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Sample records for cave springs area

  1. Simulated effects of increased groundwater withdrawals in the Cave Springs area, Hixson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.

    2014-01-01

    Concern for future water supplies in Tennessee has grown in recent years as a result of increased awareness of competing needs, the impact of droughts, and the need for more water to support growing populations. The U.S. Geological Survey conducts investigations to improve the knowledge about interactions of geology, climate, humans, and ecosystems with the water cycle, which is critical to understanding and optimizing water availability. The Hixson Utility District in Hamilton County, Tennessee, uses groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area as a water supply, withdrawing water from two well fields located at Cave Springs and Walkers Corner. Historically, Hixson Utility District has withdrawn about 5 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) at the Cave Springs well field and between 2 and 3 Mgal/d at the Walkers Corner well field. To assess the capacity of the groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area to meet future demands, four different scenarios of increased groundwater withdrawals were analyzed using computer model simulations.

  2. Geologic context of large karst springs and caves in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    The ONSR is a karst park, containing many springs and caves. The “jewels” of the park are large springs, several of first magnitude, that contribute significantly to the flow and water quality of the Current River and its tributaries. Completion of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping of the park and surrounding river basin, along with synthesis of published hydrologic data, allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the springs and the geologic framework to develop a conceptual model for genesis of these springs. Based on their similarity to mapped spring conduits, many of the caves in the ONSR are fossil conduit segments. Therefore, geologic control on the evolution of the springs also applies to speleogenesis in this part of the southern Missouri Ozarks.Large springs occur in the ONSR area because: (1) the Ozark aquifer, from which they rise, is chiefly dolomite affected by solution via various processes over a long time period, (2) Paleozoic hypogenic fluid migration through these rocks exploited and enhanced flow-paths, (3) a consistent and low regional dip of the rocks off of the Salem Plateau (less than 2° to the southeast) allows integration of flow into large groundwater basins with a few discreet outlets, (4) the springs are located where the rivers have cut down into structural highs, allowing access to water from stratigraphic units deeper in the aquifer thus allowing development of springsheds that have volumetrically larger storage than smaller springs higher in the section, and (5) quartz sandstone and bedded chert in the carbonate stratigraphic succession that are locally to regionally continuous, serve as aquitards that locally confine groundwater up dip of the springs creating artesian conditions. This subhorizontal partitioning of the Ozark aquifer allows contributing areas for different springs to overlap, as evidenced by dye traces that cross adjacent groundwater basin boundaries, and possibly contributes to alternate flow routes

  3. Microbially induced iron precipitation associated with a neutrophilic spring at Borra Caves, Vishakhapatnam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, Ramanathan; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Ovreås, Lise; Pedersen, Rolf B

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation uncovers various pieces of evidence for the possible biologically induced mineralization in iron mats associated with a pH-neutral spring in the Borra caves, Vishakhapatnam, India. Electron microscopy [scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] demonstrated large numbers of (i) hollow tubes (diameter ∼1 μm) resembling sheaths of the iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix, (ii) thin (diameter springs. Understanding biogenic iron oxides in caves has important astrobiological applications as it provides a potential tool for the detection of extraterrestrial life.

  4. Forensic Fluid Dynamics and the Indian Spring (1991) cave collapse problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nof, D.

    2013-05-01

    The collapse of the Indian spring cave (Florida) in 1991 was unique because it occurred while cave divers were in the cave. For the most part, the submerged cave is large enough to accommodate a passing truck so the cave divers were not in touch with its walls and it is hard to imagine why would it naturally collapse just when the divers were in it. Recently, Nof and Paldor (2010) resolved this apparent paradox by suggesting that resonance in the air pockets in the cavern, created by breathing (open circuit) divers, may have contributed to the collapse. In this scenario, divers present in the cavern during the dive may have (unknowingly) caused the collapse through the pressurized air/gas that they release with each breath. When the breathing period of the diver(s) matches the natural oscillations period of the "cave oscillator", the ensuing resonance causes the air pressure in the pockets to increase uncontrollably. Here, we place the above theory on a more solid ground. To do so, we first extended the resonance theory from our original two-pockets, symmetrical U-tube model (with two identical branches that were not specifically identified within the cave system) to a one (identified) pocket in the cavern and a very broad basin (identified, of course) that serves as the other branch of the U-tube. Our methodology is to apply familiar fluid dynamics principles to the situation that occurred in the cave. We did so, step-by-step, on the basis of our interviews with four out of the five surviving cave-divers. Namely, we dissected their testimonies to arrive at a physically plausible scenario determined on basis of a fluid dynamics application to the natural flow in the cave and the flow induced by the compressed air released by the divers as well as the collapsed mud. We found that the oscillation period was larger than what we earlier calculated (still relevant to the case, nevertheless), and that, in contrast to what most cave divers believe, there was a temporary

  5. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  6. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  7. Eleven bones: More fossil remains of Cave Lions and Cave Hyaenas from the North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Six fossil Cave Lion bones and five fossil Cave Hyaena bones are described. One lion bone and one hyaena bone were dredged from the Westerschelde ( = Western Scheldt, southwestern part of the Netherlands). The other specimens were recovered from the bottom of the North Sea, in the area West and

  8. Isotopic investigations of the waters from the Movile Cave - Mangalia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Lucia; Feurdean, Victor

    2001-01-01

    As a conservative tracer in carbonate rocks deuterium was used to determine the unelucidated problems of water origin in the Movile Cave-Mangalia, which is the unique ecosystem from the world based on chemoautotrophic conditions. According to the δD values the water from Movile Cave is meteoric in origin but can not originate from local site. The groundwater from neighboring area of cave has their recharge area at high altitude and considerable distance. δD values of water samples present time variations with a distinct seasonal effect. The seasonal δD values are shifted with a half meteoric cycle vs. normal succession of seasonal maximum and minimum values. Water seems to be originated from the Prebalkan Plateau situated in the south of Dobrogea. The study indicates that the intrusion of water in the karst occurs by conduit flow and hydrostatic pressure. The geometry of conduit controls the movement of the water. The cave and the Karaoban Lake is the discharge area of two main components of groundwater: the first is coming from southwest and has isotope characteristic similar to lower altitude water (500 m) and the second is moving from southeast and has the isotope composition similar to high altitude water (>1000 m). The Movile Cave and Karaoban Lake are connected and the cave water is discharged by overflow mechanism isolating the cave from atmosphere. (authors)

  9. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences.

  10. Metagenomics of Bacterial Diversity in Villa Luz Caves with Sulfur Water Springs

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    Giuseppe D’Auria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnology applications require in-depth preliminary studies of biodiversity. The methods of massive sequencing using metagenomics and bioinformatics tools offer us sufficient and reliable knowledge to understand environmental diversity, to know new microorganisms, and to take advantage of their functional genes. Villa Luz caves, in the southern Mexican state of Tabasco, are fed by at least 26 groundwater inlets, containing 300–500 mg L-1 H2S and <0.1 mg L-1 O2. We extracted environmental DNA for metagenomic analysis of collected samples in five selected Villa Luz caves sites, with pH values from 2.5 to 7. Foreign organisms found in this underground ecosystem can oxidize H2S to H2SO4. These include: biovermiculites, a bacterial association that can grow on the rock walls; snottites, that are whitish, viscous biofilms hanging from the rock walls, and sacks or bags of phlegm, which live within the aquatic environment of the springs. Through the emergency food assistance program (TEFAP pyrosequencing, a total of 20,901 readings of amplification products from hypervariable regions V1 and V3 of 16S rRNA bacterial gene in whole and pure metagenomic DNA samples were generated. Seven bacterial phyla were identified. As a result, Proteobacteria was more frequent than Acidobacteria. Finally, acidophilic Proteobacteria was detected in UJAT5 sample

  11. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. River Intrusion in Karst Springs in Eogenetic Aquifers: Implications for Speleogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Screaton, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    Conceptual models of speleogenesis generally assume uni-directional transport in integrated conduit systems from discrete recharge points to discharge at karst springs. Estavelles, however, are karst springs that function intermittently as discrete recharge points when river stage rises more rapidly than local aquifer heads. As river water chemistry changes between baseflow and floods, estavelles should influence mass transport through (e.g. organic carbon, nutrients, and oxygen) and speleogenesis within karst systems. Estavelles are common in our study area in north-central Florida, particularly along the lower reaches of the Santa Fe River, where it flows across the unconfined karstic Floridan aquifer. River stage in this unconfined region can rise much faster than aquifer heads when large amounts of rain fall on the confined regions in its upper reaches. Backflooding into the estavelles during elevated river stage drives river water into the ground, causing some springs to reverse and other springs to recirculate large volumes of river water. Floodwaters originating in the confined region are highly undersaturated with respect to calcite, and thus river water transitions from slightly supersaturated to highly undersaturated with respect to calcite during flood events. As a result, conduits connected to estavelles are continuously enlarged as springs reverse or recirculate calcite-undersaturated river water. It has been suggested that currently flooded caves (i.e. karst conduits) associated with springs in Florida formed entirely underwater because speleothems, which are prevalent in flooded caves in the Yucatan and Bahamas, have not been observed by cave divers. Results of this study indicate that the absence of speleothems does not necessarily provide evidence of a continuous phreatic history for underwater caves. Instead speleothems that formed in caves while dry could have been dissolved by backflooding of estavelles with undersaturated water

  13. First assessment on the air CO2 dynamic in the show caves of tropical karst, Vietnam

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    Duc A. Trinh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air, water, and host rock in show caves in a Vietnam’s karst region was monitored and analyzed to identify the ventilation regime and track the cave air CO2 sources. In general, the studied caves are well ventilated. In dynamic – multiple entrance caves, air ventilation is described with the use of U shape model. In static – single entrance cave, air circulation is explained by cold air trap model. Both ventilation models suggest that air is more circulated in winter than in summer. Seasonally, the cave air CO2 increases from early spring to summer. Value in the deepest part of the single-entrance cave is approximately 1,000 ppmv and 8,000 ppmv in early spring and summer, respectively. In multiple-entrance and wet caves, CO2 level is fairly constant all over the show section, increasing from 500 ppmv in early spring to 2,000 ppmv in summer. Data of microclimate, CO2 content, and particularly δ13C show that cave air, particularly in single entrance cave, has higher CO2 concentration during summer due to a stagnation of cave air circulation and an elevated CO2 input from soil and epikarst. The cave air CO2 increase is also observed after intense rainfalls. A factor that increase cave air CO2 in show caves during the festive days could probably be huma n exhaling but the extent of human factor in these studied cave systems should be further investigated. Cave waters including cave pools and streams mediate CO2 level in wet caves. Above all, the atmospheric fraction of CO2 is always dominant (>60% in all cave sections.

  14. Response of surface springs to longwall coal mining Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadnuck, L.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    High-extraction longwall coal mining creates zones in the overburden where strata bend, fracture, or cave into the mine void. These physical alterations to the overburden stratigraphy have associated effects on the hydrologic regime. The US Bureau of Mines (SBM) studied impacts to the local hydrologic system caused by longwall mining in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Surface springs in the vicinity of two coal mines were evaluated for alterations in flow characteristics as mining progressed. Fourteen springs located above the mines were included in the study. Eight of the springs were located over longwall panels, four were located over barrier pillars and mains, and two ere located outside the area disturbed by mining. Flow hydrographs for each spring were compared to climatic data and time of undermining to assess if mining in the vicinity had influenced flow. Heights of fracturing and caving in the overburden resulting from seam extraction were calculated using common subsidence formulas, and used in conjunction with elevations of springs to assess if fracturing influenced the water-bearing zones studied. One spring over a panel exhibited a departure from a normally-shaped hydrograph after being undermined. Springs located over other mine structures, or outside the mine area did not show discernible effects from mining. The limited response of the springs was attributed to site-specific conditions that buffered mining impacts including the elevation of the springs above the mine level, and presence of massive sandstones and swelling clays in the overburden materials

  15. Raw data report: Cave Valley orientation study, Lund 10 x 20 NTMS area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchlik, K.P.; Holder, B.E.; Smith, C.F.

    1977-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Cave Valley, Nevada, orientation study in the Lund 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). Wet, dry, and playa sediment samples were collected throughout the 360 km 2 semi-arid, closed basin. Water samples were collected at the few available streams and springs. In addition to neutron activation analysis for uranium and 15 to 20 trace elements on all samples, field and laboratory measurements were made on water samples. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tabular hardcopy and fiche format. Four full-size overlays for use with the Lund NTMS 1:250,000 quadrangle are included. Water site locations, water sample uranium concentration, sediment site locations, and sediment sample total uranium concentration are shown on the separate overlays. A general description of the area and the rock type distribution is presented

  16. A cave population of Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline, 1947 in the Upper Ribeira karst area, southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

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    Eleonora Trajano

    Full Text Available A cave population of the armored catfish Isbrueckerichthys alipionis is reported from the Santana Cave, in the rio Betari watershed, Upper Ribeira karst area, Iporanga, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. The cave population was compared to an epigean population of I. alipionis and no significant differences where found in morphology or degree of pigmentation. As the cave population is known for at least 30 years and is apparently isolated from epigean streams, it is classified as troglophilic. The discovery of this troglophilic species in the Santana Cave is an additional strong argument for the conservation of that cave.

  17. The Values of Tourism in the Area (Valley) of Drenica

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , B. Bajraktari; , S. Bulliqi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the work ‘The values of tourism in the area of Drenica’ is to present the natural touristic values of this part of Kosovo, because this area has natural tourist values such as: Drenica River, Cave of Pjetershtica, Cave of Baica, Cave of Kishnareka, mineral resource in Poklek, as well as natural spring of Baica, etc. These are potential values for the development of tourism in this area, whereas if there is a promotion of these values, the number of visitors would increas. This ...

  18. Passive sampling of bioavailable organic chemicals in Perry County, Missouri cave streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Tyler; Adams, Ginny; Sharum, Martin; Steelman, Karen L

    2010-12-01

    Two types of passive samplers--semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS)--were deployed in spring 2008 to assess bioavailable concentrations of aquatic contaminants in five cave streams and resurgences in Perry County, Missouri. Study sites represent areas of high cave biodiversity and the only known habitat for grotto sculpin (Cottus carolinae). Time-weighted average (TWA) water concentrations were calculated for 20 compounds (n = 9 SPMDs; n = 11 POCIS) originating primarily from agricultural sources, including two organochlorine insecticides, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which were found at levels exceeding U.S. EPA criteria for the protection of aquatic life. GIS data were used to quantify and map sinkhole distribution and density within the study area. Infiltration of storm runoff and its influence on contaminant transport were also evaluated using land cover and hydrological data. This work provides evidence of cave stream contamination by a mix of organic chemicals and demonstrates the applicability of passive samplers for monitoring water quality in dynamic karst environments where rapid transmission of storm runoff makes instantaneous water sampling difficult.

  19. An absolutely dated high-resolution stalagmite record from Lianhua Cave in central China: Climate forcing and comparison with Wanxiang Cave and Dongge Cave records over the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Chun; Yin, Jian-Jun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Mii, Horng-Sheng; Li, Ting-Yong

    2015-04-01

    A 33-cm long aragonite stalagmite (LHD-1) from Lianhua Cave has been dated by MC-ICPMS 230Th/U method on 41 horizons. Very high U contents (1~6ppm) and low Th contents yield excellent 230Th/U dates which provide reliable chronology of the stalagmite on sub-decadal time scale over the past 3350 years. A total of 1716 samples have been measured for δ18O and δ13C, spanning annual resolution over the past 1820 years. The stalagmite δ18O is not only influenced by the 'amount effect', but also affected by the moisture source. Enhanced the tropical monsoon trough under strong EASM brings higher spring quarter rainfall with isotopically light monsoonal moisture in the cave site, resulting in lighter stalagmite δ18O. On decadal or longer time scales, increased solar activity produces warmer condition and stronger summer monsoon which lead to wet climates. On interannual-to-decadal scales, the Walker Circulation under El Niño conditions during cold periods will shift toward the central Pacific and result in weakening of EASM. Under such a circumstance, dry climates will be prevailed in the study area. Based on the δ18O and δ13C records, we have deciphered climatic and vegetation changes of the study area in decadal scales. The highly precise dated LHD-1 record has been compared with previous published Wanxiang Cave and Dongge Cave records. Although some similarities can be found, there are major discrepancies among the three well-dated records, especially during AD 500-700 and AD 1300-1600. In additional, the major weak monsoon periods defined in the Wanxiang Cave record during late Tang Dynasty, late Yuan Dynasty and late Ming Dynasty are not supported by the LHD-1 record. The heaviest δ18O peaks (more than five continuous heavy values) over the past 2000 years appeared around AD 1990-2003, 1657-1662, 1220-1228, 663-669, 363-370, and 1082-1090 (in the order of heavy to light). None of these periods occurred Chinese dynasty collapse.

  20. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  1. Stability numerical analysis of soil cave in karst area to drawdown of underground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yizheng; Xiao, Rencheng; Deng, Zongwei

    2018-05-01

    With the underground water level falling, the reliable estimates of the stability and deformation characteristics of soil caves in karst region area are required for analysis used for engineering design. Aimed at this goal, combined with practical engineering and field geotechnical test, detail analysis on vertical maximum displacement of top, vertical maximum displacement of surface, maximum principal stress and maximum shear stress were conducted by finite element software, with an emphasis on two varying factors: the size and the depth of soil cave. The calculations on the soil cave show that, its stability of soil cave is affected by both the size and depth, and only when extending a certain limit, the collapse occurred along with the falling of underground water; Additionally, its maximum shear stress is in arch toes, and its deformation curve trend of maximum displacement is similar to the maximum shear stress, which further verified that the collapse of soil cave was mainly due to shear-failure.

  2. WATER QUALITY OF THE VRELIĆ SPRING IN DONJE DUBRAVE

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    Marina Trpčić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In one part of the groundwater flow in the Vrelić cave (near the village Donje Dubrave, during the explorations in 2003, oil pollution was perceived. During field prospection and contact with local population, few possible pollution sources were located. There was a strong possibility that the oil traces in the cave are the result of the railway accident in 1970. Because of the railway accident on Rijeka-Zagreb railroad, tank carriage sliped off from the tracks and the content of the dangerous cargo leaked onto the nearby valley, 800 meters away from the cave entrance. A spring, used sometimes for water supply by the local population is also located nearby. Sampling of the water from the cave and the spring was carried out several times during the next period with the intention of monitoring the pollution impact on water quality in different seasonal (climatic conditions. In the course of the laboratory analysis of the samples the following parameters were determined: Total hardness; Concentrations of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Chlorides and Nitrates; pH-value; TOC; colony-forming unit (CFU; total Coliform; fecal Streptococus; Proteus bacteria; Salmonella bacteria and Clostridium perfringens bacteria. Several of other parameters were also measured by mobile devices: Conductivity (EC, TDS, Redox-potential, pH-value and water temperature. Water tracing with Na-fluorescine was carried out before the analysis and the connection between groundwater flow in cave and the spring water was confirmed. After the creation of a topographical (speleological map of the cave and thanks to the surface (field measurements, the distance between the place of Na-fluorescine spill in the cave and the Vrelić spring was defined (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  4. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  5. Numerical simulation of formation and preservation of Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Shi, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Ice caves exist in locations where annual average air temperature is higher than 0 °C. An example is Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi Province, the largest ice cave in China. In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanism of formation and preservation of the ice cave, we use the finite-element method to simulate the heat transfer process at this ice cave. There are two major control factors. First, there is the seasonal asymmetric heat transfer. Heat is transferred into the ice cave from outside very inefficiently by conduction in spring, summer and fall. In winter, thermal convection occurs that transfers heat very efficiently out of the ice cave, thus cooling it down. Secondly, ice-water phase change provides a heat barrier for heat transfer into the cave in summer. The calculation also helps to evaluate effects of global warming, tourists, colored lights, climatic conditions, etc. for sustainable development of the ice cave as a tourism resource. In some other ice caves in China, managers have installed airtight doors at these ice caves' entrances with the intention of "protecting" these caves, but this in fact prevents cooling in winter and these cave ices will entirely melt within tens of years.

  6. Temperature as a tracer of hydrological dynamics in an anchialine cave system with a submarine spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Although temperature is a nonconservative tracer, it often provides useful information to understand hydrological processes. This study explores the potential of temperature to characterize the hydrological dynamics of a submarine spring and its coastal karst aquifer in Krka Estuary (Croatia). The estuary is well stratified and its water column has a clear thermocline. A network of loggers was designed to monitor the temperature along vertical profiles in the estuary and the coastal aquifer, taking advantage of an anchialine cave that enabled access to the subterranean estuary. The location of the thermocline in the groundwater, which defines the upper boundary of the saline intrusion, depends on (1) the recharge of the aquifer via infiltration of precipitation, (2) the evolution of the thermocline in the estuary, and (3) the tidal oscillations. The sources of water flowing though the anchialine cave were identified: brackish water from the estuary above the thermocline, saline water from the estuary below the thermocline, and freshwater from infiltrated precipitation. A conceptual model is described that characterizes the hydrological dynamics of this coastal aquifer and its interactions with the estuary. Thus, at least for some hydrological settings, temperature is a valid tracer to characterize the main hydrological processes. The measurement of temperature is inexpensive compared to other (conservative) tracers. Therefore, for those hydrological settings that have water masses with distinct temperatures, the use of temperature as a tracer to establish conceptual models of the hydrological dynamics is encouraged.

  7. Urang Cave Karst Environmental Development, as Tourism Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijono Srijono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst environment become an alternative tourist destination as well as to boost local revenues. In karst environments in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, formed Urang Cave, with an interesting endokarst phenomenon. This study aims to do zoning district Urang Cave as tourist sites. The research method is using contour maps as a base map of Urang Cave karst environment geomorphological mapping. Geomorphological data processing is using ArcView GIS 3.3 program. Land use map refers to RBI, scale 1:25.000. Geomorphological analysis refers to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 1456.K/20/MEM/2000, and petrography. Each development zone is analyzed its geophysical environmental element, then set scoring and value summation. For comprehensive environmental element analysis, chemical analysis of rocks, and water-soil chemistry. In reference to Minister of Energy Mineral Resource decrees No. 1456/K/20/MEM/2000, Urang Cave zoning defined into 3 (three zone, as follow: the Protected Zone, Cultivation Zone 1, and Cultivation Zone 2. Protected Zone, consists of Urang Cave tunnel/hallway with a unique spheleothem in it. This zone as a cave tracking site tourism, potential to produce karst water as a decent drinking water while maintaining hardness. Cultivation Zone 1 is spreading about 200 m in distance from outer appearance of spring around the cave hallway. In this zone mining of cave sediments may be done in the inactive form caves, without changing the state of the existing major exokarst morphology. Cultivation Zone 2, an outer zone, located farthest from the tunnel/hallway Urang Cave. Utilization of this zone as a limestone mining quarry, although only on a small scale.

  8. Research in karst aquifers developed in high-mountain areas combining KARSYS models with springs discharge records. Picos de Europa, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Meléndez, Mónica; Malard, Arnauld; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Heredia, Nemesio; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2014-05-01

    measurements with the geometry, extension and elevation of the springs catchment areas. This comparison allows us to characterize the functioning of the karst aquifer, validating the dimensioning of the catchment, identify other overflow springs, etc. Pressure sensors have been placed into caves of springs with the purpose of establishing quantitative relations between hydraulic heads and discharge rates in these aquifers. Jeannin et al. 2013. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69, 999-1013.

  9. DNA analysis of fecal bacteria to augment an epikarst dye trace study at Crump's Cave, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rainfall simulation experiment was performed to investigate the transport behavior of fecal-derived bacteria through shallow karst soils and through the epikarst. The experiment was conducted at Cave Springs Cavern located just south of Mammoth Cave National Park on the Sinkhole Plain of South Cen...

  10. A GIS-based methodology to quantitatively define an Adjacent Protected Area in a shallow karst cavity: the case of Altamira cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez, J; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Garcia-Anton, E; Benavente, D; Cañaveras, J C; Sanchez-Moral, S

    2013-03-30

    Different types of land use are usually present in the areas adjacent to many shallow karst cavities. Over time, the increasing amount of potentially harmful matter and energy, of mainly anthropic origin or influence, that reaches the interior of a shallow karst cavity can modify the hypogeal ecosystem and increase the risk of damage to the Palaeolithic rock art often preserved within the cavity. This study proposes a new Protected Area status based on the geological processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the Altamira cave karst system. Analysis of the geological characteristics of the shallow karst system shows that direct and lateral infiltration, internal water circulation, ventilation, gas exchange and transmission of vibrations are the processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the cave. This study applies a comprehensive methodological approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to establish the area of influence of each transfer process. The stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the interior of the cave were determined using 3D Laser Scanning topography combined with classical field work, data gathering, cartography and a porosity-permeability analysis of host rock samples. As a result, it was possible to determine the hydrogeological behavior of the cave. In addition, by mapping and modeling the surface parameters it was possible to identify the main features restricting hydrological behavior and hence direct and lateral infiltration into the cave. These surface parameters included the shape of the drainage network and a geomorphological and structural characterization via digital terrain models. Geological and geomorphological maps and models integrated into the GIS environment defined the areas involved in gas exchange and ventilation processes. Likewise, areas that could potentially transmit vibrations directly into the cave were identified. This study shows that it is possible to define a

  11. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  12. Sampling and analysis of 100 Area springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report is submitted in fulfillment of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-30-01, submit a report to EPA and Ecology evaluating the impact to the Columbia River from contaminated springs and seeps as described in the operable unit work plans listed in M-30-03. Springs, seeps, sediments, and the Columbia River were sampled for chemical and radiological analyses during the period September 16 through October 21, 1991. A total of 26 locations were sampled. Results of these analyses show that radiological and nonradiological contaminants continue to enter the Columbia River from the retired reactor areas of the 100 Area via the springs. The primary contaminants in the springs are strontium-90, tritium, and chromium. These contaminants were detected in concentrations above drinking water standards. Analysis of total organic carbon were run on all water samples collected; there is no conclusive evidence that organic constituents are entering the river through the springs. Total organic carbon analyses were generally higher for the surface water than for the springs. The results of this study will be used to develop a focused, yet flexible, long-term spring sampling program. Analysis of Columbia River water samples collected at the Hanford Townsite (i.e., downstream of the reactor areas) did not detect any Hanford-specific contaminants

  13. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Obleitner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria during a full annual cycle. The data show the basic features of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the cave ice is largely determined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes withdraw energy from the surface. This is more pronounced during winter due to enhanced circulation and lower humidity. During summer the driving gradients reverse sign and the associated fluxes provide energy for melt.

    About 4 cm of ice were lost at the measurement site during a reference year. This was due to some sublimation during winter, while the major loss resulted from melt during summer. Small amounts of accumulation occurred during spring due to refreezing of seepage water.

    These results are largely based on employing a numerical mass and energy balance model. Sensitivity studies prove reliability of the calculated energy balance regarding diverse measurement uncertainties and show that the annual mass balance of the ice strongly depends on cave air temperature during summer and the availability of seepage water in spring.

  14. Cave Entrance dependent Spore Dispersion of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Various Sediments of Iron Ore Cave in Brazil: a colloquy on human threats while caving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of fungi. The fungal community present in a cave also includes pathogenic and opportunistic species out of which some are also served as energy sources in such energy stared ecosystems. Studies on microbial diversity and their role on such energy starved ecosystem are scarce. The present study was aimed to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi present in the various sediment of an iron ore cave and to recognize them as pathogenic and/or opportunistic species. Further the impact of cave entrance on the spore depositions on various distances dependent sediments were analyzed. The results suggest a diverse microbial community inhabiting the cave and an influence of cave entrance over spore deposition on various sediments. We counted a total of 4,549 filamentous fungi that included 34 species of 12 genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Penicillium, Torula, Trichoderma, Mucor and Rhizopus. A positive significant relation was observed between spore deposition and distance from cave entrance (p= 0.001. Areas of potential mycoses risks were recognized. This is the first study on microbiological community of an iron ore cave in the country.

  15. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  16. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  17. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  18. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    karst caves and water systems in the caves are well developed. So, heavy metals can contaminate cave envi- ronment and affect cave animals. Karst topography is widely distributed in Guizhou province, China, accounting for 73.8% of the total land area. So, the examination of heavy metal pollution in cave soil and water ...

  19. The show cave of Diros vs. wild caves of Peloponnese, Greece - distribution patterns of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Lamprinou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The karst cave ‘Vlychada’of Diros, one of the oldest show caves in Peloponnese, sustains extended phototrophic biofilms on various substrata – on rocks inside the cave including speleothems, and especially near the artificial lighting installation (‘Lampenflora’. After a survey of the main abiotic parameters (Photosynthetically Active Radiation -PAR, Temperature -T, Relative Humidity -RH, Carbon Dioxide -CO2 three clusters of sampling sites were revealed according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA: i the water gallery section predominately influenced by CO2, ii the dry passages influenced by RH and PAR, and iii the area by the cave exit at the dry section influenced by temperature. The collected samples from the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave revealed a total of 43 taxa of Cyanobacteria, with the unicellular/colonial forms being the most abundant. The applied non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling Ordination (nMDS of the cumulative species composition showed a clear distinction between the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave. Further comparison with previous data from other wild caves of Peloponnese (‘Kastria’, ‘Francthi’, and ‘Selinitsa’ was conducted revealing a distinction between the show cave and the wild ones. Apart from the human impact on cave ecosystems – through aesthetic alteration (‘greening’ of cave decorations by the ‘Lampenflora’, and by the cleaning treatments and restoration projects on the speleothems – identification of the organisms constituting the ‘Lampenflora’ might provide taxonomically and ecologically significant taxa.

  20. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Rivera Angel M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwesternPuerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species. The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo, Cueva de Malano(Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán, and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas. The mostconspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales. Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guanoincubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water at ambient laboratory conditions.Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramariasp. and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana were also recorded. They were foundon soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.

  1. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  2. Exposure to radon in Cuban tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge; Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Gil Castillo, Reinaldo; Molerio Leon, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    With the objective of estimating the dose, due to Radon-222, received by tour guides and other people who work inside some of the most important tourist caves in the Republic of Cuba, measurements of radon concentrations were carried out in four of these caves: Santo Tomas Cave, Tapiada Cave, Del Indio Cave and Jose Miguel Cave. All these caves are located in the Vinales Valley (Pinar del Rio City), a very important tourist area in the country. The relationship among radon concentration, the concentration of natural radionuclides inside the caves and the geologic characteristics of the specific locations was analyzed. In order to select the most appropriates measurement places, different criteria were taken into account: representatives points of the geology of the caves, level of gamma radiation, exchange of air, places of work inside the caves (cafeterias, restaurants and shops) and places more frequently visited by tour guides. The maximum radon concentration was found in Jose Miguel Cave with a value of 220 Bq/m 3 . The measurement of gamma dose rate inside the caves was carried out with a scintillation detector type Scintrex BGS-3 previously calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The radon concentrations were measured with the equipment Alpha Guard PQ2000/MC50 and SARAD RM2000, both also calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The obtained results indicated that, in the studied caves, the annual dose is not greater than 1 mSv considering a work year of 2000 hours. (author)

  3. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.

    2017-03-01

    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  4. Differences between caves with and without bats in a Brazilian karst habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Torquetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Since bats shelter in roosts during their period of diurnal inactivity, the quality and availability of roosts are important aspects of their ecology. Karst areas have great potential for the availability of day roosts, since they form caves, which serve as bat shelters. Here we characterize the caves used by bats in a preserved karst area of Southeastern Brazil. Using logistic regression analysis we identified the cave characteristics that influence bat occupation. Sixty-six caves were characterized based on measurements of internal height and width, height and width of the entrance(s of the cave, number of entrances, maximum horizontal development of cave, and internal temperature and humidity. In nineteen months we found 14 species in 32 caves. Most species were eventually recorded in multiple caves, with the exception of D. rotundus, G. soricina and A. planirostris, which were always found in the same caves. Desmodus rotundus showed maternity roost fidelity. We found no differences in microclimate between the caves that are occupied and those that are not. In other words, the microclimate of the caves studied herein can be characterized as stable over the years. The only predictor affecting the presence of bats in the study area was the cave’s maximum horizontal development: the caves that are occupied have greater horizontal development. Based on our results, we conclude that bats occupy many of the caves and that some species are more frequent in certain caves than in others, including some roosts that are used as maternity roosts. These findings indicate that these caves are important resources for the bats in the karst environment studied, and should be preserved.

  5. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John

    2016-05-01

    The steeply-dipping-dolostone-hosted caves of the Sierra de Arnero (N Spain) contain low-gradient relict canyons with up to ten mapped levels of ferromanganese stromatolites and associated wall notches over a vertical range of 85 m, the highest occurring 460 m above base level. Despite a plausible speleogenetic contribution by pyrite oxidation, and the irregular cave-wall mesomorphologies suggestive of hypogenic speleogenesis, the Arnero relict caves are dominantly epigenic, as indicated by the conduit pattern and the abundant allogenic sediments. Allogenic input declined over time due to a piracy-related decrease in the drainage area of allogenic streams, explaining the large size of the relict Arnero caves relative to the limited present-day outcrop area of the karstified carbonates. Allogenic-sediment input also explains the observed change from watertable canyons to phreatic conduits in the paleo-downstream direction. Stromatolites and notches arguably formed in cave-stream passages at the watertable. The best-defined paleo-watertables show an overall slope of 1.7°, consistent with the present-day relief of the watertable, with higher-slope segments caused by barriers related to sulfide mineralization. The formation of watertable stromatolites favored wall notching by the combined effect of enhanced acidity by Mn-Fe oxidation and shielding of cave floors against erosion. Abrasive bedload further contributed to notch formation by promoting lateral mechanical erosion and protecting passage floors. The irregular wallrock erosional forms of Arnero caves are related partly to paragenesis and partly to the porous nature of the host dolostones, which favored irregular dissolution near passage walls, generating friable halos. Subsequent mechanical erosion contributed to generate spongework patterns. The dolostone porosity also contributes to explain the paradox that virtually all Arnero caves are developed in dolostone despite being less soluble than adjacent

  6. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS): a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Martínez, Alejandro; Álvarez, Fernando; Boxshall, Geoff; Humphreys, William F.; Jaume, Damià; Becking, L.E.; Muricy, Guilherme; Hengstum, van Peter J.; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Decock, Wim; Vanhoorne, Bart; Vandepitte, Leen; Bailly, Nicolas; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant

  7. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  8. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  9. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed

  10. Clastic cave deposits in Botovskaya cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Hercman, H.; Osintsev, A.; Oberhänsli, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2008), s. 142-155 ISSN 1090-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * mineral magnetism * Botovskaya Cave Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2008 http://www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_70.htm

  11. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  12. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  13. In search of spring mires in Namibia: the Waterberg area revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Grootjans

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of peatlands and mires in Namibia is well known. Peatlands have been found in the north, which is the wettest part of the country. In the 1930s, spring mires were reported by German geologists in the Waterberg area, which also has relatively high annual precipitation. This short note reports some field observations and a literature search for old documents that mention the occurrence of springs and spring mires in the Waterberg region. The search was done by IMCG members who visited the Waterberg area in August 2014. We found springs, but no real mires. However, we found remnants of what might have been a large spring mire similar to that reported by the German geologist Paul Range, who found “local spring mires (Quellmoore with a peat thickness of several metres in northern South-West Africa”. Whether or not our peat remnants were situated at the same site as the Range discovery could not be assessed. We compared the landscape position of the peat remnants and spring in the Waterberg area of Namibia with information from an ongoing ecohydrological study in the Waterberg area of Limpopo Province, South Africa.

  14. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS: a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant information remains fragmented in isolated publications and databases. This fragmentation makes assessing the conservation status of marine cave species especially problematic, and this issue should be addressed urgently given the stresses resulting from planned and rampant development in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS initiative is to create a comprehensive taxonomic and ecological database of known species from marine caves and anchialine systems worldwide and to present this as a Thematic Species Database (TSD of the World Register of marine Species (WoRMS. WoRCS will incorporate ecological data (e.g., type of environment, salinity regimes, and cave zone as well as geographical information on the distribution of species in cave and anchialine environments. Biodiversity data will be progressively assembled from individual database sources at regional, national or local levels, as well as from literature sources (estimate: >20,000 existing records of cave-dwelling species scattered in several databases. Information will be organized in the WoRCS database following a standard glossary based on existing terminology. Cave-related information will be managed by the WoRCS thematic editors with all data dynamically linked to WoRMS and its team of taxonomic editors. In order to mobilize data into global biogeographic databases, a Gazetteer of the Marine and Anchialine Caves of the World will be established. The presence records of species could be eventually georeferenced for submission to the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and constitute an important dataset for biogeographical and

  15. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    an intensive chemical action on the surrounding rocks (corrosion), which results in formation of underground karrens. Smaller parts of these caverns are covered with speleothems (dripstone formations). The palaeo-hydrogeological function of these caves is characterized by sinkholes on the ground surface (although their entrances are most probably now caved-in or yet undiscovered), and perhaps by a part of cave canals of a swallow hole (ponor) in the Biokovo hinterland (which is less probable because of intensive neotectonic uplift of this mountainous mass). Inaccessible bottom, northern and eastern parts of the cavern might be linked with the speleological system of caverns passing through Biokovo and participating in formation of submarine springs in the sea below Biokovo. In fact, the ground water found in these speleological sites has to pass either below or through the Sveti Ilija Tunnel, as it re-emerges from numerous submarine springs in the coastal area of Makarska (from Dubac to Podgora and Drašnica) (Alfirević, 1969). The depth of karstification (weathering) in the zone of this speleological site is estimated at several hundreds of meters, with an estimated maximum of 1500 meters, while the zone of vertical circulation ranges from 500 meters to 1700 meters. This is followed by the zone of inclined or horizontal circulation through which the water is carried toward the Adriatic Sea. Impermeable Triassic and maybe even Palaeozoic clastite or dolomite formations are situated in the substratum. As Triassic dolomites are from the hydrogeological standpoint permeable, due to intensive secondary porosity (jointing), it can reasonably be expected that several similar and genetically correspondent joints, formed in the anticline due to general subduction, are situated in continuation of these sites (or are parallel to them). These possible caves are not accessible from the surface and might be linked to the mentioned hydrogeological system in the lower parts of

  16. Study of aerosols collected in a speleotherapeutic cave situated below Budapest, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs. E-mail: zsofi@moon.atomki.hu; Borbely-Kiss, I.; Hunyadi, I

    1999-04-02

    The Szemlohegy-cave is one of the well-known hydrothermal caves of the Rozsadomb area of Budapest, which have been used for speleotherapy of respiratory diseases for years. It is known from the periodically changing airborne radon activity concentration data, that airflow of seasonally reversed direction are formed along the cave passages and fissures due to the temperature difference between the surface and cave air. This means that an intensive interaction takes place between the cave and its environment. The pollution of nearby waters and the urban atmospheric air represents a real danger for these caves below Buda, which recently became the part of the UNESCO World Heritage. The study of cave aerosols should be very important from the point of view of either the control possibilities of the environmental impact or speleotherapy, and probably helps in getting acquainted with the cave-forming processes. In this work we applied our standard aerosol sampling method to the high-humidity environment of the caves, and we studied the elemental composition, size fractionation as well as the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of cave aerosols. Thanks to the sensitivity of PIXE traces of anthropogenic pollution of the Budapest air are shown in the Szemlohegy-cave. Measured elemental concentrations remained less than one-tenth the air quality standard valid for the increasingly protected areas.

