex European MIS3 cave bear sites. From the palaeontological excavation, situated at the lower level of the cave (= Scientific Reserve, more than 210 cave bear isolated lower molars, 160 mandibles and almost 180 canines were extracted and analyzed. The results obtained on the wear stages of the studied molars and mandibles indicated an “L”-shaped curve and suggest a non-attritional death pattern and a bone assemblage juvenile dominated. Moreover, the sex-ratio of upper and lower canines indicates a net dominance of females (5.4 females: 1 male. Although a “catastrophic” death pattern was obtained for cave bears, the animals seem to have died diachronically (non-simultaneously, over a time span of more than 6000 years. The triangular graph of age distribution is not appropriate for death assemblages from traps such as karst caves, where taphonomic processes like predation or scavenging would have played a less important role.

  12. Spatial organization and connectivity of caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Guglielmi, Yves; Camus, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The main particularity of karst systems is their hierarchical organization as three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drain. They are recognized as having a major influence on fluid flow at reservoir scale. However, a karstic network is generally hardly continuously observable and their great intrinsic heterogeneity makes their characterization very complex. This media can be only observed by speleological investigation, conditioned to human possibilities. As a result, only few parts can be observed and therefore it is required to model the non-observable parts for reservoir characterizations. To provide realistic 3D models, non-observable karstic features will be generated using parameters extracted from observed ones. Morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional karstic network provides quantitative measures that can (i) give information on speleogenesis processes, (ii) be used to compare different karst systems, (iii) be correlated with hydrogeological behavior and (iii) control the simulation of realistic karst networks. Recent work done on the subject characterize the karstic network as a whole, without genetic a-priori. However, most of observable caves appears to have a polygenic history due to modifications in boundary conditions and some different karst features can be observed in a same cavity. To study the geometrical organization of caves, we propose to analyze 3D speleological topographies for which speleogenetic context is known. This way, it is possible to characterize karst features according to speleogenetic processes. Several morphometric descriptors have been calculated on three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological works. Some parameters describe the existence of preferential direction of karstification and preferential flow paths, other parameters describe the complexity, geometry and connectivity of the three-dimensional karstic networks. Through the study of fifteen different caves, 150km of 3D data have been analyzed

  13. Magnetostratigraphy of Cave Sediments: Application and Limits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2003), s. 301-330. ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1042603; GA AV ČR KSK3046108; GA AV ČR IAA3013201; GA MŠk ME 251; GA ČR GA206/93/0276; GA ČR GA205/95/0841; GA MŠk OU95051; GA AV ČR EAR-9705718 Grant ostatní: Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)(HU) T 035004; National Science Foundation(US) INT-950737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * cave deposits Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2003

  14. Evidence of NAO control on subsurface ice accumulation in a 1200 yr old cave-ice sequence, St. Livres ice cave, Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Markus; Luetscher, Marc; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Schlatter, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Mid-latitude ice caves are assumed to be highly sensitive to climatic changes and thus represent a potentially interesting environmental archive. Establishing a precise chronology is, however, a prerequisite for the understanding of processes driving the cave-ice mass balance and thus allows a paleoenvironmental interpretation. At St. Livres ice cave (Jura Mountains, Switzerland), subfossil trees and organic material are abundant in the cave-ice deposit, therefore allowing the dating of indiv...

  15. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  16. What can molecular microbiology tell us about Lascaux cave?

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Valme; Bastian, Fabiola; ALABOUVETTE, Claude; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    2009-01-01

    5 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, 25 references. Pertenece al capítulo Symposium 5: Geomicrobiology of cave and karst environments.-- Simposio celebrado del 19 al 26 de julio, 2009, en Kerrville, Texas, U.S.A.

  17. Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Logan Cave NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  18. Contaminant concentrations in water and sediments from Shelta Cave

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shelta Cave is a cavern system which lies under the northwestern portion of the City of Huntsville, Alabama. The National Speleological Society owns property which...

  19. Center for Advanced Energy Studies: Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The laboratory contains a four-walled 3D computer assisted virtual environment - or CAVE TM — that allows scientists and engineers to literally walk into their data...

  20. The structure of the cave, stratigraphy, and depositional context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří

    Wien : Springer, 2006 - (Teschler-Nicola, M.), s. 27-40 ISBN 3-211-23588-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Mladeč caves * modern humans * Aurignacian Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-01

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the "cave factor" 1.5. The value of "cave factor" which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  2. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  3. Microbial communities and associated mineral fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cuezva Soledad; Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo; Canaveras Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, both on walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. The colonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes. Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of ...

  4. Karst geology and cave fauna of Austria: a concise review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard Christian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The state of cave research in Austria is outlined from the geological and zoological perspective. Geologic sections include the setting of karst regions, tectonic and palaeoclimatic control on karst, modern cave environments, and karst hydrology. A chapter on the development of Austrian biospeleology in the 20th century is followed by a survey of terrestrial underground habitats, biogeographic remarks, and an annotated selection of subterranean invertebrates.

  5. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyp...

  6. Virtual Reality Visualization by CAVE with VFIVE and VTK

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, N; Kusano, K; Ohno, Nobuaki; Kageyama, Akira; Kusano, Kanya

    2005-01-01

    The CAVE-type virtual reality (VR) system was introduced for scientific visualization of large scale data in the plasma simulation community about a decade ago. Since then, we have been developing a VR visualization software, VFIVE, for general CAVE systems. Recently, we have integrated an open source visualization library, the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), into VFIVE. Various visualization methods of VTK can be incorporated and used interactively in VFIVE.

  7. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  8. Karst geology and cave fauna of Austria: a concise review

    OpenAIRE

    Erhard Christian; Christoph Spötl

    2010-01-01

    The state of cave research in Austria is outlined from the geological and zoological perspective. Geologic sections include the setting of karst regions, tectonic and palaeoclimatic control on karst, modern cave environments, and karst hydrology. A chapter on the development of Austrian biospeleology in the 20th century is followed by a survey of terrestrial underground habitats, biogeographic remarks, and an annotated selection of subterranean invertebrates.

  9. Human modifications on cave bear bones from the Gargas Cave (Hautes-Pyrénées, France).

    OpenAIRE

    Vercoutère, Carole; San Juan-Foucher, Cristina; Foucher, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we are going to examine seven cave bear remains modified by prehistoric men. These remains come from the Aurignacian and Gravettian levels of the Gargas Cave (Hautes-Pyrénées, France). They were discovered during the excavations carried out by H. Breuil and E. Cartailhac from 1911 to 1913. One Aurignacian artefact and three Gravettian objects were unpublished and other pieces were only briefly described in the 1958 publication (Breuil & Cheynier, 1958). These osseous artefacts ...

  10. New distribution record for the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes inermis inermis cope, from the Patoka River drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two specimens of the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes (Orconectes) inermis inermis Cope, were collected from a cave referred to as Audrey’s Cave on May 21, 2001...

  11. Eogenetic caves in conglomerate: an example from Udin Boršt, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Lipar Matej; Ferk Mateja

    2011-01-01

    Udin Boršt is a karstified terrace of carbonate rock, which is of fluvioglacial origin, and is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. There are 15 registered caves, which have been interpreted as caves in conglomerate, while karst of Udin Boršt itself was interpreted as conglomerate karst, shallow karst or isolated karst. In this article, caves in Udin Boršt have been interpreted as eogenetic caves. Based on porosity and bedding material, different types of caves and cave passages ha...

  12. Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheeptham N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic caves have been little studied for their potential as sources of novel microbial species and bioactive compounds with new scaffolds. We present the f irst study of volcanic cave microbiology from Canada and suggest that this habitat has great potential for the isolation of novel bioactive substances. Sample locat ions were plot ted on a contour map that was compiled in ArcView 3.2. Over 400 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Helmcken Falls cave in Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia. From our preliminary screen, of 400 isolates tested, 1% showed activity against extended spectrum ß-lactamase E. coli, 1.75% against Escherichia coli, 2.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii, and 26.50% against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, 10.25% showed activity against Micrococcus luteus, 2% against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 9.25% against Mycobacterium smegmatis, 6.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 7.5% against Candida albicans. Chemical and physical characteristics of three rock wall samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy and f lame atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, and aluminum (Al were the most abundant components while magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and barium (Ba were second most abundant with cadmium (Cd and potassium (K were the least abundant in our samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of microscopic life forms in all three rock wall samples. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 82 isolates revealed that 65 (79.3% of the strains belong to the Streptomyces genus and 5 (6.1% were members of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia and Erwinia genera. Interestingly, twelve (14.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences showed similarity to unidentif ied ribosomal RNA sequences in the library databases, the sequences of these isolates need to be further investigated using the EzTaxon-e database (http://eztaxon-e. ezbiocloud.net/ to determine whether

  13. Feeding sources of invertebrates in the Ardovská Cave and Domica Cave systems - preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Lukešová, Alena; Hill, P.; Kováč, L.; Mock, A.; Luptáčik, P.

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005, s. 107-112. ISBN 80-86525-04-X. [Contributions to soil Zoology in Central Europe I. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. České Budějovice (CZ), 14.04.2003-16.04.2003] Grant ostatní: Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 1/0441/03; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 1/9202/02; Science and Technology Assistance Agency(SK) APVT-20-035802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : caves * actinomycetes * algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  15. Carbon dioxide seasonality in dynamically ventilated caves: the role of advective fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marek; Faimon, Jiří; Godissart, Jean; Ek, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The seasonality in cave CO2 levels was studied based on (1) a new data set from the dynamically ventilated Comblain-au-Pont Cave (Dinant Karst Basin, Belgium), (2) archive data from Moravian Karst caves, and (3) published data from caves worldwide. A simplified dynamic model was proposed for testing the effect of all conceivable CO2 fluxes on cave CO2 levels. Considering generally accepted fluxes, i.e., the direct diffusive flux from soils/epikarst, the indirect flux derived from dripwater degassing, and the input/output fluxes linked to cave ventilation, gives the cave CO2 level maxima of 1.9 × 10-2 mol m-3 (i.e., ˜ 440 ppmv), which only slightly exceed external values. This indicates that an additional input CO2 flux is necessary for reaching usual cave CO2 level maxima. The modeling indicates that the additional flux could be a convective advective CO2 flux from soil/epikarst driven by airflow (cave ventilation) and enhanced soil/epikarstic CO2 concentrations. Such flux reaching up to 170 mol s-1 is capable of providing the cave CO2 level maxima up to 3 × 10-2 mol m-3 (70,000 ppmv). This value corresponds to the maxima known from caves worldwide. Based on cave geometry, three types of dynamic caves were distinguished: (1) the caves with the advective CO2 flux from soil/epikarst at downward airflow ventilation mode, (2) the caves with the advective soil/epikarstic flux at upward airflow ventilation mode, and (3) the caves without any soil/epikarstic advective flux. In addition to CO2 seasonality, the model explains both the short-term and seasonal variations in δ13C in cave air CO2.

  16. Analysis of the Condition and Development Opportunities of Cave Tourism in Primorsko-Goranska County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Knežević

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines caves as morphological factors of tourism development in Primorsko-Goranska County. The primary aim is to promote cave heritage parallel with the development of cave tourism. The methodological framework is based on analyzing material in the archives of tourist boards, taking an inventory of cave resources (case study, conducting interviews, and making a SWOT analysis of cave tourism development. Research results show that caves represent a complex resource in the tourist trade of Primorsko-Goranska County, to which little importance has been attached up to date (priority being given to mass tourism. In the context of tourism development, caves fall into four groups. The first group comprises caves that have a long tradition, but show signs of aging as a tourism product. The second group includes caves that were once open to the public, but were later closed for some reason. The third group consists of caves on the seaside or seabed visited by speleologists-divers. The fourth group is made up of potential cave sites that have been evaluated as being attractive, but is located in hard-to-access areas, making their valorisation in tourism purpose more difficult. Only Lokvarka Cave has a substantial influence on the development of special interest tourism in Lokve, while in all other cases, the role of caves in the tourism offering needs to be revalorised.

  17. WP-Cave - assessment of feasibility, safety and development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to SKB R and D-programme 1986, alternative disposal methods will be investigated to provide a basis for selecting a site and a repository system for the Swedish spent nuclear fuel. The present report is a comparison between the WP-Cave and the reference concept KBS-3. The comparison has resulted in the following conclusions: - Both concepts are judged to be able to provide adequate safety. - A utilization of the potential of the WP-Cave requires, however, extensive development in areas where the current state of knowledge and available data are incomplete. - The higher temperatures in the WP-Cave lead to greater uncertainty as to long-term performance. Reducing this uncertainty would require many yaers of research and substantial resources. - Both repositories, including the barriers they incorporate, could be built with a normal adaption of available technology. -It is not possible to say today whether it would be simpler to find suitable sites for one design or the other. - The WP-Cave is considerably more expensive. A future research direction based on a concentrated emplacement of spent fuel along the lines of the WP-Cave is therefore judged to entail greater uncertainty as regards the possibilities of achieving acceptable safety and to require greater resources for research and development, at the same time as the costs of building the repository would be higher. The studies of the WP-Cave as an integral system should therfore be discontinued. Certain barrier designs in the WP-Cave could also be utulized in repository designs with lower temperature, for example the reduction potential of the steel canisters and the hydraulic cage's diversion of groundwater. Studies within these areas are being conducted within SKB and should continue

  18. Flow Classification and Cave Discharge Characteristics in Unsaturated Karst Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, G.; Mahmud, K.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we utilize the spatial array of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of the Golgotha Cave, SW Australia, developed in Quaternary aeolianite (dune limestone), with the aim of understanding infiltration water movement via the relationships between infiltration, stalactite morphology and groundwater recharge. Mahmud et al. (2015) used the Terrestrial LiDAR measurements to analyze stalactite morphology and to characterize possible flow locations in this cave. Here we identify the stalactites feeding the drip loggers and classify each as matrix (soda straw or icicle), fracture or combined-flow. These morphology-based classifications are compared with flow characteristics from the drip logger time series and the discharge from each stalactite is calculated. The total estimated discharge from each area is compared with infiltration estimates to better understand flow from the surface to the cave ceilings of the studied areas. The drip discharge data agrees with the morphology-based flow classification in terms of flow and geometrical characteristics of cave ceiling stalactites. No significant relationships were observed between the drip logger discharge, skewness and coefficient of variation with overburden thickness, due to the possibility of potential vadose-zone storage volume and increasing complexity of the karst architecture. However, these properties can be used to characterize different flow categories. A correlation matrix demonstrates that similar flow categories are positively correlated, implying significant influence of spatial distribution. The infiltration water comes from a larger surface area, suggesting that infiltration is being focused to the studied ceiling areas of each chamber. Most of the ceiling in the cave site is dry, suggesting the possibility of capillary effects with water moving around the cave rather than passing through it. Reference:Mahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to

  19. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John

    2016-05-01

    The steeply-dipping-dolostone-hosted caves of the Sierra de Arnero (N Spain) contain low-gradient relict canyons with up to ten mapped levels of ferromanganese stromatolites and associated wall notches over a vertical range of 85 m, the highest occurring ~ 460 m above base level. Despite a plausible speleogenetic contribution by pyrite oxidation, and the irregular cave-wall mesomorphologies suggestive of hypogenic speleogenesis, the Arnero relict caves are dominantly epigenic, as indicated by the conduit pattern and the abundant allogenic sediments. Allogenic input declined over time due to a piracy-related decrease in the drainage area of allogenic streams, explaining the large size of the relict Arnero caves relative to the limited present-day outcrop area of the karstified carbonates. Allogenic-sediment input also explains the observed change from watertable canyons to phreatic conduits in the paleo-downstream direction. Stromatolites and notches arguably formed in cave-stream passages at the watertable. The best-defined paleo-watertables show an overall slope of 1.7°, consistent with the present-day relief of the watertable, with higher-slope segments caused by barriers related to sulfide mineralization. The formation of watertable stromatolites favored wall notching by the combined effect of enhanced acidity by Mn-Fe oxidation and shielding of cave floors against erosion. Abrasive bedload further contributed to notch formation by promoting lateral mechanical erosion and protecting passage floors. The irregular wallrock erosional forms of Arnero caves are related partly to paragenesis and partly to the porous nature of the host dolostones, which favored irregular dissolution near passage walls, generating friable halos. Subsequent mechanical erosion contributed to generate spongework patterns. The dolostone porosity also contributes to explain the paradox that virtually all Arnero caves are developed in dolostone despite being less soluble than adjacent

  20. ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States)]. E-mail: anne.r.skinner@williams.edu; Blackwell, B.A.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Martin, Sara [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Ortega, A. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Golovanova, L.V. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Doronichev, V.B. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Mezmaiskaya Cave has yielded more than 10,000 artifacts, thousands of very well preserved faunal remains, and hominin remains, found in seven Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) and three Upper Paleolithic levels. A complete Neanderthal infant skeleton was preserved in anatomical juxtaposition lying on a large limestone block, overlain by the earliest Mousterian layer, Layer 3. Twenty-four skull fragments from a 1-2 year-old Neanderthal infant, showing post-mortem deformation, occurred in a pit originating in the Mousterian Layer 2 and penetrating into underlying layers 2A and 2B(1). Bone from Layer 2A was dated by AMS {sup 14}C at 35.8-36.3{+-}0.5 kyr BP. Direct dating of Neanderthal bone from Layer 3 gave an age of 29 kyr, but that is now considered to be due to contamination by modern carbon. Fourteen large mammal teeth from Layers 2 through 3 have been dated by standard electron spin resonance (ESR). Low U concentrations in both the enamel and dentine ensure that ESR ages do not depend significantly on the U uptake model, but do depend strongly on the sedimentary dose rates. Assuming a sedimentary water concentration equal to 20 wt%, ESR ages for the Mousterian layers range from 36.2 to 73.0{+-}5.0 ka.

  1. Building 887: An Aladdin's Cave for Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Building 887 on the Prévessin site is home to numerous experiments bringing together physicists and engineers from around the world. Its diversity makes the huge building a replica of CERN in miniature. The Installation unit of the SL EA group in front of the support structure for the ATLAS muon chambers. From left to right, seated: Pierre Gimenez, Yves Bonnet, Yves Naveau, Alain Pinget, Christian Becquet, Camille Adenot; standing: Philippe Guillot, Thierry Reynes, Monserrat Zurita-Perez, Claude Ferrari et Denis Gacon. The big wheel to be used for the ATLAS muon chambers (see below) is much the most spectacular installation currently occupying Building 887. But it is far from being the only attraction. Push open the heavy doors of this immense hall and it is a bit like entering a physicists' Aladdin's cave. The building, 55 metres wide and 300 metres long, is a treasure trove of engineering and technology, a CERN in miniature, housing dozens of collaborations from all over the world. With its 150...

  2. Volcanic caves: priorities for conserving the Azorean endemic troglobiont species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cañete Enrique P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics and drivers of ventilation in caves are of growing interest for different f ields of science. Accumulated CO2 in caves can be exchanged with the atmosphere, modifying the internal CO2 content, affecting stalagmite growth rates, deteriorating rupestrian paintings, or creating new minerals. Current estimates of cave ventilation neglect the role of high CO2 concentrations in determining air density – approximated via the virtual temperature (Tv –, affecting buoyancy and therefore the release or storage of CO2. Here we try to improve knowledge and understanding of cave ventilation through the use of Tv in CO2-rich air to explain buoyancy for different values of temperature (T and CO2 content. Also, we show differences between T and Tv for 14 different experimental sites in the vadose zone, demonstrating the importance of using the correct def inition of Tv to determine air buoyancy in caves. The calculation of Tv (including CO2 effects is currently available via internet using an excel template, requiring the input of CO2 (%, air temperature (oC and relative humidity (%.

  3. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Gregor, M.; Schlögl, J.; Šmída, B.; Liščák, P.; Brewer-Carías, Ch.; Vlček, L.

    2011-09-01

    Venezuelan table mountains (tepuis) host the largest arenite caves in the world. The most frequently used explanation of their origin so far was the "arenization" theory, involving dissolution of quartz cement around the sand grains and subsequent removing of the released grains by water. New research in the two largest arenite cave systems - Churi-Tepui System in Chimanta Massif and Ojos de Cristal System in Roraima Tepui showed that quartz dissolution plays only a minor role in their speleogenesis. Arenites forming the tepuis are not only quartzites but they display a wide range of lithification and breakdown, including also loose sands and sandstones. Speleogenetic processes are mostly concentrated on the beds of unlithified sands which escaped from diagenesis by being sealed by the surrounding perfectly lithified quartzites. Only the so-called "finger-flow" pillars testify to confined diagenetic fluids which flowed in narrow channels, leaving the surrounding arenite uncemented. Another factor which influenced the cave-forming processes by about 30% was lateritization. It affects beds formed of arkosic sandstones and greywackes which show strong dissolution of micas, feldspars and clay minerals, turning then to laterite ("Barro Rojo"). The main prerequisite to rank caves among karst phenomena is dissolution. As the dissolution of silicate minerals other than quartz appears to play not only a volumetrically important role but even a trigger role, these arenitic caves may be ranked as karst.

  4. Ice caves on Earth - analogues for (sub) surface conditions on Mars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Persoiu, A.; Onac, B. P.; Wynn, J. G.; Žák, Karel

    Houston : Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011. s. 8016-8016. [International Planetary Cave Research Workshop /1./. 25.10.2011-28.10.2011, Carlsbad] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : caves * ice caves * geology * astrophysics Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/caves2011/pdf/8016.pdf

  5. Hominid exploitation of the environment and cave bear populations. The case of Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth in Amutxate cave (Aralar, Navarra-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Trinidad; Ortiz, José E; Cobo, Rafael; de Hoz, Pedro; García-Redondo, Ana; Grün, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Cave bears (Ursus deningeri and U. spelaeus) and hominids (Homo heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens) were potential competitors for environmental resources (subterranean and open air). Here, we examined the age at death of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth) specimens from Amutxate cave in order to shed light on the effect of resource sharing between cave bears and hominids. After studying dental wear of the deciduous and permanent dentitions, the ontogenetic development of mandibles, and incremental layers of cement (annuli), we defined five age groups differentiated by marked development and size gaps. Our findings indicate that after hibernating, bears abandoned the den, thereby leaving the subterranean environment (caves) free for temporary hominid occupation-this would explain the subtle traces of hominid presence in many dens. However, a simple calculation based on age at death of subadult and adult cave bear specimens in Amutxate cave, extrapolated to the whole cave area, showed that the area surrounding this cave hosted bears for at least 9,000 years. This length of habitation, quite similar to the time-span derived from amino acid racemization and electron spin resonance, indicates that bear populations in the Amutxate cave constituted a serious constraint for hominid exploitation of the environment. PMID:16996576

  6. Cave sediments in Slovenia: Results of 10 Years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2010), s. 173-186. ISSN 0560-3137 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * karst and cave evolution * karst * karst (Slovenia) * cave evolution Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  7. Fossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments - a study of four cave sites from Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, O. T.; Constantin, S.; Panaiotu, C.; Roban, R. D.; Frenzel, P.; Miko, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fossil invertebrates from cave sediments have been recently described as a potential new proxy for paleoenvironment and used in cross-correlations with alternate proxy records from cave deposits. Here we present the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves from two climatically different regions of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. Some of the identified taxa are new to science, and most of them are indicative for either warm and/or cold stages or dry and/or wetter oscillations. In two caves the fossil invertebrates records indicate rapid climate oscillations during times known for a relatively stable climate. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures and hydraulic regimes could be gathered. This paper analyzes the potential of fossil invertebrate records as a paleoenvironmental proxy, potential problems and pitfalls.

  8. Microbial Communities and Associated Mineral Fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuezva Soledad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, bothon walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. Thecolonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes.Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of rhombohedral calcite crystals, andspheroid to hemispheroid CaCO3 elements. Colonies distribution seems to be controlled by microenvironmental conditions inside thecavity. The areas of the cave showing higher temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration fluctuations presented a minorbiomineralization capability.

  9. Insights into Neandertals and Denisovans from Denisova Cave

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Denisova Cave is located in the Altai mountains of Russia. Excavations from this cave have yielded two large hominin molars and three hominin phalanxes from the Pleistocene. One of the phalanxes (Denisova 3) had extraordinary DNA preservation allowing the sequencing of high quality nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes and has been shown to belong to a young girl from hereto unknown sister group of Neandertals, called Denisovans. The mtDNA of Denisova 3 surprisingly split from the mtD...

  10. Luminescence of Speleothems in Italian Gypsum Caves: Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Shopov, Yavor Y; Forti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence of 3 speleothem samples from the Acquafredda karst system and 1 from the Novella Cave (Gessi Bolognesi Natural Park, Italy) has been recorded using excitation by impulse Xe- lamp. All these carbonate speleothems are believed to be formed only from active CO2 from the air, because the bedrock of the cave consist of gypsum and does not contain carbonates. The obtained photos of luminescence record the climate changes during the speleothem growth. U/Th and 14C dating proved that studied speleothems started to grow since about 5,000 years ago. The detailed analyses of the luminescence records is still in progress.

  11. Seasonal variations of 14C and δ13C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Masayo; Kato, Tomomi; Horikawa, Keiji; Nakamura, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem 14C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric 14C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of 14C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem 14C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO2. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in 14C and δ13C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the 14C and δ13C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different 14C concentrations and δ13C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO2, and flow paths. Further, the 14C and δ13C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The 14C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: 14C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in 14C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using 14C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  12. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  13. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are common members of bacterial communities in Altamira Cave (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, M Carmen; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2009-01-15

    The conservation of paleolithic paintings such as those in Altamira Cave (Spain) is a primary objective. Recent molecular studies have shown the existence of unknown microbial communities in this cave including anaerobic microorganisms on cave walls. Herein, we analyzed an anaerobic microbial group, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), from Altamira Cave with potential negative effects on painting conservation. In the present work, the communities of bacteria and SRB were studied through PCR-DGGE analysis. Data suggest that SRB communities represent a significant, highly diverse bacterial group in Altamira Cave. These findings represent a first report on this physiological group on caves with paleolithic paintings and their potential biodegradation consequences. Expanding our knowledge on microbial communities in Altamira Cave is a priority to design appropriate conservation strategies. PMID:19027143

  14. Assessment of the dose from radon and its decay products in the Bozkov dolomite cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose from radon and its progeny remains a frequently discussed problem. ICRP 65 provides a commonly used methodology to calculate the dose from radon. Our work focuses on a cave environment and on assessing the doses in public open caves. The differences in conditions (aerosol size distribution, humidity, radon and its progeny ratio, etc.) are described by the so-called cave factor j. The cave factor is used to correct the dose for workers which is calculated using the ICRP 65 recommendation. In this work, the authors have brought together measured data of aerosol size distribution, unattached and attached fraction activity, and have calculated the so-called cave factor for the Bozkov dolomite cave environment. The dose conversion factors based on measured data and used for evaluating the cave factor were calculated by LUDEP software, which implements HRTM ICRP66. (authors)

  15. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  16. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Hercman, H.; Orvošová, M.; Jačková, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2009), s. 139-152. ISSN 0392-6672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cryogenic cave carbonate * U-series dating * carbon and oxygen stable isotopes * Western Carpathians * Nízké Tatry Mts. Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.900, year: 2009 http://www.ijs.speleo.it/pdf/71.589.38(2)_Zak.et.al.pdf

  17. Blow Hole Cave: An unroofed cave on San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, and its importance for detection of paleokarst caves on fossil carbonate platforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Mylroie, J. E.; Hladil, Jindřich; Carew, J. L.; Slavík, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2002), s. 51-74. ISSN 0583-6050. [Karstological School - Classical Karst: Types of Karst /10./. Pstojna, 26.06.2002-28.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013809; GA AV ČR IAA3013209 Keywords : carbonate platforms * unroofed caves * gamma-ray spectrometry and wellogging Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://carsologica.zrc-sazu.si/downloads/313/slavik.pdf

  18. Inside the neutrino cave, close to the target complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows on the left the shielding of the target complex, T9 and T11 for the wide and narrow beams. The direction of the primary proton beam faces the camera. Between the shielding and the cave wall are housed the magnets cooling pipes. The pulley block allows displacements inside the shielding.

