WorldWideScience

Sample records for cavern disposal concepts

  1. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  2. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  3. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  4. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  5. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  6. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  7. Concept development for HLW disposal research tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queon, S. K.; Kim, K. S.; Park, J. H.; Jeo, W. J.; Han, P. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In order to dispose high-level radioactive waste in a geological formation, it is necessary to assess the safety of a disposal concept by excavating a research tunnel in the same geological formation as the host rock mass. The design concept of a research tunnel depends on the actual disposal concept, repository geometry, experiments to be carried at the tunnel, and geological conditions. In this study, analysis of the characteristics of the disposal research tunnel, which is planned to be constructed at KAERI site, calculation of the influence of basting impact on neighbor facilities, and computer simuation for mechanical stability analysis using a three-dimensional code, FLAC3D, had been carried out to develop the design concept of the research tunnel.

  8. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Multi-Pack Disposal Concepts for Spent Fuel (Revision 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    At the initiation of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) R&D campaign, international geologic disposal programs and past work in the U.S. were surveyed to identify viable disposal concepts for crystalline, clay/shale, and salt host media. Concepts for disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing are relatively advanced in countries such as Finland, France, and Sweden. The UFD work quickly showed that these international concepts are all “enclosed,” whereby waste packages are emplaced in direct or close contact with natural or engineered materials . Alternative “open” modes (emplacement tunnels are kept open after emplacement for extended ventilation) have been limited to the Yucca Mountain License Application Design. Thermal analysis showed that if “enclosed” concepts are constrained by peak package/buffer temperature, that waste package capacity is limited to 4 PWR assemblies (or 9 BWR) in all media except salt. This information motivated separate studies: 1) extend the peak temperature tolerance of backfill materials, which is ongoing; and 2) develop small canisters (up to 4-PWR size) that can be grouped in larger multi-pack units for convenience of storage, transportation, and possibly disposal (should the disposal concept permit larger packages). A recent result from the second line of investigation is the Task Order 18 report: Generic Design for Small Standardized Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister Systems. This report identifies disposal concepts for the small canisters (4-PWR size) drawing heavily on previous work, and for the multi-pack (16-PWR or 36-BWR).

  10. Multi-pack Disposal Concepts for Spent Fuel (Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matteo, Edward N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    At the initiation of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) R&D campaign, international geologic disposal programs and past work in the U.S. were surveyed to identify viable disposal concepts for crystalline, clay/shale, and salt host media (Hardin et al., 2012). Concepts for disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing are relatively advanced in countries such as Finland, France, and Sweden. The UFD work quickly showed that these international concepts are all “enclosed,” whereby waste packages are emplaced in direct or close contact with natural or engineered materials . Alternative “open” modes (emplacement tunnels are kept open after emplacement for extended ventilation) have been limited to the Yucca Mountain License Application Design (CRWMS M&O, 1999). Thermal analysis showed that, if “enclosed” concepts are constrained by peak package/buffer temperature, waste package capacity is limited to 4 PWR assemblies (or 9-BWR) in all media except salt. This information motivated separate studies: 1) extend the peak temperature tolerance of backfill materials, which is ongoing; and 2) develop small canisters (up to 4-PWR size) that can be grouped in larger multi-pack units for convenience of storage, transportation, and possibly disposal (should the disposal concept permit larger packages). A recent result from the second line of investigation is the Task Order 18 report: Generic Design for Small Standardized Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister Systems (EnergySolution, 2015). This report identifies disposal concepts for the small canisters (4-PWR size) drawing heavily on previous work, and for the multi-pack (16-PWR or 36-BWR).

  11. Limestone Caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the origin of limestone caverns, using Mammoth Cave as an example, with particular reference to the importance of groundwater information of caverns, the present condition of groundwater, and how caverns develop within fluctuating groundwater zones. (BR)

  12. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting

  13. Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste. Final Report of the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois [Univ. of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Appel, Detlef [PanGeo, Hannover (Germany); Buser, Marcos [Buser and Finger, Zurich (Switzerland); Eckhardt, Anne [Basler and Hofmann, Zurich (Switzerland); Hufschmied, Peter [Emch and Berger, Bern (Switzerland); Keusen, Hans-Rudolf [Geotest, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Aebersold, Michael [Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE), CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland)

    2000-01-15

    At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA.

  14. Pre-feasibility study for final disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal concepts. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.; Skov, C.; Kueter, A.; Schepper, L.; Gottberg Roemer, H.; Refsgaard, A.; Utko, M.; Kristiansen, Torben (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    This prefeasibility study is part of the overall process related to the decision on placement and design of a repository for the Danish low and medium level radioactive waste primarily from the facilities at Risoe. The prefeasibility study encompasses the preliminary design of a number of repository types based on the overall types set out in the 'Parliamentary decision' together with a preliminary safety assessment of these repository types based on their possible placement in a set of typical Danish geologies. The report consists of three parts. Part I is the descriptive part containing information on the waste to be disposed of, the potential conditioning (packaging) possibilities for the waste before placement in a repository, the suggested preliminary design of the different repository types, and the suggested visual appearance of the repository. Part II is the assessment part. It contains an introduction to the concepts used in the preliminary safety assessment, which encompasses: the assessment of potential long term impact and the assessment of possible accidental incidents. The division of the preliminary safety assessment in to these two categories has several reasons. One is that the criteria to which impact is to be compared are different for the two types of impact, another is that while the possible variation in the long term impact is primarily due to the possible variation in the parameters influencing the impact, the impact from accidental incidents is governed by the probability of the occurrence of these incidents and the potential consequence of the impact, which calls for a different assessment approach. Since the suggestions for packaging of the different waste types is a result of both types of assessments, part II also contains a description of these suggestions based on the preliminary safety assessments. Finally part II contains the costs related to the different types of repositories and the suggested packaging. Part III of the

  15. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  16. Analog information and the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, J.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    AECL, with support from Ontario Hydro under auspices of the Candu Owners Group, has assessed a concept for the safe disposal of nuclear fuel waste in Canada. The disposal concept is to place nuclear fuel waste in corrosion-resistant containers and emplace the containers with sealing materials in an engineered vault at depths of 500 to 1000m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Humans and the environment would be protected from contaminants in the waste by several barriers; the waste itself, the container, the sealing materials, and the rock. This disposal concept permits a great deal of flexibility in its implementation, which means that a wide range of circumstances could be accommodated. Studies of natural analogues provide important information for evaluating and improving our knowledge and understanding of the disposal concept. Analogue information is used to develop the scenarios and conceptual models, to provide input to databases, and to test models, thereby enhancing the level of confidence in the safety predictions from the assessment models. In addition, natural analogues are valuable illustrative tools when presenting information on the disposal concept to the non-expert and the public.

  17. Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Gardner, William Payton; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Mariner, Paul

    2014-09-01

    directly, rather than through simplified abstractions. It also a llows for complex representations of the source term, e.g., the explicit representation of many individual waste packages (i.e., meter - scale detail of an entire waste emplacement drift). This report fulfills the Generic Disposal System Analysis Work Packa ge Level 3 Milestone - Performance Assessment Modeling and Sensitivity Analyses of Generic Disposal System Concepts (M 3 FT - 1 4 SN08080 3 2 ).

  18. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.A. [Heartland Operation to Protect the Environment, Inc., Auburn, NE (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes.

  19. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  20. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  1. A new concept: the marketing of consumer goods disposal in retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider, par excellence, the need for adopting the conception of marketing in all its aspects, in the process of consumer goods disposal in the retail company, meaning in an essential point of the distribution flow.

  2. General strategy, clay based disposal concepts and integration (GSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keto, P.; Gunnarsson, G.; Johannesson, L.E.; Hansen, J.; Emmerich, K.; Kemper, G.; Nuesch, R.; Schuhmann, R.; Koniger, F.; Schlager, St.; Gruner, M.; Hofmann, M.; Nuesch, R.; Kobayashi, I.; Toida, M.; Sasakura, T.; Bernier, F.; Li, X.L.; Ileana Denisa, Nistor; Neculai, DoruMiron; Tudor, Sajin; Abdelkrim, Azzouz; Ilie, Siminiceanu; Viswanadham, B.V.S.; Rajesh, S.; Sengupta, S.S.; Panturu, E.; Radulescu, R.; Jinescu, C.; Panturu Razvann, Ioan; Autio, J.; Sanden, T.; Borgesson, L.; Svensson, D.; Eng, A.; Sellin, P.; Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Vignal, B.; Fujita, T.; Wei-Hsing, Huang; Wen-Chuan, Chen; Shu-Rong, Yang; Dmitriev, S.; Prozorov, L.; Litinsky, Y.; Tkachenko, A.; Guskov, A.; Sanden, T.; Borgesson, L.; Camp, S.; Gourc, J.P.; Ple, O.; Kaelin, J.L.; Marchiol, A.; Round, C.; Johannesson, L.E.; Nilsson, U.; Adamcova, R.; Frankovska, J.; Durmekova, T.; Haasova, Z.; Gatabin, C.; Guyot, J.L.; Resnikow, S.; Karnland, O.; Nilsson, U.; Weber, H.; Wersin, P.; Gray, M.N.; Dixon, D.A.; Poulesquen, A.; Radwan, J.; Poinssot, C.; Ferry, C.; Weber, H.P.; Plotze, M

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 20 articles (posters) dealing with: the assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels; HTV-1: a semi technical scale testing of a multi-layer hydraulic shaft sealing system; the development of water content adjust method by mixing powdered-ice and chilled bentonite: application to the construction of bentonite engineered barriers by shot-clay method; repository design issues related to the thermal impact induced by heat emitting radioactive waste; pillared clays, using Romanian montmorillonite; the simulation of differential settlements of clay based engineered barrier systems in a geo-centrifuge; the critical issues regarding clay behaviour in the KBS-3H repository design; an alternative buffer material experiment; assessing the performance of a swelling clay tunnel seal and issues identified in the course of its operation; the activation of a Ca-bentonite as buffer material; a large diameter borehole type repository in the clays for radioactive waste long term storage; the erosion of backfill materials during the installation phase; the behaviour of the clay cover of a site for very low level nuclear waste: field flexion tests; the laboratory tests made on three different backfill candidates for the Swedish KBS- 3V concept; the engineering geological clay research for radioactive waste repository in Slovakia; the ESDRED project, module 1 - Design, fabrication, assembly, handling and packaging of buffer rings; the laboratory experiments on the sealing ability of bentonite pellets; the screening of bentonite resources for use as an engineered barrier component in deep geologic repositories; the assessment of the radionuclide release from the near-field environment of a spent nuclear fuel geological repository; and the emplacement tests with granular bentonite.

  3. Analysis of preliminary design concept of stainless steel container for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.S.; Ku, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Choi, J.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    This report represents the structural, thermal and radiation shielding analysis of the basic concepts of the disposal container, that could accommodate PWR and CANDU fuels of which physical dimensions and shapes are quite different each other, with respect to the emplacement modes. Basic concepts of the disposal containers for the vertical horehole and the drift emplacement modes are proposed with their maximum allowable thermal loading. Appropriate thickness of the container to withstand the expected external pressure in the underground repository system was delivered by the structural analyses. The thermal analysis of the container containing spent fuels showed that the internal maximum temperatures of all container concepts did not reach the constraint values. Radiation dose rate from the container with 10cm thickness wall were also less than the established constraint value. (author). 9 refs., 33 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. ATLAS Cavern baseplate

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the incredible amounth of iron used for ATLAS cavern. Please look at the related links and also videos that are concerning the civil engineering where you can see even more detailed cavern excavation work.

  5. Concept-of-Operations Disposal Analysis of Spacecraft by Gossamer Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Malcolm; Bewick, Charlotte Lücking; Visagie, Lourens; Lappas, Vaios; Erb, Sven

    2014-01-01

    A gossamer structure for end-of-life disposal of spacecraft to mitigate space debris is considered in comparison with other end-of-life disposal concepts to determine when it would be preferable. A needs analysis, potential use cases, and concept-of-operations are developed. A survey of disposal strategies is presented for comparison prior to a down-selection of viable competing techniques; solar sailing, high and low-thrust propulsion, and electrodynamic tethers. A parametric comparison of the down-selection competing techniques is presented. Exploiting solar radiation pressure on the structure is of limited value. Atmospheric drag augmentation was found to be of most benefit for end-of-life disposal when an entirely passive means is required, allowing the gossamer device to act as a fail-safe. This is applicable to only low and medium mass spacecraft, or spacecraft that are unlikely to survive atmospheric re-entry, hence minimizing risk to human life. It does not significantly alter the operating ceiling al...

  6. The Ruhrverband sewage sludge disposal concept in the conflict between European and German standards and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, P; Schmitt, F; Albrecht, D R; Jardin, N

    2005-01-01

    The Ruhrverband, acting as a water association responsible for integrated water resources management within the entire natural river basin of the Ruhr, operates a network of 83 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and connected sludge disposal facilities. According to German regulations, the disposal of sewage sludge containing more than 5% of organic dry solids will be prohibited as of 1 June 2005. In Germany, the only future alternative to incineration will be the agricultural utilization of sludge. However, this way of sludge disposal is presently the subject of critical discussions in Germany because of the organic and inorganic toxic substances, which may be contained in sewage sludge, despite the fact that very stringent standards are to be met by agricultural uses. On the other hand, application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is explicitly supported by the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC. In the face of this controversial situation the Ruhrverband has initiated, in 2000, the development of a comprehensive and sustainable sludge and waste disposal concept for all wastewater facilities it operates in the entire Ruhr River Basin. The concept includes de-central sludge digestion and dewatering and subsequent transport to two central sludge incineration plants. It is expected that in future not more than 5% of all sludges produced in Ruhrverband's WWTPs will be used in agriculture. That means, the major part of 95% will have to be incinerated.

  7. Temperature-package power correlations for open-mode geologic disposal concepts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest.

    2013-02-01

    Logistical simulation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in the U.S. combines storage, transportation and disposal elements to evaluate schedule, cost and other resources needed for all major operations leading to final geologic disposal. Geologic repository reference options are associated with limits on waste package thermal power output at emplacement, in order to meet limits on peak temperature for certain key engineered and natural barriers. These package power limits are used in logistical simulation software such as CALVIN, as threshold requirements that must be met by means of decay storage or SNF blending in waste packages, before emplacement in a repository. Geologic repository reference options include enclosed modes developed for crystalline rock, clay or shale, and salt. In addition, a further need has been addressed for open modes in which SNF can be emplaced in a repository, then ventilated for decades or longer to remove heat, prior to permanent repository closure. For each open mode disposal concept there are specified durations for surface decay storage (prior to emplacement), repository ventilation, and repository closure operations. This study simulates those steps for several timing cases, and for SNF with three fuel-burnup characteristics, to develop package power limits at which waste packages can be emplaced without exceeding specified temperature limits many years later after permanent closure. The results are presented in the form of correlations that span a range of package power and peak postclosure temperature, for each open-mode disposal concept, and for each timing case. Given a particular temperature limit value, the corresponding package power limit for each case can be selected for use in CALVIN and similar tools.

  8. Robotics and remote handling concepts for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAffee, Douglas; Raczka, Norman; Schwartztrauber, Keith

    1997-04-27

    This paper summarizes preliminary remote handling and robotic concepts being developed as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project. The DOE is currently evaluating the Yucca Mountain Nevada site for suitability as a possible underground geologic repository for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. The current advanced conceptual design calls for the disposal of more than 12,000 high level nuclear waste packages within a 225 km underground network of tunnels and emplacement drifts. Many of the waste packages may weigh as much as 66 tonnes and measure 1.8 m in diameter and 5.6 m long. The waste packages will emit significant levels of radiation and heat. Therefore, remote handling is a cornerstone of the repository design and operating concepts. This paper discusses potential applications areas for robotics and remote handling technologies within the subsurface repository. It also summarizes the findings of a preliminary technology survey which reviewed available robotic and remote handling technologies developed within the nuclear, mining, rail and industrial robotics and automation industries, and at national laboratories, universities, and related research institutions and government agencies.

  9. Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. Bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, P D; Char, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral orbital lesions are rare. The differential diagnosis includes orbital pseudotumour, metastasis, leukaemia, lymphoma, Wegener's granulomatosis, and neurofibromatosis. We report what we believe to be the first case of bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

  11. Brainstem Cavernous Angioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elmaci I, Lee RR, Breiter SN, Rigamonti D. Dynamic nature of cavernous malformations: a prospective magnetic resonance ... intended for medical diagnostic use of any kind. | Website by Teramark MENU

  12. HMCBG processes related to the steel components in the KBS-3H disposal concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Lawrence; Marschall, Paul; Wersin, Paul (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)); Gribi, Peter (SandR Consult GmbH, Baden (Switzerland))

    2008-05-15

    An analysis of the Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical-microBiological processes affected by Gas (HMCBG) related to the steel components of the KBS-3H disposal concept has been performed. The outcome of this study is foreseen to contribute to the KBS-3H Process Report for a repository for spent fuel sited at Olkiluoto. Three different design options for KBS-3H are currently being studied (open tunnel option, two variants of tight distance block option). While the details of the design may influence the short to medium term performance, it is found that the medium to long-term evolution of KBS-3H is not significantly affected by the chosen design option, provided the distance blocks behave according to design. Under repository conditions, the corrosion of the supercontainer will be fairly rapid. Complete conversion of Fe0 to oxidised Fe2+/Fe3+ species may occur within a few thousands of years. The main corrosion products will be magnetite and, depending on the groundwater composition, also iron sulphide and perhaps siderite. Furthermore, corrosion-derived Fe(II) may react with the clay to form Fe(II)-rich silicates. The supercontainer environment will thus experience a volume change and some loss of plasticity of the buffer between the supercontainer and the rock wall may occur. This might promote bacterial activity at the supercontainer surface, which would lead to an enhancement of localised corrosion and probably to destabilisation of the magnetite layer. Previous investigations indicate, however, that there will be no relevant bacterial activity in the main part of the buffer by virtue of its small pore sizes and low water activity. In the course of time, the swelling pressure of bentonite will be affected by a number of processes, including magnetite formation, geochemical degradation, intrusion of bentonite into void space either initially present or created by relative displacement of distance blocks and supercontainer, and by subsequent bentonite erosion. The expected

  13. Surveying the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The cathedral-like cavern into which the ATLAS experiment will be lowered and installed forms a vital part of the engineering work at CERN in preparation for the new LHC accelerator. This cavern, being measured by surveyors in these images, will have one of the largest spans of any man-made underground structure. The massive 46X25X25 cubic metre detector will be the largest of its type in the world when it is completed for the LHC start-up in 2008.

  14. Penile cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoughit ECHCHAOUI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body in newborns or in young patients, they are typically capillary or cavernous. Cavernous hemangioma of the penis is extremely rare; and its etiology is not completely understood. Treatment options (surgical excision, laser therapy or sclerotherapy… are controversial and are required if pain, cosmetic defect and/or bleeding during intercourse.                                                  We report a case of a 26 years old man presented with a five years history of a painless lesion on his penis. Physical examination showed an ovoid, solid, 1 x 2 mm in size on the dorsum of penis (Panel A and two elevated irregular lesions on the ventral side (Panel B. The lesions were compressive, nonpulsatile and bluish-red in color with strawberry like appearance. Biopsy and histopathological examination of the lesion revealed a gaping and communicating vessels proliferated in the superficial and medium dermis which is pathognomonic for cavernous hemangioma (Panel C and D. Given the small size, the large number of the lesions, the young age, and the ulceration risk during intercourse if skin graft after excision, Neodymium: YAG laser coagulation was recommended to get a good cosmetic results and sexual function satisfaction.

  15. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.

  16. Ceremony for ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Wednesday 4 June will be a special day for CERN. The President of the Swiss Confederation, Pascal Couchepin, will officially inaugurate the huge ATLAS cavern now that the civil engineering works have ended. The inauguration ceremony will be held in the ATLAS surface building, with speeches by Pascal Couchepin and CERN, ATLAS and civil engineering personalities. This ceremony will be Webcast live. To access the Webcast on 4 June at 18h00 go to CERN Intranet home page or the following address : http://webcast.cern.ch/live.php

  17. Alternative concepts for treatment and disposal of Hanford site high-level waste in tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D.; Powell, W.J.

    1994-12-01

    Some innovative approaches have recently been proposed that may have significant schedule, cost, or environmental advantages which could improve the current HLW program strategy. Three general categories of alternative concepts are now under consideration: (1) process/product alternatives, (2) facility layout options, and (3) contracting strategies. This report compares the alternate approaches to the current program baseline to illustrate their potential significance and to identify the risks associated with each approach.

  18. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, William; Weir, J.E.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000-50,000 ft or 9,140-15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000-20,000 ft or 305-6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000-20,000 ft or 610-6,100 m) o The geohydrologic investigation is made on the presumption that the concepts or methods of disposal are technically feasible. Field and laboratory experiments in the future may demonstrate whether or not any of the methods are practical and safe. All the conclusions drawn are tentative pending experimental confirmation. The investigation focuses principally on the geohydrologic possibilities of several methods of disposal in rocks other than salt. Disposal in mined chambers in salt is currently under field investigation, and this disposal method has been intensely investigated and evaluated by various workers under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission. Of the various geohydrologic factors that must be considered in the selection of optimum waste-disposal sites, the most important is hydrologic isolation to assure that the wastes will be safely contained within a small radius of the emplacement zone. To achieve this degree of hydrologic isolation, the host rock for the wastes must have very low permeability and the site must be virtually free of faults. In addition, the locality should be in (1) an area of low seismic risk where the possibility of large earthquakes rupturing the emplacement zone is very low, (2) where the possibility- of flooding by

  19. The huge ATLAS cavern now fully excavated

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Excavation of the ATLAS cavern is now complete! At the end of two years' work involving a tremendous technical challenge, the civil engineering contractors have succeeded in digging out one of the biggest experimental caverns in the world. Bravo!

  20. ATLAS Cavern - Sainte-Barbe evening

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The December at cavern of ATLAS was full of surprises, while during the iron mounting and concrete work the cavern got its new purpose for being the restaurant under little while -Live music and happy people.

  1. Carotid cavernous fistula: Ophthalmological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Imtiaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. A CCF can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a communication between the cavernous sinus, and one or more meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery or both. These fistulas may be divided into spontaneous or traumatic in relation to cause and direct or dural in relation to angiographic findings. The dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and may be difficult to diagnose without angiography. Patients with CCF may initially present to an ophthalmologist with decreased vision, conjunctival chemosis, external ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Patients with CCF may have predisposing causes, which need to be elicited. Radiological features may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and determining possible intervention. Patients with any associated visual impairment or ocular conditions, such as glaucoma, need to be identified and treated. Based on patient′s signs and symptoms, timely intervention is mandatory to prevent morbidity or mortality. The conventional treatments include carotid ligation and embolization, with minimal significant morbidity or mortality. Ophthalmologist may be the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of CCF, and this review article should help in understanding the clinical features of CCF, current diagnostic approach, usefulness of the available imaging modalities, possible modes of treatment and expected outcome.

  2. Cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma largely extending into the sella turcica and mimicking pituitary adenoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Sato, Hikari; Hayashi, Tomohide; Nagai, Shoichi; Nishikata, Manabu; Endo, Shunro

    2010-01-01

    A 77-year-old female presented with a rare cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma with extension to the sella turcica, neuroradiologically mimicking nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. The lesion was partially removed via transsphenoidal surgery, and the histological diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. After stereotactic radiosurgery using a cyber knife, the lesion decreased in size. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be a good option for cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma with high risk of surgical bleeding.

  3. Digging the CMS experimental cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The huge CMS experimental cavern is located 100 m underground and has two access shafts through which the experiment's components will be lowered. Initially assembled on the surface, each part of the 12 500 tonne machine must be lowered individually with very little clearance.

  4. Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Sweis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia analyzed the clinical and radiographic findings in 12 cases of cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST seen between 2000 and 2013, and conducted a literature search and review of the pooled data.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States: An overview of current commercial regulations and concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States is regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under 10 CFR 61 (1991). This regulation was issued in 1981 after a lengthy and thorough development process that considered the radionuclide concentrations and characteristics associated with commercial low-level radioactive waste streams; alternatives for waste classification; alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal; and data, modeling, and scenario analyses. The development process also included the publication of both draft and final environmental impact statements. The final regulation describes the general provisions; licenses; performance objectives; technical requirements for land disposal; financial assurances; participation by state governments and Indian tribes; and records, reports, tests, and inspections. This paper provides an overview of, and tutorial on, current commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal regulations in the United States.

  6. Reinforcement of the concrete base slab of the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 02: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 05: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 07: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 09: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 10: UX15 cavern, view into PX14 shaft above. Photo 12: UX15 cavern, temporary access platform of RB16 tunnel. Photo 15: UJ17 chamber, invert excavation.

  7. Civil engineering in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Work continues in the cathedral-like cavern that will soon contain ATLAS, the largest particle detector of its type in the world. For such a huge detector, an equally giant cavern must be excavated 100 m underground. The roof must be held without any normal rests at the base; instead it will be supported by huge anchors embedded in concrete that will stop the roof from caving in, located in galleries above the cavern.

  8. Spontaneous Resolution of Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishaq, Mazhar; Arain, Muhammad Aamir; Ahmed, Saadullah; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Khan, Muhammad Dawood; Iqbal, Zamir

    2010-01-01

    Proptosis due to carotid cavernous fistula is rare sequelae of head injury. We report a case of post-traumatic, direct high flow carotid cavernous fistula that resolved spontaneously 06 weeks after carotid angiography. It however, resulted in loss of vision due to delay in early treatment. In the ca

  9. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  10. Noncavernous arteriovenous shunts mimicking carotid cavernous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobkitsuksakul, Chai; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Chanthanaphak, Ekachat; Singhara Na Ayudya, Sirintara (Pongpech)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages. METHODS We retrospectively examined the records of 350 patients who were given provisional diagnoses of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae or cavernous sinus dural AVF in the division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok between 2008 and 2014. Any patient with cavernous arteriovenous shunt was excluded. RESULTS Of those 350 patients, 10 patients (2.85%) were identified as having noncavernous sinus AVF. The angiographic diagnoses consisted of three anterior condylar (hypoglossal) dural AVF, two traumatic middle meningeal AVF, one lesser sphenoid wing dural AVF, one vertebro-vertebral fistula (VVF), one intraorbital AVF, one direct dural artery to cortical vein dural AVF, and one transverse-sigmoid dural AVF. Six cases (60%) were found to have venous efferent obstruction. CONCLUSION Arteriovenous shunts mimicking the cavernous AVF are rare, with a prevalence of only 2.85% in this series. The clinical presentation mainly depends on venous outflow. The venous outlet of the arteriovenous shunts is influenced by venous afferent-efferent patterns according to the venous anatomy of the central nervous system and the skull base, as well as by architectural disturbance, specifically, obstruction of the venous outflow. PMID:27767958

  11. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  12. EVOKED CAVERNOUS ACTIVITY: NEUROANATOMIC IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ugur; Vicars, Brenda; Yang, Claire C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the autonomic innervation of the penis by using evoked cavernous activity (ECA). We recruited 7 males with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexual dysfunction and 6 males who were scheduled to have pelvic surgery (PS), specifically non-nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy. In the PS subjects, ECA was performed both pre- and postoperatively. The left median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into the right and left cavernous bodies. We simultaneously recorded hand and foot sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) as controls. In the SCI group, all but one subject had reproducible hand SSRs. None of these subjects had ECA or foot SSRs. All the PS subjects had reproducible ECA and SSRs, both preoperatively and postoperatively. There was no difference in the latency and amplitude measurements of ECA and SSRs in the postoperative compared to the preoperative period (p>0.05). In conclusion, ECA is absent in men with SCI above the sympathetic outflow to the genitalia. In men following radical pelvic surgery, ECA is preserved, indicating the preservation of sympathetic fibers. PMID:19609298

  13. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  14. Civil Engineering in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Ghostly figures can be seen wandering the cavern that will eventually house the ATLAS experiment, part of the LHC at CERN. Quite fitting since the detector will hunt the illusive 'ghostly' particles, such as the Higgs boson and dark matter. These engineers are excavating the huge cavern that has to be anchored from above as the detector will fill so much space that there is no room for support pillars.

  15. Extraosseous, Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Birol; Yaldiz, Can; Yaman, Onur; Ozdemır, Nail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cavernous malformations are characterized by enlarged vascular structures located in benign neural tissues within the cerebellum and spinal cord of the central nervous system. Cavernous hemangiomas (CHs) account for 5% to 12% of all spinal vascular malformations. Case Report We removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass in a 40-year-old male patient who presented with progressive neurological deficits. Conclusions We found it appropriate to present this case due to its rarity. PMID:25960818

  16. End of construction of the CMS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    View of the CMS cavern with its impressive dimensions: 53 m long, 27 m wide and 24 m high. The construction of this underground complex has been a spectacular feat of engineering. This second of the new caverns for the LHC experiments is the result of six-and-a-half years of work, and its completion marks the end of the large-scale engineering work for the LHC.

  17. Digging a cavern for a titan

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    Civil engineers work 100 m underground near the France-Swiss border on the cavern that will soon house ATLAS, one of the experiments on CERN's new LHC accelerator. All personnel and equipment must be lowered by crane down the access shaft. When completed this cavern will have one of the largest spans constructed at 35 m, which required the roof to be supported by large steel anchors buried in concrete.

  18. Pulmonary cavernous hemangioma:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyi Jia; Shaolin Sun; Xiaokai Zhang; Lixin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary cavernous hemangioma in a 51-year-old female. A computed tomographic scan of the chest showed an il-defined mass measuring 2.3 cm × 2.2 cm in the right lower lobe. Surgical resection was per-formed and postoperative histological examination revealed cavernous hemangioma. We reviewed the clinical features and therapeutic methods of hemangioma.

  19. Development and implementation of technical concepts for the final disposal in deep geological deposits in different host rocks (EUGENIA). Synthesis report; Entwicklung und Umsetzung von technischen Konzepten fuer Endlager in tiefen geologischen Formationen in unterschiedlichen Wirtsgesteinen (EUGENIA). Synthesebericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Herklotz, Martin; Herzog, Christel (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The report on the development and implementation of technical concepts for the final disposal in deep geological deposits in different host rocks (EUGENIA) includes the following chapters: (1) Purpose of the studies. (2) Overview on the developed concepts for final high-level radioactive waste disposal in deep rock formations and differences of the underlying safety concepts. (3) Effects of the host rock properties on the site search and exploration. (4) Site selection and site exploration. (5) Technical concepts for high-level waste final repositories (Sweden, Finland, Belgium, France, Switzerland). (6) Construction, operation, control and closure of high-level waste repositories. (7) Licensing aspects (Sweden, Finland, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Germany). (8) Comparative presentation and evaluation of the internationally reached status concerning the realization of final high-level waste repositories.

  20. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is

  1. Aspects of governance in the practical implementation of the concept of reversibility for deep geological disposal. Report no. 308; Stockage geologique de dechets radioactifs: mise en oeuvre pratique du concept de reversibilite et gouvernance. Rapport no. 308

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaud, C.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.

    2010-07-01

    The European project COWAM in Practice (CIP) was aimed to lead for three years (2007-2009) a process of monitoring, analyzing and evaluating the governance linked with radioactive waste management. This project, in cooperation with a research group and stakeholders, was conducted in parallel in 5 European countries (Spain, France, United Kingdom, Romania, Slovenia). In France, the issue of reversibility for a deep geological disposal was introduced in the Act of December 30, 1991 on the possible options to manage radioactive waste. The Act of June 28, 2006 relative to sustainable management of materials and radioactive waste confirmed the option, by calling for a reversible waste disposal facility in a deep geological formation to be designed. The main issue is no longer to justify the adoption of reversibility, but to investigate the practical procedures for its implementation. The French stakeholder Group 4 involved in the European project COWAM In Practice (CIP) had identified several subjects for investigation: - The different aspects associated with the practical implementation of reversible disposal: technical aspects, and aspects relative to monitoring, safety and expertise, in terms of legal, financial, administrative and political, etc. responsibility related to the notion of reversibility. - The stakes of governance related to the processes of assessment and decision-making - The roles of local stakeholders in these processes. The analysis conducted by CEPN in cooperation with the French stakeholder group, facilitated by Mutadis, showed that the practical implementation of reversibility aims to maintain a capacity of choice between three options: to continue to maintain the reversibility, to retrieve packages or to initiate the closure of all or part the disposal facility. Maintaining this choice in the long term implies setting up specific institutional, financial and decision-making systems,etc,. that need to be jointly developed in advance by all the

  2. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  3. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  4. Cavernous haemangioma mimicking as clitoral hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Nayyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemangioma is the most common benign neoplasm of infantile age. It is most commonly located in head and neck region, trunk and extremities but very rarely it can be located at clitoris. However, it is very important to differentiate clitoral haemangioma from enlargement of the clitoris secondary to androgen excess. Only four cases of clitoromegaly caused by cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature so far. Herein, we report our experience with a 10-year-old girl who presented with clitoromegaly and normal hormonal assay that turned out to be clitoral cavernous haemangioma after histopathological examination of the clitoral mass.

  5. Imaging diagnosis of dural and direct cavernous carotid fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela dos; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco e; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Abud, Daniel Giansante, E-mail: danisantos2404@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-15

    Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. (author)

  6. Numerical Simulation of Gas Storage Caverns in Qom Region

    CERN Document Server

    Sharifzadeh, Mostafa

    2009-01-01

    The rock mechanical design of gas storage cavern in salt requires the analysis of the stability and the usability of the cavern over the planned operating time period. The design includes the build up of a rock mass model and a numerical model taking into account the geological situation, load condition, geometrical condition, and material parameters. In this paper multiple caverns in salt formation with geological and geomechanical situation in Qom (central part of Iran) was investigated a using creep model. Minimum safe center to center distances (CTCD) of multiple horizontal caverns also were studied. CTCD of caverns interact at less than two times of cavern diameter. With increasing the CTCD to 2.5 times cavern diameters, diminish most interaction.

  7. Cavernous hemangioma of Meckel's cave. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlings, M G; Tucker, W S

    1988-04-01

    A case of a cavernous hemangioma located within Meckel's cave and involving the gasserian ganglion is described in a patient presenting with facial pain and a trigeminal nerve deficit. Although these lesions have been reported to occur in the middle fossa, this is believed to be the first case of such a vascular malformation arising solely from within Meckel's cave.

  8. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Bony Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Yan; Yu Cai; Zhongyao Wu; Ji Han; Youjian Pang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical features, diagnosis and management of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the orbit.Methods: Five cases of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma seen in our hospital from Jan 1, 1986 to Dec 31, 2000 were reviewed.Results: Among all five cases, two were male and three were female. The mean age was 47.6 years old, ranging from 39.0 to 55.0 years. The left orbit was affected in 4 cases and the right one in 1 case. The bony involvement occurred in frontal bone (two cases),zygomatic bone (two cases) and sphenoid bone (one case). A painless, slowly enlarging hard bony mass fixed to the bone with no pulsations was the main clinical sign. The x-ray and CT appearance of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the orbit were characteristic and usually diagnostic. The differential diagnosis of it included fibrous dysplasia,eosinophilic granuloma, multiple myeloma and metastatic carcinoma. Treatment is local removal of the bone containing the tumor.Conclusions: Intraosseous cavernous hemangioma is a rare tumor of the orbit and usually has good surgical result.

  9. Special people visit the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Muriel

    ATLAS has been host to many important visitors lately. Here are a selected few: Professor Stephen Hawking visits the ATLAS cavern On Tuesday 26 September 2006 the ATLAS Collaboration was honoured by a very special visit to the detector in the underground cavern. We were pleased to guide Professor Stephen Hawking, the famous cosmologist holding the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University (position held by Isaac Newton in the 17th century), on a tour of the ATLAS pit and the LHC tunnel. The visit was accompanied by a few colleagues from the CERN Theory group, and was only possible thanks to the professional assistance of Olga Beltramello and Bernard Lebegue, who had also taken care of all the necessary preparatory work in the cavern. Professor Hawking was very keen to check for himself the status of the detector installation, and he admired, in particular, the spectacular TGC big wheel on side C. (left) Stephen Hawking in the ATLAS cavern side-C (right) and in the LHC tunnel...

  10. The ATLAS cavern in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    On Wednesday, 4th June, the President of the Swiss Confederation, Pascal Couchepin, inaugurated the world's largest experimental cavern, which is to house the ATLAS detector in 2007, and announced Switzerland's gift to CERN of the "Palais de l'Equilibre".

  11. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongkui Li; Baoqi Lu; Jing Zou; Bin Xu; Zhizeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years’ experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters) underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of“filling joints with water”is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles for design and

  12. The association of carotid cavernous fistula with Graves′ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Celik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ ophthalmopathy (GO is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature.

  13. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented as cavernous sinus tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moona, Mohammad Shafi; Mehdi, Itrat

    2011-12-01

    A 32 year Libyan male presented with the complaints of headache and diplopia. He was diagnosed with a cavernous sinus meningioma on the basis of MRI findings but no initial biopsy was taken. Depending on the radiologic diagnosis the patient was treated with gamma knife surgery twice, abroad. During follow up he developed left ear deafness and left cervical lymph adenopathy. An ENT evaluation with biopsy from the nasopharynx and cervical lymph node was taken. The histopathologic diagnosis of the resected tumour showed a nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (poorly differentiated lympho-epithelial carcinoma). The cavernous sinus tumour which was initially treated as a meningioma was in fact metastasis from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma, making this an interesting and rare occurrence.

  14. Thoracic Cavernous Lymphangioma Provoking Massive Chyloptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferguson MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chyloptysis is a relatively rare embodiment of disease that encompasses a lengthy differential and provides many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Presented here is the case of a young woman with massive chyloptysis due to a thoracic cavernous lymphangioma arising in the peripartum period. The severity of her condition mandated the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to resect her lymphangioma. We believe that the extent of her symptoms, etiology of disease, and surgical management represent a unique scenario in the literature.

  15. Inauguration of the ATLAS cavern, June 2003.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Before the inauguration, Pascal Couchepin visited the ATLAS cavern. From left to right: Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman; Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council; Carlo Lamprecht, State councillor, Canton of Geneva; Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation; Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General; Marzio Nessi, ATLAS technical coordinator; Arturo Henniger, ZSCHOKKE-LOCHER AG Director; Benno Baettig, personal advisor of President Couchepin; Jean-Luc Baldy, head of CERN Civil Engineering Group.

  16. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Nose Complicated with Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Swaminath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive life threatening bacterial infection of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, and the fascia. We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis involving the nose complicated by cavernous sinus thrombosis. Few cases of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis have been reported to be caused by cellulitis of the face but necrotizing fasciitis of the nose is rare. It is very important to recognize the early signs of cavernous thrombosis. Treatment for septic cavernous sinus thrombosis is controversial but early use of empirical antibiotics is imperative.