  17. Study of aerosols collected in a speleotherapeutic cave situated below Budapest, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Borbely-Kiss, I.; Hunyadi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Szemlohegy-cave is one of the well-known hydrothermal caves of the Rozsadomb area of Budapest, which have been used for speleotherapy of respiratory diseases for years. It is known from the periodically changing airborne radon activity concentration data, that airflow of seasonally reversed direction are formed along the cave passages and fissures due to the temperature difference between the surface and cave air. This means that an intensive interaction takes place between the cave and its environment. The pollution of nearby waters and the urban atmospheric air represents a real danger for these caves below Buda, which recently became the part of the UNESCO World Heritage. The study of cave aerosols should be very important from the point of view of either the control possibilities of the environmental impact or speleotherapy, and probably helps in getting acquainted with the cave-forming processes. In this work we applied our standard aerosol sampling method to the high-humidity environment of the caves, and we studied the elemental composition, size fractionation as well as the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of cave aerosols. Thanks to the sensitivity of PIXE traces of anthropogenic pollution of the Budapest air are shown in the Szemlohegy-cave. Measured elemental concentrations remained less than one-tenth the air quality standard valid for the increasingly protected areas

  18. Feasibility Study of Padarangin Cave Slogohimo Wonogiri for Eco-Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Area of Karst of mount Sewu in countryside of Padarangin own immeasurable of potency to be developed by besides activity of mining namely the tourism activity. Cave of nature found enable to can be developed as tourism, but date not yet been known how big potency of relevant tourism with the cave.  In line with the problems, this research aim to provide basic data of potency of cave and assess elegibility of cave. Padarangin for ecotourism in Wonogiri Regeny. Method used by survey of field and interview resident. Result of research indicate that cave of Padarangin have mount of cave at height 848 m msl which relative narrow, chamber horizontal as long as 63,8 m and vertical in 32,5 m. Needed by a special equipment to enter cave with capasities 10 – 15 people once the visit/incoming, owning value of sakral trusted by local society. The cave competent to be developed as tourism object of special enthusasm with visit limited.

  19. The bat fauna of the Kararaô and Kararaô Novo caves in the area under the influence of the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam, in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortéa, M; Bastos, N A; Acioli, T C

    2015-08-01

    Brazil's large territory displays significant richness in caves with about 12 thousand caves already recorded. Nevertheless, studies on bats in these environments are extremely scarce and fragmented. This study characterized the chiropteran fauna from two sandstone caves under the influence of the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam (Belo Monte UHE) in Pará, Brazil. The Kararaô and Kararaô Novo caves are located on the same ridge, 250 m apart. Three expeditions were carried out in 2013 and 2014, with a 4- to 5-month interval in between. A total of 589 animals were caught, 246 in the Kararaô cave and 343 in the Kararaô Novo cave. Fifteen species were recorded (13 in each cave) representing 79% similarity. With the exception of Vampyrum spectrum, which is not a cave species, the remaining recorded species were mostly cave bat species. Some species seemed to use the caves seasonally, although the basis of this pattern is still unknown. The most commonly observed species were Pteronotus personatus (dominant in the Kararaô cave), P. parnellii (dominant in the Kararaô Novo cave), and Lionycteris spurrelli, which accounted for 65% of all captures recorded for the two caves. Natalus macrourus is a species recorded in the Kararaô cave that is regionally threatened with extinction. Both caves are less than 500 m from the future reservoir; however, because the Kararaô cave entry is in an area that is lower than the reservoir, it can suffer alterations that would affect its dynamics. This raises great concern about the cave's associated fauna.

  20. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  1. Cave age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the age of a cave we have to determine the age of elements which were created at the same moment when the cave was. Usually a cave is dug out by infiltration of acid waters. During this alteration process rocks free some aluminium and potassium ions. In Carlsbad and Lechuguilla caves, scientists have found alunite, this aluminium and potassium sulfate can be dated by using the carbon method of age determination. (A.C.)

  2. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  3. Cryogenic Cave Pearls In the Periglacial Zones of Ice Caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Orvošová, M.; Filippi, Michal; Vlček, M.; Onac, B. P.; Persoiu, A.; Rohovec, Jan; Světlík, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2013), s. 207-220 ISSN 1527-1404 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : caves * cryogenic caves * ice caves * periglacial zones Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.943, year: 2013

  4. The bat fauna of the Kararaô and Kararaô Novo caves in the area under the influence of the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam, in Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zortéa

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil’s large territory displays significant richness in caves with about 12 thousand caves already recorded. Nevertheless, studies on bats in these environments are extremely scarce and fragmented. This study characterized the chiropteran fauna from two sandstone caves under the influence of the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam (Belo Monte UHE in Pará, Brazil. The Kararaô and Kararaô Novo caves are located on the same ridge, 250 m apart. Three expeditions were carried out in 2013 and 2014, with a 4- to 5-month interval in between. A total of 589 animals were caught, 246 in the Kararaô cave and 343 in the Kararaô Novo cave. Fifteen species were recorded (13 in each cave representing 79% similarity. With the exception of Vampyrum spectrum, which is not a cave species, the remaining recorded species were mostly cave bat species. Some species seemed to use the caves seasonally, although the basis of this pattern is still unknown. The most commonly observed species were Pteronotus personatus (dominant in the Kararaô cave, P. parnellii (dominant in the Kararaô Novo cave, and Lionycteris spurrelli, which accounted for 65% of all captures recorded for the two caves. Natalus macrourus is a species recorded in the Kararaô cave that is regionally threatened with extinction. Both caves are less than 500 m from the future reservoir; however, because the Kararaô cave entry is in an area that is lower than the reservoir, it can suffer alterations that would affect its dynamics. This raises great concern about the cave’s associated fauna.

  5. Seasonal variations of {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: minami@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kato, Tomomi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Horikawa, Keiji [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Toyama University, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem {sup 14}C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric {sup 14}C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of {sup 14}C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem {sup 14}C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO{sub 2}. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different {sup 14}C concentrations and δ{sup 13}C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO{sub 2}, and flow paths. Further, the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The {sup 14}C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: {sup 14}C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in {sup 14}C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using {sup 14}C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  6. Census of biodiversity in marine caves of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. GEROVASILEIOU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific information on the biodiversity of marine caves in the eastern Mediterranean is limited, especially when considering the extensively studied caves of the north-western and central Mediterranean. Aiming to enhance current knowledge regarding cave communities, this study represents a first assessment of the marine cave biota of the eastern Mediterranean, as this has been defined by the European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Information retrieved from an extensive overview of relevant scientific documents was combined with original data recorded from 23 marine caves of the north-eastern Mediterranean. Our results report a total of 520 taxa recorded in eastern Mediterranean marine caves to date, the majority of which are sponges, polychaetes, rhodophytes, bivalves, fishes, and gastropods. These include several protected, endemic, and alien species. However, not all taxonomic groups have been equally studied among different areas and future studies are expected to raise the number of endemic and alien species. The overall observed trend is that the reported species number is generally related to sampling effort and scientific expertise. The most well-studied marine cave communities of the eastern Mediterranean are those of the Aegean Sea (especially its northern sector, which presented the highest number of species, followed by those of the Levantine. Furthermore, our research in Aegean caves revealed numerous new records for the marine cave fauna of the eastern basin, while several species are reported for the first time in the marine cave habitat. The critical need for further scientific research, monitoring, and conservation of this unique ecosystem was highlighted by (i the presence of certain species endemic to the eastern Mediterranean coupled with a high proportion of alien species, especially in the Levantine, and (ii the marine cave habitat availability in isolated insular areas of the eastern Mediterranean.

  7. Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genty Dominique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl that has provided several speleothempalaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring theVillars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and inthe hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explainsthe sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from thelower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring.A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations and thedrip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between twonearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a dailyscale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave airtemperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence ofthe outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoringover a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minorelements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, whichimplies a different seepage pathway

  8. Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillmore, G.K.; Phillips, P.S.; Denman, A.R.; Gilbertson, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m -3 ) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m -3 in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m -3 ). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system

  9. Structural and hydrological controls on the development of a river cave in marble (Tapagem Cave - SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sallun Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapagem Cave (or Devil’s Cave is a river cave developed in the dolomite marble karst of the Serra do André Lopes (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Although this region is a plateau with significant variation in elevation and a humid subtropical climate, the cave is an anomalous feature in the André Lopes karst because there are few other caves. The marble, which is in a synclinal structure with subjacent phyllites, is a karst aquifer perched above the regional base level (Ribeira River and has little allogenic recharge. The cave developed on a secondary anticline on the northwest flank of the marble synform forming a blind valley, the Tapagem River sink, that is an underground tributary of Ostras River. Development of the cave is due to the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley and the large allogenic catchment area of the sink. In plan view, the morphology of the cave can be divided into three different sectors. The first sector, known as the Tourist Sector, has extensive collapse rooms, fossil passages and a variety of speleothems of notable dimensions. The second and most extensive sector is the river passage, which is a sinuous gallery controlled by marble banding with NE-SW cleavage and NW-SE fractures. In cross-section, the passages are vadose canyons up to 70 m in height, controlled by the marble banding. Four NW-SE diabase dykes in this passage do not affect its direction in plan view. The third sector is an extensive network of passages and collapse rooms, which are interlaced in plan view and on different levels, forming a maze pattern. Initially, the Tapagem and Ostras Rivers developed on a gentle surface and flowed into the Ribeira River. With the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley, the Tapagem River partially infiltrated via a paleosink into the upper passage of the “Erectus Room," remaining a half-blind valley. Following a series of collapses and obstructions, the River next infiltrated via the current

  10. Radiological Studies in the Hot Spring Region of Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun Thermal Spring Areas in Western Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity in and around the two hot springs, Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun, Western Sinai has been determined. The ground water, sediment and sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer for 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K isotopes. The enrichment of 226 Ra in Hammam Faraun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The concentration of 226 Ra in Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun hot springs are 68 and 2377 Bq/kg for sediments, 3.5 and 54.7 Bq/kg for wild plants, and 205 and 1945 mBq/l for the ground water, respectively. In addition, the concentration of sand samples are 14 times larger in the area of Hammam Faraun compared with that of Oyoun Mossa. On the other hand, the concentration of 232 Th in different samples are comparable in the two areas while 137 Cs concentrations are relatively higher in Oyoun Mossa. For the purpose of comparison, sand samples were collected from two locations 5-12 km away from each spring. The activity concentrations of the four locations are comparable and in agreement with those from the area of the two springs except in one case. The major difference was the activity concentration of 226 Ra in the area of Hammam Faraun, which is much higher. The concentrations of all detected isotopes in water samples from these two springs are much higher than that detected in 27 natural wells in north Sinai. The results of the present study indicate that water only in Hammam Faraun hot spring is contaminated with 238 U-isotopes and the surrounding area is affected by this contamination. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents in the surroundings of Hammam Faraun (81.8 μSv) is superior to the maximum contaminant levels recommended.

  11. A geochronological approach for cave evolution in the Cantabrian Coast (Pindal Cave, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Sanchez, M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Stoll, H.; Aranburu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the oldest speleothems in the North Cantabrian Coast (Spain) are reported for the first time in this work. Pindal Cave is developed at 24 m above sea level, in a karstic massif reaching its highest surface in a marine terrace (rasa) located at 50-64 m above the present sea level. Several phases of evolution were previously recognized into the cave, including block collapse of the roof, episodic flooding and detrital sedimentation, and chemical precipitation of at least four speleothem generations over both alluvial and collapse deposits. Three of these speleothem generations have been dated by U/Th. The first generation yielded ages from 124,2 ?? 1, 5 ka BP to 73,1 ?? 0,9 ka BP, giving a minimum age for the main detritic sediments in the cave. The second one is not dated. The third generation gives an age of 3,71 ?? 0,4 ka BP (mathematically corrected to 2.7 ?? 0.5 ka BP), while for the youngest generation, with actively growing stalagmites in the cave, basal ages of 200 years BP are estimated by counting annual laminae. The data suggest a tentative maximum elevation rate close to 0, 2 mm/yr for the Cantabrian Margin in this area, although further chronological studies will be needed to check this hypothesis. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  12. The role of natural ventilation in the exposure to radon in the Postojna Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, A.; Smerajec, M.; Vaupotič, J.

    2012-04-01

    periods (spring and autumn), focusing on the unattached fraction of RnDP (fun), a key parameter in radon dosimetry. Dose conversion factors (DCF) were calculated (using Porstendörfer approach) from measured fun for the four periods and compared with recommended DCF, based on the results of epidemiological studies. Results of calculated DCF are in the range from 8-18 mSV WLM-1, much higher that recommended values, and differ significantly for summer and winter period. The lowest value of DCF was calculated for winter period, when the enhanced inflow of cold outside air introduces outdoor aerosols into the cave and consequently lowers fun. On the other hand, calculated DCF during summer period was significantly higher, caused by high fun, which is the consequence of very low particle concentration in cave air during summer ventilation regime. Taking into account also significantly higher radon concentration during summer, when about 70 % of visits is recorded, it is evident, that personnel receives the highest annual dose during summer months.

  13. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  14. WP-Cave - assessment of feasibility, safety and development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    According to SKB R and D-programme 1986, alternative disposal methods will be investigated to provide a basis for selecting a site and a repository system for the Swedish spent nuclear fuel. The present report is a comparison between the WP-Cave and the reference concept KBS-3. The comparison has resulted in the following conclusions: - Both concepts are judged to be able to provide adequate safety. - A utilization of the potential of the WP-Cave requires, however, extensive development in areas where the current state of knowledge and available data are incomplete. - The higher temperatures in the WP-Cave lead to greater uncertainty as to long-term performance. Reducing this uncertainty would require many yaers of research and substantial resources. - Both repositories, including the barriers they incorporate, could be built with a normal adaption of available technology. -It is not possible to say today whether it would be simpler to find suitable sites for one design or the other. - The WP-Cave is considerably more expensive. A future research direction based on a concentrated emplacement of spent fuel along the lines of the WP-Cave is therefore judged to entail greater uncertainty as regards the possibilities of achieving acceptable safety and to require greater resources for research and development, at the same time as the costs of building the repository would be higher. The studies of the WP-Cave as an integral system should therfore be discontinued. Certain barrier designs in the WP-Cave could also be utulized in repository designs with lower temperature, for example the reduction potential of the steel canisters and the hydraulic cage's diversion of groundwater. Studies within these areas are being conducted within SKB and should continue

  15. The impact of river water intrusion on trace metal cycling in karst aquifers: an example from the Floridan aquifer system at Madison Blue Spring, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. L.; Martin, J. B.; Screaton, E.; Spellman, P.; Gulley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Springs located adjacent to rivers can serve as recharge points for aquifers when allogenic runoff increases river stage above the hydraulic head of the spring, forcing river water into the spring vent. Depending on relative compositions of the recharged water and groundwater, the recharged river water could be a source of dissolved trace metals to the aquifer, could mobilize solid phases such as metal oxide coatings, or both. Whether metals are mobilized or precipitated should depend on changes in redox and pH conditions as dissolved oxygen and organic carbon react following intrusion of the river water. To assess how river intrusion events affect metal cycling in springs, we monitored a small recharge event in April 2011 into Madison Blue Spring, which discharges to the Withlacoochee River in north-central Florida. Madison Blue Spring is the entrance to a phreatic cave system that includes over 7.8 km of surveyed conduits. During the event, river stage increased over base flow conditions for approximately 25 days by a maximum of 8%. Intrusion of the river water was monitored with conductivity, temperature and depth sensors that were installed within the cave system and adjacent wells. Decreased specific conductivity within the cave system occurred for approximately 20 days, reflecting the length of time that river water was present in the cave system. During this time, grab samples were collected seven times over a period of 34 days for measurements of major ion and trace metal concentrations at the spring vent and at Martz sink, a karst window connected to the conduit system approximately 150 meters from the spring vent. Relative fractions of surface water and groundwater were estimated based on Cl concentrations of the samples, assuming conservative two end-member mixing during the event. This mixing model indicates that maximum river water contribution to the groundwater system was approximately 20%. River water had concentrations of iron, manganese, and other

  16. Differentiated spring behavior under changing hydrological conditions in an alpine karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Maria; Squarzoni, Gabriela; De Waele, Jo; Fiorucci, Adriano; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Grillo, Barbara; Riva, Alberto; Rossetti, Stefano; Zini, Luca; Casagrande, Giacomo; Stumpp, Christine; Gargini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Limestone massifs with a high density of dolines form important karst aquifers in most of the Alps, often with groundwater circulating through deep karst conduits and water coming out of closely spaced springs with flow rates of over some cubic meters per second. Although several hydrogeological studies and tracing experiments were carried out in many of these carbonate mountains in the past, the hydrogeology of most of these karst aquifers is still poorly known. Geological, hydrodynamic and hydrochemical investigations have been carried out in one of the most representative of these areas (Cansiglio-Monte Cavallo, NE Italy) since spring 2015, in order to enhance the knowledge on this important type of aquifer system. Additionally, a cave-to-spring multitracer test was carried out in late spring 2016 by using three different fluorescent tracers. This hydrogeological study allowed: 1) gathering new detailed information on the geological and tectonic structure of such alpine karst plateau; 2) defining discharge rates of the three main springs (Gorgazzo, Santissima, and Molinetto) by constructing rating curves; 3) understanding the discharging behavior of the system with respect to different recharge conditions; 4) better defining the recharge areas of the three springs. The three nearby springs (the spring front stretches over 5 km), that drain the investigated karst aquifer system, show different behaviors with respect to changing discharge conditions, demonstrating this aquifer to be divided in partially independent drainage systems under low-flow conditions, when their chemistry is clearly differentiated. Under high-flow conditions, waters discharging at all springs show more similar geochemical characteristics. The combination of geochemistry, hydrodynamic monitoring and dye tracing tests has shown that the three springs have different recharge areas. The study points out that even closely spaced karst springs, that apparently drain the same karst mountain, can

  17. Cave exploitation by an usual epigean species: a review on the current knowledge on fire salamander breeding in cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra is a relatively common epigean amphibian, widely distributed throughout Europe, which usually gives birth to aquatic larvae. Even if epigean streams represent the most common places in which the species breeds, in some countries caves with underground waters are also used. To improve our understanding of the habitat features allowing successful breeding of salamanders in underground sites, we combined an exhaustive review of the available literature, especially the grey one, with direct observations performed from 2008 to 2017 in several natural and artificial caves of Lombardy, Liguria and Tuscany (Italy, Ariège and Provence (France. We provide a synthesis of published and unpublished caves in which the fire salamander breeding has been observed, along with a synthesis of the investigated ecological, behavioural and morphological traits. The use of underground sites is reported in several published papers and appears to be a common phenomenon not limited to single karst areas. The absence of predators, the relative stability of the aquatic habitats and the possibility to exploit new ecological resources are environmental factors that favour the breeding of the fire salamander. Our synthesis suggests that breeding of fire salamanders in caves is not a random event, but a widespread phenomenon that may be linked to specific biogeographical factors. Further insights may be obtained by performing genetic analyses on both cave and epigean populations, and considering larger landscape scales for ecological studies as well. Gene flow between salamanders that breed in caves and in streams probably occurs, but on the other hand, assortative mating might limit it, thus allowing the conservation of local adaptations driving successful cave colonisation.

  18. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  19. High Resolution Time Series Cave Ventilation Processes and the Effects on Cave Air Chemistry and Drip Waters: Speleoclimatology and Proxy Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczk, A. J.; Froelich, P. N.; Gaffka, C.; Tremaine, D.

    2008-12-01

    Continuous high resolution (sub-hourly), long-term (Nov 2007-present) monitoring of cave air chemistry (Temperature, Relative Humidity, Barometric Pressure, Radon-222, CO2, Air flow, Wind speed and direction) in a shallow subtropical cave (Hollow Ridge) in N Florida reveals two major ventilation mechanisms: 1) ventilation driven by winds across the cave entrances, and 2) ventilation driven by density differences between atmospheric and cave air. The degree and type of ventilation strongly influence the 222Rn and CO2 of cave air, which in turn affects the timing and extent of calcite deposition in speleothems. The degree of ventilation is estimated using a cave air CO2-δ13CO2 Keeling Plot, or a simple radon deficiency model. Results show cave air has an atmospheric component ranging from 10-90%. During fall and winter, average CO2 (700 ppmv) and 222Rn (50-100 dpm/L) are lower than in spring and summer (CO2 = 1200 ppmv; 222Rn = 1000 dpm/L) due to increased winter ventilation. Decreased ventilation during the summer allows CO2 and 222Rn levels to rise. Winter daily ventilation is primarily a function of density gradients between cave air and atmospheric air, while summer daily ventilation is primarily a function of late morning NW-NE winds above the cave. Stable isotope analyses of drip water (fracture drip and pore flow drip) and aquifer water from Hollow Ridge agree with previous isotope studies of drip water at Florida Caverns State Park, 2 km to the NE. During summer, isotopic composition of pore flow drip water (δ18O -3.8 to -4.0 per mil; δD -17.3 to -20.2 per mil VSMOW) and aquifer water (δ18O -4.0 per mil; δD -18.0 to -21.1 per mil) are similar to average annual weighted isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O -3.6 per mil) while fracture drip waters (δ18O -3 to -3.4 per mil; δD -11.9 to -14.3 per mil) likely reflect the isotopic composition of individual precipitation events. Pore flow drip waters δ18O are weakly correlated with drip rates

  20. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar Supported by Mineralogical-Geochemical Methods for Mapping Unroofed Cave Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Čeru

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR using a special unshielded 50 MHz Rough Terrain Antenna (RTA in combination with a shielded 250 MHz antenna was used to study the capability of this geophysical method for detecting cave sediments. Allochthonous cave sediments found in the study area of Lanski vrh (W Slovenia are now exposed on the karst surface in the so-called “unroofed caves” due to a general lowering of the surface (denudation of carbonate rocks and can provide valuable evidence of the karst development. In the first phase, GPR profiles were measured at three test locations, where cave sediments are clearly evident on the surface and appear with flowstone. It turned out that cave sediments are clearly visible on GPR radargrams as areas of strong signal attenuation. Based on this finding, GPR profiling was used in several other places where direct indicators of unroofed caves or other indicators for speleogenesis are not present due to strong surface reshaping. The influence of various field conditions, especially water content, on GPR measurements was also analysed by comparing radargrams measured in various field conditions. Further mineralogical-geochemical analyses were conducted to better understand the factors that influence the attenuation in the area of cave sediments. Samples of cave sediments and soils on carbonate rocks (rendzina were taken for X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence (XRF analyses to compare the mineral and geochemical compositions of both sediments. Results show that cave sediments contain higher amounts of clay minerals and iron/aluminium oxides/hydroxides which, in addition to the thickness of cave sediments, can play an important role in the depth of penetration. Differences in the mineral composition also lead to water retention in cave sediments even through dry periods which additionally contribute to increased attenuation with respect to surrounding soils. The GPR method has proven to be reliable for

  1. Glacial origin for cave rhythmite during MIS 5d-c in a glaciokarst landscape, Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Giralt, Santiago; DeFelipe, Irene; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2017-06-01

    Laminated slackwater deposits have been identified in many karst caves related to fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation. However, sedimentological evidence rarely supports a glacial origin for these deposits, which was proposed by previous studies. The Torca La Texa shaft is located in a glaciokarst area that comprises numerous slackwater-type deposits, piled up in fining-upward sequences. A basal sandy erosive layer and millimeter-sized laminated rhythmite with interbedded flowstone characterize these sequences. Fining-upward layers of carbonate silt, clay, and minor quartz sand deposited in flooded conduits define the rhythmite lamination. The presence of allochthonous minerals indicates that the rhythmite sediment comes from the glacial erosion of nearby carbonate mountains. Two 234U/230Th radiometric ages dated the rhythmite deposits around 109 and 95 ka, coinciding with relative cold periods included in the MIS 5d-c. These cold periods were marked by a high annual seasonality, immediately after the glacial local maximum extension, in agreement with a varve-type deposit. The combination of these sedimentological mineralogical, geomorphological and paleoclimate information indicates that the rhythmite should be introduced into the studied cave during the summer melting of the glaciers, which produced the recharge of the karst aquifer, triggering cave floods. In addition, punctual glacier collapses would also have their imprint in the slackwater sequences with thicker, coarser and erosive sand deposits and the spring blocking by glaciers may have promoted floods inside the cave. Therefore, the studied rhythmite can be interpreted as glacial varves decanted during the relatively cold climate conditions.

  2. Dating the Lascaux cave gour formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genty, D.; Touma, M.; Konik, S.; Konik, S.; Valladas, H.; Hellstrom, J.; Moreau, C.; Dumoulin, J.P.; Nouet, J.; Dauphin, Y.; Weil, R.

    2011-01-01

    Lascaux Cave is renowned for its outstanding prehistoric paintings, strikingly well-preserved over about 18,000 yr. While stalagmites and stalactites are almost absent in the cave, there is an extensive calcite flow-stone that covered a large part of the cave until its opening for tourists during the 1950's. The deposit comprises a succession of calcite rims, or 'gours', which allowed seepage water to pond in large areas in the cave. Their possible role in preservation of the cave paintings has often been evoked, but until now this deposit has not been studied in detail. Here, we present 24 new radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and 6 uranium-thorium (U-Th) analyses from the calcite of the gours, 4 AMS 14 C dates from charcoals trapped in the calcite, and 4 AMS 14 C analyses on organic matter extracted from the calcite. Combining the calibrated 14 C ages obtained on charcoals and organic matter and U-Th ages from 14 C analyses made on the carbonate, has allowed the calculation of the dead carbon proportion (dcp) of the carbonate deposits. The latter, used with the initial atmospheric 14 C activities reconstructed with the new IntCal09 calibration data, allows high-resolution age estimation of the gour calcite samples and their growth rates. The carbonate deposit grew between 9530 and 6635 yr cal BP (for dcp = 10.7 ± 1.8%; 2 s) or between 8518 and 5489 yr cal BP (for dcp = 20.5 ± 1.9%; 2 s). This coincides with humid periods that can be related to the Atlantic period in Europe and to Sapropel 1 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. However, geomorphological changes at the cave entrance might also have played a role in the gour development. In the 1940's, when humans entered the cave for the first time since its prehistoric occupation, the calcite gours had already been inactive for several thousand years. (authors)

  3. Črna Jama as a cold air trap cave within Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebela, Stanka; Turk, Janez

    2017-10-01

    Črna Jama is the coldest section of cave within the Postojna Cave System. Mean annual air temperatures at the Črna Jama 2 site are 5.6 °C (2015) and 5.7 °C (2016), and at the Črna Jama 3 site 7.1 °C (2015) and 7.2 (2016), whereas the mean external air temperature was 10.3 °C (2015) and 10.0 °C (2016). In Lepe Jame, the passage most heavily visited by tourists, the mean cave-air temperature is 10.7 °C (2014-2017). Črna Jama exhibits winter and summer temperature regimes. During warm periods (Tcave Tout), ventilation takes place and dense, cold, outside air sinks into Črna Jama because of the favourable cave entrance morphology. Recent Črna Jama air temperature data (2014-2017) indicate a < 0.5 °C higher temperature than that recorded in historical data since 1933. Črna Jama is the most appropriate place within the Postojna Cave System to study long-term climatic changes. There are hardly any tourist visits to the cave, and human impacts on the cave climate are essentially reduced.

  4. Cave Conservation Priority Index to Adopt a Rapid Protection Strategy: A Case Study in Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15 % of the caves, high for 36 % and average for 46 % of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  5. Minerals cave, Volcan Irazu, Costa Rica: description, mineralogy and origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Andres; Campos-Fernandez, Cristian S.; Rojas, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Two caves are found in the NW sector of the main crater of the Volcan Irazu at the base of the crown of a glide. The caves are located in an area of structural weakness of the massif developed in sequences of pyroclasts with hydrothermal alteration. Several explorations are organized for the recognition of the caves. The purpose has been of collecting samples and photographs for mineralogical and topographic analyses, through X-ray diffractometry. The minerals present in the samples are compared and identified by means of PDF-2 power x-ray diffraction database of the 2007 ICDD, International Center for Diffraction Data. The origin of the caves has been studied, and it is suggested to carry out other of complement studies [es

  6. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  7. Natural and artificial radioactivity in Emendere thermal spring area in Western Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Karahan, G.; Guengoer, N.; Kirbasoglu, C.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K and 210 Po and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137 Cs in foodstuff, indicator organism sediment and soil samples in Emendere thermal spring area in western Anatolia were studied by alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. At the same time, the gross-α and β concentrations are also determined in the mentioned samples and the thermal spring and other water samples. The results obtained showed that Emendere thermal spring and Emendere stream waters are unsuitable for consumption as drinking purpose. On the other hand, the people who live around the thermal spring area face no risk with consumption of the foodstuffs. (author)

  8. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  9. Detection of abandoned mines/caves using airborne LWIR hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Roettiger, Kurt A.

    2012-09-01

    The detection of underground structures, both natural and man-made, continues to be an important requirement in both the military/intelligence and civil communities. There are estimates that as many as 70,000 abandoned mines/caves exist across the nation. These mines represent significant hazards to public health and safety, and they are of concern to Government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels. NASA is interested in the detection of caves on Mars and the Moon in anticipation of future manned space missions. And, the military/ intelligence community is interested in detecting caves, mines, and other underground structures that may be used to conceal the production of weapons of mass destruction or to harbor insurgents or other persons of interest by the terrorists. Locating these mines/caves scattered over millions of square miles is an enormous task, and limited resources necessitate the development of an efficient and effective broad area search strategy using remote sensing technologies. This paper describes an internally-funded research project of The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to assess the feasibility of using airborne hyperspectral data to detect abandoned cave/mine entrances in a broad-area search application. In this research, we have demonstrated the potential utility of using thermal contrast between the cave/mine entrance and the ambient environment as a discriminatory signature. We have also demonstrated the use of a water vapor absorption line at12.55 μm and a quartz absorption feature at 9.25 μm as discriminatory signatures. Further work is required to assess the broader applicability of these signatures.

  10. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  11. Chemical deposits in volcanic caves of Argentina

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    Carlos Benedetto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last Conference of the FEALC (Speleological Federation of Latin America and Caribbean Islands which was held in the town of Malargue, Mendoza, in February 1997, two volcanic caves not far from that town were visited and sampled for cave mineral studies. The first cave (Cueva del Tigre opens close to the Llancanelo lake, some 40 kms far from Malargue and it is a classical lava tube. Part of the walls and of the fallen lava blocks are covered by white translucent fibres and grains. The second visited cave is a small tectonic cavity opened on a lava bed some 100 km southward of Malargue. The cave “El Abrigo de el Manzano” is long no more than 10-12 meters with an average width of 3 meters and it hosts several bird nests, the larger of which is characterized by the presence of a relatively thick pale yellow, pale pink flowstone. Small broken or fallen samples of the secondary chemical deposits of both these caves have been collected in order to detect their mineralogical composition. In the present paper the results of the detailed mineralogical analyses carried out on the sampled material are shortly reported. In the Cueva del Tigre lava tube the main detected minerals are Sylvite, Thenardite, Bloedite and Kieserite, all related to the peculiar dry climate of that area. The flowstone of “El Abrigo de el Manzano” consists of a rather complex admixture of several minerals, the large majority of which are phosphates but also sulfates and silicates, not all yet identified. The origin of all these minerals is related to the interaction between bird guano and volcanic rock.

  12. 3D Volume and Morphology of Perennial Cave Ice and Related Geomorphological Models at Scăriloara Ice Cave, Romania, from Structure from Motion, Ground Penetrating Radar and Total Station Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J.; Onac, B. P.; Kruse, S.; Forray, F. L.

    2017-12-01

    Research at Scăriloara Ice Cave has proceeded for over 150 years, primarily driven by the presence and paleoclimatic importance of the large perennial ice block and various ice speleothems located within its galleries. Previous observations of the ice block led to rudimentary volume estimates of 70,000 to 120,000 cubic meters (m3), prospectively placing it as one of the world's largest cave ice deposits. The cave morphology and the surface of the ice block are now recreated in a total station survey-validated 3D model, produced using Structure from Motion (SfM) software. With the total station survey and the novel use of ArcGIS tools, the SfM validation process is drastically simplified to produce a scaled, georeferenced, and photo-texturized 3D model of the cave environment with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.24 m. Furthermore, ground penetrating radar data was collected and spatially oriented with the total station survey to recreate the ice block basal surface and was combined with the SfM model to create a model of the ice block itself. The resulting ice block model has a volume of over 118,000 m3 with an uncertainty of 9.5%, with additional volumes left un-surveyed. The varying elevation of the ice block basal surface model reflect specific features of the cave roof, such as areas of enlargement, shafts, and potential joints, which offer further validation and inform theories on cave and ice genesis. Specifically, a large depression area was identified as a potential area of initial ice growth. Finally, an ice thickness map was produced that will aid in the designing of future ice coring projects. This methodology presents a powerful means to observe and accurately characterize and measure cave and cave ice morphologies with ease and affordability. Results further establish the significance of Scăriloara's ice block to paleoclimate research, provide insights into cave and ice block genesis, and aid future study design.

  13. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  14. Analysis of the Condition and Development Opportunities of Cave Tourism in Primorsko-Goranska County

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    Rade Knežević

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines caves as morphological factors of tourism development in Primorsko-Goranska County. The primary aim is to promote cave heritage parallel with the development of cave tourism. The methodological framework is based on analyzing material in the archives of tourist boards, taking an inventory of cave resources (case study, conducting interviews, and making a SWOT analysis of cave tourism development. Research results show that caves represent a complex resource in the tourist trade of Primorsko-Goranska County, to which little importance has been attached up to date (priority being given to mass tourism. In the context of tourism development, caves fall into four groups. The first group comprises caves that have a long tradition, but show signs of aging as a tourism product. The second group includes caves that were once open to the public, but were later closed for some reason. The third group consists of caves on the seaside or seabed visited by speleologists-divers. The fourth group is made up of potential cave sites that have been evaluated as being attractive, but is located in hard-to-access areas, making their valorisation in tourism purpose more difficult. Only Lokvarka Cave has a substantial influence on the development of special interest tourism in Lokve, while in all other cases, the role of caves in the tourism offering needs to be revalorised.

  15. Survey and hydrogeology of Carroll Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll Cave, located in Camden County, Missouri, is the largest known cave formed in the Gasconade Dolomite of the Salem Plateau. Despite extensive visitation over the last 50 years and multiple survey efforts, a comprehensive map of the cave has never been produced. In 2002, the Carroll Cave Conse...

  16. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  17. Comparative study of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities of closely related cave and surface Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda: Crustacea.

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    Anita Jemec

    Full Text Available The freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus has recently been developed as an emerging invertebrate cave model for studying evolutionary and developmental biology. Mostly morphological and genetic differences between cave and surface A. aquaticus populations have been described up to now, while scarce data are available on other aspects, including physiology. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of the physiological differences between cave A. aquaticus and its surface-dwelling counterparts. We sampled two surface populations from the surface section of the sinking Pivka River (central Slovenia, Europe, i.e. locality Pivka Polje, and locality Planina Polje, and one cave population from the subterranean section of the sinking Pivka River, i.e. locality Planina Cave. Animals were sampled in spring, summer and autumn. We measured the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and glutathione S-transferase (GST in individuals snap-frozen in the field immediately after collection. Acetylcholinesterase is likely related to animals' locomotor activity, while GST activity is related to the metabolic activity of an organism. Our study shows significantly lower AChE and GST activities in the cave population in comparison to both surface A. aquaticus populations. This confirms the assumption that cave A. aquaticus have lower locomotor and metabolic activity than surface A. aquaticus in their respective natural environments. In surface A. aquaticus populations, seasonal fluctuations in GST activity were observed, while these were less pronounced in individuals from the more stable cave environment. On the other hand, AChE activity was generally season-independent in all populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind conducted in A. aquaticus. Our results show that among closely related cave and surface A. aquaticus populations also physiological differences are present besides the morphological and genetic

  18. Marine Caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A Sponge Biodiversity Reservoir within a Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean) with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%), generic (70%), and species level (47.5%), the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each), 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection. PMID:22808070

  19. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

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    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope (δ18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  20. A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Ramos Donato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation Index’ (CCI were established. We also used a rapid assessment protocol to measure cave vulnerability for prioritization of conservation/restoration actions (RAP-cr comparing natural cavities with the same lithology, due to “strictu sensu” peculiarities. Based on the protocols applied in caves of the municipality of Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, we concluded that the present method attended to the needs for the classification of the caves into categories of conservation/restoration status, using little time and financial effort, through rapid diagnostics that facilitate the comparisons. In this perspective, the CCI can be used to indicate areas that should be protected and caves that should be prioritized to have initiated activities of conservation and restoration.