  19. Evaluation of the Bozkov Dolomite Cave Guides Potential Dose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thinová, L.; Berka, Z.; Brandejsová, E.; Milka, D.; Froňka, A.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    Prague, 2003. s. 495. [International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States /6./. 01.09.2003-04.09.2003, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : radon concentration * cave * effective dose Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp

    OpenAIRE

    Sridevi Ankisetty; Marc Slattery

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  1. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  2. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not be larger than one-quarter inch. (3) Live bait. (i) Worms are the only form of live bait which may... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  3. Modelling cave flow hydraulics in the Notranjski Kras, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Gabrovsek, Franci

    2015-04-01

    The Notranjski Kras region is a karst region in western Slovenia, developed in Cretaceous limestone. The region is characterised by hilly relief, with peaks reaching 1300 m elevation. Several well-developed cave systems drain the karst aquifer, providing preferential flow pathes along two sections: The Pivka River, which sinks into Postojnska Jama and reappears in Planinska Jama, and the Stržen and Cerkniščica rivers, which sink into Karlovica Jama, flow through Zelške Jama and Tkalca Jama and also reappear in Planinska Jama. Both sub-surface flow pathes merge in Planinska Jama, providing water for the Unica river. The Unica river leaves Planinska Jama via a large karst srping and passes through Planinsko Polje, disappearing again through two groups of ponors, finally emerging in the Ljubljanka Springs at around 300 m asl. The sub-surface flow path through the Postojnska Jama cave system has been monitored with 7 stations distributed along the flow path, monitoring stage and temperature. We have used the stage data to model flow through the cave system with the program package SWMM, simulating the active parts of Postojnska Jama with simplified geometry. From the comparison of stage observations and predictions, we identified key sections in the cave, which control the sub-surface flow, such as passage constrictions, sumps and by-passes. Using a formal inverse procedure, we determined the geometry of this key sections by fitting predicted to observed stages, and we achieved a very high degree of correlation.

  4. Microbiome of diverse sediments in Slovakian wild caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Petrásek, Jiří; Jirout, Jiří; Volná, Lucie; Elhottová, Dana

    Košice: Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 2012. s. 33-34. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /21./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Košice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microbiota * sediments * Slovakian wild caves Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. New localities of coarsely crystalline cryogenic cave carbonates in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvošová, M.; Vlček, L.; Žák, Karel

    Vol. 3. Prague : Česká speleologická společnost, 2013 - (Filippi, M.; Bosák, P.), s. 490-495 ISBN 978-80-87857-09-0. [International Congress of Speleology /16./. Brno (CZ), 21.07.2013-28.07.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * carbonates * cryogenic carbonates Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineral ogy

  6. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  7. Diving investigations of Bermuda’s deep water caves

    OpenAIRE

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed gas rebreathers allowed divers to explore the shelf edge of the Bermuda sea mount at depths from 60 to 136 m to search for potential refugia of anchialine taxa during Pleistocene periods of sea level regression. Divers discovered karst and sea level features including a remnant natural bridge cave, drowned coral reefs, wave-cut notches and high relief escarpments.

  8. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RADOLOVIĆ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian coastal karst abounds in submerged caves that host a variety of environmental conditions depending on the geomorphology, depth and submarine groundwater discharge. One example is the Y-Cave, a shallow, mostly submerged, horizontal cave on Dugi Otok Island, on the eastern Adriatic coast. This study was aimed at examining the temporal and spatial variability of the marine cave environment, including temperature, salinity, light intensity, cave morphology and hydrodynamism, along with the dissolutional effect caused by the mixing of sea and freshwater. The general distribution of organisms in the Y-Cave was positively correlated to the light gradient and reduced water circulation, thus the highest species diversity and abundance were recorded in the front part of the cave. The phylum Porifera was the most dominant group, and the poriferan species diversity in the cave ranks among the ten highest in the Mediterranean. The middle part of the cave, although completely dark, hosts an abundant population of the gastropod Homalopoma sanguineum and clusters of the gregarious brachiopod Novocrania anomala, whose presence could be connected to tidal hydrodynamics. The absence/scarcity of sessile marine organisms and pronounced corrosion marks at shallow depths inside the cave suggest a freshwater impact in the upper layers of the water column. A year long experiment with carbonate tablets revealed three different, independent ongoing processes affected by the position in the cave: bioaccumulation, dissolution and mechanical erosion. The results of long-term temperature readings also revealed water column stratification within the cave, which was not disturbed by either tidal or wave action. The shallow, partly submerged and relatively small Y-Cave is characterised by a suite of complex environmental conditions, which, together with the resulting distribution of organisms, are unique to this cave.

  9. Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genty Dominique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl that has provided several speleothempalaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring theVillars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and inthe hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explainsthe sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from thelower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring.A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations and thedrip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between twonearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a dailyscale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave airtemperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence ofthe outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoringover a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minorelements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, whichimplies a different seepage pathway

  10. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  11. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M.; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species. PMID:27280416

  12. [Variation Characteristics of Cave Water Hydrogeochemistry in Naduo Cave of Guizhou and Its Implications for Environment Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Jian-li; Wang, Jia-lu; Jiang, Xian-shu; Mao, Qing-ya; Chen, Zhi-qiu; Liu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    During the period from December 2012 to December 2014, three dripping water sites (S1, S2, S3) and one pool water site (SC) have been selected for a long-term monitoring of geochemical indexes in Naduo Cave, Guanling county of Guizhou Province, China. Based on the local meteorological data, this paper analyzed the seasonal change of hydro-geochemical indicators and their feedbacks to climate events. The results indicated that the hydro-geochemical type of cave water was HCO₃⁻-Ca²⁺. Dripping water and pool water were in deposition all the year, except in the month with the maximum precipitation. There were some discrepancies of main ions' concentration among three dripping water sites due to the difference of the migration pathways and migration time. Affected by mixed water and high CO₂ concentration of cave air, the ion concentration of pool water was higher than dripping water, and there was considerable fluctuation. The geochemistry indexes of water in Naduo Cave showed extraordinary seasonal variation rules and could perfectly respond to the external climate environment. The concentration of ions was sensitive to the response of the annual precipitation change caused by extreme climate events. During the rainy season, the concentrations of Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺ and SO₄²⁻ in 2013 were relatively higher and more stable than those in 2014. The response time and susceptivity of each monitoring site were inconsistent. PMID:27011980

  13. Cryogenic carbonate precipitation in caves: Jaskyňa Studného Vetra Cave (Low Tatras, Slovakia) case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvošová, M.; Žák, Karel

    Wroclaw : Sosnowiec, 2007 - ( Socha, P.; Stefaniak, K.; Tyc, A.). s. 104-105 ISBN 978-83-87431-84-6. [Karst and Cryokarst, Speleological School /25./ and GLACKIPR Symposium /8./. 19.03.2007-26.03.2007, Sosnowiec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cryogenic carbonate * cave * Low Tatra Mts. Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowberry, Matt D; Martí, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco J; Briestenský, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Cave radon concentration measurements reflect the outcome of a perpetual competition which pitches flux against ventilation and radioactive decay. The mass balance equations used to model changes in radon concentration through time routinely treat flux as a constant. This mathematical simplification is acceptable as a first order approximation despite the fact that it sidesteps an intrinsic geological problem: the majority of radon entering a cavity is exhaled as a result of advection along crustal discontinuities whose motions are inhomogeneous in both time and space. In this paper the dynamic nature of flux is investigated and the results are used to predict cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The first part of our numerical modelling procedure focuses on calculating cave air flow velocity while the second part isolates flux in a mass balance equation to simulate real time dependence among the variables. It is then possible to use this information to deliver an expression for computing cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The dynamic variables in the numerical model are represented by the outer temperature, the inner temperature, and the radon concentration while the static variables are represented by the radioactive decay constant and a range of parameters related to geometry of the cavity. Input data were recorded at Driny Cave in the Little Carpathians Mountains of western Slovakia. Here the cave passages have developed along splays of the NE-SW striking Smolenice Fault and a series of transverse faults striking NW-SE. Independent experimental observations of fault slip are provided by three permanently installed mechanical extensometers. Our numerical modelling has revealed four important flux anomalies between January 2010 and August 2011. Each of these flux anomalies was preceded by conspicuous fault slip anomalies. The mathematical procedure outlined in this paper will help to improve our understanding of radon migration

  15. A multi-method approach for speleogenetic research on alpine karst caves. Torca La Texa shaft, Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Giralt, Santiago; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica

    2015-10-01

    Speleogenetic research on alpine caves has advanced significantly during the last decades. These investigations require techniques from different geoscience disciplines that must be adapted to the methodological constraints of working in deep caves. The Picos de Europa mountains are one of the most important alpine karsts, including 14% of the World's Deepest Caves (caves with more than 1 km depth). A speleogenetic research is currently being developed in selected caves in these mountains; one of them, named Torca La Texa shaft, is the main goal of this article. For this purpose, we have proposed both an optimized multi-method approach for speleogenetic research in alpine caves, and a speleogenetic model of the Torca La Texa shaft. The methodology includes: cave surveying, dye-tracing, cave geometry analyses, cave geomorphological mapping, Uranium series dating (234U/230Th) and geomorphological, structural and stratigraphical studies of the cave surroundings. The SpeleoDisc method was employed to establish the structural control of the cavity. Torca La Texa (2653 m length, 215 m depth) is an alpine cave formed by two cave levels, vadose canyons and shafts, soutirage conduits, and gravity-modified passages. The cave was formed prior to the Middle Pleistocene and its development was controlled by the drop of the base level, producing the development of the two cave levels. Coevally to the cave levels formation, soutirage conduits originated connecting phreatic and epiphreatic conduits and vadose canyons and shafts were formed. Most of the shafts were created before the local glacial maximum (43-45 ka) and only two cave passages are related to dolines developed in recent times. The cave development is strongly related to the structure, locating the cave in the core of a gentle fold with the conduits' geometry and orientation controlled by the bedding and five families of joints.

  16. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    The origin of anchialine and marine cave fauna is still a highly debated topic in Evolutionary Biology. Restricted and disjunct distribution and uncertain affinities of some marine cave endemic lineages have favored their interpretation as living fossils, surviving the extinction of their coastal...... relatives in cave subterranean ecological refugia. Active colonization and ecological speciation to particular cave niches has been alternatively suggested, but the evaluation of that scenario is obscured by the dominance of crustaceans in anchialine habitats, ecologically similar out and inside caves. The...... main goal of this thesis is to explore the evolutionary processes behind colonization and adaptation to submarine cave ecosystems in the Atlantic Ocean using annelids as a model, mainly when they involved ancestrally interstitial forms. In order to do that, we studied selected lineages of annelids with...

  17. Cave dwelling Onychophora from a Lava Tube in the Galapagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new population of velvet worms (Onychophora inhabiting a lava tube cave in the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos, is reported here. The population size is large, suggesting that they may be troglophilic. Its members are darkly pigmented, with no obvious troglomorphic features. Their 16S rRNA sequence showed no differences when compared to an unidentified species of surface velvet worm from the same island, thus supporting cave and surface populations belong to the same species. Based on the 16S rRNA data, the Galapagos velvet worms derived from an Ecuadorian/Colombian clade, as would be expected of ease of dispersal from the nearest mainland to the Galapagos Islands.

  18. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyperthermic inner room beneath an adjoining tumulus with no connection evident on the surface. Two lengthy, sinuous hollow tumuli also are present in this part of the caldera. These findings support Walkers conclusions that hollow tumuli provide valuable insights into tumulus-forming mechanisms, and provide information about the processes of emplacement of pahoehoe sheet flows.

  19. Designing a Virtual Reality Game for the CAVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    remains uncommon and expensive. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of VR games, and in particular games for the CAVE, now that affordable solutions are close to reach as more powerful hardware is available at low price. The focus is also on the methodology to be pursued while designing a VR game......Virtual Reality has for many years been a technology which has stagnated in application and software development for games. What was possible and created ten years ago for games in VR environments is still being developed. The applications available for VR environments have increased...... but they mostly remain related to scientific purposes while computer games in VR only show a part of their actual potential. The game industry has begun to see the possibilities of VR games in a near future with the implementation of some popular games to a CAVE system. However, a full immersion VR solution still...

  20. Hydrodynamic view of wave-packet interference: quantum caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E

    2009-06-26

    Wave-packet interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism using a hydrodynamic description. Quantum interference leads to the formation of the topological structure of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. These caves consist of the vortical and stagnation tubes originating from the isosurfaces of the amplitude of the wave function and its first derivative. Complex quantum trajectories display counterclockwise helical wrapping around the stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near the vortical tubes. The string of alternating stagnation and vortical tubes is sufficient to generate divergent trajectories. Moreover, the average wrapping time for trajectories and the rotational rate of the nodal line in the complex plane can be used to define the lifetime for interference features. PMID:19659057

  1. The CAVES Project - Exploring Virtual Data Concepts for Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bourilkov, D

    2004-01-01

    The Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System (CAVES) project concentrates on the interactions between users performing data and/or computing intensive analyses on large data sets, as encountered in many contemporary scientific disciplines. In modern science increasingly larger groups of researchers collaborate on a given topic over extended periods of time. The logging and sharing of knowledge about how analyses are performed or how results are obtained is important throughout the lifetime of a project. Here is where virtual data concepts play a major role. The ability to seamlessly log, exchange and reproduce results and the methods, algorithms and computer programs used in obtaining them enhances in a qualitative way the level of collaboration in a group or between groups in larger organizations. The CAVES project takes a pragmatic approach in assessing the needs of a community of scientists by building series of prototypes with increasing sophistication. In extending the functionality of existi...

  2. Mineralogical data on bat guano deposits from three Romanian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Giurgiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical studies performed on crusts, nodules and earthy masses from the Romanian caves Gaura cu Muscă, Gaura Haiducească and Peștera Zidită have revealed the presence of three different phosphate associations. The minerals have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Five phosphates have been identified in the samples, with hydroxylapatite the only common mineral in all the three caves. Brushite, taranakite, leucophosphite and variscite are the other phosphates identified. Associated minerals include gypsum, calcite, quartz and illite-group minerals. Aside from differences in the lithology, the occurrences of the different phosphate minerals indicate variable pH and humidity conditions near or within the guano accumulations.

  3. Thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling in winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. [Department of Building Engineering and Surveying, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Liu, Y. [Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2002-07-01

    The presence of the courtyard transfers an extreme winter environment outside cave dwellings into a better outdoor community space. This study examines the interaction amongst the cave rooms, the courtyard and the ambient, via two approaches applied in a typical such type of dwelling: site measurement and computer modelling. The site measurement was undertaken to investigate the dynamic feature of such dwelling by monitoring hourly changes of air temperatures over the building complex with some of the key weather data. The computer modelling, based on two specifically developed theoretical models and validated by the data of the site measurement, was to analyse the mean effects of a number of key design parameters on thermal environment in such type of dwellings. Conclusions drawn from this study are to help modern architects design for a better thermal environment in these typical North China dwellings, traditional yet popular. (author)

  4. Studies of condensation/evaporation processes in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas Chris R.; Schmekal Antje Anna

    2006-01-01

    The condensation/evaporation process is important in caves, especially in tourist caves where there is carbon dioxide enriched air caused by visitors. The cycle of condensation and evaporation of condensate is believed to enhance condensation corrosion. The problem is condensation is difficult to measure. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and modelling condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of ...

  5. Cave ventilation is influenced by variations in the CO2-dependent virtual temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Domingo, Francisco; Kowalski, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics and drivers of ventilation in caves are of growing interest for different fields of science. Accumulated CO2 in caves can be exchanged with the atmosphere, modifying the internal CO2 content, affecting stalagmite growth rates, deteriorating rupestrian paintings or creating new minerals. Current estimates of cave ventilation neglect the role of high CO2 concentrations in determining air density ??? approximated via the virtual temperature (Tv) ???, affecting buoyancy and therefore the...

  6. Hydrological and tectonic strain forces measured from a karstic cave using extensometers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ping; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Quinif, Yves; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Meus, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor the hydrological strain forces of the karst micro fissure networks and local fault activities, six capacitive extensometers were installed inside a karstic cave near the midi-fault in Belgium. From 2004 to 2008, the nearby Lomme River experienced several heavy rains, leading to flooding inside the Rochefort cave. The highest water level rose more than thirteen meters, the karstic fissure networks were filled with water, which altered the pore pressure of the cave. The stra...

  7. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  8. Structural and functional organization of the visual system in the microphthalmic cave beetle Ptomaphagus hirtus

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Friedrich; Elke K Buschbeck

    2013-01-01

    Strongly cave adapted animal species are invariably characterized by strong eye reduction (microphthalmy) to the complete loss of eyes (anophthalmy). Recent studies of cave adaptation have focused on the causes and mechanisms underlying the regressive evolution of the visual system but little attention has been paid to aspects of vision, which can remain conserved in the low-light level ecologies of caves. The small carrion beetle genus Ptomaphagus (Staphyliniformia: Leiodidae) includes both ...

  9. The engineering classification of karst with respect to the role and influence of caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Waltham Tony

    2002-01-01

    The engineering classification of karst defines various complexities of ground conditions, in terms of the hazards that they provide to potential construction. Karst is divided into five classes (from immature to extreme). The three key parameters within the classification are caves (size and extent), sinkholes (abundance and collapse frequency) and rockhead (profile and relief). As one component of karst, caves are a hazard to foundation integrity, though natural surface collapses over caves...

  10. Environmental Monitoring in the Mechara caves, Southeastern Ethiopia: Implications for Speleothem Palaeoclimate Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Asrat Asfawossen; Baker Andy; Leng Melanie J.; Gunn John; Umer Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The interpretation of palaeoclimate records in speleothems depends on the understanding of the modern climate of the region, the geology, the hydrology above the caves, and the within-cave climate. Monitoring within-cave climate variability, geochemistry of speleothem-forming drip waters, and associated surface and groundwater, provides a modern baseline for interpretation of speleothem palaeohydrological and palaeoclimate records. Here, we present results of such monitoring of th...

  11. Direct measurement of present-day tectonic movement and associated radon flux in Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Vaupotič, J.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 21-34. ISSN 1090-6924 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk MEB091005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fault displacements * radon flux * Postojna Cave Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2010 www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_72.htm

  12. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulec Janez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ≥ 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

  13. Cave sediments in Slovenia: results of 10 years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2009), s. 162-162. ISSN 1335-213X. [Vedecká konferencia Výskum, využívanie a ochrana jaskýň /7./. 10.11.2009-13.11.2009, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : caves * palaeomannetic research * cave sediments * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Nipam H.; Protas, Meredith E.; Trontelj, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established...

  15. Reconstruction of bomb 14C time history recorded in the stalagmite from Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The karstic caves provide valuable resources for reconstruction of environmental conditions on the continent in the past. This is possible due to the great stability of climatic conditions within a cave. Secondary minerals deposited in caves, known as speleothems, preserve records of long-term climatic and environmental changes at the site of their deposition and in the vicinity. The purity of speleothems and their chemical and physical stability make them exceptionally well suited for detailed geochemical and isotopic analysis

  16. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    F. Obleitner; C. Spötl

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria) during a full annual cycle. The data show the basic features of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the cave ice is largely determined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes withdraw energy from the surface. This is more pronounced...

  17. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  18. Anchialine Cave Environments: a novel chemosynthetic ecosystem and its ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Pakes, Michal Joey

    2013-01-01

    It was long thought that dark, nutrient depleted environments, such as the deep sea and subterranean caves, were largely devoid of life and supported low-density assemblages of endemic fauna. The discovery of hydrothermal vents in the 1970s and their subsequent study have revolutionized ecological thinking about lightless, low oxygen ecosystems. Symbiosis between chemosynthetic microbes and their eukaryote hosts has since been demonstrated to fuel a variety of marine foodwebs in extreme envir...

  19. Searching for Chambers and Caves in Teotihuacan's Sun Pyramid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a status report of a search for caves in the Sun pyramid in Teotihuacan, Mexico is presented. From an archeological perspective the main goal is to gather evidence to determine whether the pyramid was a state or a funerary temple. The general layout of the detector that is being built is an updated version of the one originally proposed by Alvarez et al.

  20. The CAVES Project - Exploring Virtual Data Concepts for Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bourilkov, Dimitri

    2004-01-01

    The Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System (CAVES) project concentrates on the interactions between users performing data and/or computing intensive analyses on large data sets, as encountered in many contemporary scientific disciplines. In modern science increasingly larger groups of researchers collaborate on a given topic over extended periods of time. The logging and sharing of knowledge about how analyses are performed or how results are obtained is important throughout the...

  1. Recent micro-tectonic movement from three karst caves, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    Thessaloniki : Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2010 - (Christofides, G.; Kantiranis, N.; Kostopoulos, D.; Chatzipetros, A.), s. 513-518 ISBN 978-960-9502-01-6. [Congress of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association /19./. Thessaloniki (GR), 23.09.2010-26.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : activ tectonics * cave * Slovenia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  2. Searching for Chambers and Caves in Teotihuacan's Sun Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Arrieta, E.; Barba P., L.; Becerril, A. D.; Belmont, E.; Carrillo, I.; Cabrera M., J. I.; Esquivel, O.; Grabski, V.; López R., J. M.; Manzanilla N., L.; Martínez D., A.; Menchaca R., A.; Moreno, M.; Núñez C., R.; Plascencia, J. C.; Rangel, M.; Villoro, M.

    2003-06-01

    In this work a status report of a search for caves in the Sun pyramid in Teotihuacan, México is presented. From an archeological perspective the main goal is to gather evidence to determine whether the pyramid was a state or a funerary temple. The general layout of the detector that is being built is an updated version of the one originally proposed by Alvarez et al..

  3. Measuring the Willingness to Pay for Fresh Water Cave Diving

    OpenAIRE

    William L. Huth; O. Ashton Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Fresh water springs are unique natural resources that are contained within public lands across the United States. Natural resource management on public lands generates many interesting policy issues as the competing goals of conservation, recreational opportunity provision, and revenue generation often clash. As demand for recreational cave diving sites increases, the paper provides natural resource site managers with the first statistical estimate of divers’ willingness to pay to dive fresh ...

  4. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  5. Cave levels, safe yield and turnover time in karst aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The presence of cave levels where ground water flow is organized is a typical feature of karstic carbonate aquifers. These cave levels are high conductive paths within a capacitive matrix that differentiates flow velocities, transit times and therefore, the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. These two extreme transmissive end points allowed the application of double porosity models to solve flow and transport equations although actually karst aquifers are multiple-porosity systems where flow is rigorously hierarchised. The application of environmental stable and radioactive isotopic models to several Cuban karstic aquifers have shown a well defined stratification of flow varying from three months to 100 years. These so large transit times for 3H suggest that - isotopically - the system is far from steady state conditions and, therefore, the exploitation of the aquifers horizons is strongly restricted by these low renewable resources. While associated with well defined cave systems, transit time of groundwater in karst aquifers is a variable to be considered in the estimation of safe yield and in the engineering measures, as artificial recharge, designed for improve the sustainability of water resources. Depletion of water resources in karst aquifers of the humid tropics could be associated to the exploitation of isotopic 'old' waters not linked with the present hydrologic cycle. (author)

  6. The Caves of Naica: a decade of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)

  7. MRI diagnosis of primary tumors in Molkick cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the MRI characteristics of primary tumors in Meckel cave (MC), and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the changes of MC and adjacent structures. Methods: 14 pathologically confirmed primary tumors in Meckel cave were studied. Pre-contrast MRI scan was performed in 4 cases, post-contrast MRI scan in 2 cases, both pre- and post-contrast MRI scan in 8 cases. Results: (1) Schwannoma was the most common tumor, and followed by meningeoma, fibroneuroma, and cholesteatoma. (2) The meningeoma and cholesteatoma had characteristic signal in MRI, some Schwannoma and fibroneuroma had similar MRI demonstrations. (3) The change of MC included cave enlargement, bulging dural walls, trigeminal cistern narrowing or obliteration, loss of fibers-background contrast. (4) The changes of adjacent structures included compression of temporal lobe, pons, basilar artery, cerebellar hemisphere, and the forth ventricle, cavernous sinus narrowing, and petrous pyramid hone absorption. Conclusions: The signals of tumors were helpful to establish the diagnosis, and can be used to estimate the tumor pathological components, the changes of MC and adjacent structure can be used in localizing the tumors. (authors)

  8. Modern systematics and environmental significance of stable isotopic variations in Wanxiang Cave, Wudu, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pingzhong; LONG Lude; Kathleen R. Johnson; CHEN Yimeng; CHEN Fahu; Lynn Ingram; ZHANG Xinli; ZHANG Chengjun; WANG Sumin; PANG Fushun

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the stable isotopic compositions from the cave dripwater and actively forming soda straw stalactites collected from Wanxiang Cave, Wudu,Gansu, located on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Loess Plateau transition zone, China. The δ18Odw and δDdw of dripwater samples in the cave plot directly on the local MWL,constructed by using GNIP data from 3 sites surrounding the cave regions (Lanzhou, Xi'an, and Chengdu), the nearest site to the cave, suggesting that there is a close relationship between the δ18Odw of the cave water and the δ18O of the pre cipitations. Using the measured δ18Odw and δ18Omc values from the mid-farthest parts from the cave entrance and the carbonate paleotemperature equation, the calculated temperatures range from 8.9 to 12.4℃, with the mean value of 10.7℃ and the temperature calculated at 8 locations in the farthest part of the cave is in the range of 10.1-12.4℃, with the mean value of 11.5℃, being consistent with the survey value(10.99℃)in the cave, slightly lower than the mean annual temperature (14.4℃) in Wudu. This suggests that modern speleothems are forming under isotopic equilibrium and their isotopic composition accurately reflects the mean annual temperature at the surface, indicating that the isotopic composition of the modern speleothems records local temperature change with credibility.

  9. Response of ice caves to weather extremes in the southeastern Alps, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Fontana, D.; Forte, E.; Potleca, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-05-01

    High altitude karstic environments often preserve permanent ice deposits within caves, representing the lesser-known portion of the cryosphere. Despite being not so widespread and easily reachable as mountain glaciers and ice caps, ice caves preserve much information about past environmental changes and climatic evolution. We selected 1111 ice caves from the existing cave inventory, predominantly but not exclusively located in the periglacial domain where permafrost is not dominant (i.e., with mean annual air temperature fact be crucial in the future mass balance evolution of such permanent ice deposits.

  10. Sediment flushing in Mystic Cave, West Virginia, USA, in response to the 1985 Potomac Valley flood

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gundy J. J.; White W.B.

    2009-01-01

    The great November 5, 1985 Potomac Valley flood was responsible for the release of 1800 m3 of alluvial and colluvial sediment from the walls of the entrance doline of Mystic Cave. Flood waters were sufficiently powerful to flush the entire mass of sediment not only into the cave but through the cave. Remnants of the sediment mass in the form of sand bars and a few cobbles wedged in speleothems were the only evidence in the cave that the huge mass of sediment had moved through. The sediment mo...

  11. The Genetic Types of Baiyun Cave in Lincheng County of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping; SUN; Jian; WANG; Xiaoman; ZHANG; Qianhua; ZHENG; Huafang; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Baiyun Karst Caverns in Lincheng County,Hebei Province,is a rare karst caverns in subhumid climate region of the north.It was developed in carbonatite strata,particularly in Zhangxia formation of the Middle Cambrain series.Erosion-corrosion landscape and chemical deposition landscape are abundant,They are various shapes,curtain drapery,cave flag,cave shield,stalactite,stalagmite,cave flowers,botryoid,soda straw are developed,especially heligmite,soda straw,cave flowers are the most characteristic.

  12. Analysis of the dialectical relation between top coal caving and coal-gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-zheng; XIA Yong-jun; TANG Bing; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2009-01-01

    According to the different engineering mechanical states of top coal caving and normal stoping of gaseous loose thick coal seams, the dialectical relation between this caving method and dynamic disasters was analyzed by simulating the change of stress states in the process of top coal initial caving with different mining and caving ratios based on the ANSYS10.0. The variation of elastic energy and methane expansion energy during first top coal caving was analyzed by first weighting and periodic weighting and combining with coal stress and deformation distribution of top coal normal stoping as well as positive and negative examples in top coal caving of outburst coal seam. The research shows that the outburst risk increases along with the increase of the caving ratio in the initial mining stage. In the period of normal stoping, when the mining and caving ratio is smaller than 1:3 and hard and massive overlying strata do not exist (periodic weighting is not obvious), it is beneficial to control ground stress leading type outburst. Thus, it is unreasonable to prohibit top coal caving in dangerous and outburst prone areas.

  13. Generation and dispersal of carbon dioxide in the caves and karst of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, T.; Mattey, D.; Latin, J.-P.; Ainsworth, M.; Durell, R.

    2012-04-01

    The gases in the soil, in caves and in the smaller voids of the vadose zone in karstic limestones are all generally enriched in CO2 relative to open atmosphere. The concentrations and fluxes of CO2 in cave air have a close relationship with the deposition of speleothem calcite but there are still very few detailed studies that trace the generation and dispersal of CO2 in whole karst systems, i.e. as a gas and in dissolved form within a linked system comprising soil, caves and the vadose zone. The Rock of Gibraltar forms a N-S trending ridge 2.5 km long within which solution caves are present at altitudes extending from below sea level to over 300m asl. Cave monitoring has been carried out since 2004 and focuses on two cave systems: St Michaels Cave (SMC) located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. Monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Advective flow is upwards during winter months, resulting in low pCO2 at sea level and high pCO2 in caves near the top of the rock and the flow reverses in summer, ventilating high-level caves and raising cave air pCO2 at lower altitudes. In this talk we focus on geochemical tracing of CO2 generation and dispersal using the abundance and carbon isotopic compositions of gaseous CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The results of a four-year study at SMC are not consistent with the generally accepted view that CO2in cave air originates by degassing of dripwater that has acquired CO2primarily from the soil zone. We demonstrate the importance of deep vadose zone air as a source of CO2 in karst systems and show that in St. Michaels Cave the abundance and isotopic composition of CO2 of the cave atmosphere is primarily controlled by mixing

  14. Data on the Environmental Conditions and Diversity of the Animal Ecological Groups in Gargina Dupka Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Air and water temperature, air humidity and water oxygen levels were studied in Gargina Dupka Cave (Rhodopes Mts., Bulgaria. These environmental factors were considered for three zones of the cave: 1 – cave entrance, 2 – typical cave in the central gallery, and 3 – an area occupied by bat guano. During two visits all animals were collected from these areas. In the laboratory, after identification they were classified according to their ecological features as: relation to light, way of moving, diet, and substrates on which they were collected.