  17. Feasibility study of Salt diapirs of Hormuzgan province for nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmehsadat Tabatabaei nia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Find safe manner for long-term disposal of nuclear waste not only for social security and environmental protection but also for the continued operation of nuclear reactors will be inevitable. Various methods such as burial in the ocean, space , layers of ice and deep wells has been used, that each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Disposal of sullage and hazardous wastes in salt caverns Including new technologies and modern in the wastewater and solid waste are management. And some countries have made significant progress in this area, and have a reasonable volume of waste disposed inside the cavern forever. Salt pluges due to the large volume of storage, very low permeability, the restoration of the salt and the lack of joints and gaps, are ideal options for storing all kinds of materials. Place salt pluges of Hormuzgan province in terms of tectonic stability and seismic were investigated. And their capacity for nuclear waste disposal were identified.

  18. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  19. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for encapsulation, deep geological disposal, and research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs.

  20. Transvenous injection of Onyx for casting of the cavernous sinus for the treatment of a carotid-cavernous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Anil; Cekirge, Saruhan; Saatci, Isil; Ozgen, Burce

    2004-12-01

    A complex case of carotid-cavernous fistula was treated transvenously by injection of ethyl vinyl alcohol co-polymer into the cavernous sinus after an unsuccessful embolization attempt with detachable coils and liquid adhesive agents. There were no complications. At 3 months the patient's symptoms had resolved completely, and a control angiogram revealed persistent occlusion. The physical properties of ethyl vinyl alcohol polymer justify further investigation of this agent for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula.

  1. Clinical study on CyberKnife for treating giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu SUN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of CyberKnife for giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus. Methods The data of 7 cases of giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus region confirmed by imaging examination and treated with CyberKnife were collected. The tumor volume was 11.86-70.12 cm3 (median 23.30 cm3. CT and MRI were acquired and fused by MIM 6.5.4 software. The acquired data sets were imported into a CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (Multiplan 4.0.2 and used to delineate the target organs at risk. The irradiation doses received by the lesions were 21 Gy/3 times in 5 cases, 25 Gy/5 times in one case and 30 Gy/3 times in one case. The exposure field was 109-155, and target volume reached over 95%. Patients maintained at supine positionduring treatment and utilized a 6D-skull trace mode specific to CyberKnife. Changes of clinical symptoms and imaging immediately after treatment and during follow-up period were observed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic method. Results Patients were followed-up for 6-18 months, and the meanfollow-up period was 9.37 months. Volumes of lesions were calculated after operation. All of these patients showed decrease in tumor volume (35.48% to 84.03% and improvement in symptoms (including visual impairment, visual field defect and headaches after therapy. Postoperative MRI revealed the tumor volume was 6.75-28.35 cm3 (median 10.50 cm3, which were significantly lower than that of before treatment [11.86-70.12 cm3 (median 23.30 cm3; Z = -2.366, P = 0.018]. Only one case presented radioactive cerebral edema, and the symptom was disappeared after 5-day treatment with mannitol and dexamethasone. Conclusions CyberKnife is an effective treatment method for giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus region. It is suggested to be the first selection for patients with giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus, who are not suitable for traditional surgeries and general

  2. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  3. Disposal rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  4. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  5. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Yang Xinjian [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.co [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  6. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cavernous nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Chuang, Ying; Burnett, Arthur L.; Su, Li-Ming

    2007-02-01

    Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during radical prostatectomy, which are responsible for erectile function, may improve nerve preservation and postoperative potency. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of real-time, high-resolution, cross-sectional, in vivo tissue imaging. The rat prostate serves as an excellent model for studying the use of OCT for imaging the cavernous nerves, as the rat cavernous nerve is a large, visible, and distinct bundle allowing for easy identification with OCT in addition to histologic confirmation. Imaging was performed with the Niris OCT system and a handheld 8 Fr probe, capable of acquiring real-time images with 11-μm axial and 25-μm lateral resolution in tissue. Open surgical exposure of the prostate was performed on a total of 6 male rats, and OCT images of the prostate, cavernous nerve, pelvic plexus ganglion, seminal vesicle, blood vessels, and periprostatic fat were acquired. Cavernous nerve electrical stimulation with simultaneous intracorporeal pressure measurements was performed to confirm proper identification of the cavernous nerves. The prostate and cavernous nerves were also processed for histologic analysis and further confirmation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal OCT images of the cavernous nerves were acquired and compared with histologic sections. The cavernous nerve and ganglion could be differentiated from the surrounding prostate gland, seminal vesicle, blood vessels, bladder, and fatty tissue. We report preliminary results of OCT images of the rat cavernous nerves with histologic correlation and erectile stimulation measurements, thus providing interpretation of prostate structures as they appear in OCT images.

  7. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  8. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  9. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  10. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  11. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao;

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ......Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case......-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability...... correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive...

  12. Endovascular management of carotid-cavernous fistulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bu-lang; LI Ming-hua; LI Yong-dong; FANG Chun; WANG Jue; DU Zhuo-ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate endovascular treatment of traumatic direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) and their complications such as pseudoaneurysms. Methods: Over a five-year period, 22 patients with traumatic direct CCFs were treated endovascularly in our institution. Thirteen patients were treated once with the result of CCF occluded, 8 twice and 1 three times. Treatment modalities included balloon occlusion of the CCF, sacrifice of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery with detachable balloon, coil embolization of the cavernous sinus and secondary pseudoaneurysms, and covered-stent management of the pseudoaneurysms. Results All the direct CCFs were successfully managed endovascularly. Four patients developed a pseudoaneurysm after the occlusion of the CCF with an incidence of pseudoaneurysm formation of 18.2% (4/22). A total number of 8 patients experienced permanent occlusion of the ICA with a rate of ICA occlusion reaching 36.4% (8/22). Followed up through telephone consultation from 6 months to 5 years, all did well with no recurrence of CCF symptoms and signs. Conclusion Traumatic direct CCFs can be successfully managed with endovascular means. The pseudoaneurysms secondary to the occlusion of the CCFs can be occluded with stent-assisted coiling and implantation of covered stents.

  13. CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

    2000-07-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

  14. Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

  15. Impact of corrosion-derived iron on the bentonite buffer within the KBS-3H disposal concept. The Olkiluoto site as case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, Paul (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)); Birgersson, Martin; Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Snellman, Margit (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    Steel components are unstable in EBS environments. They will corrode to fairly insoluble corrosion products, such as magnetite, and also react with the smectitic matrix of the bentonite buffer. In this study, the impact of reduced iron on the buffer's stability has been assessed within the framework of the KBS-H concept. Our work includes two parts. In the first part, available data from experimental and modelling studies have been compiled and interpreted. In the second part, a relatively simple geochemical modelling exercise on the iron-bentonite interaction in the current KBS-3H disposal system has been performed using Olkiluoto as test case. The iron in this case stems from the perforated supercontainer steel shell foreseen to be emplaced around the buffer material. The iron-bentonite interaction under reducing conditions may involve different processes including sorption, redox and dissolution/precipitation reactions, the details of which are not yet understood. One process to consider is the sorption of corrosion-derived Fe(II). This process is fast and leads to strong binding of Fe(II) at the smectite surface. Whether this sorption reaction is accompanied by a redox and surface precipitation reaction is presently not clear. A further process to consider under very reducing conditions is the reduction of structural Fe(III) in the clay which may destabilise the montmorillonite structure. The process of greatest relevance for the buffer's performance is montmorillonite transformation in contact with reduced iron. This process is very slow and experimentally difficult to investigate. Current data suggest that the transformation process may either lead to a Fe-rich smectite (e.g. saponite) or to a non-swelling clay (berthierine or chlorite). In addition, cementation due to precipitation of iron corrosion products or of SiO{sub 2} resulting from montmorillonite transformation may occur. Physical properties of the buffer may in principle be affected by

  16. Impact of corrosion-derived iron on the bentonite buffer within the KBS-3H disposal concept. The Olkiluoto site as case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, Paul (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)); Birgersson, Martin; Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Snellman, Margit (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    Steel components are unstable in EBS environments. They will corrode to fairly insoluble corrosion products, such as magnetite, and also react with the smectitic matrix of the bentonite buffer. In this study, the impact of reduced iron on the buffer's stability has been assessed within the framework of the KBS-H concept. Our work includes two parts. In the first part, available data from experimental and modelling studies have been compiled and interpreted. In the second part, a relatively simple geochemical modelling exercise on the iron-bentonite interaction in the current KBS-3H disposal system has been performed using Olkiluoto as test case. The iron in this case stems from the perforated supercontainer steel shell foreseen to be emplaced around the buffer material. The iron-bentonite interaction under reducing conditions may involve different processes including sorption, redox and dissolution/precipitation reactions, the details of which are not yet understood. One process to consider is the sorption of corrosion-derived Fe(II). This process is fast and leads to strong binding of Fe(II) at the smectite surface. Whether this sorption reaction is accompanied by a redox and surface precipitation reaction is presently not clear. A further process to consider under very reducing conditions is the reduction of structural Fe(III) in the clay which may destabilise the montmorillonite structure. The process of greatest relevance for the buffer's performance is montmorillonite transformation in contact with reduced iron. This process is very slow and experimentally difficult to investigate. Current data suggest that the transformation process may either lead to a Fe-rich smectite (e.g. saponite) or to a non-swelling clay (berthierine or chlorite). In addition, cementation due to precipitation of iron corrosion products or of SiO{sub 2} resulting from montmorillonite transformation may occur. Physical properties of the buffer may in principle be affected by

  17. [Giant cavernous hemangioma of the orbit (case report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusha, Ia O; Ismailova, D S; Eksarenko, O V; Fedorov, A A; Kharlap, S I

    2014-01-01

    The following case demonstrates a successful en bloc removal of a massive cavernous hemangioma of the orbit via vertical transpalpebral approach with postoperative improvement of optic nerve condition and optimal cosmetic result.

  18. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter lowered in to the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was lowered into the ATLAS cavern at POINT1. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  19. Cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater mimicking meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambra Di Vitantonio

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Dural-based cavernous hemangiomas of the convexity are uncommon lesions. Up to now, only 13 cases have been described in the literature. The authors have discussed clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings.

  20. Microbial issues pertaining to the canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. Questions a examiner quant aux microbes lors du developpement du concept canadien de stockage permanent des dechets de combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; West, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report formulates a number of views and positions on microbiological factors that could influence the performance of a disposal vault in plutonic rock. Microbiological factors discussed include the presence and survival of microbes, biofilms, corrosion, biodegradation (of emplaced materials), gas production, geochemical changes, radionuclide migration, colloid formation, mutation, pathogens and methylation. Not all issues can be fully resolved with the current state of knowledge. Studies being performed to underscore and strengthen current knowledge are briefly discussed.

  1. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  2. Evidence for remotely triggered microearthquakes during salt cavern collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    Microseismicity is a good indicator of spatio-temporal evolution of physical properties of rocks prior to catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions or landslides and may be triggered by a number of causes including dynamic characteristics of processes in play or/and external forces. We show evidence of triggered microseismicity observed in the vicinity of an underground salt cavern prone to collapse by a remote M ˜ 7.2 earthquake, which occurred ˜12 000 km away. High-dynamic range broad-band records reveal the strong time-correlation between a dramatic change in the rate of local high-frequency microseismicity and the passage of low-frequency seismic waves, including body, Love and Rayleigh surface waves. Pressure was lowered in the cavern by pumping operations of brine out of the cavern. We demonstrate the near critical state of the cavern before the collapse by means of 2-D axisymmetric elastic finite-element simulations. On this basis, we show that the increment of stress necessary for the failure of the Dolomite layer, which ensures the stability of the whole system, is of the same order of magnitude as the maximum dynamic stress magnitude observed during the passage of the earthquakes waves. This suggests that the stress oscillations due to the seismic waves correlated with the recorded microearthquakes induced damage of the overburden, which eventually led to the collapse of the salt cavern. We show that the contribution of Rayleigh waves is the most efficient to trigger microseismicity at periods close to the natural fundamental frequency of the cavern system found at about 10-20 s by investigating the impulse response of the cavern + overburden + brine system.

  3. Compressed air energy storage monitoring to support refrigerated mined rock cavern technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moo Yul; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-06-01

    This document is the final report for the Compressed Air Energy Storage Monitoring to Support Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology (CAES Monitoring to Support RMRCT) (DE-FC26-01NT40868) project to have been conducted by CAES Development Co., along with Sandia National Laboratories. This document provides a final report covering tasks 1.0 and subtasks 2.1, 2.2, and 2.5 of task 2.0 of the Statement of Project Objectives and constitutes the final project deliverable. The proposed work was to have provided physical measurements and analyses of large-scale rock mass response to pressure cycling. The goal was to develop proof-of-concept data for a previously developed and DOE sponsored technology (RMRCT or Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology). In the RMRCT concept, a room and pillar mine developed in rock serves as a pressure vessel. That vessel will need to contain pressure of about 1370 psi (and cycle down to 300 psi). The measurements gathered in this study would have provided a means to determine directly rock mass response during cyclic loading on the same scale, under similar pressure conditions. The CAES project has been delayed due to national economic unrest in the energy sector.

  4. Hemiparesis in carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs):a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧晓; 白如林; 黄承光; 卢亦成; 张光霁

    2004-01-01

    @@ Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal arteriovenous anastamoses between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. These fistulas may be classified by cause (spontaneous or traumatic), flow velocity (high or low ), or pathogenesis (direct or indirect).

  5. Lunar Holes and Their Associating Subsurface Caverns: From SELENE (Kaguya) to UZUME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, J.; Kawano, I.; Nishibori, T.; Iwata, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Shimada, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Hasenaka, T.; Morota, T.; Nishino, M. N.; Hashizume, K.; Shirao, M.; Komatsu, G.; Hasebe, N.; Shimizu, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Yokobori, S.; Miyake, Y.; Michikawa, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Shinoda, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a summary of lunar holes and associated caverns. Furthermore, we also introduce the project Unprecedented Zipangu Underworld of the Moon/Mars Exploration (UZUME) to explore the holes and caverns.

  6. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao; Girard, Romuald; Shenkar, Robert; Guo, Xiaodong; Shah, Akash; Larsson, Henrik B W; Tan, Huan; Li, Luying; Wishnoff, Matthew S; Shi, Changbin; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A

    2015-10-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive familial CCM disease had greater WMF permeability compared to those with milder disease phenotype, but similar lesion permeability. Subjects receiving statin medications for routine cardiovascular indications had a trend of lower WMF, but not lesion, permeability. This is the first demonstration of brain vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy.

  7. Underground hydrogen storage. Final report. [Salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers and depleted fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foh, S.; Novil, M.; Rockar, E.; Randolph, P.

    1979-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of storing hydrogen in underground storage reservoirs is evaluated. The past and present technology of storing gases, primarily natural gas is reviewed. Four types of reservoirs are examined: salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers, and depleted fields. A technical investigation of hydrogen properties reveals that only hydrogen embrittlement places a limit on the underground storage by hydrogen. This constraint will limit reservoir pressures to 1200 psi or less. A model was developed to determine economic feasibility. After making reasonable assumptions that a utility might make in determining whether to proceed with a new storage operation, the model was tested and verified on natural gas storage. A parameteric analysis was made on some of the input parameters of the model to determine the sensitivity of the cost of service to them. Once the model was verified it was used to compute the cost of service of storing hydrogen in the four reservoir types. The costs of service for hydrogen storage ranged from 26 to 150% of the cost of the gas stored. The study concludes that it is now both safe and economic to store hydrogen in underground reservoirs.

  8. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  9. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Gladstone, A.G.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-09-01

    Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, a relatively uncommon disease entity, frequently can be fatal. Early diagnosis is imperative in order that appropriate treatment be instituted. A 59-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with complaints of diplopia, blurred vision and fevers that developed following a tooth extraction is presented. Initial CT and lumbar puncture on the day of admission were totally normal. A repeat CT performed 48 hours after admission, on the same day as gallium imaging, demonstrated findings consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Gallium imaging demonstrated intense uptake in the left cavernous sinus and left orbit as well as moderately increased activity in the right cavernous sinus and orbit, confirming infection. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and repeat CT and gallium imaging were performed ten days later, both of which demonstrated near total resolution of the disease process. Conceivably, if gallium imaging had been initiated on the day of admission it may have been the first study to demonstrate an infectious process in the cavernous sinus. Gallium imaging should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the noninvasive workup of this entity.

  10. Logging Geology Study of the Caverned Paleokarst Reservoir Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXinsong; YangLei; PanWenqing; GuQiaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, many carbonate rock oilfields such as Lunnan and Tahe have been found in the Tarim Basin, and the main reservoir space of the stable high yield wells in these oilfields consists mainly of the caverns formed by the paleo-karstification and the dissolution pores and fractures connected with them. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict effectively the distribution of the cavern reservoir because of its extremely serious heterogeneity. In this paper, a case study of the Lunxi Oilfield in the north uplift of the Tarim Basin is conducted to introduce the logging geology method for predicting the distribution of the caverned paleokarst, reservoir. By means of building up the logging recognition style of different caverns and differentiating and correlating the karst zones with logging curves, and through an analysis of the paleokarst topography background, the favorable karst zones and distribution areas of the high quality cavern reservoir have been located, which lays a new basis for further exploration in this area.

  11. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yu-xin; QU Qiu-yi; WANG Zhen-lin; ZHANG Qiu-hang

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgery of pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus has always been thought as a challenge due to the complex anatomical structures and high risk of complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate endoscopic trarssphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus.Methods The clinical data of 22 patients who admitted to Xuanwu Hospital with pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. To expose the surgical field sufficiently, the opening of sellar floor was exceeded the bone overlying the invaded cavernous sinus, and synthetic dura was used to repair and strengthen the sella floor for preventing the leak of cerebrospinal fluid.Results Among 22 patients, total resection was achieved in 14, subtotal resection in 5, and partial resection in 3; no patient underwent insufficient resection. Visual symptoms improved in 7 of 9 patients. In one patient diplopia disappeared.Headache was relieved to various extents in all patients. No serious complications were found. Patient's hospital stay ranged from 7 to 20 days.Conclusion These data suggest that the endoscopic transsphenoid approach is a safe, minimally invasive, and efficient surgical technique, which might be an important therapeutic strategy for the pituitary adenoms invading cavernous sinus.

  12. Radiological features of childhood giant cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, Burce; Senocak, Efsun; Oguz, Kader K. [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Soylemezoglu, Figen [Hacettepe University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Akalan, Nejat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Giant cavernous malformations (GCM) are very large, low-flow vascular malformations, which usually have atypical imaging features and are commonly misdiagnosed preoperatively as neoplasms or vascular malformations. These lesions have mostly been reported in children. As cavernomas show different features in children compared to adults, we evaluated the imaging features of pediatric GCMs in order to help in the preoperative diagnosis of these malformations. Brain MR studies of nine children (mean age of 4 years; 8 months-9 years) with biopsy-proven GCM were retrospectively evaluated. We defined GCMs as cavernomas of {>=}4 cm. Lesions were evaluated regarding their size, location, signal characteristics, general appearance (uni/multilocular) as well as regarding the presence of mass effect, edema, and fluid-fluid levels and were classified according to the Mottolese classification of pediatric cavernomas. Lesion locations were parietal (n = 5), frontal (n = 2), temporal, and intraventricular. Seven lesions were in the periventricular region (with five in the periatrial region). Six patients had T1 hyperintense multilobulated lesions with ''bubbles of blood'' appearance and three patients had heterogeneous lesions with reticular core. All lesions had mass effect, edema (marked in four cases), and peripheral hemosiderin rim. Fluid-fluid levels were also common (n = 7). Most of our lesions (six of nine) were classified as type IIIA, two as type IIIC, and one as type IA. In children, a GCM should be considered in case of very large hemorrhagic intra-axial mass with ''bubbles of blood'' multicystic appearance, surrounding hemosiderin ring, fluid-fluid levels, and accompanying edema-mass effect, especially in the periatrial location. (orig.)

  13. CAVERNOUS HAEMANGIOMA WITH RETIFORM HAEMANGIOENDOTHELIOMA - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION : Retiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare variant of lo w - grade angiosarcoma with an indolent clinical behaviour, with predilection for young adults. Mostly is seen in the extremities, especially the distal lower limbs. CASE REPORT: An eighty year old lady, presented with complaints of a solitary, well defined swelling below the nape of the neck since two years. The swelling was clinically diagnosed as cavernous haemangioma. However the colour of the lesion s was looking like a melanocytic naevus. Excision was done under local anaesthesia and was sent for histopa tho lo gical examination. Histopathological diagnosis was confirmed as “Cavernous haemangioma with Retiform Haemangioendothelioma”

  14. Endovascular treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula with trapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional endovascular treatment for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF involves a direct delivery of either coils, detachable balloon or both to the fistula with end point of CCF resolution and carotid artery preservation. But in few cases with severe laceration of carotid artery, the feasible endovascular technique applicable is by blocking the filling of fistula from cerebral circulation. This method known as trapping technique which implicates carotid artery occlusion, was performed in our present case with good result. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:178-82. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.588Keywords: Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF, carotid occlusion, trapping technique

  15. Heuber Maneuver in Evaluation of Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rengarajan; Mehta, Neeraj; Saran, Sonal; Khera, Pushpinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carotid-cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid system and the cavernous sinus. Elevated venous pressure produces congestion in the orbit with resultant transudation of fluid and increased intraocular pressure, thereby leading to secondary glaucoma which may result in visual loss. Immediate treatment is hence, warranted in these cases. The planning of endovascular management is dependent on many parameters, the most important of which are the size and location of the fistula. Since these are high-flow fistulas, assessment requires certain manoeuvers. Heuber manoeuver is one of the manoeuvers used to demonstrate the size of the fistula.

  16. Cavernous sinus thrombosis and air embolism following surgery for acoustic neurinoma : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadkarni T

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A 55 year old male patient was operated on for a massive and vascular acoustic neurinoma in a sitting position. The tumor was completely excised. Post-operatively, the patient developed irritability and clinical features suggestive of contralateral cavernous sinus thrombosis. CT scan showed air within the dural walls of the cavernous sinus on the side of surgery. However, there was no radiological evidence of cavernous sinus thrombosis on the contralateral side. Cavernous sinus thrombosis as a post-surgery complication has not been reported. Air within the dural confines of the cavernous sinus has also not been observed or radiologically recorded in the literature.

  17. Transvenous treatment of a complex cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula secondary to balloon embolization of a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI Jian; CHEN Zuo-quan; DENG Dong-feng; PAN Qing-gang; LING Feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ AIthough recurrent traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) and its treatment have been reported sporadically,1 a complex cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) secondary to balloon embolization of a direct traumatic CCF is rare. In 2005, we treated such a case via transvenous approach using coils and N-buty-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The causes of recurrent cavernous sinus DAVF and its endovascular approach are discussed.

  18. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeway, Katy (PB-KBB Inc.); Rogers, R.E. (Mississippi State University); DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D. (RESPEC)

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  19. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  20. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly.

  1. Carotid-cavernous fistula after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Kaytaz, Asim; Enver, Ozgun

    2009-03-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are anomalous communications between the carotid arterial system and the venous cavernous sinus. They can arise because of spontaneous or trauma causes. Most caroticocavernous fistulas are of spontaneous origin and unknown etiology. Spontaneous CCF may also be associated with cavernous sinus pathology such as arteriosclerotic changes of the arterial wall, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic CCFs may occur after either blunt or penetrating head trauma. Their clinical presentation is related to their size and to the type of venous drainage, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhage (rare), and so on. Treatment by endovascular transarterial embolization with electrolytically detachable coils is a very effective method for CCF with good outcomes. Carotid-cavernous fistulas have been rarely reported after craniofacial surgery and are uncommon pathologies in otolaryngology practice. In this study, we report a 40-year-old woman with CCF secondary to blunt trauma of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of influencing parameters in cavern stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Abdollahipour; Reza Rahmannejad

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the stability of the underground rock structures,knowing the sensitivity of geomechanical parameters is important.To investigate the priority of these geomechanical properties in the stability of cavern,a sensitivity analysis has been performed on a single cavern in various rock mass qualities according to RMR using Phase 2.The stability of cavern has been studied by investigating the side wall deformation.Results showed that most sensitive properties are coefficient of lateral stress and modulus of deformation.Also parameters of Hoek-Brown criterion and σc have no sensitivity when cavern is in a perfect elastic state.But in an elasto-plastic state,parameters of Hoek-Brown criterion and σc affect the deformability; such effect becomes more remarkable with increasing plastic area.Other parameters have different sensitivities concerning rock mass quality (RMR).Results have been used to propose the best set of parameters for study on prediction of sidewall displacement.

  3. Cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater mimicking meningioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Ricci, Alessandro; Marzi, Sara; Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cavernomas are benign lesions that most commonly occur intra-parenchymally, but occasionally they have been described as arising from the dura mater. Extra-axial cavernous angiomas (or hemangiomas) account for 0.4–2% of all intracranial vascular malformations, and they usually occur in the middle cranial fossa, associated with the cavernous sinus. Other possible localizations (e.g. tentorium, convexity, anterior cranial fossa, cerebellopontine angle, Meckel's cave, sella turcica and internal auditory meatus) are rare, and they account only for 0.2–0.5%. Case Description: We report a case of a 30-year-old female presenting with a 2 years history of headache unresponsive to drug therapy. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a dural-based lesion in the left frontal region; the lesion size was: 1.5 cm × 3.5 cm. The appearance suggested a convexity meningioma. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis deposed for a cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater. The follow-up at 1-year was good without any neurologic deficit. Conclusions: Dural-based cavernous hemangiomas of the convexity are uncommon lesions. Up to now, only 13 cases have been described in the literature. The authors have discussed clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings. PMID:26421218

  4. A Case of Brainstem Cavernous Angioma Presenting with Persistent Hiccups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Arami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nIntractable hiccup most be considered as a symptom of underlying serious pathologies. We report a case of medulla oblongata cavernous angima presented with persistant hiccup and without any improvement during routine nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment regimns. The patient is under our follow up visits and surgery is very high risk for this young girl.

  5. Valuation of gas stored in salt cavern facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Michael A. [St. Mary' s University, TX (United States); Grant, Floyd H. [Purdue University, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Since natural gas production is relatively inelastic towards demand in the short term, underground storage is used as a buffer against periods of high demand. Of the three most common storage facility types, depleted reservoirs, aquifers and manmade salt caverns, the latter is the most costly to develop. The challenge then is to maximize profits through efficient operation, well-timed injection and withdrawal of gas. The valuation of a commodity in storage is a challenging problem and has been the subject of study for decades. We investigate selected existing valuation approaches and look for ways to leverage salt-cavern-specific physical characteristics for financial advantage. The basis for our valuation is the Black-Scholes model for pricing options. Then, applying Monte-Carlo methods and simulation, we model combinations of characteristics in multi-cavern facilities and their impact on profitability. We describe the theory behind our work and our analytical framework and provide numerical results of our analysis. Our approach offers increased efficiency in salt-cavern gas storage facility operations. (author)

  6. Lowering End-cap YE-1 in the CMS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 January, the dance of the CMS end-caps came to an end with the lowering of YE-1, the heaviest of them all. After a spectacular lowering operation lsting ten hours, this mammoth component completed the 100-metre descent and was gently placed on the floor of the CMS cavern to the applause of the many onlookers.

  7. Orbital cavernous hemangiomas: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, A; Damianidis, Ch; Kyriakou, V; Kotziamani, N; Emmanouilidou, M; Goutsaridou, F; Tsitouridis, I

    2010-03-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is the most common intraorbital lesion in adults. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) characteristics of cavernous hemangioma and their role in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors. Eight patients with orbital cavernous hemangiomas, five women and three men with a mean age of 48 years were examined in a period of six years. All patients underwent MRI examination and four patients were also evaluated by US. In all cases MRI depicted a well-defined intraconal tumor. The lesions were homogeneous, isointense to muscle on T1-weighted sequence and hyperintense to muscle on T2-weighted sequence in six patients. In one patient the mass was isointense on T1WI with heterogeneous signal intensity on T2WI and in one patient the lesion had heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. After intravenous contrast medium administration, the tumors showed initial inhomogeneous enhancement with progressive accumulation of contrast material on delayed images in seven patients and initial homogeneous enhancement in one patient. On ultrasonography, the orbital masses appeared slightly hyperechoic, heterogeneous with small areas of slow blood flow. The analysis of imaging characteristics of a well-defined intraconal lesion in an adult patient with painless progressive proptosis can be highly suggestive of the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma.

  8. Traumatic basilar pseudoaneurysm with a basilar-cavernous arteriovenous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Deasy, N.P.; Jeffree, M.A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, King' s Coll. Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Martin, A.J.; Strong, A.J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, King' s Coll. Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    A traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the basilar artery with a basilar-cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistula was diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl using CT, MRI and angiography. It was successfully treated by coil embolisation. We speculate on the mode of formation of this rare traumatic lesion. (orig.)

  9. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  10. A measurement of creep and permeability of a salt cavern; Une mesure de la permeabilite et du fluage d`une caverne dans le sel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berest, P.; Bergues, J.; Brouard, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, (LMS), 91 - Palaiseau (France); Durup, G.; Guerber, B. [Gaz de France (GDF), 93 - La-Plaine-Saint-Denis (France)

    1999-07-01

    Rock mass properties differ significantly from those measured on samples in the laboratory. A test has been performed on a deep brine-filled cavern, with the objective of measuring the equilibrium pressure reached when the cavern was closed. Such an equilibrium is reached when salt mass creep, which leads to cavern shrinkage, balances brine permeation through the cavern wall. A K = 2.10{sup -19} m{sup 2} value of the average in situ intrinsic permeability has been deduced from the test; it is significantly higher than the intrinsic permeability measured in a well or in the laboratory. This result supports cavern abandonment scenarios in which the risk of natural fracturing due to high brine pressures is alleviated. (authors) 14 refs.

  11. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  12. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  13. Abducens Nerve Palsy and Ipsilateral Horner Syndrome in a Patient With Carotid-Cavernous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, Ali; Ercan, Zeynep E; Duman, Enes; Arpaci, Enver

    2015-10-01

    The combination of abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral Horner syndrome was first described by Parkinson and considered as a localizing sign of posterior cavernous sinus lesions. The authors present a case with right abducens nerve palsy with ipsilateral Horner syndrome in a patient with carotid-cavernous fistula because of head trauma. The patient was referred to the ophthalmology clinic with diplopia complaint after suffering a head trauma during a motorcycle accident. Cerebral angiography showed low-flow carotid-cavernous fistula.

  14. Cluster Headache Secondary to Macroprolactinoma with Ipsilateral Cavernous Sinus Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 25 year-old man with episodic cluster headache that was refractory to all standard pharmacological prophylactic and abortive treatments. Because of the lack of response, an MRI brain was performed which showed a large pituitary tumour with ipsilateral cavernous sinus invasion. The serum prolactin was significantly elevated at 54,700 miU/L (50–400 confirming a macro-prolactinoma. Within a few days of cabergoline therapy the headache resolved. He continues to be headache free several years after starting the dopamine agonist. This case highlights the importance of imaging the pituitary fossa in patients with refractory cluster headache, It also raises the potential anatomical importance of the cavernous sinus in pituitary-associated headache.

  15. A giant frontal cavernous malformation with review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular anomalies with dilated spaces called caverns. These spaces are lined by endothelial cells and collage and devoid of smooth muscle or intervening neural tissue, and filled with blood at various stages of stasis, thrombosis, organization, and calcification. Most CMs are relatively small in size but when they are large enough they can produce sing of mass effect and may simulate neoplastic, vascular, inflammatory pathology. Giant CM (size >6 cm) are very rare lesions and very few cases are reported in world literature. We are reporting such a rare case of a 16 year male. Our case is also unique in the sense that it is the largest reported CM in Indian population. PMID:27114662

  16. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  17. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Rib: A Rare Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Gourgiotis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma of the rib is an uncommon benign vascular tumour. A case of rib hemangioma in a 29-year-old woman is presented. Chest roentgenogram and computed tomography revealed a mass along the inner surface of the 7th left rib with bone destruction. She underwent resection of the 7th rib. The pathologic diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. Hemangiomas of the rib are rare tumours but should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of rib tumours.

  18. [Condition of cavernous tissue of the penis after unilateral incomplete proximal intracavernous falloprosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurashvili, G I; Medvedev, V L; Chilov, S A; Kochov, V N; Taruashvili, I G

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral incomplete proximal intracavernous falloprosthesis (UIPIF) was followed by US-dopplerography of the intact penis and penis in medical erection induced by E1 prostoglandin introduction into the intact cavernous body. UIPIF preserves 89-90% of functionally active cavernous tissue with effective blood flow. Investigation 2 months and more after operation demonstrated that systolic blood flow rate in the cavernous artery of the cavernous tissue around the endoprosthersis can reach values registered in normal erection. The conclusion is made that after UIPIF quality of sexual life of the patient improves due to creation of additional density and axial stability of the trunk of the penis.

  19. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy caused by cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihn, Yon Kwon; Jung, Won Sang [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which usually presents with conjunctival injection, proptosis, loss of visual acuity, and ophthalmoplegia, is a rare cause of ophthalmoplegia. Thus, it may be overlooked when the typical symptoms are lacking. There have been some cavernous DAVF case reports presenting with isolated oculomotor, abducens and trochlear nerve palsy. We report a patient presenting with isolated oculomotor palsy, caused by cavernous DAVF, which was treated by transvenous coil embolization. This case suggests that cavernous DAVF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy and for which case - selective angiography and embolization may be helpful in reaching a diagnosis and providing a guide for optimal treatment.

  20. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  1. Post-traumatic carotid cavernous fistula of late manifestation report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Roskal-Wałek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Carotid cavernous fistula of traumatic aetiology occurs more commonly. The characteristic triad of symptoms covers the following: pulsating exophthalmos, a humming sound within the skull, and dilation and tortuosity of conjunctival and episcleral veins. The diagnosis of CCF may constitute a diagnostic problem in the situation when the symptoms occur several weeks after injury, it may overlap with other post-traumatic changes, and the dominant symptom may be cranial nerve palsy. The lack of a correct diagnosis and adequate causative therapy creates the risk of not only loss of vision, but also of life. We present a case of a patient who developed fistula symptoms a few weeks after an injury. The diagnosis of post-traumatic CCF was confirmed by imaging examinations. The application of transluminal embolisation led to the resolution of the majority of symptoms.

  2. Intraosseous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Mandible: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elif, Bilgir; Derya, Yildirim; Gulperi, Kocer; Sevgi, Bozova

    2017-01-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions are rare conditions. They are most commonly seen in the vertebral column and skull; nevertheless, the mandible is a quite rare location. In this report, we present a case of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma in the mandible and discuss the clinical and radiological features. A 28-year-old male patient attended to our clinic with a complaint of painless swelling of mandible. Clinical evaluation revealed a bone-hard, smooth-surfaced, immobile mass in the left mandibular lingual area. The patient was evaluated with panoramic and occlusal radiography and computed tomography. The lesion surgically excised and pathological examination revealed an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma. Follow-up imaging 1 year later with cone beam computed tomography revealed recurrence of the lesion. The conclusion of this paper; when a bone hard, well-shaped mass was seen in the mandible, the possibility of intraosseous hemangioma must be remembered and before surgical procedure detailed radiographic evaluation should be performed. Key words:Hemangioma, intraosseous, mandible, cavernous, cbct.

  3. Intraosseous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Mandible: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derya, Yildirim; Gulperi, Kocer; Sevgi, Bozova

    2017-01-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions are rare conditions. They are most commonly seen in the vertebral column and skull; nevertheless, the mandible is a quite rare location. In this report, we present a case of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma in the mandible and discuss the clinical and radiological features. A 28-year-old male patient attended to our clinic with a complaint of painless swelling of mandible. Clinical evaluation revealed a bone-hard, smooth-surfaced, immobile mass in the left mandibular lingual area. The patient was evaluated with panoramic and occlusal radiography and computed tomography. The lesion surgically excised and pathological examination revealed an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma. Follow-up imaging 1 year later with cone beam computed tomography revealed recurrence of the lesion. The conclusion of this paper; when a bone hard, well-shaped mass was seen in the mandible, the possibility of intraosseous hemangioma must be remembered and before surgical procedure detailed radiographic evaluation should be performed. Key words:Hemangioma, intraosseous, mandible, cavernous, cbct. PMID:28149481

  4. Gas hydrates in gas storage caverns; Gashydrate bei der Gaskavernenspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenefeld, P. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Given appropriate pressure and temperature conditions the storage of natural gas in salt caverns can lead to the formation of gas hydrates in the producing well or aboveground operating facilities. This is attributable to the stored gas becoming more or less saturated with water vapour. The present contribution describes the humidity, pressure, and temperature conditions conducive to gas hydrate formation. It also deals with the reduction of the gas removal capacity resulting from gas hydrate formation, and possible measures for preventing hydrate formation such as injection of glycol, the reduction of water vapour absorption from the cavern sump, and dewatering of the cavern sump. (MSK) [Deutsch] Bei der Speicherung von Erdgas in Salzkavernen kann es unter entsprechenden Druck- und Temperaturverhaeltnissen zur Gashydratbildung in den Foerdersonden oder obertaegigen Betriebseinrichtungen kommen, weil sich das eingelagerte Gas mehr oder weniger mit Wasserdampf aufsaettigt. Im Folgenden werden die Feuchtigkeits-, Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen, die zur Hydratbildung fuehren erlaeutert. Ebenso werden die Verringerung der Auslagerungskapazitaet durch die Hydratbildung, Massnahmen zur Verhinderung der Hydratbildung wie die Injektion von Glykol, die Verringerung der Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Kavernensumpf und die Entwaesserung der Kavernensumpfs selbst beschrieben.

  5. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudeen, David Keith; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

  6. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  7. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation. (JGB)

  8. A factorial analysis experimentation of inappropriate waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Oke, K. O. Awofeso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical approach to estimating the effects of psychological factors on humans due to inappropriate waste disposal in the environment. Factorial experimental analysis is combined with the concepts of transition matrix and steady state conditions. An adequate understanding into the statistical quantification of the waste disposal concept would aid policy makers in effective decision making and the proper control of environment. The feasibility of developing statistical parameters for assessing the waste disposal concept is confirmed. The work shows the novelty of the approach.

  9. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-06-15

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  10. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  11. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  12. Features of West Hackberry SPR Caverns and Internal Structure Of the Salt Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.