  1. Snežna jama (Slovenia): Interdisciplinary dating of cave sediments and implication for landscape evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuselmann, Philipp; Mihevc, Andrej; Pruner, Petr; Horáček, Ivan; Čermák, Stanislav; Hercman, Helena; Sahy, Diana; Fiebig, Markus; Hajna, Nadja Zupan; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-10-15

    Caves are important markers of surface evolution, since they are, as a general rule, linked with ancient valley bottoms by their springs. However, caves can only be dated indirectly by means of the sediments they contain. If the sediment is older than common dating methods, one has to use multiple dating approaches in order to get meaningful results. U/Th dating, palaeomagnetic analysis of flowstone and sediment profiles, cosmogenic dating of quartz pebbles, and mammalian dating allowed a robust estimate of speleogenesis, sediment deposition, climatic change at the surface, and uplift history on the Periadriatic fault line during the Plio-Pleistocene. Our dates indicate that Snežna jama was formed in the (Upper) Miocene, received its sedimentary deposits during the Pliocene in a rather low-lying, hilly landscape, and became inactive due to uplift along the Periadriatic and Sava faults and climatic changes at the beginning of the Quaternary. Although it is only a single cave, the information contained within it makes it an important site of the Southern Alps.

  2. Energy expenditure in caving.

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    Giorgia Antoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1, respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  3. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    Detailed magnetic survey was performed for caves study in Israel (1995-1996) within the framework of the Beit Shemesh Regional Project (Judean Shephelah). The experience accumulated in Israel we applied later (2010) in two Georgian prehistoric cave sites: Cherula and Kotias-Klde. The magnetic method is based on the contrast in magnetic properties between a target object (e.g., buried archaeological feature) and the host medium (i.e, the surrounding bedrock and soil). The feasibility of the magnetic method for cave revealing was evaluated by magnetic susceptibility (κ) measurements of surrounding soil and rocks, and archaeological features: stones making up the walls, ceramic fragments and cave fill. According to data obtained, the κ of soil within caves (cave fill) is higher than that of surrounding soil. The enhancement of cave fill κ occurs because processes associated with human habitation: repeated heating and accumulation of organic debris. Both these processes provide good conditions for the conversion of the iron oxide found within the soil to a strongly ferromagnetic form (Mullins, 1977; Maher, 1986; Dalan and Banerjee, 1998, Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1999; Itkis, 2003) The presence of highly magnetic ceramics in caves also enhances magnetic contrast between practically non-magnetic bed rock (chalk in Ramat Beit Shemesh Site (Israel) and limestone (Georgian sites) and the cave fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method to reveal caves (Itkis, 2011). Based on magnetic survey results, an excavation revealed a cave with a large amount of well preserved pottery and finds typical of the Early Bronze Age. Both studied cave sites in Georgia were located in Chiatura region of Imeretia province. Cherula site is a karstic rockshelter with a single chamber, ca 100 sq. m. The site was briefly tested in 1970s'. The area excavated in 2010 went to the depth of 60 cm below the present day surface; the limestone bedrock was not reached. The excavation revealed

  4. Investigation of clay sediments and bedrock morphology in caves with seismic traveltime tomography: an application at Alepotrypa Cave (Diros, Greece

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    Lazaros Polymenakos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of unconsolidated clay sediments in caves, in relation to the buried morphology of the karstic conduit, are important parameters for the study of cave evolution. We introduce the application of an active seismic imaging technique to investigate the clay deposits and bedrock morphology in caves. Seismic traveltime tomography, applied for the first time in cave studies, can assist with the interpretation of cave geomorphology. Utilizing the P-wave velocity contrast between the clay sediments and the surrounding rock mass, we map the buried rock surface and significant sediment interfaces and provide an estimate of the sediment thickness and volume. Our study focuses on the Alepotrypa Cave located in Diros (Peloponnese, Greece, revealing important information for the evolution of the cave. The proposed technique could be applied in caves with significant clay deposits, in order to constrain the clay volume and reconstruct the buried floor shape of the cave. The technique exploits fully the ground morphology and access points in a cave, so it is suitable for a detailed three-dimensional exploration of cave deposits and the underlying cave morphology.

  5. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  6. GEOMORPHIC ANALYSIS OF MAWSMAI CAVE, MEGHALAYA, INDIA

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    Vibhash Chandra Jha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Mawsmai Cave of Meghalaya. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist’s destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists. The cave is located in the East Khasi Hill region near Cherrapunjee and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the world’s largest rainfall region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this caves. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Keywords: Cave, Limestone, Stalactite, Stalagmite, Pillar, Solution.

  7. THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA FROM THE UPPER PLEISTOCENE VERTEBRATE-BEARING DEPOSITS OF S. TEODORO CAVE (NORTH-EASTERN SICILY

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    DANIELA ESU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with terrestrial, freshwater and marine molluscs collected in the upper Pleistocene deposits of clay, sands and gravels of S. Teodoro Cave (North-eastern Sicily. Beginning from 1998 two trenches have been excavated (1998 and 2002-2004. A highly diversified assemblage of endemic and not endemic vertebrates (elephant, horse, wild ox, deer, wild boar, hyaena, fox, mouse, ground vole, shrew, hedgehog, bats, birds, reptiles, invertebrates (molluscs and vegetal remains have been collected from the two trenches. The molluscan fauna is represented by poor to rich-species assemblages of land and freshwater gastropods and bivalves with Mediterranean-European character. Some species have been found for the first time as fossils in Sicily. The land snails prevail in the 1998 trench showing a persistent arid environment during the time of the sediment deposition. The freshwater species, characteristic of slow-running water, point to the presence of a small water body (stream or spring inside the cave, probably more consistent in the 2002-2004 trench where this fauna prevails. The dispersal of the molluscan fauna of S. Teodoro Cave from the mainland during the low stand sea-level phases of the upper Pleistocene probably belongs to the same dispersal events following the Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e which introduced into the island not endemic faunal elements which are associated with endemic faunal elements in S. Teodoro Cave. Littoral marine reworked molluscs found in the cave deposits probably come from the sedimentary cover of a middle Pleistocene terrace which overlies the roof of the cave. SHORT NOTE

  8. Past surface conditions and speleogenesis as inferred from cave sediments in the Great Cave of Șălitrari Mountain (SW Romania

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    Cristina M. Pușcaș

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In one of the passages in the Great Cave of Șălitrari Mountain the floor is completely covered by an alluvial deposit at least 6 m in thickness, ranging from boulders, and cobbles, to sand and clay, topped by a layer of dry bat guano. Sediment and mineral samples collected from six profiles underwent broad analyses to determine their petrological and mineralogical makeup, grain-size distribution, and paleoclimatic significance. The complicated facies alternation suggests frequent changes in the former stream’s hydrological parameters, with frequent flooding, leading to the hypothesis that the climate was somewhat wetter than today. Both the mineralogical composition of the sediment (ranging from quartz, mica, gypsum, phosphates, and calcite to garnet, zircon, titanite, olivine, serpentine, tourmaline, sphalerite, pyrite/chalcopyrite, and feldspars and the petrological composition of the larger clasts (limestone, sandstone, mudstone, granitoids, serpentinite, amphibolite, diorite, gneiss, quartzite, microconglomerate, and schist ascribe the potential source rocks to an area with contrasting lithologies, such as amphibolites, felsic and basic metaigneous, and metasedimentary rocks, mixed with a variety of detritic rocks. These rock types are not entirely comprised by the catchment area of the modern Presacina Brook, thus implying that due either to hydrological conditions, or to changes in the base level caused by river down cutting or active tectonics, the former source area was much more extensive. Based on morphological and sedimentological criteria, the cave started under pipe-full flow conditions, and further evolved during a prolonged and complex vadose phase. Evidence to support the existence of hypogene conditions is also present. Once the underground stream left the cave and most of the sediment was removed, speleothem precipitation was initiated. In this contribution we put forward evidence that argue for an extra

  9. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities

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    Marconi Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cave-dwelling invertebrates were studied according to their composition, biodiversity, distribution and threats in the Atlantic Forest Central Biodiversity Corridor, a priority area for conservation actions in Brazil. Twelve obligate cave species were found, plus 495 troglophile species. Araneae (103 spp., Coleoptera (61 spp., Diptera (56 spp. and Lepidoptera (38 spp. were the richest taxa. The richness was higher in the carbonate caves (63 spp., sd = 16.7 and the highest diversity in granitic caves (H´= 2.68, sd = 0.5. The spatial turnover was 63.45 and similarity less than 30%. The total richness was correlated with the linear extension of the caves (Rs = 0.757, p ≤ 0.05. Surrounding area deforestation and religious and tourist use were the main threats. Emergency attention is recommended regarding protective actions, management and conservation of caves of extremely high biological importance.

  10. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA; El sistema de la Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km{sup 2}. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  11. Instrumenting caves to collect hydrologic and geochemical data: case study from James Cave, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Madeline E.; Schwartz, Benjamin F.; Orndorff, William; Doctor, Daniel H.; Eagle, Sarah D.; Gerst, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers are productive groundwater systems, supplying approximately 25 % of the world’s drinking water. Sustainable use of this critical water supply requires information about rates of recharge to karst aquifers. The overall goal of this project is to collect long-term, high-resolution hydrologic and geochemical datasets at James Cave, Virginia, to evaluate the quantity and quality of recharge to the karst system. To achieve this goal, the cave has been instrumented for continuous (10-min interval) measurement of the (1) temperature and rate of precipitation; (2) temperature, specific conductance, and rate of epikarst dripwater; (3) temperature of the cave air; and (4) temperature, conductivity, and discharge of the cave stream. Instrumentation has also been installed to collect both composite and grab samples of precipitation, soil water, the cave stream, and dripwater for geochemical analysis. This chapter provides detailed information about the instrumentation, data processing, and data management; shows examples of collected datasets; and discusses recommendations for other researchers interested in hydrologic and geochemical monitoring of cave systems. Results from the research, briefly described here and discussed in more detail in other publications, document a strong seasonality of the start of the recharge season, the extent of the recharge season, and the geochemistry of recharge.

  12. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy.

  13. Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon

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    Nader Fadi H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon. The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes. The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show δ18OV-PDB values of about -5.0‰ and δ13C V-PDB values of -11.8‰, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in δ18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2‰, and δ13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1‰. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals ‘invading’ the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes, and the slight depletion in δ18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated δ18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2‰ matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

  14. Late Quaternary environmental and human events at En Gedi, reflected by the geology and archaeology of the Moringa Cave (Dead Sea area, Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisker, Sorin; Porat, Roi; Davidovich, Uri; Eshel, Hanan; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik; Frumkin, Amos

    2007-09-01

    The Moringa Cave within Pleistocene sediments in the En Gedi area of the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment contains a sequence of various Pleistocene lacustrine deposits associated with higher-than-today lake levels at the Dead Sea basin. In addition it contains Chalcolithic remains and 5th century BC burials attributed to the Persian period, cemented and covered by Late Holocene travertine flowstone. These deposits represent a chain of Late Pleistocene and Holocene interconnected environmental and human events, echoing broader scale regional and global climate events. A major shift between depositional environments is associated with the rapid fall of Lake Lisan level during the latest Pleistocene. This exposed the sediments, providing for cave formation processes sometime between the latest Pleistocene (ca. 15 ka) and the Middle Holocene (ca. 4500 BC), eventually leading to human use of the cave. The Chalcolithic use of the cave can be related to a relatively moist desert environment, probably related to a shift in the location of the northern boundary of the Saharo-Arabian desert belt. The travertine layer was U-Th dated 2.46 ± 0.10 to 2.10 ± 0.04 ka, in agreement with the archaeological finds from the Persian period. Together with the inner consistency of the dating results, this strongly supports the reliability of the radiometric ages. The 2.46-2.10 ka travertine deposition within the presently dry cave suggests a higher recharge of the Judean Desert aquifer, correlative to a rising Dead Sea towards the end of the 1st millennium BC. This suggests a relatively moist local and regional climate facilitating human habitation of the desert.

  15. Environmental conditions of Borra Cave, Visakhapattanam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haraprasad Bairagya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Borra of Eastern Ghats and ranked as the second largest cave of India just after Belum Caves situated in the same state Andhrapradesh, India. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist?s destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists in the Eastern Ghats. The cave is located in the Ananthagiri hills of the Eastern Ghats region near Visakhapattanam and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the sub-equatorial region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this cave. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Various viruses and bacteria are in the cave interior along with different other creatures. The Borra cave helps the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, India, to earn huge economic benefits for the sake of tourism industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10526 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 150-166

  16. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Tirumalesh, K.; Noble, J.; Joseph, T.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Joshi, A.P.; Khati, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ 18 O and -3.8% for δ 2 H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  17. Concentrations of indoor radon and thoron in cave-dwellings with discussions on risk estimation of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Hou Changsong; Zhang Shouzhi; Nie Xiaoqian; Shang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a residential area with elevated indoor radon exposure for conducting epidemiological studies on indoor radon and lung cancer. Methods: Two hundred and two cave-dwellings (CD) including loess CD, brick CD, stone CD, and ordinary house in twenty villages were selected from Yan'an and Lvliang in the Chinese loess plateau. Indoor levels of thoron and its progeny as well as radon were measured with passive radon-thoron discriminative detectors and thoron progeny deposition rate devices. The exposure period covered from August 2001 through August 2002. Results: Loess CD was one of the most common type of dwelling caves in both areas. The indoor radon concentrations in loess CD ranged from 17 to 179 Bq/m 3 ; thoron varied sub-stantially depending upon the distance from the device to the wall, ranged from 10 to 760 Bq/m 3 . Geometric means of indoor radon, thoron and thoron's progeny (EEC Tn ) of loess caves in Yan'an area were estimated to be 71, 185 and 2.2 Bq/m 3 , respectively, and the corresponding figures were 73, 145 and 116 Bq/m 3 in Lvliang area. Possible contamination of thoron on radon measurement in a previous case-control study on lung caner was discussed. The study revealed that the indoor air pollution in Yan'an area was slight compared with that in Lvliang area. Migration was very low. Eighty-six percent of the investigated persons have had no migration in Yan'an area, and 90 percent of the cave-dwellings where the subjects once resided were available to our measurements. Two million people have been living in cave-dwellings over several generations. Conclusion: The investigated cave-dwelling area in Yan'an is suitable for conducting epidemiological study on residential thoron and radon exposure and lung cancer.(authors)

  18. Cave monitoring in the Béke and Baradla caves (Northeastern Hungary: implications for the conditions for the formation cave carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Czuppon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to use speleothems in the reconstruction of past climate and environmental changes it is necessary to understand the environmental and hydrological processes that determine the physico-chemical conditions of carbonate precipitation and hence speleothem formation. Therefore, in this study an extended monitoring program was conducted in the Béke and Baradla caves located in the Aggtelek region (Northeastern Hungary. The studied caves are rich in speleothem and flowstone occurrences with great potential for paleoclimatology studies. The monitoring activity included measurements of atmospheric and cave temperatures, CO2 concentration in cave air, as well as chemical and isotopic compositions of water samples (drip water, precipitation and in situ carbonate precipitates. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of drip waters showed no seasonal variation at any of the collection sites, indicating a well-mixed karstic aquifer. This implies that the isotopic compositions of local speleothems were able to record multiannual isotopic changes inherited from stable isotopes in the drip water. CO2 concentration showed seasonality (high values in summer and low values in winter in both caves, likely affecting carbonate precipitation or corrosion and consequently stalagmite growth. Systematic variations among Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, Na/Ca, and Si/Ca element ratios were detected in the drip water suggesting Prior Calcite Precipitation (PCP. As PCP is characteristic of periods of reduced infiltration during drier weather conditions, the variations in drip water chemistry and drip rates indicate that the hydrological conditions also varied significantly during the studied period. This hydrological variability appears to affect not only trace element composition but also the isotopic composition of modern carbonate precipitates. In summary, these findings imply that the speleothems from the studied caves were able to record the hydrological changes

  19. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  20. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genter, D.L.

    1986-04-30

    Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and P. townsendii hibernate throughout much of the area, occasionally in mixed-species groups. Myotis leibii uses the dark and protected regions of the cave, usually wedged into tiny pockets and crevices near or at the highest portion of the ceiling. Individuals of P. townsendii may be found at any height or depth in the cave. Temperature appears to be primary limiting factor in habitat selection. Myotis leibii was found in significantly cooler air temperatures than P. townsendii. Neither species tolerated continuous temperatures below 1.5 C. Relative humidity does not seem to be a significant factor in the distribution or habitat selection of the two species in lava-tube caves. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  1. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  2. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  3. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Allegrucci

    Full Text Available The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA. Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  4. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  5. Speleogenesis in Dinaric karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2015-04-01

    remarkable variety in types of caves. It is estimated that the Dinaric Karst has at least 100,000 caves, only a fifth of which have been explored and suitably documented so far. Karst caves are truly unique by a variety of their types (dry caves, water caves, cave systems, shafts, spring caves, etc.), by their dimensions (the longest cave systems can reach over 100 km, the deepest ones are more than 1,430 metres deep), and by their great spatial frequency. In the Classical Karst, in area around the town Sežana and Fernetti/Fernetiči there are up to 60 caves/km2 - the number which is unprecedented. The great numbers of cave channels covered in dripstone, types of dripstone and its forms (stalactites, stalagmite, curtains, cave pearls, etc.) only contribute to this abundance. One should not forget the significance of cave sediments for scientific explorations. Their dating was used to determine the age of caves and scientifically explain the dynamics of karst evolution. Another important set of karst features are numerous submarine springs. This is the area where the science of karstology and speleology started to develop, where the basic ideas about the karstification processes (corrosion) and karst hydrology were born. The international term karst and the scientific investigation of karst originate in this region as well as many other international professional terms. Many words, describing karst features, originate from the Dinaric Karst Area, and belong to internationally accepted karst terminology (karst, dolina, polje, vrtača, ponikva, vrulja etc.). The word "karst" was first mentioned in Charter of Juraj Pariježić in 1230 in which "kras" locality near Dobrinj on the Island Krk in Croatia was subject of donation. The first written note that mentions the Italian word "Carso" dates back to the year 1292. In an Austrian document term "Karst" was cited for the first time in 1423. From the etymological point of view the word "Karst" is expression of Indo

  6. Geophysical investigations of the geologic and hydrothermal framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Jonathan; McPhee, Darcy K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Pilgrim Hot Springs, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, is characterized by hot springs, surrounding thawed regions, and elevated lake temperatures. The area is of interest because of its potential for providing renewable energy for Nome and nearby rural communities. We performed ground and airborne geophysical investigations of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area to identify areas indicative of high heat flow and saline geothermal fluids, and to map key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Studies included ground gravity and magnetic measurements, as well as an airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey. The structural and conceptual framework developed from this study provides critical information for future development of this resource and is relevant more generally to our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Potential field data reveal the Pilgrim area displays a complex geophysical fabric reflecting a network of intersecting fault and fracture sets ranging from inherited basement structures to Tertiary faults. Resistivity models derived from the airborne EM data reveal resistivity anomalies in the upper 100 m of the subsurface that suggest elevated temperatures and the presence of saline fluids. A northwest trending fabric across the northeastern portion of the survey area parallels structures to the east that may be related to accommodation between the two major mountain ranges south (Kigluaik) and east (Bendeleben) of Pilgrim Springs. The area from the springs southward to the range front, however, is characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with north-south extension that formed the basin. The area around the springs (~10 km2 ) is coincident with a circular magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. These features

  7. Fish mitigate trophic depletion in marine cave ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Egea, Lea; Fanelli, Emanuela; Lejeusne, Christophe; Musco, Luigi; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Pey, Alexis; Planes, Serge; Vieux-Ingrassia, Jean Vincent; Guidetti, Paolo

    2018-06-15

    Dark marine habitats are often characterized by a food-limited condition. Peculiar dark habitats include marine caves, characterized by the absence of light and limited water flow, which lead to reduced fluxes of organic matter for cave-dwelling organisms. We investigated whether the most abundant and common cave-dwelling fish Apogon imberbis has the potential to play the role of trophic vector in Mediterranean marine caves. We first analysed stomach contents to check whether repletion changes according to a nycthemeral cycle. We then identified the prey items, to see whether they belong to species associated with cave habitats or not. Finally, we assessed whether A. imberbis moves outside marine caves at night to feed, by collecting visual census data on A. imberbis density both inside and outside caves, by day and by night. The stomach repletion of individuals sampled early in the morning was significantly higher than later in the day. Most prey were typical of habitats other than caves. A. imberbis was on average more abundant within caves during the day and outside during the night. Our study supports the hypothesis regarding the crucial trophic role of A. imberbis in connecting Mediterranean marine caves with external habitats.

  8. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  9. The Vie Cave Geomorphological Site in Southern Tuscany (Italy: Problems of Decay and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pecchioni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vie Cave are a suggestive network of roads deeply entrenched in the rock, dating back to the Etruscan civilization; these ancient roads connect various settlements and necropolises existing mainly in the area of Sovana, Sorano and Pitigliano towns (Southern Tuscany, Italy. The Vie Cave are located in a peculiar geomorphological site, characterized by the presence of extensive pyroclastic deposits, which have been incised by a parallel network of deep gorges. In this paper, the geomorphological, geological and lithological setting of the Vie Cave area, where several Etruscan archaeological sites are found, are described. The precarious stability of the Vie Cave walls and the several archaeological structures carved into them, the high grade of decay shown by the constituent materials, together with the dense vegetation that has developed over the rocky scarps, are taken into account with the aim to provide a complete assessment of the conditions in which the site lies. Finally, we propose some targeted actions related to the preservation of this territory, showing so distinctive morphology, in order to protect the area from further decay to which it would be subjected if it remained abandoned.

  10. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km 2 . The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  11. Solar activity influence on air temperature regimes in caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey

    Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave air is connected with the most general circulation of the air in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the air of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave air temperature response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. Temperatures of the air in the zone of constant temperatures (ZCT) are compared with surface temperatures recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave air temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. Air temperatures of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface air temperatures. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface temperature trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between temperatures inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the air temperatures in caves

  12. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  13. Cold-stenothermic spring fauna in mountainous headwaters of the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Martin; Zaenker, Stefan; Chifflard, Peter

    2017-04-01

    ,9). Due to nearly unaffected ecohydrological properties, in particular: relative consistently cold water temperature with low amplitudes (cold stenothermy), mostly low flow velocity and an intermittent discharge regime a very unique and specific adapted spring fauna composition for the German low mountain ranges can be characterized. Cold stenothermic and spring related species are very frequent in relative occurrence and abundance. We analyzed a map based and representative distribution for the entire large-scale protected area of the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee according to Bythinella dunkeri (spring snail), Crenobia alpina (planarian), Crunoecia irrorata (caddisfly) and Niphargus schellenbergi (groundwater amphipod). We discuss the potential of ecohydrological research on possible climate change predictions and consequences on the distribution of cold stenothermic and spring dwelling species within the special context of research goals in National Parks. Here, an idea of a new approach for an ecohydrological assessment by indicating cold stenothermic taxa is given as an outlook. References Reiss, M., Steiner, H. & S. Zaenker (2009): The Biospeleological Register of the Hesse Federation for Cave and Karst Research (Germany). Cave and Karst Science 35(1), pp.25-34.

  14. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically 0.9 m, and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 µS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a pre-existing layer of higher salinity.

  15. Hydrological characterization of cave drip waters in a porous limestone: Golgotha Cave, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Kashif; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Baker, Andy; Treble, Pauline C.

    2018-02-01

    Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV) between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS) and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip types based on time series

  16. Hydrological characterization of cave drip waters in a porous limestone: Golgotha Cave, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mahmud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip

  17. Aerosol particle size distribution in building and caves: impact to the radon-related dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Z.; Thinova, L.; Brandejsova, E.; Zdimal, V.; Fronka, A.; Milka, D.

    2004-01-01

    The results of evaluation of the aerosol particle size spectra observed in the Bozkov cave are presented and compared with the spectra observed in residential areas. The radon-to-dose conversion factor is discussed, as is the correction factor referred to as the cave factor. (P.A.)

  18. Distribution of meiofaunal abundances in a marine cave complex with secondary openings and freshwater filtrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Monterroso, Óscar; Núñez, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Submerged sea caves are priority areas for conservation according to the Habitat Directive 92/43/CEE because of their unique biodiversity. A limited number of publications exist about communities living on sediments inside caves, mostly focused on the macrofaunal fraction (>0.5-mm body size). Mei...

  19. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  20. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529–846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  1. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Alexandre K; Bystriakova, Nadia; Fu, Longfei; Wen, Fang; Wei, Yigang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529-846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  2. Helium Isotopes and Noble Gas Abundances of Cave Dripping Water in Three Caves in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A. T.; Shen, C. C.; Tan, M.; Li, T.; Uemura, R.; Asami, R.

    2015-12-01

    Paleo-temperature recorded in nature archives is a critical parameter to understand climate change in the past. With advantages of unique inert chemical characteristics and sensitive solubilities with temperature, dissolved noble gases in speleothem inclusion water were recently proposed to retrieve terrestrial temperature history. In order to accurately apply this newly-developed speleothem noble gas temperature (NGT) as a reliable proxy, a fundamental issue about behaviors of noble gases in the karst should be first clarified. In this study, we measured noble gas contents in air and dripping water to evaluate any ratio deviation between noble gases. Cave dripping water samples was collected from three selected caves, Shihua Cave in northern China, Furong Cave in southwestern, and Gyukusen Cave in an island located in the western Pacific. For these caves are characterized by a thorough mixing and long-term storage of waters in a karst aquifer by the absence of seasonal oxygen isotope shifts. Ratios of dripping water noble gases are statistically insignificant from air data. Helium isotopic ratios in the dripping water samples match air value. The results indicate that elemental and isotopic signatures of noble gases from air can be frankly preserved in the epikarst and support the fidelity of NGT techniques.

  3. The future of the CAVE

    KAUST Repository

    DeFanti, Thomas; Acevedo-Feliz, Daniel; Ainsworth, Richard; Brown, Maxine; Cutchin, Steven; Dawe, Gregory; Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Johnson, Andrew; Knox, Christopher; Kooima, Robert; Kuester, Falko; Leigh, Jason; Long, Lance; Otto, Peter; Petrovic, Vid; Ponto, Kevin; Prudhomme, Andrew; Rao, Ramesh; Renambot, Luc; Sandin, Daniel; Schulze, Jurgen; Smarr, Larry; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Weber, Philip; Wickham, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  4. Predicting the Occurrence of Cave-Inhabiting Fauna Based on Features of the Earth Surface Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Mary C; Doctor, Daniel H; Niemiller, Matthew L; Weary, David J; Young, John A; Zigler, Kirk S; Culver, David C

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  5. Book Review: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Rob

    2015-10-01

    The British Cave Research Association (BCRA) is the research division of the British Caving Association (BCA), itself the principal society in Britain for those interested in caving, with activities including provision of training and safety certification for cavers and managing access to caves. Although some UK cave-related research is carried out by academics, this tends to be restricted to archaeological investigations of caves that have served as human habitations, and to be focused more on the occupants than the caves themselves. In contrast, most cave exploration is undertaken as a leisure activity, under the auspices of clubs affiliated to the BCA/BCRA, this being indeed virtually the only field of Earth science where amateur investigators can continue to make significant discoveries. Many cave explorers are also affiliated with academic researchers, such as managers of dating laboratories; the synergy between these two groups is highly productive, having resulted for instance in the discovery and exploration in recent years of the vast Ogof Draenen cave system in South Wales, which probably dates back to the Early Pleistocene (e.g., Farrant et al., 2014).

  6. PIXE analysis of cave sediments, prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from Baja California Sur caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Dacal, A.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Cruz, F.; Ortiz, M.E.; Vinas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental PIXE analysis of cave sediments, minerals, pigments of the prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from caves in Baja California Sur has been carried out with a 0.7 MeV proton beam. The elements analysed in this sample set (Al to Co) provide an idea of the environment of the caves. The obsidian data analysis suggests that the human communities who made these painting used more than one obsidian source to manufacture cutting tools. (orig.)

  7. Exposure to radon in Australian tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Lyons, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) produced guidelines and recommendations dealing with workplace exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. An intervention level of 1000 Bq m -3 has been proposed. Australia has over 40 tourist caves, under the management of the various State Departments or private groups. The limited data available on radon levels in Australian caves would suggest that some of these caves may be in excess of the proposed intervention level, thus presenting a potential health risk for the cave guides. This paper summarises the current information on radon in Australian caves and describes the proposed methodologies to be used for a Worksafe Australia-funded survey of radon levels in Tourist caves within Australia. This survey is to be carried out jointly by researchers at the Australian Radiation Laboratory, University of Auckland and the University of Sydney, during 1994 and 1995. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  9. Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forti Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps man’s first motivation to explore caves, beyond using them as shelter, was the search for substances that were not availableelsewhere: most of them were minerals. However, for a long time it was believed that the cave environment was not very interestingfrom the mineralogical point of view. This was due to the fact that most cave deposits are normally composed of a singlecompound: calcium carbonate. Therefore, the systematic study of cave mineralogy is of only recent origin. However, although onlya limited number of natural cavities have been investigated in detail, about 350 cave minerals have already been observed, someof which are new to science. The presence of such unexpected richness is a direct consequence of the variety of rocks traversedby water or other fluids before entering a cave and the sediments therein. Different cave environments allow the development ofvarious minerogenetic mechanisms, the most important of which are double exchange reactions, evaporation, oxidation, hydrationdehydration,sublimation, deposition from aerosols and vapors, and segregation. The cave temperature and pH/Eh strictly controlmost of them, although some are driven by microorganisms. The cave environment, due to its long-term stability, can sometimesallow for the development of huge euhedral crystals, such as those found in the Naica caves (Mexico, but the presence of extremelysmall yet complex aggregates of different minerals is far more common. Future development in the field of cave mineralogy will likelybe focused mainly on hydrothermal and sulfuric-acid caves and on the role played by micro-organisms in controlling some of the mostimportant minerogenetic processes in caves.

  10. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  11. Diurnal Variation of Radon Concentration in the Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Postojna Cave, with 20 km of galleries, is the longest known cave system and also the largest of about 20 show caves in Slovenia and one of the most visited show caves in the world. It is well known that high concentrations of radon are common in karstic caves, although quantities of uranium (238U) in limestone are rather low. The reason for this is low natural ventilation of the underground cavities. Tectonic faults constitute an additional source of radon. Variations of radon concentration in cave air arise from a balance of the emission from cave surfaces and drip waters, decay in cave air, and exchange with the outside atmosphere. Because of its elevated radon concentrations, Postojna Cave has been under permanent radon survey since 1995. The influence of meteorological conditions on the radon levels and their temporal variations depends mostly on the shape of the cave, and the number and directions of cracks, corridors and fissures connecting the cave rooms with the outside atmosphere. The driving force for air movement in horizontal caves, and thus the inflow of fresh air and release of the cave air to the atmosphere, is the temperature difference between the cave air and outdoors, which causes seasonal pattern of radon concentration in the cave with high levels in summer and low in winter. However, on a daily scale different behaviour of radon can be observed at different locations in the cave. In this paper diurnal variation of radon concentration at two locations is presented and discussed. Postojna Cave is a horizontal cave with a stable yearly temperature around 10 degrees of @C. Continuous measurements of radon concentration were carried out from 2005 to 2010 at two locations along the guided tourist trail. Radon concentration was measured with Radim 5 WP monitors (SMM Company, Prague, Czech Republic) with sampling frequency once an hour. The evaluation of five-year radon monitoring at two sites in the Postojna Cave reveals significant diurnal and

  12. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  13. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  14. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza

    Full Text Available Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching.

  15. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation

  16. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  17. Geomorphological map as a tool for visualisation of geodiversity - example from Cave Park Grabovaca (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzjak, Nenad; Bocic, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen

    2014-05-01

    Cave Park Grabovaca is located near Perusic in Lika region (central Croatia). It was established in 2006 at the area of 5.95 km2 (protection category: significant landscape). The main task is management and protection of Samograd, Medina and Amidzina caves that were declared as geomorphological monuments, and 6 other caves located close to each other. Owing to the central geographic location in Croatian Dinaric karst area, good traffic connections between central Europe and tourist centres of the Adriatic coast, preserved nature and easy accessible karst features typical for the Dinaric Karst, it has good potential to develop as an research, educational and tourist centre. In 2013. Cave Park management and the Department of Geography (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science) established a core team that started to develop the project of Geoeducational centre (GEC) with following goals: exploration-evaluation-presentation-education. According to the accepted strategy, the first step in the project process is to enlarge the area and change the protection category. During the consultation process team members take into account protection, environmental, local economy, tourism and local population issues and proposed that protected area should be increased to 52,2 km2. This enlargement provides more efficient protection, greater geodiversity and biodiversity by occupying geotope, biotope, and landscape units typical for the whole Lika karst region. The next step was inventorying, evaluation, analysis and visualisation of geological, geomorphological and speleological phenomena. This 2 year task was made in cooperation between Croatian Geomorphological Society, Department of Geography, Speleological Society Karlovac and Caving Club Samobor. The inventory was made using field-work mapping and geotagged photographs, cave mapping and DEM analysis. It resulted in GIS oriented geodatabase consisting of geomorphological forms, processes and cave inventory. From those data

  18. Eogenetic karst hydrology: insights from the 2004 hurricanes, peninsular Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Lee J; Vacher, H L

    2007-01-01

    Eogenetic karst lies geographically and temporally close to the depositional environment of limestone in warm marine water at low latitude, in areas marked by midafternoon thunderstorms during a summer rainy season. Spring hydrographs from such an environment in north-central Florida are characterized by smooth, months-long, seasonal maxima. The passage of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in September 2004 over three field locations shows how the eogenetic karst of the Upper Floridan Aquifer responds to unequivocal recharge events. Hydrographs at wells in the High Springs area, Rainbow Springs, and at Morris, Briar, and Bat Caves all responded promptly with a similar drawn-out rise to a maximum that extended long into the winter dry season. The timing indicates that the typical hydrograph of eogenetic karst is not the short-term fluctuations of springs in epigenic, telogenetic karst, or the smoothed response to all the summer thunderstorms, but rather the protracted response of the system to rainfall that exceeds a threshold. The similarity of cave and noncave hydrographs indicates distributed autogenic recharge and a free communication between secondary porosity and permeable matrix-both of which differ from the hydrology of epigenic, telogenetic karst. At Briar Cave, drip rates lagged behind the water table rise, suggesting that recharge was delivered by fractures, which control the cave's morphology. At High Springs, hydrographs at the Santa Fe River and a submerged conduit apparently connected to it show sharp maxima after the storms, unlike the other cave hydrographs. Our interpretation is that the caves, in general, are discontinuous.

  19. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in caves of the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice A. B. Galati

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phlebotomine species captured during the period from January 1998 to June 2000 in 12 caves located in the Serra da Bodoquena, situated in the south central region of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Three of the caves are situated further north (in Bodoquena county, seven in the central area (Bonito county and two in the south (Jardim county. These last two caves and three of those in Bonito are located at the west side of the ridge. Eighteen species of phlebotomines were captured within the caves: Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932, Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942, Brumptomyia galindoi (Fairchild & Hertig, 1947, Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989, Lutzomyia almerioi Galati & Nunes, 1999, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Martinsmyia oliveirai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1970, Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962, Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942, Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar, 1929, Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939, Psathyromyia campograndensis (Oliveira, Andrade-Filho, Falcão & Brazil, 2001, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944, Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929, Pintomyia kuscheli (Le Pont, Martinez, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin, 1998, Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927 and Sciopemyia sp. A total of 29,599 phlebotomine sandflies was obtained. Lutzomyia almerioi was absolutely predominant (91.5% over the other species on both sides of the Bodoquena ridge, with the exception of the southern caves in which it was absent. It presents summer predominance, with nocturnal and diurnal activities. The species breeds in the caves and was captured during daytime both in the dark area and in the mouth of the caves. Martinsmyia oliveirai, the second most frequent sandfly, also presents a summer peak and only predominated over the other species in one cave, in which there

  20. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  1. Geological constraints on cave development in the plateau-gorge karst of South China (Wulong, Chongqing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygieł, Jacek; Golicz, Mateusz; Hercman, Helena; Lynch, Erin

    2018-03-01

    The Houping Tiankeng cluster is a part of the South China Karst UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site. Within the distinctive Wulong plateau-gorge karst, > 200 km of cave passages have been documented to date. This paper focuses on detailed tectonic and morphological research on the Luo Shui Kong cave, enriched with U-series dating of speleothems and complemented by morphometric analysis of the San Wang Dong and Er Wang Dong caves. All of these caves exhibit three regional levels of cave development: 1) 1040-1020 m a.s.l.; 2) 900-840 m a.s.l.; and 3) 740-660 m a.s.l. The Houping Tiankeng area is a carbonate rock sequence several hundred meters thick, overlain by the less soluble Lower Ordovician strata, limiting recharge points to faults exposing underlying easily soluble formations. This leads to the domination of concentrated, high-volume inflow and thus results in caves of large volume in the plateau-gorge karst. Shafts connecting the surface with cave passages located underneath formed along faults, changing the hydrogeological pattern through karst water capture and remodeling of existing conduits, albeit mainly by increasing their overall dimensions rather than by deepening them. The most favorable structures for cave-level development are two sets of joints conjugated with gently inclined bedding. Since these joints are characterized by a small vertical extent, downward development is limited. Hence, most of the passages are wide but not deep canyons and typical of a water-table cave pattern. Places where the fault plane is eroded from the surface and where, at the same time, an underneath cave chamber ceiling expands upwards are particularly predisposed to the formation of a tiankeng.