  15. The function of radon in curing respiratory diseases in the therapeutic cave of Tapolca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to spend some time in a cave for curing respiratory diseases. Some ascribe the healing effect partly to radon. In Hungary in the Hospital Cave of Tapolca the mean radon concentration shows 17 times difference in the winter and in the summer period. The change of the forced exhaled volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was examined measured by 1824 patients in this cave. By 70% of the patients the FEV1 value improved, by 30% it became worse but these were independent from the radon concentration of the cave. Therefore, radon concentration has no positive effect during the treatments performed in Tapolca. (author)

  16. A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Ramos Donato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation Index’ (CCI were established. We also used a rapid assessment protocol to measure cave vulnerability for prioritization of conservation/restoration actions (RAP-cr comparing natural cavities with the same lithology, due to “strictu sensu” peculiarities. Based on the protocols applied in caves of the municipality of Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, we concluded that the present method attended to the needs for the classification of the caves into categories of conservation/restoration status, using little time and financial effort, through rapid diagnostics that facilitate the comparisons. In this perspective, the CCI can be used to indicate areas that should be protected and caves that should be prioritized to have initiated activities of conservation and restoration.

  17. Hydrologic and microclimate characterizations of Thornton’s Cave, West-Central Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien K. McGee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cave’s environment is controlled by a suite of factors unique to the environments in which they formed, including, but not limited to, regional geologic and climate settings. These factors collectively owe to wide variations in cave biology, geomorphology and overall speleogenesis. This report combines local climate, hydrologic, and CO2 data collected over the course of a two-year study at Thornton’s Cave, a partially-flooded cave in the West-Central Florida karst belt, to characterize its current environment and yield insight regarding how changes in regional climate and hydrology impact its past and future speleogenesis. Data loggers continuously monitoring cave and surface air temperatures, water levels and surface rainfall documented immediate responses in the cave to long- and short-term fluctuations in these parameters at the surface. Atmospheric CO2 in the cave and at the surface demonstrate seasonal trends, though the cave maintains higher concentrations and lower δ13C of CO2 than the surface, suggesting decomposition of organic matter, and to a lesser degree macroorganisms are contributing proportionally more CO2 to the cave. Collectively, these interpretations provide insight on the impact of surface processes on cave formation here, and suggest that a biotic model of speleogenesis using bacterially-sourced CO2 as a component of dissolution may be possible. Further, they can be used to further the understanding of the karstification in West-Central Florida and analogous karst regions.

  18. The significance of the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus P. Kritzinger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi Monachi Captivi should, in view of the similarities with the first cave episode and the high incidence of literary devices employed in it, be recognised for its value in the interpretation of this vita. The book was intended as a defence of, and an exhortation to a life of celibacy and this dual purpose is clearly demonstrated in both episodes in which a cave is used as the setting. The second cave episode has been neglected in the scholarly debate about the purpose of the book and this article attempts to set the record straight.

  19. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  20. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Bona, F; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Badino, G; Isaia, M

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. PMID:26112916

  1. History of caves in the Ledové sluje (Ice Caves) locality, Podyjí National Park, Czechia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuda, František; Divíšek, Jan

    Vol. 13. Ostrava: Katedra fyzické geografie a geoekologie Přírodovědecké fakulty Ostravské univerzity, 2015 - (Lenart, J.). s. 50-50 ISBN 978-80-7464-765-9. [International Symposium on Pseudokarst /13./. 16.09.2015-19.09.2015, Kunčice pod Ondřejníkem] Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : speleology * Podyjí National Park * Pseudokarst caves Ledové sluje Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. Stop No. 1/C: Tvarožné díry Caves (Dwarf Caves, Quarglöcher), underground excursion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouhrabka, V.; Bosák, Pavel

    Kraków: Sekcja Speleologiczna Polskiego Towarzystwa Przyrodników im. Kopernika, 2014 - (Stefaniak, K.; Ratajczak, U.; Wróblewski, W.), s. 32-36 ISBN 978-83-933874-1-0. [Sympozjum Speleologiczne /40./. Kraków (PL), 20.10.2006-22.10.2006] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karst * caves * cave sediments * light minerals * heavy minerals * Tvarožné díry Caves * Kralický Sněžník Mt., * northern Moravia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  4. Origin of caves and notches observed on the Antalya Tufa Cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Emine Sukran, Okudan; Uzunsakal, Levent

    2010-05-01

    This study aims the investigation of caves and notches observed on the Antalya tufa cliffs from the geological, biological and morphological points of view. Through observations, sampling and measurements on the 13 km long Antalya cliffs, geological and biological definitions have been made. Through topographical surveys morphology of caves have been determined. The caves on Antalya tufa cliffs are of three origin; 1) The sea caves occurred due to wave action on weak parts of the tufa, 2) The flank margin caves occurred due to mixing corrosion, 3) The caves occurred as blind holes behind tufa curtains which deposited on tufa cascade environment of deposition. In this study more attention has been paid on porosity development and related cave formation due to mixing corrosion. The mixing corrosion is a process in which mixed water dissolves calcium carbonate rock where groundwater and sea water interfere. Cavities which occur in this process can join together and form big chambers. When rock load on this chambers exceeds rocks strength, the roof may collapse and fall into the chamber. This fallen block is also subject to further dissolution resulting in enlargement of the cave. The idea that the flank margin caves have been formed on Antalya cliffs due to mixing corrosion have been proven making in-situ water chemistry tests. Entrances of the caves on the cliffs are concentrated between present sea level and 5 m below this level. Similarly, on the sea level caves depth of the caves is around 5 m. Starting from a time of constant sea level, and following sea level rise, mixing corrosion and flank margin cave development should have been continued. Formation of notches on the Antalya tufa cliffs should have been affected by wave direction, wave force, rock strength and bioerosion-bioconstruction. From the biological point of view, rocks on the notches and caves serve as substrate for various organisms. Especially notches are the places where covering organisms live

  5. Hypogene speleogenesis in dolomite host rock by CO2-rich fluids, Kozak Cave (southern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph; Desch, Angelika; Dublyansky, Yuri; Plan, Lukas; Mangini, Augusto

    2016-02-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that cave formation by deep-seated groundwater (hypogene) is a more common process of subsurface water-rock interaction than previously thought. Fossil hypogene caves are identified by a characteristic suite of morphological features on different spatial scales. In addition, mineral deposits (speleothems) may provide clues about the chemical composition of the paleowater, which range from CO2-rich to sulfuric acid-bearing waters. This is one of the first studies to examine hypogene cave formation in dolomite. Kozak Cave is a fossil cave near the Periadriatic Lineament, an area known for its abundance of CO2-rich springs. The cave displays a number of macro-, meso- and micromorphological elements found also in other hypogene caves hosted in limestone, marble or gypsum, including cupolas, cusps, Laughöhle-type chambers and notches. The existance of cupolas and cusps suggests a thermal gradient capable of sustaining free convection during a first phase of speleogenesis, while triangular cross sections (Laughöhle morphology) indicate subsequent density-driven convection close to the paleowater table. Notches mark the final emergence of the cave due to continued rock uplift and valley incision. Very narrow shafts near the end of the cave may be part of the initial feeder system, but an epigene (vadose) overprint cannot be ruled out. Vadose speleothems indicate that the phreatic phase ended at least about half a million years ago. Drill cores show no evidence of carbon or oxygen isotope alteration of the wall rock. This is in contrast to similar studies in limestone caves, and highlights the need for further wall-rock studies of caves hosted in limestone and dolomite.

  6. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  7. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  8. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  9. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  10. Sediments of Biśnik Cave (Poland): Lithology and stratigraphy of the Middle Palaeolithic site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajcarz, M. T.; Bosák, Pavel; Šlechta, Stanislav; Pruner, Petr; Komar, M.; Dresler, J.; Madeyska, T.

    326/327, April (2014), s. 6-19. ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karsology * caves * Biśnik Cave (Poland) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2014

  11. Aerosol particle size distribution in building and caves: impact to the radon-related dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of evaluation of the aerosol particle size spectra observed in the Bozkov cave are presented and compared with the spectra observed in residential areas. The radon-to-dose conversion factor is discussed, as is the correction factor referred to as the cave factor. (P.A.)

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences. PMID:21642344

  13. A world review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlpine Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds that have been found in natural solution caves and mines worldwide. Such habitats provide frequent roost sites for bats, and in eastern North America the environmental conditions that support white-nose syndrome, a lethal fungal disease currently devastating bat populations. A list of 1029 species of fungi, slime moulds, and yeasts in 518 genera have been documented from caves and mines worldwide in 225 articles. Ascomycota dominate the cave environment. Most research has been conducted in temperate climates, especially in Europe. A mean of 17.9±24.4SD fungal species are reported per study. Questions remain about the origin and ecological roles of fungi in caves, and which, if any, are cave-specialists. In the northern hemisphere, caves are generally characterized by relatively stable, low temperatures and a lack of organic substrates. This environment favors communities of oligotrophic, psychrotolerant fungi. Data that may help explain how cave environmental features and faunas inf luence the introduction and transmission of cave fungi remains scant.

  14. Sa Cova d'es Carritx: a new p rehistoric cult cave on Menorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth D. Whitehouse

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 a previously unknown cave was discovered on the island of Menorca in the western Mediterranean. It was found to contain h uman skeletal remains and an extraordinary collection of artefacts made of wood and horn, some of which contained human hair. The cave appears to have been used during the first millennium BC for ritual purposes.

  15. Cross-formational flow, diffluence and transfluence observed in St. Beatus Cave and Sieben Hengste (Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Hauselmann Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Observations in St. Beatus Cave and neighbouring caves revealed complex water flowpaths that can be used for explaining thebehaviour of tracing experiments. The observations prove that even in vadose conditions, cross-formational flow, diffluences andtransfluences are a quite common feature. Therefore, also the vadose karst has a very complex organisation.

  16. Principles of palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic methods applied to the cave sediment dating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2004 - (Mihevc, A.; Zupan Hajna, N.). s. 60-61 [International Karstological School "Classical karst". Dating of cave sediments /12./. 21.06.2004-24.06.2004, Postojna] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013201 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * cave sediments Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Cave sediments in Slovenia: Results of 10 years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2009), s. 173-186. ISSN 0560-3137 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * karst and cave evolution * karst ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. Cross-formational flow, diffluence and transfluence observed in St. Beatus Cave and Sieben Hengste (Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauselmann Philipp

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations in St. Beatus Cave and neighbouring caves revealed complex water flowpaths that can be used for explaining thebehaviour of tracing experiments. The observations prove that even in vadose conditions, cross-formational flow, diffluences andtransfluences are a quite common feature. Therefore, also the vadose karst has a very complex organisation.

  19. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  20. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Lundberg, Johannes; Ivarsson, Magnus; Campos, Paula; Nylander, Johan A A; Sallstedt, Therese; Dalen, Love

    2016-01-01

    Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i) an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii) functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii) taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching. PMID:26985997

  1. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza

    Full Text Available Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching.

  2. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: A new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moldovan, O.T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 1825-1837. ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil invertebrates * Oribatida * Pliocene/Pleistocene * caves * caves (Slovenia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  3. Recognition of microclimate zones through radon mapping, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations range from less than 185 to 3,515 Bq m-3 throughout Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Concentrations in the entrance passages and areas immediately adjacent to these passages are controlled by outside air temperature and barometric pressure, similar to other Type 2 caves. Most of the cave is developed in three geographic branches beneath the entrance passages; these areas maintain Rn levels independent of surface effects, an indication that Rn levels in deep, complex caves or mines cannot be simply estimated by outside atmospheric parameters. These deeper, more isolated areas are subject to convective ventilation driven by temperature differences along the 477-m vertical extent of the cave. Radon concentrations are used to delineate six microclimate zones (air circulation cells) throughout the cave in conjunction with observed airflow data. Suspected surface connections contribute fresh air to remote cave areas demonstrated by anomalous Rn lows surrounded by higher values, the presence of mammalian skeletal remains, CO2 concentrations and temperatures lower than the cave mean, and associated surficial karst features

  4. Roncus hajnehaj n. sp. (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones, a new endemic cave pseudoscorpion from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić B.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of cave-dwelling pseudoscorpions pertaining to the genus Roncus L. Koch, 1873 from Montenegro is erected. Its relations with close congeners are briefly discussed. The new species, Roncus hajnehaj n. sp., is an endemic form presently known only from its type locality (Haj Nehaj Pećina Cave, nr. Sutomore, Montenegro.

  5. Geological conditions of origin of the Potočka zijalka cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Potočka zijalka cave on Mt. Ol{eva in Southern Karavanke during excavation of cave sediments of Würm age that contain cultural remains of the Cromagnon Man also large amounts of gravel were before the Badenian transgression, from the Central Alps during Miocene.

  6. New results of paleomagnetic research in the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave, Slovakia and their speleogenetic interpretation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Bella, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2015), s. 56-56. ISSN 1335-213X. [ Scientific Conference Research, Use and Protection of Caves /10./. 22.09.2015-25.09.2015, Rožňava - Bódvaszilas] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * Ochtinská Aragonite Cave * palaeomagnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  7. Making a living while starving in the dark: metagenomic insights into the energy dynamics of a carbonate cave

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Marianyoly; Legatzki, Antje; Neilson, Julia W; Fryslie, Brandon; Nelson, William M; Wing, Rod A; Soderlund, Carol A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate caves represent subterranean ecosystems that are largely devoid of phototrophic primary production. In semiarid and arid regions, allochthonous organic carbon inputs entering caves with vadose-zone drip water are minimal, creating highly oligotrophic conditions; however, past research indicates that carbonate speleothem surfaces in these caves support diverse, predominantly heterotrophic prokaryotic communities. The current study applied a metagenomic approach to elucidate the commu...

  8. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  9. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, A W G; Hoffmann, D L; García-Diez, M; Pettitt, P B; Alcolea, J; De Balbín, R; González-Sainz, C; de las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A; Montes, R; Zilhão, J

    2012-06-15

    Paleolithic cave art is an exceptional archive of early human symbolic behavior, but because obtaining reliable dates has been difficult, its chronology is still poorly understood after more than a century of study. We present uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying or underlying art found in 11 caves, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo, Spain. The results demonstrate that the tradition of decorating caves extends back at least to the Early Aurignacian period, with minimum ages of 40.8 thousand years for a red disk, 37.3 thousand years for a hand stencil, and 35.6 thousand years for a claviform-like symbol. These minimum ages reveal either that cave art was a part of the cultural repertoire of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or that perhaps Neandertals also engaged in painting caves. PMID:22700921

  10. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  11. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulecal-Pektas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces. PMID:27281996

  13. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m-3. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  14. How old are cave deposits abundant in Pleistocene fauna preserved in the Bone Passage in the Sloupsko-šošůvská Cave (Moravian Karst)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Šroubek, P.; Diehl, J. F.; Hercman, H.; Nowicki, T.; Pruner, Petr; Venhodová, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2007), s. 37-41. ISBN 80-210-4097-1. ISSN 1211-281X. [International Cave Bear Symposium /13./. Brno, 20.09.2007-24.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/95/0841 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave deposits * Pleistocene fauna * Moravian Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Large-scale and high-resolution 3-D cave mapping by terrestrial laser scanning: a case study of the Domica Cave, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Gallay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and modelling the complicated geometry of caves is a challenging task that has traditionally been undertaken by tacheometric surveying methods. These methods are excellent for capturing the general shape of a cave system but they are not suitable for high-speed, high-resolution mapping of complex surfaces found in this environment. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS technologies can acquire millions of points represented by 3-D coordinates, at very high spatial densities on complex multifaceted surfaces within minutes. In the last few years, advances in measurement speed, reduction in size / cost and increased portability of this technology has revolutionised the collection of 3-D data. This paper discusses the methodological framework and the advantages / disadvantages of adopting terrestrial laser scanning to rapidly map a complex cave system on the example of the Domica Cave in Slovakia. This cave originated in the largest karst region in the West Carpathians. The collected data set or ‘point cloud’ contains over 11.9 billion measured points, captured in 5 days from 327 individual scanning positions. The dataset represents almost 1600 m of the cave passages. Semi-automatic registration of these scans was carried out using reference spheres placed in each scene and this method archived an overall registration error of 2.24 mm (RMSE. Transformation of the final registered point cloud from its local coordinate system to the national cartographic system was achieved with total accuracy of 21 mm (RMSE. This very detailed data set was used to create a 3-D cave surface model needed for volumetric analyses. In the future, it will be used for spatial analyses or simulating the interaction of surface and subsurface processes contributing to the development of the cave system on the basis of a 3-D GIS platform.

  16. Spontaneous Meckel's cave hematoma: A rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafaci, Concetta; Grasso, Giovanni; Granata, Francesca; Marino, Daniele; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Tomasello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is vascular compression. However, other causes must be considered. Among these, spontaneous hematoma of the Meckel's cave (MC) causing symptomatic TN is very rare. Case Description: We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-month history of left TN and diplopia. Neuroradiological examinations revealed a well-defined hematoma in the left MC. The patient underwent surgical decompression with a progressive neurological improvement. Conclusion: Despite the number of lesions potentially affecting the MC, spontaneous hemorrhage is rare but should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26539319

  17. The Paleoindian Bison Assemblage from Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan C. Driver; Vallieres, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    A small assemblage of bison bones from the Palaeoindian (10,700 to 9500 BP) components at Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia is dominated by elements from the middle and lower limbs. The skeletal element frequencies are not typical of a kill site. The lithic assemblage, the lack of evidence for burning, and the ratio of long bone shaft fragments to epiphyses suggest that the assemblage was not produced at a residential site nor at a specialized processing area. We propose that the assemblage...

  18. Agraphorura calvoi n. sp. from Venezuelan caves (Collembola: Onychiuridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Arbea Javier I.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Agraphorura (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) from caves in the Nort-West of Venezuela is described. A.calvoi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: antennal organ III with four papillae, 32/133/33343 dorsal pseudocellar formula, 3/000/0112 ventral pseudocellar, subcoxae each with two pseudocelli, postantennalorgan with 7-9 vesicles, unguiculus with a basal lamella, tibiotarsi I-III with 19,19,18 setae (distal whorl o...

  19. Age of Dinaric karst cave sediments in SW Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    Sarajevo : Fakultet drušstvenih znanosti dr. Milenko Brkic Sveučiílišta Hercegovina, 2012 - (Lučic, I.; Mulaomerovič, J.), s. 13-28 ISBN 978-9958-0910-0-1. [Man and Karst 2011. Bijakovici- Medugorje (SI), 13.10.2011-16.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : age of the karst * cave sediments * paleomagnetic dating * Dinaric karst * karst ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m-3 were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m-3. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 μSv in summer and 2.5 μSv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv

  1. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtijari, M. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Vaupotic, J.; Gregoric, A.; Stegnar, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobal, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kobal@ijs.si

    2008-02-15

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m{sup -3} were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m{sup -3}. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 {mu}Sv in summer and 2.5 {mu}Sv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv.

  2. 7500 years of prehistoric footwear from arnold research cave, missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff; DeHart; O'Brien

    1998-07-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometer dating of an assemblage of fibrous and leather footwear from Arnold Research Cave in central Missouri documents a long sequence of shoe construction by prehistoric Midwestern peoples, beginning perhaps as early as 8300 calendar years before the present (cal years B.P.). An earlier fibrous sandal form dates from 8325 to 7675 cal years B.P., and later fibrous or leather slip-ons span the period from 5575 to 1070 cal years B.P. The assemblage adds to a growing picture of the highly varied nature of prehistoric footwear production in the United States throughout the Holocene. PMID:9651246

  3. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  4. Changes in the inhabitation of the Biśnik Cave during the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrek, Krzysztof; Sudoł, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The Biśnik Cave lies on the left western slope of the Wodąca Valley, which is part of the Niegownice-Smoleń hills, situated in the central part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. The cave consists of several chambers joined by corridors, and a number of entrances. Interdisciplinary research (archaeology, sedimentology, geomorphology and paleozoology) carried out since 1992 has dealt with the exploration of the following elements of the cave system: the main chamber, side shelter, side chamber and the area underneath the overhang. The Biśnik Cave is currently the oldest cave site in Poland with a well-preserved cross-section of sediments formed in separate stages of climatic changes, starting with the period preceding the Odra Glaciation to the Holocene. The oldest traces of settlement of Palaeolithic man go as far back as over 400,000 years ago. The most interesting mid-Palaeolithic sequence of the cave inhabitation comprises 17 cultural levels preserved in the form of stone and bone artefacts' concentrations, hearth remains and fragments of animal bones of post-consumption character. The attempts to date separate levels using the uranium-thorium dating method, electronic paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence method are very relevant. Scientific value of the Biśnik Cave turns it into a sample mid-Palaeolithic site in this part of Europe. A three-dimensional localisation of all finds made it possible to prepare a detailed map of the artefacts' distribution in the consecutive sedimentary layers. This, in turn, enabled the reconstruction of changes of the cave inhabitation by man. The correlation of those changes with the description of climatic conditions in the period of formation of sedimentary layers helped link the cave inhabitation methods with natural conditions dominating the area of the Biśnik Cave at that time.

  5. Karst show caves – how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection – experiment in Postojna cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gabrovšek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave Early Warning and Measuring System. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an Early Warning System (EWS. One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organisation allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is a regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  6. Karst show caves - how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection - experiment in Postojna Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovšek, F.; Grašič, B.; Božnar, M. Z.; Mlakar, P.; Udén, M.; Davies, E.

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of delay- and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave early warning and measuring system. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an early warning system (EWS). One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection) on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train without stopping passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organization allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  7. Detrital cave sediments record Late Quaternary hydrologic and climatic variability in northwestern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Tyler S.; van Hengstum, Peter J.; Horgan, Meghan C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

    2016-04-01

    Detrital sediment in Florida's (USA) submerged cave systems may preserve records of regional climate and hydrologic variability. However, the basic sedimentology, mineralogy, stratigraphic variability, and emplacement history of the successions in Florida's submerged caves remains poorly understood. Here we present stratigraphic, mineralogical, and elemental data on sediment cores from two phreatic cave systems in northwestern Florida (USA), on the Dougherty Karst Plain: Hole in the Wall Cave (HITW) and Twin Cave. Water flowing through these caves is subsurface flow in the Apalachicola River drainage basin, and the caves are located just downstream from Jackson Blue (1st magnitude spring, > 2.8 m3 s- 1 discharge). Sedimentation in these caves is dominated by three primary sedimentary styles: (i) ferromanganese deposits dominate the basal recovered stratigraphy, which pass upsection into (ii) poorly sorted carbonate sediment, and finally into (iii) fine-grained organic matter (gyttja) deposits. Resolving the emplacement history of the lower stratigraphic units was hampered by a lack of suitable material for radiocarbon dating, but the upper organic-rich deposits have a punctuated depositional history beginning in the earliest Holocene. For example, gyttja primarily accumulated in HITW and Twin Caves from ~ 5500 to 3500 cal yr. BP, which coincides with regional evidence for water-table rise of the Upper Floridian Aquifer associated with relative sea-level rise in the Gulf of Mexico, and evidence for invigorated drainage through the Apalachicola River drainage basin. Gyttja sediments were also deposited in one of the caves during the Bølling/Allerød climate oscillation. Biologically, these results indicate that some Floridian aquatic cave (stygobitic) ecosystems presently receive minimal organic matter supply in comparison to prehistoric intervals. The pre-Holocene poorly sorted carbonate sediment contains abundant invertebrate fossils, and likely documents a period

  8. The biogeochemical role of Actinobacteria in Altamira Cave, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuezva, Soledad; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Porca, Estefania; Pašić, Lejla; Jurado, Valme; Hernandez-Marine, Mariona; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Hermosin, Bernardo; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    The walls and ceiling of Altamira Cave, northern Spain, are coated with different coloured spots (yellow, white and grey). Electron microscopy revealed that the grey spots are composed of bacteria and bioinduced CaCO(3) crystals. The morphology of the spots revealed a dense network of microorganisms organized in well-defined radial and dendritic divergent branches from the central area towards the exterior of the spot, which is coated with overlying spheroidal elements of CaCO(3) and CaCO(3) nest-like aggregates. Molecular analysis indicated that the grey spots were mainly formed by an unrecognized species of the genus Actinobacteria. CO(2) efflux measurements in rocks heavily covered by grey spots confirmed that bacteria-forming spots promoted uptake of the gas, which is abundant in the cave. The bacteria can use the captured CO(2) to dissolve the rock and subsequently generate crystals of CaCO(3) in periods of lower humidity and/or CO(2). A tentative model for the formation of these grey spots, supported by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy data, is proposed. PMID:22500975

  9. Step back! Niche dynamics in cave-dwelling predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Isaia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The geometry of the Hutchinson's hypervolume derives from multiple selective pressures defined, on one hand, by the physiological tolerance of the species, and on the other, by intra- and interspecific competition. The quantification of these evolutionary forces is essential for the understanding of the coexistence of predators in light of competitive exclusion dynamics. We address this topic by investigating the ecological niche of two medium-sized troglophile spiders (Meta menardi and Pimoa graphitica). Over one year, we surveyed several populations in four subterranean sites in the Western Italian Alps, monitoring monthly their spatial and temporal dynamics and the associated physical and ecological variables. We assessed competition between the two species by means of multi regression techniques and by evaluating the intersection between their multidimensional hypervolumes. We detected a remarkable overlap between the microclimatic and trophic niche of M. menardi and P. graphitica, however, the former -being larger in size- resulted the best competitor in proximity of the cave entrance, causing the latter to readjust its spatial niche towards the inner part, where prey availability is scarcer ("step back effect"). In parallel to the slight variations in the subterranean microclimatic condition, the niche of the two species was also found to be seasonal dependent, varying over the year. With this work, we aim at providing new insights about the relationships among predators, demonstrating that energy-poor environments such as caves maintain the potential for diversification of predators via niche differentiation and serve as useful models for theoretical ecological studies.

  10. Classification of Thermal Patterns at Karst Springs and Cave Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, A.J.; Covington, M.D.; Peters, Albert J.; Alexander, S.C.; Anger, C.T.; Green, J.A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Alexander, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  11. Features of deep cave sediments: their influence on fossil preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo, R.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse how physical and chemical deep-cave sediment features preserve the morphological and geochemical characteristics of paleontological materials. Detrital sediment chemistry and clast size are fundamental because they provide a soft, impervious and plastic environment in which fossil remains are transported with minimal erosion. Sediment mineralogy provides a carbonate- and phosphate-buffered environment in which molecules of biological origin hydrolyze slower than in open-air environments or even at cave entrance sites. Because permafrost did not develop in the Iberian Peninsula (at least at the altitudes of inhabited caves, sediment desiccation never took place. In addition, sediment -pores were not aerated, which protected fossil remains from air (oxygen-linked weathering. The annual-temperature variation inside sediment was negligible, which contributed to amino acid racemization dating. Collagen amino acid and amino acid racemization analysis of cave bear and man samples from cave sediments dated from different Oxygen Isotope Stages (4": Sidrón, Amutxate, Troskaeta, El Toll, Coro Tracito, Ekain, Lezetxiki, La Pasada, Eirós; 5": Reguerillo and Arrikrutz; 6"-7": Sima de los Huesos demonstrate that important amounts of almost intact collagen still remain in teeth dentine. Fossil DNA search seems to be very promising.En este trabajo se analiza el papel que juegan las características físicas y químicas de los sedimentos de galerías profundas de cuevas en la preservación de los caracteres morfológicos y paleobiomoleculares del material paleontológico incluido en dichos sedimentos. Los aspectos geoquímicos y de tamaño de grano del sedimento son críticos: las características generan un medio blando, plástico e impermeable que permite el transporte -mecánico sin grave deterioro del material (en coladas de barro; las características químicas mineralogía del sediment* proporcionan un ambiente con tampón fosfatado

  12. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  13. MORPHOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF SWIFTLET’S NEST NATURAL HABITATS (CAVE IN GUNONG PUNGKI TADU RAYA THE DISTRICT NAGAN RAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nazaruddin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by survey method with 2 stages of research. Data was collected through observation and recording. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis. Observations showed that the outside surface of the cave there are many species of plants totaling 131 trees of 21 species and 39 animals of 11 species that live on the surface of the cave swiftlet habitat. The inner surface is generally smooth and watery caves and has temperature and humidity are very cool compared to the outside surface of the cave. On walls and ceilings inside the cave there are small bumps that are used to create a nest swiftlet. The surface of the cave has a light intensity of 001 foot candles. The conclusion obtained is the outer surface of bird's nest cave has a surface is not flat and overgrown with various species of trees, while the inside has a surface with small protrusions with holes not too deep.