    2006-09-01

    The intent of this report is to examine the internal structure of the West Hackberry salt dome utilizing the information from the geometric configuration of the internal cavern surfaces obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data. In a general sense, the caverns of West Hackberry are remarkable in the symmetry of their shapes. There are only rather moderate deviations from what would be considered an ideal cylindrical solution mining geometry in these caverns. This finding is in marked contrast to the directional solutioning found in the elliptical cross sectioned, sometimes winged, caverns of Big Hill. None of the persistent lineaments prevalent in Big Hill caverns are evident in West Hackberry caverns. Irregularities of the West Hackberry caverns are restricted to preferential solution formed pits and protuberances with moderate dimensions. In fact, the principal characteristic of West Hackberry caverns is the often large sections of smooth and cylindrical cavern wall. Differences in the cavern characteristics between West Hackberry and Big Hill suggest that the former dome is quite homogeneous, while the latter still retains strong remnants of the interbeds of the original bedded Louann salt. One possible explanation is that the source of the two domes, while both from the Louann mother salt, differs. While the source of the Big Hill dome is directly from the mother salt bed, it appears that the West Hackberry arises from a laterally extruded sill of the mother salt. Consequently, the amount of deformation, and hence, mixing of the salt and interbed material in the extruded sill is significantly greater than would be the case for the directly formed diapir. In West Hackberry, remnants of interbeds apparently no longer exist. An important aspect of the construction of the West Hackberry caverns is the evidence of an attempt to use a uniform solutioning construction practice. This uniformity involved the utilization of single well solutioning and

  13. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  14. Vascular plug for ICA occlusion in cavernous carotid aneurysms: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, David A.; Keston, Peter; White, Philip; Sellar, Robin [Western General Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Large, symptomatic aneurysms of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) can be successfully treated by a combination of aneurysm coiling and occlusion of the parent vessel. We describe the use of an Amplatzer (AGA medical corporation, Plymouth, MA, USA) detachable nitinol vascular plug to occlude the ICA in four patients with symptomatic cavernous ICA aneurysms. (orig.)

  15. Tuberculoma of the Cavernous Sinus and Meckel's Cave in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V R Roopesh; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Verma, Surendra Kumar; Barathi, S Deepak; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar; Bidkar, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous infection of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave is extremely rare. In this report, we describe a patient with tuberculoma of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave, extending to the petrous apex. The patient underwent microsurgical excision of the lesion and antitubercular chemotherapy resulting in a good outcome. We describe the diagnostic difficulties and review the relevant literature.

  16. Endovascular treatment with transvenous approach for embolization of carotid cavernous fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of endovascular treatment in carotid cavernous fistula is to close the tear side at cavernous sinus part. It can be dealt either by transvenous or transarterial approach. The option is influenced by type of fistula and angioarchitectural findings. We described two different transvenous routes emphasizing on anatomical consideration and its technical aspect.

  17. Endovascular management of dural fistulas into the cavernous sinus. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dural fistula to the cavernous sinus (DFCS is an infrequent pathology that consists in the anomalous communication between the meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA and/or the external carotid artery (ECA and the cavernous sinus. Aim: To perform a systematic review to evaluate clinical and imaging findings in DFCS, and current indications for treatment.

  18. Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

    1978-08-04

    A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

  19. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm after medical prolactinoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Hollon, Todd C; Shastri, Ravi; Trobe, Jonathan D; Gemmete, Joseph J; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-06-08

    Aneurysms of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are believed to have a low risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), given the confines of the dural rings and the anterior clinoid process. The risk may be greater when the bony and dural protection has been eroded. We report a case of spontaneous SAH from rupture of a cavernous ICA aneurysm in a patient whose large prolactinoma had markedly decreased in size as the result of cabergoline treatment. After passing a balloon test occlusion, the patient underwent successful endovascular vessel deconstruction. This case suggests that an eroding skull base lesion may distort normal anterior cranial base anatomy and allow communication between the cavernous ICA and subarachnoid space. The potential for SAH due to cavernous ICA aneurysm rupture should be recognised in patients with previous pituitary or other skull base lesions adjacent to the cavernous sinus.

  20. The use of protective barriers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into a mined geologic facility for the disposal of radioactive waste: A review of previous investigations and potential concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolan, T.L. [Tolan, Beeson and Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating the feasibility of developing protective barrier system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to thwart inadvertent human intrusion into this radioactive-waste disposal system for a period of 9,900 years after assumed loss of active institutional controls. The protective barrier system would be part of a series of enduring passive institutional controls whose long-term function will be to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent human activities (e.g., exploratory drilling for resources) that could disrupt the WIPP disposal system.

  1. Direct orbital puncture of the cavernous sinus for the treatment of a carotid-cavernous dural AV fistula with a concomitant venous/lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumou, Adriaan D; van den Berg, René; Bot, Joost C; Beetsma, Daan B; Saeed, Peerooz

    2014-02-01

    A 37- year old male with a long history of a left orbital venous/lympathic malformation presented with ocular injection, increased proptosis and reduced left vision. Angiography demonstrated a carotid cavernous dural AV fistula combined with a concomitant venous/lymphatic malformation. After attempts at transvenous embolization, a direct uncomplicated transorbital puncture of the cavernous sinus via a lateral orbitotomy was performed with complete resolution of ocular symptoms.

  2. Operative management of tumors involving the cavernous sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, L N; Møller, A R

    1986-06-01

    In the past, neurosurgeons have been reluctant to operate on tumors involving the cavernous sinus because of the possibility of bleeding from the venous plexus or injury to the internal carotid artery (ICA) or the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves. The authors describe techniques for a more aggressive surgical approach to neoplasms in this area that are either benign or locally confined malignant lesions. During the last 2 years, seven tumors involving the cavernous sinus have been resected: six totally and one subtotally. The preoperative evaluation included axial and coronal computerized tomography, cerebral angiography, and a balloon-occlusion test of the ICA. Intraoperative monitoring of the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves was used to assist in locating the nerves and in avoiding injury to them. The first major step in the operative procedure was to obtain proximal control of the ICA at the petrous apex and distal control in the supraclinoid segment. The cavernous sinus was then opened by a lateral, superior, or inferior approach for tumor resection. Temporary clipping and suture of the ICA was necessary in one patient. None of the patients died or suffered a stroke postoperatively. Permanent trigeminal nerve injury occurred in three patients; in two, this was the result of tumor invasion. One patient suffered temporary paralysis of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves, and in another the sixth cranial nerve was temporarily paralyzed. Preoperative cranial nerve deficits were improved postoperatively in three patients. Radiation therapy was administered postoperatively to four patients. These seven patients have been followed for 6 to 18 months to date and none has shown evidence of recurrence of the intracavernous tumor.

  3. Fibrosis of corpus cavernosum in animals following cavernous nerve ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-LiHu; Li-QuanHu; jianSong; Shi-WenLi; Xin-MinZheng; BeiCheng; Bing-ChunTian

    2004-01-01

    t Aim: To investigate alterations of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum following cavernous neurectomy and its relation to the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Methods: Ten adult male SD rats (neurectomy group) were subject to a bilateral cavernous nerve (CN) resection aseptically under an operating microscope, with 6 sham-operated rats as the control. Fifteen weeks after the operation, the penile specimens were collected and prepared for quantitative-analyzing of ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum with confocal microscopy, and for detecting the expression of TGF-β1 by RT-PCR and westernblot.Results: Smooth muscle cells that show red color after fluorescent-labeling with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanatephalloidin and collagen fibers that produce green autofluorescence after paraformaldehyde fixation were clearly identified under the confocal microscope. Quantification of fluorescent intensity showed that the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum in neurectomy group was 0.265± 0.125, which was significantly lower than that in sham-operated group (0.760±0.196, P<0.01). RT-PCR and western-blot analyses revealed a significantlyhigher expression of TGF-β1 in the penile tissues of the neurectomy animals than that in sham-operated group.Conclusion: Bilateral ablation of CN can lead to fibrosis of corpus cavernosum, which may be related to an increased expression of TGF-β1 induced by hypoxia in cavernous tissue after denervation.

  4. Site investigations on cavernous limestone for the Remouchamps Viaduct, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Waltham, Antony; Vandenven, Georges; Ek, Camille

    1986-01-01

    POOR GROUND CONDITIONS on cavernous limestone created severe difficulties at the sites of four piers of the Remouchamps Viaduct. The discovery, during excavations for foundations, of large open cavities prompted a major re-appraisal of site investigation procedure, and also some redesign of the viaduct structure. La situation défavorable des fondations de quatre des piliers du viaduc autoroutier de Remouchamps posa des problèmes de construction. La présence de cavités karstiques largement ...

  5. Studies on activation in the ATLAS cavern with MPX detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Sopczak, Andre; Biskup, Bartolomej; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solc, Jaroslav; Sopko, Vit; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek; Benes, Petr [IEAP CTU Prague (Czech Republic); Asbah, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of different types of radiation. These detectors are successfully operating in the ATLAS detector at 16 positions and collect data independent of the ATLAS data-recording chain. Their data was used to study the activation of the surrounding material and the ATLAS-MPX detectors itself during and after collisions. As the detectors also offer the possibility to distinguish between different types of radiation, an attempt was made to estimate the corresponding dose rates at different locations in the ATLAS detector and in the cavern. First results are presented.

  6. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Skull and Meningioma: Association or Coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kilani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas of the skull are rare. Meningiomas are quite frequently encountered in a neurosurgical practice. The association between these two entities is nevertheless very uncommon. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman suffering from headache. The MRI showed a parietal meningioma with adjacent thick bone. The meningioma and the bone were removed. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of meningioma and revealed a cavernoma of the skull. The relationship between the lesions suggests more than a coincidental association. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain common causal connections.

  7. Acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis with cavernous sinus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Tzu-Hang; Chen, Hsien-Shen; Yuan, Chien-Han; Su, Feng-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis is most commonly found in immunocompromised patients with conditions such as diabetes mellitus, malignancies and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The most common pathogens are Aspergillus and Mucoraceae and the sinus most frequently involved is the maxillary sinus. Fever, rhinorrhea, facial pain, headache, and diplopia are common presenting symptoms. Complications of this infection include intracranial and / or intraorbital spread of the infection; the prognosis is poor. Here, a rare case of acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis with cavernous sinus syndrome is reported.

  8. Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pavesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients’ behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  9. [Pontine cavernous angioma (cavernoma) with initial ENT manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; González Palomino, A; Pantoja Hernández, C G; Trinidad Ruíz, G; Marqués Rebollo, L; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 22 years old female who consulted us for facial parestesias, hearing loss in right ear and sudden tinnitus. Her audiometry showed an unilateral discreet sensorineural hipoacusia and the cranial IRM, a mass of 20 mm diameter in right pontine region and bulbus informed as cavernous angioma with signs of recent bleeding. The patient was sent to Neurosurgery but she refused the intervention. The risk of hemorrhage in the cavernomas is estimated at 0.25% to 1.6% per year and represents the main reason to advise a surgical treatment.

  10. COMPAC: Optimization of the energy storage in salt caverns. COMPAC: Optimalisatie van energie-opslag in zoutholten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupping, A.W.

    1991-12-01

    The NOVEM (Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment) studied large-scale energy storage in the Netherlands in the mid-eighties. Two variants of the BOPAC-concept (a system with two salt caverns in an underground salt formation) are discussed. One variant is called COMPAC (COMbination of a Pump-Accumulator Centre). In this system the circulation of the brine is used next to the circulation of natural gas to store energy. When the brine circulation does not run via the ground level, but is flushed into the salt, then the pressure drop in the brine circulation is zero. This storage system is called SUCCESS. Both systems are compared for different depths of the salt caverns. Pump-accumulation systems in underground salt formations with constant pressure are preferred to systems with constant volume. SUCCESS appears to be the most interesting system when it is combined with temporary storage of natural gas. COMPAC is preferred when using surface brine reservoirs in thick salt formations right beneath the surface level. 7 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  11. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  12. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  13. Ultrasonography guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic cavernous hemangioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cui; Hong-Wen Zhang; Li-Yan Zhou; Man-Ku Dong; Ping Wang; Min Ji; Xiao-Ou Li; Chang-Wei Chen; Zi-Pei Liu; Yong-Jie Xu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HCH) is the mostcommon benign tumor of the liver and its management isstill controversial. Recent successin situ radiofrequencyablation of hepatic malignancies has led us to consider usingthis technique in patients with HCH. This study was to assessthe efficacy, safety, and complications of percutaneousradiofrequency ablation (PRFA) under ultrasonographyguidance in patients with HCH.METHODS: Twelve patients (four men and eight women,age ranged 33-56 years, mean age was 41.7 years) with 15hepatic cavernous hemangiomas (2.5 cm to 9.5 cm) weretreated using the RF-2000 generator and 10-needle LeVeenelectrode percutaneously guided by B-ultrasound. Lesionslarger than 3 cm were treated by multiple overlappingablations that encompass the entire lesion as well as a rimof normal liver tissue (approximately 0.5 cm).RESULTS: All the patients who received PRFA therapy hadno severe pain, bleeding or bile leakage during and afterthe procedures. Nine to 34 months′ follow-up (mean, 21months) by ultrasound and/or spiral CT scan demonstratedthat the ablated lesions in this group were shrunk remarkably,and the shrunken range was 38-79 % (mean, 67 % per 21months). The contrast enhancement was disappeared withinthe tumor or at its periphery in all cases on spiral CT scansobtained 3 to 6 months after treatment.CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that PRFAtherapy is a mini-invasive, simple, safe, and effective methodfor the treatment of selected patients with HCH.

  14. Cavernous sinus hemangioma: a fourteen year single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohan; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Agarwal, Deepak; Sharma, Manish Singh; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-06-01

    Cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) is a rare extra-axial vascular neoplasm that accounts for 2% to 3% of all cavernous sinus tumors. Their location, propensity for profuse bleeding during surgery, and relationship to complex neurovascular structures are factors which present difficulty in excising these lesions. The authors describe their experience of 22 patients with CSH over 14 years at a tertiary care center. Patients were managed with microsurgical resection using a purely extradural transcavernous approach (13 patients) and with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) (nine patients). Retrospective data analysis found headache and visual impairment were the most common presenting complaints, followed by facial hypesthesia and diplopia. All but one patient had complete tumor excision in the surgical series. Transient ophthalmoparesis (complete resolution in 6-8 weeks) was the most common surgical complication. In the GKRS group, marked tumor shrinkage (>50% tumor volume reduction) was achieved in two patients, slight shrinkage in five and no change in two patients, with symptom improvement in the majority of patients. To our knowledge, we describe one of the largest series of CSH managed at a single center. Although microsurgical resection using an extradural transcavernous approach is considered the treatment of choice in CSH and allows complete excision with minimal mortality and long-term morbidity, GKRS is an additional tool for treating residual symptomatic lesions or in patients with associated comorbidities making surgical resection unsuitable.

  15. Extradural spinal cavernous angiomas: report of seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Antonio; Piccirilli, Manolo; Bristot, Roberto; di Norcia, Valerio; Salvati, Maurizio; Delfini, Roberto

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe seven cases of extradural spinal cavernous angioma. Although cavernoma itself is not rare, the extradural spinal localization is uncommon and makes preoperative differential diagnosis difficult. Routine MRI investigation has aided neurosurgeons in evaluating the true incidence of these vascular malformations, which was understimated in the past. The data published so far have not entirely clarified the treatment of choice for these lesions. Considering their rarity in this site, their presenting symptoms and the difficulties involved in neuroradiological diagnosis, the authors discuss the role of surgery as the principal form of treatment and review the relevant literature. Seven patients (4 male, 3 female) were admitted to our Institute of Neurosurgery between 1992 and 2004, with a 5-6 month history (range=2-365 days) of low back pain or radicular pain, sometimes associated with paresthesia. All patients had a CT scan, as well as MRI with gadolinium when possible, which detected an extradural roundish lesion: differential diagnosis was very difficult, especially between neurinoma and cavernoma. Treatment was always surgical and resection of the lesion radical. Postoperatively, all patients presented complete regression of clinical symptoms. In all cases histological diagnosis was cavernous angioma. Postoperative MRI with gadolinium or CT scan with IV contrast, performed before discharge, confirmed radical removal of the vascular malformation in all cases. Our experience confirms that surgery should be the treatment of choice for these lesions, in view of both their tendency to bleed and their straightforward surgical removal.

  16. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  17. Literature Survey Concerning the Feasibility of Remedial Leach for Select Phase I Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Karen A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Bryan Mound 5 ( BM5 ) and West Hackberry 9 ( WH9 ) have the potential to create a significant amount of new storage space should the caverns be deemed "leach - ready". This study discusses the original drilling history of the caverns, surrounding geology, current stability, and, based on this culmination of data, makes a preliminary assessment of the leach potential for the cavern. The risks associated with leaching BM5 present substantial problems for the SPR . The odd shape and large amount of insoluble material make it difficult to de termine whether a targeted leach would have the desired effect and create useable ullage or further distort the shape with preferential leaching . T he likelihood of salt falls and damaged or severed casing string is significant . In addition, a targeted le ach would require the relocation of approximately 27 MMB of oil . Due to the abundance of unknown factors associated with this cavern, a targeted leach of BM5 is not recommended. A targeted leaching of the neck of WH 9 could potentially eliminate or diminis h the mid - cavern ledge result ing in a more stable cavern with a more favorable shape. A better understanding of the composition of the surrounding salt and a less complicated leaching history yields more confidence in the ability to successfully leach this region. A targeted leach of WH9 can be recommended upon the completion of a full leach plan with consideration of the impacts upon nearby caverns .

  18. Microsurgical thromboendarterectomy of the cavernous carotid artery--case report and surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsu, K; Fujii, S; Tanaka, N; Kuwabara, T

    1990-10-01

    A 53-year-old male suffered a transient right hemiparesis and left monocular blindness. Angiography revealed 80% stenosis of the cavernous carotid artery. Microsurgical thromboendarterectomy was performed by a direct approach through Parkinson's triangle. During surgery, the carotid circulation was transiently trapped between the cervical and the supraclinoid segment and the trapped arterial lumen was irrigated with heparinized saline. Soft elastic lesion was easily removed. Cavernous carotid thromboendarterectomy through a direct approach is considered as a suitable operation for the solitary and localized stenotic lesions of the cavernous carotid artery, although this operation has not yet been reported to date.

  19. Epileptic Seizures Induced by a Spontaneous Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department with complaints of fainting and loss of consciousness three times during the past month. She was diagnosed with epilepsy and started to be treated with antiepileptic drug. Physical examination showed, in the left eye, chemosis, limited eye movements in all directions, and minimal exophthalmos as unexisting symptoms on admission developed on the sixth day. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging revealed a carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). Epileptic attacks and ophthalmic findings previously present but diagnosed during our examinations were determined to ameliorate completely after performing the coil embolization. Based on literature, we present the first case with nontraumatic CCF manifesting with epileptic seizures and intermittent eye symptoms in the present report. PMID:28077946

  20. Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: From Diagnosis to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mouchtouris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations are the most common vascular malformations and can be found in many locations in the brain. If left untreated, cavernomas may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or headaches. As they are angiographically occult, their diagnosis relies on various MR imaging techniques, which detect different characteristics of the lesions as well as aiding in planning the surgical treatment. The clinical presentation and the location of the lesion are the most important factors involved in determining the optimal course of treatment of cavernomas. We concisely review the literature and discuss the advantages and limitations of each of the three available methods of treatment—microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and conservative management—depending on the lesion characteristics.

  1. Direct carotid cavernous fistula after submucous resection of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizri, A R; al-Ajam, M; Zaytoun, G; al-Kutoubi, A

    2000-01-01

    A carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal arteriovenous anastomosis between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Etiologies of this condition reported in the literature so far include facial trauma, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm of the carotid artery, Ehler-Danlos syndrome and fibromuscular dysplasia of the cerebral arteries. Such fistulae were reported as complications of rhinoplasty, transsphenoidal surgery, embolization of cavernous sinus meningioma, and rhinocerebral mucormycosis. CCF may also occur spontaneously in children or as a congenital malformation. However, to our knowledge, submucous resection of the nasal septum has not been reported before to cause direct carotid-cavernous fistula. CT and angiographic findings are presented and a review of the literature for reported causes of CCF is made as well as a brief discussion of the possible pathophysiology.

  2. [Anatomical study of the cavernous nerve in relation to nerve sparing operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanawa, K

    1994-08-01

    Recently, nerve sparing radical prostatectomy has became widely considered as the primary goal for maintaining a high standard of quality of life (QOL). However, anatomical localization of the cavernous nerve has not yet been precisely clarified in terms of the terminal end in the corpus cavernous penis distal to the urogenital membrane. Here in attempt to demonstrate the precise localization of the cavernous nerve, in six adult male cadaver. The cavernous nerves ran between the prostatic capsule and the prostatic fascia, through the capsule of the seminal vesicle. The nerves penetrated the membranous urethra at 8 mm from the margin of the urethra at the position of 5 and 7 o'clock. Therefore, the following procedures are critical to achieve successful nerve sparing: 1) meticulous division of the seminal-vesicle, 2) precise separation of the neurovascular bundle between the prostatic capsule and fascia, and 3) the careful transaction of the membranous urethra.

  3. Diagnosis and management of trigemino-cavernous fistulas: case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R; Jindal, Gaurav; Mohan, Suyash; Fortes, Manuel; Hurst, Robert; Pukenas, Bryan; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    Although usually asymptomatic, a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) can rarely be associated with a direct fistula to the cavernous sinus (ie, trigemino-cavernous fistula). We present three patients with trigemino-cavernous fistulas; two were subsequently treated using modern endovascular techniques while the third initially declined therapy. We then review the literature of reported cases of this unusual entity. The aberrant anatomy associated with a PTA presents unique challenges to the management of these lesions, and must be well delineated prior to treatment. Finally, conservative management of trigemino-cavernous fistulas, either de novo or recurrent, may be considered if they demonstrate no evidence of cortical venous reflux and patient symptoms are tolerable.

  4. Vascular permeability and iron deposition biomarkers in longitudinal follow-up of cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vascular permeability and iron leakage are central features of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) pathogenesis. The authors aimed to correlate prospective clinical behavior of CCM lesions with longitudinal changes in biomarkers of dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative permeability (...

  5. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns; Comportement transitoire des cavites salines profondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Jafari, M

    2007-11-15

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  6. FAM222B Is Not a Likely Novel Candidate Gene for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegler, Stefanie; Kirchmaier, Bettina; Rath, Matthias; Korenke, G. Christoph; Tetzlaff, Fabian; Van De Vorst, Maartje; Neveling, Kornelia; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Kuss, Andreas W.; Gilissen, Christian; Fischer, Andreas; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Felbor, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are prevalent slow-flow vascular lesions which harbour the risk to develop intracranial haemorrhages, focal neurological deficits, and epileptic seizures. Autosomal dominantly inherited CCMs were found to be associated with heterozygous inactivating mutations

  7. A dural arteriovenous fistula in cavernous sinus developed from viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Wan, Jue-Feng; Su, Shao-Hua; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Gui-Yun

    2011-06-01

    Although hormonal influences, inflammation, trauma, sinus thrombosis, venous hypertension, and congenital origin have been proposed as sources of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in cavernous and sigmoid sinuses, the etiology of these lesions remains controversial. We present a case with a cavernous sinus DAVF developed from viral meningitis which has not been previously described. A 24-year-old male was admitted to our institute because of periorbital pain, decreased vision, pulsatile tinnitus, chemosis, and exophthalmos on the right side after he had suffered viral meningitis four months before. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a cavernous sinus DAVF, which was successfully obliterated with several platinum coils using a transvenous approach. The viral meningitis most likely caused the inflammation, that may be responsible for the occurrence of the cavernous sinus DAVF. Prompt treatment for inflammation may help to prevent the development of DAVFs.

  8. Transorbital superior ophthalmic vein sacrifice to preserve vision in ocular hypertension from aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Davis, Brandon J; He, Lucy; Mawn, Louise A; Mocco, J

    2015-12-01

    Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is rare and may clinically masquerade as a carotid cavernous fistula. Conventional management includes oral anticoagulation, but cases of ocular hypertension affecting vision may require more aggressive intervention. We report a case of a woman with spontaneous bilaterally occluded cavernous sinuses with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which resolved immediately following unilateral superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) sacrifice. She was subsequently placed on oral anticoagulants. By 4 months postoperatively her IOP was normalized and her vision had improved. Repeat angiography demonstrated stable venous filling, with some mild improvement of flow through the cavernous sinus. Coil-mediated sacrifice of the SOV might be an effective means to relieve ocular hypertension and preserve vision in the setting of aseptic CST.

  9. Dural cavernous sinus fistulas. Diagnostic and endovascular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Goetz [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Ben Taub General Hospital, Houston, TX (United States). Interventional Neuroradiology

    2010-07-01

    Dural cavernous sinus fistulas (DCSFs) represent a benign vascular disease, consisting in an arteriovenous shunt at the cavernous sinus. In the absence of spontaneous resolution, the fistula may lead to eye redness, swelling, proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia and visual loss. Although modern imaging techniques have improved the diagnostic, patients with low-flow DCSFs are still misdiagnosed. These patients can get erroneously treated for infections and inflammation for months or years and are at risk of visual loss. Early and proper diagnosis helps to avoid deleterious clinical course of the disease. This volume provides a complete guide to clinical and radiological diagnosis as well as to therapeutic management of DCSF with emphasis on modern minimal invasive treatment options. It commences with an informative description of relevant anatomy. After sections on the classification, etiology and pathogenesis of DCSF, the clinical symptomatology of the disease is described in detail. The role of modern non-invasive imaging tools is then addressed with the use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA), although invasive, remains the gold standard and is mandatory for clinical decision-making and strategy in endovascular treatment. Hence, a throughout consideration is given to both, 2D-DSA and 3D rotational angiography, including recent technological advancements such as Dual Volume (DV) imaging and angiographic computed tomography (ACT). After a short section on arteriovenous hemodynamics, the therapeutic management of DCSFs is described in detail. In particular, various transvenous techniques, required for successful endovascular occlusion of DCSF, are discussed in depth. This well-illustrated volume will be invaluable to all who may encounter DCSF in their clinical practice. (orig.)

  10. Sonographic Findings of Cavernous Hemangioma in Fatty Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung; Kim, Ki Whang; Yoon, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Myung Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Hoon [Aju Univeristy, College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Typical cavernous hemangioma presents no diagnostic difficulty at sonography. However, in cases of atypical hemangioma, further evaluation is needed to differentiate it from malignancy. On the other hand, thcechogenicity of the lesion may be iso echo or hypoecho when it occurs in association with fatty liver. We analyzed the sonographic features of hemangioma in fatty liver. We reviewed the sonograms of 22 lesions from 19 patients. We divided the lesions into two groups; the lesion measuring less than 3cm in diameter (group I) and the lesions measuring same or greater than 3cm (group II). The lesions of each group were analyzed in terms of location, shape, distinction of margin, internal echogenicity, posterior enhancement, lateral shadowing, and peritumoral hypoechoic halo. The lesions were located in subcapsular or perivascular areain 86%. They strowed round or lobulated shape with well defined margin in 82%. Internal echo of the lesions was hypoechoic in 82% and homogeneous in 64%. Posterior enhancement was seen in 77%. The posterior wall of the lesion was distinct in 68%. There was no statistical difference in incidence of each finding described above between the two groups except the internal echogenicity(p<0.05). All of the four hyperechoic lesions measured greater than 3cmin diameter, and three of them showed uneven thickness of echogenic rind. Definitive diagnosis of hemangioma could be obtained in 82%. In remaining 18% of hemangioma, the lesions showed peripheral hypoechoic halo and lateral shadowing that made the diagnosis of hemangioma difficult. However, the possibility of hemangioma could be suggested because they showed haemangiomas internal eye-catching and posterior enhancement. Hepatic cavernous hemangioma presents with variable eye-catching as compared to the surrounding tissue when it is associated with fatty liver disease, Thus, in differentiating hemangiomas from other localized hepatic mass, other characteristics such as homogeneity of the

  11. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  12. Saisonal heat storage in mine caverns. Concepts and technical solutions. Second technical report. Saisonal heat storage of solar low temperature heat in mines. Solar mining; Saisonale Waermespeicherung in Grubenraeumen. Konzepte und technische Loesungen. 2. Technischer Fachbericht. Saisonale Speicherung solarer Niedertemperaturwaerme in Bergwerken. Solarenergiebergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmeier, B.; Mohr, M.; Unger, H.

    1999-03-01

    The Second Technical Report of the project `Saisonal Storage of Solar Low Temperature Heat in Mines` describes different concepts to realize seasonal storage in mines and suitable district heat systems. The different storage designs and concepts are presented and evaluated in detail. The fundamental differences between the use of a tunnel or a shaft are discussed as well as the storage filling with a fluid or a mineral material. Technical solutions for the integration of a seasonal storage in mines are examined. Different solutions for storage sealing stand for choice. It is shown that the use of air-placed concrete represents a particularly suitable method due to the cost advantages and the flexible operation of the procedure compared with other seal systems. An exemplary system design leads to specific investment costs of 115 DM/m{sup 3} to 300 DM/m{sup 3} for the saisonal storage depending on the boundary conditions (tightness of the surrounding rock, use of available pipework etc.). The latter amount equals the height of the costs payed for the concrete underground tanks in Hamburg-Bramfeld and Friedrichshafen. It is shown that the costs for the use of mines for saisonal storage is comparable to those of existing systems at least; in favorable cases definitely lower costs may be achievable. In any case, a specific evaluation, taking account of local boundary conditions and circumstances, is necessay. On the basis of the boundary conditions below and the situation above ground, many locations in the Ruhr area were estimated concerning their suitability for this project. Favorable locations could be found within almost all coal industry areas. The plan for house buildings at these locations is suitable for the application of a district heat network. Although the examination of seasonal heat storage in mines is not concluded up to now, the presently achieved information indicates very positive results in all sections (i.e. investment costs, technical feasibility

  13. Image–guided resection of small lesions in the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, M.; Krauss, J K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective The microsurgical resection of tumors or vascular lesions in the cavernous sinus and the neighbouring Meckel's cave has been considered as hazardous because of often associated cranial nerve morbidity. Despite increasing consent that many of such tumors should not undergo surgical therapy, the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave may harbour small lesions of various origin, which are amenable for surgical resection. Surgery in this anatomical area needs a...

  14. Spontaneous occlusion of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula - the effect of angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfel, G.

    1984-08-01

    In two patients with a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula, permanent occlusion of the lesion was observed following cerebral angiography and confirmed by further angiography. A delay is therefore recommended between performing angiography and carrying out further treatment, which may carry some risk. Possibly the use of ionic contrast media, which irritate the vessels, compression of the carotid artery, which reduces flow through the fistula, and general anaesthesia, which may drop the blood pressure, initiate thrombosis in the cavernous sinus. 3 figs.

  15. Endoscopic endonasal transclival resection of a ventral pontine cavernous malformation: technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis; Ortega-Porcayo, Luis Alberto; Palacios-Ortíz, Isaac Jair; Perdomo-Pantoja, Alexander; Nares-López, Felipe Eduardo; Vega-Alarcón, Alfredo

    2016-10-21

    Brainstem cavernous malformations are challenging due to the critical anatomy and potential surgical risks. Anterolateral, lateral, and dorsal surgical approaches provide limited ventral exposure of the brainstem. The authors present a case of a midline ventral pontine cavernous malformation resected through an endoscopic endonasal transclival approach based on minimal brainstem transection, negligible cranial nerve manipulation, and a straightforward trajectory. Technical and reconstruction technique advances in endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery provide a direct, safe, and effective corridor to the brainstem.

  16. Color Doppler Imaging in the Diagnosis and Follow-up of Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes color doppler imaging (CDI) in theevaluation and follow-up of nine patients with carotid cavernous sinusfistulas.The orbits and carotid arteries were examined with CDI.In allcases,the diagnosis was confirmed by angiography.CDI clearlydemonstrated the dilated superior ophthalmic veins (SOVs) with retrogradeflow and low resistance arterial doppler waveform in all nine patients (10eyes).After the study of quantitative hemodynamics,we found that directcarotid cavernous sinus fistulas s...

  17. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  20. Hazard assessment of the stability of a cavern roof along the coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, A.; Lollino, P.

    2009-04-01

    This work concerns the hazard assessment about the stability of a large shallow depth cavern, located along the coastline rocky sector of Polignano town (Apulia, Southern Italy) under an intensely urbanised area. This cavern, which lies at the sea level, has been created by a prolonged process of sea erosion within a rock mass formed of a lower stratified limestone mass and an upper Gravina Calcarenite mass. The thickness of the cavern roof, which has a dome shape, is less than 10 metres in the centre. Important buildings, as hotels and private houses, are located just above the top of the roof. Erosion processes have been observed to be still active along the whole cavern due to climate factors and, in particular, to sea salt weathering and sea spray effects. In 2007 a large calcarenite block, 3 m large, fell down from the cavern roof and consequently a field investigation campaign was carried out for a rational stabilization plan in order to understand the current stability conditions of the roof and the potential failure mechanism. Therefore, a thorough geo-structural survey has firstly been carried out, together with laboratory and in-situ testing for measuring the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock and of the corresponding joints. A monitoring system has also been planned and installed in order to measure the erosional rate and the block displacements in the cavern.

  1. Intelligent Stability Design of Large Underground Hydraulic Caverns: Chinese Method and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiating Feng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The global energy shortage has revived the interest in hydroelectric power, but extreme geological condition always pose challenges to the construction of hydroelectric power stations with large underground caverns. To solve the problem of safe design of large underground caverns, a Chinese-style intelligent stability design, representing recent developments in Chinese techniques for the construction of underground hydropower systems is presented. The basic aim of this method is to help designers improve the stability and design efficiency of large underground hydropower cavern groups. Its flowchart consists of two parts, one is initial design with an ordinal structure, and the other is dynamic design with a closed loop structure. In each part of the flowchart, analysis techniques, analysis content and design parameters for caverns’ stability are defined, respectively. Thus, the method provides designers with a bridge from the basic information of objective engineering to reasonable design parameters for managing the stability of hydraulic cavern groups. Application to two large underground caverns shows that it is a scientific and economical method for safely constructing underground hydraulic caverns.

  2. Deformation and Failure Characteristics of the Rock Masses around Deep Underground Caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The deformation and failure characteristics of deep rock masses are the focus of this study on deep rock mass engineering. The study identifies the deformation and failure characteristics of a deep cavern under different ground stress conditions using model test and theoretical analysis methods. First, the similarity theory for model tests is introduced, and then the scale factors used in the present study are calculated according to the Froude criterion. Based on the study objectives, the details of the study methods (the similarity coefficient, the loading conditions, the test steps, etc. are introduced. Finally, the failure characteristics of the deep cavern and the strain distribution characteristics surrounding the caverns under different ground stress conditions are identified using the model test. It was found that compared with shallow rock masses the rock masses of the deep cavern have a much greater tensile range, which reaches 1.5 times the diameter of the cavern under the conditions established in the present study. Under different ground stress conditions, there are differences in failure characteristics and the reasons of the differences were analyzed. The implication of the test results on the design of support system for deep caverns was presented.

  3. Probabilistic Analysis of a Rock Salt Cavern with Application to Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Khaledi, Kavan; Miro, Shorash; König, Diethard; Schanz, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the failure probability of storing renewable energy in the form of hydrogen or compressed air in rock salt caverns. The validation of the short- and long-term integrity and stability of rock salt cavern is a prerequisite in their design process. The present paper provides a reliability-based analysis of a typical renewable energy storage cavern in rock salt. An elasto-viscoplastic creep constitutive model is implemented into a numerical model of rock salt cavern to assess its behavior under different operation conditions. Sensitivity measures of different variables involved in the mechanical response of cavern are computed by elementary effect global sensitivity method. Subset simulation methodology is conducted to measure the failure probability of the system with a low computational cost. This methodology is further validated by a comparison with a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic analysis. The propagation of parameter uncertainties and the failure probability against different failure criteria are evaluated by utilizing a Monte Carlo-based analysis. In this stage, the original finite element model is substituted by a surrogate model to further reduce the computational effort. Finally, a reliability analysis approach is employed to obtain the minimum admissible internal pressure in a cavern.

  4. Novel, mutable site in the cerebral cavernous malformation-1 gene in Chinese sporadic intracranial cavernous malformation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Xie; Xiancheng Chen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cerebral cavernous malformation-1 (CCM1) gene mutation might result in functional loss of KREV interaction trapped-1 (KRIT1), which is related to onset of cavernous malformations (CM). However, data addressing sporadic CM in Chinese patients remains limited to date.OBJECTIVE: To analyze CCM1 mutation of Chinese patients with sporadic intracranial CM.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Genetics experiment was performed in the Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University between January 2004 and December 2005.PARTICIPANTS: Ninety patients with sporadic CM served as the CM group, and 30 healthy subjects were considered to be the control group.METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CM and from control group subjects.Genomic DNA was extracted, and exons 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 18, as well as the related introns, were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequences were compared with GeneBank.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal mutable site of CCM1 gene in the two groups.RESULTS: Four exclusive mutations of CCM1 were detected in the CM group, with a sporadic CM mutational rate of 32% (6/19). Of the four exclusive mutations, there was one missense mutation [exon 12, 1172C→T (S391F)], one insertion mutation [exon 8, 704insT (K246stop)], one intervening sequence mutation (IVS12-4C→T), and one synonymous mutation (exon 17,1875C→T). With the exception of 1875C→T, all mutations detected in the CM group led to functional changes of the KRIT1 protein, which was encoded by the CCM1 gene. Gene mutations were not detected in the control group.CONCLUSION: Four exclusive mutations of the CCM1 gene were determined in Chinese patients with sporadic CM, which led to functional changes or loss of the encoding KRIT1 protein. KRIT1 protein is considered to be the genetic basis of CM occurrence.

  5. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb.CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  6. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V. [PECOS Management Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  7. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  8. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  9. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  10. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  11. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  12. Study on the post-closure surveillance methods at low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Joo Ho; Shin, Jin Seong; Lee, Jae Min; Choi, Won Cheol; Cheon, Tae Hoon [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-15

    Presidential decree, of atomic energy act of Korea, number 233.3.9 requires that the repository, after closure, of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste be controlled and monitored an Ministry of Science and Technology decides. This study emphasizes on establishing a direction of technical guides, considering rock cavern disposal as a domestic project. Other types of repositories will also be referred to for their technical matter. Review of domestic and foreign requirements, review of the objectives of post-closure surveillance, suggestion of surveillance methods and technical guides.

  13. Cerebral cavernous malformations: clinical insights from genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindea, Stefan A; Yang, Benson P; Shenkar, Robert; Bendok, Bernard; Batjer, H Hunt; Awad, Issam A

    2006-07-15

    Familial disease is responsible for one third to one half of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) cases presenting to clinical attention. Much has been learned in the past decade about the genetics of these cases, which are all inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, at three known chromosome loci. Unique features of inherited CCMs in Hispanic-Americans of Mexican descent have been described. The respective genes for each locus have been identified and preliminary observations on disease pathways and mechanisms are coming to light, including possible explanations for selectivity of neural milieu and relationships to endothelial layer abnormalities. Mechanisms of lesion genesis in cases of genetic predisposition are being investigated, with evidence to support a two-hit model emerging from somatic mutation screening of the lesions themselves and from lesion formation in transgenic murine models of the disease. Other information on potential inflammatory factors has emerged from differential gene expression studies. Unique phenotypic features of solitary versus familial cases have emerged: different associations with venous developmental anomaly and the exceptionally high penetrance rates that are found in inherited cases when high-sensitivity screening is performed with gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging. This information has changed the landscape of screening and counseling for patients and their families, and promises to lead to the development of new tools for predicting, explaining, and modifying disease behavior.