  2. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting {alpha} particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 {approx} 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m{sup 3}. With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m{sup 3} and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m{sup 3} suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor.

  3. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting α particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, 218 Po, 214 Bi, 214 Pb and 214 Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 ∼ 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m 3 . With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m 3 and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m 3 suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor

  4. Meckel's cave access: anatomic study comparing the endoscopic transantral and endonasal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in endonasal endoscopy have facilitated the surgical access to the lateral skull base including areas such as Meckel's cave. This approach has been well documented, however, few studies have outlined transantral specific access to Meckel's. A transantral approach provides a direct pathway to this region obviating the need for extensive endonasal and transsphenoidal resection. Our aim in this study is to compare the anatomical perspectives obtained in endonasal and transantral approaches. We prepared 14 cadaveric specimens with intravascular injections of colored latex. Eight cadavers underwent endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches to Meckel's cave. Six additional specimens underwent an endoscopic transantral approach to the same region. Photographic evidence was obtained for review. 30 CT scans were analyzed to measure comparative distances to Meckel's cave for both approaches. The endoscopic approaches provided a direct access to the anterior and inferior portions of Meckel's cave. However, the transantral approach required shorter instrumentation, and did not require clearing of the endonasal corridor. This approach gave an anterior view of Meckel's cave making posterior dissection more difficult. A transantral approach to Meckel's cave provides access similar to the endonasal approach with minimal invasiveness. Some of the morbidity associated with extensive endonasal resection could possibly be avoided. Better understanding of the complex skull base anatomy, from different perspectives, helps to improve current endoscopic skull base surgery and to develop new alternatives, consequently, leading to improvements in safety and efficacy.

  5. Hypogene caves of the central Appalachian Shenandoah Valley in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Wil

    2017-01-01

    Several caves in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia show evidence for early hypogenic conduit development with later-enhanced solution under partly confined phreatic conditions guided by geologic structures. Many (but not all) of these caves have been subsequently invaded by surface waters as a result of erosion and exhumation. Those not so affected are relict phreatic caves, bearing no relation to modern drainage patterns. Field and petrographic evidence shows that carbonate rocks hosting certain relict phreatic caves were dolomitized and/or silicified by early hydrothermal fluid migration in zones that served to locally enhance rock porosity, thus providing preferential pathways for later solution by groundwater flow, and making the surrounding bedrock more resistant to surficial weathering to result in caves that reside within isolated hills on the land surface. Features suggesting that deep phreatic processes dominated the development of these relict caves include (1) cave passage morphologies indicative of ascending fluids, (2) cave plans of irregular pattern, reflecting early maze or anastomosing development, (3) a general lack of cave breakdown and cave streams or cave stream deposits, and (4) calcite wall and pool coatings within isolated caves intersecting the local water table, and within unroofed caves at topographic locations elevated well above the local base level. Episodes of deep karstification were likely separated by long periods of geologic time, encompassing multiple phases of sedimentary fill and excavation within caves, and reflect a complex history of deep fluid migration that set the stage for later shallow speleogenesis that continues today.

  6. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  7. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''. (author)

  8. Measurements of radon levels inside Mexican caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borau, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.

    1993-01-01

    Living animal species on earth have been exposed to environmental radon from the very beginning of time. The effects of radiation, combined with other natural parameters such as temperature, humidity, salt contents, etc., have most likely influenced the evaluation of different species. Thus, it is important to know and to evaluate the radon levels, among other radioactive elements present in enclosed environments such as caves, especially since those caves were also the dwellings and refuge of the predecessor of man. In this work we present radon level measurements inside some caves with vestiges of ancient inhabitats and some recently discovered natural caves, using Nuclear Track Detectors. (author)

  9. Contextualizing Cave Maps as Geospatial Information: Case Study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, H.

    2017-12-01

    Caves are the result of solution processes. Because they are happened from geochemical and tectonic activity, they can be considered as geosphere phenomena. As one of the geosphere phenomena, especially at karst landform, caves have spatial dimensions and aspects. Cave’s utilizations and developments are increasing in many sectors such as hydrology, earth science, and tourism industry. However, spatial aspects of caves are poorly concerned dues to the lack of recognition toward cave maps. Many stakeholders have not known significances and importance of cave maps in determining development of a cave. Less information can be considered as the cause. Therefore, it is strongly necessary to put cave maps into the right context in order to make stakeholders realize the significance of it. Also, cave maps will be officially regarded as tools related to policy, development, and conservation act of caves hence they will have regulation in the usages and applications. This paper aims to make the contextualization of cave maps toward legal act. The act which is used is Act Number 4 Year 2011 About Geospatial Information. The contextualization is done by scrutinizing every articles and clauses related to cave maps and seek the contextual elements from both of them. The results are that cave maps can be regarded as geospatial information and classified as thematic geospatial information. The usages of them can be regulated through the Act Number 4 Year 2011. The regulations comprised by data acquisition, database, authorities, surveyor, and the obligation of providing cave maps in planning cave’s development and the environment surrounding.

  10. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  11. Delineating spring recharge areas in a fractured sandstone aquifer (Luxembourg) based on pesticide mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, J.; Drouet, L.; Gallé, T.; Pittois, D.; Bayerle, M.; Braun, C.; Maloszewski, P.; Vanderborght, J.; Elsner, M.; Kies, A.

    2013-06-01

    A simple method to delineate the recharge areas of a series of springs draining a fractured aquifer is presented. Instead of solving the flow and transport equations, the delineation is reformulated as a mass balance problem assigning arable land in proportion to the pesticide mass discharged annually in a spring at minimum total transport cost. The approach was applied to the Luxembourg Sandstone, a fractured-rock aquifer supplying half of the drinking water for Luxembourg, using the herbicide atrazine. Predictions of the recharge areas were most robust in situations of strong competition by neighbouring springs while the catchment boundaries for isolated springs were extremely sensitive to the parameter controlling flow direction. Validation using a different pesticide showed the best agreement with the simplest model used, whereas using historical crop-rotation data and spatially distributed soil-leaching data did not improve predictions. The whole approach presents the advantage of integrating objectively information on land use and pesticide concentration in spring water into the delineation of groundwater recharge zones in a fractured-rock aquifer.

  12. Underground cosmic-ray measurement for morphological reconstruction of the ''Grotta Gigante'' natural cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffau, E.; Coren, F.; Giannini, G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of the muon flux as a function of direction inside the Grotta Gigante natural cave near Trieste (Italy) was carried out using a tracking apparatus. The measured flux, depending in a well established way on the zenith angle and the rock mass crossed by the muons, allowed the determination of the shape of the cave vault which could be compared with that known from topography and related to the available microgravimetric data of the area. (orig.)

  13. Caves as observatories for atmospheric thermal tides: an example from Ascunsă Cave, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Drăgușin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a microclimate study at Ascunsă Cave, Romania, we used Gemini Tinytag Plus 2 data loggers to record cave air temperature variability. At one of the monitoring points we recognized the presence of semidiurnal cycles on the order of a few thousands of a degree Celsius that could be produced under the influence of the semidiurnal tidal components of the Sun (S2 or the Moon (M2. Using a Gemini Tinytag Plus 2 data logger with an external probe we measured core rock temperature and showed that it does not influence the cave air temperature on such short time scales. We thus rejected the possibility that Earth tides, mostly produced by the lunar tidal influence on the Earth’s crust, would have had a semidiurnal influence on cave air temperature. Moreover, time series analysis revealed a 12.00-hour periodicity in temperature data, specific for the S2, allowing us to assign these variations to the influence of the thermo-tidal action of the Sun. Using the Ideal Gas Law and assuming a constant volume and amount of air, we calculated that a theoretical change in atmospheric pressure of around 40 Pa was needed to produce the temperature changes we observed. This agrees with published values of atmospheric pressure changes induced by the semidiurnal solar component of the thermal tides (S2(t. We thus can assign the observed temperature changes to semidiurnal atmospheric pressure changes (S2(p induced by the thermal excitation of the Sun. Our study signals the possibility that readily available data from cave monitoring studies around the world could be used in the study of atmospheric tides. Moreover, it appears that Ascunsă Cave acts as a natural meteorological filter on a short time scale, removing the direct thermal influences of the Sun (especially night and day differences and preserving only the barometric information from the surface.

  14. Stress analysis of longwall top coal caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alehossein, H.; Poulsen, B.A. [CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is a relatively new method of mining thick coal seams that is currently achieving high productivity and efficiency. The technique is similar to traditional longwall mining in that a cutting head slices coal from the lower section of the coal seam onto a conveyor belt installed in front of the hydraulic support near the cutting face. In modern LTCC an additional rear conveyor belt is located behind the support, to which the flow of the caved coal from the upper part of the seam can be controlled by a moveable flipper attached to the canopy of the support. The mining method relies on the fracturing of the top coal by the front abutment pressure to achieve satisfactory caving into the rear conveyor. This paper develops a yield and caveability criterion based on in situ conditions in the top coal in advance of the mining face (yield) and behind the supports (caveability). Yielding and caving effects are combined into one single number called caving number (CN), which is the multiplication result of caving factor (CF) and yield factor (YF). Analytical derivations are based on in situ stress conditions, Mohr-Coulomb and/or Hoek-Brown rock failure criteria and an on-associated elastoplastic strain softening material behaviour. The yield and caveability criteria are in agreement with results from both numerical studies and mine data. The caving number is normalised to mining conditions of a reference Chinese mine (LMX mine) and is used to assess LTCC performance at fourteen other Chinese working longwalls that have had varying success with the LTCC technology. As a predictive model, results of this analytical/numerical study are useful to assess the potential success of caving in new LTCC operations and in different mining conditions.

  15. Late Holocene environmental reconstruction using cave sediments from Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Jason S.; van Beynen, Philip E.; Reeder, Philip P.

    2007-07-01

    Cave sediments collected from Reflection Cave on the Vaca Plateau, Belize show variations in the δ13C values of their fulvic acids (FAs), which indicate periods of vegetation change caused by climatic and Maya influences during the late Holocene. The δ13C values range from - 27.11‰ to - 21.52‰, a shift of ˜ 5.59‰, which suggests fluctuating contributions of C 3 and C 4 plants throughout the last 2.5 ka, with C 4 plant input reflecting periods of Maya agriculture. Maya activity in the study area occurred at different intensities from ˜ 2600 cal yr BP until ˜ 1500 cal yr BP, after which agricultural practices waned as the Maya depopulated the area. These changes in plant assemblages were in response to changes in available water resources, with increased aridity leading to the eventual abandonment of agricultural areas. The Ix Chel archaeological site, located in the study area, is a highland site that would have been among the first agricultural settlements to be affected during periods of aridity. During these periods, minimal water resources would have been available in this highly karstified, well-drained area, and supplemental groundwater extraction would have been difficult due to the extreme depth of the water table.

  16. Radon Exposures in the Caves of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinza-Molina, C.; Alcaide, J.M.; Rodriques-Bethencourt, R.; Hernandez-Armas, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are more than a hundred volcanic caves and pits of various lengths on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The results are presented of atmospheric radon measurements performed in three of these caves and in three pits. One of the caves selected, El Viento Cave, is nearly 20 km in length and is the longest volcanic tube in the Canarian archipelago and the second longest in the world. The measurements were performed over two distinct periods during the year using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations range between 0.3 and 8 kBq.m -3 , the maximum value corresponds to a site located at 1850 m from the mouth of El Viento Cave. Possible touristic development of these caves has been taken into account in estimating the effective doses for visitors and guides (considered separately). The values obtained range from 0.3 to 100 μSv per visit for visitors. The largest effective dose would correspond to that for guides at 41 mSv.y -1 in the Viento Cave. This result would make protection against radiological hazards obligatory if the cave were to be developed as a site for tourism. (author)

  17. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  18. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedt, J.C.; Boal, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  19. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the extremophile viviparous teleost Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae) from an active sulfur spring cave in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Aarón; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen. The ovarian wall presents abundant loose connective tissue, numerous melanomacrophage centers and large blood vessels, possibly associated with hypoxic conditions. The germinal epithelium bordering the ovarian lumen contains somatic and germ cells forming cell nests projecting into the stroma. P. mexicana stores sperm in ovarian folds associated with follicles at different developmental phases. Oogenesis in P. mexicana consisted of the following stages: (i) oogonial proliferation, (ii) chromatin nucleolus, (iii) primary growth, subdivided into: (a) one nucleolus, (b) multiple nucleoli, (c) droplet oils-cortical alveoli steps; (iv) secondary growth, subdivided in: (a) early secondary growth, (b) late secondary growth, and (c) full grown. Follicular atresia was present in all stages of follicular development; it was characterized by oocyte degeneration, where follicle cells hypertrophy and differentiate in phagocytes. The ovary and oogenesis are similar to these seen in other poeciliids, but we found frequent atretic follicles, melanomacrophage centers, reduced fecundity and increased of offspring size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Choe, K.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M.; Jang, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14 C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  1. Eogenetic caves in conglomerate: an example from Udin Boršt, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipar Matej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Udin Boršt is a karstified terrace of carbonate rock, which is of fluvioglacial origin, and is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. There are 15 registered caves, which have been interpreted as caves in conglomerate, while karst of Udin Boršt itself was interpreted as conglomerate karst, shallow karst or isolated karst. In this article, caves in Udin Boršt have been interpreted as eogenetic caves. Based on porosity and bedding material, different types of caves and cave passages have developed. Four general types of eogenetic caves found in Udin Boršt are; linear stream caves, shelter caves, breakdown caves and vadose shafts.

  2. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in caves of the mainland and the island of Madeira has provided new data about the distribution and diversity of millipedes. A review of millipedes from caves of Portugal is presented, listing fourteen species belonging to eight families, among which six species are considered troglobionts...

  3. Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, Miroslaw; Astel, Aleksander; Wolanin, Anna; Malek, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocholowski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocholowski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. - Highlights: → We use SOM approach to explore physiochemical data for mountain waters. → Geologic structure and hydrological events impact water chemistry. → Limited leaching, typical of crystalline core, reflects in low water mineralization. → Sedimentary rocks are susceptible for leaching. → Eutrophication has not been shown to be a threat in the Chocholowska Valley. - Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in unique high-mountain area was evaluated by the self-organizing map technique.

  4. Digital Preservation of Ancient Maya Cave Architecture: Recent Field Efforts in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Lo, E.; Hess, M. R.; Meyer, D. E.; Amador, F. E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico) is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized - often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  5. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia

  6. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan [WISFIR Laboratory, Earth Physics and Complex System Division, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Riyanto, Erwin [Geotechnical and Hydrology PT. Freeport Indonesia wonbin-ww@hotmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  7. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Lenart, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''.

  8. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  9. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France-both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  10. A cave response to environmental changes in the Late Pleistocene: a study of Budimirica Cave sediments, Macedonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Temovski, M.; Pruner, Petr; Hercman, H.; Bosák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2016), s. 307-316 ISSN 1330-030X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeoenvironmental changes * Late Pleistocene * Budimirica Cave * Macedonia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.595, year: 2016 http://www. geologia -croatica.hr/ojs/index.php/GC

  11. Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rowberry, Matthew David; Martí, Xavier; Frontera, C.; Van De Wiel, M.J.; Briestenský, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, JUN (2016), 16-26 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : cave radon concentration * cave radon flux * cave ventilation * radioactive decay * fault slip * numerical modelling Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  12. Application of heat-flow techniques to geothermal energy exploration, Leach Hot Springs area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Ziagos, J.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Munroe, R.J.; di Somma, D.E.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 82 holes ranging in depth from 18 to 400 meters were drilled for thermal and hydrologic studies in a 200 km/sup 2/ area of Grass Valley, Nevada, near Leach Hot Springs. Outside the immediate area of Leach Hot Springs, heat flow ranges from 1 to 6.5 hfu with a mean of 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = 10/sup -6/ cal cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ = 41.8 mWm/sup -2/). Within 2 km of the springs, conductive heat flow ranges between 1.6 and more than 70 hfu averaging 13.6 hfu. Besides the conspicuous thermal anomaly associated with the hot springs, two additional anomalies were identified. One is associated with faults bounding the western margin of the Tobin Range near Panther Canyon, and the other is near the middle of Grass Valley about 5 km SSW of Leach Hot Springs. The mid-valley anomaly appears to be caused by hydrothermal circulation in a bedrock horst beneath about 375 meters of impermeable valley sediments. If the convective and conductive heat discharge within 2 km of the Leach Hot Springs is averaged over the entire hydrologic system (including areas of recharge), the combined heat flux from this part of Grass Valley is about 3 hfu, consistent with the average regional conductive heat flow in the Battle Mountain High. The hydrothermal system can be interpreted as being in a stationary stable phase sustained by high regional heat flow, and no localized crustal heat sources (other than hydrothermal convection to depths of a few kilometers) need be invoked to explain the existence of Leach Hot Springs.

  13. Sources of sulphate minerals in limestone cave-a possible evidence of anthropogenic activity: a case study in Črna Jama Cave (Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Simona; Miler, Miloš; Šebela, Stanka; Zupančič, Nina

    2017-12-01

    In the caves, the formation of cave minerals is a consequence of a variety of chemical reactions, some of them also due to human activity. There are many caves in Slovenia, but sulphate minerals are not very often reported and analysed. In this study, the presence of sulphate minerals is detected by SEM/EDS analysis of speleothems from Črna Jama, a cave near Kočevje (southern Slovenia). The cave is characterised by its dark, almost black colour on cave walls, floor and speleothems. Anthropogenic influence in the cave is still visible, including the remains of a fireplace, some inscriptions on the walls and wooden containers. The analyses of some of the black-coated speleothems reveal the presence of calcium sulphate, confirmed by XRD as gypsum. Gypsum crystals are around 50 μm in size, and they occur in thin crusts. Additionally, some rare authigenic baryte crystals a few micrometres in size are detected. The sulphates δ 34 S value in gypsum found on dark coloured speleothems is + 10.4‰ Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT), while the sulphate δ 34 S of the bedrock is + 8.6‰ VCDT. The more likely source of sulphate ions is thus biomass burning rather than bedrock. Also, bedrock and biomass ash are a very probable source of calcium and barium. The highly probable pyrogenous origin of sulphates draws attention to human impact on cave mineralogy.

  14. Cryogenic Minerals in Caves of the Vizhay River (Northern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Bazarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New information on the cryogenic mineral formations at the two Vizhay River caves (Northern Urals is given.   Calcite with the insignificant gypsum admixture predominates in the cryogenic material composition from both caves. In addition, the metastable phases of calcite, such as monohydrocalcite and ikaite were found. In the Saksofon Cave, calcite forms both spherulites and complanate grains. In Lednikovaya Cave, the major part of cryomaterial is presented by spherulites, which may suggests the significant supersaturation of solution. In Lednikovaya Сave, the distinct concentric structure with the growth zones denotes the cryogenic material formation in a thin water film under the partial thawing of upper part of long-term ice mound in summer. In Saksofon Cave the growth zones in crystals are poorly developed that probably caused by the seasonal glaciation in the cave and cryogenic minerals are younger than those in the Lednikovaya Cave.

  15. Diversity and morphological structure of bacterial communities inhabiting the Diana-Hygieia Thermal Spring (Budapest, Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Dóra; Büki, Gabriella; Krett, Gergely; Makk, Judit; Márialigeti, Károly; Erőss, Anita; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Borsodi, Andrea K

    2014-09-01

    The Buda Thermal Karst System is an active hypogenic karst area that offers possibility for the analysis of biogenic cave formation. The aim of the present study was to gain information about morphological structure and genetic diversity of bacterial communities inhabiting the Diana-Hygieia Thermal Spring (DHTS). Using scanning electron microscopy, metal accumulating and unusual reticulated filaments were detected in large numbers in the DHTS biofilm samples. The phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were represented by both bacterial strains and molecular clones but phyla Acidobacteria, Chlorobi, Chlorofexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and Thermotogae only by molecular clones which showed the highest similarity to uncultured clone sequences originating from different environmental sources. The biofilm bacterial community proved to be somewhat more diverse than that of the water sample and the distribution of the dominant bacterial clones was different between biofilm and water samples. The majority of biofilm clones was affiliated with Deltaproteobacteria and Nitrospirae while the largest group of water clones was related to Betaproteobacteria. Considering the metabolic properties of known species related to the strains and molecular clones from DHTS, it can be assumed that these bacterial communities may participate in the local sulphur and iron cycles, and contribute to biogenic cave formation.

  16. Climatic control on the growth of gigantic gypsum crystals within hypogenic caves (Naica mine, Mexico)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Paolo S.; Fricker, Mattias B.; Günther, Detlef; Forti, Paolo; Mercuri, Anna-Maria; Loreti, Mara; Capaccioni, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Three hypogenic caves within the Naica mine of Mexico ( Cueva de los Cristales — CLC, Ojo de la Reina — OR, and Cueva de las Velas — CLV) host spectacular gypsum crystals up to 11 m in length. These caves are close to another shallow cave of the area ( Cueva de las Espadas — CLE), with which they cover a 160 m-deep vertical section of the local drainage basin. Similar to other hypogenic caves, all these caves lack a direct connection with the land surface and should be unrelated with climate. A record of multi-technique fluid inclusion data and pollen spectra from cave and mine gypsum indicates surprisingly that climatic changes occurring at Naica could have controlled fluid composition in these caves, and hence crystal growth. Microthermometry and LA-ICP-Mass Spectrometry of fluid inclusions indicate that the shallow, chemically peculiar, saline fluid (up to 7.7 eq. wt.%NaCl) of CLE could have formed from evaporation, during a dry and hot climatic period. The fluid of the deep caves was instead of low salinity (˜ 3.5 eq. wt.% NaCl) and chemically homogeneous, and was poorly affected by evaporation. We propose that mixing of these two fluids, generated at different depths of the Naica drainage basin, determined the stable supersaturation conditions for the gigantic gypsum crystals to grow. Fluid mixing was controlled by the hydraulic communication between CLE and the other deep caves, and must have taken place during cycles of warm-dry and fresh-wet climatic periods, which are known to have occurred in the region. Pollen grains from a 35 ka-old gypsum crystal of CLC corresponds to a fairly homogenous catchment basin made of a mixed broadleaf wet forest, which suggests precipitation during a fresh-wet climatic period and confirms our interpretation of the fluid inclusion data. The unusual combination of geological and geochemical factors of Naica suggests that other hypogenic caves found elsewhere may not host similar crystals. However, this work shows that

  17. 3N Cave: Longest salt cave in the world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.; Vilhelm, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2006), s. 10-18 ISSN 0027-7010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt cave * salt karst * Iran * expedition Namak Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. The carbon transfer in karst areas - an application to the study of environmental changes and paleoclimatic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Karst areas constitute a large part of Slovenia, with several thousands of caves located in the limestone formations. The karstic caves provide valuable resources for reconstruction of environmental conditions on the continent in the past. This is possible due to the great stability of climatic conditions within a cave. Secondary minerals deposited in caves, known as speleothems, preserve records of long-term climatic and environmental changes at the site of their deposition and in the vicinity. The purity of speleothems and their chemical and physical stability make them exceptionally well suited for detailed geochemical and isotopic analysis.To understand the processes influencing the speleothem isotopic composition, monitoring of cave waters as well as springs and underground rivers is very important for at least one hydrological cycle. In this way we can observe the influence of seasonal changes on the cave waters feeding stalagmite growth laminae. Chemical and environmental parameters which influence speleothem formation are the temperature of air and water, as well as the properties of the water such as pH, electrical conductivity, Ca 2+ , HCO 3 - and Mg 2+ ion concentrations and drip rate. The thickness of the roof above the cave and the types of cave water may also determine the water properties. During one year monthly water samples were collected at three locations in Postojna cave to characterise different types of cave waters (pool, fast and stalactite drip water), and also from the river Pivka and spring Mocilnik. Rainwater samples were also collected and analysed. Dissolved CO 2 and carbonate in cave seepage waters originate from various sources: atmospheric CO 2 , organic matter that decomposes in soil, CO 2 from respiration of plants in the soil, and the dissolution of old layers of limestone. The isotopic composition of speleothems is directly linked with the isotopic composition of CO 2 produced in the soil above the cave. Production of CO 2 in

  19. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF ANCIENT MAYA CAVE ARCHITECTURE: RECENT FIELD EFFORTS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rissolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized – often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  20. USGS geologic Mapping and karst research in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Grant, Victoria M

    2014-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) was created in 1964 to protect 134 miles of the Current River and its major tributary, the Jacks Fork, that are located in south-central Missouri (fig. 1). The park includes numerous large karst springs including Big Spring, by flow volume this is the largest spring in the National Park system. The National Park Service (NPS) administers a narrow, nearly continuous corridor of land adjacent to the two rivers. Base flow for the rivers is chiefly supplied by groundwater that has traveled through the karst landscape from as far as 38 miles away from the spring (Imes and Frederick, 2002). The watershed is vulnerable to pollution, but the area remains largely rural with few industries. The springs and rivers provide habitat for numerous aquatic species as well as recreational resources for floaters, fishermen, and campers. The ONSR is a major cave park with hundreds of known caves and diverse in-cave resources.

  1. Magnetic Susceptibility and Heavy Metals in Guano from South Sulawesi Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, H.; Putra, R.; Fadila, M. R.; Erni, E.; Wurster, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Measurement of some magnetic properties have been performed on vertical profile from South Sulawesi caves (Mampu and Bubau) by using low cost, rapid, sensitive and non destructive magnetic method. The aim is to attempt to use magnetic characters as a fingerprint for anthropogenic pollution in the caves. Guano samples were collected every 5 cm at a certain section of Mampu and Bubau cave, South Sulawesi, starting from surface through 300 cm in depth of mampu Cave and 30 cm of Bubau Cave. The magnetic parameters such as magnetic susceptibility and percentage frequency dependence susceptibility were measured using the Bartington MS2-MS2B instruments and supported by X-Ray Fluoroscence (XRF) to know their element composition. The results show that the samples had variations in magnetic susceptibility from 3.5 to 242.6 x 10‑8 m3/kg for Mampu Cave and from 8.6 to 106.5 x 10‑8 m3/kg for Bubau Cave and also magnetic domain. Then, the XRF results show that the caves contain several heavy metals. Magnetic and heavy metal analyses showing that the magnetic minerals in caves are lithogenic (Fe-bearing minerals) in origin and anthropogenic (Zn content) in the caves.

  2. Ancient lineage, young troglobites: recent colonization of caves by Nesticella spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-09-04

    The evolution and origin of cave organisms is a recurring issue in evolutionary studies, but analyses are often hindered by the inaccessibility of caves, morphological convergence, and complex colonization processes. Here we investigated the evolutionary history of Nesticella cave spiders, which are mainly distributed in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China. With comprehensive sampling and phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses, we investigated the tempo and mode of diversification and the origins of these troglobites. We also aimed to determine which factors have influenced the diversification of this little-known group. Coalescent-based species delimitation validated the 18 species recognized by morphological inspection and also suggested the existence of cryptic lineages. Divergence time estimates suggested that Nesticella cave spiders in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau constituted a monophyletic troglobite clade that originated in the middle Miocene (11.1-18.6 Ma). Although the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau clade was composed exclusively of troglobite species, suggesting an ancient common subterranean ancestor, we favor multiple, independent cave colonizations during the Pleistocene over a single ancient cave colonization event to explain the origin of these cave faunas. The diversification of plateau Nesticella has been greatly influenced by the sequential uplift of the plateau and likely reflects multiple cave colonizations over time by epigean ancestors during Pleistocene glacial advances. We concluded that plateau cave Nesticella represent an ancient group of spiders, but with young troglobite lineages that invaded caves only recently. The absence of extant epigean relatives and nearly complete isolation among caves supported their relict status. Our work highlights the importance of comprehensive sampling for studies of subterranean diversity and the evolution of cave organisms. The existence of potentially cryptic species and the relict status of Nesticella

  3. Energy and speleogenesis: Key determinants of terrestrial species richness in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Sendra, Alberto; Garay, Policarp; Reboleira, Ana Sofia P S

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to unravel the relative role played by speleogenesis (i.e., the process in which a cave is formed), landscape-scale variables, and geophysical factors in the determination of species richness in caves. Biological inventories from 21 caves located in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula along with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis were used to assess the relative importance of the different explanatory variables. The caves were grouped according to the similarity in their species composition; the effect that spatial distance could have on similarity was also studied using correlation between matrices. The energy and speleogenesis of caves accounted for 44.3% of the variation in species richness. The trophic level of each cave was the most significant factor in PLS regression analysis, and epigenic caves (i.e., those formed by the action of percolating water) had significantly more species than hypogenic ones (i.e., those formed by the action of upward flows in confined aquifers). Dissimilarity among the caves was very high (multiple-site β sim  = 0.92). Two main groups of caves were revealed through the cluster analysis, one formed by the western caves and the other by the eastern ones. The significant-but low-correlation found between faunistic dissimilarity and geographical distance ( r  =   .16) disappeared once the caves were split into the two groups. The extreme beta-diversity suggests a very low connection among the caves and/or a very low dispersal capacity of the species. In the region under study, two main factors are intimately related to the richness of terrestrial subterranean species in caves: the amount of organic material (trophic level) and the formation process (genesis). This is the first time that the history of a cave genesis has been quantitatively considered to assess its importance in explaining richness patterns in comparison with other factors more widely recognized.

  4. Cave-dwelling pholcid spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pholcidae are ubiquitous spiders in tropical and subtropical caves around the globe, yet very little is known about cave-dwelling pholcids beyond what is provided in taxonomic descriptions and faunistic papers. This paper provides a review based on a literature survey and unpublished information, while pointing out potential biases and promising future projects. A total of 473 native (i.e. non-introduced species of Pholcidae have been collected in about 1000 caves. The large majority of cave-dwelling pholcids are not troglomorphic; a list of 86 troglomorphic species is provided, including 21 eyeless species and 21 species with strongly reduced eyes. Most troglomorphic pholcids are representatives of only two genera: Anopsicus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1938 and Metagonia Simon, 1893. Mexico is by far the richest country in terms of troglomorphic pholcids, followed by several islands and mainland SE Asia. The apparent dominance of Mexico may partly be due to collectors’ and taxonomists’ biases. Most caves harbor only one pholcid species, but 91 caves harbor two and more species (up to five species. Most troglomorphic pholcids belong to two subfamilies (Modisiminae, Pholcinae, very few belong to Smeringopinae and Arteminae, none to Ninetinae. This is in agreement with the recent finding that within Pholcidae, microhabitat changes in general are concentrated in Modisiminae and Pholcinae.

  5. Age and speleogenesis of epigenic gypsum caves in the northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Andrea; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Drysdale, Russell; Forti, Paolo; Hellstrom, John; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Triassic and Messinian gypsum beds host the majority of the caves in the eastern flank of the northern Apennines. To date, more than six hundreds voids have been mapped, including the longest known epigenic gypsum cave system in the world (Spipola-Acquafredda, ~11 km of tunnels) (De Waele et al., 2013). Superimposed caves are typically sub-horizontal (Klimchouk, 2000) and connected through vertical shafts, reflecting the palaeo base-level variations. When preserved, river terraces at the surface lie at the same palaeo altitude of the base level and horizontal cave passages. Notwithstanding the well-known geology of the area known (Vai and Martini, 2001), the age of these caves has been greatly underestimated in the past. Considering the rapid dissolution of the gypsum and uplifting of the area, the start of speleogenesis activity was considered to have occurred during the last glacial age. The age of karst voids can be only indirectly estimated by the dating of the infilling sediments. U-Th dating on carbonate speleothems provides high-precision and accurate ages (Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). We thus applied this methodology to 20 speleothems coming from 14 different caves belonging to the Monte Tondo, Spipola Acquafredda, Castelnuovo, Stella-Rio Basino and Brisighella systems. The results show that: i) caves were forming since at least ~300 ka; ii) the peak of speleogenesis was reached during relatively cold climate stages, when rivers formed terraces at the surface and aggradation caused paragenesis in the stable cave levels (Columbu et al., 2015). Besides the significant contribution to the understanding of the Apennines evaporite karst evolution, this study (and its further advancement) may also refine knowledge of the local vs regional uplifting rates and base-level variations since the late Pleistocene (Wegmann and Pazzaglia, 2009). References Columbu, A., De Waele, J., Forti, P., Montagna, P., Picotti, V., Pons-Branchu, E., Hellstrom, J

  6. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  7. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  8. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

  9. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.

    2005-01-01

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm -3 . The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm -3 . However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm -3 . Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  10. The migration law of overlay rock and coal in deeply inclined coal seam with fully mechanized top coal caving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Shan-Le; Wang, Hua-Jun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Geng, Xiaowei

    2015-07-01

    In a mine area, some environment geotechnics problems always occure, induced by mined-out region such as the subsidence and cracks at ground level, deformation and destruction of buildings, landslides destruction of water resources and the ecological environment. In order to research the migration of surrounding rock and coal in steeply inclined super high seams which used fully mechanized top coal caving, a working face of a certain mine was made as an example, analyzed the migration law of the overlay rock and coal under different caving ratio of fully mechanized top coal caving with numerical simulation analysis. The results suggest that the laws of overlay rock deformation caused by deeply inclined coal seam were different from horizontal coal seam. On the inclined direction, with an increase of dip angle and caving ratio, the vertical displacement of overlay rock and coal became greater, the asymmetric phenomenon of vertical displacement became obvious. On the trend direction, active region and transition region in goaf became smaller along with the increase of mining and caving ratio. On the contrary, the stable region area became greater. Therefore, there was an essential difference between the mechanism of surface movement deformation with deeply inclined coal seam and that with horizontal coal seam.

  11. The architectural form of Qikou Cave dwellings in Chinese "Earth" culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuanchen; Feng, Xinqun

    2018-03-01

    Cave building is not only a kind of architecture with unique style, but also a manifestation of Chinese traditional culture. Cave culture is an important part of Chinese traditional culture. The main purpose of this thesis which studies the architectural form of Qikou Cave, is to analyze how the cave building plays a positive role in promoting the development and application of modern resources and in cultural transmission. Based on a large amount of literature material, and taking Qikou Cave as an example, by studying the morphological characteristics of cave building, the paper takes an optimistic outlook on its future development and the sustainable development of the resources. It is expected that the cave culture can be further explored to promote the traditional Chinese culture and to drive the development of modern construction industry and resource conservation.

  12. Seasonal Temperature Variations controlling Cave Ventilation Processes in Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A.; Vieten, R.; Warken, S. F.; Schrӧder-Ritzrau, A.; Miller, T. E.; Scholz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Two years of monthly monitoring result in much better understanding of ventilation processes in caves. Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico is 1440 m long with a large main passage (about 116,000 m3). Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varied seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 made it possible to estimate a cave air exchange time of 36±5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,200±800 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between cave and surface temperature show that the seasonal temperature cycle is the main driver of the alternation between a well-ventilated winter mode and a near-stagnant summer mode. The winter mode is characterized by a positive buoyancy contrast at night leading to maximal cave ventilation, while during summer ventilation is at a minimum. Between winter and summer, a transitional mode of partial cave ventilation is observed. On shorter time scales (diurnal to weekly), cave pCO2 is also influenced by atmospheric pressure but this variation is one order of magnitude lower than the seasonal pCO2 change. The cave morphology of Cueva Larga including its large volume, tubular shape and the obstructed cave entrance geometry are important boundary conditions for the observed ventilation patterns. Our findings emphasize that cave systems with varying morphology have to be studied individually in order to correctly describe ventilation processes.

  13. A world review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlpine Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds that have been found in natural solution caves and mines worldwide. Such habitats provide frequent roost sites for bats, and in eastern North America the environmental conditions that support white-nose syndrome, a lethal fungal disease currently devastating bat populations. A list of 1029 species of fungi, slime moulds, and yeasts in 518 genera have been documented from caves and mines worldwide in 225 articles. Ascomycota dominate the cave environment. Most research has been conducted in temperate climates, especially in Europe. A mean of 17.9±24.4SD fungal species are reported per study. Questions remain about the origin and ecological roles of fungi in caves, and which, if any, are cave-specialists. In the northern hemisphere, caves are generally characterized by relatively stable, low temperatures and a lack of organic substrates. This environment favors communities of oligotrophic, psychrotolerant fungi. Data that may help explain how cave environmental features and faunas inf luence the introduction and transmission of cave fungi remains scant.

  14. Life on the edge: hydrogen sulfide and the fish communities of a Mexican cave and surrounding waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo; Heubel, Katja U; Riesch, Rüdiger; de León, Francisco J García; Giere, Olav; Plath, Martin

    2006-12-01

    Most eucaryotic organisms classified as living in an extreme habitat are invertebrates. Here we report of a fish living in a Mexican cave (Cueva del Azufre) that is rich in highly toxic H(2)S. We compared the water chemistry and fish communities of the cave and several nearby surface streams. Our study revealed high concentrations of H(2)S in the cave and its outflow (El Azufre). The concentrations of H(2)S reach more than 300 muM inside the cave, which are acutely toxic for most fishes. In both sulfidic habitats, the diversity of fishes was heavily reduced, and Poecilia mexicana was the dominant species indicating that the presence of H(2)S has an all-or-none effect, permitting only few species to survive in sulfidic habitats. Compared to habitats without H(2)S, P. mexicana from the cave and the outflow have a significantly lower body condition. Although there are microhabitats with varying concentrations of H(2)S within the cave, we could not find a higher fish density in areas with lower concentrations of H(2)S. We discuss that P. mexicana is one of the few extremophile vertebrates. Our study supports the idea that extreme habitats lead to an impoverished species diversity.