  14. Identification of flood events inside karst cavities: Fria Cave (Asturias - NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Lemos, Saul; Stoll, Heather

    2013-04-01

    Fluvial records may be well preserved in subterranean karst drainage networks and fluvial deposits cemented in speleothems may provide good chronology of past flood events. In several karst systems in Asturias (NW. Spain), moments of extreme precipitation events produce deposits from flood events in the bed and walls of caves which we propose are also recorded in the calcium carbonate stalagmites growing in the cave. The final stretch of the studied cave (Fria Cave), with a development of 360 m in length, intersects a small perennial stream which in our observation has maintained a minimum discharge of about 0.022 m3/s but periodically overflows into the vadose cave passage. Immediately after a flood overflow event, water marks and foam detritus are visible at various levels on the cave walls and corresponding to heights of bottlenecks in overflow drainage through the cave passage. Flood events deposit sand on terraces on the cave wall and move large volumes of sand in the cave bed. These extreme events leave a long-term record in i) wall coloration or water marks on the cave walls; and ii) detrital particles preserved as inclusions inside the stalagmites. Throughout this cave, it is possible to recognize chromatic changes in the walls, such as manganese oxide stains, which coincide with one of the water marks left during a recent flood event. The most salient manganese oxide on the walls rises up to 1.5 m measured from the thalweg and we interpreted it as the result of a frequent process of wetting - drying related to frequent flooding of the cave. Since 3-4 ka, drapery flowstone has been deposited over this oxide coating in some parts of the cave and the drapery remains free of oxide coating. We interpret this as indicating a reduction in the frequency and/or duration of flooding to this height, coincident with a regional drying trend in late Holocene. Stalagmites growing in the bed of the cave appear to trap fluvial sediments like sand or silts particles, which

  15. In situ acetylene reduction activity of Scytonema julianum in Vapor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asencio Antonia Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation was measured in situ for the first time by acetylene reduction for a greyish mat composed of Scytonema julianum in cave- like environments. Mat-specific rates (129.9-215.7 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for daytime fixation and 65.1-120.6 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for nighttime fixation recorded in the Vapor cave differed considerably due to the energy reserves stored during photosynthesis being exhausted and used in the dark phase. The most influential environmental parameter for nitrogen fixation in the Vapor cave is temperature in the daytime and nighttime fixations. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria may contribute considerably to the overall nitrogen cycle in harsh environments such as caves. Nitrogenase activity in Scytonema julianum was roughly 30 times higher than that of Scytonema mirabile, which also grew in cave environments, which is due to the characteristics of each site. The entrance of Vapour cave (Spain faces SE, measures 0.75 x 0.6 m and opens to shafts of a total depth of 80 m. Its dimensions and environmental conditions (relative humidity up to 100%; maximum temperature, 43oC imply that it is isolated from external influences, and that the microclimate differs substantially from that experienced externally. Nitrogen fixation, photon flux density, relative humidity and temperature in the Vapor cave were taken hourly over a 24-hour period in winter.

  16. The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system in the western Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system (SMI) is located within the Khipstinsky karstic massif, in the Western Caucasus. The cave is a branched, arborescent system of cave channels through which underground water streams flow and change in an upwards direction in sub-vertical shafts. Now 3 such shafts, which have a connection with the cave river, are being studied: the Snezhnaya (1970 m a.s.l.), the Mezhennogo (2 015 m a.s.l.) and the Illyuziya (2 389 m a.s.l.). The SMI cave system has been investigated since 1971 and the currently known depth of the system is 1 760 m, the extent of the galleries ≥32 km, the volume ≥2.7 million m3, the specific volume - 84 m3/m. The size of the biggest cave chamber the Thronnyj - is 309x109x40 m. The average discharge of the underground river is about 500 l/s. The temperature in the cavity changes from 0 to 6.5 degree centigrade. Research on the SMI cave system continues. (Author)

  17. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  18. Microbial Diversity in a Venezuelan Orthoquartzite Cave is Dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel A Barton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave, an orthoquartzite (SiO4 cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrate the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82-84% by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%, which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in Roraima Sur Cave is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems.

  19. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu; WU XianZhu; LI YiYin; DENG ChengLong; WU XiuJie; PEI ShuWen

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, three excavations have been carried out at a late Pleistocene human fossil site of Huan-glong Cave in Yunxi County, Hubei Province of China, which unearthed seven human teeth, dozens of stone tools, mammal fossils and other evidence indicating human activities. During the third excava-tion in 2006, in the same layer as the human teeth, we found some patches of black materials embed-ded in the deposit. We doubted that this black deposit layer is the remains of burning or even human use of fire at the cave. To further explore the possibility of human fire use at the Huanglong Cave, we examined samples directly taken from the black deposit layer and compared them with samples taken from several places in the cave using three methods: micromorphology, element content determination and deposit temperature analysis. Our results indicate that the contents of carbon element in the black deposit reach 64.59%-73.29%. In contrast, contents of carbon element of the comparative samples from other parts in the cave are only 5.82%-9.49%. The micromorphology analysis of the black de-posit samples reveals a plant structure like axial parenchyma, fibrocyte, uniseriate ray and vessel.High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that the stratum possibly underwent a high temperature in the nature. Based on these lab analyses, we are sure that the black layer in the Huanglong Cave is the remains of fire and combustion did occur in the cave 100000 years ago. Taking other evidence of human activities found in the Huanglong Cave into consideration, we believe that the evidence of fire from the Huanglong Cave was caused by the human activities of controlled use of fire.

  20. Is global warming affecting cave temperatures? Experimental and model data from a paradigmatic case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Lojen, Sonja; Krklec, Kristina; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian J.

    2015-08-01

    This research focuses on the mechanisms that transfer the variations in surface atmospheric temperature into caves to evaluate whether they record the warming trend of recent decades. As a study case, we use the data from a hall in Postojna Cave (Slovenia), which was monitored from 2009 to 2013. The low-frequency thermal variability of this cave chamber is dominated by the conduction of heat from the surface through the bedrock. We implemented a thermal conduction model that reproduces low-frequency thermal gradients similar to those measured in the cave. At the 37 m depth of this chamber, the model confirms that the bedrock is already recording the local expression of global warming with a delay of 20-25 years, and predicts a cave warming during the coming decades with a mean rate of 0.015 ± 0.004 C year-1. However, because of the transfer of surface atmosphere thermal variability depends on the duration of the oscillations, the thermal anomalies with periods 7-15 years in duration have delay times <10 years at the studied hall. The inter-annual variability of the surface atmospheric temperature is recorded in this cave hall, although due to the different delay and amplitude attenuation that depends on the duration of the anomalies, the cave temperature signal differs significantly from that at the surface. As the depth of the cave is a major factor in thermal conduction, this is a principal control on whether or not a cave has already recorded the onset of global warming.

  1. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  2. New rock and portable art finds in La Cullalvera cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda DÍAZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological activities carried out in the vestibule of La Cullalvera cave during the conditioning of the site for touristic use have lead to the discovery of a new cave painting, a figure of a horse in red traits. Some pieces of portable art have been also found, including a fragment of a small bone plaquette with a series of engraved “claviform” signs that show a clear parallel with the signs of the same type painted in red in the inner gallery of the cave. The formal and stylistic characteristics of the findings point to a Magdalenian chronology.

  3. Microbial activity in the subterranean environment of Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Carpa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Six cave material samples from Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains, were microbiologically andenzymologically analyzed. The microbiological analyses consisted in determining the presence ofoligotrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, nitrate and nitrite bacteria, denitrifiers and determining thepresence of micromycetes. In order to form a complete image on the microbial processes from this habitat,the bacteriological analyses were completed with quantitative and qualitative enzymological analyses. At allthe six samples of cave material the next quantitative enzymatic activities were performed: actual andpotential dehydrogenase, catalase and phosphatase. Only regarding the intensity of the processesdifferences were noticed. The qualitative enzymatic activities: amylase, dextranase, saccharase, maltaseand levanase, were not present at studied samples.

  4. Interpretation of Simulations in Interactive VR Environments: Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    of architectural concepts. Architects need to heed the dynamics set in motion by these technologies and especially of how laypersons interpret building forms and their simulations in interactive VR environments. The article presents a study which compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical...... environment, CAVE and Panorama. In a report, statistical analysis and discussion of the results, the paper addresses three hypothetical assertions - that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and Panorama are quantifiably different, that differences are attributable to...... asserted that perception of shape and distance display here fundamental conditions of the CAVE and Panorama....

  5. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern

  6. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  7. Isotopic variability of cave bears (δ15N, δ13C) across Europe during MIS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcarz, Magdalena; Pacher, Martina; Krajcarz, Maciej T.; Laughlan, Lana; Rabeder, Gernot; Sabol, Martin; Wojtal, Piotr; Bocherens, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Collagen, the organic fraction of bone, records the isotopic parameters of consumed food for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). This relationship of isotopic signature between diet and tissue is an important tool for the study of dietary preferences of modern and fossil animal species. Since the first information on the isotopic signature of cave bear was reported, numerous data from Europe have become available. The goal of this work is to track the geographical variation of cave bear collagen isotopic values in Europe during Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (about 60,000-25,000 yr BP). In this study the results of new δ13C and δ15N isotopic analyses of cave bear collagen from four Central-Eastern European sites are presented, as well as a review of all published isotopic data for cave bears of the same period. The main conclusion is a lack of geographical East-West pattern in the variations of δ13C and δ15N values of cave bear collagen. Moreover, no relationship was found between cave bear taxonomy and isotopic composition. The cave bears from Central-Eastern Europe exhibit δ13C and δ15N values near the average of the range of Central, Western and Southern European cave bears. Despite the fact that most cave bear sites follow an altitudinal gradient, separate groups of sites exhibit shift in absolute values of δ13C, what disturbs an altitude-related isotopic pattern. The most distinct groups are: high Alpine sites situated over 1500 m a.s.l. - in terms of δ13C; and two Romanian sites Peştera cu Oase and Urşilor - in case of δ15N. Although the cave bear isotopic signature is driven by altitude, the altitudinal adjustment of isotopic data is not enough to explain the isotopic dissimilarity of these cave bears. The unusually high δ15N signature of mentioned Romanian sites is an isolated case in Europe. Cave bears from relatively closely situated Central-Eastern European sites and other Romanian sites are more similar to Western European than to Romanian

  8. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tmc@servidor.unam.mx; Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural. Xicontencatl y General Anaya s/n. (04120) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, D. [National Institute of Nuclear Research.. Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5 (52045), Salazar, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Institute of Geophysics, National University of Mexico, Circuito Institutos, CU (04510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cabrera, L. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern.

  9. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of Teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the Sun Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T; Martinez, G; Mendoza, D; Juarez, F; Cabrera, L

    2005-01-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern. PMID:15996472

  10. Suitable Strategies for the Development of Sahoolan Watery Cave Geotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, tourism is one of the largest and most beneficial industries in the world and in many countries it is used as a development strategy. Geotourism or geological tourism is emerging as a new global phenomenon. It is a form of natural area tourism that specifically focuses on geology and landscape. Because of appropriate planning and recognizing advantages and limitations, this kind of tourism can play an important role in the national development and diversification of local economy. There is a wide variety of caves in Iran, including calcareous (karst, salt, ancient and human-made caves which Sahoolan is one of the most important of them. Though Sahoolan has a great range of potentials for geotourism development, geotourism is just emerging and taking its first developmental steps. So these questions arise: What are the potentialities and limitations of Geotourism development in this region? Which strategies are required for developing this type of tourism and following national and regional development?2. Theoretical Bases Geotourism is a new phenomenon in tourism industry. It is defined as tourism activity pertaining to geology and geomorphology, and the natural resources of landscape, landforms, fossil beds, rocks and minerals, with an emphasis on appreciating the processes that are creating and have created such features. Geotourism’s first definition appeared after 1990s. An early definition of geotourism was made by Thomas Hose. He specifically focused on geology and geomorphologic sites. The goal of geotourism is to maintain the character of place. It is not just travelling to undisturbed natural areas or to centers of human activity but travelling to destinations where nature and humans come together to produce a working landscape. The focus is to encourage visitation to an area by visitors who value the same working landscapes valued by the residents. Ideally, geotourism can be beneficial for both

  11. Application of fractal theory to top-coal caving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiences of underground coal mining in China show that coal in a thick hard coal seam with a hard roof, the so-called 'double hard coal seam', is difficult to be excavated by top-coal caving technique. In order to solve the problem, a top-coal weakening technique is proposed in this paper. In the present study, fractal geometry provides a new description of the fracture mechanism for blasting. By means of theoretical analysis of the relationship between the fractal dimension of blasting fragments and the dynamite specific energy, a mechanical model for describing the size distribution of top-coal and the dissipation of blasting energy is proposed. The theoretical results are in agreement with laboratory and in situ test results. Moreover, it is shown that the fractal dimension of coal fragments can be used as an index for optimizing the blasting parameters for a top-coal weakening technique

  12. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15‰, and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10‰ suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature

  13. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of time-series magnesium (δ26Mg isotope data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are placed against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rain water or snow as well as soil and hostrock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07 ‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15 ‰ and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04 ‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is in concert with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07 ‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10 ‰ record changes in outside air temperature as driving factor rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73 ‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43 ‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature affecting soil zone activity

  14. CCC-based muon telescope for examination of natural caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oláh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for geophysical applications: searching for large scale underground rock/soil inhomogeneities and underground cavities. The designed muon telescope called a muon tomograph is based on the recently developed closed cathode chamber (CCC technology, which provides a cheap, easy handling, portable, and power efficient detector system able to work even in extreme conditions (e.g. high humidity, low/high temperature. The muon telescope has a detection surface of approximately 0.1 m2 with a 10 mrad angular resolution. Tests have been performed in natural caves and artificial tunnel systems as well. In this paper a summary of the first results on tomographic cavities are presented and the geophysical and possible industrial use of the cosmic muon tomographic technology is indicated.

  15. CCC-based muon telescope for examination of natural caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oláh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A portable cosmic muon detector has been developed for geophysical application: searching for large scale underground rock/soil inhomogeneities and underground cavities. The designed muon telescope called Muontomograph is based on the recently developed Closed Cathode Chamber (CCC technology, which provides a cheap, easy handling, portable, and power efficient detector system, able to work even at extreme conditions (e.g. high humidity, low/high temperature. The muon telescope has about 0.1 m2 detection surface with 10 mrad angular resolution. Tests have been performed in natural caves and artificial tunnel systems as well. In the paper a summary of the first results on tomographed cavities are presented and the geophysical and possible industrial use of the cosmic muon tomograph technology is indicated.

  16. Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Cortes A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The large microclimatic stability is a basic characteristic of the subterranean karst systems and causes a high sensitivity to changesin environmental conditions. High-accuracy monitoring of Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain determined the temporal evolution of theaerodynamic processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. This cave is characterizedby a very stable microclimate, with high and relatively constant radon content (the mean value is 32200 Bq/m3, roughly, and thestandard deviation is 7600 Bq/m3 and a moderate and quite stable CO2 concentration (the mean value is 3730 ppm and the standarddeviation is 250 ppm. Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimaticprocesses are described with regard to the gas exchange between the cave and the outside atmosphere. There is a complexmicroclimatic functional relationship between the meteorological and cave microclimate conditions and the diffusion and flow of tracergases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Transient variations of tracer gas on cave airare controlled by natural barometric fluxes and anthropogenic forced ventilation due to uncontrolled opening of cave entrance. Theshort-term fluctuations of gas levels on cave air reveal distinct patterns during the exhalation process of theses gases from the netof fissures and pores to the cave atmosphere, depending on the isolation effect of soil and host rock.

  17. Late Quaternary cave bears and brown bears in Europe: implications for distribution, chronology, and extinction based on a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, Martina

    2010-05-01

    Cave bear remains are one of the most numerous fossils found in European caves. Despite their frequency of occurrence, many aspects of cave bear palaeontology still remain poorly understood. New methodological approaches and ongoing studies led to controversial results and discussion about its taxonomy, palaeoecology, and final extinction. Are we dealing with one single or several species of cave bears? Was cave bear exclusively vegetarian or after all more omnivorous? Did he go extinct before or after the Late Glacial Maximum? Was cave bear restricted to Europe or did he also occur in Asia? Late Pleistocene brown bears, on the other hand, are often rare and little is known about the possible co-occurrence of cave and brown bears during the Late Pleistocene. Based on direct radiocarbon dates the distribution pattern of both, cave and brown bears is reconstructed during the Late Pleistocene in Europe. In addition, the reasons for the achieved pattern will be tested leading to the main question - why did cave bear become extinct while brown bears survived until today? To answer this question palaeobiological data of Late Pleistocene cave and brown bears will be tested against results from isotope analyses, while aDNA data may contribute to the question of distinct local population or even species of bears. The current state of evidence will be presented and on the basis of resulting pattern implications for further multi-disciplinary studies will be discussed.

  18. Altamira cave Paleolithic paintings harbor partly unknown bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2002-05-21

    Since it has been reported that microorganisms can affect painting pigments, Paleolithic painting microbiology deserves attention. The present study is the first report on the bacterial colonization of the valuable Paleolithic paintings in the famous Altamira cave (Spain). One sample taken from a painting area in the Polychromes Hall was analyzed culture-independently. This was the first time microbiologists were allowed to take sample material directly from Altamira paintings. Identification methods included PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The applied approach gave insight into a great bacterial taxonomic diversity, and allowed the detection of unexpected and unknown bacteria with potential effects on the conservation of the painting. Regarding the number of 29 visible DGGE bands in the community fingerprint, the numbers of analyzed clones described about 72% of the phylogenetic diversity present in the sample. Thirty-eight percent of the sequences analyzed were phylogenetically most closely related to cultivated bacteria, while the majority (62%) were most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones. Bacteria identified in Altamira were related with sequence similarities between 84.8 and 99.4% to members of the cosmopolitan Proteobacteria (52.3%), to members of the Acidobacterium division (23.8%), Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides phylum (9.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (4.8%), Planctomycetales (4.8%) and Actinobacteria (4.8%). The high number of clones most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones showed the broad spectrum of unknown and yet to be cultivated bacteria in Altamira cave. PMID:12052543

  19. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called stone on stone, explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  20. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analysed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb derived tritium removing any ice accumulated, since at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses made radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a maximum ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 4 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cyro-calcite layers, a extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  1. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 2 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cryocalcite layers, extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  2. Microbial diversity in a Venezuelan orthoquartzite cave is dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales) and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Hazel A; Giarrizzo, Juan G; Suarez, Paula; Robertson, Charles E; Broering, Mark J; Banks, Eric D; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Venkateswaran, Kasthisuri

    2014-01-01

    The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave (RSC), an orthoquartzite (SiO4) cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrates the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82-84%) by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%), which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in RSC is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems. PMID:25505450

  3. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  4. The first radiometric dating of Norwegian stalagmites - evidence of pre-Weichselian karst caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speleogenetic theories of karst caves in Norway are divergent, and the caves considered are probably of different ages and polygenetic in origin. Uranium decay series dating of speleotherms is a recently developed method that has not earlier been applied to material from Norway. This paper pres;ents the dating of two stalagmite samples one with age of 2,600+-1,100, and the other with a growth range of 91,000+23,300-20,400 years B.P., respectively. This demonstrates that at least one cave is of pre-Weichselian age. Correlation of the results with other Pleistocene chronoligies is discussed, as well as the consequences of stalagmite datings for interpretation of cave and land surface development through glacials. (Auth.)

  5. On the adaptations to cave life of some different animal groups (first note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the major and common adaptations to the cave environment ofdifferent animal groups. The common features are: anophthalmia, depigmentation, apterism in the caseof insects, body shape and ecophysiological adaptations.

  6. True Color Orthophotography for Timpanogos Cave National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This imagery dataset was used to map the vegetation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument. This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery...

  7. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 and 2015 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  8. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 to 2015 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  9. Contaminant analyses of water and sediment at Key Cave, Lauderdale County, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water and sediment samples were collected from Key Cave and analyzed for 20 metals and 78 organic chemicals. Results indicated the presence of p,p'-DDE and elevated...

  10. Field Plot Points for Wind Cave National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Wind Cave NP were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 2 parts - (1) Physical Descriptive...

  11. Digital Geologic Map of the Wind Cave quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Wind Cave quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map...

  12. Hominin-bearing caves and landscape dynamics in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Berger, Lee R.

    2013-02-01

    This paper provides constraints on the evolution of the landscape in the Cradle of Humankind (CoH), UNESCO World Heritage Site, South Africa, since the Pliocene. The aim is to better understand the distribution of hominin fossils in the CoH, and determine links between tectonic processes controlling the landscape and the evolution and distribution of hominins occupying that landscape. The paper is focused on a detailed reconstruction of the landscape through time in the Grootvleispruit catchment, which contains the highly significant fossil site of Malapa and the remains of the hominin species Australopithicus sediba. In the past 4 My the landscape in the CoH has undergone major changes in its physical appearance as a result of river incision, which degraded older African planation surfaces, and accommodated denudation of cover rocks (including Karoo sediments and various sil- and ferricretes) to expose dolomite with caves in which fossils collected. Differentially weathered chert breccia dykes, calibrated with 10Be exposure ages, are used to estimate erosion patterns of the landscape across the CoH. In this manner it is shown that 2 My ago Malapa cave was ˜50 m deep, and Gladysvale cave was first exposed; i.e. landscape reconstructions can provide estimates for the time of opening of cave systems that trapped hominin and other fossils. Within the region, cave formation was influenced by lithological, layer-parallel controls interacting with cross-cutting fracture systems of Paleoproterozoic origin, and a NW-SE directed extensional far-field stress at a time when the African erosion surface was still intact, and elevations were probably lower. Cave geometries vary in a systematic manner across the landscape, with deep caves on the plateau and cave erosion remnants in valleys. Most caves formed to similar depths of 1400-1420 mamsl across much of the CoH, indicating that caves no longer deepened once Pliocene uplift and incision occurred, but acted as passive

  13. Seasonality of use of Za Hájovnou Cave by bears and lions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 70, 1-2 (2014), s. 103-106. ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Middle Pleistocene * thin sections * seasonality * caves * the Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Using the CAVE virtual-reality environment as an aid to 3-D electromagnetic field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems in three-dimensional (3-D) field computation is visualizing the resulting 3-D field distributions. A virtual-reality environment, such as the CAVE, (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) is helping to overcome this problem, thus making the results of computation more usable for designers and users of magnets and other electromagnetic devices. As a demonstration of the capabilities of the CAVE, the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW), an insertion device being designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) now being commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), wa made visible, along with its fields and beam orbits. Other uses of the CAVE in preprocessing and postprocessing computation for electromagnetic applications are also discussed

  15. Near-IR Reflectance Spectra in a Lava Tube Cave from a Robotic Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanover, N. J.; Uckert, K.; Voelz, D. G.; Xiao, X.; Hull, R.; Boston, P. J.; Parness, A.; Abcouwer, N.; Willig, A.; Fuller, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present preliminary field measurements of biovermiculations and other mineral deposits made at a lava tube cave in El Malpais National Monument, NM, using a rock climbing robot equipped with a near-infrared point spectrometer.

  16. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a-1 only in the copper mine. (authors)

  17. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Summary Report 2012 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR in 2012. Calls were classified using EchoClass(v1.1) software, but classification of...

  18. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  19. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Summary Report 2012 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012. Calls were classified using EchoClass(v1.1) software, but classification of...

  20. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  1. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi) feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves - a curiosity among Arachnida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Lukešová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2013), e75989. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microwhip scorpions * heterotrophic cyanobacteria * Slovak caves Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  2. A multi-year monitoring project of the high-altitude Cenote ice cave, Dolomites, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; Santagata, Tommaso; Spötl, Christoph; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Dal Molin, Luca; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Cenote ice cave hosts one of the most voluminous cave glaciers of the Dolomites. This 280 m-deep abyss was discovered in 1994 after the entrance had opened as a result of the abrupt emptying of a small lake at 2940 m a.s.l. in the Regional Park of Fanes, Sennes and Braies. The cave consists of a massive, 130 m-thick layered ice deposit carved by meltwater tunnels and chimneys excavated from below by ascending air. At the lower limit of the cave glacier a shaft opens - ice-free and 165 m deep - leading into a dome occupied by a cave rock glacier with typical terminal tongue embankments. A research project was launched to monitor long-term movements and volume changes of this ice deposit as well as to understand the cave microclimate and the potential for future palaeoclimate studies. During October 2015 a first expedition performed a complete survey of the final chamber using a Leica HDS7000, a phase difference laser scanner equipped with a dual axis compensator, on-board control, a wavelenght of 1.5 microns, a laser "CLASS 1" with a flow rate of 187 m and a resolution of 0.1 mm. A scan station was performed also at 110 m above the bottom of the shaft to map in detail the lower side of the hanging ice glacier. This survey has provided the detailed volume of the chamber (420,000 m3) as well as a first record of the position of the ice masses hanging on the ceiling and of the rock glacier at the bottom. Barometric, temperature and humidity dataloggers have been installed in the cave to record the microclimate. In addition pollen traps have been installed to study the present flux of pollen at the surface and inside the cave, while preliminary analyses on pollen grains preserved in the ice are being carried out. The Cenote ice cave research project aims to shed light on the climate evolution of the Dolomites during the last hundreds or possibly thousands of years, as well as on the more recent environmental changes that lead to the upward melting of the cave

  3. A brief history of exploration in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechuguilla Cave, a complex three-dimensional cave with a single known entrance, is located in remote desert terrain in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, in southeastern New Mexico, USA. The Guadalupe Mountains there contain uplifted limestone and dolomite rock in the Permian-age Capitan Reef complex. Hundreds of caves have been found in this region, but Lechuguilla Cave greatly exceeds the size of all others known. It was only a small pit mined for bat guano in the early twentieth century. In the 1970s the Cave Research Foundation performed digs at the bottom, where profuse air movement had been noted in the debris. This work ceased but another team of cavers visited in 1984, hearing and feeling the significant air, and began a digging project approved by the Park. The cavers dug into continuing passage in 1986. It was explored in three major branches, generally trending west/southwest to east/northeast, parallel to the reef face, with north-south connections along deep rift features. Depositional and corrosional events during sulfuric-acid speleogenesis created remarkable speleothems and speleogenesis, and the cave has often been called the Jewel of the Underground. The rapidly growing cave passed 80 km of surveyed length by 1990. Within the first ten years of exploration, 28 large-scale expeditions led to the cave reaching 113 km in length. From 1997 to 2013, 109 additional kilometers were mapped with smaller teams of up to 12 cavers per expedition. Exploration and mapping is now done in three to five expeditions per year, and recent work has focused on climbs and smaller leads such as tight crawls and fissures that were previously passed. Significant discoveries continue to be found using these techniques. The cave reaches a depth of 475 m and has been mapped to over 222 km in length. Exploration to the extreme ends is efficiently done with multi-day expeditions, using established camps in each branch. Cavers from the United States and dozens of other countries

  4. Lower stratigraphical sequence of Lezetxiki cave (Arrasate, Basque Country). A necessary reflection

    OpenAIRE

    David ÁLVAREZ-ALONSO; Álvaro ARRIZABALAGA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show a synthesis of the information related to lower levels of Lezetxiki cave which was obtained during J. M. de Barandiaran’s works. As a necessary reflection about the problems which posed this sequence of levels, not only for an archaeostratigraphical and geochronological point of view, but also in the Ancient Cantabrian Palaeolithic general context. Under the new excavations that have been conducted since 1996 in the cave, is appropriate to make this reflection about the ...

  5. Marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea: a sponge biodiversity reservoir within a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    Full Text Available Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%, generic (70%, and species level (47.5%, the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each, 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection.

  6. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Manconi; Barbara Cadeddu; Fabio Ledda; Roberto Pronzato

    2013-01-01

    The present synthesis focuses on the so called ‘horny sponges’ recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was reco...

  7. New radiometric dates for the Prehistory of Northwestern Iberia: Valdavara Cave (Becerreá, Lugo)

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero Rodríguez, Manuel; Alonso Fernández, Susana; Alonso Fernández, Carmelo; Ameijenda Iglesias, Alicia; Blain, Hugues Alexandre; Fábregas Valcarce, Ramón; Gómez Merino, Gala; de Lombera Hermida, Arturo; Juan M. López-García; Lorenzo Merino, Carlos; Lozano Ruiz, Marina; Rodríguez Rellán, Carlos; Rosell i Ardèvol, Jordi; Serna González, María R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to make known the first results of the excavations in Valdavara Cave (Becerreá, Lugo), paying special attention to the radiometric dating that places this cave among the few Galician sites with Upper Palaeolithic dates. During the excavation carried out in 2007, two archaeological locations were documented in the same karstic system (Valdavara 1 and Valdavara 2). The test pit initiated in Valdavara 1 allowed us to identify so far two stratigraphic units: an upper uni...