  14. ADVANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, Robert; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Shi, Changbin; Akers, Amy; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Awad, Issam A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We sought to assess the appearance of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in murine Ccm1 and Ccm2 gene knockout models, and to develop a technique of lesion localization for correlative pathobiologic studies Methods Brains from eighteen CCM mutant mice (Ccm1+/-Trp53-/- and Ccm2+/-Trp53-/-) and 28 controls were imaged by gradient recalled echo (T2*)-weighted MR at 4.7 T and 14.1 T in vivo and/or ex vivo. After MR imaging, the brains were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cells were laser microdissected for molecular biologic studies. Results T2*-weighted MR imaging of brains in vivo and ex vivo revealed lesions similar to human CCMs in mutant mice, but not in control animals. Stereotactic localization and hematoxylin and eosin-staining of correlative tissue sections confirmed lesion histology, and revealed other areas of dilated capillaries in the same brains. Some lesions were identified by MR imaging at 14.1 T, but not at 4.7 T. PCR amplification from Ccm1 and β-actin genes was demonstrated from nucleic acids extracted from laser microdissected lesional and perilesional cells. Conclusions The high field MR imaging techniques offer new opportunities for further investigation of disease pathogenesis in vivo, and the localization, staging and histobiologic dissection of lesions, including the presumed earliest stages of CCM lesion development. PMID:18981891

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东虹; 何奇元; 邹咏文; 许民辉

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the diagnosis and managementof traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF).Methods: In all 15 patients with TCCF confirmed byangiography, 8 patients got early diagnosis and cure. WithSeldinger technique adpoted in the puncture of femoralartery, Magic 3 F-1.8 F BD catheters combining withballoon were used to embolize the fistula or the internalcarotid artery.Results: Early diagnosis and cure were achieved in 8patients within one week and no sequelae occurred. Sevenpatients with delayed diagnosis who were cured beyond oneweek had some sequelae such as hypopsia in 5 cases,incomplete oculomotor paralyses in 3 and incompleteabducent paralyses in 2. Among all the 15 cases, theinternal carotid artery was preserved in 12 cases acountingfor 80%. Occluding the fistula with sacrifice of the internalcarotid artery was performed in 3 cases and no repatency of the fistula occurred by following up beyond three months.Conclusions: The preferred therapy for TCCF is toocclude the fistula using detachable balloon. The diagnosisand treatment for TCCF can significantly reduce occurrencerate of the complications and sequelae.

  16. Chlorophyll f-driven photosynthesis in a cavernous cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Lars; Brejnrod, Asker; Schliep, Martin; Sørensen, Søren J; Larkum, Anthony W D; Kühl, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) f is the most recently discovered chlorophyll and has only been found in cyanobacteria from wet environments. Although its structure and biophysical properties are resolved, the importance of Chl f as an accessory pigment in photosynthesis remains unresolved. We found Chl f in a cyanobacterium enriched from a cavernous environment and report the first example of Chl f-supported oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria from such habitats. Pigment extraction, hyperspectral microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of Chl a and f in unicellular cyanobacteria found in enrichment cultures. Amplicon sequencing indicated that all oxygenic phototrophs were related to KC1, a Chl f-containing cyanobacterium previously isolated from an aquatic environment. Microsensor measurements on aggregates demonstrated oxygenic photosynthesis at 742 nm and less efficient photosynthesis under 768- and 777-nm light probably because of diminished overlap with the absorption spectrum of Chl f and other far-red absorbing pigments. Our findings suggest the importance of Chl f-containing cyanobacteria in terrestrial habitats.

  17. Treatment Outcome Of Seizures Associated With Intracranial Cavernous Angiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievera Conrad C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are among the typical presentations of intracranial cavernous angiomas (ICA. Twenty-one patients (age range: 2 to 53 years treated for seizures associated with ICA between 1983 and 1997 were restrospectively studied to evaluate their outcome following medical or surgical intervention. The mean interval between seizure onset and initial presentation at our institution was 7.6 years. Seizures were simple partial in 3 patients, complex partial in 15 and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic in 13. The commonest site of the lesion was the temporal lobe (52%. Multiple angiomas were observed in 5 (24% patients. Seven (32% patients were medically-managed with antiepileptic therapy and 14 (68% underwent either lesionectomy with resection of the epileptogenic zone (9 patients or temporal lobectomy (5 patients. Mean follow-up time was 4 years (range: 3 months to 14 years. Of the medically-managed patients, 3 (43% remained seizure-free whereas 4 (57% continued to have seizures with an average frequency of one per day. Of the surgically-managed patients, 12 (86% became seizure-free and 2 (14% had no more than two seizures per year. Surgery appears to be extremely effective in the management of seizures associated with ICA and should receive a strong and early consideration in patients who fail medical therapy.

  18. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. Program for encapsulation, deep geologic deposition and research, development and demonstration; Kaernkraftavfallets behandling och slutfoervaring. Program foer inkapsling, geologisk djupfoervaring samt forskning, utveckling och demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs.

  19. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  20. Spectacular test of the fire extinguishing system in the underground cavern of the CMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The enormous rumbling heard 100 m under the earth on Friday, 12 May, was not the start of a foam party at CMS. The Safety Team looked on from the second tier of the CMS underground cavern as it reechoed to the sound of water rushing through the two huge pipes overhead and the air was filled with a mixture of water and foam. A minute later it was a winter wonderland, as fluffy puffs of foam came shooting out of the twelve foam blowers lining the upper cavern walls on both sides. In less than two minutes 7 m3 of water mixed with a small percentage of foaming liquid, was transformed into 5600 m3 of foam and discharged into the cavern.

  1. Transvenous embolization of a dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula via the inferior ophthalmic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Kevin S; Ng, John D; Falardeau, Julie; Roberts, Warren G; Petersen, Bryan; Nesbit, Gary M; Barnwell, Stanley L

    2007-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of right periocular pain, diplopia, ocular injection, progressive proptosis, and periocular swelling. She had an unremarkable past medical history, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and complete blood count were normal. A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula was suspected, and an MRI demonstrated enlargement of the superior ophthalmic vein posterior to the globe and enlargement of the inferior ophthalmic vein throughout its entire course. Cerebral arteriography demonstrated a dural cavernous sinus fistula. The inferior ophthalmic vein was accessed via the inferonasal orbital space and was catheterized for delivery of multiple platinum coils to the cavernous sinus fistula. Follow-up venograms demonstrated occlusion of the fistula. At 2-month follow-up, there was a residual sixth nerve palsy and resolution of symptoms, including proptosis and periocular swelling.

  2. The cavernous sinus in cluster headache - a quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkink, Enrico B; Schoonman, Guus G; van Vliet, Jorine A; Bakels, Hannah S; Sneeboer, Marjolein Am; Haan, Joost; van Buchem, Mark A; Ferrari, Michel D; Kruit, Mark C

    2017-03-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that a constitutionally narrow cavernous sinus might predispose individuals to cluster headache. Cavernous sinus dimensions, however, have never been assessed. Methods In this case-control study, we measured the dimensions of the cavernous sinus, skull base, internal carotid and pituitary gland with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 25 episodic, 24 chronic and 13 probable cluster headache patients, 8 chronic paroxysmal hemicrania patients and 22 headache-free controls. Dimensions were compared between groups, correcting for age, sex and transcranial diameter. Results On qualitative inspection, no relevant pathology or anatomic variants that were previously associated with cluster headache or chronic paroxysmal hemicranias were observed in the cavernous sinus or paracavernous structures. The left-to-right transcranial diameter at the temporal fossa level (mean ± SD) was larger in the headache groups (episodic cluster headache: 147.5 ± 7.3 mm, p = 0.044; chronic cluster headache: 150.2 ± 7.3 mm, p cluster headache: 146.0 ± 5.3 mm, p = 0.012; and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania: 145.2 ± 9.4 mm, p = 0.044) compared with controls (140.2 ± 8.0 mm). After adjusting for transcranial diameter and correcting for multiple comparisons, there were no differences in the dimensions of the cavernous sinus and surrounding structures between headache patients and controls. Conclusion Patients with cluster headache or chronic paroxysmal hemicrania had wider skulls than headache-free controls, but the proportional dimensions of the cavernous sinus were similar.

  3. Cavernous hemangioma-like kaposi sarcoma: histomorphologic features and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onak Kandemir, Nilüfer; Barut, Figen; Doğan Gün, Banu; Solak Tekin, Nilgün; Hallaç Keser, Sevinç; Oğuz Özdamar, Sükrü

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Cavernous hemangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma is a rare morphologic type of Kaposi sarcoma. So far there are no cases in the literature defining the histological features of this morphologic spectrum in detail. In this study we presented two classical-type cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma cases with histologic findings resembling cavernous hemangioma in company with clinical and histopathological data. Cases. One hundred and eighty-five classical-type cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma lesions in 79 patients were assessed retrospectively in terms of histopathological features. Findings of two cases showing features of cavernous hemangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma whose clinical data could be accessed were presented in accompany with the literature data. Both cases were detected to have bluish-purple, protruded, irregularly bordered cutaneous lesions. Histopathological examination revealed a lesion formed by cavernous hemangioma-like vascular structures organized in a lobular pattern that became dilated and filled with blood. Typical histological findings of early-stage KS, consisting of mononuclear inflammation, extravasated erythrocytes, and a few immature vascular structures in superficial dermis, were observed. All cases were serologically HIV-1 negative. A positive reaction with HHV-8, CD31, CD34, and D2-40 monoclonal antibodies was identified at both cavernous hemangioma-like areas and in immature vascular structures. Results. Cavernous hemangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma is a rare Kaposi sarcoma variant presenting with diagnostic challenges, that may be confused with hemangioma. As characteristic morphological features may not be observed in every case, it is important for diagnostic purposes to show immunohistochemical HHV-8 positivity in this variant.

  4. Manifestations of hepatic cavernous hemangioma in carbon dioxidedigital subtraction angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei; LI Yan-ha0; HE Xiao-feng; CHEN Yong; ZENG Qing-le

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristic appearance of cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL)presented in carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) and to evaluate the significance of CO2-DSA in the diagnosis of CHL. Methods: Both CO2-DSA and iodinated contrast DSA (IC-DSA) were performed in all 16 patients with CHL, and the angiographic manifestations in the same patients were compared. The image quality was rated by three experienced angiographers, and the complications were also assessed. Results; There was good correlation between angiographers on image quality (R=0. 73). Diagnostic images were obtained with both CO2-DSA and IC-DSA in all CHL patients. No difference was noted between IC-DSA and CO2-DSA in visualizing the proper hepatic arteries and its branches (P>0. 05). CO2-DSA produced better images that clearly described the tumor size, shape and margination than those by IC-DSA (P<0. 05), but both demonstrated characteristic appearances of early opacification and persistent contrast enhancement of the tumors. The portal vein branches near the tumors were constantly demonstrated by CO2-DSA in 15 cases (15/16) but only in 2 cases (2/16) by IC-DSA. Conclusion: CO2-DSA is sensitive in CHL diagnosis, and in patients with contraindications to IC or with unsatisfactory imaging results by IC-DSA,CO2-DSA is a good alternative. As show in most cases by CO2-DSA, the portal veins might act as the main drainage vein of CHLs.

  5. Treatment and Outcome of Epileptogenic Temporal Cavernous Malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Zhi Shan; Xiao-Tong Fan; Liang Meng; Yang An; Jian-Kun Xu; Guo-Guang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background:The aim of this study is to explore the treatment and outcome ofepileptogenic temporal lobe cavernous malformations (CMs).Methods:We analyzed retrospectively the profiles of 52 patients diagnosed as temporal lobe CMs associated with epilepsy.Among the 52 cases,11 underwent a direct resection of CM along with the adjacent zone of hemosiderin rim without electrocorticogram (ECoG) monitoring while the other 41 cases had operations under the guidance of ECoG.Forty-six patients were treated by lesionectomy + hemosiderin rim while the other six were treated by lesionectomy + hemosiderin rim along with extended epileptogenic zone resection.The locations of lesions,the duration of illness,the manifestation,the excision ranges and the outcomes of postoperative follow-up were analyzed,respectively.Results:All of the 52 patients were treated by microsurgery.There was no neurological deficit through the long-term follow-up.Outcomes of seizure control are as follows:42 patients (80.8%) belong to Engel Class Ⅰ,5 patients (9.6%) belong to Engel Class Ⅱ,3 patients (5.8%) belong to Engel Class Ⅲ and 2 patients (3.8%) belong to Engel Class Ⅳ.Conclusion:Patients with epilepsy caused by temporal CMs should be treated as early as possible.Resection of the lesion and the surrounding hemosiderin zone is necessary.Moreover,an extended excision of epileptogenic cortex or cerebral lobes is needed to achieve a better prognosis if the ECoG indicates the existence of an extra epilepsy onset origin outside the lesion itself.

  6. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  7. Ultimate storage in salt caverns / status report; Endverwahrung von Salzkavernen / Stand der Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Schmidt, U. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The contribution reviews the state of knowledge on final storage in salt caverns. The long-term effects of a hermetically sealed, brine-filled cavern are discussed. So far, there are no valid predictions. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Beitrag wird der derzeitige Kenntnis- und Diskussionsstand zur Endverwahrung von Salzkavernen zusammengefasst. Aufbauend auf den bisher vorliegenden Vorstellungen zur Soleimpraegnation bei einem Innendruck, der nahezu dem Ueberlagerungsdruck entspricht, werden die denkbaren langfristigen Auswirkungen einer vollstaendig abgeschlossenen solegefuellten Kaverne skizziert; belastbare Prognosen sind derzeit noch nicht moeglich. (orig.)

  8. Adult onset segmental cavernous hemangioma, varicose veins and limb atrophy (klippel-trenaunay-Weber syndrome variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney MPS

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year-old woman presented with multiple soft, compressible, protuberant, bluish cutaneous lesions as well as firm, non-compressible, subcutaneous masses and varicose veins affecting the right upper limb of three years duration. There was atrophy of soft tissue of forearm by 2.5 cm. X-ray showed soft tissue densities, multiple phleboliths and hypoplastic forearm bones. Histopathological examination from cutaneous lesions revealed cavernous hemangioma. Adult onset cavernous hemangioma involving one upper limb and breast with multiple phleboliths and limb atrophy is a very unusual presentation of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

  9. 2008 State-of-the-art: Development of the Geological Disposal System for High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Jung, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Lee, Min Soo; Kook, Dong Hak

    2008-11-15

    This report is for grasping the current status of the time of high level radioactive waste(HLW) disposal and being useful for our conceptual repository design. We performed the analyses for the HLW disposal design of preceding countries. This analyses include design principles, and comparisons for the all characteristics of HLW source, disposal canister, buffer specification, and disposal systems. During the past 10 years, retrievability concept are getting more important with perceiving the waste as new resources and almost countries planning the disposal are concerning more complex designs including this new concept. According to this trend, our country also should investigate the compliance of retrievability with our own disposal design concept. Most countries applies 'Cost Estimation base on conceptual design' method on disposal cost estimation in compliance with their own situation. Even though several estimation conditions, e.g. disposal scale and estimation time, are different, our rough estimation values for the unit disposal cost of PWR and CANDU spent fuels are analogous to other countries' values.

  10. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  11. Disposable diapers: safe and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-09-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  12. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  13. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  14. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  15. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  16. Endoscopic approaches to brainstem cavernous malformations: Case series and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The endoscope is a promising adjunct to the neurosurgeon′s ability to approach difficult to access brainstem cavernous malformations. It allows the surgeon to achieve well-illuminated, panoramic views, and by combining approaches, can provide minimally invasive access to most regions of the brainstem.

  17. Pontine glioma extending to the ipsilateral cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave: MR appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, W T; Nguyen, H D; Mayr, N A; Follett, K A

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe an exophytic glioma of the pons that grew into the Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus in a 75-year-old man. Pontine gliomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of a hyperintense, complex cystic mass seen along the distribution of cranial nerve V.

  18. Evaluation of cerebral oximetry during endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujovny, Manuel; Misra, Mukesh; Alp, M. Serdar; Debrun, Gerard; Charbel, F. T.; Aletich, Victor; Ausman, James I.

    1997-08-01

    Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous fistula is done routinely in our institution. We have been monitoring these patients with transcranial cerebral oximetry. The transcranial cerebral oximeter is a reliable, low-cost, non-invasive device that provides real-time evaluation of regional brain oxygen saturation during and after endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. We used the INVOS 3100A (Somanetics, Troy, MI) in our study. We discuss seven patients with carotid-cavernous fistulas treated by endovascular balloon occlusion, each monitored continuously before, during, and after the procedure with transcranial cerebral oximetry. The cerebral oxygen saturation depicted was directly related to the side of the venous drainage of the fistula, with the brain oxygen saturation 15 - 20% higher on the side of the venous drainage. Following endovascular occlusion of the fistula, oxygen saturation gradually became equal on both sides. In our patients treated for carotid-cavernous fistula, we evaluated the sensitivity and usefulness of cerebral oximetry as an important non-invasive monitoring tool for the endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula.

  19. Spall formation in solution mined storage caverns based on a creep and fracture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    2000-02-02

    Because of limited direct observation, understanding of the interior conditions of the massive storage caverns constructed in Gulf Coast salt domes is realizable only through predictions of salt response. Determination of the potential for formation of salt spans, leading to eventual salt falls, is based on salt creep and fracture using the Multimechanism-Deformation Coupled Fracture (MCDF) model. This is a continuum model for creep, coupled to continuum damage evolution. The model has been successfully tested against underground results of damage around several test rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Model simulations, here, evaluate observations made in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, namely, the accumulation of material on cavern floors and evidence of salt falls. A simulation of a smooth cavern wall indicates damage is maximum at the surface but diminishes monotonically into the salt, which suggests the source of salt accumulation is surface sluffing. If a protuberance occurs on the wall, fracture damage can form beneath the protuberance, which will eventually cause fracture, and lead to a salt fall.

  20. Developments in Researches on the Disasters during Cavern Construction in Salt Beds with Multi-Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafu Qiu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the developments in researches on the disasters during cavern construction in salt beds with multi-interlayer. Relative to the foreign large salt dome landscape, there are many layers of mudstone in salt beds which has a thin single layer. And such special geological conditions increase the difficulty of solution mining in the control of cavity shape and stability of the cavity, which easily leads to disasters. To statistical analysis the disasters in process of cavern building with multi-interlayer in china, it show that: taking Chinese geological conditions for example, the disasters during cavern construction in salt beds with multi-interlayer caused the failure of cavity can be divided into three categories: geological conditions in beds; the damage of cavity wall in the process of cavity building; the distortion of cavity shape expansion. To analyze predisposing factors lead to salt cavern storage failure in detail, the mechanism of the corresponding factors lead to disaster has been summarized. Finally , some suggestions has been proposed to avoid the disaster maybe happened.

  1. CT diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the orbit. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fukui, Kohtaroh; Bussaka, Hiromasa; Takahama, Yuriko; Yano, Tatsushi (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-11-01

    A case of cavernous hemangioma studied by dynamic CT was reported. Dynamic CT revealed that contrast enhancement progressed from the periphery toward the center and started early to persist over a long period. These findings seemed characteristic of hemangioma of the orbit and other sties including the liver.

  2. Arteriovenous Malformation in Temporal Lobe Presenting as Contralateral Ocular Symptoms Mimicking Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral orbital symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula. Method. Interventional case report. Results. A 31-year-old Malay gentleman presented with 2-month history of painful progressive exophthalmos of his left eye associated with recurrent headache, diplopia, and reduced vision. Ocular examination revealed congestive nonpulsating 7 mm exophthalmos of the left eye with no restriction of movements in all direction. There was diplopia in left lateral gaze. Left IOP was elevated at 29 mmHg. Left eye retinal vessels were slightly dilated and tortuous. CT scan was performed and showed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with a nidus of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm with right middle cerebral artery as feeding artery. There was dilated left superior ophthalmic vein of 0.9 mm in diameter with enlarged left cavernous sinus. MRA and carotid angiogram confirmed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with no carotid-cavernous fistula. Most of the intracranial drainage was via left cavernous sinus. His signs and symptoms dramatically improved following successful embolisation, completely resolved after one year. Conclusion. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation is rarely presented with primary ocular presentation. Early intervention would salvage the eyes and prevent patients from more disaster morbidity or fatality commonly due to intracranial haemorrhage.

  3. Antioxidative mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes repair and regeneration following cavernous nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-kui Zhao; Hong-lian Yu; Bo Liu; Hui Wang; Qiong Luo; Xie-gang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum exhibit antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that these polysaccharides resist oxida-tive stress-induced neuronal damage following cavernous nerve injury. In this study, rat models were intragastrically administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides for 2 weeks at 1, 7, and 14 days after cavernous nerve injury. Serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities signiifcantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks post-injury. Serum malondialdehyde levels decreased at 2 and 4 weeks. At 12 weeks, peak intracavernous pressure, the number of myelinated axons and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase-pos-itive nerve ifbers, levels of phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and 3-nitrotyrosine were higher in rats administered at 1 day post-injury compared with rats administered at 7 and 14 days post-injury. These ifndings suggest that application of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides following cavernous nerve crush injury effectively promotes nerve regeneration and erectile functional recovery. This neu-roregenerative effect was most effective in rats orally administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides at 1 day after cavernous nerve crush injury.

  4. Progress on CMS detector lowering: the YE+2 section arriving in the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 12 December, a further section of the detector (YE+2) containing the cathode strip chamber made the 10-hour journey underground. This piece is 16 m high and weighs 880 tonnes. There are now four sections of the detector in the experimental cavern, with a further 11 to follow.

  5. Wegener's granulomatosis with unusual cavernous sinus and sella turcica extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, M.; Bobek-Billewicz, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland); Bullo, B.; Hermann, A.; Rutkowski, B. [Dept. of Nephrology, Medical University of Gdansk (Poland)

    1999-07-01

    Intracerebral extension of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is rare. We present a patient with oculomotor and trochlear nerve palsy with histologically proved WG. An MR examination revealed granulomatous tissue in nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses with meningeal infiltration, and uncommon penetration into cavernous sinus and sella turcica. The MR images before and during pharmacological therapy are presented. (orig.)

  6. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  7. Covered Stent Implantation for the Treatment of Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistula and Its Mid-Term Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briganti, F.; Tortora, F.; Marseglia, M.; Napoli, M.; Cirillo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Carotid-cavernous fistulas are abnormal arteriovenous communications either directly between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus or between the dural branches of the internal and external carotid arteries. These fistulas predominantly present with ocular manifestations and they are treated mainly by endovascular techniques in most cases. A detailed review of the literature allowed us to make a complete analysis of the information available on the topic. We describe a case of a direct carotid-cavernous fistula occluded by endovascular implantation of a covered stent, showing the persistence of results after three years. PMID:20465897

  8. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.

  9. Neurturin enhances the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Robert D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival and preservation of function for adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons following injury remain incompletely understood. However, advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have led to a surge of clinical interest for protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies, as surgical therapies for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers often result in neuronal axotomy and debilitating loss of sexual function or continence. In vitro studies have identified neurturin, a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, as a neuromodulator for pelvic cholinergic neurons. We present the first in vivo report of the effects of neurturin upon the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods In these experiments, groups (n = 8 each consisted of uninjured controls and animals treated with injection of albumin (blinded crush control group, extended release neurotrophin-4 or neurturin to the site of cavernous nerve crush injury (100 μg per animal. After 5 weeks, recovery of erectile function (treatment effect was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation and peak aortic pressures were measured. Investigators were unblinded to specific treatments after statistical analyses were completed. Results Erectile dysfunction was not observed in the sham group (mean maximal intracavernous pressure [ICP] increase of 117.5 ± 7.3 cmH2O, whereas nerve injury and albumin treatment (control produced a significant reduction in ICP elevation of 40.0 ± 6.3 cmH2O. Neurturin facilitated the preservation of erectile function, with an ICP increase of 55% at 62.0 ± 9.2 cmH2O (p Conclusion Treatment with neurturin at the site of cavernous nerve crush injury facilitates recovery of erectile function. Results support further investigation of neurturin as a neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative

  10. ADVANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS: I. HIGH FIELD IMAGING OF EXCISED HUMAN LESIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, Robert; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Batjer, H. Hunt; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Awad, Issam A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that structural details would be revealed in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) through the use of high field magnetic resonance (MR) and confocal microscopy, which have not been described previously. The structural details of CCMs excised from human patients were sought by examination with high field MR imaging, and correlated with confocal microscopy of the same specimens. Novel features of CCM structure are outlined, including methodological limitations, venues for future research and possible clinical implications. Methods CCM lesions excised from four patients were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and subjected to high resolution MR imaging at 9.4 or 14.1 Tesla by spin-echo and gradient recalled echo methods. Histological validation of angioarchitecture was conducted on thick sections of CCM lesions using fluorescent probes to endothelium under confocal microscopy. Results Images of excised human CCM lesions were acquired with proton density-weighted, T1-weighted, T2-weighted spin echo and T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo MR. These images revealed large “bland” regions with thin walled caverns, and “honeycombed” regions with notable capillary proliferation and smaller caverns surrounding larger caverns. Proliferating capillaries and caverns of various sizes were also associated with the wall of apparent larger blood vessels in the lesions. Similar features were confirmed within thick sections of CCMs by confocal microscopy. MR relaxation times in different regions of interest suggested the presence of different states of blood breakdown products in areas with apparent angiogenic proliferative activity. Conclusions The high field MR imaging techniques demonstrate novel features of CCM angioarchitecture, visible at near histological resolution, including regions with apparently different biologic activity. These preliminary observations will motivate future research, correlating lesion biologic and clinical activity with

  11. Adrenal Cavernous Hemangioma: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Noh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Adrenal cavernous hemangioma is a rare type of tumor that is usually diagnosed post-operatively. There have only been approximately 63 cases reported in the literature to date. Case report We report a case of adrenal cavernous hemangioma in a 27-year-old pregnant woman. The mass was discovered on ultrasonography when she visited a gastroenterologist for vague epigastric discomfort and vomiting. The laboratory tests were within normal limits and did not show any features suggestive of adrenal endocrinologic dysfunction. Computed Tomography (CT revealed a well-defined 7.8 × 7.8 oval mass in the right adrenal gland with speckled calcifications. The mass was removed by transabdominal laparoscopic surgery. Strong positive immunostaining for CD31 and CD34 with weakly positive staining for podoplanin/D2-40 confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. Conclusions We reviewed 52 case reports of adrenal cavernous hemangioma in an attempt to identify tumor characteristics. More than half of the patients reviewed showed a heterogeneous internal structure of the mass with peripheral patchy enhancement on CT. They also showed focal or speckled calcifications either on X-ray or CT. Nevertheless, many of these characteristics overlap with the imaging phenotypes of other common diseases of the adrenal gland and therefore do not seem to provide definite evidence for differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic approach is a feasible and safe modality to remove adrenal cavernous hemangiomas because they seem to form a rigid fibrotic capsule; hence the risk of bleeding due to surgical manipulation is relatively low.

  12. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  13. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  14. Carotid-cavernous fistula caused by laceration of persistent fetal trigeminal artery treated with single catheter coil embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the endovascular treatment of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula from persistent fetal trigeminal artery (PFTA laceration. To date, there are six such cases of traumatic PFTA-cavernous fistulas reported in the literature. These injuries can pose a unique challenge in that rupture of a PFTA in its course through the cavernous sinus may produce a fistula feeding from both anterior and posterior circulations. Previously, these have been treated with dual catheter coil embolization from the carotid and basilar systems. We utilize a single catheter technique accessing the cavernous sinus through the origin of the PFTA on the internal carotid. Both anterior and posterior fistula components may be embolized through this single access. This represents a simple yet safe treatment option.

  15. Small bowel autotransplantation combined with pancreato-duodenectomy for enormous cavernous hemangioma of the small intestine mesentery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yong; WU Hong; YANG Jia-yin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recent advances in transplantation techniques have allowed pancreatoduodenectomy, distal gastrectomy, hemicolectomy and small bowel autotransplantation to be the therapy of choice for enormous cavernous hemangioma of the small intestine mesentery. There have been a few case reports about small bowel autotransplantation combined with pancreatoduodenectomy for enormous mesenteric cavernous hemangioma of small intestine.1-4 The present surgical methods for enormous cavernous hemangioma of the small intestine mesentery mainly included tumor excision and/or small bowel resection. However, these therapies are not effective for those patients in whom the angiocavernoma has infiltrated the mesenteric artery or pancreas, and these patients often give up therapy. It is recognized that enormous cavernous hemangioma of the small intestine mesentery is a benign lesion, and patients may have an excellent prognosis after complete resection of the lesion.

  16. Western Portion IKONOS and Landsat ETM Merge Satellite Imagery for Carlsbad Caverns National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — IKONOS and Landsat ETM+ image merge for Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. The image has a spatial resolution of 12 meters and is comprised of 11 layers....

  17. Failure Analysis of Overhanging Blocks in the Walls of a Gas Storage Salt Cavern: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongtao; Yang, Chunhe; Li, Jianjun; Li, Jinlong; Shi, Xilin; Ma, Hongling

    2017-01-01

    Most of the rock salt of China is bedded, in which non-salt layers and rock salt layers alternate. Due to the poor solubility of the non-salt layers, many blocks overhang on the walls of the caverns used for gas storage, constructed by water leaching. These overhanging blocks may collapse at any time, which may damage the tubing and casing string, and even cause instability of the cavern. They are one of the main factors threatening the safety of caverns excavated in bedded rock salt formations. In this paper, a geomechanical model of the JJKK-D salt cavern, located in Jintan salt district, Jintan city, Jiangsu province, China, is established to evaluate the stability of the overhanging blocks on its walls. The characters of the target formation, property parameters of the rock mass, and actual working conditions are considered in the geomechanical model. An index system composed of stress, displacement, plastic zone, safety factor, and equivalent strain is used to predict the collapse length of the overhanging blocks, the moment the collapse will take place, and the main factors causing the collapse. The sonar survey data of the JJKK-D salt cavern are used to verify the reliability and accuracy of the proposed geomechanical model. The results show that the proposed geomechanical model has a good reliability and accuracy, and can be used for the collapse prediction of the overhanging blocks on the wall of the JJKK-D salt cavern. The collapse length of the overhanging block is about 8 m. We conclude that the collapse takes place during the debrining. The reason behind the collapse is the sudden decrease of the fluid density, leading to the increase of the self-weight of the overhanging blocks. This study provides a basis for the collapse prediction method of the overhanging blocks of Jintan salt cavern gas storage, and can also serve as a reference for salt cavern gas storage with similar conditions to deal with overhanging blocks.

  18. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks. FY15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. Chapter headings are as follows: Fuel matrix degradation model and its integration with performance assessments, Investigation of thermal effects on the chemical behavior of clays, Investigation of uranium diffusion and retardation in bentonite, Long-term diffusion of U(VI) in bentonite: dependence on density, Sorption and desorption of plutonium by bentonite, Dissolution of plutonium intrinsic colloids in the presence of clay and as a function of temperature, Laboratory investigation of colloid-facilitated transport of cesium by bentonite colloids in a crystalline rock system, Development and demonstration of discrete fracture network model, Fracture continuum model and its comparison with discrete fracture network model.

  19. Radiation-induced intracerebral cavernous angiomas in children with malignant brain tumors. A report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Tatsuya; Matsutani, Masao; Ogura, Hiroaki; Yoshizawa, Hidehiko; Nishikawa, Ryo [Saitama Medical School, Moroyama (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Cavernous angiomas forming in the brain after radiation therapy for pediatric brain tumors have recently attracted special interest as a late complication of radiation therapy. We report here on two children with malignant brain tumors who developed intracerebral cavernous angiomas 4 to 5 years after radiation therapy. A 14-year-old girl with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor developed a cavernous angioma in the hypothalamus after being irradiated with 55 Gy 4 years ago. The second case, 13-year-old boy with a pineal mixed germ cell tumor showed a cavernous angioma at the thalamus 5 years after receiving radiation therapy with a dose of 60 Gy. Both patients did not show any abnormal symptoms and the cavernous angiomas diagnoses were made with MRI findings. A review of 20 reported cases of radiation-induced cavernous angiomas in the brain revealed some characteristic findings. Eighteen of the 20 cases were children, fourteen cases developed hemorrhage, the radiation dose administered was distributed between 18-60 Gy (median dose of 43.5 Gy), and the median latent period was 7.5 years (range: 2-21 years). As a differential diagnosis for the recurrent tumor is guite difficult in most cases, it is necessary to observe patients who developed angioma-like lesions in the irradiated area carefully. (author)

  20. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  1. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  2. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  3. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  4. 27 Febuary 2012 - US DoE Associate Director of Science for High Energy Physics J. Siegrist visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with adviser J.-P. Koutchouk and engineer M. Bajko; in CMS experimental cavern with Spokesperson J. Incadela;in ATLAS experimental cavern with Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford; in ALICE experimental cavern with Spokesperson P. Giubellino; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 Febuary 2012 - US DoE Associate Director of Science for High Energy Physics J. Siegrist visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with adviser J.-P. Koutchouk and engineer M. Bajko; in CMS experimental cavern with Spokesperson J. Incadela;in ATLAS experimental cavern with Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford; in ALICE experimental cavern with Spokesperson P. Giubellino; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

  6. Endovascular treatment of a giant internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm with drainage into cavernous sinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-hai; YANG Xin-jian; WU Zhong-xue; LI You-xiang; JIANG Peng

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the treatment of a giant aneurysm of the internal carotid artery bifurcation with a fistula to the cavernous sinus,which appeared following closed head trauma.A 39-year-old man suffered from a blunt head trauma in an automobile accident.Two weeks after the trauma,progressive chemosis of left eye was presented.Four months after the trauma,digital subtraction angiography showed an internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm,with drainage into the cavernous sinus.The lesion was successfully obliterated with preservation of the parent artery by using coils in conjunction with Onyx.Follow-up angiography obtained 3 months postoperatively revealed persistent obliteration of the aneurysm and fistula as well as patency of the parent artery.Endovascular treatment involving the use of coils combined with Onyx appears to be a feasible and effective option for treatment of this hard-to-treat lesion.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal intramedullary cavernous angioma and its surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Fujimoto, Makoto; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Mabuchi, Shoji; Okumura, Hitoshi; Tsusaka, Tomofumi; Honma, Sanae; Ogata, Akihiko; Nanbu, Toshikazu (Kushiro Rousai Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Findings of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were examined in 5 patients (2 men and 3 women) with spinal intramedullary cavernous angioma. They ranged in age from 30 to 59 years. The area surrounding isointense area was hypointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images, showing an old hematoma. The isointense area was enhanced by Gd-DTPA, which was surgically proven to be an angioma itself. Surgical outcome was favorable in 4 patients, in whom preoperative neurologic symptoms were mild and an angioma was extirpated, and unfavorable in the other one, who was diagnosed 15 years after the onset and was serious before operation. Identifying s hematoma associated with angioma from an angioma itself is important in MRI diagnosis of spinal intramedullary cavernous angioma. Early diagnosis and treatment may contribute to favorable surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  8. Detection of Novel Mutation in Ccm3 Causes Familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Concetta; Bramanti, Placido; Ruggeri, Alessia; Katsarou, Zoe; Donato, Luigi; Sidoti, Antonina; D'Angelo, Rosalia

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations are vascular lesions that usually involve brain micro-vessels. They can occur both in a sporadic form and familial one. Causes of familial forms are mutations at three loci: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607, and CCM3/PDCD10. Here, we describe a novel CCM3 missense mutation (c.422T>G) detected in two Greek brothers showing multiple lesions at magnetic resonance imaging; to date, only the youngest is symptomatic. Bioinformatics tools showed this novel variant causes a loss of function in Pdcd10 protein due to its localization in the eighth helix and, particularly, affects Leu141, a highly conserved amino acid. Roles of Pdcd10 in angiogenesis regulation and its association with early development of cerebral cavernous malformations were also considered.

  9. Conus medullaris hematomyelia associated with an intradural-extramedullary cavernous angioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, L; Frondizi, D; Guiducci, A; Nardi, M; Maira, G

    1999-01-01

    A unique case of a 50-year-old woman with a conus medullaris hematomyelia associated with a low thoracic intradural-extramedullary cavernous angioma localized 2 cm above is reported. The patient had a 2-month history of progressive paraparesis, hypoesthesia of legs, and bowel and bladder disturbances. The symptoms worsened acutely during the last days before admission. A thoraco-lumbar MRI showed a space-occupying lesion at T10-T11 (vertebral interspace associated with a hematomyelia localized about 2 cm below. A T10-L1 laminectomy was performed and complete removal of both lesions was obtained with microsurgical technique. A non-traumatic hematomyelia should always prompt the suspicion of a spinal AVM or, more rarely, of a cavernous angioma. The possible anatomical and clinical correlations of this unusual association are discussed.

  10. Design and construction of the tensioned ties for UX15 cavern vault

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, R J H

    2002-01-01

    Due to the programme constraints for the UX15 cavern set by CERN, it has been necessary to complete the concrete lining of the vault prior to the excavation of the bench. The vault lining is therefore being temporarily suspended from a number of pre-tensioned high capacity multi-strand tensioned ties. During excavation of the bench, additional loads will be imposed onto the vault lining due to ground displacements. In order to minimise the number of ties, the previously completed linings of the PX14 and PX16 access shafts will be used to support some of the load. Three-dimensional modelling has been undertaken to design the structures and determine the expected behaviour of this complex support system. Geotechnical instrumentation has been installed in the concrete linings and the ground to monitor loads and displacements during construction. After the cavern walls have been completed, the ties will be released.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of a cerebral cavernous haemangioma in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 13-month-old, neutered, male Golden retriever presented with seizures and progressive depression. Clinical and neurological assessment was consistent with severe intracranial disease. The neurological condition progressively deteriorated and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed the presence of a large, contrast-enhancing, space-occupying mass in the right cerebral hemisphere. Therapy with corticosteroids, mannitol and furosemide ameliorated the signs of depression and ataxia, but the owner elected euthanasia after 1 week. Post mortem examination of the brain confirmed the presence of a large haemorrhagic lesion in the right olfactory lobe, the histopathological appearance of which was consistent with cerebral cavernous haemangioma. This is the 1st case describing the MRI appearance of a cavernous haemangioma of the cerebrum in the veterinary literature.

  12. [Neuro-ophthalmology and interventional neuro-radiology--co-treatment for carotid cavernous sinus fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platner, Eva; Bakon, Mati; Huna-Baron, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal arteriovenous communications in the cavernous sinus. In many cases of CCF's the primary signs are ocular manifestations, which include: pulsatile proptosis, orbital bruit, chemosis and conjunctival injection, elevated intraocular pressure, venous stasis retinopathy, and cranial nerve pareses. Patients in whom the fistula causes arterial drainage into the cerebral veins and sinuses are at risk for intracranial hemorrhage. The most common treatment for CCF's is endovascular occlusion of the lesion. The goal of this procedure is to occlude the fistula but preserve the patency of the internal carotid artery. The CCF itself, as well as its treatment, can be sight- and even life-threatening. We describe 3 case reports of patients with CCF, in order to demonstrate the cooperation between the neuro-opthalmologist and the invasive neuro-radiologist, in the follow-up of the patient and in the treatment timing decision.