  15. Hearth-side socioeconomics, hunting and paleoecology during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran

    2011-02-01

    The late Lower Paleolithic archaeofaunas of Qesem Cave in the southern Levant span 400-200 ka and associate with Acheulo-Yabrudian (mainly Amudian) industries. The large mammals are exclusively Eurasian in origin and formed under relatively cool, moist conditions. The zooarchaeological findings testify to large game hunting, hearth-centered carcass processing and meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic, not unlike the patterns known from Middle and Upper Paleolithic caves in the region. Well-defined hearth features are rarely preserved in Qesem Cave, but the heterogeneous distributions of burned bones indicate areas of frequent hearth rebuilding throughout the occupation sequence. The hominins delayed consumption of high quality body parts until they could be moved to the cave, where hearths were hubs of processing activities and social interaction. Paradoxically, the cut marks on the Qesem bones are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant. These results suggest that several individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones and that the social mechanics of meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave differed from those typical of both the Middle and Upper Paleolithic in the region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A radon survey performed in caves in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, P.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of radon and radon decay product concentrations in several caves in a limestone region in Slovenia was initiated in 1986. In the period from 1989 to 1998, monthly surveys were undertaken in several caves which are open to tourists or used for speleotherapy purposes. The reason for carrying out these surveys, were dose estimates obtained for the guides and medical staff working in the caves. Daily average radon gas concentration determined ranged from several 100 Bq/m 3 up to 27 kBq/m 3 . Higher values were measured in the summer period. The equilibrium factors derived ranged from 0.05 to 0.89, with the higher values being measured in the winter period in vertical caves. In horizontal caves (with two entrances located opposite one another) these values ranged between 0.55 and 0.89. Annual doses estimated on the basis of various lung models ranged from 10 mSv to 85 mSv per year and per 2000 working hours. A significant difference was observed between the doses estimated by means of dosimetric models, and those estimated on the basis of the epidemiological model presented in ICRP 65. The value for the unattached fraction indicated in ICRP 65 is about 3%, but our measurements performed in the caves yielded higher values of up to 15%, with this highest value being determined in the Postojna cave. In the coming years, we will perform measurements to obtain the values for concentrations of unattached particles of radon daughters and values for particle-size distribution in the 3 different caves with the highest occupancy times for visitors. There are no regulations in force in Slovenia affecting exposures to elevated radon and radon daughter concentrations among underground workers. The health inspectorate can impose radiation monitoring measures for the purposes of performing dose calculations for underground workers. The results from such monitoring measures will contribute to the establishment of an ordinance regulating the performance of measurements at low

  17. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  18. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    relatives in cave subterranean ecological refugia. Active colonization and ecological speciation to particular cave niches has been alternatively suggested, but the evaluation of that scenario is obscured by the dominance of crustaceans in anchialine habitats, ecologically similar out and inside caves....... The main goal of this thesis is to explore the evolutionary processes behind colonization and adaptation to submarine cave ecosystems in the Atlantic Ocean using annelids as a model, mainly when they involved ancestrally interstitial forms. In order to do that, we studied selected lineages of annelids...... with cave and interstitial representatives, mainly the families Protodrilidae, Nerillidae, Saccocirridae and Scalibregmatidae. The studies combined the characterization of ancestral and cave habitats, with morphological investigations and phylogenetic analyses founded on extensive taxon coverage...

  19. Stratigraphy, U-Th chronology, and paleoenvironments at Gladysvale Cave: insights into the climatic control of South African hominin-bearing cave deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Robyn; Hancox, Phillip J; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Grün, Rainer; Mortimer, Graham E; McCulloch, Malcolm; Berger, Lee R

    2007-11-01

    Gladysvale Cave is one of the few Plio-Pleistocene hominin-bearing cave sites in South Africa that contains a well-stratified cave fill with clastic sediments interspersed with flowstones. The clastic sediments can be divided into units based on the presence of intercalated flowstones, forming flowstone bounded units (FBU). Ten MC-ICP-MS uranium-series dates on several flowstone horizons in the Gladysvale Internal Deposit fan indicate deposition from the late mid-Pleistocene ( approximately 570 ka) to Holocene ( approximately 7 ka) during limited periods of higher effective moisture. Clastic sedimentation occurred during the interceding, presumably more arid, periods. This sequence is not consistent with earlier models for South African caves that simply assumed interglacial sedimentation and glacial erosion. (13)C/(12)C data suggest that flowstone tended to form during periods with higher proportions of C(3) plants in the local vegetation, while clastic sediments reflect higher proportions of C(4) grasses, although this is not always the case. We argue that flowstones are precipitated during periods of higher effective precipitation and restricted cave entrances, while clastic sediments accumulated during periods with more open vegetation. The sedimentary fill of the fossiliferous deposits are, therefore, highly episodic in nature, with large periods of time unlikely to be represented. This has serious implications for the other hominin-bearing caves close by, as these deposits are likely to be similarly episodic. This is especially pertinent when addressing extinction events and reconstructions of paleoenvironments, as large periods of time may be unrecorded. The Gladysvale Cave fill sediments may serve as a climatically forced chronostratigraphic model for these less well-stratified and well-dated Plio-Pleistocene sites.

  20. Speleoclimate dynamics in Santana Cave (PETAR, São Paulo State, Brazil: general characterization and implications for tourist management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Show caves provide tourists with the opportunity to have close contact with natural underground spaces. However, visitation to these places also creates a need for management measures, mainly the definition of tourist carrying capacity. The present work describes the results of climate monitoring and atmospheric profiling performed in Santana Cave (Alto Ribeira State and Tourist Park – PETAR, Brazil between 2008 and 2011. Based on the results, distinct preliminary zones with different levels of thermal variation were identified, which classify Santana Cave as a warm trap. Two critical points along the tourist route (Cristo and Encontro Halls were identified where the temperature of the locality increased by 1.3 °C when tourists were present. Air flow from the inner cave to the outside occurs during the austral summer, and the opposite flow occurs when the outside environment is colder than the air inside the cave during the austral winter. The temperature was used to establish thresholds to the tourist carrying capacity by computing the recovery time of the atmospheric conditions after the changes caused by the presence of tourists. This method suggests a maximum limit of approximately 350 visits per day to Santana Cave. The conclusion of the study is that Santana Cave has an atmosphere that is highly connected with the outside; daily variations in temperature and, to a lesser extent, in the relative humidity occur throughout the entire studied area of the cave. Therefore, the tourist carrying capacity in Santana Cave can be flexible and can be implemented based on the climate seasonality, the tourism demand and other management strategies.

  1. The CAVE (TM) automatic virtual environment: Characteristics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    Virtual reality may best be defined as the wide-field presentation of computer-generated, multi-sensory information that tracks a user in real time. In addition to the more well-known modes of virtual reality -- head-mounted displays and boom-mounted displays -- the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago recently introduced a third mode: a room constructed from large screens on which the graphics are projected on to three walls and the floor. The CAVE is a multi-person, room sized, high resolution, 3D video and audio environment. Graphics are rear projected in stereo onto three walls and the floor, and viewed with stereo glasses. As a viewer wearing a location sensor moves within its display boundaries, the correct perspective and stereo projections of the environment are updated, and the image moves with and surrounds the viewer. The other viewers in the CAVE are like passengers in a bus, along for the ride. 'CAVE,' the name selected for the virtual reality theater, is both a recursive acronym (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) and a reference to 'The Simile of the Cave' found in Plato's 'Republic,' in which the philosopher explores the ideas of perception, reality, and illusion. Plato used the analogy of a person facing the back of a cave alive with shadows that are his/her only basis for ideas of what real objects are. Rather than having evolved from video games or flight simulation, the CAVE has its motivation rooted in scientific visualization and the SIGGRAPH 92 Showcase effort. The CAVE was designed to be a useful tool for scientific visualization. The Showcase event was an experiment; the Showcase chair and committee advocated an environment for computational scientists to interactively present their research at a major professional conference in a one-to-many format on high-end workstations attached to large projection screens. The CAVE was developed as a 'virtual reality theater' with scientific content and

  2. Detecting and characterizing unroofed caves by ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čeru, Teja; Šegina, Ela; Knez, Martin; Benac, Čedomir; Gosar, Andrej

    2018-02-01

    The bare karst surface in the southeastern part of Krk Island (Croatia) is characterized by different surface karst features, such as valley-like shallow linear depressions and partially or fully sediment-filled depressions of various shapes and sizes. They were noticed due to locally increased thickness of sediment and enhanced vegetation but had not yet been systematically studied and defined. Considering only the geometry of the investigated surface features and the rare traces of cave environments detected by field surveys, it was unclear which processes (surface karstification and/or speleogenesis) contributed most to their formation. The low-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) method using a special 50 MHz RTA antenna was applied to study and describe these karst features. Three study sites were chosen and 5 km of GPR profiles were positioned to include various surface features. The results obtained from the GPR investigation lead to the following conclusions: (1) an increased thickness of sediment was detected in all the investigated depressions indicating their considerable depth; (2) areas between different depressions expressed as attenuated zones in GPR images reveal their interconnection; (3) transitions between surface and underground features are characterized by a collapsed passage visible in the GPR data; and (4) an underground continuation of surface valley-like depressions was detected, proving the speleogenetic origin of such features. Subsurface information obtained using GPR indicates that the valley-like depressions, irregular depressions completely or partially filled with sediment, and some dolines are associated with a nearly 4 km-long unroofed cave and developed as a result of karst denudation. In the regional context, these results suggest long-lasting karstification processes in the area, in contrast to the pre-karstic fluvial phase previously assumed to have occurred here. This research is the first application of the GPR method to

  3. Chronology of guitarrero cave, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T F; Gillespie, R; Gowlett, J A; Hedges, R E

    1985-08-30

    Dating by accelerator mass spectrometry of wooden artifacts, cord, and charcoal samples from Guitarrero Cave, Peru, supports the antiquity of South America's earliest textiles and other perishable remains. The new dates are consistent with those obtained from disintegration counters and leave little doubt about the integrity of the lower Preceramic layers and their early cultivars. Re-evaluation of the mode of deposition suggests that most of the remains resulted from short-term use of the cave in the eighth millennium B.C., with a possible brief human visit as early as 12,560 years ago.

  4. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  5. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics in the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area, northern Bexar County, Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Morris, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    the study area and is composed of, in ascending order, the basal nodular member, dolomitic member, Kirschberg evaporite member, and grainstone member. The Edwards and Trinity aquifers contain a combination of fabric-selective and not-fabric-selective porosities. Porosity types observed in the study area that can increase the effective porosity and increase permeability include solutionally enlarged caves, sinkholes, fractures, bedding planes, channels, molds and vugs. Caves found during hydrogeologic mapping might have been spring discharge points, but sufficient downcutting over geologic time in the rocks has occurred so that springs discharge at lower elevations near the creek channel. The mapped caves, sinkholes, and other areas of solutionally enlarged porosity might facilitate recharge during large storm events when runoff occurs on the hillsides; additional areally distributed recharge in the study area occurs as a result of infiltration.

  6. Assessing the origin of unusual organic formations in lava caves from Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; de la Rosa, Jose M.; Garcia-Sanchez, Angela M.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Jurado, Valme; Fernández, Octavio; Knicker, Heike; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-04-01

    Lava tubes, like other caves, contain a variety of speleothems formed in the initial stage of a lava tube formation or due to leaching and subsequent precipitation of secondary minerals. Primary and secondary mineral formations in lava caves are mainly composed of silicate minerals, although secondary minerals common in limestone caves have been also reported in this type of caves. In addition, unusual colored deposits have been found on the walls and ceilings of lava tubes, some of them of unknown origin and composition. A brown to black-colored mud-like deposits was observed in "Llano de los Caños" Cave, La Palma Island, Canary Islands, Spain. These black deposits coat the wall and ceiling of the lava tube where sub-horizontal fractures occur. FESEM-EDS, X-ray micro-computed tomography and mineralogical analyses were conducted for morphological, 3D microstructural and compositional characterization of these unusual speleothem samples. These techniques revealed that they are mainly composed of amorphous materials, suggesting an organic carbon composition. Hence, analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS), solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and stable isotope analysis were applied to assess the nature and origin of the black deposits. The combination of these analytical tools permits the identification of specific biomarkers (di- and triterpenoids) for tracing the potential sources of the organic compounds in the speleothems. For comparison purposes, samples from the topsoil and overlaying vegetation were also analyzed. Chromatograms resulting from the Py-GC/MS showed an abundance of polysaccharides, lipids and terpenoids typically derived from the vegetation of the area (Erica arborea). In addition, levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-containing heterocyclic compounds were detected. They probably derived from the leaching of charred vegetation resulting from a wildfire occurred in the area in 2012. The lack of the typical pattern of odd

  7. Investigation on the possible interconnection between Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and springs of Argos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontiadis, I.; Dimitroulas, C.; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, A.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    /sup 51/Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of possible interconnection between the sinkhole Kanata, on the high Plateau of Tripolis, and springs of the areas of Argos, Achladokambos and Kinouria. By this experiment, the interconnection between the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios Achladokambos river, is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc., have been calculated.

  8. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, R.G.; Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m -3 . Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m -3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems, therefore, may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentrations. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentrations observed in this study and the implications for viable actions

  9. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included

  10. Radon measurements using track detector in Wadi Sannur cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, F.; Eissa, M.F.; Mostafa, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The most important contributors to the committed effective dose received by population due to natural sources are the short-lived decay products of radon ( 222 Rn). In natural voids, such as caves, most radon will enter the system from diffusion across the rock-air interface. It is well known that factors such as air pressure and temperature control the distribution of radon. The radon concentration measurements in the Wadi Sannur cave in Beni-Suef governorate in the period from 14 th of July 2005 to 17 th of October 2005. The average radon concentrations in the right, left and whole first cave are 916.12 ± 179.09, 819.63 ± 54.72 and 873.90± 147.11 Bq m -3 respectively. The measurements were performed using track etch detector of type Cr-39. After exposure, all detectors were etched chemically in 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 C degrees for 6 h. The tracks were counted with an optical microscope magnifying 400 times. The average temperature inside the first cave during the period of measurements is 25-26 C degrees. The annual effective doses for the workers and visitors in the cave have been calculated. The average radon concentration in the Wadi Sannur cave, was 873.90 ± 147.11 Bq m -3 . The annual effective doses for worker and visitor in the cave were 1.33 ± 0.24 and 0.041 ± 0.007 mSv respectively. The doses are within the international recommended dose of 1.15 mSv. (author)

  11. A clustering approach applied to time-lapse ERT interpretation - Case study of Lascaux cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan; Sirieix, Colette; Riss, Joëlle; Malaurent, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The Lascaux cave, located in southwest France, is one of the most important prehistoric cave in the world that shows Paleolithic paintings. This study aims to characterize the structure of the weathered epikarst setting located above the cave using Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) combined with local hydrogeological and climatic environmental data. Twenty ERT profiles were carried out for two years and helped us to record the seasonal and spatial variations of the electrical resistivity of the hydraulic upstream area of the Lascaux cave. The 20 interpreted resistivity models were merged into a single synthetic model using a multidimensional statistical method (Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering). The individual blocks from the synthetic model associated with a similar resistivity variability were gathered into 7 clusters. We combined the resistivity temporal variations with climatic and hydrogeological data to propose a geo-electrical model that relates to a conceptual geological model. We provide a geological interpretation for each cluster regarding epikarst features. The superficial clusters (no 1 & 2) are linked to effective rainfall and trees, probably a fractured limestone. Another two clusters (no 6 & 7) are linked to detrital formations (sand and clay respectively). The cluster 3 may correspond to a marly limestone that forms a non-permeable horizon. Finally, the electrical behavior of the last two clusters (no 4 & 5) is correlated with the variation of flow rate; they may be a privileged feed zone of the flow in the cave.

  12. Exposure of tour guides to Radon at the Cango caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pule, O.J.; Lindsay, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A study was commissioned by the National Nuclear Regulator of South Africa to investigate the radon levels in the Cango caves and the associated radiological exposure to tour guides. The Cango caves are about 1.3 km in length and are visited by about 300000 tourists per annum due to their natural beauty. This study followed an earlier investigation by the Department of Health which indicated levels in excess of 1000 Bqm -3 which could lead to excess exposure of the cave tour guides. Radon in the various cave chambers and radon exposure of tour guides was measured using RAD-7 continuous radon monitor, electrets ion chambers and personnel monitoring electrets respectively. The measurements in the cave were done during summer and winter seasons to determine any variations between the seasons. The occupancy time for individual guides and equilibrium factor were also investigated. The radon concentration in the cave range from 1000 Bqm -3 to more than 2000 Bqm -3 with equilibrium factor of approximately 0.4, and the variation between winter and summer measurements are insignificant. The radon exposure levels to tour guides differ due to various time periods they spent in the caves. The average dose to tour guides due to radon is 7 mSv -a and the highest exposure is about 10 mSv -a . The exposure to tourists is found to be insignificant due to time they spent in the cave. The regulatory authority is currently investigating what action is necessary to protect the tour guides. (author)

  13. The WP-CAVE concept for an underground high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, G.

    1984-02-01

    A central, nearly spherical cave, of diameter 40 m is excavated in rock and the waste fuel is placed in it. The fuel canisters are placed in cylindrical holes in large concrete balls which are stored at the bottom of a central stack in the cave. Other empty balls fill the rest of the cave. By natural convection, the heat is evenly distributed in the cave and the surrounding central rock body. A clay barrier, which completely surrounds the rock body, prevents ground water circulation for a very long time and protects the cave against tectonic movements. The cave can store approx. 350 tons of fuel after the 10 years of intermediate storage

  14. Proposed plan for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated material at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site and nearby properties in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry, both of which are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed in the 1950s and 1960s. Various liquid, sludge, and solid wastes were disposed of at the Chemical plant area and in the quarry during that time. The Weldon Spring site is listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The proposed plan is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the history and setting of the Weldon Spring site and briefly describes the contaminated material at the chemical plant area. Chapter 3 defines the scope of the remedial action and its role in the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. Chapter 4 summarizes the risks associated with possible exposures to site contaminants in the absence of remedial action and identifies proposed cleanup levels for soil. Chapter 5 briefly describes the final alternatives considered for the remedial action. Chapter 6 summarizes the evaluation of final alternatives for managing the contaminated material, identifies the currently preferred alternative, and discusses a possible contingency remedy to provide treatment flexibility. Chapter 7 presents the community's role in this action. Chapter 8 is a list of the references cited in this proposed plan

  15. Seasonal variation of fatty acids from drip water in Heshang Cave, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiuli; Wang Canfa; Huang Junhua; Hu Chaoyong; Xie Shucheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2-year monitoring to investigate the seasonal variation of fatty acids in cave drip water. → Microbes are the dominant source for fatty acids in drip water. → The relative abundance of mono-unsaturated responds negatively with external air temperature. - Abstract: In order to investigate how lipids in cave water respond to seasonal climate change, drip water samples were collected from 2006 to 2008 in Heshang Cave, central China for fatty acid analysis. These lipids are abundant in the drip water. Their compositions are dominated by lower-molecular-weight nC16:0, nC18:0 and nC14:0 acids, together with mono-unsaturated nC18:1, nC16:1 and nC14:1. Analysis of one water sample revealed marked differences between the dissolved and particulate fractions. The dissolved fraction contains total fatty acids one order of magnitude higher than that of the particulate fraction. The distributional patterns of the fatty acids suggest that microbes living in the overlying soils and/or groundwater system contribute most fatty acids to the drip water. This 2-a monitoring experiment reveals that the abundance of mono-unsaturated fatty acids relative to the saturated homologues (nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0) relate inversely to the changes of synchronous external air temperature. Higher values occur under cold conditions (winter/spring), while lower values appear in warm intervals (summer). Further studies are needed to elucidate the dynamic processes by which the external temperature affects fatty acids in drip water and to confirm the potential application of fatty acid ratios such as nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0 in paleotemperature reconstructions.

  16. Visit to valuable water springs. 22. ; Kanazawa spring and springs at the mountain flank of Iwate volcano. Meisui wo tazunete. 22. ; Kanazawa shimizu to Iwate sanroku yusuigun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itadera, K. (Kanagawa Hot Springs Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan)); Shimano, Y. (Utsunomiya Bunsei Junior College, Tochigi (Japan))

    1993-06-30

    This paper describes the following matters on the springs at the mountain flank of Iwate volcano in Iwate Prefecture, with the Kanazawa spring as the main subject: The new and old Iwate volcanos have rock-bed flow deposits which resulted from mountain disintegration, distributed over their south, east and north flanks, and most of the spring water wells up in these areas; the south, east and north flanks have about 80 springs, about 30 springs, and about 10 springs, respectively; the number of springs and the water well-up scale show a trend of inverse proportion; the Kanazawa spring is a generic name of the several springs located on the north flank in the Kanazawa area; its main spring forms a spring pond with an area of about 100 m[sup 2] with a spring water temperature of about 11.5[degree]C, electric conductivity of 200 [mu] S/cm or higher, and a flow-out rate of 500 l/s or more; the Kanazawa spring is characterized by having as large total dissolved component amount as 170 mg/l or more and abundant amount of SO4[sup 2-] and Cl[sup -]; and the spring presents properties different from those in other springs. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Seasonal variations of CO2 and 222Rn in a mediterranean sinkhole - spring (Causse d’Aumelas, SE France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batiot-Guilhe Christelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide and 222Rn monitoring of the atmosphere of a Mediterranean sink hole - spring (SE France during two hydrological cycles (from September 2004 to September 2006 showed seasonal variations with very high concentrations during summer (greater than 6% and 20 000 Bq/m3, respectively. Gas dynamics in caves often show seasonal variations.Meteorological parameters (barometric pressure and temperature mainly, cave geometry and fracture networks control exchanges between the cavity and outside atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and 222Rn may have different sources (atmosphere, soil, bedrock, deep gas diffusion, in situ oxidation of organic matter and, in some caves, the key role of swift underground streams.For a CO2 origin, 13C measurements on water and gas samples taken into the cavity suggest a superficial origin. Radon-222 appears to be locally produced and transported by biogenic CO2. Further investigations will be carried out in order to study the relationship of gas-level variations with barometric pressure variations and piezometric level fluctuations within the aquifer.

  18. The potential of perennial cave ice in isotope palaeoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, Charles J.; MacDonald, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Perennial ice from caves on and to the east of the Canadian Great Divide yield delta O 18 and delta D values which are usually high measurements where compared with the average precipitation for the region. Furthermore, these ice data fall below and along lines of lower slope than the Global Meteoric Water Line. To explain the observed relationships, we propose the following process. a vapour-ice isotopic fractionation mechanism operates on warm season vapour when it precipitates as hoar ice on entering the caves. The subsequent fall of hoar to the cave floor through mechanical overloading along with ice derived from ground-water seepage (with a mean annual isotopic composition), results in massive ice formation of a mixed composition. This mixed composition is what is observed in the characteristic relationships found here. Such findings suggest that a warm versus cold climate interpretation for ancient cave ice may be the opposite of that found in the more familiar polar and glacial ice caves. (Author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  19. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  20. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 2 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cryocalcite layers, extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  1. The biogeochemistry of anchialine caves: Progress and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations of anchialine caves and sinkholes have identified complex food webs dependent on detrital and, in some cases, chemosynthetically produced organic matter. Chemosynthetic microbes in anchialine systems obtain energy from reduced compounds produced during organic matter degradation (e.g., sulfide, ammonium, and methane), similar to what occurs in deep ocean cold seeps and mud volcanoes, but distinct from dominant processes operating at hydrothermal vents and sulfurous mineral caves where the primary energy source is mantle derived. This review includes case studies from both anchialine and non-anchialine habitats, where evidence for in situ chemosynthetic production of organic matter and its subsequent transfer to higher trophic level metazoans is documented. The energy sources and pathways identified are synthesized to develop conceptual models for elemental cycles and energy cascades that occur within oligotrophic and eutrophic anchialine caves. Strategies and techniques for testing the hypothesis of chemosynthesis as an active process in anchialine caves are also suggested.

  2. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  3. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  4. Determination of the Radon Concentration and Radioactivity Level in Karaca Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the radon gas concentration in the Karaca cave which is open to tourism has been determined and the negative effects of radon gas on people were discussed. Karaca cave (Gumushane) is visited by many tourists every year. The measurements of radon gas concentration which affects the health of human beings negatively and even causes the lung cancer when it reaches high points have been done for the summer and winter season. LR-115 passive radon detector was used to determine radon concentrations in the cave both winter and summer season. The average radon concentration in the Karaca cave were determined as 823 Bq/m 3 and 1023 Bq/m 3 for the summer and winter season, respectively. Moreover, to find out the natural radioactivity in the cave, the gamma spectroscopic analysis of soil, stone and stalagmite samples were carried out and their relations with the radon gas in the cave atmosphere was analyzed

  5. Urban landscape and architectural workshop Škocjan Caves 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Mahovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aim and purpose of the Škocjan Caves 2007 student workshop was for students participating in the seminar of the Faculty of Architecture in Ljubljana to recognise and address some specific spatial and design issues for the further sustainable development of the Škocjan Caves. The working hypothesis of the workshop was that, in spite of significant results in the protection and development of the Caves which have been achieved in the past ten years, it is still necessary to address some spatial issues through an academic process, and to offer different architectural and spatial solutions. The aforesaid is even more important as the Caves are recognised as the only natural and cultural heritage of the Republic of Slovenia to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1986.

  6. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a Cave of the Speleological Province of Bambuí, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings. PMID:24130847

  7. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environme......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE......This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...

  8. A natural tracer investigation of the hydrological regime of Spring Creek Springs, the largest submarine spring system in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Natasha T.; Burnett, William C.; Speer, Kevin

    2011-04-01

    This work presents results from a nearly two-year monitoring of the hydrologic dynamics of the largest submarine spring system in Florida, Spring Creek Springs. During the summer of 2007 this spring system was observed to have significantly reduced flow due to persistent drought conditions. Our examination of the springs revealed that the salinity of the springs' waters had increased significantly, from 4 in 2004 to 33 in July 2007 with anomalous high radon ( 222Rn, t1/2=3.8 days) in surface water concentrations indicating substantial saltwater intrusion into the local aquifer. During our investigation from August 2007 to May 2009 we deployed on an almost monthly basis a continuous radon-in-water measurement system and monitored the salinity fluctuations in the discharge area. To evaluate the springs' freshwater flux we developed three different models: two of them are based on water velocity measurements and either salinity or 222Rn in the associated surface waters as groundwater tracers. The third approach used only salinity changes within the spring area. The three models showed good agreement and the results confirmed that the hydrologic regime of the system is strongly correlated to local precipitation and water table fluctuations with higher discharges after major rain events and very low, even reverse flow during prolong droughts. High flow spring conditions were observed twice during our study, in the early spring and mid-late summer of 2008. However the freshwater spring flux during our observation period never reached that reported from a 1970s value of 4.9×10 6 m 3/day. The maximum spring flow was estimated at about 3.0×10 6 m 3/day after heavy precipitation in February-March 2008. As a result of this storm (total of 173 mm) the salinity in the spring area dropped from about 27 to 2 in only two days. The radon-in-water concentrations dramatically increased in parallel, from about 330 Bq/m 3 to about 6600 Bq/m 3. Such a rapid response suggests a direct

  9. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  10. Geological study of the landslide of the Fukenoyu thermal spring area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okami, K [Dept. of Mining and Civil Engg., Fac of Technology, Iwate Univ.; Murai, S; Karasaki, H

    1975-11-01

    The 1973 landslide at Fukenoyu thermal spring, Hachimantai National Park, Japan, was studied geologically. The subsurface structure of the area was determined to contain faulted basement rock with distinct glide planes and a predominantly clayey mineralogy, including montmorillonite. It was concluded that the landslide was caused by the influx of water from melting snow and unstable geology. Two maps, one cross section, six stratigraphic columns, two charts and one table are provided.

  11. Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Plummer, Niel; Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Schumacher, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration for lead deposits has occurred in a mature karst area of southeast Missouri that is highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities. The area contains the two largest springs in Missouri (Big Spring and Greer Spring), both of which flow into federally designated scenic rivers. Concerns about potential mining effects on the area ground water and aquatic biota prompted an investigation of Big Spring. Water-level measurements made during 2000 helped define the recharge area of Big Spring, Greer Spring, Mammoth Spring, and Boze Mill Spring. The data infer two distinct potentiometric surfaces. The shallow potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is less than about 250 feet, tends to mimic topographic features and is strongly controlled by streams. The deep potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is greater than about 250 feet represents ground-water hydraulic heads within the more mature karst areas. A highly permeable zone extends about 20 mile west of Big Spring toward the upper Hurricane Creek Basin. Deeper flowing water in the Big Spring recharge area is directed toward this permeable zone. The estimated sizes of the spring recharge areas are 426 square miles for Big Spring, 352 square miles for Greer Spring, 290 square miles for Mammoth Spring, and 54 square miles for Boze Mill Spring. A discharge accumulation curve using Big Spring daily mean discharge data shows no substantial change in the discharge pattern of Big Spring during the period of record (water years 1922 through 2004). The extended periods when the spring flow deviated from the trend line can be attributed to prolonged departures from normal precipitation. The maximum possible instantaneous flow from Big Spring has not been adequately defined because of backwater effects from the Current River during high-flow conditions. Physical constraints within the spring conduit system may restrict its maximum flow. The largest discharge measured at Big Spring

  12. Some geophysical and geological studies of the Tanzawa Mountains. [Nakagawa Hot Spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakami, T; Matsuda, T; Hiraga, S; Horai, K I; Sugita, M

    1964-11-01

    Joints and zeolite-veins in both metamorphic rocks and quartz diorite exposed along the Nakagawa River were studied. Fractures with zeolite-veins are most developed in three areas, the Nakagawa hot spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa. They follow two prevailing directions: N--S with minor right-lateral displacement and N60/sup 0/E with minor left-lateral displacement. The two fractures should represent a conjugate set that was produced by stress with maximum principal axis of N30/sup 0/E-S30/sup 0/W. Distribution and prevailing directions of fractures are illustrated. Geothermal gradients are measured in two newly opened boreholes, at the Nakagawa hot spring area and Higashizawa. The geothermal gradients are 12.60 +- 0.48/sup 0/C/100m at the Nakagawa hot spring and 5.55 +- 0.24/sup 0/C/100m at Higashizawa. Temperature-depth relationships in the two boreholes are given. Seismic observation was made at the Higashizawa. In five days 43 shocks were recorded, of which 20 are thought to have occurred 2 to 20km from the observation station, that is, in and very near the Tanzawa mountains. None have shallower hypocenters than 2 km in depth.

  13. Differential preservation of vertebrates in Southeast Asian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Louys

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caves have been an important source of vertebrate fossils for much of Southeast Asia, particularly for the Quaternary. Despite this importance, the mechanisms by which vertebrate remains accumulate and preserve in Southeast Asian caves has never been systematically reviewed or examined. Here, we present the results of three years of cave surveys in Indonesia and Timor-Leste, describing cave systems and their attendant vertebrate accumulations in diverse geological, biogeographical, and environmental settings. While each cave system is unique, we find that the accumulation and preservation of vertebrate remains are highly dependent on local geology and environment. These factors notwithstanding, we find the dominant factor responsible for faunal deposition is the presence or absence of biological accumulating agents, a factor directly dictated by biogeographical history. In small, isolated, volcanic islands, the only significant accumulation occurs in archaeological settings, thereby limiting our understanding of the palaeontology of those islands prior to human arrival. In karstic landscapes on both oceanic and continental islands, our understanding of the long-term preservation of vertebrates is still in its infancy. The formation processes of vertebrate-bearing breccias, their taphonomic histories, and the criteria used to determine whether these represent syngenetic or multiple deposits remain critically understudied. The latter in particular has important implications for arguments on how breccia deposits from the region should be analysed and interpreted when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  14. X-ray analysis of aerosol samples from a therapeutic cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfoeldy, B. E-mail: alfi@sunserv.kfki.hu; Toeroek, Sz.; Kocsonya, A.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Balla, Md.I

    2001-04-01

    Cave therapy is an efficient therapeutic method to cure asthma, the exact healing effect, however, is not clarified, yet. This study is motivated by the basic assumption that aerosols do play the key role in the cave therapy. This study is based on measurements of single aerosol particles originating from a therapeutic cave of Budapest, Hungary (Szemlohegyi cave). Aerosol particles have been collected in the regions arranged for the therapeutic treatment. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition. Three particle classes have been detected based on major element concentration: alumino-silicate, quartz and calcium carbonate. Calcium ions have well-known physiological influence: anti-spastic, anti-inflammation and excretion reducing effects. Inflammation, accompanying spasm and extreme excretion production cause the smothering stigma, the so-called asthma. Therefore it could be assumed that calcium ions present in high concentration in the cave's atmosphere is the major cause of the healing effect.

  15. X-ray analysis of aerosol samples from a therapeutic cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfoeldy, B.; Toeroek, Sz.; Kocsonya, A.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Balla, Md.I.

    2001-01-01

    Cave therapy is an efficient therapeutic method to cure asthma, the exact healing effect, however, is not clarified, yet. This study is motivated by the basic assumption that aerosols do play the key role in the cave therapy. This study is based on measurements of single aerosol particles originating from a therapeutic cave of Budapest, Hungary (Szemlohegyi cave). Aerosol particles have been collected in the regions arranged for the therapeutic treatment. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition. Three particle classes have been detected based on major element concentration: alumino-silicate, quartz and calcium carbonate. Calcium ions have well-known physiological influence: anti-spastic, anti-inflammation and excretion reducing effects. Inflammation, accompanying spasm and extreme excretion production cause the smothering stigma, the so-called asthma. Therefore it could be assumed that calcium ions present in high concentration in the cave's atmosphere is the major cause of the healing effect

  16. Visualization framework for CAVE virtual reality systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Akira; Tomiyama, Asako

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a software framework for scientific visualization in immersive-type, room-sized virtual reality (VR) systems, or Cave automatic virtual environment (CAVEs). This program, called Multiverse, allows users to select and invoke visualization programs without leaving CAVE’s VR space. Multiverse is a kind of immersive “desktop environment” for users, with a three-dimensional graphical user interface. For application developers, Multiverse is a software framework with useful class ...

  17. Investigation of Sediment Pathways and Concealed Sedimentological Features in Hidden River Cave, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, S.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Reinhardt, E. G.; McNeill-Jewer, C.; Eyles, C.

    2016-12-01

    Hidden River Cave is part of a cave system hydrogeologically related to Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and is a multi-level active cave system with 25km of mapped passages. Upper levels experience flow during flood events and lower levels have continuously flowing water. Improper industrial and domestic waste disposal and poor understanding of local hydrogeology lead to contamination of Hidden River Cave in the early 1940s. Previously used for hydroelectric power generation and as a source of potable water the cave was closed to the public for almost 50 years. A new sewage treatment plant and remediation efforts since 1989 have improved the cave system's health. This project focuses on sedimentological studies in the Hidden River Cave system. Water and sediment transport in the cave are being investigated using sediment cores, surface sediment samples and water level data. An Itrax core scanner is used to analyze sediment cores for elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, radiography, and high resolution photography. Horizons of metal concentrations in the core allow correlation of sedimentation events in the cave system. Thecamoebian (testate amoebae) microfossils identified in surface samples allow for further constraint of sediment sources, sedimentation rates, and paleoclimatic analysis. Dive recorders monitor water levels, providing data to further understand the movement of sediment through the cave system. A general time constraint on the sediment's age is based on the presence of microplastic in the surface samples and sediment cores, and data from radiocarbon and lead-210 dating. The integration of various sedimentological data allows for better understanding of sedimentation processes and their record of paleoenvironmental change in the cave system. Sediment studies and methodologies from this project can be applied to other karst systems, and have important applications for communities living on karst landscapes and their water management policies.

  18. Uranium-series dating of fossil bones from alpine caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner-Wild, E.; Steffan, I.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of an investigation of fossil cave bear populations the uranium-series method for absolute age determination has been applied to bone material. The applicability of the method to bone samples from alpine caves is demonstrated by the concordance of U/Th and U/Pa ages and cross-checks with the radiocarbon method. Stratigraphic agreement between bone ages and carbonate speleothem ages also indicates the potential of the uranium-series method as a suitable tool for the age determination of fossil bones from alpine cave environments. (Author)

  19. High Levels of Antibiotic Resistance but No Antibiotic Production Detected Along a Gypsum Gradient in Great Onyx Cave, KY, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Lavoie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study of antibiotic production and antibiotic resistance was conducted in Great Onyx Cave in Mammoth Cave National Park, KY, to determine if gypsum (CaSO4∙2H2O affects these bacterial activities. The cave crosses through the width of Flint Ridge, and passages under the sandstone caprock are dry with different amounts of gypsum. The Great Kentucky Desert hypothesis posits that gypsum limits the distribution of invertebrates in the central areas of Great Onyx Cave. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were cultivated from swabs and soils. Using three methods (soil crumb, soil crumb with indicator bacteria, and the cross-streak method using isolated bacteria we did not detect any production of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, with all 24 isolates resistant to a minimum of two antibiotics of seven tested, with three isolates resistant to all. Antibiotic resistance was high and not correlated with depth into the cave or the amount of gypsum. The Great Kentucky Desert hypothesis of the negative effects of gypsum seems to have no impact on bacterial activity.

  20. Modeling of luminance distribution in CAVE-type virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meironke, Michał; Mazikowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    At present, one of the most advanced virtual reality systems are CAVE-type (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) installations. Such systems are usually consisted of four, five or six projection screens and in case of six screens arranged in form of a cube. Providing the user with a high level of immersion feeling in such systems is largely dependent of optical properties of the system. The modeling of physical phenomena plays nowadays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to simulate work of device without a need to make any changes in the physical constructions. In this paper distribution of luminance in CAVE-type virtual reality systems were modelled. Calculations were performed for the model of 6-walled CAVE-type installation, based on Immersive 3D Visualization Laboratory, situated at the Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics at the Gdańsk University of Technology. Tests have been carried out for two different scattering distribution of the screen material in order to check how these characteristicinfluence on the luminance distribution of the whole CAVE. The basis assumption and simplification of modeled CAVE-type installation and results were presented. The brief discussion about the results and usefulness of developed model were also carried out.