  8. Identification of depositional hiatuses in karst infillings – Example from Divje babe I cave (Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Turk

    2011-01-01

    The Divje babe I cave is world known Paleolithic site in western Slovenia. In this paper, special interest is given to the identification of sedimentary hiatuses in karst infillings. Hiatuses can be the most reliably identified by detailed radiometric dating throughout the profile. However, this method is very expensive from economical point of view. New approach was developed in Divje babe I cave. Study of morphological characteristics of clast, may revealthe position of hiatuses. Four presu...

  9. Sedimentary archives opened in the Holštejnsá Cave, Moravian Karst (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Hercman, H.; Žák, Karel; Šlechta, Stanislav

    Stuttgart : Schweizerbart Science Publisher, 2013 - (Žák, J.; Zulauf, G.; Röhling, H.). s. 60-60 ISBN 978-3-510-49231-2. ISSN 1860-1782. [Joint conference of the Czech and German geological societes held. 16.10.2013-19.10.2013, Plzeň (Pilsen)] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * Moravian Karst * Holštejnská Cave Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400–200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Stiner, Mary C.; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator–prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the high...

  11. Carbon dioxide concentration in air within the Nerja cave (Malaga, Andalusia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Liñán

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available From 2001 to 2005 the CO2 concentration of the air in the interior and exterior of the Nerja Cave was studied and its relation with the air temperature and visitor number. The average annual CO2 concentration outside of the cave is 320 ppmv, whilst inside, the mean concentration increases to 525 ppmv during autumn and winter, and in the order of 750 ppmv during spring and summer. The temporal variation of CO2 content in the air of the cave is strongly influenced by its degree of natural ventilation which is, in turn, determined by the difference between external and internal air temperatures. During autumn, winter and spring, a positive correlation between the CO2 content of the air inside the cave and the temperature difference between the external and internal air was observed, such that when this difference increased, there was a higher level of CO2 within the cave. Then, the ventilation is high and CO2 levels are mainly of human origin. During summer, there was a negative correlation between CO2 and the temperature difference between the air outside and that inside the cave: when the temperature difference increases, the CO2 content within the cave is lower. At this time of the year, the renovation of the air is much slower due to the lower ventilation. A positive correlation between CO2 concentration of the air in the cave and the visitor number can only be observed during August, the month that receives the most visits throughout the year averaging 100,000.

  12. Analyzing airflow in static ice caves by using the calcFLOW method

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christiane; Meyer, Ulrich; Pflitsch, Andreas; Maggi, Valter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to detect airflow through ice caves and to quantify the corresponding airflow speeds by the use of temperature loggers. The time series of temperature observations at different loggers are cross-correlated. The time shift of best correlation corresponds to the travel time of the air and is used to derive the airflow speed between the loggers. We apply the method to test data observed inside Schellenberger Eishöhle (ice cave). The successf...

  13. Lava caves of Grande Comore, Indian Ocean: an initial reconnaissance, September 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Middleton

    1998-01-01

    What are believed to have been the first speleological investigations in the Comoros Islands were carried out on Grande Comore island between 7 and 13 September 1997. A number of caves were located with the help of local informants and the more significant ones surveyed. Exploration of some caves was not able to be completed. The potential for further significant discoveries is believed to be high.

  14. Amphipods from marine cave sediments of the southern Iberian Peninsula: diversity and ecological distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Guerra-Garc??a, Jos?? Manuel; S??nchez-Tocino, Luis; Garc??a-G??mez, Jos?? Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the amphipod assemblages of six marine caves on the Mediterranean coast of southern Spain. Replicate samples were taken both inside and outside each marine cave in order to characterize the amphipod fauna and the physicochemical properties of the sediment. As a result, 44 amphipods species were identified. The high number of species found in a relatively limited area highlighted the richness of the Alboran Sea fauna, which is mainly due to the mixture of species fro...

  15. Patterns of Cave Biodiversity and Endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiller, Matthew L.; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20...

  16. Biharian micromammalian faunal assemblages in Koněprusy caves (Czech Republic): review and new data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Jan; Čermák, Stanislav; Fejfar, O.; Horáček, I.

    Bratislava : Comenius University, 2009 - (Sabol, M.). s. 47-47 [International Cave Bear Symposium /15./. 17.09.2009-20.09.2009, Spišská Nová Ves] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Koněprusy caves * Biharian * fauna * micromammals * mammals Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    F. Obleitner; Ch. Spötl

    2010-01-01

    Meteorological and glaciological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria) during a full annual cycle. The observed meteorological conditions feature the basic characteristics of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the ice is largely predetermined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes w...

  18. The Koněprusy caves and the Golden Horse Hill

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav

    s. l: Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science Masaryk University ; LABRYS o.p.s, [2010] - (Kadlec, J.), s. 41-43 [Summer School of Quaternary Studies /6./. Czech Republic (CZ), 19.06.2010-26.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Koněprusy cave * Golden Horse Hill * cave system Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Bacterial metabolism of methylated amines and identification of novel methylotrophs in Movile Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischer, Daniela; Kumaresan, Deepak; Johnston, Antonia; El Khawand, Myriam; Stephenson, Jason; Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Alexandra M; Chen, Yin; Colin Murrell, J

    2015-01-01

    Movile Cave, Romania, is an unusual underground ecosystem that has been sealed off from the outside world for several million years and is sustained by non-phototrophic carbon fixation. Methane and sulfur-oxidising bacteria are the main primary producers, supporting a complex food web that includes bacteria, fungi and cave-adapted invertebrates. A range of methylotrophic bacteria in Movile Cave grow on one-carbon compounds including methylated amines, which are produced via decomposition of organic-rich microbial mats. The role of methylated amines as a carbon and nitrogen source for bacteria in Movile Cave was investigated using a combination of cultivation studies and DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-monomethylamine (MMA). Two newly developed primer sets targeting the gene for gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase (gmaS), the first enzyme of the recently-discovered indirect MMA-oxidation pathway, were applied in functional gene probing. SIP experiments revealed that the obligate methylotroph Methylotenera mobilis is one of the dominant MMA utilisers in the cave. DNA-SIP experiments also showed that a new facultative methylotroph isolated in this study, Catellibacterium sp. LW-1 is probably one of the most active MMA utilisers in Movile Cave. Methylated amines were also used as a nitrogen source by a wide range of non-methylotrophic bacteria in Movile Cave. PCR-based screening of bacterial isolates suggested that the indirect MMA-oxidation pathway involving GMA and N-methylglutamate is widespread among both methylotrophic and non-methylotrophic MMA utilisers from the cave. PMID:25050523

  20. BlenderCAVE: A multimodal scene graph editor for Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier-Quinot, David; Touraine, Damien; Katz, Brian,

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the BlenderCAVE project, which extends the 3D creation content software Blender and its Game Engine (BGE) to Virtual Reality (VR) applications. Based on a multi-screen non-stereoscopic adaptation of the BGE [Gascon et al., 2010], BlenderCAVE now integrates a complete framework dedicated to Virtual Reality (VR), compatible with the three main Operating Systems for any given VR architecture configuration. It has been developed by audio and VR researchers with support from th...

  1. Linkages between Holocene paleoclimate and paleohydrogeology preserved in a Yucatan underwater cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, Peter J.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Beddows, Patricia A.; Gabriel, Jeremy J.

    2010-09-01

    Three sediment cores spanning the last 4200 years from Aktun Ha Cave on the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) demonstrate that underwater caves can document changes to regional hydrogeology and climate. Benthic microfossils (testate amoebae, foraminifera), organic matter geochemistry (δ 13C, δ 15N, C/N), and particle size distributions were analyzed. However, microfossil paleoecology proved the most useful for indicating three salinity phases in the Aktun Ha sediment cores. Phase 1 (>4300 yr BP) contains predominantly foraminifera ( Physalidia simplex, 78%) that indicate the meteoric lens flooding the cave was initially brackish (salinity >3.5 g L -1). Phase 2 (2800-4300 Cal yr BP) has both freshwater testate amoebae ( Centropyxis spp. 40%) and P. simplex (42%), which indicates a slight freshening of the meteoric lens to 1.5-2 g L -1. Phase 3 (cenote. The δ 15N values ranged from 1.5 to 3.5‰ with observed cycles likely from intervals of increased terrestrial OM input into the cave during high rainfall events (e.g., hurricanes). The observed paleoenvironmental shifts in the cave correlate well with regional precipitation patterns, aquifer recharge, and storm activity caused by southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Therefore, regional climate change impacted eastern Yucatan groundwater during the mid to late Holocene. However, decelerating Holocene sea-level rise and aquifer occlusion are likely contributing factors. These results demonstrate that underwater cave sediments and microfossils can be useful proxies for aquifer evolution and climate change.

  2. Monitoring of radon gas in caves of the Yorkshire Dales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of vocational training courses are held in caves in the Yorkshire Dales region of the United Kingdom. The instructors and students involved in these courses have the potential to be exposed to enhanced levels of radon (222Rn) and its progeny as a result of their occupations. A prior radiological risk assessment for the training courses recommended that an environmental monitoring programme be carried out to establish the radon concentrations in the caves, and that the caving instructors wear personal radon dosemeters. Radon gas concentrations varied seasonally, being at their highest in summer and their lowest in winter. The lowest result was 40 Bq m-3 recorded in Lower Longchurn cave during winter, whilst the highest result was 4440 Bq m-3 recorded in Crackpot cave during the summer. As the individuals involved in the caving are entering atmospheres with radon gas concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m-3, the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 (GB Parliament 2000 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (London: Stationary Office) SI 1999/3232) apply. A system of work is therefore in place to control exposure to radon. This system of work stipulates an initial dose investigation level of 1 mSv, a second dose investigation level of 2 mSv and an annual dose limit of 6 mSv. The highest annual dose recorded to date is 2.2 mSv, although the average (median) annual dose is only 0.5 mSv.

  3. Minerals and speleothems of the József-hegy Cave (Budapest, Hungary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leél-Őssy Szabolcs

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the József-hegy Cave, a cave of hydrothermal origin with an abundance of minerals unknown so far in Hungarycame to light. Diversity and the frequency of the occurrence of crystals make this cave similar to the Lechuguilla Cave, even ifthe dimensions of the mineral precipitations and the passages do not compare in scale. The variety and mass of carbonates andsulphates are surprising. This paper describes the minerals and speleothems of the József-hegy Cave, their occurrence and genesis,including determined ages. The 41 U/Th measurements suggest that speleothems begun to develop in the upper level of the cavemore than 350 ka ago. Some of these dated old speleothems were developing in dry passages, thus the uppermost passages of theJózsef-hegy Cave have been dry at least for 350 ka. The karst water level was still at the main passage 200 ka ago and dropped to120 m asl by the time of ~100 ka before present.

  4. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  5. A forward model of cave dripwater δ18O and application to speleothem records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speleothem oxygen isotope records in arid regions are typically interpreted as indicators of the total precipitation amount and/or its seasonal balance. Such studies rarely address the potential influence of groundwater mixing processes on δ18O variability of cave dripwater. Here, we develop a model of oxygen isotopes in dripwater, which we compare to water and stalagmite measurements from Cave of the Bells, Arizona. We simulate moisture flux from surface to cave as a two-layer 'leaky-bucket' model. In observations and the model, fed with modern climate data, dripwater δ18O is most comparable to that of winter precipitation. We show that seasonality and duration of the regional summer monsoon affect how much summer precipitation reaches the cave. We employ a Monte Carlo method to specify statistically realistic ranges for input climate variables and produce time series and variance spectra of cave drips. The spectra of our synthetic δ18O series exhibit a high degree of variance at decadal to multidecadal frequencies, despite being driven by synthetic data that includes only a seasonal cycle. This suggests that some background level of variance in speleothem δ18O records could be due to nonclimatic processes, such as subsurface water storage and mixing. Interpreting climatic vs. nonclimatic controls on speleothem δ18O variance could be achieved by replicating records from different caves.

  6. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  7. Microhabitat use, population densities, and size distributions of sulfur cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jourdan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cueva del Azufre in Tabasco, Mexico, is a nutrient-rich cave and its inhabitants need to cope with high levels of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and extreme hypoxia. One of the successful colonizers of this cave is the poeciliid fish Poecilia mexicana, which has received considerable attention as a model organism to examine evolutionary adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Nonetheless, basic ecological data on the endemic cave molly population are still missing; here we aim to provide data on population densities, size class compositions and use of different microhabitats. We found high overall densities in the cave and highest densities at the middle part of the cave with more than 200 individuals per square meter. These sites have lower H2S concentrations compared to the inner parts where most large sulfide sources are located, but they are annually exposed to a religious harvesting ceremony of local Zoque people called La Pesca. We found a marked shift in size/age compositions towards an overabundance of smaller, juvenile fish at those sites. We discuss these findings in relation to several environmental gradients within the cave (i.e., differences in toxicity and lighting conditions, but we also tentatively argue that the annual fish harvest during a religious ceremony (La Pesca locally diminishes competition (and possibly, cannibalism by large adults, which is followed by a phase of overcompensation of fish densities.

  8. “Spray Technique: Tracing the Sketch Traditions of Limestone Cave in Lenggong, Perak”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological research provides the widest opportunity for researchers to analyse various aspects and disciplines appropriate to the subject and the object of choice. Subject and object selection is the work of exploration artefacts found in particular sites and archaeological heritage. Exploration and excavation on of a world heritage site such as Lenggong enables researchers to uncover various archaeological artefacts that are rich and meaningful. To find evidence of the strength and benefits of an artefact, further studies on each artefact should be carried out continuously. This essay will track the wisdom of the ancient artists use to produce paintings in a limestone cave in Lenggong, Perak, using spray techniques. Some artefacts that are identified as cave paintings show a very interesting sketch technique that are unique and special. This essay will also examine some of the cave paintings in other caves in Perak and also other caves in several countries as comparison. Studies involving cave paintings in Malaysia are new compared to Western countries. Thus, the study of one of the technique which is spray technique can open the eyes of the audience to acknowledge and recognise the ancient heritage. It also hoped that this study is able to increase the body of knowledge that goes beyond the boundaries of the arts district and the country.

  9. Studies of condensation/evaporation processes in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Freitas Chris R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The condensation/evaporation process is important in caves, especially in tourist caves where there is carbon dioxide enriched air caused by visitors. The cycle of condensation and evaporation of condensate is believed to enhance condensation corrosion. The problem is condensation is difficult to measure. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and modelling condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of the condensate as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux are tested and used to collect 12 months of data. The study site is the Glowworm tourist cave in New Zealand. The work describes an explanatory model of processes leading to condensation using data based on measurements of condensation and evaporation as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux. The results show that the model works well. However, one of the most important messages from the research reported here is the introduction of the condensation sensor. The results show that condensation in caves can actually be measured and monitored, virtually in real time. In conjunction with the recent developments in data logging equipment, this opens exciting perspectives in cave climate studies, and, more generally, in hydrogeological studies in karst terrains.

  10. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  11. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cave-dwelling invertebrates were studied according to their composition, biodiversity, distribution and threats in the Atlantic Forest Central Biodiversity Corridor, a priority area for conservation actions in Brazil. Twelve obligate cave species were found, plus 495 troglophile species. Araneae (103 spp., Coleoptera (61 spp., Diptera (56 spp. and Lepidoptera (38 spp. were the richest taxa. The richness was higher in the carbonate caves (63 spp., sd = 16.7 and the highest diversity in granitic caves (H´= 2.68, sd = 0.5. The spatial turnover was 63.45 and similarity less than 30%. The total richness was correlated with the linear extension of the caves (Rs = 0.757, p ≤ 0.05. Surrounding area deforestation and religious and tourist use were the main threats. Emergency attention is recommended regarding protective actions, management and conservation of caves of extremely high biological importance.

  12. Impacts of Alterations of Organic Inputs on the Bacterial Community within the sediments of Wind Cave, South Dakota, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chelius Marisa K.; Beresford Guy; Horton Howard; Quirk Megan; Selby Greg; Simpson Rodney T.; Horrocks Rodney; Moore John C.

    2009-01-01

    Wind Cave (WICA) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, like many mostly dry caves in temperate regions is an energy-starved system.The biotic communities that reside in these systems are low in diversity and simple in structure, and sensitive to changes in externalinputs of organic matter. Caves open to tourist traffic offer an opportunity to study the impacts of organic matter amendments in theform of human and rodent hair and dander, clothing lint, material from rodent activity (nesting mater...

  13. Radon exposure, chromosomal aberrations, and genetic polymorphisms in selected Slovak cave workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of work was genotoxic risk assessment of the Slovak show cave workers employed by the Slovak Caves Administration in Liptovsky Mikulas. They are guides or administrators of the four Slovak show caves: Vazecka, Demanovska, Bystrianska, and Harmanecka. We examined 51 workers exposed to radon, with average age 35.64 years ± 6.63 (SD) and average exposition time 9.78 years ± 6.27 (SD). They are 43 men (i.e. 84.31 %) and 9 women (i.e. 15.69 %). The control group consisted of 32 healthy workers from Faculty Hospital in Martin. The workers were not exposed to any genotoxic agents. The average age is 31.84 years ± 5.84(SD). From every subject we evaluated 100 mitosis, i.e. 5100 mitosis from exposed workers and 3200 mitosis from control subjects. In exposed group we found in 111 cells chromosomal aberrations, this present 2.18 % Ab.c. ± 0.19 (SEM), and in control 1st group 1.53 % ± 0.16 (SEM). There are 106 breaks (95.50%), and 5 exchanges (4.50%) on chromosomes. The highest number of Ab.c. we detected in workers of Vazecka (2.63 % Ab.c) and Bystrianska (2.00 % Ab.c.) caves. There is a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of Ab.c. in workers of cave Vazecka as compared to control. In 15 cases (i.e. 28.30 %) we found increase or high exposure to genotoxic agents, we found any difference between sex, and any dependence of the number of Ab.c. on age and time of exposure. The Vazecka cave workers showed three times higher mean effective doses all the year round (milliSievert) than workers additional caves. The measured values of radiation in the caves and mines exceeded the permissible limits and Regional Hygienist of the Central Slovakia declared in 1981 the risk zones and, at the same time, the monitoring of working atmosphere was initiated. Our evaluations referred to certain exposition of this carcinogen in cave workers too. The essence of prevention is based in the lowering of ionizing radiation and improvement of the sanitary-technical component

  14. Hypogenic origin, geologic controls and functional organization of a giant cave system in Precambrian carbonates, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchouk, Alexander; Auler, Augusto S.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Cazarin, Caroline L.; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Dublyansky, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on speleogenesis of the Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR), the longest caves in South America occurring in the Neoproterozoic Salitre Formation in the São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil. We employ a multidisciplinary approach integrating detailed speleomorphogenetic, lithostratigraphic and geological structure studies in order to reveal the origin of the caves, their functional organization and geologic controls on their development. The caves developed in deep-seated confined conditions by rising flow. The overall fields of passages of TBV and TBR caves represent a speleogenetically exploited large NE-SW-trending fracture corridor associated with a major thrust. This corridor vertically extends across the Salitre Formation allowing the rise of deep fluids. In the overall ascending flow system, the formation of the cave pattern was controlled by a system of sub-parallel anticlines and troughs with NNE-SSW dominant orientation, and by vertical and lateral heterogeneities in fracture distribution. Three cave-stratigraphic stories reflect the actual hydrostratigraphy during the main phase of speleogenesis. Cavities at different stories are distinct in morphology and functioning. The gross tree-dimensional pattern of the system is effectively organized to conduct rising flow in deep-seated confined conditions. Cavities in the lower story developed as recharge components to the system. A laterally extensive conduit network in the middle story formed because the vertical flow from numerous recharge points has been redirected laterally along the highly conductive unit, occurring below the major seal - a scarcely fractured unit. Rift-like and shaft-like conduits in the upper story developed along fracture-controlled outflow paths, breaching the integrity of the major seal, and served as outlets for the cave system. The cave system represents a series of vertically organized, functionally largely independent clusters of cavities

  15. 222 Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The 222Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m-3 to 6607 Bq.m-3 and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a-1 for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a-1 for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a-1. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a-1 suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  16. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

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    Matthew L Niemiller

    Full Text Available Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species and 20% of stygobionts (eight species known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV. Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in

  17. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, Matthew L; Zigler, Kirk S

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20% of stygobionts (eight species) known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species) known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP) and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA) ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV). Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species) of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in Tennessee. PMID

  18. Organochlorine insecticide residues in the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Bracken Cave, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Martin, C.O.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-nine free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana ) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and analyzed for organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Residues of DDE in the brain were greater in 12 young collected from the floor than in 15 young taken from the ceiling, but food deprivation, not higher residues in the brain, apparently caused young to fall....Among 18 pregnant females, residues of DDE and DDT were highest in yearlings. The first lactation by yearlings caused their residue loads to drop sharply. Thereafter, increasing age was accompanied by increasing residues but amounts generally did not exceed those in yearlings.....Residue levels in embryos were a function both of levels in the female parent and degree of embryonic development. Residues accumulated rapidly in nursing young, and lactating females may excrete from 1.3 to 16.2 (mean = 4.3) micrograms of DDE in milk per day. Maximum individual residue loads may be attained toward the end of nursing, and mobilization of these residues during southward migration may subject Bracken Cave free-tails to maximum lifetime residues in the brain....Comparison of our data with residue data for the free-tail population at Eagle Creek Cave (Arizona) in 1970 produced the following conclusions: ( 1) residues of DDE appeared similar in pregnant females, embryos, lactating females, and fallen young for the two populations; (2) residues of DDT and dieldrin appeared greater in pregnant females at Bracken Cave; (3) DDE and DDT occurred at greater levels in guano samples from Bracken Cave. On this basis, the population decline observed at Eagle Creek Cave between 1963 and 1969 does not appear to be related to the residues observed in the 1970 samples taken from that cave.

  19. Report of a three-year monitoring programme at Heshang Cave, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyong Hu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Heshang Cave is situated in central China (30º27’N, 110º25’E; 294 m in the middle reaches of the Yangtze Valley, a region stronglyimpacted by the East Asian Monsoon. It contains large annually-laminated Holocene and late Pleistocene stalagmites which capture pastmonsoon behaviour with seasonal resolution, and could enhance understanding of the amplitude and frequency of monsoon behaviour indifferent climate states. In this paper, we present results of a 3-year monitoring programme at Heshang. T loggers outside the cave agree closely with T data from nearby meteorological stations. T at the site of growth of the largest recovered stalagmite averages 18ºC (identical to mean annual T outside the cave with a seasonal amplitude of 5ºC (about one fifth of the external cycle. Rainfall measurements from a station 3 km from the cave indicate strong summer monsoon rain in 2004 and 2005, but rather weaker summer rain (by ≈30% in 2006.Drip rate at the monitoring site has a base flow of 14 drips/minute and shows a sharp increase to ≈40 drips/minute early in the summerrains of 2004 and 2005, followed by a gradual return to base-flow as the monsoon weakens. This abrupt change presumably representsthreshold behaviour in the hydrological system. This threshold is not passed in 2006 and there is no abrupt increase in drip rate, indicating the sensitivity of this site (and presumably of speleothem chemistry in this cave to monsoon rainfall. Results are also reported from a 10-month deployment of a Stalagmate drip counter, and for CO2 levels in Heshang Cave. Overall, this monitoring work represents an essential dataset for interpretation of the chemistry of drip waters, of carbonates grown on glass slides and, ultimately, of long speleothem records of past climate from Heshang Cave.

  20. Orthothermographies and 3D modeling as potential tools in ice caves studies: the Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain

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    Fernando Berenguer-Sempere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many studies focused on the investigation of climatic and glaciological condition of ice caves. Here we present another way to address these studies, applying some methods already used in fields other than geomorphology. The versatility and accuracy provided by the use of modern topography and thermography techniques, using Terrestrial Laser Scanner and current thermographic cameras- and the creation of 3D thermographic models and orthothermographies derived from them - is shown to be a useful tool as it is difficult to obtain data from fieldwork and traditional methods used in caves. This paper presents the potential uses of combined TLS and thermographic techniques for monitoring some important climatological parameters in the sensitive periglacial environment of the Iberian Atlantic high mountains: Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain. A systematic application of such combined technologies to these kind of caves, is expected to contribute to a quantitative and concise characterization of the evolution of the ice as shown by the results of this study.

  1. Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

  2. Nocardia altamirensis sp. nov., isolated from Altamira cave, Cantabria, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Boiron, Patrick; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Laurent, Frédéric; Couble, Andrée; Laiz, Leonila; Klenk, Hans-Peter; González, Juan M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Mouniée, Delphine; Bergeron, Emanuelle; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2008-09-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, OFN S17(T), was isolated from a sample collected from Altamira Cave, Cantabria, Spain. This strain was identified by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The 16S rRNA, hsp65 and sod gene sequences of the strain were determined and compared with those of representative Nocardia species. The results showed that strain OFN S17(T) should be assigned to the genus Nocardia. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain OFN S17(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Nocardia tenerifensis (98.6, 96.2 and 96% similarity, respectively, for the 16S rRNA, hsp65 and sod gene sequences). The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses revealed 29% relative reassociation between the DNA of strain OFN S17(T) and N. tenerifensis DSM 44704(T). The phenotypic and genotypic data show that strain OFN S17(T) merits recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia altamirensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OFN S17(T) (=CIP 109606(T) =DSM 44997(T)). PMID:18768631

  3. Performance and safety analysis of WP-cave concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a performance safety, and cost analysis of the WP-cave, WPC, concept. In the performance analysis, questions specific to the WPC have been addressed which have been identified to require more detailed studies. Based on the outcome of this analysis, a safety analysis has been made which comprises of the modeling and calculation of radionuclide transport from the repository to the biosphere and the resulting dose exposure to man. The result of the safety analysis indicates that the present design of a WPC repository may give unacceptably high doses. By improving the properties of the bentonite/sand barrier such that the hydraulic conductivity is reduced, or by changing the short-lived steel canisters to more long-lived canisters, e.g. copper canisters, it is judged possible to achieve a sufficiently low level of dose exposure rates to man. The cost for a WPC repository of the studied design is significantly higher than for a KBS-3 repository considering the Swedish conditions and the Swedish amount of spent fuel. The major costs are connected to the excavation and backfilling of the bentonite/sand barrier. The potential for cost savings is high but it is not judged possible to account for savings in such a way that the WPC concept shows lower cost than the KBS-3 concept. (34 figs., 33 tabs., 29 refs.)

  4. Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave. With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were

  5. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  6. Endecous peruassuensis n. sp. (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae) from caves of Eastern Brazil: evidence of isolation in the subterranean realm and discussion about troglomorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfarini, Marcio P; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Endecous Saussure (1878), recorded at the Lapa do Cipó and Olhos d'Água caves, which are located in the Itacarambi municipality, Minas Gerais state, Eastern Brazil. Another species, E. aguassay Mews, 2008 was recordedin the surroundings of the caves. The genus Endecous corresponds to the most common cricket in Brazilian hypogean environments. In general, these crickets inhabit the areas around cave entrances up to the aphotic zones of caves. The genus Endecous is the only cave cricket to present troglobiomorphosis, i.e., an apterous condition. The distribution of the new species is limited to these two caves, which suggests an endemism in this karst system similar to the distribution of other endemic animals, such as harvestmen and amblypygid arachnids. This species is the sixth troglobitic one described for Olhos d'Água cave, which sets this cave as a spot of subterranean fauna in Brazil. PMID:26624364

  7. Islands within islands: Diversification of tailless whip spiders (Amblypygi, Phrynus) in Caribbean caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Lauren A; Bloom, Trevor; Caicedo-Quiroga, Laura; Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Sánchez-Ruíz, Jose A; May-Collado, Laura J; Binford, Greta J; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-12-01

    Islands have played a key role in understanding species formation ever since Darwin's work on the Galapagos and Wallace's work in the Malay Archipelago. Like oceanic islands, habitat 'islands', such as mountaintops and caves similarly may drive diversification. Here we examine patterns of diversification in the tailless whip spider genus Phrynus Larmarck, 1809 (Amblypygida: Phrynidae) a system that shows evidence of diversification under the influence of 'islands within islands'. We estimate phylogeographic history and measure genetic diversity among representatives of three nominal Phrynus species from epigean and cave systems of Puerto Rico and nearby islands. Data from five loci (mitochondrial 12S, 16S, Cox1; nuclear H3, 28S) were used to generate phylogenetic hypotheses and to assess species monophyly and phylogeographic relationships. Genetic divergences and population limits were estimated and assessed using the Geneious barcoding plugin and the genealogical sorting index. We find that mtDNA sequence divergences within each of the three Phrynus species range between 15% and 20%. Genetic divergence is structured at three spatial scales: among islands in a manner consistent with the GAARlandia hypothesis, among bedrock formations within Puerto Rico, and among caves within these formations. Every isolated cave system contains a unique mtDNA genetic lineage of Phrynus, with divergence among cave systems far exceeding that within. In some localities epigean specimens nest among cave taxa, in others caves are monophyletic. Remarkably, clades that show up to 20% mtDNA sequence divergence show little or no variation in the nuclear markers. We interpret this pattern as resulting from extreme conservation of our nuclear markers rather than male sex-biased dispersal, based on high conservation of 28S and H3 between our individuals and other amblypygid genera that are restricted to Africa. While this study includes but a tiny fraction of Caribbean caves, our findings

  8. Paleoclimate reconstruction based on tritium and radiocarbon measurements at Focul Viu Ice Cave, Bihor Mts., Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. For predicting the climate change in the near future we have to understand the climate change happened in the past. Several methods and tools have been developed or are under development for palaeoclimate reconstruction (palynology, dendrochronology, isotope analysis, etc.) but none of them can reveal perfectly the past changes in the climate. Little research has been devoted to the role of cave ice in paleoclimatology despite the fact that a significant number of ice caves in temperate climatic region contain ice and wood remnants from same site and probably same time span. In Romania numerous studies dealt with the relation between ice formation, external climate and cave climate, respectively [1-2] but there is still limited information on the process of ice formation, age of ice and growth rate of ice. Perennial ice block of about 14 meter vertical thickness and estimated volume of 12 000 m3, including subfossil wood, can be found in the Focul Viu Ice Cave, Bihor Mountains, Romania at 1120 m elevation a.s.l. on a karstic highland under temperate climate. The annual mean temperature of the highland area is about 7 deg C. The cave ice forms mainly from drip water in springtime, when the temperature of the ice and the rock wall is below freezing point in the cave and over freezing point on surface. Near-surface samples were taken from the upper surface and the side wall of the ice block for tritium, δ18O and δD measurements [3] and two wood samples were extracted from different depths (6.7 m and 11.1 m, respectively) for radiocarbon dating. The tritium activity-concentration indicates 1.9 cm/yr short-term growth rate for the ice, while the long-term growth rate based on radiocarbon ages gave 0.85 cm/yr. This big difference between the long and short term growth rates confirms the theory that on long time span (few hundred years) there were periods when the balance of ice growth was negative, more ice melt than formed. This

  9. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia

  10. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae

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    Renata Manconi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present synthesis focuses on the so called ‘horny sponges’ recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was recorded in 105 Mediterranean marine caves hosting four orders of horny sponges belonging to 9 families, 19 genera and 40 species. Species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea harboured in marine caves are 14 with an endemicity value of 35%. For each species morphological descriptions are supported by illustrations both original and from the literature, including the diagnostic traits of the skeleton by light and scanning electron microscopy giving further characterization at the specific level. A detailed map together with a list of all caves harbouring horny sponges is also provided with geographic coordinates.