  13. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  14. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2015 and July 2016 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Los Alamos focused on two main activities during this period: Discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling to describe flow and radionuclide transport in complex fracture networks that are typical of crystalline rock environments, and a comprehensive interpretation of three different colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport experiments conducted in a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland between 2002 and 2013. Chapter 1 presents the results of the DFN work and is divided into three main sections: (1) we show results of our recent study on the correlation between fracture size and fracture transmissivity (2) we present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph for characterization of discrete fracture networks, and (3) we describe the Crystalline International work in support of the Swedish Task Force. Chapter 2 presents interpretation of the colloidfacilitated radionuclide transport experiments in the crystalline rock at the Grimsel Test Site.

  15. Diffuse Cavernous Hemangioma of the Penis, Scrotum, Perineum, and Rectum - A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi Rajul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body. Genital hemangioma involving the entire penis and scrotum are extremely rare. More rarely they can extend in to the pelvis making preoperative imaging imperative and decisive in treatment. Very few cases have been reported in the medical literature. Hereby, a rare cavernous hemangioma that involves the entire penis, scrotum and extends into perineum and rectum in an 18-year-old male is presented with review of literature.

  16. A cavernous haemangioma of breast in male: radiological-pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira, C.; Romero, C.; Urbasos, M.; Pinto, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital ' ' Virgen de la Salud' ' , Toledo (Spain); Rodriguez, R.; Francisco, J.M. de [Servicio de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital ' ' Virgen de la Salud' ' , Toledo (Spain)

    2001-02-01

    Vascular tumours of the breast are especially rare in men, and a majority of them are angiosarcomas. In fact, we found only four cases of haemangioma in males in the literature. We present a case of cavernous haemangioma in a male aged 48 years, and which commenced as a palpable mass. We performed differential diagnosis and radiological-pathological correlation. We established the correct classification of this case histologically, and decided on the definitive therapeutic approach. (orig.)

  17. First DT+RPC chambers installation round in the UX5 cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2007-01-01

    DT+RPC packages corresponding to sectors 1 and 7 of the barrel region cannot be installed on surface, since the lowering gantry from SX5 to UX5 uses their gaps to hold the wheels. Therefore this installation has to be carried out in the cavern. These pictures illustrate the first installation round on YB+2 right after the lowering. A total of 8 chambers were successfully installed in 2 days.

  18. When nearing the ATLAS cavern UX15 through RB16: the TX1S shielding

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: 52 tons of ATLAS TX1S shielding with bare hands. Photos 02,03,04: Installation of the second TX1S shielding tube at Point Photos 05,06: Positioning of TX1S shielding, the first ATLAS/LHC interface component to be installed underground. Photo 07: Final adjustment of the TX1S shielding tube at the interface between the LHC tunnel and the ATLAS cavern (UX15).

  19. Cavernous hemangioma arising from the gastro-splenic ligament: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kin-Fah Chin; Ghaith Khair; Palani Sathish Babu; David Russell Morgan

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain associated with early satiety and weight loss. Imaging revealed a large intraabdominal mass in the epigastrium. Despite intensive investigations, including ultrasound scanning, computed tomography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and percutaneous biopsy, a diagnosis could not be obtained.A histological diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma arising from the gastro-splenic ligament was confirmed after laparoscopic excision and histological examination of the intra-abdominal epigastric mass.

  20. Cavernous angioma in the cisterna magna; Angioma cavernoso na cisterna magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settani, Flavio A.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Fontoura, Emilio A.F.; Hweringer, Lindolfo Carlos; Cardoso, Arquimedes Cavalcanti [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-08-01

    We report a rare case of cavernous angioma in the cisterna magna. The diagnosis of this uncommon condition appears to be difficult to establish only upon clinical and radiological findings. In spite of the recent advances in neuroimaging, this type of angiomas is still diagnosed through surgery and histopathological examination. This 21-year-old patient was submitted to a suboccipital craniotomy which disclosed a vascular lesion which was totally removed. (author)

  1. Severe progressive scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyama Yoshiaki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cavernous hemangioma consists mainly of congenital vascular malformations present before birth and gradually increasing in size with skeletal growth. A small number of patients with cavernous hemangioma develop scoliosis, and surgical treatment for the scoliosis in such cases has not been reported to date. Here we report a 12-year-old male patient with severe progressive scoliosis due to a huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery. Upon referral to our department, radiographs revealed a scoliosis of 85° at T6-L1 and a kyphosis of 58° at T4-T10. CT and MR images revealed a huge hemangioma extending from the subcutaneous region to the paraspinal muscles and the retroperitoneal space and invading the spinal canal. Posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle screws between T2 and L3 were performed. Massive hemorrhage from the hemangioma occurred during the surgery, with intraoperative blood loss reaching 2800 ml. The scoliosis was corrected to 59°, and the kyphosis to 45° after surgery. Seven hours after surgery, the patient suffered from hypovolemic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to postoperative hemorrhage from the hemangioma. The patient developed sensory and conduction aphasia caused by cerebral hypoxia during the shock on the day of the surgery. At present, two years after the surgery, although the patient has completely recovered from the aphasia. This case illustrates that, in correction surgery for scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, intraoperative and postoperative intensive care for hemodynamics should be performed, since massive hemorrhage can occur during the postoperative period as well as the intraoperative period.

  2. Cavernous mesenteric lymphangiomatosis mimicking metastasis in a patient with rectal cancer: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seong Su Hwang; Hyun Joo Choi; Soo Youn Park

    2009-01-01

    Lymphangioma usually occurs in children and usually involves the skin. Mesenteric lymphangioma is extremely rare in adults. Typically, lymphangioma appears on computed tomography (CT) as a lower attenuation of a cystic mass, however, some cases appear to be a solid mass. We describe the CT and 18FFDG positron emission tomography/CT appearance in a case of jejunal and mesenteric cavernous lymphangiomatosis mimicking metastasis in an adult patient with rectal cancer.

  3. RESISTANCE OF KARST CAVERNS NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashyrev O. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the studied bacteria resistance quantitative parameters of extreme factors such as toxic metals (Cu2+, organic xenobiotics (p-nitrochlorobenzene and UV-irradiation were the aim of the research. Six strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from clays of two caverns Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia and Azotobacter vinelandii УКМ В-6017 as a reference strain have been tested. For this purpose the maximum permissible concentration of Cu2+ and p-nitrochlorobenzene in the concentration gradient and lethal doses of UV by the survival caverns have been determined. Maximum permissible concentrations for strains were as 10 ppm Cu2+, 70–120 ppm of p-nitrochlorobenzene. The maximum doses of UV-irradiation varied in the range of 55–85 J/m2 (LD99.99. It is shown that three classes of extreme factors resistance parameters of karst caverns strains are similar to the strain of terrestrial soil ecosystems. The most active studied strains reduce the concentration of p-nitrochlorobenzene in the medium in 13 times. The ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to degrade p-nitrochlorobenzene could be used in creation new environmental biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment from nitrochloroaromatic xenobiotics. Isolated strains could be used as destructors for soils bioremediation in agrobiotechnologies and to optimize plants nitrogen nutrition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. [Management of orbital cavernous hemangioma - evaluation of surgical approaches: report of 43 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, P-A; Langlois, B; Putterman, M; Jacomet, P-V; Morax, S; Galatoire, O

    2013-12-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is the most frequent benign orbital tumor in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine its clinical features, to define surgical indications, and to determine the roles of the various surgical approaches praticed in ophthalmology: transconjunctival (increasingly utilized), anterior transcutaneous, and lateral orbitotomy. The records of all patients treated for orbital cavernous hemangioma (OCH) since 2004 at the Fondation Rothschild (Paris, France) were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-three patients were treated for orbital cavernous hemangioma. Fifty-eight percent were women, mean age 50.2; 79 % of the tumors were intraconal. Among those patients, 36 underwent surgical removal, 5 were followed periodically, and 2 were lost to follow-up. The main surgical indications were: optic nerve compression (26 patients), proptosis (24 patients) and diplopia (3 patients). Transconjunctival, anterior transcutaneous and Kronlein approaches were used in 16, 12 and 4 patients respectively. Four patients had intrapalpebral hemangiomas easily reached transcutaneously. Two patients demonstrated transient partial 3rd nerve palsy (one with the lateral orbitotomy approach and one with the transconjunctival approach), one patient with the lateral orbitotomy approach developed a palsy of the superior branch of the 3rd nerve, and one patient with the transcutaneous anterior approach developed mydriasis. Surgical excision of OCH's is required in the presence of clinical complications. The transconjunctival approach is a safe technique which can lead to complete resection of the tumor in most cases.

  5. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  6. Resection of Giant Hepatic Cavernous Hemangiomas after Dissection of the Third Porta Hepatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOXiaoping; ZHOUWeiping; WANGYi; WUMengchao; JINGLiang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To estabhsh a novel and safe operation technique for the resection of giant hepatic cavernous hemangiomas involving the retro-hepatic vena cava.Methods:After ligating the hepatic artery of affected lobe, the short hepatic veins at the third porta hepatis were dissected and ligated individually to separate the tumor from the retrohepatic vena cava, followed by the resection of the tumor under intermittent interruption of the porta hepatis.Results:A total of 62 giant hepatic cavernous hemangiomas were successfully resected without hepatic vascular exclusion. Right and caudate lobectomies were done in 27 cases, right hemihepatectornies in 5 cases, right upper segnentectomies in 7 cases, right posterior lobectomies in 7 cases, extended left and caudate lobectomies in 10 cases, and caudate lobectomies in 6 cases. The blood transfusion requirement during operation was 1 400 ml on average. All did well postoperatively during a follow up of 4 - 84 months.Conclusion:It is safe and feasible to resect giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma following dissection of the third porta hepatis. Duringoperation the key step is dissection of the short hepatic veins.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma with concomitant hepatic angiomyolipoma and cavernous hemangioma in one patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Wen; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Su-Jie, Akesu; Du, Min; Ji, Yuan; Tan, Yun-Shan; Hou, Ying-Yong; Xu, Jian-Fang

    2015-03-21

    The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is strongly associated with hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML), a rare benign tumor, is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of adipose cells, smooth muscle cells and blood vessels. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old man who developed HCC with a concomitant hepatic AML and a cavernous hemangioma, in the absence of cirrhosis. To our knowledge, based on an extensive literature search using the www.pubmed.gov website, this is the first report of an HCC case with both concomitant AML and cavernous hemangioma at the same position in the liver. The presence of the hepatitis B surface antigen was detected, but the liver function was normal. Clinical and pathological data were collected before and during the treatment. Hepatic AML was diagnosed based on the typical histological characteristics and immunohistochemical staining, which revealed, a positive staining with a melanocytic cell-specific monoclonal antibody. There was no evidence of tuberous sclerosis complex in this patient. Although the HCC was poor- to moderately-differentiated, the characteristics of the AML and the cavernous hemangioma in this patient did not match any criteria for malignancy. Hepatectomy followed by transarterial chemoembolization treatment were effective therapeutic methods for the adjacent lesions in this patient. This case is an interesting coincidence.

  8. Increased expression of nestin in the major pelvic ganglion following cavernous nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, O; Ross, AE; Schaeffer, EM; Gratzke, C; Stief, CG; Strong, TD; Burnett, AL; Hedlund, P; Bivalacqua, TJ

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to identify neuronal repair mechanisms of the major pelvic ganglion (MPG), we evaluated changes in the expression of nestin, an intermediate filament protein and neural stem cell marker following cavernous nerve crush injury (CNI). We utilized two groups of Sprague Dawley rats: (i) sham and (ii) bilateral CNI. Erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS) were determined at 48 h in a subset of rats. The MPG was isolated and removed at 48 h after CNI, and nestin immunolocalization, protein levels and RNA expression were evaluated. At 48 h, erectile responses to CNS in CNI rats were substantially reduced (P<0.05; ~70% decrease in intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure) compared with sham surgery controls. This coincided with a dramatic 10-fold increase (P<0.05) in nestin messenger RNA expression and protein levels in the MPG of rats with CNI. Immunoflourescence microscopy demonstrated that nestin upregulation after CNI occurred within the ganglion cell bodies and nerve fibers of the MPG. In conclusion, CNI induces nestin in the MPG. These data suggest that nestin may be involved in the regenerative process of the cavernous nerve following crush injury. PMID:21993267

  9. Cerebellar Hemorrhage due to a Direct Carotid–Cavernous Fistula after Surgery for Maxillary Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoshinobu; Hiramatsu, Hisaya; Kamiya, Mika; Yamashita, Shuhei; Namba, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Infratentorial cerebral hemorrhage due to a direct carotid–cavernous fistula (CCF) is very rare. To our knowledge, only four such cases have been reported. Cerebellar hemorrhage due to a direct CCF has not been reported. We describe a 63-year-old female who presented with reduced consciousness 3 days after undergoing a maxillectomy for maxillary cancer. Computed tomography showed a cerebellar hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a left-sided direct CCF draining into the left petrosal and cerebellar veins through the left superior petrosal sinus (SPS). Her previous surgery had sacrificed the pterygoid plexus and facial vein. Increased blood flow and reduced drainage could have led to increased venous pressure in infratentorial veins, including the petrosal and cerebellar veins. The cavernous sinus has several drainage routes, but the SPS is one of the most important routes for infratentorial venous drainage. Stenosis or absence of the posterior segment of the SPS can also result in increased pressure in the cerebellar and pontine veins. We emphasize that a direct CCF with cortical venous reflux should be precisely evaluated to determine the hemodynamic status and venous drainage from the cavernous sinus. PMID:28061497

  10. Micro-Macro Analysis and Phenomenological Modelling of Salt Viscous Damage and Application to Salt Caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng; Pouya, Ahmad; Arson, Chloé

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to gain fundamental understanding of the microscopic mechanisms that control the transition between secondary and tertiary creep around salt caverns in typical geological storage conditions. We use a self-consistent inclusion-matrix model to homogenize the viscoplastic deformation of halite polycrystals and predict the number of broken grains in a Representative Elementary Volume of salt. We use this micro-macro modeling framework to simulate creep tests under various axial stresses, which gives us the critical viscoplastic strain at which grain breakage (i.e., tertiary creep) is expected to occur. The comparison of simulation results for short-term and long-term creep indicates that the initiation of tertiary creep depends on the stress and the viscoplastic strain. We use the critical viscoplastic deformation as a yield criterion to control the transition between secondary and tertiary creep in a phenomenological viscoplastic model, which we implement into the Finite Element Method program POROFIS. We model a 850-m-deep salt cavern of irregular shape, in axis-symmetric conditions. Simulations of cavern depressurization indicate that a strain-dependent damage evolution law is more suitable than a stress-dependent damage evolution law, because it avoids high damage concentrations and allows capturing the formation of a damaged zone around the cavity. The modeling framework explained in this paper is expected to provide new insights to link grain breakage to phenomenological damage variables used in Continuum Damage Mechanics.

  11. Evaluation of Computational Method of High Reynolds Number Slurry Flow for Caverns Backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The abandonment of salt caverns used for brining or product storage poses a significant environmental and economic risk. Risk mitigation can in part be address ed by the process of backfilling which can improve the cavern geomechanical stability and reduce the risk o f fluid loss to the environment. This study evaluate s a currently available computational tool , Barracuda, to simulate such process es as slurry flow at high Reynolds number with high particle loading . Using Barracuda software, a parametric sequence of simu lations evaluated slurry flow at Re ynolds number up to 15000 and loading up to 25%. Li mitations come into the long time required to run these simulation s due in particular to the mesh size requirement at the jet nozzle. This study has found that slurry - jet width and centerline velocities are functions of Re ynold s number and volume fractio n The solid phase was found to spread less than the water - phase with a spreading rate smaller than 1 , dependent on the volume fraction. Particle size distribution does seem to have a large influence on the jet flow development. This study constitutes a first step to understand the behavior of highly loaded slurries and their ultimate application to cavern backfilling.

  12. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  13. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  14. Disposal of waste or excess high explosives. Final report. [Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ''Disposal of Waste or Excess High Explosives'' project began January 1971. Various methods of disposal were investigated with the conclusion that incineration, at major ERDA facilities, would be the most feasible and safest method with the least cost and development time required. Two independent incinerator concepts were investigated: a rotary type for continuous processing and an enclosed pit type for batch processing. Both concepts are feasible; however, it is recommended that further investigations would be required to render them acceptable. It is felt that a larger effort would be required in the case of the rotary incinerator. The project was terminated (December 1976) prior to completion as a result of a grant of authority by the Texas Air Control Board allowing the ERDA Pantex Plant to continue indefinitely outdoor burning of explosives.

  15. Role of EPI in diagnosing cavernous hemangioma and small HCC : comparison with fast T2-weighted MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Chang Won; Jung, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sang Yoel; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National Univeraty Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare single-shot echo-planar MR imaging (EPI) with breath-hold fast T2-weighted imaging (HASTE or Turbo spin-echo T2WI) for evaluation of the role of EPI in distinguishing small hepatocellular carcinoma from cavernous hemangioma. We retrospectively evaluated MR images of 35 patients (21 cases of small HCC and 14 cases of cavernous hemangioma). EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI images were obtained and compared on the basis of lesion detection sensitivity, lesion-to-liver signal intensity ratio (SIR), contrast ratio (CR), and lesion-to-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR). For the detection of small HCC, the sensitivity of EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI were equal in 14 of 21 cases (71.4%). The detection sensitivity of cavernous hemangioma with EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI was 100 % (14/14). Mean SIR on breath-hold fast T2WI was 2.02 {+-} 0.45 for small HCC and 3.65 {+-} 0.97 for cavernous hemangioma; on EPI, the corresponding figures were 2.91 {+-} 0.57 for cavernous hemangioma; On EPI, the figures obtained were 2.27 {+-} 0.52 and 6.26 {+-} 2.19, respectively. Mean CNR on breath-hold fast T2WI was 14.24 {+-} 4.098 for small HCC and 50.28 {+-} 10.96 for cavernous hemangioma, while on EPI, the corresponding figures were 13.84 {+-} 3.02 and 45.44 {+-} 11.21. In detecting focal hepatic mass, the sensitivity of EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI are comparable for the diagnosis of small HCC and cavernous hemangioma, EPI can provided additional information. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Electrocorticography-Guided Surgical Treatment of Solitary Supratentorial Cavernous Malformations with Secondary Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Chao You; Guo-qiang Han; Jun Wang; Yun-biao Xiong; Chuang-xi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of electrocorticographic (ECoG) monitoring and the application of different surgical approaches in the surgical treatment of solitary supretentorial cavernous malformations with secondary epilepsy. Methods This study enrolled a consecutive series of 36 patients with solitary supratentorial cavernous malformations and secondary epilepsy who underwent surgery with intraoperative ECoG monitoring in the Department of Neurosurgery between January 2004 and January 2008. The patients were composed of 15 males and 21 females, aged between 8 and 52 years (mean age 27.3±2.8 years) at the time of surgery. Epilepsy history, the type of epilepsy at the presentation, lesion location, the incidence of residual epileptiform discharges, and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results Histopathological examination indicated cavernous malformations and hippocampal sclerosis in 36 and 5 cases, respectively. Neuronal degeneration, glial cell proliferation, and neurofibrillary tangles were found in all the resected cerebral tissues of extended lesionectomy of residual epileptic foci. Lesionectomy, anterior temporal lobectomy, anterior temporal lobectomy plus cortical thermocoagulation, extended lesionectomy, extended lesionectomy plus cortical thermocoagulation were performed in 4, 4, 1, 14, and 13 cases, respectively. Residual epileptiform discharges were captured in 9 out of the 14 patients who had additional cortical thermocoagulation. According to Engle class for postoperative outcomes, 27 cases were class I (75.00%), 5 were class II (13.89%), 2 were class III (5.56%), and 2 were class IV (5.56%), thus the total effective rate (class I+class II) was 88.89%. Neither of epilepsy history, the type of epilepsy, and the location of cavernous malformation was significantly related to outcomes (P>0.05). A significant relationship was found between the incidence of residual epileptiform discharges and outcomes (P=0.041). Conclusions Intraoperative ECo

  17. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  18. Software verification, model validation, and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations - A paradigm shift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work (1) reviews the current concept ad~ internationally on the disposal of highlevel nuclear wastes; (2) discusses some of the major challenges facing this disposal technology; (3) presents an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment work as a case study; and (4) introduces a new para

  19. U.S. program assessing nuclear waste disposal in space - A 1981 status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Best, R. E.; Compton, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts, current studies, and technology and equipment requirements for using the STS for space disposal of selected nuclear wastes as a complement to geological storage are reviewed. An orbital transfer vehicle carried by the Shuttle would kick the waste cannister into a 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit. One flight per week is regarded as sufficient to dispose of all high level wastes chemically separated from reactor fuel rods from 200 GWe nuclear power capacity. Studies are proceeding for candidate wastes, the STS system suited to each waste, and the risk/benefits of a space disposal system. Risk assessments are being extended to total waste disposal risks for various disposal programs with and without a space segment, and including side waste streams produced as a result of separating substances for launch.

  20. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  1. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  2. Development of Nature Protection Technologies of Hydrocarbon Wastes Disposal on the Basis of High- Temperature Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantarin, V. D.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    The research shows the thermal balance of low-temperature pyrolysis of birch sawdust with the possibility of further development of nature protection technology of hydrocarbon wastes disposal with secondary useful products production. The actual problem was solved by preventing environmental pollution by greenhouse gases using pyrolysis process as a method of disposal of hydrocarbon wastes with secondary useful products production. The objective of paper is to study features of the processes of thermal processing of wastes and development of environmentally sound technology of disposal C-containing wastes, contributing to the implementation of the pollution prevention concept.

  3. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  4. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  5. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  6. Direct disposal of spent fuel: developing solutions tailored to Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hideki [Obayashi Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); McKinley, Ian G [McKinley Consulting, Baden (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    With the past Government policy of 100% reprocessing in Japan now open to discussion, options for direct disposal of spent fuel (SF) are now being considered in Japan. The need to move rapidly ahead in developing spent fuel management concepts is closely related to the ongoing debate on the future of nuclear power in Japan and the desire to understand the true costs of the entire life cycle of different options. Different scenarios for future nuclear power - and associated decisions on extent of reprocessing - will give rise to quite different inventories of SF with different disposal challenges. Although much work has been carried out spent fuel disposal within other national programmes, the potential for mining the international knowledge base is limited by the boundary conditions for disposal in Japan. Indeed, with a volunteer approach to siting, no major salt deposits and few undisturbed sediments, high tectonic activity, relatively corrosive groundwater and no deserts, it is evident that a tailored solution is needed. Nevertheless, valuable lessons can be learned from projects carried out worldwide, if focus is placed on basic principles rather than implementation details. (authors)

  7. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  8. Pancreatic portal cavernoma in patients with cavernous transformation of the portal vein: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilgrain, Valerie [Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); AP-HP, Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Clichy (France); INSERM, Centre de recherche Biomedicale Bichat-beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Condat, Bertrand; Plessier, Aurelie [AP-HP, Hopital Beaujon, Department of Gastroenterology, Clichy (France); O' Toole, Dermot [Centre de reference des maladies vasculaires du foie, AP-HP, Hopital Beaujon, Department of Hepatology, PMAD, Clichy (France); Ruszniewski, Philippe [Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); INSERM, Centre de recherche Biomedicale Bichat-beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Centre de reference des maladies vasculaires du foie, AP-HP, Hopital Beaujon, Department of Hepatology, PMAD, Clichy (France); Valla, Dominique C. [Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); INSERM, Centre de recherche Biomedicale Bichat-beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); AP-HP, Hopital Beaujon, Department of Gastroenterology, Clichy (France)

    2009-11-15

    The purpose of the article was to prospectively evaluate the MR findings of pancreatic portal cavernoma in a consecutive series of patients with cavernous transformation of the portal vein. This study was approved by the review board of our institution, and informed consent was obtained. The clinical and biological data and the MR imaging for 20 patients (11 female, 9 male; median age, 49 years) with cavernous transformation of the portal vein and no evidence of previous pancreatic disease were reviewed. The presence of pancreatic portal cavernoma (defined as intra- and/or peripancreatic portal cavernoma), morphological changes in the pancreas, biliary and ductal pancreatic abnormalities, and extension of the portal venous thrombosis were qualitatively assessed. Fifteen patients (75%) had pancreatic portal cavernoma with collateral formation in the pancreas and/or collaterals around the pancreas seen on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR sequences: three patients had both intra- and peripancreatic portal cavernoma, six had intrapancreatic portal cavernoma alone and six had peripancreatic portal cavernoma only. The presence of intra- or peripancreatic portal cavernoma was significantly associated with extension of the thrombosis to the splenic and superior mesenteric veins (p = 0.05). Morphological changes in the pancreas, heterogeneity on T2-weighted sequences and main ductal pancreatic abnormalities were seen in two, four and two patients, respectively. All these patients had intrapancreatic portal cavernoma. Bile duct dilatation was observed in 13 (65%) patients: among them three had extrahepatic dilatation only and these three patients had associated intrapancreatic portal cavernoma. In patients with cavernous transformation of the portal vein, intra- or peripancreatic portal cavernoma is common. In conclusion, intra- or peripancreatic portal cavernoma was only observed in patients with extension of the thrombosis to the splenic vein and/or the superior mesenteric

  9. Carotid and cranial nerve reconstruction after removal of cavernous sinus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, L N; Sen, C N; Lanzino, G; Pomonis, S

    1991-12-01

    During the last 7 years, approximately 170 neoplasms, and 35 vascular lesions involving the cavernous sinus were treated by the first two authors. During the treatment of such lesions, the direct vein graft reconstruction of the internal carotid artery from the petrous to the supraclinoid or infraclinoid ICA was performed in 23 patients. Graft occlusion occurred in 3 patients and in one of these, it was successfully salvaged by placing a long venous graft from the extracranial ICA to the M3 segment of the middle cerebral artery. The latter 3 patients were neurologically normal. One patient with significant atherosclerotic disease suffered the dissection of the distal internal carotid artery with the graft being patent. The suturing technique. This patient eventually died. Two patients with severely compromised collateral circulation suffered minor strokes due to the temporary occlusion of the ICA. This has been avoided in the more recent patients by the adoption of brain protection techniques such as moderate hypothermia, induced hypertension, and barbiturate coma. Low dose heparin therapy during grafting and high dose intravenous steroids prior to the grafting also appear to be beneficial. Direct vein graft reconstruction of the intracavernous carotid artery is a valuable tool during the management of cavernous sinus lesions. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique as well as the pros and cons of other revascularization techniques will be discussed. During microsurgical removal of cavernous sinus lesions, the cranial nerves III-VI were reconstructed by direct resuture or by nerve grafting in 16 patients. In the majority of these patients, recovery of cranial nerve function was observed, which was very encouraging.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Surveying genetic variants and molecular phylogeny of cerebral cavernous malformation gene, CCM3/PDCD10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Bhandari, Anita; Goswami, Chandan

    2014-12-01

    The three cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) genes namely CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607 and CCM3/PDCD10 have been identified for which mutations cause cerebral cavernous malformations. However, the protein products of these genes involved in forming CCM signaling, are still poorly understood imposing an urgent need to understand these genes and their signaling processes in details. So far involvement of CCM3/PDCD10 in the cavernous angioma has been characterized from biochemical and biophysical analyses. However, there is no comprehensive study illustrating the phylogenetic history and comprehensive genetic variants of CCM3/PDCD10. Herein, we explored the phylogenetic history and genetic variants of CCM3/PDCD10 gene. Synteny analyses revealed that CCM3/PDCD10 gene shared same genomic loci from Drosophila to human and the gene structure of CCM3/PDCD10 is conserved from human to Branchiostoma floridae for about 500 MYs with some changes in sea urchin and in insects. The conserved CCM3/PDCD10 is characterized by presence of indels in the N-terminal dimerization domain. We identified 951 CCM3/PDCD10 variants by analysis of 1092 human genomes with top three variation classes belongs to 84% SNPs, 6.9% insertions and 6.2% deletions. We identified 22 missense mutations in the human CCM3/PDCD10 protein and out of which three mutations are deleterious. We also identified four stop-codon gaining mutations at the positions E34*, E68*, E97* and E140*, respectively. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the CCM3/PDCD10 gene based on phylogenetic origin and genetic variants. This study corroborates that the evolution of CCM proteins with tubular organization evolvements by endothelial cells.

  11. Effect of sildenafil in cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Joaquim A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sildenafil citrate is a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which has demonstrated excellent results in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The effect of sildenafil citrate in the cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction has not been established yet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of sildenafil citrate in the cavernous arteries of patients with erectile dysfunction, following an intracavernous injection of alprostadil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 male patients, with mean age of 53.8 years (32 to 75 years, were prospectively evaluated. The mean time with complaint of erectile dysfunction was 50.5 months (6 to 168 months. Each patient was his own control. Patients underwent a measurement of peak systolic velocity before and after use of sildenafil citrate associated with 5 micrograms of alprostadil, through ultrasonic velocitometry Knoll/MIDUS® system. In the interval between measurements, approximately 15 days, patients used 3 tablets of sildenafil at home with their partners. RESULTS: Using only 5 mcg of alprostadil, average peak systolic velocity was 23.9 cm/s, and when associated to 50 mg of sildenafil it was 24.8 cm/s. Despite the increase in the flow rate caused by sildenafil, the difference was not statistically significant, Zcalculated = - 0.695 NS (Wilcoxon test. Twenty one of the 29 patients (72.4% showed global improvement in sexual performance with the use of sildenafil citrate at home. There was not a statistically significant correlation between the global response to sildenafil citrate and the increase in the peak systolic velocity. CONCLUSION: We concluded that, even though the use of 50 mg of sildenafil citrate associated with 5 mcg of alprostadil provides an increase in the peak systolic velocity of the cavernous arteries, there was no statistic difference in relation to alprostadil alone. There was no correlation between the global response to sildenafil and the increase in

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL BY SUBSURFACE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  14. Cerebral cavernous malformations as a disease of vascular permeability: from bench to bedside with caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadla, Sanjay; Jabbour, Pascal M; Shenkar, Robert; Shi, Changbin; Campbell, Peter G; Awad, Issam A

    2010-09-01

    Tremendous insight into the molecular and genetic pathogenesis of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) has been gained over the past 2 decades. This includes the identification of 3 distinct genes involved in familial CCMs. Still, a number of unanswered questions regarding the process from gene mutation to vascular malformation remain. It is becoming more evident that the disruption of interendothelial junctions and ensuing vascular hyperpermeability play a principal role. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current understanding of CCM genes, associated proteins, and functional pathways. Promising molecular and genetic therapies targeted at identified molecular aberrations are discussed as well.

  15. Congenital pial arteriovenous fistula in the temporal region draining into cavernous sinus: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ziyin; Wang, Chaohua; Zhang, Changwei; Xie, Xiaodong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Wang, Kun; Tang, Jianjian [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2013-06-15

    This report concerns a 4-month-old infant with progressive prominent and redness of his left eye since birth. This report concerns a 4-month-old infant with progressive prominent redness of his left eye since birth. Angiography revealed a congenital pial arteriovenous fistula between the temporal branch of the left posterior cerebral artery and left cavernous sinus through the sphenoparietal sinus, a condition not reported in the literature. The fistula was successfully occluded with two micro-coils by vertebrobasilar approach.

  16. Treatment of recurrent traumatic carotid cavernous fistula via endovascular embo lism technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Endovascular embolism technique has been demonstrated to be the best initial option for treatment of carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). Several large series re ports have shown that most CCFs can be successfully occluded via transarterial or transvenous endovascular approach.1-6 This paper reports a case of C CF recurred after endovascular occlusion of internal carotid artery (ICA) proxim al to the fistula. A new technique has been described for transarterial emboliza tion with tungsten microcoils via surgical exposure to ICA, which has not been r eported previously in the literatures.

  17. Gradenigo’s syndrome and thrombosis of the cavernous sinus secundary to acute otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellín-Meseguer D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gradenigo’s syndrome is characterized by facial pain in the area supplied by the trigeminal nerve and a unilateral external ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of VI cranial nerve secondary to acute apical petrositis for evolutionary complication of otitis media. This is a serious complication that requires immediate treatment to prevent permanent damage and may be associated with other intracranial complications such as thrombosis of the cavernous sinus. We report a 4 year old male who complains of fever, headache and external ocular paralysis in the course of acute otitis media.

  18. A cavernous hemangioma of the thyroid gland: First documentation by ultrasound of a rare pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Stuckmann, Gerd; Tosoni, Ivo; Erdin, Dieter; Binkert, Christoph A

    2011-01-01

    Hemangioma of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a primary cavernous hemangioma in the left lobe of the thyroid gland in an 84-year-old woman. Ultrasound examination of the lesion showed an inhomogeneous and hypoechoic nodule that was well demarcated from the rest of the left lobe and hypovascular on color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed. The cytologic differential diagnosis included an anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland. After hemithyroidectomy, the final diagnosis was a benign hemangioma of the thyroid gland.

  19. KRIT1 mutations in three Japanese pedigrees with hereditary cavernous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Kengo; Akagawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Asami; Oka, Hideki; Hino, Akihiko; Mitsuyama, Tetsuryu; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Onda, Hideaki; Kawamata, Takakazu; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation is a neurovascular abnormality that can cause seizures, focal neurological deficits and intracerebral hemorrhage. Familial forms of this condition are characterized by de novo formation of multiple lesions and are autosomal-dominantly inherited via CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607 and CCM3/PDCD10 mutations. We identified three truncating mutations in KRIT1 from three Japanese families with CCMs: a novel frameshift mutation, a known frameshift mutation and a known splice-site mutation that had not been previously analyzed for aberrant splicing. PMID:27766163

  20. Anatomical study of the cavernous sinus emphasizing operative approaches and related vascular and neural reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, L N; Burgess, J; Akin, O

    1987-12-01

    The efficacy of three operative approaches to the cavernous sinus (CS) and the possibilities of vascular and cranial nerve reconstruction in and around the CS were studied in 50 cadaver specimens (25 heads). The lateral operative approach was through the lateral wall, between Cranial Nerves V1 and IV, or between Cranial Nerves V1 and V2. The superior approach was through the superior wall of the CS after removing the anterior clinoid process and unroofing the optic canal. The inferior approach followed the petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) into the CS after an extradural subtemporal exposure or after a combined subtemporal and infratemporal fossa exposure. The different exposures of the spaces of the CS and of the intracavernous structures provided by the superior and the lateral approaches were complementary. The exposure provided by the inferior approach was minimal; however, the junction of the petrous and cavernous ICA was best exposed by this route. The combined subtemporal and infratemporal fossa approach exposed the petrous ICA (for proximal control or for reconstruction) with the greatest ease and with the least temporal lobe retraction. The combination of the superior and lateral approaches and the complete mobilization of the intracavernous ICA facilitated its repair after experimental lacerations. Lacerations of either the inferior and the inferomedial aspects of any portion of the cavernous ICA or of the anterior surface of the posterior vertical segment of the artery were the most difficult to repair. End-to-end anastomosis was more difficult with the posterior third of the artery than with the anterior two-thirds. A vein graft with an average length of 3.5 cm could be sutured from the petrous to the supraclinoid ICA to bypass the cavernous ICA, with an average occlusion time of 45 minutes. End-to-end technique was judged better for the proximal anastomosis, but end (graft)-to-side anastomosis was easier to perform at the distal end because of the

  1. The first section of the CMS detector (centre of photo) arriving from the vertical shaft, viewed from the cavern floor.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    In the early morning of 2 November, the first section of the CMS detector began its eagerly awaited descent into the underground cavern. You may imagine the CMS detector as a loaf of sliced bread, cut into 15 slices of different sizes. The two HF sections are the end pieces; the slices in between will be lowered sequentially according to their positions in the ‘loaf', starting from the HF+ section at the far end of the cavern, towards the access shaft at the opposite end.

  2. [Traumatic arteriovenous pial fistula masquerading as a carotid-cavernous fistula: an uncommon disorder with an unusual presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Lee, Angel; Nava-Salgado, Giovanna; Zenteno, Marco; Gómez-Villegas, Thamar; Dávila-Romero, Julio César

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulae are infrequent lesions. Their cardinal signs have been related to mass effect and hemorrhage, but their clinical manifestations due to venous retrograde flow into ophthalmic veins has never been described. This phenomenon is usually seen in dural arteriovenous fistula draining to the cavernous sinus or carotid-cavernous sinus fistula.A traumatic intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula arising from the supraclinoid internal carotid artery in a young patient was revealed by aggressive behavior and ophthalmologic manifestations. The endovascular management included the use of coils, stent, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol with transient balloon occlusion of the parent vessel.

  3. Treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by deep orbital puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, G. [Neuroangiography, Department of Radiology, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin (Germany); Bender, A. [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin (Germany); Campi, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hospital San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Menneking, H. [Dept. of Maxillofacial Surgery, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin (Germany); Lanksch, W.R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13 353 Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    In a patient with progressive ophthalmological problems, including uncontrolled intraocular pressure related to a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula, urgent intervention may be necessary to prevent permanent visual loss. We report a case in which inadequate transarterial embolisation and lack of access for transvenous catheterisation, including a direct approach through the superior ophthalmic vein, preceded percutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein deep within the orbit, permitting venous occlusion without complications. This case demonstrates that deep orbital puncture of the vein is feasible for occlusion of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula. (orig.)

  4. [A case of primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma extending from the orbital rim to the sphenoid wing: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaka, Yasufumi; Otani, Naoki; Nishida, Sho; Kumagai, Kohsuke; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomiyama, Arata; Tomura, Satoshi; Osada, Hideo; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2014-11-01

    A primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma located at the sphenoid bone with extensive involvement of the orbital roof and the lateral wall of the orbit is very rare. A 48-year-old woman presented with progressive right exophthalmos and diplopia. CT showed a bony mass lesion in the right sphenoid bone extending to the orbital bone. MRI showed an abnormal lesion in the sphenoid bone, which was heterogeneously enhanced with gadolinium. All of the abnormal bone was surgically removed, and histological examination confirmed a cavernous angioma. We also present a brief clinical and radiological review of seven previously reported cases.

  5. Waste inventory and preliminary source term model for the Greater Confinement Disposal site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Bernard, E.A.

    1991-12-01

    Currently, there are several Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for the Nevada Test Site. These are intermediate-depth boreholes used for the disposal of special case wastes, that is, radioactive waste within the Department of Energy complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. A performance assessment is needed to evaluate the safety of the GCD site, and to examine the feasibility of the GCD disposal concept as a disposal solution for special case wastes in general. This report documents the effort in defining all the waste inventory presently disposed of at the GCD site, and the inventory and release model to be used in a performance assessment for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR 191.