  1. Measurements of Aerosol Characteristics in Skocjan Caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration and radon progeny concentration (attached and unattached) have been performed in Skocjan caves. In the same time also aerosol concentration (PM 10 ), aerosol size distribution with ten stage Hauke impactor and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer - SMPS have been performed. The idea was to find impact of outer air and visitors to the aerosol characteristics of cave air. Measurements with impactor have been implemented in summer and winter period, with SMPS only in summer period. Radon concentrations ranged in winter period in region from 500 to 1000 Bq/m 3 , equilibrium factor was about 55 %. In summer period radon concentration increased up to 10 kBq/m 3 , equilibrium factor was about 45 %, and unattached fraction went up to 20 %. Measurements of aerosol size distribution show lower aerosol sizes in winter season (around 1 μm) and bigger aerosol sizes in summer season (around 3 - 6 μm). We could not find good correlation between unattached fraction and aerosol size distribution. Also we could not find clear impact of visitors to the air characteristics in cave. Probably our measuring location was too close to the entrance and the impact of outer air was too high. We will repeat measurements deeper in cave to find better results.(author)

  2. The genesis of a lava cave in the Deccan Volcanic Province (Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lava tubes and channels forming lava distributaries have been recognized from different parts of western Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP. Openings of smaller dimension have been documented from the pāhoehoe flows around Pune, in the western DVP. A small lava cave is exposed in Ghoradeshwar hill, near Pune. Detailed field studies of the physical characteristics, structure and morphology of the flows hosting the lava tube has been carried out. This is the first detailed documentation of a lava cave from the DVP. The lava cave occurs in a compound pāhoehoe flow of Karla Formation, characterized by the presence of lobes, toes and small scale features like squeeze-ups. Field observations and measurements reveal that the dimensions of the cave are small, with low roof and a maximum width of 108 cm. The cave morphology along the 20 m passage varies from circular to semi-circular, with a twilight zone to the north. The gentle micro-topography at Ghoradeshwar controlled the advancement of pāhoehoe lobes and toes within the sheet lobe. The pre-flow gradients towards the north led to the progression of flow from the east, where the cave opening is presently seen. Dimensions and related morphology of the lava cave suggest that it can be best described as a small sub-crustal cave formed by draining of an inflated of pāhoehoe lava lobe. At Ghoradeshwar, besides the natural lava cave, Buddhist caves carved in pāhoehoe lava flows are also observed, indicating that early man took advantage of the existing openings in pāhoehoe flows and sculpted the caves to suit their requirements.

  3. Geophysical exploration in vicinity of the Unicorn Cave, South Harz Mountains, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko; Nielbock, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The Unicorn Cave in the southern Harz Mountains in Germany is located in an outcrop of dolomite from the Zechstein formation, which is underlain by Grauwacke rocks. The cave, about 600 meters long, consists of several large chambers, which are connected by a gallery following the main fault alignments in E/W, NE/SW, and NW/SE direction. The overburden of the cave is shallow, between 10 and 30 m. We have used this cave site to perform a sensitivity test for both gravimetric and geoelectic methods above the cave. Additionally, geoelectic mapping has been used to assess the thickness of the cave sediments in one of the chambers. Our results show a clear signal in the Bouguer anomaly, which can only be explained by a combined model of the void space and the sediment filling. Geoelectric results are less clear, but support the gravimetry.

  4. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean-François; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey.

  5. Dolomitic vegetation of the Sterkfontein Caves World Heritage Site and its importance in the conservation of Rocky Highveld Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Siebert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the vegetation of the Sterkfontein Caves (i.e. the natural area surrounding the caves is presented. Releves were compiled in 24 stratified random sample plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed six plant communities, also referred to as vegetation units. For each of these vegetation units the species richness was determined. Plant communities of conservation importance were identified and new associations were formally described.

  6. Speleogenesis, geometry, and topology of caves: A quantitative study of 3D karst conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Arfib, Bruno; Baudement, Cécile; Camus, Hubert; Collon, Pauline; Guglielmi, Yves

    2017-12-01

    Karst systems are hierarchically spatially organized three-dimensional (3D) networks of conduits behaving as drains for groundwater flow. Recently, geostatistical approaches proposed to generate karst networks from data and parameters stemming from analogous observed karst features. Other studies have qualitatively highlighted relationships between speleogenetic processes and cave patterns. However, few studies have been performed to quantitatively define these relationships. This paper reports a quantitative study of cave geometries and topologies that takes the underlying speleogenetic processes into account. In order to study the spatial organization of caves, a 3D numerical database was built from 26 caves, corresponding to 621 km of cumulative cave passages representative of the variety of karst network patterns. The database includes 3D speleological surveys for which the speleogenetic context is known, allowing the polygenic karst networks to be divided into 48 monogenic cave samples and classified into four cave patterns: vadose branchwork (VB), water-table cave (WTC), looping cave (LC), and angular maze (AM). Eight morphometric cave descriptors were calculated, four geometrical parameters (width-height ratio, tortuosity, curvature, and vertical index) and four topological ones (degree of node connectivity, α and γ graph indices, and ramification index) respectively. The results were validated by statistical analyses (Kruskal-Wallis test and PCA). The VB patterns are clearly distinct from AM ones and from a third group including WTC and LC. A quantitative database of cave morphology characteristics is provided, depending on their speleogenetic processes. These characteristics can be used to constrain and/or validate 3D geostatistical simulations. This study shows how important it is to relate the geometry and connectivity of cave networks to recharge and flow processes. Conversely, the approach developed here provides proxies to estimate the evolution of

  7. Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the Temperature Change During Day and Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongil Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO. The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007 have analyzed the temperature change at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the temperature change at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007. Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct temperature change. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the temperature change only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.

  8. Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the Temperature Change During Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jongil; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin

    2014-06-01

    Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007) have analyzed the temperature change at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the temperature change at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007). Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct temperature change. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the temperature change only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.

  9. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng eWu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit (SSU rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the -Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments.

  10. Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Charkhab Cave, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical im­portance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.

  11. Avifaunal changes revealed in Quaternary deposits near Waitomo Caves, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.; Swabey, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Late Pleistocene (23,000-10,000 14 C yr BP) and Holocene (10,000 14 C yr - present BP) avifaunas are described from the Henry Lambert and associated passages in Gardners Gut Cave, Waitomo Caves, North Island, New Zealand. Nine radiocarbon dates on bones and three uranium series dates on speleothems support the dating of the sites. These data are augmented by six new dates and reanalysis of the avifaunas from F1c Cave, also in the Waitomo karst. A distinctive Pleistocene avifauna characterised by the moa Euryapterix curtus and Pachyornis mappini and the North Island goose (Cnemiornis gracilis) with common associates including New Zealand coot (Fulica prisca), North Island takahe (Porphyrio mantelli), Finsch's duck (Euryanas finschi), and North Island kokako (Callaeas wilsoni) was present. The presence of kokako, saddleback (Philesturnus rufusater), and robin (Petroica longipes) in the Pleistocene deposits and the absence of grassland taxa such as pipit (Anthus noveaseelandiae) and quail (Coturnix novaezelandiae) indicate that the vegetation about Gardners Gut Cave included tall shrubland and probably lacked much grassland, even over the Last Glacial Maximum. The Holocene at Waitomo was characterised by a moa fauna dominated by Anomalopteryx didiformis, although both Euryapteryx curtus and Pachyornis mappini persisted in small numbers. The frequent occurrence of kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), weka (Gallirallus australis), and brown teal (Anas chlorotis) typifies Holocene avifaunas; Cnemiornis and Fulica are unknown from Holocene deposits in the area. (author). 45 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Hurricane Impact on Seepage Water in Larga Cave, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieten, Rolf; Warken, Sophie; Winter, Amos; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    Hurricane-induced rainfall over Puerto Rico has characteristic δ18O values which are more negative than local rainfall events. Thus, hurricanes may be recorded in speleothems from Larga cave, Puerto Rico, as characteristic oxygen isotope excursions. Samples of 84 local rainfall events between 2012 and 2013 ranged from -6.2 to +0.3‰, whereas nine rainfall samples belonging to a rainband of hurricane Isaac (23-24 August 2012) ranged from -11.8 to -7.1‰. Cave monitoring covered the hurricane season of 2014 and investigated the impact of hurricane rainfall on drip water chemistry. δ18O values were measured in cumulative monthly rainwater samples above the cave. Inside the cave, δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples were analyzed and drip rates were recorded at six drip sites. Most effective recharge appears to occur during the wet months (April-May and August-November). δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples ranged from -3.5 to -2.4‰. In April 2014 and April 2015 some drip sites showed more negative δ18O values than the effective rainfall (-2.9‰), implying an influence of hurricane rainfall reaching the cave via stratified seepage flow months to years after the event. Speleothems from these drip sites in Larga cave have a high potential for paleotempestology studies.

  13. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thona; Cappelle, Julien; Hoem, Thavry; Furey, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning). Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon) at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014-2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1) insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2) the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos), our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently advocate for

  14. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thona Lim

    Full Text Available Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning. Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014-2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1 insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2 the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos, our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently

  15. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Hoem, Thavry

    2018-01-01

    Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning). Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon) at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014–2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1) insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2) the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos), our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently advocate for

  16. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, A W G; Hoffmann, D L; García-Diez, M; Pettitt, P B; Alcolea, J; De Balbín, R; González-Sainz, C; de las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A; Montes, R; Zilhão, J

    2012-06-15

    Paleolithic cave art is an exceptional archive of early human symbolic behavior, but because obtaining reliable dates has been difficult, its chronology is still poorly understood after more than a century of study. We present uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying or underlying art found in 11 caves, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo, Spain. The results demonstrate that the tradition of decorating caves extends back at least to the Early Aurignacian period, with minimum ages of 40.8 thousand years for a red disk, 37.3 thousand years for a hand stencil, and 35.6 thousand years for a claviform-like symbol. These minimum ages reveal either that cave art was a part of the cultural repertoire of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or that perhaps Neandertals also engaged in painting caves.

  17. Geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W T; Ballantyne, J M; Bryant, N L; Dedolph, R E

    1980-01-01

    Hot spring deposits in the Roosevelt thermal area consist of opaline sinter and sinter-cemented alluvium. Alluvium, plutonic rocks, and amphibolite-facies gneiss have been altered by acid-sulfate water to alunite and opal at the surface, and alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite to a depth of 70 m. Marcasite, pyrite, chlorite, and calcite occur below the water table at about 30 m. The thermal water is dilute (ionic strength 0.1 to 0.2) sodium-chloride brine. The spring water now contains 10 times as much Ca, 100 times as much Mg, and up to 2.5 times as much SO/sub 4/ as the deep water. Although the present day spring temperature is 25/sup 0/C, the temperature was 85/sup 0/C in 1950. A model for development of the observed alteration is supported by observation and irreversible mass transfer calculations. Hydrothermal fluid convectively rises along major fractures. Water cools by conduction and steam separation, and the pH rises due to carbon dioxide escape. At the surface, hydrogen and sulfate ions are produced by oxidation of H/sub 2/S. The low pH water percolates downward and reacts with feldspar in the rocks to produce alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite as hydrogen ion is consumed. 4 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Remedial investigation for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. Major goals include eliminating potential public and environmental hazards due to site contamination and releasing the property for alternate uses to the maximum extent practicable. The purpose of the remedial investigation described in this report was to determine the extent of contamination associated with the portion of the Weldon Spring site known as the chemical plant and raffinate pit area. The DOE has assumed responsibility for investigating and remediating all on-site soil contamination and off-site soil which is radiologically contaminated as a result of uranium and thorium processing operations. The DOE has also assumed the responsibility for radiologically contaminated groundwater on and off site. The Weldon Spring site remedial investigation also involved the evaluation of the sources, nature and extent, and environmental fate and transport of contaminants to provide a basis for defining the risks that the contaminants may pose to human health and the environment. Data are included in this report to support the screening of remedial technologies and to permit the development and detailed analysis of alternatives for remedial action at the site during the feasibility study process

  19. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  20. Near Surface Geophysical Methods Applied to the Rising Star Cave System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Naidoo, M.; Elliott, M. C.; Kruger, A.; Roberts, E.; Dirks, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Rising Star Cave system is located approximately 40 km northwest of Johannesburg in the Malmani dolomites (Chuniespoort group,Transvaal Supergroup). The cave system is extensive with 4 km of mapped passages and chambers. The Dinaledi chamber, host to the Homo Naledi fossils, is reached by following a tortuous route with squeezes as small as 20 cm. The chamber is located 30 m below surface and 80 m from the entrance. The enigmatic find of fossils from at least 15 individual hominins, without the presence of other species, led to the idea of deliberate burial. The present access route is difficult and it is unclear how early hominins were able to navigate it, prompting the suggestion of an undiscovered entrance. We are using near surface geophysical methods to investigate possible connections between the surface and the caves. Using a Geometrics Cs-vapor Walkmag, we collected preliminary ground magnetic intensity measurements over a region 300 m x 200 m, using 1 m station spacing and 10 m line spacing. The average magnetic variation along line is 200 nT. We also collected over 100 susceptibility measurements on outcropping lithologies, surface soil and cave sediments using a SM-30 susceptibility meter. The surface soil was one to two orders of magnitude higher than surrounding lithologies (average = 1.5 x 10-3 SI) and the cave sediment samples were slightly higher (average = 3.07 x 10-3 SI). We were able to collect GPR data (GSSI SIR-3000, 400 MHz) in selected spots on the cave floor with the goal of locating the cave floor beneath the sediments. Dolomites usually have low magnetic susceptibilities, but erosion products of the nearby magnetic Hospital Hill or Rooihoogte shales may have been transported into or onto the cave system. This is a likely cause of the magnetic anomalies and larger amplitude anomalies may indicate an accumulation of sediments, extending to depth. These anomalies will be further investigated using gravity to determine if there are

  1. NEW LOCALITY OF CAVE BEAR (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller & Heinroth, 1794 IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: MORPHO- ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CRANIAL SKELETON FOUND IN CAVE AT VRELO MOKRANJSKA MILJACKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Lukić-Bilela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During the investigation of the Cave at Vrelo Mokranjska Miljacka, the bone remains of the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller & Heinroth, 1794 was found. This is the new Pleistocene fauna locality of this extinct species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Almost complete cranial skeleton belongs to a young adult male. Analyzed morphometric proportions completely fit within the variation range of the Pleistocene cave bear populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Key words: Ursus spelaeus, skull, teeth, Cave of Vrelo Mokranjska Miljacka

  2. Hydrogeology and sources of water to select springs in Black Canyon, south of Hoover Dam, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Wilson, Jon W.; Beard, L. Sue

    2015-11-03

    Springs in Black Canyon of the Colorado River, directly south of Hoover Dam in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, are important hydrologic features that support a unique riparian ecosystem including habitat for endangered species. Rapid population growth in areas near and surrounding Black Canyon has caused concern among resource managers that such growth could affect the discharge from these springs. The U.S. Geological Survey studied the springs in Black Canyon between January 2008, and May 2014. The purposes of this study were to provide a baseline of discharge and hydrochemical data from selected springs in Black Canyon and to better understand the sources of water to the springs.

  3. Investigation of tracking systems properties in CAVE-type virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymaniak, Magda; Mazikowski, Adam; Meironke, Michał

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, many scientific and industrial centers in the world developed a virtual reality systems or laboratories. One of the most advanced solutions are Immersive 3D Visualization Lab (I3DVL), a CAVE-type (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) laboratory. It contains two CAVE-type installations: six-screen installation arranged in a form of a cube, and four-screen installation, a simplified version of the previous one. The user feeling of "immersion" and interaction with virtual world depend on many factors, in particular on the accuracy of the tracking system of the user. In this paper properties of the tracking systems applied in I3DVL was investigated. For analysis two parameters were selected: the accuracy of the tracking system and the range of detection of markers by the tracking system in space of the CAVE. Measurements of system accuracy were performed for six-screen installation, equipped with four tracking cameras for three axes: X, Y, Z. Rotation around the Y axis was also analyzed. Measured tracking system shows good linear and rotating accuracy. The biggest issue was the range of the monitoring of markers inside the CAVE. It turned out, that the tracking system lose sight of the markers in the corners of the installation. For comparison, for a simplified version of CAVE (four-screen installation), equipped with eight tracking cameras, this problem was not occur. Obtained results will allow for improvement of cave quality.

  4. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Gloria G; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Ioana N; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-Llona, Ana C; Constantin, Silviu; de Torres, Trino J; Ortiz, Jose E; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong association of mitochondrial lineage and cave, suggesting that these two closely related species differed in aspects of their behaviour and sociality. This difference is likely to have contributed to cave bear extinction, which occurred at a time in which competition for caves between bears and humans was likely intense and the ability to rapidly colonize new hibernation sites would have been crucial for the survival of a species so dependent on caves for hibernation as cave bears. Our study demonstrates the potential of ancient DNA to uncover patterns of behaviour and sociality in ancient species and populations, even those that went extinct many tens of thousands of years ago. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan'an, China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, J.; Feige, S.; Xie Quingling; Schreiber, U.; Wieditz, K.; Wittmann, C.; Luo Xiarong

    2000-01-01

    222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations are 42 (n = 18) and 77Bq m -3 (n = 15) for brick houses and 92 (n = 23) and 215 (n = 17) Bq m -3 for cave dwellings. To classify the dwellings in respect to their cave-character, the fraction of walls having a direct contact to the loess is calculated for each dwelling. While the 222 Rn concentrations are increasing with higher fractions, the 220 Rn concentrations are not correlated with this fraction. On the other hand, due to the short half-life of 220 Rn the distance from the measuring point to the walls is negatively correlated with the 220 Rn concentration, while there is no correlation with the 222 Rn concentration. Therefore, concentric isolines of 220 Rn concentrations showing a strong gradient were detected in cave dwellings. An influence of the ventilation rate is distinct for 222 Rn but weak for 220 Rn. The effective dose rates for 222 Rn and 220 Rn and their progenies are calculated for brick houses (2.7 mSv y -1 ), cave dwellings (7.1 mSv y -1 ), and for traditional cave dwellings with a bed foundation built with loess (16.7 mSv y -1 ). These calculations are based on summer measurements only. It is expected that the true effective dose rates will be significantly higher

  6. Measurements of seasonal and daily radon daughter concentration fluctuations in National Park Service caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarborough, K.A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is studying levels of airborne alpha radiation from radon and thoron in all NPS administered caves in which tours for visitors are regularly conducted. The NPS research has the dual but complementary objectives of safeguarding health at the NPS administered caves, and to develop data on alpha radiation levels and on natural airflows in NPS caves. The results reported here for NPS caves describe concepts hypothesized for the objectives. In addition the data can be used by various agencies to clarify health standards for exposures to low airborne alpha radiation levels in cave environments. These results show daily and seasonal trends and the influence of natural ventilation by air circulation for each cave investigated

  7. Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheeptham N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic caves have been little studied for their potential as sources of novel microbial species and bioactive compounds with new scaffolds. We present the f irst study of volcanic cave microbiology from Canada and suggest that this habitat has great potential for the isolation of novel bioactive substances. Sample locat ions were plot ted on a contour map that was compiled in ArcView 3.2. Over 400 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Helmcken Falls cave in Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia. From our preliminary screen, of 400 isolates tested, 1% showed activity against extended spectrum ß-lactamase E. coli, 1.75% against Escherichia coli, 2.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii, and 26.50% against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, 10.25% showed activity against Micrococcus luteus, 2% against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 9.25% against Mycobacterium smegmatis, 6.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 7.5% against Candida albicans. Chemical and physical characteristics of three rock wall samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy and f lame atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, and aluminum (Al were the most abundant components while magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and barium (Ba were second most abundant with cadmium (Cd and potassium (K were the least abundant in our samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of microscopic life forms in all three rock wall samples. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 82 isolates revealed that 65 (79.3% of the strains belong to the Streptomyces genus and 5 (6.1% were members of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia and Erwinia genera. Interestingly, twelve (14.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences showed similarity to unidentif ied ribosomal RNA sequences in the library databases, the sequences of these isolates need to be further investigated using the EzTaxon-e database (http://eztaxon-e. ezbiocloud.net/ to determine whether

  8. Radon exposure in uranium mining industry vs. exposure in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos Poncela, L.; Fernandez Navarro, P.; Sainz Fernandez, C.; Gomez Arozamena, J.; Bordonoba Perez, M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a fairly general consensus among health physicists and radiation professionals that exposure to radon progeny is the largest and most variable contribution to the population's exposure to natural sources of radiation. However, this exposure is the subject of continuing debate concerning the validity of risk assessment and recommendations on how to act in radon-prone areas. The purpose of this contribution is to situate the radon issue in Spain in two very different settings. The first is a uranium mining industry located in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca), which is under strict control of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). We have measured radon concentrations in different workplaces in this mine over a five-year period. The second setting comprises four tourist caves, three of which are located in the province of Cantabria and the fourth on the Canary Island of Lanzarote. These caves are not subject to any administrative control of radiation exposure. Measured air 222 Rn concentrations were used to estimate annual effective doses due to radon inhalation in the two settings, and dose values were found to be from 2 to 10 times lower in the uranium mine than in the tourist caves. These results were analysed in the context of the new European Basic Safety Standards Directive (EU-BSS, 1996). (authors)

  9. The Jettencave, Southern Harz Mountains, Germany: Geophysical observations and a structural model of a shallow cave in gypsum/anhydrite-bearing rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko

    2017-12-01

    Gypsum and anhydrite are soluble rocks, where fissures and bedding partings can be enlarged with time by the dissolution of the mineral species through water. The selective enlargement results in sub-surface voids acting as preferential flow path for the drainage of the rock. With time, larger cavities develop, and a network of cave passages can evolve. If the enlarged cave voids are not too deep under the surface, geophysical measurements can be used to detect, identify and trace these structures. We have used gravity measurements (GRAV), electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), self-potential measurements (SP), electrical conductivity measurements (EC), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) above the cave Jettenhöhle, a cave located in the southern Harz Mountains in Germany. The Jettencave is developed in the Hauptanhydrit formation of the Permian Zechstein sequence, characterised by large breakdown rooms and an exposed water table. The overburden of the cave is only around 10-15 m, and dolomitic rocks are located in close vicinity. We present results from our geophysical surveys in vicinity of the cave. We are able to identify the cave geometry from GRAV, ERI, and GPR measurements, which distinguish the local lithology of the Permian Zechstein rocks in the area. From the ERI and EC measurements, we derive information on the void volume in the soluble rocks. We finally present a three-dimensional structural model of the Jettencave and its surroundings, based on our geophysical results and the hydrological interpretation.

  10. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  11. Studies of condensation/evaporation processes in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Freitas Chris R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The condensation/evaporation process is important in caves, especially in tourist caves where there is carbon dioxide enriched air caused by visitors. The cycle of condensation and evaporation of condensate is believed to enhance condensation corrosion. The problem is condensation is difficult to measure. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and modelling condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of the condensate as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux are tested and used to collect 12 months of data. The study site is the Glowworm tourist cave in New Zealand. The work describes an explanatory model of processes leading to condensation using data based on measurements of condensation and evaporation as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux. The results show that the model works well. However, one of the most important messages from the research reported here is the introduction of the condensation sensor. The results show that condensation in caves can actually be measured and monitored, virtually in real time. In conjunction with the recent developments in data logging equipment, this opens exciting perspectives in cave climate studies, and, more generally, in hydrogeological studies in karst terrains.

  12. Chemical Ecology of Cave-Dwelling Millipedes: Defensive Secretions of the Typhloiulini (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Slobodan E; Bodner, Michaela; Reineke, Doris; Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; Todosijević, Marina M; Antić, Dragan Ž; Vagalinski, Boyan; Lučić, Luka R; Mitić, Bojan M; Mitov, Plamen; Anđelković, Boban D; Lucić, Sofija Pavković; Vajs, Vlatka; Tomić, Vladimir T; Raspotnig, Günther

    2017-04-01

    Cave animals live under highly constant ecological conditions and in permanent darkness, and many evolutionary adaptations of cave-dwellers have been triggered by their specific environment. A similar "cave effect" leading to pronounced chemical interactions under such conditions may be assumed, but the chemoecology of troglobionts is mostly unknown. We investigated the defensive chemistry of a largely cave-dwelling julid group, the controversial tribe "Typhloiulini", and we included some cave-dwelling and some endogean representatives. While chemical defense in juliform diplopods is known to be highly uniform, and mainly based on methyl- and methoxy-substituted benzoquinones, the defensive secretions of typhloiulines contained ethyl-benzoquinones and related compounds. Interestingly, ethyl-benzoquinones were found in some, but not all cave-dwelling typhloiulines, and some non-cave dwellers also contained these compounds. On the other hand, ethyl-benzoquinones were not detected in troglobiont nor in endogean typhloiuline outgroups. In order to explain the taxonomic pattern of ethyl-benzoquinone occurrence, and to unravel whether a cave-effect triggered ethyl-benzoquinone evolution, we classed the "Typhloiulini" investigated here within a phylogenetic framework of julid taxa, and traced the evolutionary history of ethyl-benzoquinones in typhloiulines in relation to cave-dwelling. The results indicated a cave-independent evolution of ethyl-substituted benzoquinones, indicating the absence of a "cave effect" on the secretions of troglobiont Typhloiulini. Ethyl-benzoquinones probably evolved early in an epi- or endogean ancestor of a clade including several, but not all Typhloiulus (basically comprising a taxonomic entity known as "Typhloiulus sensu stricto") and Serboiulus. Ethyl-benzoquinones are proposed as novel and valuable chemical characters for julid systematics.

  13. Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ginés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

  14. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean–François; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey. PMID:26745626

  15. ERT, GPR, InSAR, and tracer tests to characterize karst aquifer systems under urban areas: The case of Quebec City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Richard; Castellazzi, Pascal; Gloaguen, Erwan; Trépanier, Luc; Garfias, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Urban infrastructures built over karst settings may be at risk of collapse due to hydro-chemical erosion of underlying rock structures. In such settings, mapping cave networks and monitoring ground stability is important to assure civil safety and guide future infrastructure development decisions. However, no technique can directly and comprehensively map these hydrogeological features and monitor their stability. The most reliable method to map a cave network is through speleological exploration, which is not always possible due to restrictions, narrow corridors/passages, or high water levels. Borehole drilling is expensive and is often only performed where the presence of karsts is suggested by other techniques. Numerous indirect and cost-effective methods exist to map a karst flow system, such as geophysics, geodesy, and tracer tests. This paper presents the outcomes from a challenging application in Quebec City, Canada, where a multidisciplinary approach was designed to better understand the groundwater dynamics and cave paths. Two tracer tests in groundwater flowing through the cave system indicated that water flows along an approximately straight path from the sinking stream to the spring. It also suggests the presence of a parallel flow path close to the one already partially mapped. This observation was confirmed by combining Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques, and ultimately by observing voids in several boreholes drilled close to the main cave path. Lowering the water levels at the suspected infiltration zone and inside the karst, the infiltration cracks were identified and the hydraulic link between them was confirmed. In fact, almost no infiltration occurs into the karst system when the water level at the sinking stream drops below a threshold level. Finally, SAR interferometry (InSAR) using RADARSAT-2 images detected movements on few buildings located over a backfilled sinkhole intercepted by the karst

  16. Radiocarbon intercomparison program for Chauvet Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuzange, M.T.; Delque-Kolic, E.; Oberlin, C.; Goslar, T.; Grootes, P.M.; Nadeau, M.J.; Higham, T.; Ramsey, C.B.; Kaltnecker, E.; Paterne, M.; Valladas, H.; Van der Plicht, J.; Van der Plicht, J.; Clottes, J.; Geneste, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon intercomparison program on 3 different charcoal samples collected in one of the hearths of the Megaceros gallery of Chauvet Cave (Ardeche, France). This cave, rich in parietal decoration, is important for the study of the appearance and evolution of prehistoric art because certain drawings have been 14 C dated to the Aurignacian period at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. The new dates indicate an age of about 32,000 BP, which is consistent with this attribution and in agreement with the results from the same sector of the cave measured previously at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). Six laboratories were involved in the intercomparison. Samples were measured in 4 AMS facilities: Center for Isotope Research, Groningen University, the Netherlands; the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, UK; the Centre de datation par le carbone 14, Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France (measured by AMS facilities of Poznan University, Poland); and the LSCE, UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, France (measured by the Leibniz-Labor of Christian-Albrechts-Universitat Kiel, Germany). (authors)

  17. Characterization and management trends of negative and positive impacts of tourism in show caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Caves are one of the most fragile environments on Earth ’s surface, in function of physical, atmospheric and biological specificities. The natural characteristics associated with cultural aspects of local people are the reasons to tourist potential of caves. However, the tourist use of caves can generate negative impacts on the environment. This consequence happens when inappropriate procedures of planning and management of tourism are used. Negative impacts are described in this review, as also indications of management techniques to avoid, decrease or eliminate the negative consequences of tourism in caves. Positive impacts are also presented, in order to achieve a sustainable tourism in show caves. The conclusion argues that the negative impacts should not be considered as impediments to tourism in caves. It is important to know these impacts and use it as a key to get previous answers which allow to raise the sustainability of show caves.

  18. Pisgah Lava Cave Communication Test: Science Case Study for the Networked Constellations Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, K.; Ellison, D.; Fraeman, A.

    2017-01-01

    As part of the science case study for the Networked Constellations initiative, a team of JPL scientists explore the possibility of a mission to study the lava caves on Mars. Natural caves on Mars and the Moon present a unique opportunity to learn about the planetary geology and to provide a shelter for human explorers. Due to power and communication challenges, a network of assets has significant advantages over a single asset sent inside a cave. However, communication between the assets and the data downlink present significant difficulties due to the presence of rough walls, boulders, and other obstacles with unknown dielectric constant inside a typical cave, disturbing the propagation of the radio waves. A detailed study is needed to establish the limitations of the current communication technologies and to develop requirements for the new communication technology applicable to the cave environment. On May 4 of 2017, Konstantin Belov, Doug Ellison, and Abby Fraeman visited a lava cave in Pisgah, CA. The purpose of the visit was to build a 3D map of the cave, which could be used to create a model of radio wave propagation, and to conduct a series of communication tests using off-the-shelf equipment to verify the in-cave communication challenges. This experiment should be considered as a simple 'proof of concept' and is the subject of this report.

  19. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  20. Unexpected diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in tourist caves in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James

    2017-11-01

    Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.

  1. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Krizler C. Tanalgo; John Aries G. Tabora

    2015-01-01

    The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species we...

  2. Cave Holography – Out of the lab and under the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klayer, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the combination of my hobbies, caving and holography. Most traditional holography involves bringing the objects to a lab with all the necessary holography equipment mounted on a stable table. I instead bring all the equipment assembled as a portable unit to the natural formations in a cave with the cave itself being the stable table. The first successes were Denisyuks made with a HeNe or laser diode and spatial filter mounted on a tripod. For greater depth, transmission holograms were made with a DPSS laser in several configurations sometimes using fiber optics to route the reference beam and sometimes a spatial filter and mirrors. The cave environment presents unique obstacles that have been overcome as evidenced by the beautiful holograms made.

  3. Hominin-bearing caves and landscape dynamics in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Berger, Lee R.

    2013-02-01

    This paper provides constraints on the evolution of the landscape in the Cradle of Humankind (CoH), UNESCO World Heritage Site, South Africa, since the Pliocene. The aim is to better understand the distribution of hominin fossils in the CoH, and determine links between tectonic processes controlling the landscape and the evolution and distribution of hominins occupying that landscape. The paper is focused on a detailed reconstruction of the landscape through time in the Grootvleispruit catchment, which contains the highly significant fossil site of Malapa and the remains of the hominin species Australopithicus sediba. In the past 4 My the landscape in the CoH has undergone major changes in its physical appearance as a result of river incision, which degraded older African planation surfaces, and accommodated denudation of cover rocks (including Karoo sediments and various sil- and ferricretes) to expose dolomite with caves in which fossils collected. Differentially weathered chert breccia dykes, calibrated with 10Be exposure ages, are used to estimate erosion patterns of the landscape across the CoH. In this manner it is shown that 2 My ago Malapa cave was ˜50 m deep, and Gladysvale cave was first exposed; i.e. landscape reconstructions can provide estimates for the time of opening of cave systems that trapped hominin and other fossils. Within the region, cave formation was influenced by lithological, layer-parallel controls interacting with cross-cutting fracture systems of Paleoproterozoic origin, and a NW-SE directed extensional far-field stress at a time when the African erosion surface was still intact, and elevations were probably lower. Cave geometries vary in a systematic manner across the landscape, with deep caves on the plateau and cave erosion remnants in valleys. Most caves formed to similar depths of 1400-1420 mamsl across much of the CoH, indicating that caves no longer deepened once Pliocene uplift and incision occurred, but acted as passive

  4. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species.

  5. Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Amos; Fischhendler, Itay

    2005-04-01

    Isolated caves are a special cave type common in most karst terrains, formed by prolonged slow water flow where aggressivity is locally boosted. The morphometry and distribution of isolated caves are used here to reconstruct the paleohydrology of a karstic mountain range. Within a homogenous karstic rock sequence, two main types of isolated caves are distinguished, and each is associated with a special hydrogeologic setting: maze caves form by rising water in the confined zone of the aquifer, under the Mt. Scopus Group (Israel) confinement, while chamber caves are formed in phreatic conditions, apparently by lateral flow mixing with a vadose input from above.

  6. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  7. Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave. With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were

  8. Mesolithic burial place in La Martina Cave (Dinant, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, M.; Gilot, E.; Groessens-Van-Dyck, M.C.; Cordy, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The ''La Martina'' cave is located near Dinant (Belgium). Although the sediments had been shoveled out in the mid XIXth century, a calcic breccia has provided prehistoric bones. We can distinguish a Pleistocene fauna with cave bear, one Mesolithic burial place with two cromagnoid skeletons, from the 6th millennium BC, and some Holocene faunal remains. (authors). 7 refs

  9. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins Greg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

  10. Radon exposure, chromosomal aberrations, and genetic polymorphisms in selected Slovak cave workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musak, L.; Pec, M.; Vicanova, M.; Vodicka, P.; Hanova, M.; Buchancova, J.; Moravcikova, K.; Klimentova, G.; Vodickova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of work was genotoxic risk assessment of the Slovak show cave workers employed by the Slovak Caves Administration in Liptovsky Mikulas. They are guides or administrators of the four Slovak show caves: Vazecka, Demanovska, Bystrianska, and Harmanecka. We examined 51 workers exposed to radon, with average age 35.64 years ± 6.63 (SD) and average exposition time 9.78 years ± 6.27 (SD). They are 43 men (i.e. 84.31 %) and 9 women (i.e. 15.69 %). The control group consisted of 32 healthy workers from Faculty Hospital in Martin. The workers were not exposed to any genotoxic agents. The average age is 31.84 years ± 5.84(SD). From every subject we evaluated 100 mitosis, i.e. 5100 mitosis from exposed workers and 3200 mitosis from control subjects. In exposed group we found in 111 cells chromosomal aberrations, this present 2.18 % Ab.c. ± 0.19 (SEM), and in control 1 st group 1.53 % ± 0.16 (SEM). There are 106 breaks (95.50%), and 5 exchanges (4.50%) on chromosomes. The highest number of Ab.c. we detected in workers of Vazecka (2.63 % Ab.c) and Bystrianska (2.00 % Ab.c.) caves. There is a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of Ab.c. in workers of cave Vazecka as compared to control. In 15 cases (i.e. 28.30 %) we found increase or high exposure to genotoxic agents, we found any difference between sex, and any dependence of the number of Ab.c. on age and time of exposure. The Vazecka cave workers showed three times higher mean effective doses all the year round (milliSievert) than workers additional caves. The measured values of radiation in the caves and mines exceeded the permissible limits and Regional Hygienist of the Central Slovakia declared in 1981 the risk zones and, at the same time, the monitoring of working atmosphere was initiated. Our evaluations referred to certain exposition of this carcinogen in cave workers too. The essence of prevention is based in the lowering of ionizing radiation and improvement of the sanitary

  11. Wolfcampian brachiopods from the Bird Spring Group, Wamp Spring area, Las Vegas Range, Clark County, Nevada ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P.C.; Langenheim, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Wamp Spring section of the Bird Spring Group is subdivided into a basal platy limestone member, lower cliff-forming member, and upper cliff-forming member. Triticites, Schwagerina, and Schubertella kingi in the platy limestone member indicate an early Wolfcampian age. Schwagerina, Schubertella kingi, and a distinctive assemblage of brachiopods, similar to the West Texas fauna, indicate that the upper cliff-forming member is late Wolfcampian. The lower cliff-forming member is tentatively assigned to the middle Wolfcampian. The Wamp Spring sequence correlates temporally with the BSe 'formation' of the Bird Spring Group. The fossil-rich upper cliff-forming limestone member includes the new species Pontisia boodi, Crurithyris wampensis, and Calliprotonia(?) n. sp. A, as well as Hustedia culcitula, Crenispirifer(?) sp., Cenorhynchia(?) sp., Kutorginella(?) sp., marginiferids, lyssacine hexactinellid sponges, pleurotomarid and bellerophontid gastropods, cidaroid echinoids, rugose corals, cylindrical cryptostome bryozoans, and nuculids. -from Authors

  12. The significance of the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus P. Kritzinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi Monachi Captivi should, in view of the similarities with the first cave episode and the high incidence of literary devices employed in it, be recognised for its value in the interpretation of this vita. The book was intended as a defence of, and an exhortation to a life of celibacy and this dual purpose is clearly demonstrated in both episodes in which a cave is used as the setting. The second cave episode has been neglected in the scholarly debate about the purpose of the book and this article attempts to set the record straight.