  11. X-ray analysis of aerosol samples from a therapeutic cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave therapy is an efficient therapeutic method to cure asthma, the exact healing effect, however, is not clarified, yet. This study is motivated by the basic assumption that aerosols do play the key role in the cave therapy. This study is based on measurements of single aerosol particles originating from a therapeutic cave of Budapest, Hungary (Szemlohegyi cave). Aerosol particles have been collected in the regions arranged for the therapeutic treatment. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition. Three particle classes have been detected based on major element concentration: alumino-silicate, quartz and calcium carbonate. Calcium ions have well-known physiological influence: anti-spastic, anti-inflammation and excretion reducing effects. Inflammation, accompanying spasm and extreme excretion production cause the smothering stigma, the so-called asthma. Therefore it could be assumed that calcium ions present in high concentration in the cave's atmosphere is the major cause of the healing effect

  12. Microbial communities in a coastal cave: Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean

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    Antoni Busquets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a part of an ongoing project on the role of microbes in the biogeochemistry of Majorcan caves, the species diversity of microbial communities present in cave pools of anchialine waters in the Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, western Mediterranean is investigated by a culture-dependent method. Two-hundred and forty-eight strains isolated from this characteristic cave environment of the littoral karst are identified by whole-cell-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and phylogeneticaly by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Total cell counts and species diversity of the bacterial communities decreas with the distance to the entrance of the cave and to the sea. Strains are mainly identified as members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Around 20% of the isolates are able to precipitate carbonates. Calcite is the predominant phase, growing in all the precipitates, although struvite is also found in one Pseudomonas and in one Aspergillus cultures. Differences in crystal characteristics of external shape (habit and growth are observed according to the bacterial species promoting the precipitates. Bacteria associated with multicolored ferromanganese deposits, present in several parts of the cave, are also studied and are identified as Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Nocardioides luteus. The preponderance of Pseudomonas species and the possible contribution of bacteria in calcite deposition are discussed.

  13. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins Greg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

  14. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400–200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C.; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator–prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the highest quality parts of large prey was delayed until the food could be moved to the cave and processed with the aid of blade cutting tools and fire. Delayed consumption of high-quality body parts implies that the meat was shared with other members of the group. The types of cut marks on upper limb bones indicate simple flesh removal activities only. The Qesem cut marks are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant, suggesting that more (skilled and unskilled) individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones at Qesem Cave. Among recent humans, butchering of large animals normally involves a chain of focused tasks performed by one or just a few persons, and butchering guides many of the formalities of meat distribution and sharing that follow. The results from Qesem Cave raise new hypotheses about possible differences in the mechanics of meat sharing between the late Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic. PMID:19666542

  15. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Renata; Cadeddu, Barbara; Ledda, Fabio; Pronzato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The present synthesis focuses on the so called 'horny sponges' recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was recorded in 105 Mediterranean marine caves hosting four orders of horny sponges belonging to 9 families, 19 genera and 40 species. Species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea harboured in marine caves are 14 with an endemicity value of 35%. For each species morphological descriptions are supported by illustrations both original and from the literature, including the diagnostic traits of the skeleton by light and scanning electron microscopy giving further characterization at the specific level. A detailed map together with a list of all caves harbouring horny sponges is also provided with geographic coordinates. PMID:23794833

  16. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  17. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan [WISFIR Laboratory, Earth Physics and Complex System Division, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Riyanto, Erwin [Geotechnical and Hydrology PT. Freeport Indonesia wonbin-ww@hotmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  18. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomova Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocapacity of bacteria inhabiting karstic caves to produce valuable biologically active compounds is still slightly investigated. A total of 46 culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated under aerobic conditions from the Gallery with pre-historical drawings in Magura Cave, Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bacterial isolates aff iliated with Proteobacteria (63%, followed by Actinobacteria (10.9%, Bacteroidetes (10.9%, and Firmicutes (6.5%. A strong domination of Gram-negative bacteria (total 81% belonging to nine genera: Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Commamonas, Acinetobacter, Obesumbacterium, and Myroides, was observed. Gram-positive isolates were represented by the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Micrococcus. One isolate showed a signif icant phylogenetic distance to the closest neighbor and could represent а novel species. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates from Magura Cave were investigated for hydrolytic enzymes production, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Predominance of producers of protease (87%, followed by xanthan lyase (64%, lipase (40%, β-glycosidase (40%, and phytase (21% was observed. Over 75% of the isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave could be a valuable source of industrially relevant psychrotolerant enzymes and bioactive metabolites. This study is a f irst report on the taxonomic composition and biological activity of culturable bacteria inhabiting a cave in Bulgaria.

  19. Acadian biospeleology: composition and ecology of cave fauna of Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley Max

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate and invertebrate fauna, environment and habitats of caves and disused mines in Nova Scotia and southern NewBrunswick are provisionally catalogued and described, based on field collections made over many years. The area was glaciatedand the subterranean fauna consists of non-troglobites all of which have arrived and colonised the caves during or following finalrecession of the Pleistocene glaciers. The statistical composition of the fauna at the higher taxonomic level is similar to that inOntario, but is less species rich and there are some notable ecological and other differences. Porcupine dung accumulations are animportant habitat in the region, constituting a cold-temperate analogue of the diverse guano habitats of southern and tropical caves.Parietal assemblages are, as in other cold temperate regions, an important component of the invertebrate fauna but here includespecies derived directly from dung communities: another parallel with tropical guano caves. An unanticipated finding is the numberof non-indigenous species now utilising local caves. These appear to have colonised unfilled ecological niches, suggesting thatpost-glacial recolonisation of the subterranean habitat in Nova Scotia has been relatively delayed. Finally the general and regionalsignificance of the subterranean fauna is briefly discussed.

  20. Coarsely crystalline cryogenic cave carbonate – a new archive to estimate the Last Glacial minimum permafrost depth in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Richter, D. K.; Filippi, Michal; Živor, Roman; Deininger, M.; Mangini, A.; Scholz, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2012), s. 1821-1837. ISSN 1814-9324 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : caves * cave carbonate * permafrost * Last Glacial Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2012

  1. Molluscan and Vertebrate Successions from the Velká Ružínská Cave (East Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ložek, Vojen; Horáček, I.

    Thüringen : Beier und Beran, 2007, s. 224-232. ISBN 978-3-937517-79-7. - (Neue Ausgrabungen und Funde in Thüringen) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : molluscs * Mollusca * zoology * caves * Velká Ružínská Cave (Slovakia) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. Stability Assessment of the Gökgöl Karstic Cave (Zonguldak, Turkey) by Analytical and Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniş, Melih; Çolak, Berdan

    2015-11-01

    Turkey has many cave formations and some caves are important tourist attractions. Theses caves have natural and historical characteristics that need to be investigated and protected. An important rock engineering topic is the identification of possible rock falls and collapses in caves that are open to the public and planning preventive measures. In this study, the locations and types of instability problems were identified along a section of 875 m of the Gökgöl cave in Zonguldak, Turkey. The main instabilities were identified as block falls controlled by discontinuities, rock block sliding, and flexural toppling. To obtain the intact rock and rock mass properties of the stratified limestone which is the host rock of the cave, field and laboratory studies were conducted. Stability assessments for four different sections inside the cave were carried out using numerical and analytical methods, and the results were compared. The results of the analyses revealed that some countermeasures and precautions must be implemented to increase the stability in some areas of the Gökgöl cave, especially those which have potential for regional failure.

  3. Some brief considerations concerning the caves from Bistriţa-Năsăud county (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel-Claudiu Gavriloaie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Bistriţa-Năsăud county (Romania there are several interesting caves, most of them beinglocated in Rodnei Mountains. They are generally researched only for scientific issues, being closed for thepublic. In this paper we briefly discuss about 4 of these caves.

  4. Quaternary paleomagnetic rotations and tectonics of Slovenia (Adria-Eurasia¨collision zone): data from cave sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrabec, M.; Pruner, Petr; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    Bratislava : Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2014 - (Bučová, J.). s. 69-70 ISBN 978-80-85754-31-5. [ESSEWECA /9./. 05.11.2014-07.11.2014, Smolenica] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * tectonics * cave sediments * Adria-Eurasia collision zone Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. Protecting the Water Quality of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri, Through Groundwater Recharge Area Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cave...

  6. Dinotrema cavernicola sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, a new species of the genus Dinotrema Foerster from caves of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Peris Felipo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinotrema cavernicola sp. n. was collected in two caves in Spain. This is the first Dinotrema species known to occur in caves. This new species is described and compared to D. affine (Fischer, 1973 and D. collybiae Munk & Peris-Felipo, 2014, species sharing a mid-longitudinal carina on the propodeum.

  7. Dinotrema cavernicola sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae), a new species of the genus Dinotrema Foerster from caves of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Peris Felipo; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.; Kees van Achterberg; Toni Pérez Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Dinotrema cavernicola sp. n. was collected in two caves in Spain. This is the first Dinotrema species known to occur in caves. This new species is described and compared to D. affine (Fischer, 1973) and D. collybiae Munk & Peris-Felipo, 2014, species sharing a mid-longitudinal carina on the propodeum.

  8. Description of Odontozona addaia spec. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidae) from a marine cave in the island of Minorca, western Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretus, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Odontozona addaia, a new species of stenopodid shrimp is described from a marine cave in the island of Minorca (Balearic Islands), being the first record of the genus for the western Mediterranean. One male and one ovigerous female were found during a systematic propspection of several Balearic cave

  9. Indoor radon concentration levels in Mexican caves, using nuclear track methodology, and the relationship with living habits of the bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of a study of the radon levels in four caves in Mexico: Los Riscos Cave and El Judio Cave in the State of Queretaro, and Coyozochico Cave and Karmidas Cave in the State of Puebla. The measurements were made using the passive closed-end cup system, with CR-39 (LantrackR) as detection material, and following protocols established for the measurement of indoor radon, developed at the Dosimetry Applications Project of the Physics Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The radon concentration at one location with Karmidas Cave reached more than 60,000 Bq/m3, while concentrations in the other three caves varied from 83.1-1216.0 Bq/m3, was found. During the study was observed an interesting coincidence between the radon concentration distribution inside the caves, and the bat colonies location. In general, the bat colonies are located at the medium or low radon concentration levels zones. (author)

  10. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The 222Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m-3 to 7120 Bq m-3, with an annual average of 3562 Bq m-3. In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated

  11. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, J; Sánchez-Moral, S; Cañaveras, J C; Cuezva, S; Soler, V

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The (222)Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m(-3) to 7120 Bq m(-3), with an annual average of 3562 Bq m(-3). In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated. PMID:15701381

  12. Multiparametric surveillance of conservation measures at subterranean rock-art sites: case of Altamira cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Anton, E.; Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Canaveras, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Altamira cave (North of Spain) contains one of the most worldwide important representations of Palaeolithic art. Changes introduced in the cave environment due to the numerous conditioning projects and massive amounts of visitors in the past led in severe disruptions on the pattern of energy-matter exchange with the external atmosphere. Once the Altamira Cave was definitely closed to visitors in 2002, several conservation actions were progressively carried out with the aim to reinforce the isolation of the main cave emplacement with rock art (Polychrome Hall) and, therefore, limiting the dispersion of microorganisms and the supply of nutrients by airflow, water condensation on rock surfaces or seepage water. Main preservation measure was the installation of new access doors equipped with a thermal insulation system. Multi-annual instrumental monitoring of the atmosphere-soil-cave system has allowed us to control the degree of environmental recovery of cave environment and its trend towards the equilibrium and quasi-natural conditions. The monitoring program was focused on the main microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, radon, air velocity, among others) in several profiles from floor to ceiling along the main rooms of the cave. Since the entrance system was modified in 2008 several changes in cave environment have been registered. Absolute annual values of temperature, velocity of air and their annual ranges variation have progressively been reduced. Observed 222Rn and CO2 convective short period fluctuations have been reduced, mainly during the winter season. The beginning of the degassing period in the cave has been delayed. Differences between inner and outer zones of the cavity have increased reaching the maximum value during the summer season (period of greater connexion with outside environment). For instance: in Polychrome Hall the range temperature falls from 1.41oC in 2007-2008 to 1.28oC in 2010-2011; in Crossing Hall

  13. CAVE: the design of a precision metrology instrument for studying performance of KDP crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, R.L., LLNL

    1998-03-30

    A device has been developed to measure the frequency conversion performance of large aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. Third harmonic generation using ICDP is critical to the function of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. The crystals in the converter can be angularly or thermally tuned but are subject to larger aperture inhomogeneities that are functions of growth manufacturing and - mounting. The CAVE (Crystal Alignment Verification Equipment) instrument scans the crystals in a thermally and mechanically controlled environment to determine the local peak tuning angles. The CAVE can then estimate the optimum tuning angle and conversion efficiency over the entire aperture. Coupled with other metrology techniques, the CAVE will help determine which crystal life-cycle components most affect harmonic conversion.

  14. Organic matter of fossil origin in the amberine speleothems from El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gázquez Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual amberine-coloured speleothems were recently found in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Spain. Chromophore elements such as Fe, Mn, Cd, Co or Ti were not present in significant quantities. Rather, our data show that their colour comes from leachates of fossilized organic material hosted in the carbonaceous Urgonian facies of the host rock. These leachates are related to the Cretaceous amber deposit that has been recently discovered in the vicinity of El Soplao Cave. The presence of humic and fulvic acids of fossil origin were confirmed by IR and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the carbonaceous strata and the speleothems. In addition, the mineralogy of the amberine speleothems was studied. Alternating bands made of calcite and aragonite reveal that periods of humidity and aridity occurred within the cave during the speleothem genesis.

  15. The computerised accountancy system for the Irradiated Fuel Cave at PFR at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computerised accountancy system (IFCAS) has been produced for the Irradiated Fuel Cave attached to PFR at Dounreay to supersede an existing paper-based system which was becoming increasingly unworkable with increasing cave throughput. The new system has been implemented as a set of programs written in the COBOL language for one of the 2 DEC-PDP 11/70 computers at Dounreay. The central feature of the new system is the on-line program used by the cave operators to record storage and all operations as they occur. The records of such entities as locations, containers and components are stored on a special type of computer file called a multi-key indexed sequential file. File store management is controlled by the DEC software package for Record Management Services, RMS-11, and the formatted interactive data entry at video terminals is controlled by the DEC software package, Forms Management System, FMS-11. (author)

  16. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  17. A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam, part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail extending towards the entrance. The dark blue-green colour down the centre suggests that cyanobacterial growth follows the track of the wind-deflected roof drip. The dry silty cave sediment provides material for accretion onto the biological mat. This is the only example known from Borneo and one of the very few known from outside of Australia.

  18. Hydrological and tectonic strain forces measured from a karstic cave using extensometers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ping; Quinif, Yves; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Meus, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor the hydrological strain forces of the karst micro fissure networks and local fault activities, six capacitive extensometers were installed inside a karstic cave near the midi-fault in Belgium. From 2004 to 2008, the nearby Lomme River experienced several heavy rains, leading to flooding inside the Rochefort cave. The highest water level rose more than thirteen meters, the karstic fissure networks were filled with water, which altered the pore pressure of the cave. The strain response to the hydrological induced pore pressure changes are separately deduced from fifteen events when the water level exceeded six meters. The strain measured from the extensometer show a linear contraction during the water recharge and a nonlinear exponential extension releasing during the water discharge. The sensitivity and stability of the sensor are constrained by comparing continuously observed tidal strain waves with a theoretical model. Finally, a local fault deformation rate around $0.03 \\pm 0.002$mm/yr i...

  19. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  20. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae from caves of the quartzite Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the sandfly fauna of two quartzite caves in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, located in the municipality of Diamantina, state Minas Gerais. From August 2010-July 2011, entomological sampling was performed in the caves of Salitre and Monte Cristo with two HP light traps exposed in the photic and aphotic zones of each cave. The sandfly fauna consisted of 17 species, among which Lutzomyia cipoensis was predominant (54.76%. The male/female ratio in the total captures was 1:2.5. The aphotic zone showed the highest frequency of specimens captured (65%. A greater density of sandflies occurred during the summer (January-February, coinciding with the period of higher temperatures, humidity and rainfall. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia pessoai, proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniasis, is of concern because the area is visited by many tourists.

  1. Revision of genus Texoreddellia Wygodzinsky, 1973 (Hexapoda, Zygentoma, Nicoletiidae), a prominent element of the cave-adapted fauna of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinasa, Luis; Bartolo, Nicole D; Centone, Danielle M; Haruta, Charisse S; Reddell, James R

    2016-01-01

    While many cave-adapted organisms tend to be endemic to single locations or restricted to single karstic regions, the troglobitic silverfish insects of genus Texoreddellia can be found in scores of different cave localities that cover a range of nearly 160,000 km2. They are among the most important and common representatives of the cave-adapted fauna of Texas and Coahuila, in northern Mexico. Using morphological and mitochondrial gene sequence data, we have corroborated the presence of at least six different species within the genus and provided species identifications to populations inhabiting 153 different cave locations. Results show that species ranges are larger than previously reported and that ranges tend to greatly overlap with each other. We have also found that different species of Texoreddellia commonly inhabit the same cave in sympatry. Data supports that some species of Texoreddellia can easily disperse through the extensive network of cracks, fissures and smaller cavities near the surface and epikarst. PMID:27395583

  2. Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan'an, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, J.; Feige, S.; Xie Quingling; Schreiber, U.; Wieditz, K.; Wittmann, C.; Luo Xiarong

    2000-04-01

    {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations are 42 (n = 18) and 77Bq m{sup {minus}3} (n = 15) for brick houses and 92 (n = 23) and 215 (n = 17) Bq m{sup {minus}3} for cave dwellings. To classify the dwellings in respect to their cave-character, the fraction of walls having a direct contact to the loess is calculated for each dwelling. While the {sup 222}Rn concentrations are increasing with higher fractions, the {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not correlated with this fraction. On the other hand, due to the short half-life of {sup 220}Rn the distance from the measuring point to the walls is negatively correlated with the {sup 220}Rn concentration, while there is no correlation with the {sup 222}Rn concentration. Therefore, concentric isolines of {sup 220}Rn concentrations showing a strong gradient were detected in cave dwellings. An influence of the ventilation rate is distinct for {sup 222}Rn but weak for {sup 220}Rn. The effective dose rates for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn and their progenies are calculated for brick houses (2.7 mSv y{sup {minus}1}), cave dwellings (7.1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}), and for traditional cave dwellings with a bed foundation built with loess (16.7 mSv y{sup {minus}1}). These calculations are based on summer measurements only. It is expected that the true effective dose rates will be significantly higher.

  3. Detritus processing in lentic cave habitats in the neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lentic cave habitats are almost always heterotrophic habitats where there are food and oxygen input from the surface. This hydrological exchange seems to be the key factor shaping most groundwater communities. Litter processing in cave water environments has not been experimentally studied as much as it has in lotic subterranean systems, although detritus is likely a critical resource for organisms inhabiting shallow groundwater habitats. The present study sought to evaluate the processing rates and the nitrogen and phosphorous dynamics in plant debris deposited in lentic habitats of two Neotropical limestone caves during 99 days. 84–10×10 cm2 litterbags with mesh sizes of 0.04 mm2 and 9 mm2 were used. In each weighed litter bag, 50 green, intact plant leaf disks (± 2.0 gr/bag were conditioned. At the end of the experiment, the average weight loss was only 17.4%. No macroinvertebrates were found associated to the debris, but significant differences in the processing rate in relation to the cave and mesh size were observed. The weight loss rate of the plant debris was considered slow (average 0.003 K-day. The amount of nitrogen and remaining phosphorous in the plant debris in the two caves showed variations over time with a tendency to increase probably due to the development of microorganisms which assimilate nitrogen and phosphorus. The slow processing rate of the plant debris can be due mainly to the fact that these lentic cave habitats are restrictive to colonization by shredder invertebrates. Furthermore, the abrasive force of the water, which plays an important role in the processing and availability of fragmented debris for colonization by microorganisms, is absent.

  4. Microbiological study of the dripping waters in Altamira cave (Santillana del Mar, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiz, L; Groth, I; Gonzalez, I; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    The culturable microbial populations in dripping waters from Altamira cave were studied and compared with those of the ceiling rock. Water communities have low proportions of gram-positive bacteria, and are mainly composed of gram-negative rods and cocci (Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae), while those of ceiling rocks are mainly Streptomyces spp. The community differences are probably related to environmental cave conditions: high humidity, relatively low and stable temperature, water pH close to neutrality and nature of the organic matter. All these factors seem to favor colonization and long-term growth of actinomycetes over other heterotrophic bacteria on ceiling rocks. PMID:10353807

  5. Actinomycetes in Karstic caves of northern Spain (Altamira and Tito Bustillo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, I; Vettermann, R; Schuetze, B; Schumann, P; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    A variety of isolation procedures were carried out to study the involvement of bacteria in the colonisation and biodeterioration of Spanish caves with paleolithic rock art (Altamira and Tito Bustillo). The applied techniques mainly aimed to isolate heterotrophic bacteria such as streptomycetes, nocardioform and coryneform actinomycetes, and other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes were the most abundant gram-positive bacteria in the caves. Actinomycetes revealed a great taxonomic diversity with the predominant isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Members of the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Amycolatopsis, Saccharothrix, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and coccoid actinomycetes (family Micrococcaceae) were also found. PMID:10353805

  6. 3D Digital Surveying and Modelling of Cave Geometry: Application to Paleolithic Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Diego González-Aguilera; Angel Muñoz-Nieto; Javier Gómez-Lahoz; Jesus Herrero-Pascual; Gabriel Gutierrez-Alonso

    2009-01-01

    3D digital surveying and modelling of cave geometry represents a relevant approach for research, management and preservation of our cultural and geological legacy. In this paper, a multi-sensor approach based on a terrestrial laser scanner, a high-resolution digital camera and a total station is presented. Two emblematic caves of Paleolithic human occupation and situated in northern Spain, “Las Caldas” and “Peña de Candamo”, have been chosen to put in practise this approach. As a result, an i...

  7. Audio-Visual Attractors for Capturing Attention to the Screens When Walking in CAVE Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Grani, Francesco; Argelaguet Sanz, Ferran; Gouranton, Valérie; Badawi, Marwan; Gaugne, Ronan; Serafin, Stefania; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2014-01-01

    International audience In four-sided CAVE-like VR systems, the absence of the rear wall has been shown to decrease the level of immersion and can introduce breaks in presence. In this paper it is investigated to which extent user's attention can be driven by visual and auditory stimuli in a four-sided CAVE-like system. An experiment was conducted in order to analyze how user attention is diverted while physically walking in a virtual environment, when audio and/or visual attractors are pre...

  8. Numerical simulation on the delivery law of gob gas of fully mechanized caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-gang; ZHANG Wei; LIN Hai-fei

    2008-01-01

    According to the cover rock caving features, the gob of fully mechanized cavingface was divided into 3 zones: natural collected zone, pressure effecting zone and pressstable zone. Based on these and the gob gas flow control equation, and considered the in-fluence to the mining fissured zone of gas drainage, also made use of CFD software, wefound an not uniform 3D numerical model of gob gas seepage and got the gas emissionlaw in gob of fully mechanized caving face (with or without discharge measures), and thiscan guide the engineering practice in some aspects.

  9. Study on dangers of methane in the gob of fully mechanized caving mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guang-li; WU Li-rong; ZOU De-yun

    2007-01-01

    Divided the gob gas in different types according to falling structure and spatial patterns of gob of the fully mechanized caving mining and analyzed its main form of harm.This passage preliminarily studied the law of unusual gush of gob gas of the fully mechanized caving mining. According to the basic condition for the gas explosion, made comprehensive analysis and appraisal about the oxygen condition, gas concentration distribute and fire source conditions. And find that there is the dangerous district of gas explosion in a certain area of the producing gob and give the three zone theory of gob gas explosion.

  10. A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg Joyce; McFarlane Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam), part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail ...

  11. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgins Greg; Brook George A.; Marais Eugene

    2007-01-01

    In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered i...

  12. Radon air concentrations in karst caves and estimates of personal doses at employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of the determination of seasonal variations of radon concentration in the air in 10 Slovak karst caves frequently visited by tourists, together with estimates of doses to 13 tourist guides from 7 caves over a 2 year period. Solid state nuclear track detectors of the CR-39 type were used to measure annual radon concentrations. Short-term measurements of radon and its progeny were performed by means of 170 ml Lucas cells. Personal doses were measured with a pair of CR-39 detectors in a passive two-chamber system. Results of the measurements and estimates are given in graphs and tables. (A.K.)

  13. The materiality of dung: the manipulation of dung in Neolithic Mediterranean caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formation of layers of burnt herbivore dung in Neolithic, Eneolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean caves. While these layers are clearly connected with transhumant pastoralism and the practice of keeping herds in the caves, their formation should not be seen as the result of purely practical and ‘rational’ reasons. In this paper, I develop an argument that they are remnants of a complex manipulation of substances which includes burning dung to make white ash. Thus instead of seeing dung as a culturally neutral refuse which has to be disposed of, we might see its burning and deposition as the cultural manipulation of potent substance.

  14. Bat hibernacula in a cave-rich landscape of the northern Dinaric karst, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Krystufek

    2008-01-01

    AbstractThe northern Dinaric karst in Slovenia (area 6880 km2) has 5470 caves of variable size (length 2–20570 m, depth up to 650 m) scattered along the entire elevation gradient of the region (74–1785 m above sea level). Sixteen bat species, of 26 known to occur in the area, were recorded in 156 caves (118 hibernacula) between 1990 and 2003. Miniopterus schreibersii was the most abundant species observed in these c...

  15. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    OpenAIRE

    Mulec Janez; Krištůfek Václav; Chroňáková Alica

    2012-01-01

    RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/) for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mo...