  6. Sixty-four-slice computed tomography in surgical strategy of portal vein cavernous transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Man Zhang; Cong-Lun Pu; Ying-Cun Li; Chun-Bao Guo

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of 64-slice computed tomography (CT) in portal vein cavernous transformation to determine surgical strategy.METHODS:The site of lesions and extent of collateral circulation in 12 pediatric cases of cavernous transformation of the portal vein with surgical treatment were analyzed.RESULTS:Eleven of 12 children had esophageal vari-ces and were treated with lower esophageal and gastric devascularization and splenectomy,and the other case was only treated with splenectomy.There were eight cases with spontaneous spleen/stomach-renal shunt,four with Retzius vein opening,which was reserved during surgery.Three cases of lesions involving the intrahepatic portal vein (PV) were treated with livingdonor liver transplantation.One patient died from PV thrombosis after liver transplantation,and the rest had no significant complications.CONCLUSION:The PV,its branches and collateral circulation were clearly seen by 64-slice spiral CT angi-ography,which helped with preoperative surgical planning.

  7. Blunt abdominal injury with rupture of giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma and laceration of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lung-Yun; Huang, Fong-Dee; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn

    2015-02-01

    A 41-year-old woman with blunt abdominal trauma due to a motor vehicle accident presented to our emergency department. The patient had a history of a giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma. Emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed for suspected intra-abdominal bleeding with abdominal compartment syndrome, and more than 4 liters of blood and blood clots were removed. An active bleeding laceration (5 cm) of a hepatic cavernous hemangioma was detected in segment III of the liver. The bleeding was controlled by sutures, Teflon patches and tamponade. The abdomen was closed temporarily using the vacuum-assisted method. Because of the presence of persistent fresh blood through abdominal drainage at a rate of >1 L/h, splenectomy was performed to control the bleeding again by sutures and Teflon patches. Finally, the abdomen was closed using a biologic mesh. The patient was discharged home 30 days after trauma. Bleeding of trauma-caused hepatic hemangioma is rare, but splenic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma is common. An in-depth investigation is necessary to avoid second intervention.

  8. TIPS Placement via Combined Transjugular and Transhepatic Approach for Cavernous Portal Vein Occlusion: Targeted Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanel Jourabchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We report a novel technique which aided recanalization of an occluded portal vein for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS creation in a patient with symptomatic portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. Some have previously considered cavernous transformation a contraindication to TIPS. Case Presentation. 62-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, portal hypertension and recurrent variceal bleeding presents with melena and hematemesis. The patient was severely anemic, hemodynamically unstable, and required emergent portal decompression. Attempts to recanalize the main portal vein using traditional transjugular access were unsuccessful. After percutaneous transhepatic right portal vein access and navigation of a wire through the occluded main portal vein, an angioplasty balloon was inflated at the desired site of shunt takeoff. The balloon was targeted and punctured from the transjugular approach, and a wire was passed into the portal system. TIPS placement then proceeded routinely. Conclusion. Although occlusion of the portal vein increases difficulty of performing TIPS, it should not be considered an absolute contraindication. We have described a method for recanalizing an occluded portal vein using a combined transhepatic and transjugular approach for TIPS. This approach may be useful to relieve portal hypertension in patients who fail endoscopic and/or surgical therapies.

  9. Apparent glacially induced structural controls on limestone conduit development in Ohio Caverns, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne M. Watts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock discontinuities such as bedding planes and joints are important controls on the form that caves take. We examined structural controls on the development of Ohio Caverns. The cave formed in Devonian limestone underlying a small bedrock knob (Mt. Tabor within the Interior Lowland province, United States. The area has been overridden by continental glaciation multiple times. The bedrock is pervasively fractured, with many curved and wavy near-vertical fractures showing many different orientations. In the case of Ohio Caverns, it appears that the controlling fractures in map view may not be joints sensu stricto, but rather some combination of tensile and shear (mode-1 and mode-2 fractures, probably forming in the regime transition between tensile and shear fracturing. This is easy to envision in a situation with ice advancing over this topographic high, and would result in the curved fractures that are observed in many places in the cave. It can also explain the numerous fracture directions. However, not all fractures are conduit-significant. The cave initiated on or near a single bedding plane, and the cave passages exhibit strong keyhole or plus-sign cross sections. Passage and fracture orientations are inconsistent with regionally expected directions. It is likely that mechanical, hydraulic, and thermal stresses related to glaciation caused the fracturing in Mt. Tabor. The cave then developed on this template according to local hydrologic conditions. This presents a newly documented structural template sub-type for cave development.

  10. Cavernous angioma of the cauda equina: case report Angioma cavernoso de cauda equina: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of cavernous angioma of the cauda equina and review the eleven cases available in the literature. A 44-year-old woman presented with low back pain and sciatica associated with bowel and bladder dysfunction and motor weakness of the lower extremity. The MRI revealed an enhancing, heterogeneous and hyperintense intradural lesion compressing the cauda equina roots at the L4 level. Laminectomy at L3-L4 and total removal of the tumor were performed without additional neurological deficit. Pathology revealed a cavernous angioma. The literature, clinical presentation, technical examinations, and treatment are reviewed.Relatamos um caso de angioma cavernoso de cauda equina em mulher de 44 anos de idade com sintomas de lombociatalgia associada a fraqueza de membros inferiores e disfunção esfincteriana vesical e anal. Exame de ressonância magnética evidenciou lesão expansiva intradural heterogênea e hiperintensa na cauda eqüina. Indicado tratamento cirúrgico com remoção completa através de laminectomia L3 e L4. O exame anatomopatológico foi compatível com angioma cavernoso. Os onze casos encontrados na literatura são revisados correlacionando a apresentação clínica, tratamento proposto e prognóstico.

  11. Visits to the ATLAS cavern - A record of 20000 visitors in 2006!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessandra Ciocio

    The year 2006 closed with the impressive record of just under 20000 visitors to the ATLAS cavern. These visitors come from all walks of life - people within ATLAS, groups from other CERN divisions, retired CERN staff, school groups both from the local area and from far away, companies looking for something different as a special outing, celebrities (Cirque du Soleil, Black Eyed Peas hip-hop group) passing through Geneva who had read Angels and Demons, a stream of VIP visitors and now, more and more, Press visitors. There have been public visits in the ATLAS cavern since the middle of 2003. At that time a lot of the visitors were guided by Bernard Lebegue and Francois Butin. The total number of visits in 2003 was 2220 people. Not bad for just two guides! Over the following three years demand for visits increased to such an extent that the ATLAS Visits Service was created and is now run very successfully under the supervision of Connie Potter in the ATLAS Secretariat in close collaboration with the ever-helpfu...

  12. Acute Cavernous Sinus Syndrome from Metastasis of Lung Cancer to Sphenoid Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Zelenak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous sinus syndrome is a rare entity in oncology reported only in occasional case reports. Optimal therapy is thus poorly defined with rapidly progressive disease dominating the picture. Management includes prompt diagnosis, attempts at stabilization of cranial nerve function, and aggressive control of central pain syndrome. Here, we report cavernous sinus syndrome secondary to the original squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. With common presenting causes of this syndrome being infection, thrombosis or tumor, it might seem that metastatic tumor would be expected in a patient with a cancer diagnosis. What was not so expected was the extremely rapid progression from mild headache and mild trigeminal neuralgia with negative-contrast head CT to a massive, destructive lesion involving several skull bones and skull base, only 3 weeks later. In addition, the patient was severely immunosuppressed at the completion of induction chemotherapy. Infectious processes, although unlikely, were considered, as aggressive cancer therapy (including high-dose steroids and radiation therapy had no impact on this disease. Despite accurate localization, the aggressive nature of this disease with massive bone destruction and dural thickening limited any chance of a durable control. We discuss the process of evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of symptoms and the importance of a team approach to best palliate these unfortunate patients.

  13. Shunt for bypass graft of the cavernous carotid artery: an anatomical and technical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Mefty, O; Khalil, N; Elwany, M N; Smith, R R

    1990-11-01

    During direct surgery of neoplastic and vascular lesions of the cavernous sinus, the intracavernous carotid artery may be injured beyond repair, or its total isolation may be necessary for surgical management of these lesions. The newly developed procedure of a saphenous vein graft bypass of the cavernous carotid artery allows re-establishment of carotid circulation. Patients with poor collateral circulation are at high risk for ischemic complications induced by the prolonged temporary occlusion required to perform the bypass graft. Optimal management of these patients is to perform the venous bypass graft for permanent vascularization while maintaining carotid cerebral circulation through an intraoperative shunt. We studied this procedure in cadavers, and three shunt types were evaluated: the external intrapetrous-supraclinoid shunt (Type A), the internal intrapetrous-supraclinoid shunt (Type B), and the neck internal carotid-supraclinoid shunt (Type C). Anatomical landmarks, techniques, distances, caliber, and materials used are presented. The rationale and candidates for such a procedure are discussed. The specifications of an optimal balloon shunt are presented, and the three procedures are compared.

  14. A retrospective review of cases preoperatively diagnosed by radiologic imaging as cavernous venous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Anupam; Cohen, Liza M; Lissner, Gary S; Karagianis, Achilles G

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study is to examine orbital lesions identified on preoperative radiologic imaging as cavernous venous malformations (CVMs), identify their imaging characteristics, and determine if these may help differentiate CVMs from other intraorbital masses. An IRB-approved retrospective chart review over 30 years was undertaken identifying lesions "consistent with cavernous hemangioma" on radiologic studies, which were subsequently surgically resected with a tissue diagnosis. All radiologic images (CT and MRI) obtained preoperatively were re-reviewed by a single masked neuroradiologist. The pattern of contrast enhancement on sequential MRI views was used to determine whether the enhancing characteristics helped identify CVMs compared to other intraorbital masses. Fifty-seven orbital lesions consistent with a CVM were identified on imaging. Fourteen (25%) of them were resected, of which nine (64%) were found to be CVMs on pathologic examination. Five (36%) were found to be a different lesion, most commonly schwannoma (21%). On imaging, CVMs tended to display heterogeneous progressive enhancement, whereas other tumors, in particular schwannomas, enhanced at their maximum level immediately. Based on these characteristics, on re-review, the masked neuroradiologist was able to differentiate a CVM versus other tumors for all 14 imaging cases. This study suggests that examining the pattern of contrast enhancement may help to correctly differentiate a CVM from other isolated, encapsulated orbital lesions on CT/MR imaging.

  15. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  16. Justification Of The Use Of Boreholes For Disposal Of Sealed Radiological Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Soon there will be only 14 states in two compacts that are able to dispose of Low Level Waste (LLW): the Northwest and Rocky Mountain compact with disposal options in Richland, Washington, and the Atlantic compact with disposal options in Barnwell, South Carolina. How do states not in one of the two compacts dispose of their LLW? The Off-Site Source Recovery Project can take possession and dispose of some of the unwanted transuranic sources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, there will be no path forward for states outside of the two compacts for disposal of their non-transuranic LLW. A solution that has been much discussed, debated and researched, but has not been put into wide scale practice, is the borehole disposal concept. It is the author's position that companies that drill and explore for oil have been disposing of sources in borehole-like structures for years. It should be noted that these companies are not purposely disposing of these sources, but the sources are irretrievable and must be abandoned. Additionally, there are Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations that must be followed to seal the well that contains the lost and abandoned source. According to the NRC Event Notification Reports database, there were a minimum of 29 reports of lost and abandoned sources in oil wells between December 1999 and October 2006. The sources were lost at depths between 2,018-18,887 feet, or 600-5,750 meters. The companies that are performing explorations with the aid of sealed radiological sources must follow regulation 10 CFR Part 39. Subsection 15 outlines the procedures that must be followed if sources are determined to be irretrievable and abandoned in place. If the NRC allows and has regulations in place for oil companies, why can't states and/or companies be allowed to dispose of LLW in a similar fashion?

  17. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, D

    2000-07-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation.

  18. Vascular lesions of the lumbar epidural space: magnetic resonance imaging features of epidural cavernous hemangioma and epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Júnior Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic features in two cases with respectively lumbar epidural hematoma and cavernous hemangioma of the lumbar epidural space. Enhanced MRI T1-weighted scans show a hyperintense signal rim surrounding the vascular lesion. Non-enhanced T2-weighted scans showed hyperintense signal.

  19. Prognostic analysis and complications of traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas after treatment with detachable balloon and/or coil embolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振九; 李宏伟; 吴良贵; 郑俊宁; 张佳栋; 史锡文; 楚功仁

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To explore the causes of the formation of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulas and the therapeutic effect of detachable balloon and/or coil embolization and the prevention of its complications.Methods: From October, 1992 to March, 2002, 17patients with traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulas were treated with detachable balloon and/or coil embolization in our hospital. The clinical data and imaging features of CT, MR and selective angiogram of these patients were analyzed.Results: One week after treatment with embolization, the clinical symptoms of the 17 patients were remitted, and optic cacophony, nystagmus, exophthalmos and dropsy of conjunctiva disappeared. Two patientsmanifested surgical complications, one patient died. Sixteen patients survived. They were all followed up for more than 2 years, which showed one patient had handicap in movement, and in one patient the signs and symptoms of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulas reoccurred 2 months after treatment.Conclusions: The detachable balloon and/or coil embolization is safe and reliable. It is a good method to treat traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulas.

  20. Tailored keyhole surgery for basal ganglia cavernous malformation with preoperative three-dimensional pyramidal tracts assessment and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Quan; Geng Xu; Fan Zhao; Wei Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Accurately mapping the pyramidal tracts preoperatively and intraoperatively is the primary concern when operating on cavernous malformations (CMS) in the basal ganglia.We have conducted new methods for preoperative planning and have tailored lesion resection to prevent the damage of pyramidal tracts.Patients and methods:Eleven patients harboring cavernous malformations in basal ganglia were treated surgically from April 2008 to January 2015.Surgical planning was based on three-dimensional diffusion tensor pyramidal tractography and Virtual Reality system.Intraoperative detecting of pyramidal tracts with subcortical stimulation mapping and motor evoked potential monitoring were performed.The extent of resection and postoperative neurological function were assessed in each case.Results:Total removal of the cavernous malformations were achieved in each case.Four of the total eleven cases presented temporary neurological deficits,including one occurrence of hemiparesis and three occurrences of hemianesthesia.No permanent neurological deficit was developed in this series of cases.Conclusion:Three-dimensional diffusion tensor pyramidal tractography is quite helpful for preoperative planning of basal ganglia cavernous malformations,especially in choosing a suitable surgical approach.Intraoperative detection of pyramidal tracts with subcortical stimulation mapping and motor evoked potential monitoring play important roles in preventing damage to pyramidal tracts during lesion resection.

  1. Stability analysis and determination of rock pillar between two adjacent caverns in different regions of Asmari formation in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdollahipour Abolfazl a; ⇑; Ghannadshirazi Hossein b

    2014-01-01

    Large underground caverns are commonly used in variety of applications. In many cases, because of the geomechanical limitations of dimensions and requirement of high volume, several parallel caverns are used. Plastic zone integration requires a larger rock pillar distance of theses adjacent caverns while eco-nomic and access reasons require smaller distance. In Iran many underground projects are located in West and South West. Asmari formation covers a large part of these regions. The stability of underground spaces that are constructed or will be constructed in this formation has been investigated. A proper cross section based on plastic analysis and a stability criterion has been proposed for each region. Finally, in each case, allowable rock pillar between adjacent caverns with similar dimension was determined with two methods (numerical analysis and fire service law). Results show that Fire Service Law uses a very con-servative safety factor and it was proposed to use a correction factor for allowable distance based on application of underground space.

  2. The Effect of Audio Tours on Learning and Social Interaction: An Evaluation at Carlsbad Caverns National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novey, Levi T.; Hall, Troy E.

    2007-01-01

    Auditory forms of nonpersonal communication have rarely been evaluated in informal settings like parks and museums. This study evaluated the effect of an interpretive audio tour on visitor knowledge and social behavior at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. A cross-sectional pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design compared the responses of audio…

  3. Relaxation of rabbit cavernous smooth muscle to 17β-estradiol: a non-genomic, NO-independent mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sae-ChulKim; Kyung-KunSeo; Soon-ChulMyung; MooYeolLee

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether estrogen was involved in relaxation of rabbit cavernous smooth muscle.Methods: Relaxation response of the rabbit cavernous smooth muscles to 17β-estradiol (0.3, 3, 30 and 300 nmol/L) were observed in vitro. The response of the muscle strips to estrogen after incubation with either actinomycin D (10μmol/L) or L-NAME (10μmol/L) were also evaluated. Inside-out mode of patch clamp in a single smooth muscle cell was applied to investigate the Maxi-K channel activities. Results: Estrogen caused a dose-dependent relaxation of the strips precontracted with norepinephrine. The maximal response was noted about 10 minutes after treatment. Theestrogen-induced relaxation was prevented by neither actinomycin D nor L-NAME, suggesting that the response was not mediated by gene transcription or nitric oxide (NO). Application of 17β-estradiol increased the Maxi-K channelactivities. Conclusion: 17β-estradiol may be involved in relaxation of rabbit cavernous smooth muscles via a nongenomic and NO independent mechanism. 17β-estradiol stimulates Maxi-K channel of the rabbit cavernous myocyte.

  4. Two cystic cavernous angiomas after radiotherapy for atypical meningioma in adult woman : case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Andrea Gennaro; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Pichierri, Angelo; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A correlation between radiation therapy and cavernoma has been suspected since 1994. Since then, only a few cases of radio-induced cavernomas have been reported in the literature (85 patients). Most of them were children, and the most frequent original tumour had been medulloblastoma. The authors report a case of two cystic cavernous angiomas after radiation therapy for atypical meningioma in adult woman. This is the first case of cavernous angioma after radiotherapy for low grade meningioma. A 39-year-old, Latin american woman was operated on for a frontal atypical meningioma with intradiploic component and adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered (6000 cGy local brain irradiation, fractionated over 6 weeks). Follow-up MR imaging showed no recurrences of the tumour and no other lesions. Ten years later, at the age of 49, she consulted for progressive drug-resistant headache. MR imaging revealed two new well defined areas of different signal intensity at the surface of each frontal pole. Both lesions were surgically removed; the histopathological diagnosis was cavernous angioma. This is the first case of cavernous angioma after radiation therapy for atypical meningioma : it confirms the development of these lesions after standard radiation therapy also in patients previously affected by non-malignant tumours.

  5. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Technical research and development in the period 1993-1996; Kaeytetyn polttoaineen loppusijoitus Suomen kallioperaeaen. Tekniikkatutkimukset vuosina 1993-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Planning activity relating to the disposal of spent fuel from the Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) nuclear power plants in Finland is targeted at selection of the site for final disposal in the year 2000, with final disposal actually beginning in 2020. The report describes the research and development work carried out in the years 1993-1996, the current revised concept for final disposal technology and the research and development programme for the period 1997-2000. (refs.).

  6. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-20

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  7. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  8. Feasibility report on alternative methods for cooling cavern oils at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Bruce L.; Lord, David L.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2005-06-01

    Oil caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are subjected to geothermal heating from the surrounding domal salt. This process raises the temperature of the crude oil from around 75 F upon delivery to SPR to as high as 130 F after decades of storage. While this temperature regime is adequate for long-term storage, it poses challenges for offsite delivery, with warm oil evolving gases that pose handling and safety problems. SPR installed high-capacity oil coolers in the mid-1990's to mitigate the emissions problem by lowering the oil delivery temperature. These heat exchanger units use incoming raw water as the cooling fluid, and operate only during a drawdown event where incoming water displaces the outgoing oil. The design criteria for the heat exchangers are to deliver oil at 100 F or less under all drawdown conditions. Increasing crude oil vapor pressures due in part to methane intrusion in the caverns is threatening to produce sufficient emissions at or near 100 F to cause the cooled oil to violate delivery requirements. This impending problem has initiated discussion and analysis of alternative cooling methods to bring the oil temperature even lower than the original design basis of 100 F. For the study described in this report, two alternative cooling methods were explored: (1) cooling during a limited drawdown, and (2) cooling during a degas operation. Both methods employ the heat exchangers currently in place, and do not require extra equipment. An analysis was run using two heat transfer models, HEATEX, and CaveMan, both developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For cooling during a limited drawdown, the cooling water flowrate through the coolers was varied from 1:1 water:oil to about 3:1, with an increased cooling capacity of about 3-7 F for the test cavern Bryan Mound 108 depending upon seasonal temperature effects. For cooling in conjunction with a degas operation in the winter, cavern oil temperatures for the test cavern Big Hill 102

  9. Mechanical performance of disposable surgical needle holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, E H; Towler, M A; Moody, F P; McGregor, W; Himel, H N; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    The mechanical performance of disposable Webster surgical needle holders supplied by three different surgical instrument companies was determined by recording the forces (clamping moment) applied by the different needle holder jaws to curved surgical needles. This investigation demonstrated that there was a large variability in the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holders supplied by each surgical instrument company. In addition, the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holder of each surgical instrument company was distinctly different.

  10. Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The options, reference definitions and/or requirements currently envisioned for the total nuclear waste disposal in space mission are summarized. The waste form evaluation and selection process is documented along with the physical characteristics of the iron nickel-base cermet matrix chosen for disposal of commercial and defense wastes. Safety aspects of radioisotope thermal generators, the general purpose heat source, and the Lewis Research Center concept for space disposal are assessed as well as the on-pad catastrophic accident environments for the uprated space shuttle and the heavy lift launch vehicle. The radionuclides that contribute most to long-term risk of terrestrial disposal were determined and the effects of resuspension of fallout particles from an accidental release of waste material were studied. Health effects are considered. Payload breakup and rescue technology are discussed as well as expected requirements for licensing, supporting research and technology, and safety testing.

  11. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  12. Hemangioma cavernoso intramedular: relato de caso Spinal cord intramedullary cavernous haemangioma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Colonetti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma cavernoso intramedular é anomalia vascular de baixo fluxo, curável através de ressecção cirúrgica. Entretanto, se não forem instituídos o diagnóstico precoce e a terapêutica adequada, pode levar à graves sequelas neurológicas. É extremamente raro a ocorrência de um angioma cavernoso intramedular. É relatado o caso de uma paciente de 33 anos, com um angioma cavernoso intramedular no nível de T6 - T7, que apresentava quadro clínico de compressão medular lenta e progressiva, com piora recente importante. A ressonância magnética da coluna torácica demonstrou, entre a sexta e a sétima vértebras dorsais, lesão expansiva intramedular que se apresentava hipointensa em T1 e discretamente hiperintensa em T2, com pequeno halo hipointenso à sua volta nas duas sequências. A paciente foi submetida a tratamento cirúrgico tardio e não apresentou recuperação neurológica. Os achados clínicos, de imagem e a importância de instituir precocemente o tratamento adequado são analisados e discutidos.The intramedullary cavernous haemangioma is a low flow vascular anomaly curable through surgical resection, howewer if the precocious diagnosis and the appropriate therapeutics are not done it can cause serious neurological sequels.It is extremely rare the occurrence of intramedullary cavernous haemangioma. We report the case of a 33 year-old woman patient with an intramedullary cavernous angioma at T6-T7, that presented a clinical picture of slow and progressive spinal cord compression , with an important recent worsening.The magnetic resonance of the thoracic column demonstrated a T6 - T7 a intramedullary expansive lesion wich presented hypointense on T1 and discretely hyperintense on T2 with a small hypointense area in the two sequences.The patient was submitted to late surgical treatment and did not presented neurological recovery. The clinical and imagelogy pictures, and the importance of instituing precociously the

  13. Stability and support issues in the construction of large span caverns for physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughton, C.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    New physics experiments, proposed to study neutrinos and protons, call for the use of large underground particle detectors. In the United States, such detectors would be housed in the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), sited within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Although the experimental proposals differ in detail, all rely heavily upon the ability of the mined and reinforced rock mass to serve as a stable host for the detector facilities. Experimental proposals, based on the use of Water Cherenkov detector technology, specify rock caverns with excavated volumes in excess of half a million cubic meters, spans of at least 50 m, sited at depths of approximately one to 1.5 kilometers. Although perhaps sited at shallower depth, proposals based on the use of Liquid Argon (LAr) detector technology are no less challenging. LAr proposals not only call for the excavation of large span caverns, but have an additional need for the safe management of large quantities (kilo-tonnes) of cryogenic liquid, including critical provisions for the fail-safe egress of underground personnel and the reliable exhaust of Argon gas in the event of a catastrophic release. These multi-year, high value physics experiments will provide the key experimental data needed to support the research of a new generation of physicists as they probe the behavior of basic particles and the fundamental laws of nature. The rock engineer must deliver caverns that will reliably meet operational requirements and remain stable for periods conservatively estimated to be in excess of twenty years. This paper provides an overview of the DUSEL site conditions and discusses key end-user requirements and design criteria likely to dominate in determining the viability of experimental options. The paper stresses the paramount importance of collecting adequate site-specific data to inform early siting, dimensioning and layout decisions. Given the large-scale of the

  14. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: Granite. Tome evolution phenomenologique du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  15. NEP processing, operations, and disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Mike

    Several recent studies by ASAO/NPO staff members at LeRC and by other organizations have highlighted the potential benefits of using Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) as the primary transportation means for some of the proposed missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. These include the potential to reduce initial mass in orbit and Mars transit time. Modular NEP configurations also introduce fully redundant main propulsion to Mars flight systems adding several abort or fall back options not otherwise available. Recent studies have also identified mission operations, such as on orbital assembly, refurbishment, and reactor disposal, as important discriminators for propulsion system evaluation. This study is intended to identify and assess 'end-to-end' operational issues associated with using NEP for transporting crews and cargo between Earth and Mars. We also include some consideration of lunar cargo transfer as well.

  16. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  17. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  18. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fascitelli, D. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al. 2011a; Lichtner and Hammond 2012) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al. 2012; Adams et al. 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  19. Fully printed flexible and disposable wireless cyclic voltammetry tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younsu; Park, Hyejin; Park, Jin-Ah; Noh, Jinsoo; Choi, Yunchang; Jung, Minhoon; Jung, Kyunghwan; Pyo, Myungho; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali; Cho, Gyoujin

    2015-01-29

    A disposable cyclic voltammetry (CV) tag is printed on a plastic film by integrating wireless power transmitter, polarized triangle wave generator, electrochemical cell and signage through a scalable gravure printing method. By proximity of 13.56 MHz RF reader, the printed CV tag generates 320 mHz of triangular sweep wave from +500 mV to -500 mV which enable to scan a printed electrochemical cell in the CV tag. By simply dropping any specimen solution on the electrochemical cell in the CV tag, the presence of solutes in the solution can be detected and shown on the signage of the CV tag in five sec. 10 mM of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was used as a standard solute to prove the working concept of fully printed disposable wireless CV tag. Within five seconds, we can wirelessly diagnose the presence of TMPD in the solution using the CV tag in the proximity of the 13.56 MHz RF reader. This fully printed and wirelessly operated flexible CV tag is the first of its kind and marks the path for the utilization of inexpensive and disposable wireless electrochemical sensor systems for initial diagnose hazardous chemicals and biological molecules to improve public hygiene and health.

  20. Challenges in establishing LLW disposal capacity: Pennsylvania`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, W.P.; Saraka, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    Even though Pennsylvania is host state for the Compact, state implementing legislation was non-existent until early 1988. In February of 1998 Governor Casey signed the Los-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act (Act) into law. The Act incorporates three years of Departmental work and interaction with the legislature, a Public Advisory Committee on Low-Level Waste, many interest groups and the general public. It is a comprehensive Act that: provides the Department with broad powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program; requires development phase; and establishes benefits and guarantees for communities affected by the establishment and operation of a low-level waste site. The Department considers that its powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program begins with interpreting the provisions established by the Act. Interpretation will establish how the Department intends to implement its authority. The Department is communicating interpretations through various methods such as regulation, policy, and written or verbal guidance. Interpretations typically require a mix of technical, policy, and social solutions to clarify concepts established by law. This paper identifies select items established by law that require technical solutions. Its purpose is to share some creative approaches for solving unmanageable legislature requirements.

  1. Simulations of argon accident scenarios in the ATLAS experimental cavern a safety analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balda, F

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristic accidents in the ATLAS experimental cavern (UX15) are simulated by means of STAR-CD, a code using the "Finite-Volume" method. These accidents involve different liquid argon leaks from the barrel cryostat of the detector, thus causing the dispersion of the argon into the Muon Chamber region and the evaporation of the liquid. The subsequent temperature gradients and distribution of argon concentrations, as well as their evolution in time are simulated and discussed, with the purpose of analysing the dangers related to asphyxiation and to contact with cryogenic fluids for the working personnel. A summary of the theory that stands behind the code is also given. In order to validate the models, an experimental test on a liquid argon spill performed earlier is simulated, showing that the program is able to output reliable results. At the end, some safety-related recommendations are listed.

  2. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-02-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure.

  3. [Cranio-orbital zygomatic extradural approach for cavernous sinus or Meckel's cave tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, T; Mukawa, J; Mekaru, S; Koga, H

    1996-06-01

    Direct surgery to cavernous sinus (CS) lesions has become one of the optimal treatments based on advancement in microsurgical anatomy and imaging modality, and the progress of microsurgical techniques. We have removed the CS or Meckel's cave tumors extradurally when they do not extend intradurally, using modified Al-Mefty's cranio-orbital zygomatic craniotomy. Three CS tumors; trigeminal neurofibroma, squamous cell carcinoma and chondrosarcoma, and a Meckel's cave meningioma were reported. Total removal was achieved in all but one (case 4). Postoperative complications were permanent ophthalmoplegia in one, transient ophthalmoplegia in one, subcutaneous CSF accumulation in two and trigeminal dysfunction in one. The extradural approach can be the first choice of methods for total removal of tumors when they are confined to the CS or Meckel's cave.

  4. Immune complex formation and in situ B-cell clonal expansion in human cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changbin; Shenkar, Robert; Kinloch, Andrew; Henderson, Scott G; Shaaya, Mark; Chong, Anita S; Clark, Marcus R; Awad, Issam A

    2014-07-15

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) represent clusters of dilated vascular channels, predisposing to hemorrhagic stroke and seizures. They are associated with defective blood brain barrier, hemorrhages of different ages and a robust inflammatory cell infiltrate. We report for the first time evidence of co-localized IgG and complement membrane attack complexes in CCM lesions. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells are aggregated with CD20(+) B-cells. And IgG repertoire analyses demonstrate in situ B-cell clonal expansion and antigen-driven affinity maturation in CCMs. These results suggest an organ-intrinsic adaptive immune response in CCMs that should be further characterized as a potential therapeutic target.

  5. [The impact of endovascular intervention on visual functions in patients with traumatic carotid-cavernous anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhova, I P

    1997-01-01

    In 217 patients with traumatic carotid-cavernous anastomosis (TCCA) the visual functions investigation before and after endovascular intervention conduction for the anastomosis exclusion was done. Cessation of the noise in the head synchronous with a pulse, decrease of disappearance of an exophthalmus of an eye or superior optical vein pulsation, of congestional appearance in the orbit, were the signs of the complete anastomosis exclusion. Rehabilitation or increase of visual acuity, improvement of an eye fundus ophthalmological picture, vascular index normalization were noted during deep ophthalmological investigation. Decrease of the blind spot parameters was an objective index of the visual functions rehabilitation, witnessing the disappearance of optical nerve disc (OND) oedema, contrast frequential characteristics normalization, critical frequency of light flashings radiance (CFLFR) rise, decrease of a papillary cycle time (PCT). Studying of the parameters mentioned have special significance for the estimation of postoperative conservative therapy efficiency.

  6. Therapeutic embolization of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas via transvenous approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凯; 罗祺; 陈强; 王宏磊; 罗毅男; 王长坤

    2003-01-01

    Objective To describe the transvenous catheterization technique for the treatment of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CSdAVFs), including its indications, complications and efficacy.Methods Eight patients with symptomatic CSdAVFs were treated by endovascular embolization with platinum coils, via the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) in 6 patients, and via the Sylvian vein after surgical exposure in other 2 patients.Results Complete angiographic resolution of the fistula was obtained in six patients immediately after the procedures, and a complete resolution of symptoms and signs was achieved in all patients. The residual fistulas in two patients disappeared completely in the follow-up angiography.Conclusion Transvenous embolization is a useful and safe approach in the management of CSdAVFs.

  7. A locus for cerebral cavernous malformations maps to chromosome 7q in two families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, D.A.; Gallione, C.J. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morrison, L.A.; Davis, L.E.; Clericuzio, C.L. [Univ. of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-20

    Cavernous malformations (angiomas) affecting the central nervous system and retina can be inherited in autosomal dominant pattern (OMIM 116860). These vascular lesions may remain clinically silent or lead to a number of neurological symptoms including seizure, intracranial hemorrhage, focal neurological deficit, and migraine. We have mapped a gene for this disorder in two families, one of Italian-American origin and one of Mexican-American origin, to markers on proximal 7q, with a combined maximum lod score of 3.92 ({theta} of zero) with marker D7S479. Haplotype analysis of these families places the locus between markers D7S502 proximally and D7S515 distally, an interval of approximately 41 cM. The location distinguishes this disorder from an autosomal dominant vascular malformation syndrome where lesions are primarily cutaneous and that maps to 9p21. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  9. Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov., isolated from fresh water of a brook in a cavern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Svec, Pavel; Saavedra, Ma José; Figueras, Ma José; Sedlacek, Ivo

    2013-02-01

    Aeromonas P2973 was isolated from the water of a brook in a cavern in the Czech Republic. This isolate could not be biochemically identified at the species level, considering all updated species descriptions. Subsequent extensive phenotypic characterisation, DNA-DNA hybridisation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis (MLPA) of the concatenated sequence of 7 housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX and atpD; 4705 bp) was employed in an attempt to ascertain the taxonomy of this isolate. Based on this polyphasic approach, we describe a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CCM7641(T) (DSM24474(T), CECT7862(T)) as the type strain.

  10. Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein Might Increase the Risk of Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bo Ai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV is not quite common in adults, and cases with CTPV and acute liver abscess are lacking. We report a patient with CTPV inducing extrahepatic and intrahepatic obstruction, finally leading to acute liver abscess due to bile duct infection. We aim to find out the possible relationship between CTPV and acute liver abscess. A 45-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital for recurrent upper abdominal pain and distension for one year, aggravated with fever for three years. A diagnosis of CTPV and liver abscess was made by 16-slice computed tomography. Effective antibiotics and drainage were used for this patients, and she was eventually cured. When treating patients with CTPV, extrahepatic and intrahepatic obstruction, one should be aware of the presence of acute liver abscess, and empirical antibiotics might be valuable.

  11. Emerging neuromodulatory molecules for the treatment of neurogenic erectile dysfunction caused by cavernous nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J. Bella; Guiting Lin; Ilias Cagiannos; Tom F. Lue

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have resulted in a heightened clinical interest for the development of protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies for the cavernous nerves (CNs), as therapies for prostate cancer and other pelvic malignancies often result in neuronal damage and debilitating loss of sexual function. Nitric oxide released from the axonal end plates of these nerves within the corpora cavernosa causes relaxation of smooth muscle, initiating the haemodynamic changes of penile erection as well as contributing to maintained tumescence; the loss of CN function is primarily responsible for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED) after pelvic surgery and serves as the primary target for potential neuroprotective or regenerative strategies. Evidence from pre-clinical studies for select neuromodulatory approaches is reviewed, including neurotrophins, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors (GDNF), bone morphogenic proteins, immunophilin ligands,erythropoetin (EPO), and stem cells.

  12. CNS cavernous haemangioma: 'popcorn' in the brain and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, A.N. [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute (Singapore); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital (Singapore); Mohan, S. [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute (Singapore); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (United States); Lim, C.C.T., E-mail: Tchoyoson_lim@nni.com.sg [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute (Singapore); Department of Neurology, Duke NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore)

    2012-04-15

    Cavernous haemangiomas (CH) are relatively uncommon non-shunting vascular malformations of the central nervous system and can present with seizures or with neurological deficits due to haemorrhage. Radiologists can often suggest the diagnosis of CH based on characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, thus avoiding further invasive procedures such as digital subtraction angiography or surgical biopsy. Although typical MRI appearance combined with the presence of multiple focal low signal lesions on T2*-weighted images or the presence of one or more developmental venous anomaly within the brain can improve the diagnostic confidence, serial imaging studies are often required if a solitary CH presents at a time when the imaging appearances had not yet matured to the typical 'popcorn' appearance.

  13. Unilateral facial palsy in an infant: an unusual presentation of familial multiple cerebral cavernous malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) in infants tends to have genetic predisposition. These cavernomas have a progressive course of events and associated neurological symptoms with increase in age. They most commonly present with seizure and syndrome of increased intracranial pressure comprising of headache, vomiting and focal neurological signs. We describe a case of a 7-month-old infant who presented with an acute onset of right facial paralysis with a background of familial CCM. The CT and MRI scan revealed fresh haemorrhage in the right cerebellar and pontine cavernomas with surrounding oedema and no evidence of obstructive hydrocephalus. These two cavernomas re-bled in a week duration causing episodes of incessant crying and irritability. After discussing the pros and cons of treatment, owing to stable clinical status, the patient is currently been managed conservatively.

  14. Transvenous embolization with a combination of detachable coils and Onyx for a complicated cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hong-wei; JIANG Chu-han; WU Zhong-xue; LI You-xiang; LU Xian-li; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Treatment of cavemous dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) is usually made by a transartedal approach.However,in many complicated patients,treatments via transarterial approaches can not be achieved,and only an operation via a transvenous approach is feasible.We aimed to study the feasibility of transarterial embolJzation of cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas with a combination detachable coils and Onyx to embolize a complicated cavemous DAVF via a transvenous approach.Methods From August 2006 to August 2007,six cases of complicated cavernous DAVF were embolized with a combination of detachable coils and Onyx via a transvenous approach.Three cases were male and the other three were female.Their ages ranged from 36 to 69 years old.The fistula was in the right lateral cavernous sinus in one case,in the left lateral cavernous sinus in another,and in the bilateral cavernous sinus in 4 cases.One fistula was fed by the right internal carotid artery and its meningohypophyseal trunk;one was fed by the branches of the left internal carotid artery and left extemal carotid artery;four were fed by the branches of the bilateral internal carotid artery and/or the bilateral external carotid artery.One case was drained via one lateral inferior petrosal sinus;three were drained via bilateral inferior petrosal sinuses;one was drained via one lateral ophthalmic and facial veins;one was drained via the infedor petrosal sinus and the ophthalmic and facial veins.Four were embolized via the inferior petrosal sinus,and two were embolized via the ophthalmic and facial veins.Results Among six cases of complicated cavernous DAVF,four were fully embolized with Onyx by a single operation,and two cases were fully embolized with Onyx following two operations.Transient headache was found after operation in all patients,but was cured after several days by the symptomatic treatments.In one case,the first operation via the inferior petrosal sinus was a failure;the feeding branches of

  15. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  16. 40 CFR 761.60 - Disposal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required by Federal or State regulations. (ii) (2) PCB Capacitors. (i) The disposal of any capacitor shall... that the capacitor does not contain PCBs. (ii) Any person may dispose of PCB Small Capacitors as... section. (iii) Any PCB Large High or Low Voltage Capacitor which contains 500 ppm or greater PCBs,...