  13. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652 ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  14. In situ acetylene reduction activity of Scytonema julianum in Vapor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asencio Antonia Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation was measured in situ for the first time by acetylene reduction for a greyish mat composed of Scytonema julianum in cave- like environments. Mat-specific rates (129.9-215.7 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for daytime fixation and 65.1-120.6 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for nighttime fixation recorded in the Vapor cave differed considerably due to the energy reserves stored during photosynthesis being exhausted and used in the dark phase. The most influential environmental parameter for nitrogen fixation in the Vapor cave is temperature in the daytime and nighttime fixations. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria may contribute considerably to the overall nitrogen cycle in harsh environments such as caves. Nitrogenase activity in Scytonema julianum was roughly 30 times higher than that of Scytonema mirabile, which also grew in cave environments, which is due to the characteristics of each site. The entrance of Vapour cave (Spain faces SE, measures 0.75 x 0.6 m and opens to shafts of a total depth of 80 m. Its dimensions and environmental conditions (relative humidity up to 100%; maximum temperature, 43oC imply that it is isolated from external influences, and that the microclimate differs substantially from that experienced externally. Nitrogen fixation, photon flux density, relative humidity and temperature in the Vapor cave were taken hourly over a 24-hour period in winter.

  15. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Tebo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth’s surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth’s surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO, including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the

  16. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland, in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances. The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epilithic species and tolerant of low light intensities. The largest group was formed by representatives of the division Chlorophyta (24 species, and then the division Chrysophyta (Heterokontophyta - 17 species, with 9 species belonging to the class Bacillariophyceae, 7 species - Xanthophyceae and 1 species representing the class Eustigmatophyceae. Dinophyta (2 species constituted the last and the smallest group. Among the collected algae, the following species deserve special attention: Thelesphaera alpina, Bracteacoccus minor, Trachychloron simplex, Tetracystis intermedia and T. cf. isobilateralis. The last species was not earlier found in Europe. Identification of species was greatly aided by examination of cell ultrastructure, which provided an array of further features, increasing chances of correct species identification. Furthermore, the studies focused that algae, although usually remaining under dominance of cyanobacteria, excellently differentiate this special area and even enrich it.

  17. Recreational Impacts on the Microclimate of the Gorilla Limestone Cave in Shoushan National Nature Park of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Ho, Lih-Der

    2017-04-01

    This study reports a continuous microclimate monitoring carried out in the Gorilla Cave (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) between December 2015 and December 2016. This limestone cave is located in the Mt. Shoushan, which is mainly composed of limestone and mudstone. This study tried to assess the recreational impacts to the microclimate of the cave by monitoring the CO2, temperature, humidity and barometric pressure. Two monitoring stations were set up respectively at the front part (station A) and the end of the cave (station B). We also set up an auto-operated time-lapse camera at the entrance of the cave to record the numbers of tourists, and their entering time and the durations in cave. As carbon dioxide in the limestone cave may have negative impact to both speleothems and visitors, our presentation focuses on the variations of CO2 concentration in the Gorilla Cave. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of CO2 concentration were observed. The fluctuations are closely related with the temperature outside the cave. In summer, when the temperature outside the cave maintained at 30。C, fluctuations of CO2 concentration in the cave will become chaotic. The CO2 concentration would fluctuate around 1000ppm most of the day, but it would be relatively low ( 500ppm) during the noon. In winter, when temperature outside the cave maintained below 25゜C, the fluctuation of CO2 concentration in cave presented a steady state ( 400-500 ppm). Only at the noon, the temperature outside the cave rose above 25 ゜C, the CO2 concentration inside the cave would increase. There were 1,517 tourists entered the cave during the monitoring period. The average number of visitors in a group is 13, and each group averagely stayed for 15 minutes. Over half of the visitors (776 tourists) entered the cave in December, due to lower humidity, drier in the cave and less dripping water in winter. After tourists entered the cave, the CO2 concentration value of station A rose instantly. However, most tourists stayed

  18. Experimental Research on Internal Behaviors of Caved Rocks under the Uniaxial Confined Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-jiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As main composition of longwall gob, caved rocks’ behaviors and their impacts under compression crucially influence strata control, subsidence, associated resources extraction, and many other aspects. However, current researches are based on a whole sample, due to looseness of caved rocks and limitation of observation technology. In this paper, an experiment system was built to investigate internal behaviors of caved rocks’ sample, under the uniaxial confined compression, including movement and breakage behavior by the digital image processing technologies. The results show that the compression process of caved rocks could be divided into two stages by relative density. Boundary effect and changes of voids and contact pressure among caved rocks lead to different movement law in different position in sample’s interior. A stratification phenomenon of breakage was discovered, which presents breakage concentration in the middle of the sample. The nonlinear movement and shear dislocation induced by shifts among caved rocks are the reason of the breakage stratification phenomenon. This phenomenon would have an effect on the permeability and seepage research of similar medium.

  19. Reconciling Mining with the Conservation of Cave Biodiversity: A Quantitative Baseline to Help Establish Conservation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Prous, Xavier; Zampaulo, Robson; Giannini, Tereza C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Maurity, Clóvis; Oliveira, Guilherme; Brandi, Iuri V; Siqueira, José O

    2016-01-01

    Caves pose significant challenges for mining projects, since they harbor many endemic and threatened species, and must therefore be protected. Recent discussions between academia, environmental protection agencies, and industry partners, have highlighted problems with the current Brazilian legislation for the protection of caves. While the licensing process is long, complex and cumbersome, the criteria used to assign caves into conservation relevance categories are often subjective, with relevance being mainly determined by the presence of obligate cave dwellers (troglobites) and their presumed rarity. However, the rarity of these troglobitic species is questionable, as most remain unidentified to the species level and their habitats and distribution ranges are poorly known. Using data from 844 iron caves retrieved from different speleology reports for the Carajás region (South-Eastern Amazon, Brazil), one of the world's largest deposits of high-grade iron ore, we assess the influence of different cave characteristics on four biodiversity proxies (species richness, presence of troglobites, presence of rare troglobites, and presence of resident bat populations). We then examine how the current relevance classification scheme ranks caves with different biodiversity indicators. Large caves were found to be important reservoirs of biodiversity, so they should be prioritized in conservation programs. Our results also reveal spatial autocorrelation in all the biodiversity proxies assessed, indicating that iron caves should be treated as components of a cave network immersed in the karst landscape. Finally, we show that by prioritizing the conservation of rare troglobites, the current relevance classification scheme is undermining overall cave biodiversity and leaving ecologically important caves unprotected. We argue that conservation efforts should target subterranean habitats as a whole and propose an alternative relevance ranking scheme, which could help simplify the

  20. Geochemical characteristics of cave drip water respond to ENSO based on a 6-year monitoring work in Yangkou Cave, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Jun; Li, Ting-Yong

    2018-06-01

    The scientific explanation of speleothem δ18O in Chinese monsoon region is a greatly debated issue. Modern cave monitoring combined with instrument observation maybe is an essential solution to deal with this issue. During the period from 2011 to 2016, we monitored local precipitation, soil water in three soil profiles, and six drip water sites in Yangkou Cave, which is located in Chongqing City, Southwest China. This article presents measurements about δ18O, δD and Mg/Ca ratios of drip water and compared these geochemical proxies with contemporaneous atmospheric circulations. The main conclusions are: (1) As water migrates from precipitation to soil water to cave drip water, the amplitudes of seasonal variations in δD and δ18O decreased gradually. Due to the existence of complex hydrogeological conditions, the range of variation and the seasonal characteristics of δD and δ18O differ among the drip sites where samples were collected, but the interannual variability is nearly the same. The drip water Mg/Ca ratios are mainly regulated by changes in hydrological conditions in the epikarst zone, with higher values during winter months than that during summer months. (2) When an El Niño event occurs, the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) is migrated westward, and the production of near-source water vapor from the western Pacific and the South China Sea increases, leading to higher δ18O values in the precipitation and the cave drip water. The drip water Mg/Ca ratios were significantly lower with increased summer precipitation. On the other hand, during La Niña events, the WPSH is migrated eastward, and inputs of water vapor that has traveled greater distances (from the Indian Ocean) become comparatively important, resulting in lower δ18O values in the precipitation and the cave drip water. The drip water Mg/Ca ratios were higher with decreased summer precipitation. In summary, the interannual variability of δ18O in the drip waters of Yangkou Cave

  1. Orthothermographies and 3D modeling as potential tools in ice caves studies: the Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Berenguer-Sempere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many studies focused on the investigation of climatic and glaciological condition of ice caves. Here we present another way to address these studies, applying some methods already used in fields other than geomorphology. The versatility and accuracy provided by the use of modern topography and thermography techniques, using Terrestrial Laser Scanner and current thermographic cameras- and the creation of 3D thermographic models and orthothermographies derived from them - is shown to be a useful tool as it is difficult to obtain data from fieldwork and traditional methods used in caves. This paper presents the potential uses of combined TLS and thermographic techniques for monitoring some important climatological parameters in the sensitive periglacial environment of the Iberian Atlantic high mountains: Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain. A systematic application of such combined technologies to these kind of caves, is expected to contribute to a quantitative and concise characterization of the evolution of the ice as shown by the results of this study.

  2. Diversity and role of cave-dwelling hematophagous insects in pathogen transmission in the Afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-04-12

    The progressive anthropization of caves for food resources or economic purposes increases human exposure to pathogens that naturally infect cave-dwelling animals. The presence of wild or domestic animals in the immediate surroundings of caves also may contribute to increasing the risk of emergence of such pathogens. Some zoonotic pathogens are transmitted through direct contact, but many others require arthropod vectors, such as blood-feeding insects. In Africa, hematophagous insects often play a key role in the epidemiology of many pathogens; however, their ecology in cave habitats remains poorly known. During the last decades, several investigations carried out in Afrotropical caves suggested the medical and veterinary importance particularly of insect taxa of the Diptera order. Therefore, the role of some of these insects as vectors of pathogens that infect cave-dwelling vertebrates has been studied. The present review summarizes these findings, brings insights into the diversity of cave-dwelling hematophagous Diptera and their involvement in pathogen transmission, and finally discusses new challenges and future research directions.

  3. Investigation on the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of Argos areas (Peloponnese, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, Ioannis L.; Dimitroulas, Christos; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, Athanasios; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    51 Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of the Argos areas Achladokampos and Kinouria. By this experiment the interconnection of the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios river (Achladokampos) is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc. have been calculated. (author)

  4. Biochemical mechanisms of resistance to p-nitrochlorobenzene of karst caves microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Suslova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical mechanisms of resistance to persistent organic xenobiotic p-nitrochlorobenzene (NCB of bacterial strains isolated from two cave clays ecosystems – Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia have been established. It has been determined that chemoorganotrophic karst caves strains could interact with NCB and transform it reducing the nitro group with formation of p-chloroaniline (ClA followed by further destruction of NCB aromatic ring. This explained high resistance of caves strains to NCB. The studied strains could potentially be used in wastewater treatment from nitrochloraromatic compounds.

  5. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  6. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brent Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they were omnivorous and may have consumed more bone than U. arctos. Here, we used dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA to further interpret the diet of the cave bear. Microscopic wear features were assessed and compared to modern ursids, including the cave bears’ closest living relative, U. arctos. Results suggest that U. spelaeus consumed a diet with a diversity of textural properties, similar to most other bears and only distinguishable from the hyper-carnivorous polar bear (Ursus maritimus. Further, only U. maritimus can be distinguished from all bear species here examined (i.e., the giant panda bear, Ailuropoda melanoleuca; sun-bear, Ursus malayanus; spectacled bear, Tremarctos ornatus; American black bear, Ursus americanus; and U. arctos, with significantly greater area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc of microwear surfaces. The DMTA of A. melanoleuca also has significantly lower Asfc than T. ornatus and U. americanus, consistent with observed dietary behavior. As modern bears vary their diets seasonally and across their range, it may be difficult to characterize the dietary ecology of extinct bears using dental microwear alone. Nevertheless, DMTA here demonstrates that U. spelaeus had a diet distinct from the hyper-carnivorous U. maritimus and instead likely consumed food with textural properties most similar to other herbivorous/omnivorous bears. Lastly, the European cave bear and North American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus may have had

  7. The chronology of Moncks Cave, Canterbury, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.

    2008-01-01

    Moncks Cave is a key site in understanding the nature and course of change to Maori culture during the early period of New Zealand prehistory because of the range of both perishable and non-perishable artefacts found there in 1889. Understood to have been completely excavated at that time, the interpretation of the material culture of the site has been rendered difficult by the absence of chronological or stratigraphic provenance data. Recent investigations at Moncks Cave revealed several intact cultural deposits, including both faunal and artefactual remains. Eleven radiocarbon determinations on marine shell suggest that the cave was occupied some time between the mid-fourteenth and mid-fifteenth centuries AD. Although the dates cannot be directly correlated with any particular artefact, the results have important implications for the interpretation of the place of the site and its contents as a whole in the context of the New Zealand prehistoric sequence. (author). 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. The Caves of Naica: a decade of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazquez, F.; Calaforra, J. M.; Porti, P.; Badino, G.

    2016-01-01

    The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)

  9. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  10. Final Program Report for 2010-2012: Monitoring and evaluation for conserving biological resources of the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen J. Solem; Burton K. Pendleton; Casey Giffen; Marc Coles-Ritchie; Jeri Ledbetter; Kevin S. McKelvey; Joy Berg; Jim Menlove; Carly K. Woodlief; Luke A. Boehnke

    2013-01-01

    The Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA) includes approximately 316,000 acres of National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada (see fig. 1-1). The Spring Mountains have long been recognized as an island of endemism, harboring flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. Conservation...

  11. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  12. A review of factors affecting cave climates for hibernating bats in temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2013-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in bats, thrives in the cold and moist conditions found in caves where bats hibernate. To aid managers and researchers address this disease, an updated and accessible review of cave hibernacula and cave microclimates is presented. To maximize energy savings and reduce...

  13. Eastern Cave- and Crevice-Dwelling Bats Potentially Impacted by USACE Reservoir Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, C.O

    2002-01-01

    ...; Kasul, Martin, and Allen 2000). This note provides information on six species of forest bats that roost in caves or cave-like structures and potentially occur on Corps projects in the Eastern United States...

  14. 76 FR 42654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Petition To List Grand Canyon Cave Pseudoscorpion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... from 1977 to 1978. Eight caves were examined including Babylon Cave, Crystal Forest Cave, Land's End...) describes examining the walls, ceilings, and floors for animals and invertebrates. He identified 12...

  15. Hydrogeology of the Sterkfontein Cave System, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A water level rise of almost 3 m in the space of two years in the Sterkfontein Cave system since late-2009 necessitated the re-routing of the tourist path through the cave to successively higher elevations on three occasions. It also raisedconcern...

  16. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  17. Potential collapse due to geological structures influence in Seropan Cave, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, B.; Pranantya, P. A.; Witjahjati, R.; Rofinus

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the potential collapse in the Seropan cave, based on the existing geological structure conditions in the cave. This is very necessary because in the Seropan cave will be built Microhydro installation for power plants. The electricity will be used to raise the underground river water in the cave to a barren soil surface, which can be used for surface irrigation. The method used is analysis the quality of rock mass along the cave. Analysis of rock mass quality using Geomechanical Classification or Rock Mass Rating (RMR), to determine the magnitude of the effect of geological structure on rock mass stability. The research path is divided into several sections and quality analysis is performed on each section. The results show that the influence of geological structure is very large and along the cave where the research there are several places that have the potential to collapse, so need to get serious attention in handling it. Nevertheless, the construction of this Microhydro installation can still be carried out by making a reinforcement on potentially collapsing parts

  18. Diversity of cultivable bacteria involved in the formation of macroscopic microbial colonies (Cave silver on the walls of a cave in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagajana Herzog Velikonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic caves often support white, yellow, grey or pink microbial colonies that are termed ‘cave silver’ by speleologists. Using various sample pre-treatments and culture media, a wide variety of bacteria associated with these colonies were recovered from a cave in Slovenia, Pajsarjeva jama. Decreasing the inoculum size resulted in significant increases in viable counts, while pre-treatments had the opposite effect with the exception of microwave irradiation. While all growth media yielded viable counts, the maximal counts were observed on a low-nutrient TWA medium. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of OTU representatives, the majority of the 80 isolates examined belonged to Streptomyces (25%, Micrococcus (16% and Rhodococcus (10% Other abundant groups were Pseudomonas (9%, Agrobacterium (8%, Lysobacter (6% and Paenibacillus (5%, while members of genera Microbacterium, Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Kocuria, Oerskovia, Sphingomonas, Aerococcus, and Bosea represented a minor portion of cultivable diversity encountered. Members of Streptomyces and Agrobacterium were common to all samples. Although these microorganisms readily form colonies under laboratory conditions, they were unrelated to abundant environmental phylotypes recovered from same samples in a previous study. However, the comparative 16S rRNA analysis showed that microorganisms highly related to the ones obtained in this study were cultivated from other subterranean environments indicating that they might represent true microbial cave dwellers.

  19. Hotspot mitigation in the StarCAVE

    KAUST Repository

    Rhee, Jordan; Schulze, Jurgen; DeFanti, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Rear-projected screens such as those in Digital Light Projection (DLP) televisions suffer from an image quality problem called hot spotting, where the image is brightest at a point dependent on the viewing angle. In rear-projected mulit-screen configurations such as the StarCAVE at Calit2, this causes discontinuities in brightness at the edges where screens meet, and thus in the 3D image perceived by the user. In the StarCAVE we know the viewer's position in 3D space and we have programmable graphics hardware, so we can mitigate this effect by performing post-processing in the inverse of the pattern, yielding a homogenous image at the output. Our implementation improves brightness homogeneity by a factor of 4 while decreasing frame rate by only 1-3 fps.

  20. Hotspot mitigation in the StarCAVE

    KAUST Repository

    Rhee, Jordan

    2010-01-27

    Rear-projected screens such as those in Digital Light Projection (DLP) televisions suffer from an image quality problem called hot spotting, where the image is brightest at a point dependent on the viewing angle. In rear-projected mulit-screen configurations such as the StarCAVE at Calit2, this causes discontinuities in brightness at the edges where screens meet, and thus in the 3D image perceived by the user. In the StarCAVE we know the viewer\\'s position in 3D space and we have programmable graphics hardware, so we can mitigate this effect by performing post-processing in the inverse of the pattern, yielding a homogenous image at the output. Our implementation improves brightness homogeneity by a factor of 4 while decreasing frame rate by only 1-3 fps.

  1. The archaeal diversity in a cave system and its implications for life on other planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra; De Waele, Jo; Bessone, Loredana; Sauro, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

    The quest of exploring and looking for life in new places is a human desire since centuries. Nowadays, we are not only looking on planet Earth any more, but our endeavours focus on nearby planets in our solar system. At this point in time, we are not able to send manned missions to other planets, but to be ready and prepared for the day, training today is pivotal. Developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) since 2008, these CAVES missions (Cooperative Adventure for Valuing and Exercising human behaviour and performance Skills), prepare astronauts to work safely and effectively and solve problems as a multicultural team while exploring uncharted underground natural areas (i.e. caves) using space procedures. The hypogean environment is also of great interest for astrobiological research as cave conditions may resemble those in extra-terrestrial environments. Besides the main focus of exploration and skill training, future astronauts are also trained in taking microbiological samples for analysis during the exploration and for further analysis in the lab. During the 2013 mission, astronauts collected soil samples and employed flocked swaps to sample areas with little or no visible soil. Microscopic analysis back in the lab revealed a diverse spectrum of different cell shapes and sizes. Samples were further analysed employing molecular tools such as RFLP analysis, 16s rRNA clone libraries and sequence analysis. RFLP pattern analysis revealed that the community can be divided in 9 main groups and several single patterns. The largest group (40% of all analysed clones) belong to the clade of ammonia oxidizing archaea Nitrosopumilus spp.. Dividing the results by sampling point, it showed that the highest diversity of organisms was located on the flocked swaps, which is interesting as the sample was taken from a rock surface with no visible organic matter. By analysis low energy systems like a cave, we may be able to find clues for what could be necessary to survive on a

  2. 36 CFR 290.3 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.3 Nomination, evaluation, and designation of... on National Forest System lands shall possess one or more of the following features, characteristics... information. (4) Hydrologic. The cave is a part of a hydrologic system or contains water which is important to...

  3. Report of a three-year monitoring programme at Heshang Cave, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyong Hu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Heshang Cave is situated in central China (30º27’N, 110º25’E; 294 m in the middle reaches of the Yangtze Valley, a region stronglyimpacted by the East Asian Monsoon. It contains large annually-laminated Holocene and late Pleistocene stalagmites which capture pastmonsoon behaviour with seasonal resolution, and could enhance understanding of the amplitude and frequency of monsoon behaviour indifferent climate states. In this paper, we present results of a 3-year monitoring programme at Heshang. T loggers outside the cave agree closely with T data from nearby meteorological stations. T at the site of growth of the largest recovered stalagmite averages 18ºC (identical to mean annual T outside the cave with a seasonal amplitude of 5ºC (about one fifth of the external cycle. Rainfall measurements from a station 3 km from the cave indicate strong summer monsoon rain in 2004 and 2005, but rather weaker summer rain (by ≈30% in 2006.Drip rate at the monitoring site has a base flow of 14 drips/minute and shows a sharp increase to ≈40 drips/minute early in the summerrains of 2004 and 2005, followed by a gradual return to base-flow as the monsoon weakens. This abrupt change presumably representsthreshold behaviour in the hydrological system. This threshold is not passed in 2006 and there is no abrupt increase in drip rate, indicating the sensitivity of this site (and presumably of speleothem chemistry in this cave to monsoon rainfall. Results are also reported from a 10-month deployment of a Stalagmate drip counter, and for CO2 levels in Heshang Cave. Overall, this monitoring work represents an essential dataset for interpretation of the chemistry of drip waters, of carbonates grown on glass slides and, ultimately, of long speleothem records of past climate from Heshang Cave.

  4. Monitoring of radon gas in caves of the Yorkshire Dales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langridge, D; Stokes, R P; Jackson, C P

    2010-01-01

    A number of vocational training courses are held in caves in the Yorkshire Dales region of the United Kingdom. The instructors and students involved in these courses have the potential to be exposed to enhanced levels of radon ( 222 Rn) and its progeny as a result of their occupations. A prior radiological risk assessment for the training courses recommended that an environmental monitoring programme be carried out to establish the radon concentrations in the caves, and that the caving instructors wear personal radon dosemeters. Radon gas concentrations varied seasonally, being at their highest in summer and their lowest in winter. The lowest result was 40 Bq m -3 recorded in Lower Longchurn cave during winter, whilst the highest result was 4440 Bq m -3 recorded in Crackpot cave during the summer. As the individuals involved in the caving are entering atmospheres with radon gas concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m -3 , the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 (GB Parliament 2000 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (London: Stationary Office) SI 1999/3232) apply. A system of work is therefore in place to control exposure to radon. This system of work stipulates an initial dose investigation level of 1 mSv, a second dose investigation level of 2 mSv and an annual dose limit of 6 mSv. The highest annual dose recorded to date is 2.2 mSv, although the average (median) annual dose is only 0.5 mSv.

  5. Geological conditions of origin of the Potočka zijalka cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Potočka zijalka cave on Mt. Ol{eva in Southern Karavanke during excavation of cave sediments of Würm age that contain cultural remains of the Cromagnon Man also large amounts of gravel were before the Badenian transgression, from the Central Alps during Miocene.

  6. A Framework for Aligning Instructional Design Strategies with Affordances of CAVE Immersive Virtual Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Leah T.; Buss, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing availability of immersive virtual reality (IVR) systems, such as the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and head-mounted displays, for use in education contexts is providing new opportunities and challenges for instructional designers. By highlighting the affordances of IVR specific to the CAVE, the authors emphasize the…

  7. Pollination implications of the diverse diet of tropical nectar-feeding bats roosting in an urban cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Voon-Ching; Ramli, Rosli; Bhassu, Subha; Wilson, John-James

    2018-01-01

    Intense landscaping often alters the plant composition in urban areas. Knowing which plant species that pollinators are visiting in urban areas is necessary for understanding how landscaping impacts biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea , is an important pollinator for many plants and is often recorded in human-dominated habitats. Previous studies of the diet of E. spelaea relied on morphological identification of pollen grains found in faeces and on the body of bats and by necessity disregarded other forms of digested plant material present in the faeces (i.e., plant juice and remnants). The main objective of this study was to examine the diet of the nectarivorous bat, E. spelaea, roosting in an urban cave at Batu Caves, Peninsular Malaysia by identifying the plant material present in the faeces of bats using DNA metabarcoding. Faeces were collected under the roost of E. spelaea once a week from December 2015 to March 2016. Plant DNA was extracted from the faeces, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified at ITS2 and rbcL regions and mass sequenced. The resultant plant operational taxonomic units were searched against NCBI GenBank for identification. A total of 55 species of plants were detected from faeces of E. spelaea including Artocarpus heterophyllus, Duabanga grandiflora and Musa spp. which are likely to be important food resources for the cave nectar bat. Many native plant species that had not been reported in previous dietary studies of E. spelaea were detected in this study including Bauhinia strychnoidea and Urophyllum leucophlaeum , suggesting that E. spelaea remains a crucial pollinator for these plants even in highly disturbed habitats. The detection of many introduced plant species in the bat faeces indicates that E. spelaea are exploiting them, particularly Xanthostemon chrysanthus, as food resources in urban area. Commercial food crops were detected from all of the faecal samples, suggesting that E

  8. Pollination implications of the diverse diet of tropical nectar-feeding bats roosting in an urban cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voon-Ching Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Intense landscaping often alters the plant composition in urban areas. Knowing which plant species that pollinators are visiting in urban areas is necessary for understanding how landscaping impacts biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea, is an important pollinator for many plants and is often recorded in human-dominated habitats. Previous studies of the diet of E. spelaea relied on morphological identification of pollen grains found in faeces and on the body of bats and by necessity disregarded other forms of digested plant material present in the faeces (i.e., plant juice and remnants. The main objective of this study was to examine the diet of the nectarivorous bat, E. spelaea, roosting in an urban cave at Batu Caves, Peninsular Malaysia by identifying the plant material present in the faeces of bats using DNA metabarcoding. Methods Faeces were collected under the roost of E. spelaea once a week from December 2015 to March 2016. Plant DNA was extracted from the faeces, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplified at ITS2 and rbcL regions and mass sequenced. The resultant plant operational taxonomic units were searched against NCBI GenBank for identification. Results A total of 55 species of plants were detected from faeces of E. spelaea including Artocarpus heterophyllus, Duabanga grandiflora and Musa spp. which are likely to be important food resources for the cave nectar bat. Discussion Many native plant species that had not been reported in previous dietary studies of E. spelaea were detected in this study including Bauhinia strychnoidea and Urophyllum leucophlaeum, suggesting that E. spelaea remains a crucial pollinator for these plants even in highly disturbed habitats. The detection of many introduced plant species in the bat faeces indicates that E. spelaea are exploiting them, particularly Xanthostemon chrysanthus, as food resources in urban area. Commercial food crops were

  9. Geochemical studies of Ishiwa hot springs in Yamanashi Prefecture-yearly change of hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, T. (Yamanashi Prefecture Womens Junior College, Japan)

    1971-12-01

    The effect of drilling on the Ishiwa hot springs was studied. About 50 wells have been drilled since 1961 when the first well was drilled to a depth of 146 m where 47/sup 0/C water flowed at 1376 l/min. Changes have occurred in flow rate, temperature, and chemical composition of the spring water. In area A near the foot of northern Okura-Keijisan along the Byodo and Fuefuki rivers, the pH value was 8.0 to 8.2 when drilling began, but it is now 7.4 to 8.0. In area B in the central spring area along the Chikatsu water reservoir, the pH was about 8.5 when drilling began, but is presently 10. The shift of area A pH to acidic is thought to be due to the effect of river water. The shift in area B pH to alkaline was thought to be connected to the fountainhead with pH 10 which appeared in the Kami-Ogihara Resseki district in Shioyama City. The fountainhead was located along the Fuefuki River at the foot of Obosatsu, 20 km from the Ishiwa area.

  10. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Stahl

    Full Text Available Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual, and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  11. Fossil remains of the cave animal Marifugia cavatica in the unroofed cave in the Črnotiče quarry, W Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Mihevc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a report on the discovery of tubes of a fossilised cave serpulid in a roofless cave in the quarry near village Črnotiče. The site and shape of the fossilised tubes are described. The animals lived attached to the scallops in the wall of the water filled passage. The passage was later filled with clay deposits, followed by a layer of sinter several metres thick. The roof of the passage has been removed by karst denudation and the sinter now reaches to the surface.Fragments of tubes of animals of various sizes have been preserved, attached to the rock wall; those tubes that grew at a right angle to the wall have broken off but been preserved in the sediment. In terms of their dimension and shape the tubes remind one of the tubes of the more recent cave serpulid Marifugia cavatica Absolon and Hrabe. Thedating of the nearby sediments by palaeomagnetic method show that the minimum age of the serpulids is 1.7 Ma, but greater age is more probable.

  12. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  13. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Song, Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite’s system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite. PMID:15682505

  14. Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. and Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov., two species in section Usti from Spanish caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vit; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2012-11-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus that are clearly distinct from all known species in section Usti were revealed during a study of microfungal communities in Spanish caves. The novel species identified in this study and additional species of Aspergillus section Usti are associated with places and substrates related to human activities in caves. Novel species are described using data from four loci (ITS, benA, caM and rpb2), morphology and basic chemical and physiological analyses. Members of the species Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov. were isolated from various substrates, including decaying organic matter, cave air and cave sediment of the Cueva del Tesoro Cave (the Treasure cave); the species is represented by twelve isolates and is most closely related to the recently described Aspergillus germanicus. Members of the species Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. were isolated from cave sediment in the Gruta de las Maravillas Cave (the Grotto of the Marvels); the species is represented by two isolates. An additional isolate was found in the Cueva del Tesoro Cave and in the Demänovská Peace Cave (Slovakia), suggesting a potentially wide distribution of this micro-organism. The species is related to Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus pseudoustus. Both species were unable to grow at 37 °C, and a weakly positive, light greenish yellow Ehrlich reaction was observed in A. thesauricus. Unique morphological features alone are sufficient to distinguish both species from related taxa.

  15. Framework for Springs Stewardship Program and proposed action development: Spring Mountains National Recreation Area, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Coles-Ritchie; Stephen J. Solem; Abraham E. Springer; Burton Pendleton

    2014-01-01

    In the desert Southwest, springs are an important ecological feature and serve as a focal point for both biological and human interactions on the landscape. As a result, attention has been placed on the stewardship and protection of these important resources. Management has traditionally focused on the more accessible and heavily used eastern canyons within the Spring...

  16. Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, (Mallorca, Spain: history of exploration and cave description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Merino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera lies in the Llucmajor municipality, in southern Mallorca, and is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands. Currently its surveyed length is over 74,000 metres, including more than 17,000 of underwater extensions. The cave was discovered accidentally in 1968, but it was in 2004 when a major breakthrough shed light on its real extension and importance. The cave roughly shows two tiers of passages, apart from the underwater extensions, the first one is between 7 and 11 m above the mean sea level, the second one is about at the water table level. The importance of the cave is not only related to its extension, but also to the presence of a wide variety of speleothems and outstanding solutional morphologies that evidence a complex evolution. The cave is under the protection of Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Govern de les Illes Balears (the Regional Environmental Authority and was declared Site of Community Importance, within the Natura 2000 Network

  17. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Tariq, J.A; Choudhry, M.A.; Hussain, Q.M.

    2008-10-01

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  18. Reassessing Coxcatlan Cave and the early history of domesticated plants in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2005-07-05

    Reanalysis and direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of the cucurbit assemblage from Coxcatlan Cave provide information on the timing and sequence of the initial appearance of three domesticated plants in the Tehuacán Valley (Puebla, Mexico) and allow reassessment of the overall temporal context of plant domestication in Mexico. Cucurbita pepo is the earliest documented domesticate in the cave, dating to 7,920 calibrated calendrical (cal) years B.P. The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is dated at 7,200 cal years B.P. Cucurbita argyrosperma does not appear until 2,065 cal years B.P. The earlier identification of Cucurbita moschata specimens is not confirmed. Seventy-one radiocarbon dates, including 23 accelerator mass spectrometry dates on cucurbits, provide ample evidence of postdepositional vertical displacement of organic materials in the western half of Coxcatlan Cave, but they also indicate that the eastern half of the cave was largely undisturbed.

  19. Microhabitat use, population densities, and size distributions of sulfur cave-dwelling Poecilia mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Jonas; Bierbach, David; Riesch, Rüdiger; Schießl, Angela; Wigh, Adriana; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Klaus, Sebastian; Zimmer, Claudia; Plath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Cueva del Azufre in Tabasco, Mexico, is a nutrient-rich cave and its inhabitants need to cope with high levels of dissolved hydrogen sulfide and extreme hypoxia. One of the successful colonizers of this cave is the poeciliid fish Poecilia mexicana, which has received considerable attention as a model organism to examine evolutionary adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Nonetheless, basic ecological data on the endemic cave molly population are still missing; here we aim to provide data on population densities, size class compositions and use of different microhabitats. We found high overall densities in the cave and highest densities at the middle part of the cave with more than 200 individuals per square meter. These sites have lower H2S concentrations compared to the inner parts where most large sulfide sources are located, but they are annually exposed to a religious harvesting ceremony of local Zoque people called La Pesca. We found a marked shift in size/age compositions towards an overabundance of smaller, juvenile fish at those sites. We discuss these findings in relation to several environmental gradients within the cave (i.e., differences in toxicity and lighting conditions), but we also tentatively argue that the annual fish harvest during a religious ceremony (La Pesca) locally diminishes competition (and possibly, cannibalism by large adults), which is followed by a phase of overcompensation of fish densities.

  20. “Spray Technique: Tracing the Sketch Traditions of Limestone Cave in Lenggong, Perak”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological research provides the widest opportunity for researchers to analyse various aspects and disciplines appropriate to the subject and the object of choice. Subject and object selection is the work of exploration artefacts found in particular sites and archaeological heritage. Exploration and excavation on of a world heritage site such as Lenggong enables researchers to uncover various archaeological artefacts that are rich and meaningful. To find evidence of the strength and benefits of an artefact, further studies on each artefact should be carried out continuously. This essay will track the wisdom of the ancient artists use to produce paintings in a limestone cave in Lenggong, Perak, using spray techniques. Some artefacts that are identified as cave paintings show a very interesting sketch technique that are unique and special. This essay will also examine some of the cave paintings in other caves in Perak and also other caves in several countries as comparison. Studies involving cave paintings in Malaysia are new compared to Western countries. Thus, the study of one of the technique which is spray technique can open the eyes of the audience to acknowledge and recognise the ancient heritage. It also hoped that this study is able to increase the body of knowledge that goes beyond the boundaries of the arts district and the country.

  1. The Evaluation of a Motion Base Driving Simulator in a Cave at TACOM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mollenhauer, M. A; Romano, R. A; Brumm, B

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the highlights of a research program designed to investigate the feasibility of creating a motion base driving simulator in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE...

  2. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  3. Genetic analyses determine connectivity among cave and surface populations of the Jamaican endemic freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum in the Cockpit Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Stemmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jamaican freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae is endemic to western central Jamaica where it occurs in cave and surface streams of karst regions. In the present study, we examine the population genetic structure of the species, providing evidence for intraspecific differentiation and genetic substructure among twelve sampled populations. Interestingly, crabs from caves appear genetically undistinguishable from representatives of nearby surface waters, despite previously observed and described morphometric differentiation. In contrast, genetic isolation takes place among populations from rivers and caves belonging to different watersheds. In one case, even populations from different tributaries of the same river were characterized by different genotypes. Overall, the species shows low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, which indicates a high homogeneity and point towards a relatively recent intraspecific radiation and diversification. Our results on the genetic diversification of S. fossarum helps to reconstruct unknown subterranean water flow and cave connections in its native range, allowing prediction of its further dispersal and differentiation potential. Unfortunately, its natural habitat of Jamaican cockpit karst, which also is home to several other endemic species and is a globally-recognized Key Biodiversity Area, is under imminent threat of intensive bauxite mining.

  4. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Caves and Rock Fracture Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2017-01-01

    The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond. We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can fluorish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a Field Guide to Unknown Organisms for developing life detection space missions.

  5. Technical devices of powered roof support for the top coal caving as automation objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, M. S.; Kizilov, S. A.; Nikolaev, P. I.; Kuznetsov, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper technical devices for the top coal caving as automation objects in the composition of the longwall mining complex (LTCC) are considered. The proposed concept for automation of the top coal caving process allows caving efficiency to be ensured, coal dilution to be prevented, conveyor overloading to be prevented, the shearer service personnel to be unloaded, the influence of the “human factor” to be reduced.