  16. An absolutely dated high-resolution stalagmite record from Lianhua Cave in central China: Climate forcing and comparison with Wanxiang Cave and Dongge Cave records over the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Chun; Yin, Jian-Jun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Mii, Horng-Sheng; Li, Ting-Yong

    2015-04-01

    A 33-cm long aragonite stalagmite (LHD-1) from Lianhua Cave has been dated by MC-ICPMS 230Th/U method on 41 horizons. Very high U contents (1~6ppm) and low Th contents yield excellent 230Th/U dates which provide reliable chronology of the stalagmite on sub-decadal time scale over the past 3350 years. A total of 1716 samples have been measured for δ18O and δ13C, spanning annual resolution over the past 1820 years. The stalagmite δ18O is not only influenced by the 'amount effect', but also affected by the moisture source. Enhanced the tropical monsoon trough under strong EASM brings higher spring quarter rainfall with isotopically light monsoonal moisture in the cave site, resulting in lighter stalagmite δ18O. On decadal or longer time scales, increased solar activity produces warmer condition and stronger summer monsoon which lead to wet climates. On interannual-to-decadal scales, the Walker Circulation under El Niño conditions during cold periods will shift toward the central Pacific and result in weakening of EASM. Under such a circumstance, dry climates will be prevailed in the study area. Based on the δ18O and δ13C records, we have deciphered climatic and vegetation changes of the study area in decadal scales. The highly precise dated LHD-1 record has been compared with previous published Wanxiang Cave and Dongge Cave records. Although some similarities can be found, there are major discrepancies among the three well-dated records, especially during AD 500-700 and AD 1300-1600. In additional, the major weak monsoon periods defined in the Wanxiang Cave record during late Tang Dynasty, late Yuan Dynasty and late Ming Dynasty are not supported by the LHD-1 record. The heaviest δ18O peaks (more than five continuous heavy values) over the past 2000 years appeared around AD 1990-2003, 1657-1662, 1220-1228, 663-669, 363-370, and 1082-1090 (in the order of heavy to light). None of these periods occurred Chinese dynasty collapse.

  17. Isotopic evidences and constraints in the chemoautotrophic system of the Movile cave, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stable isotope (2H, 13C, 34S) content for samples from the chemoautotrophic ecosystem of the Movile cave have been used to provide information about the life in this closed system.. The groundwater is rich in H2S (8-12 mg/l) and the cave atmosphere is poor in oxygen (7-10%), rich in CO2 (2-3.5%) and contains a significant amount of CH4 (1-2%). The 13C content of cave organic matter exhibits low values of δ13C (between -47.5 and -37.5 0/00) and does not reflect the isotopic composition of the local organic materials from surface and subsurface. The concentration of 13C in the area near to cave is typical for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that use photoautotrophic carbon fixation (between -30 and -23 0/00). This discrepancy suggests other way of carbon fixation in the trophic web and it is possible that the organic matter is derived from lipid-rich organisms biosynthesized by chemosynthetic microorganisms which use H2S as energy source for carbon fixation. Gases collected from the groundwater (H2S) and the cave atmosphere (CH4 and CO2) have isotope ratios that point out the following: the groundwater from cave is not originated from Black Sea. The δ34S values range between +3.5 to +4.2 0/00 for cave being rich in 34S versus isotopic composition of deep water from Black Sea (-40 0/00); the sulphur isotope content from H2S (+5.9 to +8.3 0/00) and SO42-(+1.1 0/00) presents a contrast trend versus the general trend of the isotopic fractionation of the microbially mediated sulphur transformations. In the cave, H2S with δ34S values lower than that of the SO42- reactant were not recorded; the carbon isotope data for CO2-CH4 pairs (-23 0/00 for CO2 and -56.5 0/00 for CH4) of the cave gases cannot clearly delineate the biogenic methane origin as marine or non-marine provenance; the equilibrium carbon isotope fractionation between CH4 and CO2 is αc = 1. 35 indicating that the CO2 reduction pathway for methanogenesis is very improbable and the natural conditions of

  18. Climate controls on rainfall isotopes and their effects on cave drip water and speleothem growth: the case of Molinos cave (Teruel, NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Caballud, Ana; Sancho, C.; Bartolomé, Miguel; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Estrela, María J.; Corell, David; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Cacho, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of stable isotopes in speleothems in terms of past temperature variability or precipitation rates requires a comprehensive understanding of the climatic factors and processes that influence the δ18O signal in the way through the atmosphere to the cave, where carbonate precipitates acquiring its final isotopic composition. This study presents for the first time in the Iberia Peninsula an integrated analysis of the isotopic composition of rainfall (δ18Op) during 2010–2012 yea...

  19. Analysis of the main factors affecting the evaluation of the radon dose in workplaces: The case of tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High concentrations of radon exist in several workplaces like tourist caves mainly because of the low ventilation rates existing at these enclosures. In this sense, in its 1990 publication, the ICRP recommended that high exposures of radon in workplaces should be considered as occupational exposure. In developed caves in which guides provide tours for the general public great care is needed for taking remedial actions concerning radon, because in some circumstances forced ventilation may alter the humidity inside the cave affecting some of the formations or paintings that attract tourists. Tourist guides can work about 1900 h per year, so the only option to protect them and other cave workers from radon exposure is to apply an appropriate system of radiation protection mainly based on limitation of exposure by restricting the amount of time spent in the cave. Because of the typical environmental conditions inside the caves, the application of these protecting actions requires to know some indoor air characteristics like particle concentration, as well as radon progeny behaviour in order to get more realistic effective dose values In this work the results of the first two set of radon measurements program carried out in 10 caves located in the region of Cantabria (Spain) are presented

  20. Analysis of the main factors affecting the evaluation of the radon dose in workplaces: The case of tourist caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos [Department of Medical Physics, RADON Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Quindos, Luis Santiago [Department of Medical Physics, RADON Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail: quindosl@unican.es; Fuente, Ismael [Department of Medical Physics, RADON Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Nicolas, Jorge [Department of Medical Physics, RADON Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Quindos, Luis [Department of Medical Physics, RADON Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    High concentrations of radon exist in several workplaces like tourist caves mainly because of the low ventilation rates existing at these enclosures. In this sense, in its 1990 publication, the ICRP recommended that high exposures of radon in workplaces should be considered as occupational exposure. In developed caves in which guides provide tours for the general public great care is needed for taking remedial actions concerning radon, because in some circumstances forced ventilation may alter the humidity inside the cave affecting some of the formations or paintings that attract tourists. Tourist guides can work about 1900 h per year, so the only option to protect them and other cave workers from radon exposure is to apply an appropriate system of radiation protection mainly based on limitation of exposure by restricting the amount of time spent in the cave. Because of the typical environmental conditions inside the caves, the application of these protecting actions requires to know some indoor air characteristics like particle concentration, as well as radon progeny behaviour in order to get more realistic effective dose values In this work the results of the first two set of radon measurements program carried out in 10 caves located in the region of Cantabria (Spain) are presented.

  1. A preliminary report on the newly found Tianyuan Cave,a Late Pleistocene human fossil site near Zhoukoudian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Haowen; SHANG Hong; ZHANG Shuangquan; CHEN Fuyou

    2004-01-01

    The Tianyuan Cave is the only human fossil-bearing site containing rich mammalian fossils found in the last decades near Zhoukoudian. Up to now more than 34 specimens of the human body have been recovered, and the mammalian fossils can be put into 29 species. Cervids dominate the fauna, and carnivores are very rare. Based on the primary examination, the human fossils can be attributed to the species Homo sapiens. All the mammalian fossils, except one between tooth of Crocuta belong to the species that still exist today. But some of them are the first records in fossil form north of the Yellow River, such as Arctonyx and Capricornis. Based on the mammalian fauna study, it seems that the Tianyuan Cave can be correlated with the Upper Cave. Sixty-three percent of the species of the mammalian fauna from the Tianyuan Cave are also present in the Upper Cave. The characters of the deposits also share some similarities between the Tianyuan Cave and the Upper Cave; both of them are mainly composed of breccia without cement. The dating using the U-series method on deer tooth samples indicates that the geological age of the new site is around 25 thousand years B.P. This is the first discovery of human sites outside the core area of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian, which throws new light onto this world famous site complex.

  2. Comparison of techniques for dating of subsurface ice from Monlesi ice cave, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetscher, Marc; Bolius, David; Schwikowski, Margit; Schotterer, Ulrich; Smart, Peter L.

    The presence of cave ice is documented in many karst regions but very little is known about the age range of this potential paleoclimate archive. This case study from the Monlesi ice cave, Swiss Jura Mountains, demonstrates that dating of cave ice is possible using a multi-parameter approach. Ice petrography, debris content and oxygen isotope composition have the potential for identification of annual growth layers, but require a continuous core from the ice deposits, limiting application of this approach. Furthermore, complete melting of ice accumulations from individual years may occur, causing amalgamation of several annual bands. Use of3H content of the ice and14C dating of organic debris present in the ice proved to be of limited utility, providing rather broad bounds for the actual age. Initial estimates based on 210Pb analyses from clear ice samples gave results comparable to those from other methods. The most reliable techniques applied were the determination of ice turnover rates, and the dating of anthropogenic inclusions (a roof tile) in the ice. These suggest, respectively, that the base of the cave ice was a minimum of 120 and a maximum of 158 years old. Therefore, our data support the idea that mid-latitude and low-altitude subsurface ice accumulations result from modern deposition processes rather than from presence of Pleistocene relict ice.

  3. Bat guano as a driver of microbial metabolic activities in a cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Krištůfek, Václav; Baldrian, Petr; Mulec, J.

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2014. s. 31. [22 nd International Karstological School "Classical Karst". Karst and Microorganisms. 16.06.2014-20.06.2014, Postojna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : bat guano * cave * nutrient cycling * bacteria * fungi * chitin Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. New species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) recorded from caves in Nevada, USA

    OpenAIRE

    R. Henry Disney; Steven Taylor; Michael E. Slay; Jean K. Krejca

    2011-01-01

    Five new species of scuttle fly are reported from caves in Nevada, USA, namely Aenigmatias bakerae Disney, Megaselia excuniculus Disney, M. krejcae Disney, M. folliculorum Disney, M. necpleuralis Disney and a female Megaselia that can not be named until linked to its male.

  5. New species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae recorded from caves in Nevada, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry Disney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of scuttle fly are reported from caves in Nevada, USA, namely Aenigmatias bakerae Disney, Megaselia excuniculus Disney, M. krejcae Disney, M. folliculorum Disney, M. necpleuralis Disney and a female Megaselia that can not be named until linked to its male.

  6. Moonmilk deposits originate from specific bacterial communities in Altamira Cave (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria C; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The influence of bacterial communities on the formation of carbonate deposits such as moonmilk was investigated in Altamira Cave (Spain). The study focuses on the relationship between the bacterial communities at moonmilk deposits and those forming white colonizations, which develop sporadically throughout the cave. Using molecular fingerprinting of the metabolically active bacterial communities detected through RNA analyses, the development of white colonizations and moonmilk deposits showed similar bacterial profiles. White colonizations were able to raise the pH as a result of their metabolism (reaching in situ pH values above 8.5), which was proportional to the nutrient supply. Bacterial activity was analyzed by nanorespirometry showing higher metabolic activity from bacterial colonizations than uncolonized areas. Once carbonate deposits were formed, bacterial activity decreased drastically (down to 5.7% of the white colonization activity). This study reports on a specific type of bacterial community leading to moonmilk deposit formation in a cave environment as a result of bacterial metabolism. The consequence of this process is a macroscopic phenomenon of visible carbonate depositions and accumulation in cave environments. PMID:20717660

  7. Direct radiocarbon dates for prehistoric paintings at the Altamira, El Castillo and Niaux caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among things that most strikingly distinguish modern humans from other hominids and the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to represent things and events pictorially. Complex paintings of the type discovered in the Altamira, El Castillo, Niaux and Lascaux caves represent an important stepping stone in the cultural evolution of humankind. Until now dates were derived from style or dated remains left by prehistoric visitors and could be biased by prolonged occupation or visits unrelated to painting activity. Here we report the first radiocarbon dates for the charcoal used to draw stylistically similar bisons in these caves: 14,000 ± 400 yr BP in the Spanish caves of Altamira, 12,990 ± 200 yr BP in El Castillo, and 12,890 ± 160 yr BP for a bison of different style in the French Pyrenean cave of Niaux. Our results demonstrate the imprecise nature of stylistic dating and show that painting dates derived from remains of human activities should be used with caution. (Author)

  8. New data on the Pseudoscorpion fauna of the caves of the Bakony Mountains, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Novák

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Examining cave samples from the Bakony Museum of the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Hungary two pseudoscorpion species were found; Chthonius ressli Beier, 1956 and Neobisium carcinoides (Hermann, 1804. C. ressli is new to the pseudoscorpion fauna of Hungary. The morphological characters of the specimens found are discussed in detail and drawings of the C. ressli specimens are given.

  9. A new species of starfish (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from an anchialine cave in the Mexican Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín; Alfredo Laguarda-Figueras

    2010-01-01

    Copidaster cavernicola n. sp. is described from an anchialine cave system in Cozumel, Mexico. Copidaster cavernicola differs from its congeners in having 1-8 papulae in each papular area, and numerous excavate pedicellariae on all surfaces, except between furrow spines and subambulacral spines. C. cavernicola is possibly endemic to the anchialine system which it inhabits.

  10. Seismic signatures of carbonate caves affected by near-surface absorptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ying; Wang, Yanghua

    2015-12-01

    The near-surface absorption within a low-velocity zone generally has an exponential attenuation effect on seismic waves. But how does this absorption affect seismic signatures of karstic caves in deep carbonate reservoirs? Seismic simulation and analysis reveals that, although this near-surface absorption attenuates the wave energy of a continuous reflection, it does not alter the basic kinematic shape of bead-string reflections, a special seismic characteristic associated with carbonate caves in the Tarim Basin, China. Therefore, the bead-strings in seismic profiles can be utilized, with a great certainty, for interpreting the existence of caves within the deep carbonate reservoirs and for evaluating their pore spaces. Nevertheless, the difference between the central frequency and the peak frequency is increased along with the increment in the absorption. While the wave energy of bead-string reflections remains strong, due to the interference of seismic multiples generated by big impedance contrast between the infill materials of a cave and the surrounding carbonate rocks, the central frequency is shifted linearly with respect to the near-surface absorption. These two features can be exploited simultaneously, for a stable attenuation analysis of field seismic data.

  11. Scale model study on caving and lowering of roof strata behind longwall face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kazuhiko; Itakura, Kenichi; Hishiya, Tomoyuki; Nakagaki, Kaoru

    1987-01-25

    A scale model study on mechanical behaviors of the roof strata behind a longwall face is carried out and results obtained are discussed. In the model, the immediate and main roofs consist of laminated thin strata having a design strength. Results show that the roof behind a longwall face behaves like a beam. It undergoes initial fracture as the span exceeds a certain length. The failure progresses towards the upper beam elements as the face advances, and it reaches a saturated state when the goaf is filled with caved fragments. After this, the fracture proceeds steadily. Where the caving stays within the immediate roof, fracture occurs immediately behind the rear end of the face support as the support moves ahead. Where the caving reaches the main roof, fracture occurs periodically depending on the pitch of cracks across the main roof beam. Based on these findings, a roof model consisting of a beam and blocks is constructed to predict the caving angle and the self-supporting roof span up to the initial fracture. (10 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs)

  12. Life in the Underworld: Anchialine cave biology in the era of speleogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Pérez-Moreno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anchialine caves contain haline bodies of water with underground connections to the ocean and limited exposure to open air. Despite being found on islands and peninsular coastlines around the world, the isolation of anchialine systems has facilitated the evolution of high levels of endemism among their inhabitants. The unique characteristics of anchialine caves and of their predominantly crustacean biodiversity nominate them as particularly interesting study subjects for evolutionary biology. However, there is presently a distinct scarcity of modern molecular methods being employed in the study of anchialine cave ecosystems. The use of current and emerging molecular techniques, e.g., next-generation sequencing (NGS, bestows an exceptional opportunity to answer a variety of long-standing questions pertaining to the realms of speciation, biogeography, population genetics, and evolution, as well as the emergence of extraordinary morphological and physiological adaptations to these unique environments. The integration of NGS methodologies with traditional taxonomic and ecological methods will help elucidate the unique characteristics and evolutionary history of anchialine cave fauna, and thus the significance of their conservation in face of current and future anthropogenic threats. Here we review previous contributions to our understanding of anchialine biodiversity and evolution, and discuss the potential of “speleogenomic” methods for future research in these threatened systems.

  13. .i.Aspergillus./i. spp. associated with caves : A source of novel species and rare taxa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vít; Kolařík, Miroslav; Vaughan, M.J.

    Mexico : Laboratorio de Ecología y Sistemática, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, 2014. s. 22. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /22./. 31.08.2014-05.09.2014, Querétaro] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : microscopic fungi * European caves Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genter, D.L.

    1986-04-30

    Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and P. townsendii hibernate throughout much of the area, occasionally in mixed-species groups. Myotis leibii uses the dark and protected regions of the cave, usually wedged into tiny pockets and crevices near or at the highest portion of the ceiling. Individuals of P. townsendii may be found at any height or depth in the cave. Temperature appears to be primary limiting factor in habitat selection. Myotis leibii was found in significantly cooler air temperatures than P. townsendii. Neither species tolerated continuous temperatures below 1.5 C. Relative humidity does not seem to be a significant factor in the distribution or habitat selection of the two species in lava-tube caves. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  15. Microbial observatory of Spanish caves: assessing the origin of fungal outbreaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermosin, B.; Nováková, Alena; Jurado, V.; Laiz, L.; Porca, E.; Rogerio, M.A.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    Postojna: Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, 2010. s. 101. ISBN 978-961-269-286-5. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /20./. 29.08.2010-03.09.2010, Postojna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : microbial observatory * Spanish caves * fungal outbreaks Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. 76 FR 42654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Petition To List Grand Canyon Cave Pseudoscorpion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... biological vulnerability and threats were not available to support a proposed listing rule (54 FR 554... December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66866). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on the June 18, 2007... Grand Canyon cave scorpion) was in that group of 67 species. Based on the evaluation of the...

  17. Fungal spore content of the atmosphere of the Cave of Nerja (southern Spain): diversity and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Silvia; Trigo, M Mar; Recio, Marta; Melgar, Marta; García-Sánchez, José; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2011-01-15

    Fungal spores are of great interest in aerobiology and allergy due to their high incidence in both outdoor and indoor environments and their widely recognized ability to cause respiratory diseases and other pathologies. In this work, we study the spore content of the atmosphere of the Cave of Nerja, a karstic cavity and an important tourist attraction situated on the eastern coast of Malaga (southern Spain), which receives more than half a million visitors every year. This study was carried out over an uninterrupted period of 4 years (2002-2005) with the aid of two Hirst-type volumetric pollen traps (Lanzoni VPPS 2000) situated in different halls of the cave. In the atmosphere of the Cave of Nerja, 72 different spore types were detected during the studied period and daily mean concentrations of up to 282,195 spores/m(3) were reached. Thirty-five of the spore types detected are included within Ascomycota and Basidiomycota (19 and 16 types, respectively). Of the remaining spore types, 32 were categorized within the group of so-called imperfect fungi, while Oomycota and Myxomycota were represented by 2 and 3 spore types, respectively. Aspergillus/Penicillium was the most abundant spore type with a yearly mean percentage that represented 50% of the total, followed by Cladosporium. Finally, the origin of the fungal spores found inside the cave is discussed on the basis of the indoor/outdoor concentrations and the seasonal behaviour observed. PMID:21138779

  18. Pidoplitchkoviella terricola – an interesting fungus from the Domica Cave (Slovakia).

    OpenAIRE

    Novakova Alena

    2009-01-01

    The microfungus Pidoplitchkoviella terricola – until now it was known only as Kirilenko´s specimen isolated from Quercusrobur rhizosphere in Ukraine - was found in earthworm casts in the Domica Cave, NP Slovak Karst, Slovakia. A description andmicrophotographs of this strain are provided in this article.

  19. High-temperature and “exotic” minerals from the Cioclovina Cave, Romania: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan P. Onac

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the identification of four rare minerals in the phosphate deposit in Cioclovina Cave, Romania. Berlinite, AlPO4 and hydroxylellestadite, Ca5[(Si,P,SO4]3(OH,F,Cl are minerals that can form only at high temperatures, and would not be expected in a sedimentary environment. In this study we review the characteristics of berlinite and hydroxylellestadite from a heated sedimentary sequence in Cioclovina Cave (Romania and refine their structure from single-crystal X-ray data. Two other minerals, churchite-(Y, YPO4⋅2H2O and foggite, CaAl(PO4(OH2⋅H2O are, for the first time, described from a cave environment. The minerals were documented by means of single-crystal X-ray investigations, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron-microprobe (EMPA analyses. In addition, laboratory synthesis of berlinite was conducted and vibrational spectroscopy data were collected for hydroxylellestadite and churchite-(Y. Based on these investigations, we suggest that locally the heavily compacted phosphate-bearing clay sediments underwent a natural heating process. It is likely that in-situ bat guano combustion is responsible for generating the high-temperature environment needed for the genesis of berlinite and hydroxylellestadite. The occurrence of churchite-(Y and foggite is related to guano-leaches that reacted with subjacent limestone and different allogenic cave sediments.

  20. Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2005-01-01

    Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of solublerock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomesbreached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves thatwere originally isolated.

  1. The First Effective Dose Calculation from Radon Daughters and Aerosol Particles Measurements in Caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thinová, L.; Berka, Z.; Brandejsová, E.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    Vol. 8. Prague : Czech Technical University in Prague, 2004, s. 740-741. ISBN 80-01-02945-X. [Worskshop 2004. Prague (CZ), 00.03.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : radon concentration * cave * effective dose Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Aerosol Particle Size Distribution in Building and Caves: Impact to the Radon-Related Dose Evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, Z.; Thinová, L.; Brandejsová, E.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Froňka, A.; Milka, D.

    Prague : Czech Technical University in Prague, 2004, s. 14. ISBN 80-01-03009-1. [European Conference on Protection against Radon at Home and at Work /4./. Prague (CZ), 28.06.2004-02.07.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : radon concentration * cave * effective dose Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Assessment of the Dose from Radon and Its Decay Products in the Bozkov Dolomite Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovenská, K.; Thinová, L.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 1 (2008), s. 34-37. ISSN 0144-8420. [Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work /5./. Prague, 07.09.09-07.09.15] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : radon * aerosol size distribution * cave factor Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.951, year: 2008

  4. Effective Dose Calculation Using Radon Daughters and Aerosol Particles Measurement in Bozkov Dolomite Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thinová, L.; Berka, Z.; Brandejsová, E.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    Osaka : National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 2004. s. 120. [International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas /6./. 06.09.2004-10.09.2004, Kinki University, Osaka] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : radon concentration * cave * effective dose Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. Insights into Wasatch fault vertical slip rates using the age of sediments in Timpanogos Cave, Utah

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayo, A. L.; Bruthans, J.; Tingey, D.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Nelson, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2009), s. 275-283. ISSN 0033-5894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : neotectonics * wasatch fault slip rate * cave sediments * paleomagnetism * U-series dating Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.675, year: 2009

  6. Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of solublerock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomesbreached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves thatwere originally isolated.

  7. Speleothems from Mawsmai and Krem Phyllut caves, Meghalaya, India: some evidences on biogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Theophilus, P. K.

    2009-05-01

    The Mawsmai cave and Krem Phyllut caves, East Khasi hills, Meghalaya, India has so far not yet attracted the attention of geomicrobiologists. Observations and hypotheses on the possible influence of identified microorganisms for speleothem formations in Meghalaya are reported for the first time. XRD studies identified calcite in speleothems and gypsum in cave wall deposits as the dominant minerals. SEM-EDAX showed interesting microfabric features showing strong resemblance with fossilised bacteria, calcified filaments, needle calcite and numerous nano scale calcite crystals, highly weathered and disintegrated crystals of calcite, that point towards a significant microbial influence in its genesis. Thin section petrography showed laminated stromatolitic features. The microorganisms identified by conventional isolation and further evaluation of isolates by molecular techniques include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, Micrococcus luteus, and Actinomycetes. Microscopic observations also showed unidentifiable cocci and four unidentifiable strains of CaSO4 (gypsum) precipitating bacteria. Experimental studies confirmed that these bacteria are able to precipitate calcium minerals (calcite, gypsum, minor amounts of dolomite) in the laboratory. These results allow us to postulate that species like these may contribute to active biogenic influence in the cave formations at Meghalaya.

  8. Isotope hydrology of dripwaters in a Scottish cave and implications for stalagmite palaeoclimate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fuller

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dripwater hydrology and hydrogeochemistry is particularly useful to constrain the meaning of speleothem palaeoclimate archives, for example using δ18O signatures. Here, we calibrate the relationship between δ18O in precipitation, percolation waters and contemporary calcite deposits, at Tartair cave, Sutherland, NW Scotland, an Atlantic site sensitive to regional changes both of temperature and precipitation. Monthly precipitation displayed a 7.1‰ range in δ18O, a negative linear relationship with rainfall amount, and no correlation with temperature. Autogenically-derived cave percolation waters show little variation in δ18O during the same period and their annual weighted mean is the same as that of the local precipitation. This evidence together with hydrological data and electroconductivity values indicates that percolation waters are well mixed and dominated by stored water. Calculated values of δ18O of calcite deposited in this cave environment indicate that the cave deposits are forming close to isotopic equilibrium and kinetic effects are negligible. Comparison of a high-resolution δ18O stalagmite record with the instrumental record of climate indicates that isotopically heavy values are reflective of relatively cold, dry conditions (and vice-versa for warm, wet condition and hence that stalagmite oxygen isotopes provide an appropriate means of investigating the palaeoclimate in this location.

  9. Isotope hydrology of dripwaters in a Scottish cave and implications for stalagmite palaeoclimate research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fuller

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dripwater hydrology and hydrogeochemistry is particularly useful in constraining the meaning of speleothem palaeoclimate archives, for example using δ18O signatures. Here, we calibrate the relationship between δ18O in precipitation, percolation waters and contemporary calcite deposits, at Tartair cave, Sutherland, NW Scotland, an Atlantic site sensitive to regional changes both of temperature and precipitation. Monthly precipitation displayed a 7.1‰ range in δ18O, a negative linear relationship with rainfall amount, and no correlation with temperature. Autogenically-derived cave percolation waters show little variation in δ18O during the same period and their annual weighted mean is the same as that of the local precipitation. This evidence together with hydrological data and electroconductivity values indicates that percolation waters are well mixed and dominated by stored water. Calculated values of δ18O of calcite deposited in this cave environment indicate that the cave deposits are forming close to isotopic equilibrium and kinetic effects are negligible. Comparison of a high-resolution δ18O stalagmite record with the instrumental record of climate indicates that isotopically heavy values are reflective of relatively cold, dry conditions (and vice-versa for warm, wet condition and hence that stalagmite oxygen isotopes provide an appropriate means of investigating the palaeoclimate in this location.

  10. On the discovery of a cave lion from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Levchenko, V. A.; Chernova, O. F.; Yudin, V. G.; Bertuch, F.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.

    2015-06-01

    An incomplete postcranial skeleton (67 elements) of a cave lion, a lower jaw and a bundle of fine yellowish hair were found by a local resident in 2008 and 2009 washed out from the perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (western Chukotka). This is the first skeleton of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss) to be found in Russia. The bone sizes are similar to finds of cave lion bones known from N-E Russia, but larger than East Beringian and smaller than West European ones. The remains have been studied using a variety of methods, including morphology, morphometry, SEM-examination, AMS-dating, and isotopic study, which included examination of over 100 samples of various members of the mammoth faunal assemblage (mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, bear, etc.). The results showed that the northeastern Asian cave lion hunted mainly bison and horses, but not reindeer, unlike its Western Europe counterpart. Bone and claw sheath dating showed an unexpectedly old geochronological age of over 61,000 years (OZQ290, OZQ291), while the hair was dated 28,690 ± 130 (OZQ292), which makes its affinity with the same individual as the skeleton questionable. Further studies to investigate possible unremoved contamination and obtain more reliable date are planned.

  11. AQUAPORIN-MEDIATED CHANGES IN HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF DEEP TREE ROOTS ACCESSED VIA CAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although deep roots can contribute substantially to whole-tree water use, little is known about deep root functioning because of limited access for in situ measurements. We used a cave system on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas to investigate the physiology of water transport in roots at 18-20 ...