  17. Hydrologic implications of solid-water disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joseph

    1970-01-01

    The disposal of more than 1,400 million pounds of solid wastes in the United States each day is a major problem. This disposal in turn often leads to serious health, esthetic, and environmental problems. Among these is the pollution of vital ground-water resources.

  18. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste disposal. 850.32 Section 850.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  19. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  20. Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

    1998-12-31

    Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

  1. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Safety guidelines are presented. Waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication facilities, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, payload primary container/core, radiation shield, reentry systems, launch site facilities, uprooted space shuttle launch vehicle, Earth packing orbits, orbit transfer systems, and space destination are discussed. Disposed concepts and risks are then discussed.

  2. Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenger, V.; Sovinz, P.; Lackner, H.; Dornbusch, H.J.; Moser, A.; Urban, C. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Div. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Lingitz, H. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology; Eder, H.G. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2008-05-15

    Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology. Endocrine dysfunction, neurologic and psychiatric deficits, secondary malignancies and radiation-induced necrosis are well-known possible late effects of cranial irradiation. However, only sporadic cases of radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICH) have been reported so far. Patients and Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent cranial radiation therapy for malignant diseases between January 1980 and December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. After the end of therapy they entered a detailed follow-up program. Results: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively. In patients treated in the first 10 years of life, RICH occurred with shorter latency and significantly more often (p = 0.044) resulting in an even higher cumulative incidence. Conclusion: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy. Particularly children < 10 years of age at the time of irradiation are at higher risk. Since patients with RICH frequently do not show symptoms but hemorrhage is a possible severe complication, imaging of the central nervous system should be performed routinely for longer follow- ups, particularly in patients who were treated as young children. (orig.)

  3. National strategy for disposal of high level waste and spent fuel in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borys Zlobenko; Emlen Sobotovich [IEG NASU, Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy remains the most important component in the fuel energy system of Ukraine. As a result of the previous and ongoing nuclear power programmes, Ukraine accumulates substantial amounts of spent fuel and radioactive wastes. While these wastes will be stored in temporary facilities, it is envisaged that final disposal will take place in a deep geological repository. The Law of Ukraine 'On Radioactive Waste Management' provides for the ultimate disposal of high- and intermediate-level waste in deep geological formations. To solve the problem of radioactive waste disposal in geological repositories, the first-priority tasks are the following: implementation of regulatory and legal framework for managing radioactive waste to be disposed of in deep geological formations, and develop a regulation to govern the general provisions on safe disposal of radioactive waste in geological repositories. The regulation entitled 'General Provisions on Safe Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Geological Repositories' has been developed in compliance with the Comprehensive Programme of Radioactive Waste Management. The regulation establishes basic criteria, requirements and conditions for nuclear and radiation safety to be applied for radioactive waste disposal in stable geological formations (geological repositories) at all life stages of repositories with the purpose of protecting personnel, the public and the environment. The 'Programme on Management of NPP Spent Nuclear Fuel' does not identify measures on treatment of spent nuclear fuel for disposal up to 2010. Ukraine implements the so-called 'deferred decision', which means that the decision on spent fuel disposal or processing is deferred to future when it can be made with greater confidence taking into account relevant worldwide experience and progress of science and industry of the State. The concept and a programme for radioactive waste disposal

  4. Spontaneous carotid cavernous sinus fistulas: Correlation between clinical findings and venous drainage; Fistole carotido-cavernose spontanee: Correlazione tra quadri clinici e drenaggio venoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolari, Ferdinando [Arcispedale S. Anna, Ferrara (Italy). Servizio di Neuroradilogia; Ravalli, Luca [Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Clinica Oculistica

    1997-04-01

    They reviewed retrospectively 6 cases of spontaneous carotid cavernous fistulas to discuss the differences in clinical findings depending on venous patterns. Orbit US was performed in all patients but one and all patients were examined with CT and intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA). CT was performed to demonstrate possible lesions of the orbit apex or skull base and showed dilation of the superior ophthalmic vein in 4 patients, bilateral in only one case. Moreover, CT detected enlargement of the cavernous sinuses in 4 cases (3 unilateral, one bilateral). Dynamic CT, performed in 2 patients, showed early opacification of both cavernous sinuses. DSA was carried out on the basis of clinical data and US and CT findings. It diagnosed carotid cavernous fistulas in all cases. The fistulas were bilateral in 3 subjects. In all the patients with exophthalmos, conjunctival chemosis and dilated episcleral veins, the superior ophthalmic vein was the main venous drainage from the cavernous sinus. Only 4 of these patients had abduction nerve palsy: bruit was present in 2 cases only. The ocular signs were contralateral to the fistula in one patient. In the patient presenting III, IV and VI nerve palsy, the venous drainage was direct from the cavernous sinus to pericarotid plexus, plexus and inferior petrosal sinus; in this case there were no ocular signs. The clinical findings of spontaneous cavernous fistulas are caused by the arterial supply and by the venous drainage of the fistula: for the early diagnosis and treatment is important to know that some patients do not exhibit the classic triad of symptoms, characterized by pulsating bruit and conjunctival chemosis. Their experience has confirmed that spontaneous carotid cavernous fistulas may be characterized by atypical clinical findings, such as ocular signs contralateral to the fistula side or palsies of cranial nerves only.

  5. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  6. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  7. Generic repository design concepts and thermal analysis (FY11).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Dupont, Mark (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Fratoni, Massimiliano (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Greenberg, Harris (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Hardin, Ernest L.; Sutton, Mark A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)

    2011-08-01

    Reference concepts for geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the U.S. are developed, including geologic settings and engineered barriers. Repository thermal analysis is demonstrated for a range of waste types from projected future, advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The results show significant differences among geologic media considered (clay/shale, crystalline rock, salt), and also that waste package size and waste loading must be limited to meet targeted maximum temperature values. In this study, the UFD R&D Campaign has developed a set of reference geologic disposal concepts for a range of waste types that could potentially be generated in advanced nuclear FCs. A disposal concept consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. Mature repository concepts have been developed in other countries for disposal of spent LWR fuel and HLW from reprocessing UNF, and these serve as starting points for developing this set. Additional design details and EBS concepts will be considered as the reference disposal concepts evolve. The waste inventory considered in this study includes: (1) direct disposal of SNF from the LWR fleet, including Gen III+ advanced LWRs being developed through the Nuclear Power 2010 Program, operating in a once-through cycle; (2) waste generated from reprocessing of LWR UOX UNF to recover U and Pu, and subsequent direct disposal of used Pu-MOX fuel (also used in LWRs) in a modified-open cycle; and (3) waste generated by continuous recycling of metal fuel from fast reactors operating in a TRU burner configuration, with additional TRU material input supplied from reprocessing of LWR UOX fuel. The geologic setting provides the natural barriers, and establishes the boundary conditions for performance of engineered barriers. The composition and physical properties of the host medium dictate design and construction approaches, and determine hydrologic and thermal responses of the

  8. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  9. Development of a Universal Canister for Disposal of High-Level Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gomberg, Steve [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The mission of the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Some of the wastes that must be managed have been identified as good candidates for disposal in a deep borehole in crystalline rock. In particular, wastes that can be disposed of in a small package are good candidates for this disposal concept. A canister-based system that can be used for handling these wastes during the disposition process (i.e., storage, transfer, transportation, and disposal) could facilitate the eventual disposal of these wastes. Development of specifications for the universal canister system will consider the regulatory requirements that apply to storage, transportation, and disposal of the capsules, as well as operational requirements and limits that could affect the design of the canister (e.g., deep borehole diameter). In addition, there are risks and technical challenges that need to be recognized and addressed as Universal Canister system specifications are developed. This paper provides an approach to developing specifications for such a canister system that is integrated with the overall efforts of the DOE’s Used Fuel Disposition Campaign's Deep Borehole Field Test and compatible with planned storage of potential borehole-candidate wastes.

  10. Urgent treatment of severe symptomatic direct carotid cavernous fistula caused by ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm using high-flow bypass, proximal ligation, and direct distal clipping: Technical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF secondary to ruptured carotid cavernous aneurysms (CCAs is rare, but patients with this condition who develop acutely worsening and severe neuro-ophthalmic symptoms require urgent treatment. Endovascular methods are the first-line option, but this modality may not be available on an urgent basis. Case Description: In this article, we report a 45-year-old female with severe direct CCF due to rupture of the CCA. She presented with intractable headache and acute worsening of double vision and visual acuity. Emergent radiographic study revealed high-flow fistula tracked from the CCA toward the contralateral cavernous sinus and drained into the engorged left superior orbital vein. To prevent permanent devastating neuro-ophthalmic damages, urgent high-flow bypass with placement of a radial artery graft was performed followed by right cervical internal carotid artery (ICA ligation and the clipping of the ICA at the C3 portion, proximal to the ophthalmic artery. In the immediate postoperative period, her symptoms resolved and angiography confirmed patency of the high-flow bypass and complete occlusion of the CCF. Conclusion: With due consideration of strategy and techniques to secure safety, open surgical intervention with trapping and bypass is a good treatment option for direct severe CCF when the endovascular method is not available, not possible, or is unsuccessful.

  11. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  12. Study of the ventilation at ATLAS cavern UX15 air velocity and temperature around the muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Vigo-Castellví, E

    2000-01-01

    The Muon Chambers of ATLAS detector cannot work under temperature differences between two opposed faces above 3 K. In addition, a low velocity of the air around the Muon Chambers is essential to avoid vibration problems. The CV group at the ST division is involved in an airflow simulation inside UX15 cavern to check air temperature and velocity profiles around the ATLAS Muon Chambers. In this paper, the status and the content of the performed theoretical studies will be explained. Three simulation models, which helped to understand the Muon Spectrometer thermal environment and the efficiency of the ventilation system at ATLAS cavern, will be presented. Besides, it will be shown how these studies support the proposal of a deeper individual Muon Chamber study.

  13. Summary report of first and foreign high-level waste repository concepts; Technical report, working draft 001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, P.M.

    1987-11-04

    Reference repository concepts designs adopted by domestic and foreign waste disposal programs are reviewed. Designs fall into three basic categories: deep borehole from the surface; disposal in boreholes drilled from underground excavations; and disposal in horizontal tunnels or drifts. The repository concepts developed in Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Canada, France, Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Denmark, West Germany and the United States are described. 140 refs., 315 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Disposal of medical waste: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Karen; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2013-09-03

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. The illegal dumping of hazardous waste poses a danger to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection or toxicity, endangering the health of humans who might become exposed to infection and toxins. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation in South Africa. Reports of the illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in regard to the safe disposal of medical waste. 

  15. Transarterial detachable coil embolization combined with ipsilateral intermittent carotid oppression for traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula with small fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Huang; Hongbing Zhang; Gang Wang; Jun Yang; Yanlong Hu; Jianxin Liu

    2015-01-01

    One case of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (TCCF) with small fistula treated by transarterial detachable coil embolization was reported.The intermittent ipsilateral carotid compression was used to identify the final blocking of the residual fistula.The follow-up digital subtraction angiography showed that the TCCF was cured finally, From this case, we conclude that this method may be an effective way to treat TCCF with small fistula.

  16. Rare cavernous lymphangioma of the bladder in an adult female:treatment and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qu; Jinyu Zheng; Yajun Xiao; Yifei Xing; Chuanguo Xiao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Lymphangioma is a benign tumor representing a congenital malformation of the lymphatic channels. The cavernous lymphangioma of the bladder did not report before. Here we report 1 case of cavernous lymphangioma of the bladder in an adult female and review the literature in order to accumulate the experience of diagnosis and treatment for these diseases. Methods: In our case a 50-year-old woman presented with irritative voiding symptoms and had painless macroscopic hematuria at times. Cystoscopy showed a non-papillary tumor at apex vesicae and mucous membrane hyperaemia between the two orifices within the trigone. The pathologic diagnosis was cystitis glandularis with hyperplasia of urothelium and cavernous lymphangioma in lamina propria. Transurethral resection was performed and then bleomycin A5 was injected into lesion multipoint applying ureteral catheter with puncture needle. Results: Two months after operation the irritative voiding symptoms improved and the urine analysis was normal. Cystoscopy showed no residual tumor. Bleomycin A5 was injected into the lesion area again just like the operation before. All symptoms disappeared completely when the patient was examined a month later. There was no side effect after injection and no recurrence during the follow-up of 1 year. Conclusion: Lymphangioma of the bladder can be diagnosed exactly by cystoscopy and pathological examination. Surgery may be the best treatment. The bleomycin A5 intralesional sclerosant is also an effective therapy for the disease after surgical removal.

  17. Principle of gas storage in salt caverns; Principe du stockage de gaz en cavites creusees dans le sel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durup, J.G. [Mining Research Institute, CA (United States)]|[Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-08-15

    The principle of the exploitation of a gas storage cavity is analogue to the one of a cylinder of compressed gas. Such a reservoir has remarkable dimensions with a volume of several thousands of m{sup 3}, a height of few hundred meters and a diameter of about 100 m. The mechanical resistance with respect to the gas pressure is ensured by the 'pre-stress' corresponding to the weight of the geologic strata. Salt (halite) is the ideal material for the digging out of such facilities because of its excellent tightness, its solubility in water (allowing the dissolution digging technique), and its good mechanical resistance. Natural gas storage is in general performed in natural porous and permeable environments, like depleted hydrocarbon fields or aquifers. The storage in salt caverns has the advantage of allowing important emission flow rates with respect to the quantities of immobilized gases. In some Northern Europe countries, like Germany, the salt deposits are well developed and abundant, in particular near the North Sea and its important natural gas fields. In France, there exists 3 gas storage sites in salt caverns, with about 40 cavities as a whole. This document briefly presents the main elements of the gas storage technique in salt caverns: characteristics and geology of salt deposits, geo-technique, wells, dissolution digging, gas injection and exploitation. (J.S.)

  18. Genetically diagnosed Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome and familial cerebral cavernous malformations in the same individual: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, James; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Skytte, Anne-Bine

    2017-01-01

    When faced with an unusual clinical feature in a patient with a Mendelian disorder, the clinician may entertain the possibilities of either the feature representing a novel manifestation of that disorder or the co-existence of a different inherited condition. Here we describe an individual with a submandibular oncocytoma, pulmonary bullae and renal cysts as well as multiple cerebral cavernous malformations and haemangiomas. Genetic investigations revealed constitutional mutations in FLCN, associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) and CCM2, associated with familial cerebral cavernous malformation. Intracranial vascular pathologies (but not cerebral cavernous malformation) have recently been described in a number of individuals with BHD (Kapoor et al. in Fam Cancer 14:595-597, 10.1007/s10689-015-9807-y , 2015) but it is not yet clear whether they represent a genuine part of that conditions' phenotypic spectrum. We suggest that in such instances of potentially novel clinical features, more extensive genetic testing to consider co-existing conditions should be considered where available. The increased use of next generation sequencing applications in diagnostic settings is likely to lead more cases such as this being revealed.

  19. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  20. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  1. DISPOSABLE CANISTER WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2001-07-30

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

  2. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  3. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  4. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  5. Cirurgia estereotáxica guiada para angiomas cavernosos Stereotactic-guided surgery for cavernous angioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURILO S. MENESES

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os angiomas cavernosos intracerebrais são lesões que podem causar hemorragias, crises convulsivas e déficits neurológicos. Essa patologia passou a ter diagnóstico mais precoce com o advento da ressonância magnética. A remoção radical por cirurgia é o melhor método de tratamento. Devido a frequente localização subcortical ou profunda, a utilização de métodos de localização por imagem como a estereotaxia apresentam várias vantagens como: menor incisão de pele, craniotomia e manipulação do tecido cerebral, consequentemente com menor morbidade. Apresentamos uma série de nove angiomas cavernosos tratados por ressecção cirúrgica radical guiada por estereotaxia. Em todos os casos o diagnóstico foi realizado por ressonância magnética e houve confirmação anátomo-patológica. A média de idade dos pacientes foi 30 anos, variando entre 20 e 54 anos. Como morbidade transitória, um paciente teve uma crise convulsiva no 3° dia pós-operatório e uma paciente apresentou disfasia e hemiparesia no 2° dia pós-operatório, com recuperação total na evolução. No total, a remoção foi radical em todos os casos e os pacientes permanecem sem nenhum déficit neurológico relacionado à cirurgia.Intracerebral cavernous angiomas may cause hemorrhage, epileptic seizures and neurological deficits. The diagnosis of these lesions became easier with the advent of the magnetic resonance image (MRI. Radical resection is the treatment of choice. Due to frequent subcortical or deep location, image-guided techniques, such as stereotactic-guided surgery, offer many advantages as smaller skin incision and craniotomy, less brain manipulation with consequently lower morbidity. We present a series of nine cavernous angiomas treated by stereotactic-guided radical surgical resection. The diagnosis was done by MRI and confirmed by pathologic studies in all cases. Mean age of patients was 30 years old (range 20-54 years. Postoperative morbidity

  6. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  7. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  8. Challenges in spent nuclear fuel final disposal:conceptual design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Ahmed RANA

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a long-standing issue in nuclear technology. Mainly, UO2 and metallic U are used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. Spent nuclear fuel contains fission products and transuranium elements, which would remain radioactive for 104 to 108 years. In this brief communication, essential concepts and engineering elements related to high-level nuclear waste disposal are described. Conceptual design models are described and discussed considering the long-time scale activity of spent nuclear fuel or high level waste. Notions of physical and chemical barriers to contain nuclear waste are highlightened. Concerns regarding integrity, self-irradiation induced decomposition and thermal effects of decay heat on the spent nuclear fuel are also discussed. The question of retrievability of spent nuclear fuel after disposal is considered.

  9. U.S. program assessing nuclear waste disposal in space - A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Priest, C. C.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Various concepts for the space disposal of nuclear waste are discussed, with attention given to the destinations now being considered (high earth orbit, lunar orbit, lunar surface, solar orbit, solar system escape, sun). Waste mixes are considered in the context of the 'Purex' (Plutonium and Uranium extraction) process and the potential forms for nuclear waste disposal (ORNL cermet, Boro-silicate glass, Metal matrix, Hot-pressed supercalcine) are described. Preliminary estimates of the energy required and the cost surcharge needed to support the space disposal of nuclear waste are presented (8 metric tons/year, requiring three Shuttle launches). When Purex is employed, the generated electrical energy needed to support the Shuttle launches is shown to be less than 1%, and the projected surcharge to electrical users is shown to be slightly more than two mills/kW-hour.

  10. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  14. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided... qualified bidder after formal advertising and other appropriate public notice; (b) Sale by...

  15. Possible role of the cavernous sinus veins in cerebrospinal fluid absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Lena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption pathways. To achieve this, Microfil (a coloured silastic material was infused into the subarachnoid space (cisterna magna of sheep post mortem, and the relevant tissues examined macroscopically and microscopically. The Microfil was taken up by an extensive network of extracranial lymphatic vessels in the olfactory turbinates. In addition however, Microfil also passed consistently through the dura at the base of the brain. Microfil was noted in the spaces surrounding the venous network that comprises the cavernous sinus, in the adventitia of the internal carotid arteries and adjacent to the pituitary gland. Additionally, Microfil was observed within the endoneurial spaces of the trigeminal nerve and in lymphatic vessels emerging from the epineurium of the nerve. These results suggest several unconventional pathways by which CSF may be removed from the subarachnoid space. The movement of CSF to locations external to the cranium via these routes may lead to its absorption into veins and lymphatics outside of the skull. The physiological importance of these pathways requires further investigation.

  16. Installation of the Liquid Argon Calorimater Barrel in the ATLAS Experimental Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Vandoni, G.

    On the 27th of October, the Liquid Argon Barrel cryostat was transported from Building 180 to point 1. The next day, the Barrel was lowered into the cavern, and was placed on jacks close to its final position inside the completed lower half of the Tile calorimeter. After a day of precise adjustment, it was resting within a few millimetres of its nominal final position, waiting for the upper half of the Tile calorimeter to be installed. Tight requests had been issued by the Liquid Argon collaboration for the whole transport. It was foreseen that the cryostat should not see any acceleration larger than 0.15g along its axis, 0.08g transversally and 0.3g in the vertical direction. In addition, no acceleration higher than 0.03g (or even 0.003g for permanent oscillation) would be allowed at 20Hz, to avoid the risk of damaging the absorbers at this spontaneous vibration frequency. The difficulty would arise when coping these demands with the tortuous route, its slopes and curbs, vibration transmission from the engi...

  17. Stabiliztin of VEGFR2 Signaling by Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 3 is Critical for Vascular Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y He; H Zhang; L Yu; M Gunel; T Boggon; H Chen; W Min

    2011-12-31

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are human vascular malformations caused by mutations in three genes of unknown function: CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3. CCM3, also known as PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10), was initially identified as a messenger RNA whose abundance was induced by apoptotic stimuli in vitro. However, the in vivo function of CCM3 has not been determined. Here, we describe mice with a deletion of the CCM3 gene either ubiquitously or specifically in the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, or neurons. Mice with global or endothelial cell-specific deletion of CCM3 exhibited defects in embryonic angiogenesis and died at an early embryonic stage. CCM3 deletion reduced vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling in embryos and endothelial cells. In response to VEGF stimulation, CCM3 was recruited to and stabilized VEGFR2, and the carboxyl-terminal domain of CCM3 was required for the stabilization of VEGFR2. Indeed, the CCM3 mutants found in human patients lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain were labile and were unable to stabilize and activate VEGFR2. These results demonstrate that CCM3 promotes VEGFR2 signaling during vascular development.

  18. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Quantitative Perfusion in Cerebral Cavernous Angiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikati, Abdul Ghani; Tan, Huan; Shenkar, Robert; Li, Luying; Zhang, Lingjiao; Guo, Xiaodong; Shi, Changbin; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Shah, Akash; Edelman, Robert; Christoforidis, Gregory; Awad, Issam

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperpermeability and iron deposition are two central pathophysiological phenomena in human cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) disease. Here we used two novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to establish a relationship between these phenomena. Methods Subjects with CCM disease (4 sporadic and 18 familial) underwent MRI imaging using the Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Quantitative Perfusion (DCEQP) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) techniques that measure hemodynamic factors of vessel leak and iron deposition respectively, previously demonstrated in CCM disease. Regions of interest encompassing the CCM lesions were analyzed using these techniques Results Susceptibility measured by QSM was positively correlated with permeability of lesions measured using DCEQP (r=0.49, p=<0.0001). The correlation was not affected by factors including familial predisposition, lesion volume, the contrast agent and the use of statin medication. Susceptibility was correlated with lesional blood volume (r=0.4, p=0.0001), but not with lesional blood flow. Conclusion The correlation between QSM and DCEQP suggests that the phenomena of permeability and iron deposition are related in CCM; hence “more leaky lesions” also manifest a more cumulative iron burden. These techniques might be used as biomarkers to monitor the course of this disease and the effect of therapy. PMID:24302484

  19. Cerebral cavernous malformations proteins inhibit Rho kinase to stabilize vascular integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rebecca A; Shenkar, Robert; Awad, Issam A; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2010-04-12

    Endothelial cell-cell junctions regulate vascular permeability, vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis. Familial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) in humans result from mutations of CCM2 (malcavernin, OSM, MGC4607), PDCD10 (CCM3), or KRIT1 (CCM1), a Rap1 effector which stabilizes endothelial cell-cell junctions. Homozygous loss of KRIT1 or CCM2 produces lethal vascular phenotypes in mice and zebrafish. We report that the physical interaction of KRIT1 and CCM2 proteins is required for endothelial cell-cell junctional localization, and lack of either protein destabilizes barrier function by sustaining activity of RhoA and its effector Rho kinase (ROCK). Protein haploinsufficient Krit1(+/-) or Ccm2(+/-) mouse endothelial cells manifested increased monolayer permeability in vitro, and both Krit1(+/-) and Ccm2(+/-) mice exhibited increased vascular leak in vivo, reversible by fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor. Furthermore, we show that ROCK hyperactivity occurs in sporadic and familial human CCM endothelium as judged by increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain. These data establish that KRIT1-CCM2 interaction regulates vascular barrier function by suppressing Rho/ROCK signaling and that this pathway is dysregulated in human CCM endothelium, and they suggest that fasudil could ameliorate both CCM disease and vascular leak.

  20. Blunt abdominal injury with rupture of giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma and laceration of the spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lung-YunKang; Fong-DeeHuang; Yuan-YuarnLiu

    2015-01-01

     A 41-year-old woman with blunt abdominal trau-ma due to a motor vehicle accident presented to our emergency department. The patient had a history of a giant hepatic cavern-ous hemangioma. Emergency exploratory laparotomy was per-formed for suspected intra-abdominal bleeding with abdominal compartment syndrome, and more than 4 liters of blood and blood clots were removed. An active bleeding laceration (5 cm) of a hepatic cavernous hemangioma was detected in segment III of the liver. The bleeding was controlled by sutures, Teflon patches and tamponade. The abdomen was closed temporarily using the vacuum-assisted method. Because of the presence of persistent  fresh  blood  through  abdominal  drainage  at  a  rate of  >1  L/h,  splenectomy  was  performed  to  control  the  bleed-ing again by sutures and Teflon patches. Finally, the abdomen was closed using a biologic mesh. The patient was discharged home 30 days after trauma. Bleeding of trauma-caused hepatic hemangioma is rare, but splenic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma is common. An in-depth investigation is necessary to avoid second intervention.

  1. Is portal vein cavernous transformation a component of congenital hepatic fibrosis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozlem Yonem; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is an autosomal recessive disorder that belongs to the family of fibropolycystic liver diseases. This family includes a spectrum of disorders which are usually found in combination with each other and are usually inherited.Clinically fibropolycystic diseases have three effects being present in different proportions, those of a space occupying lesion, of portal hypertension and of cholangitis. In most patients, the first manifestations of CHF are signs and symptoms related to portal hypertension such as splenomegaly and varices. Portal hypertension in these patients has been attributed to the hypoplasia or compression of the portal vein radicles in the fibrous bands. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a relatively rare condition resulting from extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with recanalization or collateral vein formation to bypass the obstruction. It has been found that patients with CHF having an accompanying CTPV have relatively large splenomegaly and suffers more frequent episodes of bleeding from esophageal varices. We believe that CTPV is a congenital component of CHF and also one of the important causative factors of portal hypertension in these patients.

  2. A novel CCM2 gene mutation associated with family cerebral cavernous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qing Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs are common vascular malformations that predominantly arise in the central nervous system and are mainly characterized by enlarged vascular cavities without intervening brain parenchyma. Familial CCMs (FCCMs is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern with incomplete penetrance and variable symptoms. Methods: Mutations of three pathogenic genes, CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3, were investigated by direct DNA sequencing in a Chinese family with multiple CCM lesions. Results: Four heterozygous variants in the CCM2 gene, including one deletion (c.95delC, a missense mutation (c.358G>A, p.V120I, one silent mutation (c.915G>A, p.T305T, and a substitution (c. *1452 T>C, were identified in the subjects with multiple CCM lesions, but not in a healthy sibling. Among these variants, the c.95delC deletion is a novel mutation which is expected to cause a premature termination codon. It is predicted to produce a truncated CCM2 protein lacking the PTB and C-terminal domains, thus disrupting the molecular functions of CCM2. Conclusions: The novel truncating mutation in the CCM2 gene, c.95delC, may be responsible for multiple CCM lesions in a part of FCCM. In addition, it may represent a potential genetic biomarker for early diagnosis of FCCM.

  3. Sporadic Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: Report of Further Mutations of CCM Genes in 40 Italian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia D’Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs are vascular lesions characterized by abnormally enlarged capillary cavities, affecting the central nervous system. CCMs can occur sporadically or as a familial autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression attributable to mutations in three different genes: CCM1 (K-Rev interaction trapped 1 (KRIT1, CCM2 (MGC4607, and CCM3 (PDCD10. CCMs occur as a single or multiple malformations that can lead to seizures, focal neurological deficits, hemorrhagic stroke, and headache. However, patients are frequently asymptomatic. In our previous mutation screening, performed in a cohort of 95 Italian patients, both sporadic and familial, we have identified several mutations in CCM genes, three of which in three distinct sporadic patients. In this study, representing further molecular screening of the three CCM genes, in a south Italian cohort of CCM patients enrolled by us in the last three years, we report the identification of other four new mutations in 40 sporadic patients with either single or multiple CCM.

  4. Update on Novel CCM Gene Mutations in Patients with Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Concetta; Bramanti, Placido; Alafaci, Concetta; Granata, Francesca; Piva, Francesco; Rinaldi, Carmela; Donato, Luigi; Greco, Federica; Sidoti, Antonina; D'Angelo, Rosalia

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are lesions affecting brain microvessels. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood. Conventional classification criterion is based on genetics, and thus, familial and sporadic forms can be distinguished; however, classification of sporadic cases with multiple lesions still remains uncertain. To date, three CCM causative genes have been identified: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607 and CCM3/PDCD10. In our previous mutation screening, performed in a cohort of 95 Italian patients, with both sporadic and familial cases, we identified several mutations in CCM genes. This study represents further molecular screening in a cohort of 19 Italian patients enrolled by us in the few last years and classified into familial, sporadic and sporadic with multiple lesions cases. Direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis were performed to detect point mutations and large genomic rearrangements, respectively. Effects of detected mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated by an in silico approach and by western blot analysis. A novel nonsense mutation in CCM1 and a novel missense mutation in CCM2 were detected; moreover, several CCM2 gene polymorphisms in sporadic CCM patients were reported. We believe that these data enrich the mutation spectrum of CCM genes, which is useful for genetic counselling to identify both familial and sporadic CCM cases, as early as possible.

  5. Sporadic Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: Report of Further Mutations of CCM Genes in 40 Italian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Rosalia; Alafaci, Concetta; Scimone, Concetta; Ruggeri, Alessia; Salpietro, Francesco Maria; Bramanti, Placido; Tomasello, Francesco; Sidoti, Antonina

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions characterized by abnormally enlarged capillary cavities, affecting the central nervous system. CCMs can occur sporadically or as a familial autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression attributable to mutations in three different genes: CCM1 (K-Rev interaction trapped 1 (KRIT1)), CCM2 (MGC4607), and CCM3 (PDCD10). CCMs occur as a single or multiple malformations that can lead to seizures, focal neurological deficits, hemorrhagic stroke, and headache. However, patients are frequently asymptomatic. In our previous mutation screening, performed in a cohort of 95 Italian patients, both sporadic and familial, we have identified several mutations in CCM genes, three of which in three distinct sporadic patients. In this study, representing further molecular screening of the three CCM genes, in a south Italian cohort of CCM patients enrolled by us in the last three years, we report the identification of other four new mutations in 40 sporadic patients with either single or multiple CCM. PMID:24058906

  6. Craniocervical junction venous anatomy around the suboccipital cavernous sinus: evaluation by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Sakuma, Ikuo; Omachi, Koichi; Otani, Takahiro; Tomura, Noriaki; Watarai, Jiro [Akita University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Akita (Japan); Mizoi, Kazuo [Akita University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Akita (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    The present study evaluated the venous anatomy of the craniocervical junction, focusing on the suboccipital cavernous sinus (SCS), a vertebral venous plexus surrounding the horizontal portion of the vertebral artery at the skull base. MR imaging was reviewed to clarify the venous anatomy of the SCS in 33 patients. Multiplanar reconstruction MR images were obtained using contrast-enhanced three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (3-D fast SPGR) with fat suppression. Connections with the SCS were evaluated for the following venous structures: anterior condylar vein (ACV); posterior condylar vein (PCV); lateral condylar vein (LCV); vertebral artery venous plexus (VAVP); and anterior internal vertebral venous plexus (AVVP). The SCS connected with the ACV superomedially, with the VAVP inferolaterally, and with the AVVP medially. The LCV connected with the external orifice of the ACV and superoanterior aspect of the SCS. The PCV connected with the posteromedial aspect of the jugular bulb and superoposterior aspect of the SCS. The findings of craniocervical junction venography performed in eight patients corresponded with those on MR imaging, other than with regard to the PCV. Contrast-enhanced 3-D fast SPGR allows visualization of the detailed anatomy of these venous structures, and this technique facilitates interventions and description of pathologies occurring in this area. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation: A Portuguese Family with a Novel CCM1 Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, João Pedro; Gil, Inês; Calado, Sofia; Viana-Baptista, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a vascular disorder characterized by the presence of central nervous system cavernomas. In familial forms, mutations in three genes (CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607 and CCM3/PDCD10) were identified. We describe a Portuguese family harboring a novel CCM1 mutation. Case Presentation The proband is a woman who at the age of 55 years started to have complex partial seizures and episodic headache. Although nothing was found during her neurological examination, brain MRI showed bilateral, supra- and infratentorial cavernomas. She had a sister who, at the age 61 years, suffered a tonic-clonic seizure. Neurological examination was normal and imaging investigation demonstrated a right frontal intracerebral hemorrhage and multiple cavernomas. In the following years, she suffered several complex partial seizures and had a new intracerebral hemorrhage located in the right temporal lobe. Genetic analysis was performed and a novel nucleotide substitution, i.e. c.1927C>T (p.Gln643*) within the exon 17 of the CCM1 gene, was detected in both sisters. The substitution encodes a stop codon, with a consequent truncated KRIT1 protein, therefore supporting its pathogenic role. Further affected family members were detected, suggesting an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Conclusion We report a Portuguese family with a novel CCM1 (KRIT1) mutation – c.1927C>T (p.Gln643*). A better knowledge of the phenotype-genotype correlation is needed to improve the management of CCM patients.

  8. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on angiogenesis of the endothelial cells isolated from cavernous malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN YuZhen; ZHAO Yao; WANG HaiJie; ZHOU LiangFu; MAO Ying; LIU Rui; SHU Jia; WANG YongFei

    2008-01-01

    Human cerebral cavernous malformation (CM) is a common vascular malformation of the central nervous system. We have investigated the biological characteristics of CM endothelial cells and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CM angiogenesis to offer new insights into exploring effective measures for treatment of this disease. The endothelial cells were isolated from CM tissue masses dissected during operation and expanded in vitro. Expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 was examined with immunocytochemical staining. Proliferation, migration and tube formation of CM endothelial cells were determined using MTT, wounding and transmigration assays, and three-dimensional collagen type Ⅰ gel respectively. The endothelial cells were successfully isolated from the tissue specimens of 25 CMs dissected without dipolar electrocoagulation. The cells show the general characteristics of the vascular endothelial cells. Expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on the cells is higher than that on the normal cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. After treatment with VEGF, numbers of the proliferated and migrated cells, the maximal distance of cell migration and the length and area of capillary-like struc-tures formed in the three-dimensional collagen gel increase significantly. These results demonstrate that expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on CM endothelial cells is up-regulated. By binding to re-ceptors, VEGF may activate the downstream signaling pathways and promote proliferation, migration and tube formation of CM endothelial cells. VEGF/VEGFR signaling pathways play important regulating roles in CM angiogenesis.

  9. Dubin-Johnson syndrome with multiple liver cavernous hemangiomas: report of a familial case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peifeng; Wang, Yingmei; Zhang, Jinmei; Geng, Ming; Li, Zengshan

    2013-01-01

    Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is a rare autosomal recessive inheritance disorder of bilirubin metabolism. Herein we reported a complicated but interesting case which is readily resulted in misdiagnosis or an indefinite diagnosis, and this is the first reported familial case of DJS with multiple liver cavernous hemangiomas. A 49-year-old man was referred to our hospital for jaundice and multiple low-density liver masses. Extensive laboratory investigations showed conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and positive urine bilirubin. Microscopically, lesions were composed of blood-filled vascular channels of various sizes lined by a single layer of flat endothelial cells supported by fibrous tissue. Coarse brown granules presented in the hepatocytes of the liver lobules locating beside the tumor, particularly in the centrilobular hepatocytes, and the granules showed blue-green with Schmorl's reaction lipofuscin staining. Interestingly, one of the patient's six siblings (female) shared the same condition with him. The relationship between DJS and hemangiomas remains unclear, and it might be contributed to some hereditary factors, or probably occurred simultaneously by chance. It was certified that the true reason for the long-term unclear jaundice was DJS, which was presumed clinically to be caused by bile excretion obstacles associated with the hemangiomas. Liver biopsy and histochemical stain may be helpful to identify the reason of jaundice and avoid misdiagnosis or an indefinite diagnosis.

  10. Structure and vascular function of MEKK3–cerebral cavernous malformations 2 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Oriana S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Deng, Hanqiang [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai (China); Liu, Dou [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Zhang, Ya [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wei, Rong [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai (China); Deng, Yong [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Zhang, Fan [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Louvi, Angeliki [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Turk, Benjamin E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Boggon, Titus J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Su, Bing [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-03

    Cerebral cavernous malformations 2 (CCM2) loss is associated with the familial form of CCM disease. The protein kinase MEKK3 (MAP3K3) is essential for embryonic angiogenesis in mice and interacts physically with CCM2, but how this interaction is mediated and its relevance to cerebral vasculature are unknown. Here we report that Mekk3 plays an intrinsic role in embryonic vascular development. Inducible endothelial Mekk3 knockout in neonatal mice is lethal due to multiple intracranial haemorrhages and brain blood vessels leakage. We discover direct interaction between CCM2 harmonin homology domain (HHD) and the N terminus of MEKK3, and determine a 2.35 Å cocrystal structure. We find Mekk3 deficiency impairs neurovascular integrity, which is partially dependent on Rho–ROCK signalling, and that disruption of MEKK3:CCM2 interaction leads to similar neurovascular leakage. We conclude that CCM2:MEKK3-mediated regulation of Rho signalling is required for maintenance of neurovascular integrity, unravelling a mechanism by which CCM2 loss leads to disease.

  11. First cosmic ray results of the RPC commissioning in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Document Server

    Solfaroli, E

    2008-01-01

    The first commissioning test of three muon towers of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, installed in the cavern, was carried out. The stations under test belong to the barrel sector 13, which is a large sector. A muon tower consists of three stations: the Inner, the Middle and the Outer, starting from the interaction point. The Barrel Inner Large (BIL) stations are constituted by MDT chambers; the Barrel Middle Large (BML) stations by MDTs assembled between two RPC chambers; and the Barrel Outer Large (BOL) stations by MDTs with only one RPC mounted downstream. Specific Level-1 trigger algorithms have been studied to trigger on cosmic rays and implemented to commission the muon stations. Comparison between the measured trigger rate and the simulated results will be presented. Moreover, the RPC performances have been studied by comparing the MDT track extrapolations with the firing RPC readout strips. The RPC detection efficiency is evaluated in the eta measuring view, resulting as a combination of gas volume effici...

  12. Crystal Structure of CCM3, a Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Protein Critical for Vascular Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Zhang, R; Zhang, H; He, Y; Ji, W; Min, W; Boggon, T

    2010-01-01

    CCM3 mutations are associated with cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), a disease affecting 0.1-0.5% of the human population. CCM3 (PDCD10, TFAR15) is thought to form a CCM complex with CCM1 and CCM2; however, the molecular basis for these interactions is not known. We have determined the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of CCM3. This structure shows an all {alpha}-helical protein containing two domains, an N-terminal dimerization domain with a fold not previously observed, and a C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT)-homology domain. We show that CCM3 binds CCM2 via this FAT-homology domain and that mutation of a highly conserved FAK-like hydrophobic pocket (HP1) abrogates CCM3-CCM2 interaction. This CCM3 FAT-homology domain also interacts with paxillin LD motifs using the same surface, and partial CCM3 co-localization with paxillin in cells is lost on HP1 mutation. Disease-related CCM3 truncations affect the FAT-homology domain suggesting a role for the FAT-homology domain in the etiology of CCM.

  13. Female urethral cavernous hemangioma - An unusual cause of hematuria: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivraj N Kanthikar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign vascular lesion, most commonly seen in liver and skin whereas rarely found in genitourinary system. Urethral hemangiomas are mostly found in males. To the best of our knowledge, in females only handful of case reports has been described in the literature. We report a case of urethral hemangioma in a 28-year-old female presented with history of intermittent hematuria. Cystourethroscopy examination revealed vascular mass of 2 cm Χ 2 cm at anterior urethral meatus. Surgical excision of mass with fulguration of base with diathermy was performed under general anesthesia. Final diagnosis on histopathology was given as cavernous type of urethral hemangioma. In spite of its benign nature, these lesions have a tendency to recur. In more extensive lesions or recurrence, open exploration with resection of involved tissue is always needed. Treatment of hemangiomas depends on size and site of the lesion and follow-up is needed to avoid recurrence. Histomorphological diagnosis of the lesion is always warranted in view of different treatment modalities.

  14. Quantitative analysis of anatomical relationship between cavernous segment internal carotid artery and pituitary macroadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bon-Jour; Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Meng-Chi; Lin, Chin; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Hsia, Chung-Ching; Ju, Da-Tong; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Tang, Chi-Tun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cavernous segment internal carotid artery (CSICA) injury during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor is rare but fatal. The aim of this study is to investigate anatomical relationship between pituitary macroadenoma and corresponding CSICA using quantitative means with a sense to improve safety of surgery. In this retrospective study, a total of 98 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were enrolled from 2005 to 2014. Intercarotid distances between bilateral CSICAs were measured in the 4 coronal levels, namely optic strut, convexity of carotid prominence, median sella turcica, and dorsum sellae. Parasellar extension was graded and recorded by Knosp–Steiner classification. Our findings indicated a linear relationship between size of pituitary macroadenoma and intercarotid distance over CSICA. The correlation was absent in pituitary macroadenoma with Knosp–Steiner grade 4 parasellar extension. Bigger pituitary macroadenoma makes more lateral deviation of CSICA. While facing larger tumor, sufficient bony graft is indicated for increasing surgical field, working area and operative safety. PMID:27741111

  15. Discovery Mondays: 'The civil engineering genius of the 100-metre deep underground caverns'

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN is first and foremost a place where physicists study particle collisions. But to be able to observe the infinitely small, they need huge pieces of equipment, the accelerators and detectors, whose construction, some 100 metres below the earth's surface calls on the services of other fascinating disciplines. Take civil engineering, for example. For the construction of the LHC some 420 000 cubic metres of rock have had to be excavated for the 6500 metres of tunnel, 6 new shafts and 32 underground chambers and caverns. To avoid disrupting other experiments in progress, the work on these exceptional structures has had to be done without creating vibrations. The ATLAS experiment hall, a huge cathedral-like structure 100 metres below ground, is another mind-blowing feat of civil engineering. Its construction involved the use of ground-breaking technology, such as the system for suspending the ceiling put in place during the excavation work. At the next Discovery Monday, the specialists responsible for...

  16. Disposal frequencies of selected recyclable wastes in Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya, Prosper; Nondek, Lubomir

    2004-01-01

    A statistical survey of households based upon questionnaires distributed via primary schools has been carried out in five wards of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to estimate disposal frequencies (number of items disposed per week) for newsprint, metal cans, glass and plastic containers and plastic shopping bags. Plastic shopping bags are disposed most frequently while glass containers are disposed least frequently. The statistical distribution of disposal frequencies, which seems to be influenced by household income, is well described by Poisson distribution. Disposal frequencies are mutually correlated at 95% level of probability despite the differences in disposal patterns of individual households.

  17. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  18. Intractable Posterior Epistaxis due to a Spontaneous Low-Flow Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakis, A.; Kral, F.; Riechelmann, H.; Freund, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 90-year-old patient with intractable posterior epistaxis presenting as the only symptom of a nontraumatic low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula. Purpose of this case report is to introduce low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula in the differential diagnosis of intractable posterior epistaxis. We provide a literature review for the sequence of actions for the confrontation of posterior epistaxis. We also emphasize the significance of the radiological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the management of posterior epistaxis due to pathology of the cavernous sinus. The gold-standard diagnostic procedure of carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is digital subtraction angiography (DSA). DSA with coils is also the state-of-the-art therapy. By failure of DSA, neurosurgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may be used as alternatives. SRS may also be used as enhancement procedure of the DSA. Considering the prognosis of a successfully closed carotid-cavernous sinus fistula, recanalization occurs only in a minority of patients. Close follow-up is advised. PMID:26839726

  19. Comparison of relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles from rabbits by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists; prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, K. K.; Lee, M. Y.; Lim, S. W.; Kim, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Alpha1a-adrenergic receptor (AR) primarily mediates the contraction of the prostatic and cavernous smooth muscles. Among clinically available alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), tamsulosin has a modest selectivity for alpha1A- and alpha1D- over alpha1B-ARs. To compare the effects of various alpha1-AR antagonists on relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles, isometric tension studies with relatively selective (tamsulosin) and non-selective (prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin) alpha1A-AR antagonists, were conducted in the cavernous and trigonal muscle strips of rabbits (n=10 each). Tamsulosin had the strongest inhibitory effect on contraction of trigonal smooth muscle among the various alpha1-AR antagonists, and the inhibitory activities of prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin were not statistically different. All alpha1-AR antagonists caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the cavernous muscle strips. Tamsulosin was shown to have greater potency than prazosin (more than 100-fold), doxazosin (more than 1000-fold), and terazosin (more than 1000-fold), in relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle. In conclusion, tamsulosin might be the most effective drug among the four commonly used alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of BPH. Tamsulosin might be a potential substitute for phentolamine in combination with vasoactive agents as an intracavernous injection therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction. PMID:10102527

  20. Intractable Posterior Epistaxis due to a Spontaneous Low-Flow Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giotakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 90-year-old patient with intractable posterior epistaxis presenting as the only symptom of a nontraumatic low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula. Purpose of this case report is to introduce low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula in the differential diagnosis of intractable posterior epistaxis. We provide a literature review for the sequence of actions for the confrontation of posterior epistaxis. We also emphasize the significance of the radiological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the management of posterior epistaxis due to pathology of the cavernous sinus. The gold-standard diagnostic procedure of carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is digital subtraction angiography (DSA. DSA with coils is also the state-of-the-art therapy. By failure of DSA, neurosurgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS may be used as alternatives. SRS may also be used as enhancement procedure of the DSA. Considering the prognosis of a successfully closed carotid-cavernous sinus fistula, recanalization occurs only in a minority of patients. Close follow-up is advised.

  1. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  2. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  3. Lateral Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end with a brief illustration and discussion of how lateral conceptualization can re-orient STS modes of inquiry, and why this matters.

  4. Practical experience with the gas lift method during the gas first fill in the Etzel cavern field and further possible applications; Praktische Erfahrungen mit dem Gasliftverfahren bei der Gaserstbefuellung im Kavernenfeld Etzel und weitere Einsatzmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, H.; Boor, S. [KBB UT, Hannover (Germany); Reekers, C. [IVG Caverns GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The further development of the Etzel cavern field by IVG Caverns GmbH involves converting crude oil caverns to natural gas storage caverns. The planning and technical supervision of the conversion project is managed by KBB Underground Technologies GmbH. The large heights of the oil caverns meant that the brine-filled caverns could not be completely filled with natural gas in the conventional way i. e. injecting natural gas to displace the brine. This is because the maximum permissible gas injection pressure has to be exceeded when the gas / brine interface drops beyond a certain depth. The maximum permissible gas pressure is primarily determined by the depth of the last cemented casing shoe and limits the gas pressure that can be safely used during brine displacement. In the case presented here, the limit meant that the brine could not be removed from the lower part of the cavern using conventional means, which would have left valuable cavern volume unutilised. (orig.)

  5. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project); Gutachten zum Entsorgungsnachweis der Nagra fuer abgebrannte Brennelemente, verglaste hochaktive sowie langlebige mittelaktive Abfaelle (Projekt Opalinuston)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    Mankind has been living in a field of natural radiation; in Switzerland, the natural dose is around 3 mSv per year. It can be assumed that an artificial dose smaller than the natural one is harmless and can therefore be tolerated. However, nuclear power plants, medicine, industry and research produce radioactive wastes whose radioactivity is mostly higher than the natural level. These wastes must therefore be concentrated and enclosed until the decay reduces the dose rate to a harmless level. For this, it is foreseen that the radioactive wastes will be disposed of in deep-lying geological strata. The enclosure must be guarantied in such a way that, at any time, the radiation suffered by mankind and environment due to the radioactive wastes stays under the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a. The judgement of the quality of the deep underground repository is divided into 3 chapters: a) based on the geological and hydro-geological properties of the host rock, the proof of safety shows that the chosen repository site is safe for the long term; b) the proof of site guaranties that the repository needed can be built in the chosen host rock; c) the proof of implementation demonstrates that the repository can be built with the actual technical means proposed. The forecast for the development of the safety of the repository in the long term is fairly inaccurate, the most difficult factor being the developments in mankind's way of life. Therefore, conservative assumptions must be taken into account to cover even the most unlikely cases. The former project 'Gewaehr' presented by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes (NAGRA) in 1978 was based on crystalline rock; it was rejected because it was not possible to find a sufficiently large area without geologic faults for the repository. In new investigations, NAGRA found a suitable layer of Opalinus clay in Zurich's Weinland. In the neighbourhood of the layer discovered, there are neither

  6. The Swedish approach to spent fuel disposal - stepwise implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustaffson, B. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    This presentation describes the stepwise implementation of direct disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. The present status regarding the technical development of the Swedish concept will be discussed as well the local site work made in co-operation with the affected and concerned municipalities. In this respect it should be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. A brief review will also be given regarding the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory. The objectives of this laboratory as well as the ongoing demo-project will be discussed. In order to give the symposium organizer a more broad view of the Swedish programme a number of recent papers has been compiled. Theses papers will be summarized in the presentation. (author). 4 tabs., 22 figs.

  7. Colors in Disposable Diapers: Addressing Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eric B; Helmes, C Tucker; Kirsch, Taryn; Ruble, Karen M

    2014-08-01

    Colors are frequently added to disposable diapers to enhance the diapering experience. The colors in the interior of diapers are composed of nonsensitizing pigments that are bound during the fiber-making process into the fibers of the nonwoven that covers the absorbent core materials. In the past, the use of color in diapers has been called into question based on the presumed use of disperse dyes, known sensitizers in the textile industry, and erroneous reports in literature. In fact, disperse dyes are not used in leading disposable diapers; the colors used in these disposable diapers are nonsensitizing pigments with favorable safety profiles. Numerous safety tests, such as skin patch tests with pigments used on diaper backsheets, have found no evidence of skin irritation or sensitization.

  8. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  9. 内镜经鼻海绵窦病变活检术%Endoscopic transnal biopsy for diagnosis of cavernous sinus lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海生; 张秋航; 陈国强; 王世杰; 左焕琮

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the surgical technique of endoscopic transnasal biopsy for the diagnosis of cavernous sinus lesions.Methods Ten patients with cavernous sinus lesions were diagnosed by endoscopic transnasal biopsy.Retrospectively the clinical data of 10 patients were reviewed.Results The accuracy of diagnosis with this technique WSS 100%.Postoperative results included:5 patients with malignant tumors received radiotherapy,1 pauent with meningioma underwent yknife treatment,and 1 patient received antifungal therapy.2 patients with benign lesion and 1 patient underwent local radiotherapy were followed.Postoperative complications included:one patient with internal carotid artery injury was treated by interventional ballon occlusion and one with transient eerebrospinal leakage.Conclusion Endoscopic transrmsal biopsy is an effective.safe and mini-invssive approach for the diagnosis of cavernous sinus lesions.

  10. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  11. AFCI Storage & Disposal FY-06 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Wigeland, R; Dixon, B

    2006-09-27

    AFCI Storage and Disposal participants at LLNL, ANL and INL provide assessment of how AFCI technology can optimize the future evolution of the fuel cycle, including optimization of waste management. Evaluation of material storage and repository disposal technical issues provides feedback on criteria and metrics for AFCI, and evaluation of AFCI waste streams provides technical alternatives for future repository optimization. LLNL coordinates this effort that includes repository analysis at ANL and incorporation of repository impacts into AFCI criteria at INL. Cooperative evaluation with YMP staff is pursued to provide a mutually agreed technical base. Cooperation with select international programs is supported.

  12. Limitation of the EIA Process for the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Kuhn, R.G. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    1999-12-01

    The Canadian environmental impact assessment process for the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management and Disposal Concept was completed in 1994. Almost four years later, in February 1998, the Review Panel released its report. The viewpoints of those who participated in the assessment process is archived in the thousands of pages of hearing testimony, meeting transcripts and written briefs. One of the most contentious issues raised, and one that continues to plague management in Canada, is the debate surrounding how the problem of NFW waste management should be defined. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the problem frame of the Canadian NFW management disposal concept EIS. This will be accomplished through an analysis of stakeholder participation and views, and through an evaluation of the range and nature of the information considered legitimate or constrained in the Canadian process.

  13. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively. Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous

  14. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  15. [Treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula using a detachable balloon catheter--a case report and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Y; Abe, H; Sasaki, H; Abe, S; Takei, H; Koiwa, M; Saito, H

    1983-01-01

    A case of post-traumatic carotid cavernous fistula, successfully treated by a detachable balloon catheter, is reported. A 55-year-old housewife was admitted to the author's department on 25th August, 1980. Three months prior to admission, she complained of right tinnitus following a traffic accident and then developed right chemosis and exophthalmus. A selective right internal carotid angiography revealed rapid filling of the carotid cavernous fistula. Under general anesthesia, the patient was treated by the maneuver after Debrun. Since it appeared necessary to employ the second balloon, the first one was released gently being inflated only with the contrast medium. During the procedure, the neck of the balloon was incidentally snapped upward and, then, the fistula was eventually occluded preserving the carotid flow as was verified by a control angiography. The bruit was abolished immediately after the procedure and all ocular symptoms disappeared during the following a few weeks. A skull film showed a deflation of the balloon at 4 weeks postoperatively, but clinical and angiographic follow-up examinations at 9 months thereafter revealed no signs or symptoms of recurrence. This Debrun's procedure is being widely accepted for a carotid cavernous fistula as a relatively simpler, safer, and more effective one comparing with the conventional methods. Our experiment on dogs, however, indicated that rupture of the balloon is not always avoidable even with a smaller volume than its maximum capacity and some resistance was felt during introduction of the co-axial catheter. Thus, it appeared mandatory to improve and quality control the balloon and the catheter. In the case presented here, a follow-up angiography showed no recurrence of the fistula except for an asymptomatic pseud-aneurysmal pouch, even though the balloon was inflated only with the contrast medium and was deflated within 4 weeks. These findings suggest possibility of successful, and long-lasting outcome

  16. Direct traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: angiographic classification and treatment strategies. Study of 172 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cuong Tran; Nguyen, Dang; Duc, Vo Tan; Chau, Huynh Hong; Son, Vo Tan

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience in treatment of traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) via endovascular intervention. We hereof recommend an additional classification system for type A CCF and suggest respective treatment strategies. Only type A CCF patients (Barrow's classification) would be recruited for the study. Based on the angiographic characteristics of the CCF, we classified type A CCF into three subtypes including small size, medium size and large size fistula depending on whether there was presence of the anterior carotid artery (ACA) and/or middle carotid artery (MCA). Angiograms with opacification of both ACA and MCA were categorized as small size fistula. Angiograms with opacification of either ACA or MCA were categorized as medium size fistula and those without opacification of neither ACA nor MCA were classified as large size fiatula. After the confirm angiogram, endovascular embolization would be performed impromptu using detachable balloon, coils or both. All cases were followed up for complication and effect after the embolization. A total of 172 direct traumatic CCF patients were enrolled. The small size fistula was accountant for 12.8% (22 cases), medium size 35.5% (61 cases) and large size fistula accountant for 51.7% (89 cases). The successful rate of fistula occlusion under endovascular embolization was 94% with preservation of the carotid artery in 70%. For the treatment of each subtype, a total of 21/22 cases of the small size fistulas were successfully treated using coils alone. The other single case of small fistula was defaulted. Most of the medium and large size fistulas were cured using detachable balloons. When the fistula sealing could not be obtained using detachable balloon, coils were added to affirm the embolization of the cavernous sinus via venous access. There were about 2.9% of patient experienced direct carotid artery puncture and 0.6% puncture after carotid artery cut-down exposure. About 30% of cases experienced

  17. Microsurgical resectability, outcomes, and tumor control in meningiomas occupying the cavernous sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Thakur, Jai Deep; Sonig, Ashish; Missios, Symeon

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSMs) represent a cohort of challenging skull base tumors. Proper management requires achieving a balance between optimal resection, restoration of cranial nerve (CN) function, and maintaining or improving quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors related to clinical and neurological outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and tumor control in patients with CSM. METHODS A retrospective review of a single surgeon's experience with microsurgical removal of CSM in 65 patients between January 1996 and August 2013 was done. Sekhar's classification, modified Kobayashi grading, and the Karnofsky Performance Scale were used to define tumor extension, tumor removal, and clinical outcomes, respectively. RESULTS Preoperative CN dysfunction was evident in 64.6% of patients. CN II deficits were most common. The greatest improvement was seen for CN V deficits, whereas CN II and CN IV deficits showed the smallest degree of recovery. Complete resection was achieved in 41.5% of cases and was not significantly associated with functional CN recovery. Internal carotid artery encasement significantly limited the complete microscopic resection of CSM (p < 0.0001). Overall, 18.5% of patients showed symptomatic recurrence after their initial surgery (mean follow-up 60.8 months [range 3-199 months]). The use of adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) after microsurgery independently decreased the recurrence rate (p = 0.009; OR 0.036; 95% CI 0.003-0.430). CONCLUSIONS Modified Kobayashi tumor resection (Grades I-IIIB) was possible in 41.5% of patients. CN recovery and tumor control were independent of extent of tumor removal. The combination of resection and adjuvant SRS can achieve excellent tumor control. Furthermore, the use of adjuvant SRS independently decreases the recurrence rates of CSM.

  18. Vascular permeability and iron deposition biomarkers in longitudinal follow-up of cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Tan, Huan; Mikati, Abdul Ghani; Shi, Changbin; Jesselson, Michael; Shenkar, Robert; Wu, Meijing; Cao, Ying; Hobson, Nicholas; Larsson, Henrik B W; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A

    2016-08-05

    OBJECTIVE Vascular permeability and iron leakage are central features of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) pathogenesis. The authors aimed to correlate prospective clinical behavior of CCM lesions with longitudinal changes in biomarkers of dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative permeability (DCEQP) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) assessed by MRI. METHODS Forty-six patients with CCMs underwent 2 or more permeability and/or susceptibility studies in conjunction with baseline and follow-up imaging and clinical surveillance during a mean 12.05 months of follow-up (range 2.4-31.27 months). Based on clinical and imaging features, cases/lesions were classified as stable, unstable, or recovering. Associated and predictive changes in quantitative permeability and susceptibility were investigated. RESULTS Lesional mean permeability and QSM values were not significantly different in stable versus unstable lesions at baseline. Mean lesional permeability in unstable CCMs with lesional bleeding or growth increased significantly (+85.9% change; p = 0.005), while mean permeability in stable and recovering lesions did not significantly change. Mean lesional QSM values significantly increased in unstable lesions (+44.1% change; p = 0.01), decreased slightly with statistical significance in stable lesions (-3.2% change; p = 0.003), and did not significantly change in recovering lesions. Familial cases developing new lesions during the follow-up period showed a higher background brain permeability at baseline (p = 0.001), as well as higher regional permeability (p = 0.003) in the area that would later develop a new lesion as compared with the homologous contralateral brain region. CONCLUSIONS In vivo assessment of vascular permeability and iron deposition on MRI can serve as objective and quantifiable biomarkers of disease activity in CCMs. This may be applied in natural history studies and may help calibrate clinical trials. The 2 techniques are likely applicable in

  19. Cerebral cavernous malformations arise from endothelial gain of MEKK3-KLF2/4 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zinan; Tang, Alan T; Wong, Weng-Yew; Bamezai, Sharika; Goddard, Lauren M; Shenkar, Robert; Zhou, Su; Yang, Jisheng; Wright, Alexander C; Foley, Matthew; Arthur, J Simon C; Whitehead, Kevin J; Awad, Issam A; Li, Dean Y; Zheng, Xiangjian; Kahn, Mark L

    2016-04-07

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause strokes and seizures in younger individuals. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2 or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signalling pathways (including Rho, SMAD and Wnt/β-catenin) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) proposed to have causal roles. CCM2 binds to MEKK3 (refs 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), and we have recently shown that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development. Here we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we show that expression of the MEKK3 target genes Klf2 and Klf4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. By contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signalling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Map3k3 (also known as Mekk3), Klf2 or Klf4 markedly prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we show that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is increased in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates the MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signalling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics.

  20. Cerebral cavernous malformations arise from endothelial gain of MEKK3-KLF2/4 signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zinan; Tang, Alan T.; Wong, Weng-Yew; Bamezai, Sharika; Goddard, Lauren M.; Shenkar, Robert; Zhou, Su; Yang, Jisheng; Wright, Alexander C.; Foley, Matthew; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Whitehead, Kevin J.; Awad, Issam A.; Li, Dean Y.; Zheng, Xiangjian; Kahn, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause stroke and seizures in younger individuals1. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2, or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex2. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signaling pathways (including Rho3,4, SMAD5 and Wnt/β-catenin6) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT)5 proposed to play causal roles. CCM2 binds MEKK37–11, and we have recently demonstrated that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development12. Here, we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we find that expression of the MEKK3 target genes KLF2 and KLF4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. In contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signaling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Mekk3, Klf2, or Klf4 dramatically prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we demonstrate that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is elevated in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signaling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics. PMID:27027284

  1. B-Cell Depletion Reduces the Maturation of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations in Murine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changbin; Shenkar, Robert; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Austin, Cecilia; Moore, Thomas; Lightle, Rhonda; Zhang, Lingjiao; Wu, Meijing; Cao, Ying; Gunel, Murat; Louvi, Angeliki; Rorrer, Autumn; Gallione, Carol; Marchuk, Douglas A; Awad, Issam A

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are relatively common vascular malformations, characterized by increased Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, vascular hyper-permeability and the presence of blood degradation products including non-heme iron. Previous studies revealed robust inflammatory cell infiltration, selective synthesis of IgG, in situ antigen driven B-cell clonal expansion, and deposition of immune complexes and complement proteins within CCM lesions. We aimed to evaluate the impact of suppressing the immune response on the formation and maturation of CCM lesions, as well as lesional iron deposition and ROCK activity. Two murine models of heterozygous Ccm3 (Pdcd10), which spontaneously develop CCM lesions with severe and milder phenotypes, were either untreated or received anti-mouse BR3 to deplete B cells. Brains from anti-mouse BR3-treated mice exhibited significantly fewer mature CCM lesions and smaller lesions compared to untreated mice. B cell depletion halted the progression of lesions into mature stage 2 lesions but did not prevent their genesis. Non-heme iron deposition and ROCK activity was decreased in lesions of B cell depleted mice. This represents the first report of the therapeutic benefit of B-cell depletion in the development and progression of CCMs, and provides a proof of principle that B cells play a critical role in CCM lesion genesis and maturation. These findings add biologics to the list of potential therapeutic agents for CCM disease. Future studies would characterize the putative antigenic trigger and further define the mechanism of immune response in the lesions.

  2. Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Associated with Cavernous Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas After Transvenous Embolization with Onyx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yang; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Yang, Xinjian, E-mail: yang-xj@163.net [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital (China)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeCranial nerve dysfunction (CND) is not uncommon in patients with cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (cDAVFs), and may represent an initial manifestation or a complication after endovascular treatment. This study evaluated the outcome of CND associated with cDAVFs after transvenous embolization (TVE) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsForty-one patients with cDAVFs were treated with TVE in our department between April 2009 and October 2013. For each patient, clinical and radiologic records were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated, with an emphasis placed on evaluating the outcomes of the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced CND.ResultsOf the 41 cases, 25 had a history of preoperative CND. Postoperatively, gradual remission to complete recovery (CR) within 8 months was observed in 17 of these cases, transient aggravation in 7, and significant improvement to be better than preoperative function but no CR in 1. All aggravation of CND occurred immediately or within 1 day after TVE and resolved completely within 5 months. Nine patients developed new CND after TVE. New CND occurred during the perioperative period in 8 cases, but all cases resolved completely within 15 days–6 months. Delayed CND was observed in 3 cases with a time lag of 3–25 months after TVE. Two of these completely resolved within 20 days–1 month and the remaining case significantly improved.ConclusionBoth the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced new or aggravated CND completely resolved in almost all cases after embolization with Onyx.

  3. Bacteria, fungi and biokarst in Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K. I.; Northup, D. E.; Pollastro, R. M.; Wright, W. G.; Larock, E. J.

    1995-02-01

    Lechuguilla Cave is a deep, extensive, gypsumand sulfur-bearing hypogenic cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, most of which (>90%) lies more than 300 m beneath the entrance. Located in the arid Guadalupe Mountains, Lechuguilla's remarkable state of preservation is partially due to the locally continuous Yates Formation siltstone that has effectively diverted most vadose water away from the cave. Allocthonous organic input to the cave is therefore very limited, but bacterial and fungal colonization is relatively extensive: (1) Aspergillus sp. fungi and unidentified bacteria are associated with iron-, manganese-, and sulfur-rich encrustations on calcitic folia near the suspected water table 466 m below the entrance; (2) 92 species of fungi in 19 genera have been identified throughout the cave in oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) “soils” and pools; (3) cave-air condensate contains unidentified microbes; (4) indigenous chemoheterotrophic Seliberius and Caulobacter bacteria are known from remote pool sites; and (5) at least four genera of heterotrophic bacteria with population densities near 5×105 colony-forming units (CFU) per gram are present in ceiling-bound deposits of supposedly abiogenic condensation-corrosion residues. Various lines of evidence suggest that autotrophic bacteria are present in the ceiling-bound residues and could act as primary producers in a unique subterranean microbial food chain. The suspected autotrophic bacteria are probably chemolithoautotrophic (CLA), utilizing trace iron, manganese, or sulfur in the limestone and dolomitic bedrock to mechanically (and possibly biochemically) erode the substrate to produce residual floor deposits. Because other major sources of organic matter have not been detected, we suggest that these CLA bacteria are providing requisite organic matter to the known heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the residues. The cavewide bacterial and fungal distribution, the large volumes of corrosion residues

  4. Culturable microbial diversity and the impact of tourism in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikner, Luisa A; Toomey, Rickard S; Nolan, Ginger; Neilson, Julia W; Pryor, Barry M; Maier, Raina M

    2007-01-01

    Kartchner Caverns in Benson, AZ, was opened for tourism in 1999 after a careful development protocol that was designed to maintain predevelopment conditions. As a part of an ongoing effort to determine the impact of humans on this limestone cave, samples were collected from cave rock surfaces along the cave trail traveled daily by tour groups (200,000 visitors year-1) and compared to samples taken from areas designated as having medium (30-40 visitors year-1) and low (2-3 visitors year-1) levels of human exposure. Samples were also taken from fiberglass moldings installed during cave development. Culturable bacteria were recovered from these samples and 90 unique isolates were identified by using 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Diversity generally decreased as human impact increased leading to the isolation of 32, 27, and 22 strains from the low, medium, and high impact areas, respectively. The degree of human impact was also reflected in the phylogeny of the isolates recovered. Although most isolates fell into one of three phyla: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, or Proteobacteria, the Proteobacteria were most abundant along the cave trail (77% of the isolates), while Firmicutes predominated in the low (66%) and medium (52%) impact areas. Although the abundance of Proteobacteria along the cave trail seems to include microbes of environmental rather than of anthropogenic origin, it is likely that their presence is a consequence of increased organic matter availability due to lint and other organics brought in by cave visitors. Monitoring of the cave is still in progress to determine whether these bacterial community changes may impact the future development of cave formations.

  5. Long-Term Outcomes of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio dos, E-mail: marcosrxt@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Bustos Perez de Salcedo, Jose; Gutierrez Diaz, Jose Angel [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Samblas, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain); Marsiglia, Hugo [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Sallabanda, Kita [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSM) have an elevated risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. Recurrence is often observed after partial resection. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), either alone or combined with surgery, represents an important advance in CSM management, but long-term results are lacking. Methods and Materials: A total of 88 CSM patients, treated from January 1991 to December 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up was 86.8 months (range, 17.1-179.4 months). Among the patients, 22 were followed for more than 10 years. There was a female predominance (84.1%). The age varied from 16 to 90 years (mean, 51.6). In all, 47 patients (53.4%) received SRS alone, and 41 patients (46.6%) had undergone surgery before SRS. A dose of 14 Gy was prescribed to isodose curves from 50% to 90%. In 25 patients (28.4%), as a result of the proximity to organs at risk, the prescribed dose did not completely cover the target. Results: After SRS, 65 (73.8%) patients presented with tumor volume reduction; 14 (15.9%) remained stable, and 9 (10.2%) had tumor progression. The progression-free survival was 92.5% at 5 years, and 82.5% at 10 years. Age, sex, maximal diameter of the treated tumor, previous surgery, and complete target coverage did not show significant associations with prognosis. Among the 88 treated patients, 17 experienced morbidity that was related to SRS, and 6 of these patients spontaneously recovered. Conclusions: SRS is an effective and safe treatment for CSM, feasible either in the primary or the postsurgical setting. Incomplete coverage of the target did not worsen outcomes. More than 80% of the patients remained free of disease progression during long-term follow-up.

  6. Determination of hydraulic conductivity of fractured rock masses:A case study for a rock cavern project in Singapore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhipeng Xu; Zhiye Zhao; Jianping Sun; Ming Lu

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk associated with water seepage in an underground rock cavern project in Singapore, a reliable hydro-geological model should be established based on the in situ investigation data. The key challenging issue in the hydro-geological model building is how to integrate limited geological and hydro-geological data to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the fractured rock masses. Based on the data obtained from different stages (feasibility investigation stage, construction stage, and post-construction stage), suitable models and methods are proposed to determine the hy-draulic conductivities at different locations and depths, which will be used at other locations in the future.

  7. A New Type of Paper-frame Cavernous Material and Its Application in Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of paper-frame cavernous material, which is a made-up hollow material, by using silicate-cinder size to drench and daub.It possesses excellent performances such as light-weight, high-intensity, fire-resistance, sound-insulation, heat-insulation and no-pollution. Composed with concrete materials, a new type of bearing and energy-efficient block can be gained, which is a kind of excellent wall materials and has a wide application prospect.

  8. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Aaberg, R.L.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    This report contains the draft results of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste disposal criteria for the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of various defense TRU advanced disposal options at the Hanford Site. Advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. They will be used to complement the waste geologic disposal in achieving permanent disposal of selected TRU wastes. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 5 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  10. 77 FR 75783 - Disposal of Controlled Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Administration (DEA). These restrictions resulted in the accumulation of controlled substances in household... used. Although ultimate users are exempt from CSA registration requirements for the possession of... substance to another person for the purpose of disposal if the ultimate user dies while in lawful...

  11. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  12. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  13. Urban garbage disposal and management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change andregional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in fivebig cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showedthe output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition arealso increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing thegrowing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residentsare in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battlingagainst garbage.Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some polieymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a socialwelfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control,promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been putforward in the paper.

  14. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  15. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  16. Subsurface extensions of natural gas storage caverns Empelde. Technical challenges; Technische Herausforderungen bei der untertaegigen Erweiterung des Erdgas-Kavernenspeichers Empelde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlitza, P.; Drewes, F. [GHG - Gasspeicher Hannover GmbH, Ronnenberg (Germany); Walden, S. [ESK GmbH (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    The gas cavern storage facility in Empelde came into operation with three caverns between the early and the middle nineteen-eighties and is subject to a surface and subsurface extension since 2004. The subsurface extension comprises the construction of two new caverns (K4 is operated since 2009, K5 in leaching process since 2010) and the leaching extension as well as repair works of both existing caverns K2 (since 2012 in gas operation again) and K1 (is being re-leached since the end of 2012). The volumetric extension process of cavern K2 took place in three steps: flooding, releaching, gas re-filling. The flooding with water through a 4 1/2'' tubing were implemented discontinuously alternating with phases of gas withdrawal through the annulus 4 1/2'' x 9 5/8'' in order to minimize the risk of hydrate formation. The length of the individual phases mainly depended on the gas demand/consumption of the storage users. Water injection has been made in a gas well-head pressure range above the hydrostatic pressure of the water column in order to keep it stable at any time and to keep the cavern pressure high. The cavern volume increased by 12% because of the flooding. For the re-leaching process the existing 9 5/8'' tubing was pulled out and the permanent packer was milled. By using leaching strings 6 5/8'' x 10 3/4'' a maximum leaching rate of 300 m{sup 3}/h was realized and within 10 months an additional volume of 212,500 m{sup 3} was created according to the evaluation of the leaching process. Due to the geological affected development of the cavern shape the 6 5/8'' leaching string had to be pulled from sump level to the middle of the cavern height. In the course of the repair process and the new completion of cavern K2 with considerable time consumption the lower 33 m of the 13 3/8'' casing were milled for integrity purposes and the packer with the 9 5/8'' welded tubing was

  17. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  18. Geological Disposal Options for the Radioactive Wastes from a Recycling Process of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K.; Kuk, D. H.; Cha, J. H

    2008-10-15

    The electricity from the nuclear power plants is around 40 % of total required electricity in Korea and according to the energy development plan, the proportion will be raised about 60 % in near future. To implement this plan, the most important factor is the back-end fuel cycle, namely the safe management of the spent fuel or high level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plants. Various researches are being carried out to manage the spent fuel effectively in the world. In our country, as one of the management alternatives which is more effective and non-proliferation, pyro-processing method is being developed actively to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a Nuclear power plant. This is a new dry recycling process. In this report, the amount of various wastes and their characteristics are estimated in a Pyro-process. Based on these information, the geological disposal alternatives are developed. According to the amount and the characteristics of each waste, the concepts of waste packages and the disposal container are developed. And also from the characteristics of the radioactivity and the heat generation, multi-layer of the depth is considered to dispose these wastes. The proposed various alternatives in this report can be used as input data for design of the deep geological disposal system. And they will be improved through the application of the real site data and safety assessment in the future. After then, the final disposal concept will be selected with various assessment and the optimization will be carried out.

  19. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    2000-04-15

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  20. Dynamic subsidence prediction of ground surface above salt cavern gas storage considering the creep of rock salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new model is proposed to predict the dynamic subsidence of ground surface above salt cavern gas storage during the leaching and storage, which takes into account the creep of rock salt. In the model, the extended form of Gaussian curve is adopted to figure out the shape of subsidence areas. The corresponding theoretical formulas are derived. In addition, parameters are studied to investigate the surface subsidence as a function of the salt ejection rate, internal pressure, buried depth, diameter, height, running time, etc. Through an example, the subsidence of the salt cavern gas storage located at Jiangsu of China obtained by the new model was compared with those by Peter A F formula, Schober & Sroka formula and FLAC3D through simulation. The results showed the proposed model is precise and correct, and can meet the actual engineering demands. The surface subsidence is equidirectional with the increase of salt ejection rate, depth, diameter, height, and running time, but reverse to the increase of internal pressure. The depth, diameter, running time and internal pressure have great effects on the subsidence, whereas the salt ejection rate and height have little influences on it.

  1. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction.

  2. Neuroradiological diagnosis and interventional therapy of carotid cavernous fistulas; Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und interventionelle Therapie bei Carotis-cavernosus-Fisteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T.; Engelhorn, T.; Doelken, M.; Doerfler, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Erlangen (Germany); Holbach, L. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Augenklinik, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Carotid cavernous fistulas are pathologic connections between the internal and/or external carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. According to Barrow one can distinguish between direct (high flow) and indirect (low flow) fistulas, whereby direct fistulas are often traumatic while indirect fistulas more frequently occur spontaneously in postmenopausal women. Diagnosis can easily be established using MRI and angiography, which allow exact visualization of the anatomy of fistulas to plan the interventional neurological therapy that in recent years has replaced surgical therapy. This article provides an overview on imaging findings, diagnosis using MRI and angiography as well as interventional treatment strategies. (orig.) [German] Bei Carotis-cavernosus-Fisteln handelt es sich um pathologische Verbindungen zwischen der A. carotis interna und/oder externa und dem Sinus cavernosus. Nach Barrow kann zwischen direkten und indirekten Fisteln unterschieden werden. Direkte Fisteln sind oftmals traumatische Fisteln und zeigen ein hohes Shuntvolumen (''high flow''), waehrend indirekte Fisteln ein geringeres Shuntvolumen (''low flow'') zeigen und gehaeuft bei postmenopausalen Patientinnen spontan auftreten. Die neuroradiologische Diagnostik mit MRT und Angiographie erlaubt die Darstellung der genauen Gefaessarchitektur der Fistel und ist damit Grundlage der interventionellen neuroradiologischen Therapie, die in den letzten Jahren die chirurgische Therapie praktisch abgeloest hat. In diesem Beitrag werden die klinischen Befunde, die Diagnostik mittels MRT und Angiographie sowie interventionelle Strategien vorgestellt. (orig.)

  3. 40 CFR 229.3 - Transportation and disposal of vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of these vessels shall take place in a site designated on current nautical charts for the disposal of... week, of the exact coordinates of the disposal site so that it may be marked on appropriate charts....

  4. Advanced disposal systems for transuranic waste: Preliminary disposal criteria for Plutonium-239 at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide ''greater confinement'' than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth.

  5. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000 year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/y to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  7. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste...

  8. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  9. 48 CFR 45.604-1 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 45.604-1 Section 45.604-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.604-1 Disposal methods. (a) Except as...

  10. 12 CFR 41.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 41.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Definitions as used in this section. (1) Bank means national banks... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 41.83...

  11. 12 CFR 334.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 334.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  12. 12 CFR 571.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 571.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) Scope. This section applies to savings associations whose deposits... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information....

  13. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet in log scale measurement; linear estimates of pole timber, and amount of cord wood. The appraiser... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  14. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a) The littering, disposing, or dumping...

  15. Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, Július; Králík, Tomáš; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, Jiří; Starý, Oldřich

    2014-11-01

    This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

  16. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  17. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  18. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides water... additional priority points to the colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal systems and...

  19. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  20. 48 CFR 45.606 - Disposal of scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of scrap. 45.606 Section 45.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Disposal of scrap....