  12. Avifaunal changes revealed in Quaternary deposits near Waitomo Caves, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late Pleistocene (23,000-10,000 14C yr BP) and Holocene (10,000 14C yr - present BP) avifaunas are described from the Henry Lambert and associated passages in Gardners Gut Cave, Waitomo Caves, North Island, New Zealand. Nine radiocarbon dates on bones and three uranium series dates on speleothems support the dating of the sites. These data are augmented by six new dates and reanalysis of the avifaunas from F1c Cave, also in the Waitomo karst. A distinctive Pleistocene avifauna characterised by the moa Euryapterix curtus and Pachyornis mappini and the North Island goose (Cnemiornis gracilis) with common associates including New Zealand coot (Fulica prisca), North Island takahe (Porphyrio mantelli), Finsch's duck (Euryanas finschi), and North Island kokako (Callaeas wilsoni) was present. The presence of kokako, saddleback (Philesturnus rufusater), and robin (Petroica longipes) in the Pleistocene deposits and the absence of grassland taxa such as pipit (Anthus noveaseelandiae) and quail (Coturnix novaezelandiae) indicate that the vegetation about Gardners Gut Cave included tall shrubland and probably lacked much grassland, even over the Last Glacial Maximum. The Holocene at Waitomo was characterised by a moa fauna dominated by Anomalopteryx didiformis, although both Euryapteryx curtus and Pachyornis mappini persisted in small numbers. The frequent occurrence of kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), weka (Gallirallus australis), and brown teal (Anas chlorotis) typifies Holocene avifaunas; Cnemiornis and Fulica are unknown from Holocene deposits in the area. (author). 45 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  13. Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Variations in the Atmosphere of Srednja Bijambarska Cave, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanolo, Simone; Gabrovšek, Franci

    2009-06-01

    The results of one year’s monitoring in Srednja Bijambarska Cave (Bosnia and Herzegovina) are presented and discussed. Temporal variations of the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration are controlled by the switching between two ventilation regimes driven by outside temperature changes. A regression model with a simple perfectly mixed volume applied to a cave sector (“Music hall”) resulted in an estimate of ventilation rates between 0.02 h-1 and 0.54 h-1. Carbon dioxide input per plan surface unit is estimated by the model at around 50 × 10-6 mh-1 during the winter season and up to more than 1000 × 10-6 mh-1 during the first temperature falls at the end of summer (0.62 μmoles m-2 s-1 and 12.40 μmoles m-2 s-1 for normal conditions respectively). These values have been found to be related to the cave ventilation rate and dependent on the availability of CO2 in the surrounding environment. For airflow close to zero the values of CO2 input per plan surface have a range in the order of magnitude of a few units × 10-6 mh-1. Based on two experiments, the anthropogenic contribution from cave visitors has been calculated, at between 0.35 lCO2 min-1 person-1 and 0.45 lCO2min-1person-1.

  14. Morphology, composition, age and origin of carbonate spherulites from caves of Western Urals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaykovskiy, I. I.; Kadebskaya, O- I.; Žák, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2014), s. 336-346. ISSN 0016-7029 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1760 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : carbonates * caves * cryogenic origin * geochronology * isotope composition * paleoclimate Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.584, year: 2014

  15. Yukonite from the Grotta della Monaca cave, Sant'Agata di Esaro, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Anna; Pinto, Daniela; Vurro, Filippo;

    2009-01-01

    We report the first Italian occurrence of yukonite, a rare hydrated arsenate of calcium and ferric iron, from Grotta della Monaca cave, S. Agata di Esaro, Cosenza, Italy. We have studied samples of cotype yukonite from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada, for comparison. At Grotta della Monaca, yukon...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lampenflora Chlorobium limicola Strain Frasassi in a Sulfidic Cave System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Muammar; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Chlorobium limicola strain Frasassi was assembled from metagenomic sequencing of a green mat in an artificially lighted aquarium inside the Frasassi caves in Italy. The genome is 2.08 Mbp in size and contains the necessary genes for anoxygenic photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. PMID:27174272

  17. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al. PMID:27086300

  18. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Obleitner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria during a full annual cycle. The data show the basic features of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the cave ice is largely determined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes withdraw energy from the surface. This is more pronounced during winter due to enhanced circulation and lower humidity. During summer the driving gradients reverse sign and the associated fluxes provide energy for melt.

    About 4 cm of ice were lost at the measurement site during a reference year. This was due to some sublimation during winter, while the major loss resulted from melt during summer. Small amounts of accumulation occurred during spring due to refreezing of seepage water.

    These results are largely based on employing a numerical mass and energy balance model. Sensitivity studies prove reliability of the calculated energy balance regarding diverse measurement uncertainties and show that the annual mass balance of the ice strongly depends on cave air temperature during summer and the availability of seepage water in spring.

  19. Effective Dose Calculation Using Radon Daughters and Aerosol Particles Measurement in Bozkov Dolomite Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thinová, L.; Berka, Z.; Brandejsová, E.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey Radon, 2004. s. 168. ISBN 80-7075-626-8. [Radon Investigations in the Czech Republic X and 7th International Eorkshop on the Geological Aspects of Radon Risk Mapping. 00.00.2004, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : radon concentration * cave * effective dose Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Food preferences of cave isopod .i.Mesoniscus graniger./i. (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in laboratory tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Nováková, Alena; Vošta, O.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2009), s. 174. ISSN 1335-213X. [Vedecká konferencia Výskum, využívanie a ochrana jaskýň /7./. 10.11.2009-13.11.2009, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : food preference * cave isopod * laboratory tests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Ankisetty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  2. A new cave Pseudoscorpion (Pseudoscorpiones: Chthoniidae: Chthonius (Chthonius lupinus n.sp. from Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić B.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new cavernicolous pseudoscorpion pertaining to the genus Chthonius (Chthonius C. L. Koch, from Herzegovina (Bosnia-Herzegovina is erected. Its relations with close congeners are briefly discussed. The new species Chthonius (Chthonius lupinus n. sp. is an endemic form presently known only from its type locality (Vučija pećina Cave, Mt. Leotar, nr. Trebinje, Herzegovina.

  3. Evolution of cave Axiokebuita and Speleobregma (Scalibregmatidae, Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Worsaae, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Axiokebuita and Speleobregma, two poorly known lineages of annelids exclusive from deep-sea or marine caves but always from crevicular habitats, is explored here. Speleobregma lanzaroteum Bertelsen, 1986, and Axiokebuita cavernicola sp. n. are described from anchialine...

  4. Speleoclimate dynamics in Santana Cave (PETAR, São Paulo State, Brazil: general characterization and implications for tourist management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Show caves provide tourists with the opportunity to have close contact with natural underground spaces. However, visitation to these places also creates a need for management measures, mainly the definition of tourist carrying capacity. The present work describes the results of climate monitoring and atmospheric profiling performed in Santana Cave (Alto Ribeira State and Tourist Park – PETAR, Brazil between 2008 and 2011. Based on the results, distinct preliminary zones with different levels of thermal variation were identified, which classify Santana Cave as a warm trap. Two critical points along the tourist route (Cristo and Encontro Halls were identified where the temperature of the locality increased by 1.3 °C when tourists were present. Air flow from the inner cave to the outside occurs during the austral summer, and the opposite flow occurs when the outside environment is colder than the air inside the cave during the austral winter. The temperature was used to establish thresholds to the tourist carrying capacity by computing the recovery time of the atmospheric conditions after the changes caused by the presence of tourists. This method suggests a maximum limit of approximately 350 visits per day to Santana Cave. The conclusion of the study is that Santana Cave has an atmosphere that is highly connected with the outside; daily variations in temperature and, to a lesser extent, in the relative humidity occur throughout the entire studied area of the cave. Therefore, the tourist carrying capacity in Santana Cave can be flexible and can be implemented based on the climate seasonality, the tourism demand and other management strategies.

  5. Factors controlling the growth rate, carbon and oxygen isotope variation in modern calcite precipitation in a subtropical cave, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Junbing; Wang, Aoyu; Shen, Licheng; Yin, Jianjun; Yuan, Daoxian; Zhao, Heping

    2016-04-01

    A prerequisite for using cave speleothems to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions is an accurate understanding of specific factors controlling calcite growth, in particular the isotopic partitioning of oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) which are the most commonly used proxies. An in situ monitoring study from April 2008 to September 2009 at Xueyu Cave, Chongqing, SW China, provides insight into the controls on calcite growth rates, drip water composition, cave air parameters and δ18O and δ13C isotopic values of modern calcite precipitation. Both cave air PCO2 and drip water hydrochemical characteristics show obvious seasonality driven by seasonal changes in the external environment. Calcite growth rates also display clear intra-annual variation, with the lowest values occurring during wet season and peak values during the dry season. Seasonal variations of calcite growth rate are primarily controlled by variations of cave air PCO2 and drip water rate. Seasonal δ18O-VPDB and δ13C-VPDB in modern calcite precipitates vary, with more negative values in the wet season than in the dry season. Strong positive correlation of δ18O-VPDB vs. δ13C-VPDB is due to simultaneous enrichment of both isotopes in the calcite. This correlation indicates that kinetic fractionation occurs between parent drip water and depositing calcite, likely caused by the variations of cave air PCO2 and drip rate influenced by seasonal cave ventilation. Kinetic fractionation amplifies the equilibrium fractionation value of calcite δ18O (by ∼1.5‰) and δ13C (by ∼1.7‰), which quantitatively reflects surface conditions during the cave ventilation season. These results indicate that the cave monitoring of growth rate and δ18O and δ13C of modern calcite precipitation are necessary in order to use a speleothem to reconstruct palaeoenvironment.

  6. Bullita cave system, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, tropical Australia; Sistemas de cuevas de Bullita, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, Australia tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, K. G.; Martini, J. E. J.

    2016-07-01

    In the monsoon tropics of northern Australia, Bullita Cave is the largest (123 km) of a group of extensive, horizontal, joint-controlled, dense network maze caves which are epikarst systems lying at shallow depth beneath a well-developed karrenfield. The Judbarra / Gregory Karst and its caves are restricted to the outcrop belt of the thin, sub-horizontal, Proterozoic Supplejack Dolostone. Karst is further restricted to those parts of the Supplejack that have escaped a secondary dolomitisation event. The karrenfield and underlying cave system are intimately related and have developed in step as the Supplejack surface was exposed by slope retreat. Both show a lateral zonation of development grading from youth to old age. Small cave passages originate under the recently exposed surface, and the older passages at the trailing edge become un roofed or destroyed as the, by then deeply-incised, karrenfield breaks up into isolated ruiniform blocks and pinnacles. Vertical development of the cave has been generally restricted to the epikarst zone by a 3m bed of impermeable and incompetent shale beneath the Supplejack which first perched the water-table, forming incipient phreatic passages above it, and later was eroded by vadose flow to form an extensive horizontal system of passages 10-20m below the karren surface. Some lower cave levels in underlying dolostone occur adjacent to recently incised surface gorges. Speleogenesis is also influenced by the rapid, diffuse, vertical inflow of storm water through the karrenfield, and by ponding of the still-aggressive water within the cave during the wet season dammed up by levees of sediment that accumulate beneath the degraded trailing edge of the karrenfield. The soil, and much biological activity, is not at the bare karren surface, but down on the cave floors, which aids epikarstic solution at depth rather than on the surface. (Author)

  7. Repeated and time-correlated morphological convergence in cave-dwelling harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores from Montane Western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Derkarabetian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many cave-dwelling animal species display similar morphologies (troglomorphism that have evolved convergent within and among lineages under the similar selective pressures imposed by cave habitats. Here we study such ecomorphological evolution in cave-dwelling Sclerobuninae harvestmen (Opiliones from the western United States, providing general insights into morphological homoplasy, rates of morphological change, and the temporal context of cave evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We gathered DNA sequence data from three independent gene regions, and combined these data with Bayesian hypothesis testing, morphometrics analysis, study of penis morphology, and relaxed molecular clock analyses. Using multivariate morphometric analysis, we find that phylogenetically unrelated taxa have convergently evolved troglomorphism; alternative phylogenetic hypotheses involving less morphological convergence are not supported by Bayesian hypothesis testing. In one instance, this morphology is found in specimens from a high-elevation stony debris habitat, suggesting that troglomorphism can evolve in non-cave habitats. We discovered a strong positive relationship between troglomorphy index and relative divergence time, making it possible to predict taxon age from morphology. Most of our time estimates for the origin of highly-troglomorphic cave forms predate the Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While several regions in the eastern and central United States are well-known hotspots for cave evolution, few modern phylogenetic studies have addressed the evolution of cave-obligate species in the western United States. Our integrative studies reveal the recurrent evolution of troglomorphism in a perhaps unexpected geographic region, at surprisingly deep time depths, and in sometimes surprising habitats. Because some newly discovered troglomorphic populations represent undescribed species, our findings stress the need for further biological

  8. Bellholes: Ceiling Cavities Eroded By Bats in Caves of the Neotropical Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T.

    2014-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of symmetrical, vertical, bullet-shaped cavities known as bellholes are present in the ceilings of caves restricted to the tropical Americas. Most have circular diameters (rarely influenced by joints or bedding) of at least 30 cm, and may be several meters in height. They are often paired with bellbasins (shallow depressions located vertically beneath them that contain guano produced by bats). Members of the species Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican Fruit Bat) are almost exclusive users of these roosts. Brown streaks flowing down the sides of the bellholes and centimeters-thick rinds of the basins below are largely apatite minerals produced by the reaction of the host limestone with phosphoric acids in the guano.Many bellholes have developed in speleothem in the cave ceilings, disproving early theories that they are the result of solution by phreatic currents in flooded caves. A. jamaicensis roosts singly or in harem groups of 2-14 that commonly cluster in the bellholes and it is likely that these social habits of this species focus corrosion resulting from the transfer of feces to rock (producing altered rock then removed by claws) to create discretely-spaced upward-growing cavities. Fossil evidence from Jamaica supports an arrival there from the mainland in the past 12,000 years, suggesting bellholes and bellbasins are geologically recent features in the Caribbean islands. Their locations (not all cave passages have bellholes) can provide information on the hydrological history or microclimate of a cave, due to the absence of both bellholes and bats in some specific situations, e.g. where physical barriers exist such as sumps, small airspaces above streams or through rock collapses, or with increasing distance from an entrance.Smaller circular, increasingly-indented ceiling cavities demonstrate a sequence of bellhole development. Small (23 cm diameter, 9 cm high), circular, streaked cavities in a limestone drainage tunnel constructed in 1927 in

  9. Contribution to the speleology of Sterkfontein cave, Gauteng province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Jacques E. J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present more data about the speleological aspect of the Sterkfontein Cave, famous for its bone breccia which yielded abundant hominid remains. They also briefly review the previous voluminous studies by numerous authors, which are mainly dealing with the paleontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology of the breccia. The present investigations were oriented to hitherto poorly investigated aspects such as detail mapping of the cave, its country rock stratigraphy and recording the underground extension of the basal part of the breccia body. The cave consists of a complex network of phreatic channels, developed along joints in Neoarchaean cherty dolostone over a restricted surface of 250x250m. The combined length of all passages within this area amounts to 5,23km. The system extends over a height of about 50m and the dry part of it is limited downwards by the water-table appearing as numerous static pools. The fossiliferous breccia (= Sterkfontein Formation forms an irregular lenticular mass 75x25m horizontally by 40m vertically, which is included within the passage network. It crops out at surface and in the cave, and resulted from the filling of a collapse chamber, which was de-roofed by erosion. The present investigation confirmed that the cave and the Sterkfontein Formation are part of a single speleogenetic event. The breccia resulted from cavity filling by sediments introduced from a pit entrance, whereas many of the phreatic passages around it, which are developed at the same elevation, were only partly filled or remained entirely open up to present. This filling took place mainly in a vadose environment. Taking into account the age of the Sterkfontein Formation (>3,3-1,5 My, from base to top, the geomorphic evolution of the landscape and the context of other caves in the region, it seems that the cave might have started to form 5 My ago. It has been continuously developing up to present as a result of a slow drop of the water-table.

  10. Geomorphological map as a tool for visualisation of geodiversity - example from Cave Park Grabovaca (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzjak, Nenad; Bocic, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen

    2014-05-01

    Cave Park Grabovaca is located near Perusic in Lika region (central Croatia). It was established in 2006 at the area of 5.95 km2 (protection category: significant landscape). The main task is management and protection of Samograd, Medina and Amidzina caves that were declared as geomorphological monuments, and 6 other caves located close to each other. Owing to the central geographic location in Croatian Dinaric karst area, good traffic connections between central Europe and tourist centres of the Adriatic coast, preserved nature and easy accessible karst features typical for the Dinaric Karst, it has good potential to develop as an research, educational and tourist centre. In 2013. Cave Park management and the Department of Geography (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science) established a core team that started to develop the project of Geoeducational centre (GEC) with following goals: exploration-evaluation-presentation-education. According to the accepted strategy, the first step in the project process is to enlarge the area and change the protection category. During the consultation process team members take into account protection, environmental, local economy, tourism and local population issues and proposed that protected area should be increased to 52,2 km2. This enlargement provides more efficient protection, greater geodiversity and biodiversity by occupying geotope, biotope, and landscape units typical for the whole Lika karst region. The next step was inventorying, evaluation, analysis and visualisation of geological, geomorphological and speleological phenomena. This 2 year task was made in cooperation between Croatian Geomorphological Society, Department of Geography, Speleological Society Karlovac and Caving Club Samobor. The inventory was made using field-work mapping and geotagged photographs, cave mapping and DEM analysis. It resulted in GIS oriented geodatabase consisting of geomorphological forms, processes and cave inventory. From those data

  11. Regime switch in karstic caves atmosphere; possible consequence on annual speleothem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F.; Genthon, P.; Mangin, A.; D'Hulst, D.

    2005-12-01

    Speleothem are usually considered as records of past climate, and are supposed to present annual growth rings. Yet, they grow inside caves that benefit from very stable environment. However, Bourges et al. 2001, have shown that the atmosphere of Aven d'Orgnac (South East France), was characterized by drop of CO2 concentration and 222Rn activity at the end of autumn and presented each year the succession of a winter and a summer regime. Temperature data are now used to constrain the climate of this cave system. Our data consist in 5 years monitoring with 0.01°C accuracy, three short thermal profiling campaigns, and sparser data gathered in different French painted caves. Near the opening of Aven d'Orgnac, the Salle de Jolys room records each year at the end of autumn the onset of the winter regime that is shown to be triggered by the inverse density stratification induced by the decrease of the outside night temperature. Comparison of summer and winter vertical temperature profiles point to a thermoconvective destabilization of this room atmosphere, involving the downward flow of cold outside bearing air near the cave floor during winter nights. The winter regime propagates then stepwise inside the Aven d'Orgnac cave system. In Salle Plane, which is situated more than one kilometer away from the entrance, the winter regime has never been observed. Our thermal profiling experiment shows there low amplitude (0.03°C) temperature changes, with major daily and half daily components, that are strongly correlated with the pressure first time derivative. Comparison with temperature records from other rooms of the Aven d'Orgnac cave system and with other caves monitored by our team suggest that a strong correlation between temperature changes and the pressure first time derivative could be considered as a clue to the confined character of a given cave room. We propose therefore that the Aven d'Orgnac cave system could be divided in two parts : the open system, where the

  12. Unity-pelimoottorin hyödyntäminen CAVE-järjestelmässä

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Asmo

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin Seinäjoen ammattikorkeakoulun Tekniikan yksikön virtuaalilaboratorion CAVE-tilaan. Työn tarkoituksena oli uudistaa CAVE:ssa käytössä olevia vanhahtavia virtuaalitodellisuusohjelmia. Työssä selvitettiin kolmen eri pelimoottorin soveltuvuutta CAVE-järjestelmään. Työn pelimoottorivertailuun valittiin suositut ja ilmaiseksi saatavilla olevat Cryengine 3 SDK, Unreal Development Kit sekä Unity-pelimoottorit. Pelimoottoreita vertailtiin keskenään graafisten ominaisuuksi...

  13. Technology Research on the Fourth Panel Mining Large Height Fully-mechanized Caving Mining in Shangwan Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yingjie; Wang Xiaomou

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the 1-2 coal seam of Shangwan coal mine 4th panel, this research analyzed the feasibility of sublevel caving hydraulic support in the fully-mechanized mining face through estimation method and numerical simulation calculation. This paper also researched the several factors that affect the caving property of top-coal, such as coal thickness, coal hosting depth, top-coal joint fissure, parting condition and caving height. In the meantime, the FLAC3D was used ...

  14. Huanglong Cave, a new late Pleistocene hominid site in Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xianzhu; LIU Wu; GAO Xing; YIN Gongming

    2006-01-01

    For the past 20 years the modern human origins debate has received a significant amount of attention in paleoanthropological research. Primarily supported by the evidence of earlier dates of anatomically modern human fossils and genetic studies, the "Out of Africa" hypothesis is based on the belief that the ancestor of all modern humans, including modern Chinese, came from Africa. The opposite hypothesis "Mutiregional evolution" proposes that continuous evolution occurred on a regional scale, for which human paleontology offers strong support. However, due to the paucity of hominid fossils in China between 100 and 50 ka, support to the latter hypothesis is currently weak. This is a report here of five human fossil teeth, and associated stone tools and mammal fossils from a newly discovered cave site, Huanglong Cave, located in Yunxi County,Hubei Province, China. Preliminary studies indicate:(1) the morphological features of the human fossils resemble those of late Pleistocene human fossils from China; (2) the stone tools display patterns of both the southern and northern Paleolithic cultures of China; (3) the mammal fossils represent the "Ailuropoda-Stegodon" faunal unit which lived in southern China throughout the Pleistocene. ESR and U-series dating on animal teeth and a stalagmite derived from the same layer as the human teeth indicate two possible ages: 103±1.6 ka and 44±12.5 ka. In addition to other evidence presented here, it is believed that hominid occupation of the cave was likely around 100 ka. If this age is further substantiated, Huanglong Cave will be the first late Pleistocene hominid fossil site in China where anatomically modern humans lived about 100 ka. The human fossils and other related materials from Huanglong Cave will provide important information for research on the origin of modern Chinese.

  15. Seasonal variations of radon and the radiation exposure levels in Nerja cave, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenas, C., E-mail: mperezm@uma.es [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain); Fernandez, M.C.; Canete, S. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain); Perez, M. [Department of Radiology and Health Physics, Ophthalmology and ORL, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain); Gordo, E. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain); Department of Radiology and Health Physics, Ophthalmology and ORL, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga 29071 (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja cave (Spain) (3{sup o} 52'35''W 36{sup o} 43'50''N) were measured by continuous monitoring using Alpha-Guard, Genitron instrument equipment. The {sup 222}Rn measurements were carried out for a complete annual cycle in the different halls: Vestibule hall from July 2003 to June 2004, Ballet hall from July 2004 to June 2005 and Mirador hall from July 2005 to June 2006. Starting from the entrance of the cave we successively find the Vestibule hall, the Ballet hall and the Mirador hall. The range of {sup 222}Rn levels were of 8-627 Bq m{sup -3} for the Vestibule hall, 28-575 Bq m{sup -3} for the Ballet hall and 38-578 Bq m{sup -3} for the Mirador. The aim of this study was to detect seasonal variation patterns of {sup 222}Rn concentrations. The seasonal variations of {sup 222}Rn concentrations are discussed in relation to various meteorological factors measured inside and outside the cave. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists with different equilibrium factors have been evaluated. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists only represent a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population. - Highlights: > The aim of the study was to detect seasonal variation of {sup 222}Rn concentrations. > {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the air-cave were measured by continuous monitoring. > The {sup 222}Rn measurements were carried out in the different halls of the cave. > The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists have been evaluated.

  16. Paleotemperature reconstructions from speleothem fluid inclusions between 14 - 10 ka BP in Milandre cave (NW Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Häuselmann, Anamaria; Fleitmann, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In cave environments, speleothems constitute a well preserved and precisely dated continental climate archive that record past environmental changes such as paleotemperature or moisture source, namely through oxygen and hydrogen isotopes variations. Fluid inclusions are common in speleothems and they correspond to micrometric voids that often contain fossil liquid water representing past precipitation falling above the cave nearly at the time the inclusions were sealed. To measure the δD and δ18O isotopic composition of speleothem fluid inclusions, we extracted submicrolitre amounts of water from stalagmites (old and recent) coming from Milandre cave (Switzerland) using a new online method developed at the University of Bern (Affolter et al., 2014). The released water is then flushed directly to a Picarro L1102-i or L2140-i laser based instrument that allows to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. At Milandre cave site, a two year isotope monitoring campaign has confirmed that isotopes in precipitation for northwestern Switzerland are principally controlled by air temperature (Affolter et al., 2015). Therefore, when combined with calcite δ18O, the fluid inclusion water isotopes can be used to calculate paleotemperatures. We reconstructed a cold season biased (roughly autumn - winter - spring) paleotemperature trend for the time interval covering the Allerød, the Younger Dryas cold interval and the early Holocene (13'900 - 9'900 BP). References: Affolter S., Fleitmann D., and Leuenberger M.: New online method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS), Clim. Past, 10, 1291-1304, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1291-2014, 2014. Affolter S., Häuselmann A.D., Fleitmann D., Häuselmann P., Leuenberger M.: Triple isotope (δD, δ17O, δ18O) study on precipitation, drip water and speleothem fluid inclusions for a Western Central European cave (NW Switzerland), Quat. Sci. Rev., 127, pp. 73-89, 2015.

  17. Rational cutting height for large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Bingxiang; Li Hongtao; Liu Changyou; Xing Shijun; Xue Weichao

    2011-01-01

    Large cutting height fully mechanized top-coal caving is a new mining method that improves recovery ratio and single-pass production.It also allows safe and efficient mining.A rational cutting height is one key parameter of this technique.Numerical simulation and a granular-media model experiment were used to analyze the effect of cutting height on the rock pressure of a fully mechanized top-coal caving work face.The recovery ratio was also studied.As the cutting height increases the top-coal thickness is reduced.Changing the ratio of cutting to drawing height intensifies the face pressure and the top-coal shattering.A maximum cutting height exists under a given set of conditions due to issues with surrounding rock-mass control.An increase in cutting height makes the top-coal cave better and the recovery ratio when drawing top-coal is then improved.A method of adjusting the face rock pressure is presented.Changing the cutting to drawing height ratio is the technique used to control face rock pressure.The recovery ratio when cutting coal exceeds that when caving top-coal so the face recovery ratio may be improved by over sizing the cutting height and increasing the top-coal drawing ratio.An optimum ratio of cutting to drawing height exists that maximizes the face recovery ratio.A rational cutting height is determined by comprehensively considering the surrounding rock-mass control and the recovery ratio.At the same time increasing the cutting height can improve single pass mining during fully mechanized top-coal caving.

  18. Seasonal variations of radon and the radiation exposure levels in Nerja cave, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    222Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja cave (Spain) (3o 52'35''W 36o 43'50''N) were measured by continuous monitoring using Alpha-Guard, Genitron instrument equipment. The 222Rn measurements were carried out for a complete annual cycle in the different halls: Vestibule hall from July 2003 to June 2004, Ballet hall from July 2004 to June 2005 and Mirador hall from July 2005 to June 2006. Starting from the entrance of the cave we successively find the Vestibule hall, the Ballet hall and the Mirador hall. The range of 222Rn levels were of 8-627 Bq m-3 for the Vestibule hall, 28-575 Bq m-3 for the Ballet hall and 38-578 Bq m-3 for the Mirador. The aim of this study was to detect seasonal variation patterns of 222Rn concentrations. The seasonal variations of 222Rn concentrations are discussed in relation to various meteorological factors measured inside and outside the cave. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists with different equilibrium factors have been evaluated. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists only represent a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population. - Highlights: → The aim of the study was to detect seasonal variation of 222Rn concentrations. → 222Rn concentrations in the air-cave were measured by continuous monitoring. → The 222Rn measurements were carried out in the different halls of the cave. → The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists have been evaluated.

  19. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    Detailed magnetic survey was performed for caves study in Israel (1995-1996) within the framework of the Beit Shemesh Regional Project (Judean Shephelah). The experience accumulated in Israel we applied later (2010) in two Georgian prehistoric cave sites: Cherula and Kotias-Klde. The magnetic method is based on the contrast in magnetic properties between a target object (e.g., buried archaeological feature) and the host medium (i.e, the surrounding bedrock and soil). The feasibility of the magnetic method for cave revealing was evaluated by magnetic susceptibility (κ) measurements of surrounding soil and rocks, and archaeological features: stones making up the walls, ceramic fragments and cave fill. According to data obtained, the κ of soil within caves (cave fill) is higher than that of surrounding soil. The enhancement of cave fill κ occurs because processes associated with human habitation: repeated heating and accumulation of organic debris. Both these processes provide good conditions for the conversion of the iron oxide found within the soil to a strongly ferromagnetic form (Mullins, 1977; Maher, 1986; Dalan and Banerjee, 1998, Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1999; Itkis, 2003) The presence of highly magnetic ceramics in caves also enhances magnetic contrast between practically non-magnetic bed rock (chalk in Ramat Beit Shemesh Site (Israel) and limestone (Georgian sites) and the cave fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method to reveal caves (Itkis, 2011). Based on magnetic survey results, an excavation revealed a cave with a large amount of well preserved pottery and finds typical of the Early Bronze Age. Both studied cave sites in Georgia were located in Chiatura region of Imeretia province. Cherula site is a karstic rockshelter with a single chamber, ca 100 sq. m. The site was briefly tested in 1970s'. The area excavated in 2010 went to the depth of 60 cm below the present day surface; the limestone bedrock was not reached. The excavation revealed

  20. Natural processes involved in the formation of Pleistocene bone assemblages in continental South-East Asian caves : the case of the cave of the monk (Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand).

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoble, Arnaud; Zeitoun, Valéry; Laudet, Frédéric; Seveau, Arnoult; Doyasa, Tasana

    2006-01-01

    A large paleontological assemblage typical of Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna was discovered in the Cave of the Monk, in northern Thailand. Geological and taphonomic approaches were conducted in order to determine site formation processes. A sedimentological study indicated that the fossiliferous layer resulted from mediumsize burrowing animals occupying the cave. Bone surface analysis confirmed that Porcupine was the main, if not exclusive, bone accumulator. A bone accumulation rate was calculated...