  6. Hydrogeochemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Nasrettin Hoca Springs, Eskisehir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÇELİK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to investigate the water quality, the contamination and water-rock interaction of the Nasrettin Hoca springs, with an ultimate aim of establishing protection measures. Within the scope of this study, the springs in and around the catchment area, Bağbaşı springs, Hatip spring, Ali spring, Saracık Fountain and Babadat spring, were investigated. The springs are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type when basic hydrogeochemical features are considered, are under the influence of marble-limestone and meta ophiolitic units located in the recharge area and are of shallow circulation. The trace element contents of the springs show the influence of the carbonate rocks comprising the reservoir (Sr and the basement rocks (Ni, Al. The protection areas of Nasrettin Hoca springs against contamination are determined as three different zones by considering the hydrogeologic and topographical features of the region and the Turkish Standards

  7. Understanding karst environments by thermo-hygrometric monitoring: preliminary results from the Cesi Mountain karst system (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Di Matteo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of karst systems is of paramount importance for the protection and valorisation of these environments. A multidisciplinary study is presented to investigate the possible interconnection between karst features of a karst area located in the south-western part of the Martani chain (Cesi Mountain, Central Italy. This hydrogeological structure contributes to recharge a deep regional aquifer. The latter feeds the high discharge and salinity Stifone springs. In the southwestern part of Martani chain, seven caves have been mapped, five of which are hosted in the Calcare Massiccio Formation. The analysis of thermo-hygrometric data collected since Autumn 2014 into the caves and those from external meteorological stations, showed the timing of the airflow inversion occurring on late winter/early spring and summer/ early autumn. Despite the complexity of the morphology of caves and of conceptual models of airflow pattern, these data seem to indicate that the monitored small caves could be interconnected to a considerably wider cave system. Data here presented coupled with the knowledge on hydrogeological and geological-structural setting of the limestone massif are useful to drive future speleological explorations, aiming to discover new large cavities and to better understand the water recharge process.

  8. Incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in cave tour guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, M; Bilban-Jakopin, C; Vrhovec, S

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and micronucleus tests (MN) were performed in 38 subjects, cave tour guides and in appropriate control group. The dominant type of chromosomal aberrations in tourist guides were chromosomal breaks (0.013 per cell) and acentric fragments (0.011 per cell). In the control group, these aberrations were present up to 0.008 on cells. Considering the analysed cells of the guides in total (33,556), the incidence of dicentric and rings range is below 0.0008 on cells, even though three dicentric and ring chromosoms were found already in the first 1000 in vitro metaphases of some guides. Only 0.0003 dicentrics and neither other translocations were found in control group (ambiental exposure). The incidence of micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked lymphocytes ranged from 12-32 per 500 CB cells in the cave tour guides and from 4-11 per 500 CB cells in control group. Measurements of radon and its daughters were performed at different locations in the cave. Annual doses from 40-60 mSv were estimated per 2000 work hours for cave guides. The changes found in the genome of somatic cells may be related to the exposure doses of radon and its daughters, although smoking should not be ignored.

  9. Highlighting the importance of transitional ventilation regimes in the management of Mediterranean show caves (Nerja-Pintada system, southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán, C; Del Rosal, Y; Carrasco, F; Vadillo, I; Benavente, J; Ojeda, L

    2018-08-01

    This study shows the utilization of the air CO 2 exhaled by a very high number of visitors in the Nerja Cave as both a tracer and an additional tool to precisely evaluate the air circulation through the entire karst system, which includes non-touristic passages, originally free of anthropogenic CO 2 . The analysis of the temporal - spatial evolution of the CO 2 content and other monitoring data measured from January 2015 to December 2016 in the Nerja-Pintada system, including air microbiological controls, has allowed us to define a new general ventilation model, of great interest for the conservation of the subterranean environment. During the annual cycle four different ventilation regimes and two ventilation modes (UAF-mode and DAF-mode) exist which determine the significance of the anthropogenic impact within the caves. During the winter regime, the strong ventilation regime and the airflow directions from the lowest to the highest entrance (UAF-mode) contribute to the rapid elimination of anthropogenic CO 2 , and this affects the whole karstic system. During the summer regime the DAF-mode ventilation (with airflows from the highest to the lowest entrances) is activated. Although the number of visitors is maximum and the natural ventilation of the karstic system is the lowest of the annual cycle, the anthropogenic impact only affects the Tourist Galleries. The transitional ventilation regimes -spring and autumn- are the most complex of the annual cycle, with changing air-flow directions (from UAF-mode to DAF-mode and vice versa) at diurnal and poly diurnal scale, which conditions the range of the anthropogenic impact in each sector of the karst system. The activation of the DAF-mode has been observed when the temperature difference between the external and air cave is higher than 5°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  11. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  12. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  13. Exposure of workers to radon progeny in the Baradla cave at Aggtelek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezsoe, Z.

    2004-01-01

    By measuring the radon concentration using active technique in all parts of the cave visited in a tour and furthermore by assessing also the time spent at these locations, it is possible to determine the radon level averaged over a tour. The time averaged radon concentration along the route of the cave investigated has been estimated to 970 Bq/m 3 in summer and 410 Bq/m 3 in winter. We concluded that in 62 % of the year cave climate shows warm season and only in 38 % cold season Rn-levels. On this basis the yearly mean radon concentration averaged over the tour comes to 750 Bq/m3. This figure, however, should not be used to estimate exposure because the number of visitors is substantially higher in summer than in winter, so that the tour guides work much more in summer (about 750 tours) than in winter (about 270 tours). Taking this into account, the yearly mean Rn concentration is to 820 Bq/m 3 . Since the dose is delivered by radon progeny and not radon itself, one has to also assess the equilibrium factor representative in the cave. The data available in the literature show that F is always larger than under normal ambient conditions. Published values are between 0.5 - 0.8. As part of this work, several radon progeny concentration measurements have also been made in the Baradla cave at different locations. The results confirm the occurrence of high F-values in caves. Furthermore, the equilibrium factor is increased by the presence of humans (visitors or cavers). In the Virgin Cave, F = 0.5 - 0.6, which increases steadily to about 0.8 due to the activity of man. In this work, F = 0.8 has been used for the dose assessment. Using the ICRP 65 dosimetry model, exposure was calculated to be 4.04 mJhm 3 , which corresponds to an effective dose of 5.8 mSv. (P.A.)

  14. Geochemistry and hydrology of perched groundwater springs: assessing elevated uranium concentrations at Pigeon Spring relative to nearby Pigeon Mine, Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas; Tillman, Fred; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7–18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.

  15. Development of groundwater pesticide exposure modeling scenarios for vulnerable spring and winter wheat-growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Lauren; Winchell, Michael; Peranginangin, Natalia; Grant, Shanique

    2017-11-01

    Wheat crops and the major wheat-growing regions of the United States are not included in the 6 crop- and region-specific scenarios developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for exposure modeling with the Pesticide Root Zone Model conceptualized for groundwater (PRZM-GW). The present work augments the current scenarios by defining appropriately vulnerable PRZM-GW scenarios for high-producing spring and winter wheat-growing regions that are appropriate for use in refined pesticide exposure assessments. Initial screening-level modeling was conducted for all wheat areas across the conterminous United States as defined by multiple years of the Cropland Data Layer land-use data set. Soil, weather, groundwater temperature, evaporation depth, and crop growth and management practices were characterized for each wheat area from publicly and nationally available data sets and converted to input parameters for PRZM. Approximately 150 000 unique combinations of weather, soil, and input parameters were simulated with PRZM for an herbicide applied for postemergence weed control in wheat. The resulting postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in a theoretical shallow aquifer were ranked to identify states with the largest regions of relatively vulnerable wheat areas. For these states, input parameters resulting in near 90 th percentile postbreakthrough average concentrations corresponding to significant wheat areas with shallow depth to groundwater formed the basis for 4 new spring wheat scenarios and 4 new winter wheat scenarios to be used in PRZM-GW simulations. Spring wheat scenarios were identified in North Dakota, Montana, Washington, and Texas. Winter wheat scenarios were identified in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado. Compared to the USEPA's original 6 scenarios, postbreakthrough average herbicide concentrations in the new scenarios were lower than all but Florida Potato and Georgia Coastal Peanuts of the original scenarios and better

  16. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S B; Langroo, R; Peggie, J R [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R G [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J M [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  18. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: A new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moldovan, O.T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 1825-1837 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil invertebrates * Oribatida * Pliocene/Pleistocene * caves * caves (Slovenia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  19. Local adaptation and pronounced genetic differentiation in an extremophile fish, Poecilia mexicana, inhabiting a Mexican cave with toxic hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, M; Hauswaldt, J S; Moll, K; Tobler, M; García De León, F J; Schlupp, I; Tiedemann, R

    2007-03-01

    We investigated genetic differentiation and migration patterns in a small livebearing fish, Poecilia mexicana, inhabiting a sulfidic Mexican limestone cave (Cueva del Azufre). We examined fish from three different cave chambers, the sulfidic surface creek draining the cave (El Azufre) and a nearby surface creek without the toxic hydrogen sulphide (Arroyo Cristal). Using microsatellite analysis of 10 unlinked loci, we found pronounced genetic differentiation among the three major habitats: Arroyo Cristal, El Azufre and the cave. Genetic differentiation was also found within the cave between different pools. An estimation of first-generation migrants suggests that (i) migration is unidirectional, out of the cave, and (ii) migration among different cave chambers occurs to some extent. We investigated if the pattern of genetic differentiation is also reflected in a morphological trait, eye size. Relatively large eyes were found in surface habitats, small eyes in the anterior cave chambers, and the smallest eyes were detected in the innermost cave chamber (XIII). This pattern shows some congruence with a previously proposed morphocline in eye size. However, our data do not support the proposed mechanism for this morphocline, namely that it would be maintained by migration from both directions into the middle cave chambers. This would have led to an increased variance in eye size in the middle cave chambers, which we did not find. Restricted gene flow between the cave and the surface can be explained by local adaptations to extreme environmental conditions, namely H2S and absence of light. Within the cave system, habitat properties are patchy, and genetic differentiation between cave chambers despite migration could indicate local adaptation at an even smaller scale.

  20. Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Cortes A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The large microclimatic stability is a basic characteristic of the subterranean karst systems and causes a high sensitivity to changesin environmental conditions. High-accuracy monitoring of Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain determined the temporal evolution of theaerodynamic processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. This cave is characterizedby a very stable microclimate, with high and relatively constant radon content (the mean value is 32200 Bq/m3, roughly, and thestandard deviation is 7600 Bq/m3 and a moderate and quite stable CO2 concentration (the mean value is 3730 ppm and the standarddeviation is 250 ppm. Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimaticprocesses are described with regard to the gas exchange between the cave and the outside atmosphere. There is a complexmicroclimatic functional relationship between the meteorological and cave microclimate conditions and the diffusion and flow of tracergases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Transient variations of tracer gas on cave airare controlled by natural barometric fluxes and anthropogenic forced ventilation due to uncontrolled opening of cave entrance. Theshort-term fluctuations of gas levels on cave air reveal distinct patterns during the exhalation process of theses gases from the netof fissures and pores to the cave atmosphere, depending on the isolation effect of soil and host rock.

  1. The Unicorn Cave, Southern Harz Mountains, Germany: From known passages to unknown extensions with the help of geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Nielbock, Ralf; Romanov, Douchko

    2015-12-01

    In soluble rocks (limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum, …), fissures and bedding partings can be enlarged with time by both physical and chemical dissolution of the host rock. With time, larger cavities evolve, and a network of cave passages can evolve. If the enlarged cave voids are not too deep under the surface, geophysical measurements can be used to detect, identify and trace these karst structures, e.g.: (i) gravity revealing air- and sediment-filled cave voids through negative Bouguer anomalies, (ii) electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) mapping different infillings of cavities either as high resistivities from air-filled voids or dry soft sediments, or low resistivities from saturated sediments, and (iii) groundwater flow through electrical potential differences (SP) arising from dislocated ionic charges from the walls of the underground flow paths. We have used gravity, ERI, and SP methods both in and above the Unicorn Cave located in the southern Harz Mountains in Germany. The Unicorn Cave is a show cave developed in the Werra dolomite formation of the Permian Zechstein sequence, characterised by large trunk passages interrupted by larger rooms. The overburden of the cave is only around 15 m, and passages are filled with sediments reaching infill thicknesses up to 40 m. We present results from our geophysical surveys above the known cave and its northern and southern extension, and from the cave interior. We identify the cave geometry and its infill from gravity and ERI measurements, predict previously unknown parts of the cave, and subsequently confirm the existence of these new passages through drilling. From the wealth of geophysical data acquired we derive a three-dimensional structural model of the Unicorn Cave and its surrounding, especially the cave infill.

  2. Evolution of cave Axiokebuita and Speleobregma (Scalibregmatidae, Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Worsaae, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Axiokebuita and Speleobregma, two poorly known lineages of annelids exclusive from deep-sea or marine caves but always from crevicular habitats, is explored here. Speleobregma lanzaroteum Bertelsen, 1986, and Axiokebuita cavernicola sp. n. are described from anchialine...... ciliated palps. Our results support two independent cave colonization events, favoured by the preadaptation of the members of Axiokebuita-Speleobregma lineage to crevicular habitats.......The evolutionary history of Axiokebuita and Speleobregma, two poorly known lineages of annelids exclusive from deep-sea or marine caves but always from crevicular habitats, is explored here. Speleobregma lanzaroteum Bertelsen, 1986, and Axiokebuita cavernicola sp. n. are described from anchialine...

  3. Reconstruction of bomb 14C time history recorded in the stalagmite from Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, B.; Genty, D.; Obelic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The karstic caves provide valuable resources for reconstruction of environmental conditions on the continent in the past. This is possible due to the great stability of climatic conditions within a cave. Secondary minerals deposited in caves, known as speleothems, preserve records of long-term climatic and environmental changes at the site of their deposition and in the vicinity. The purity of speleothems and their chemical and physical stability make them exceptionally well suited for detailed geochemical and isotopic analysis

  4. Environmental record in detrital cave sediments in the Botovskaya and Dolganskaya Jama caves (Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisá, Lenka; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Hercman, H.; Oberhansli, H.; Osincev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), A10273-A10273 ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave * sediments * micromorphology * magnetic properties * provenance Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/10273/EGU06-J-10273-2.pdf

  5. Mamalia, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae: Filling hibernacula distribution gaps for cave roosting bats from Iowa (U.S.A..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate roost sites for hibernacula are an important factor in the distribution and abundance of temperate batspecies and knowledge of specific hibernacula is necessary to make sound management decisions. Caves are recognized asone of the most important roosting sites for bats, yet surveys in caves are uncommon in North America. This paper presentsdata on the distribution and abundance of bats hibernating in Iowa (U.S.A. caves and includes new hibernacula records.These are the first published records of bats in Iowa caves in almost 25 years.

  6. Basaltic caves at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve as analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, N. W.; Richardson, C. D.; McHenry, L.; Scott, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Basaltic caves and lava tubes offer stable physicochemical conditions for formation of secondary minerals. Such features, putatively observed on Mars, intercept groundwater to weather country rock, leading to formation of secondary minerals. Further, caves are stable environments to search for evidence of past life, as they could offer protection from the oxidizing martian atmosphere. Searching for signs of life in a cave that could protect bio/organic compounds would preclude the need for risky drilling on Mars. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) offers an opportunity to study caves in Holocene iron-rich basalt flows to characterize secondary mineral deposits and search for organic compounds associated with secondary minerals; COM basalts are a good analog for martian basalts because of their high iron but other elements are higher at COM than on Mars. The Blue Dragon flow (~2.1 ka) contains the majority of the accessible caves and lava tubes. Two types of secondary mineral deposits were observed in these caves: ceiling coatings and crack or floor precipitates. Hematite, silica, and calcite comprise ceiling coatings. The crack and floor precipitates are white, efflorescent deposits in cavities along cave walls and ceilings or in localized mounds on cave floors. The secondary minerals in crack and floor precipitates are mainly thenardite and mirabilite with some minor concentrations of trona and/or burkeite. Organic compounds were found associated with the efflorescent deposits. Formation of the deposits is likely due to chemical leaching of basalt by meteoritic water. To test this, fluids collected from the ceiling and walls of the caves were analyzed. Solutions were modeled with the geochemical code, PHREEQC. The model tracked composition as water evaporated. Selected minerals were allowed to precipitate as they became oversaturated. Among the first minerals to become oversaturated were quartz and calcite, which are observed in ceiling deposits. Iron

  7. Direct measurement of present-day tectonic movement and associated radon flux in Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Vaupotič, J.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 21-34 ISSN 1090-6924 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk MEB091005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fault displacements * radon flux * Postojna Cave Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2010 www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_72.htm

  8. THE STRUCTURE OF SOIL MESOFAUNA AND MACROFAUNA IN GRODA CAVE, GUNUNGKIDUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Prasetyo

    2016-10-01

      The number of soil macrofauna and mesofauna in Groda Cave can be used as an indicator of bats abundance since bat droppings are food for macrofauna and mesofauna soils. The purpose of this study are to determine the community structure of Groda Cave soil macrofauna and mesofauna  and its correlation with the content of N, P, K. The method used is the observation, taking of macrofauna and mesofauna soils using pit fall traps and tool green technique. Testing the N, P, K of the soil was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP Yogyakarta. The analysis technique used Shannon diversity index-Wienner, Margaleff wealth index, frequency of attendance of  macrofauna and mesofauna soils and its correlation with N, P, K of the land in Groda Cave. The results obtained are that six families mesofauna and 20 families macrofauna soils with moderate diversity index, the highest wealth index was in the Margaleff lit zone, the frequency of the highest attendance in the light zone is Formicidae (0.12, ie dim zones Isotomidae and Diptera (a brown (0.04 and the dark zone is Gryllacididae (0.05. The correlation showed the more the content of N, P, K, the fewer mesofauna and macrofauna soils were found. The uniqueness found in this study is the discovery of one species of Isotomidae in Groda Cave, which has been considered spreading only in Sulawesi, Sumatera, Bali, Lombok, Ternate and Papua.   Keywords: community structure, mesofauna soil, macrofauna soil, Groda Cave

  9. Radon Concentration in Caves of Croatia - Assesing Effective Radon Doses for Occupational Workers and Visitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Stanic, D.; Vukovic, B.; Paar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Radon monitoring at potentially highly radioactive location such as caves is important to assess the radiological hazards to occupational workers and occasional visitors. In its Publication 65 the ICRP has produced recommendations dealing with exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. Recommended annual effective dose from radon 222Rn and its short-lived progeny for workers should not exceed 20 mSv and for occasional users (visitors) the same recommendation is 1 mSv. Measurements were performed with series of track etched detectors (LR115 - type II) in several caves in Croatia. The obtained values for the radon concentration ranged from ambient values up to several thousand Bq m -3 . Radon concentration was measured in about 20 caves of Velebit and Zumberak mountains and the highest radon concentration was in Lubuska jama (3.8 kBq m -3 ) and cave Dolaca (21.8 kBq m -3 ), respectively. Djurovica cave is especially interesting because of its huge tourist potential due to its location bellow Dubrovnik airport. Its mean annual radon concentration of 17.6 kBq m -3 classifies Djurovica cave among caves with high radon concentration. A visitor during half an hour visit at summer time would receive an effective dose of 30.6 μSv. Calculated mean dose rate of 44 μSv/h means that workers (mainly tourist guides) should limit their time inside cave to 454 hours per year. Manita pec is the only cave open for tourists on the territory of Paklenica National Park. The preliminary radon measurements performed during summer 2010, gave an average radon concentration of 1.1 kBq m -3 . An exposure to average dose rate of 3.7 μSv/h means that the tourist guides would receive an effective dose of 0.42 mSv during summer period according to their working schedule. A visitor during half an hour visits would receive an effective dose of 1.86 μSv. (author)

  10. Hourly Activity and Natural Infection of Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Captured from the Aphotic Zone of a Cave, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Saraiva, Lara; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; de Almeida Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo; e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra; de Castilho Sanguinette, Cristiani; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Sandflies are holometabolous insects that are of great epidemiological importance in the neotropical region as vectors of leishmaniases. Caves are ecotopes that significantly differ from external environments and, among the insects that live or visit their internal area and adjacent environment, sandflies are commonly found. Based on this context, the objective of this work was to examine the period of activity of sandflies in the cave environment in the aphotic zone. Thus, four sandfly captures were conducted, one in each season of the year, in a cave where studies on the bioecological aspects of sandfly fauna have been conducted since 2008. In this same study, we have also noticed the presence of flagellates in some captured females. Catches were carried out for 24 hours using a Shannon trap, light bait, and cave walls were actively searched. We collected a total of 638 sandflies, representing 11 species. The most abundant species and with more intense period of activity were, in descending order: Lu. cavernicola (62%), Ev. spelunca (16%) and Ev. sallesi (14%). A total of 69 females were dissected to check for natural infection, and in five specimens we found living flagellated forms: two Ev. spelunca, two Ev. sallesi and one Sc. sordellii. This study shows that the activity of some species caught in the aphotic zone of the cave, especially Lu. cavernicola, differs from what has already been reported in previous sandfly captures, which are almost always conducted at night and during twilight. The existence of sandflies that were naturally infected with flagellates and the lack of awareness regarding the behaviour of sandflies in cave environments are strong indicators of the need for further study on this group of insects in this ecotope, as a safety measure to protect the visitors of such environment. PMID:23284957

  11. Geophysical and geological investigations of the Boda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waenstedt, S. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-04-15

    The studies conducted in the Boda area exhibit the presence of a severely fractured rock mass with occasional caves. The Boda area appears to be intersected by a few significant zones, obvious from a study of the topography but do appear in some of the geophysical investigations as well. The structures in the area have quite efficiently isolated the rock plint where the caves are located. It is not possible from these investigations, however, to draw far-reaching conclusions about the age and genesis of the zones or about their continuation towards depth. The geological investigation shows, apart from the caves, no unusual features. The rock types in the investigated area correspond with rock types found elsewhere in the region. The area is highly unsuitable for geophysical surface investigations. Part of the area consists of scattered and quite large blocks that constitute obstacles when making measurements in the area. Since there is little or no soil between the blocks some measurements (e.g. resistivity) are not possible to carry out. Furthermore, the scattered blocks cause unwanted reflections and other difficulties that deteriorate the quality of the geophysical data. The radar measurements with two different frequencies show an interesting result of importance not only to this investigation. The lower frequency appears to penetrate through the rocky overburden and is able to detect the soil-rock interface. The higher frequency is severely disturbed by the overburden but caves show much more clearly in this data. The fractured rock around Boda appears to be a shallow feature, since the radar measurements show a quite significant feature throughout most of the profiles, which appears to be the upper boundary of the bedrock. There are, however, some occasional strong reflectors below the interface between fractured and competent rock.

  12. Geophysical and geological investigations of the Boda area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waenstedt, S.

    2000-04-01

    The studies conducted in the Boda area exhibit the presence of a severely fractured rock mass with occasional caves. The Boda area appears to be intersected by a few significant zones, obvious from a study of the topography but do appear in some of the geophysical investigations as well. The structures in the area have quite efficiently isolated the rock plint where the caves are located. It is not possible from these investigations, however, to draw far-reaching conclusions about the age and genesis of the zones or about their continuation towards depth. The geological investigation shows, apart from the caves, no unusual features. The rock types in the investigated area correspond with rock types found elsewhere in the region. The area is highly unsuitable for geophysical surface investigations. Part of the area consists of scattered and quite large blocks that constitute obstacles when making measurements in the area. Since there is little or no soil between the blocks some measurements (e.g. resistivity) are not possible to carry out. Furthermore, the scattered blocks cause unwanted reflections and other difficulties that deteriorate the quality of the geophysical data. The radar measurements with two different frequencies show an interesting result of importance not only to this investigation. The lower frequency appears to penetrate through the rocky overburden and is able to detect the soil-rock interface. The higher frequency is severely disturbed by the overburden but caves show much more clearly in this data. The fractured rock around Boda appears to be a shallow feature, since the radar measurements show a quite significant feature throughout most of the profiles, which appears to be the upper boundary of the bedrock. There are, however, some occasional strong reflectors below the interface between fractured and competent rock

  13. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-05-01

    Upper Pleistocene remains of the Ice Age steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) have been found in the Perick Caves, Sauerland Karst, NW Germany. Bones from many hyenas and their imported prey dating from the Lower to Middle Weichselian have also been recovered from the Perick Cave hyena den. These are commonly cracked or exhibit deep chew marks. The absence of lion cub bones, in contrast to hyena and cave bear cub remains in the Perick Caves, and other caves of northern Germany, excludes the possibility that P. leo spelaea used the cave for raising cubs. Only in the Wilhelms Cave was a single skeleton of a cub found in a hyena den. Evidence of the chewing, nibbling and cracking of lion bones and crania must have resulted from the importation and destruction of lion carcasses (4% of the prey fauna). Similar evidence was preserved at other hyena den caves and open air sites in Germany. The bone material from the Perick and other Central European caves points to antagonistic hyena and lion conflicts, similar to clashes of their modern African relatives.

  14. Using the CAVE virtual-reality environment as an aid to 3-D electromagnetic field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Levine, D.; Huang, M.; Papka, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major problems in three-dimensional (3-D) field computation is visualizing the resulting 3-D field distributions. A virtual-reality environment, such as the CAVE, (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) is helping to overcome this problem, thus making the results of computation more usable for designers and users of magnets and other electromagnetic devices. As a demonstration of the capabilities of the CAVE, the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW), an insertion device being designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) now being commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), wa made visible, along with its fields and beam orbits. Other uses of the CAVE in preprocessing and postprocessing computation for electromagnetic applications are also discussed

  15. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  16. Blow Hole Cave: An unroofed cave on San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, and its importance for detection of paleokarst caves on fossil carbonate platforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Mylroie, J. E.; Hladil, Jindřich; Carew, J. L.; Slavík, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2002), s. 51-74 ISSN 0583-6050. [Karstological School - Classical Karst: Types of Karst /10./. Pstojna, 26.06.2002-28.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013809; GA AV ČR IAA3013209 Keywords : carbonate platforms * unroofed caves * gamma-ray spectrometry and wellogging Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://carsologica.zrc-sazu.si/downloads/313/slavik.pdf

  17. Epidemiological potentials of radon- and thoron-prone area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Quanfu; Hou, Changsong; Tokonami, Shinji

    2004-01-01

    In order to explore the feasibility of an epidemiological study on lung cancer in areas with elevated indoor radon and thoron exposures, 202 residences including loess caves, brick caves, stone caves, and ordinary houses in twenty villages were selected from Yan'an and Luliang areas in the Chinese loess plateau, and indoor levels of thoron and its progeny as well as radon were determined with passive radon-thoron discriminative detectors and thoron progeny deposition rate devices. The indoor radon concentration in loess cave ranged from 17 to 179 Bq m -3 , with geometric means of 73 Bq m -3 and 71 Bq m -3 in Luliang and Yan'an, respectively. Geometric mean of EEC Tn was estimated to be 1.6 Bq m -3 in Luliang and 2.2 Bq m -3 in Yan'an. The study also revealed that the air pollution in Yan'an was small compared with that in Luliang. Residential migration was very low in Yan'an area: 86% of the subjects had no migration, mean number of houses for the family master was estimated to be 1, ranged from 1 to 3. It would be expected to have several hundreds of lung cancer cases diagnosed with pathological evidences in 3-5 years. Yan'an and surrounding area are suitable for conducting an epidemiological study on residential exposure to radon, thoron and lung cancer risk. (author)

  18. Exploring the secrets of the three-dimensional architecture of phototrophic biofilms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldàn Monica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Caves with dim natural light, and lighted hypogean environments, have been found to host phototrophic microorganisms from varioustaxonomic groups. These microorganisms group themselves into assemblies known as communities or biofilms, which are associated withrock surfaces. In this work, the phototrophic biofilms that colonise speleothems, walls and floors in three tourist caves (Spain were studied.Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to study these organisms and acquirethree-dimensional data on their biofilm structure. CLSM was used in a multi-channel mode whereby the different channels map individualbiofilm components. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, diatoms, mosses and lichens were found to be grouped as biofilms that differedaccording to the sampling sites. The biofilms were classified into six types regarding their environmental conditions. These types weredefined by their constituent organisms, the thickness of their photosynthetic layers and their structure. Light-related stress is associated with lower biofilm thickness and species diversity, as is low humidity, and, in the case of artificially illuminated areas, the duration of lightexposure.

  19. Baseline risk assessment for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 microg/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  20. Environmentally acceptable effect of hydrogen peroxide on cave 'lamp-flora', calcite speleothems and limestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faimon, Jiri; Stelcl, Jindrich; Kubesova, Svatava; Zimak, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide plus limestone fragments allows removal of organisms without corrosion of limestone and speleothem. - Mosses, algae, and cyanobacteria (lamp-flora) colonize illuminated areas in show caves. This biota is commonly removed by a sodium hypochlorite solution. Because chlorine and other deleterious compounds are released into a cave environment during lamp-flora cleansing, hydrogen peroxide was tested as an alternative agent. In a multidisciplinary study conducted in the Katerinska Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), 12 algae- and cyanobacteria taxons and 19 moss taxons were detected. The threshold hydrogen peroxide concentration for the destruction of this lamp-flora was found to be 15 vol.%. Based on laboratory experiments in stirred batch reactors, the dissolution rates of limestones and calcite speleothems in water were determined as 3.77x10 -3 and 1.81x10 -3 mol m -2 h -1 , respectively. In the 15% peroxide solution, the limestone and speleothem dissolution rates were one order of magnitude higher, 2.00x10 -2 and 2.21x10 -2 mol m -2 h -1 , respectively. So, the peroxide solution was recognised to attack carbonates somewhat more aggressively than karst water. In order to prevent the potential corrosion of limestone and speleothems, the reaching of preliminary peroxide saturation with respect to calcite is recommended, for example, by adding of few limestone fragments into the solution at least 10 h prior to its application

  1. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400-200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-08-11

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator-prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the highest quality parts of large prey was delayed until the food could be moved to the cave and processed with the aid of blade cutting tools and fire. Delayed consumption of high-quality body parts implies that the meat was shared with other members of the group. The types of cut marks on upper limb bones indicate simple flesh removal activities only. The Qesem cut marks are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant, suggesting that more (skilled and unskilled) individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones at Qesem Cave. Among recent humans, butchering of large animals normally involves a chain of focused tasks performed by one or just a few persons, and butchering guides many of the formalities of meat distribution and sharing that follow. The results from Qesem Cave raise new hypotheses about possible differences in the mechanics of meat sharing between the late Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic.

  2. Repeated and time-correlated morphological convergence in cave-dwelling harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores from Montane Western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Derkarabetian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many cave-dwelling animal species display similar morphologies (troglomorphism that have evolved convergent within and among lineages under the similar selective pressures imposed by cave habitats. Here we study such ecomorphological evolution in cave-dwelling Sclerobuninae harvestmen (Opiliones from the western United States, providing general insights into morphological homoplasy, rates of morphological change, and the temporal context of cave evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We gathered DNA sequence data from three independent gene regions, and combined these data with Bayesian hypothesis testing, morphometrics analysis, study of penis morphology, and relaxed molecular clock analyses. Using multivariate morphometric analysis, we find that phylogenetically unrelated taxa have convergently evolved troglomorphism; alternative phylogenetic hypotheses involving less morphological convergence are not supported by Bayesian hypothesis testing. In one instance, this morphology is found in specimens from a high-elevation stony debris habitat, suggesting that troglomorphism can evolve in non-cave habitats. We discovered a strong positive relationship between troglomorphy index and relative divergence time, making it possible to predict taxon age from morphology. Most of our time estimates for the origin of highly-troglomorphic cave forms predate the Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While several regions in the eastern and central United States are well-known hotspots for cave evolution, few modern phylogenetic studies have addressed the evolution of cave-obligate species in the western United States. Our integrative studies reveal the recurrent evolution of troglomorphism in a perhaps unexpected geographic region, at surprisingly deep time depths, and in sometimes surprising habitats. Because some newly discovered troglomorphic populations represent undescribed species, our findings stress the need for further biological

  3. Indoor radon concentration levels in Mexican caves, using nuclear track methodology, and the relationship with living habits of the bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Vega-Orihuela, E.; Morales-Malacara, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the radon levels in four caves in Mexico: Los Riscos Cave and El Judio Cave in the State of Queretaro, and Coyozochico Cave and Karmidas Cave in the State of Puebla. The measurements were made using the passive closed-end cup system, with CR-39 (Lantrack R ) as detection material, and following protocols established for the measurement of indoor radon, developed at the Dosimetry Applications Project of the Physics Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The radon concentration at one location with Karmidas Cave reached more than 60,000 Bq/m 3 , while concentrations in the other three caves varied from 83.1-1216.0 Bq/m 3 , was found. During the study was observed an interesting coincidence between the radon concentration distribution inside the caves, and the bat colonies location. In general, the bat colonies are located at the medium or low radon concentration levels zones. (author)

  4. 3D numerical modeling of longwall mining with top-coal caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasitli, N.E.; Unver, B. [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2005-02-01

    Top-coal caving is the key factor affecting the efficiency of production at thick-coal seams. During production of top coal by caving behind the face not only a significant amount of coal is lost in the goaf but the coal drawn by means of caving is diluted considerably with surrounding rock. Therefore, it is not possible to carry out an efficient production operation unless caving of top coal behind the face is optimized. In this paper, results of 3D modeling of the top-coal-caving mechanism by using the finite difference code FLAC3{sup D} at the M3 longwall panel of the Omerler Underground Mine located at Tuncbilek (Turkey) are presented. According to the modeling results, maximum vertical abutment stresses were formed at a distance of 7m in front of the face. An analysis of the conditions of top coal has revealed that a 1.5 m thick layer of coal just above the shield supports is well fractured. However, a 3.5 m thick layer of coal above the fractured part is either not fractured or is fractured in the form of large blocks leading to obstruction of windows of shields during coal drawing. It is concluded that, in order to decrease dilution and increase extraction ratio and efficiency of operation, top coal should be as uniformly fractured as possible. Hence, an efficient and continuous coal flowing behind the face can be maintained. A special pre-fracture blasting strategy just sufficient enough to form cracks in the top coal is suggested by means of comparing with the results of numerical modeling.

  5. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Gammage, R.B.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M.

    2008-01-01

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm -3 , an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves

  6. Seasonal variation measurements of radon levels in caves using SSNTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gammage, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Viccon-Pale, J.; Signoret-Poillon, M. [El Hombre y su Ambiente, UAM-Xochimilco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-15

    The results of radon concentration measurements inside of the Gabriel caves of Mexico, during three consecutive two-month periods covering almost three seasons, are reported in the present work. The radio-ecological importance of this site is related to the radon and its concentration-dynamic behavior in the cave. Further interest in radiation safety motivated this initiative since routine biological field work is done, with people spending long periods of time there. CR-39 passive nuclear track detector was chosen for this survey. Radon concentration levels decrease during the rainy season and show different values depending on the ventilation and geometeorological structure. Measured values range between 956 and 4931Bqm{sup -3}, an indication that radon doses may exceed the allowed values for workers. This project is part of a larger study of indoor radon alpha emitters in Mexican caves.

  7. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  8. Evaluating visual discomfort in stereoscopic projection-based CAVE system with a close viewing distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weitao; Weng, Dongdong; Feng, Dan; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-05-01

    As one of popular immersive Virtual Reality (VR) systems, stereoscopic cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) system is typically consisted of 4 to 6 3m-by-3m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens. While many endeavors have been made to reduce the size of the projection-based CAVE system, the issue of asthenopia caused by lengthy exposure to stereoscopic images in such CAVE with a close viewing distance was seldom tangled. In this paper, we propose a light-weighted approach which utilizes a convex eyepiece to reduce visual discomfort induced by stereoscopic vision. An empirical experiment was conducted to examine the feasibility of convex eyepiece in a large depth of field (DOF) at close viewing distance both objectively and subjectively. The result shows the positive effects of convex eyepiece on the relief of eyestrain.

  9. Hydrothermal phenomena in Risovaca cave and within Vencac massif Shumadies, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzak-Tomić Janina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Risovaca cave are found, for the karst, atypical alteration in the limestones structure. Also, morphogenesis of the object can not be logically interpret. Those differences are result of hydrothermal process in initial phase of karstic cycle. And then activity of hot water and hot emanations brought up to the metasomatism and destruction of rock, enormous excrete of ornaments and later, ceiling collapse and fill up of cave room.

  10. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  11. Late quaternary brown bear (Ursidae: Ursus cf. arctos) from a cave in the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Czaplewski; Steve Willsey

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, Steve Willsey discovered the fragmentary cranium of a bear loose on the floor of a cave at about 2270 m elevation near the crest of the Huachuca Mountains. In 2009, we revisited the cave to examine the specimen with the intention of identifying the species. We photographed and measured the main pieces and left them in the cave. The skull is from an adult,...

  12. Temperature reconstruction from dripwater hydrochemistry, speleothem fabric and speleothem δ13C: towards an integrated approach in temperate climate caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Andrea; Frisia, Silvia; Johnston, Vanessa; Spötl, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Accurate reconstruction of past climate records from speleothem minerals requires a thorough understanding of both environmental and hydrologic conditions underpinning their formation. These conditions likely influenced how speleothems incorporate chemical signals that are used as climate proxies. Thus, a thorough investigation of environmental and hydrologic parameters is a pre-requisite to gain robust palaeoclimate reconstructions from stalagmites. Here, we present a systematic study of soil, dripwater and speleothems in temperate climate caves at different altitudes, which allowed the assessment of how mean annual air temperature in the infiltration area (MATinf) influences vegetation cover, soil pCO2 and, eventually, pCO2 of karst water and cave air. Our study demonstrates that for caves developed in pure carbonate rocks, the soil and aquifer pCO2 are directly related to the MATinf (Borsato et al., 2015). It is well known that soil and aquifer pCO2 control carbonate dissolution and the carbonate-carbonic acid system. By establishing a relationship between dripwater pCO2 and MATinf, we show that dripwater Ca content and calcite saturation state SIcc) are correlated with MATinf when unaffected by Prior Calcite Precipitation. In particular, dripwater saturation (SIcc = 0) is reached at a MATinf of 4.4°C in our study area. This MATinf delineates a ''speleothem limit", above which speleothems composed of sparitic calcite should not form (Borsato et al., 2016). In fact, sparitic calcite speleothems do not form, today, in caves with a MATinf well as calcite δ13C in speleothems that were not significantly influenced by kinetic fractionation. A linear correlation between calcite δ13C and MATinf was obtained for modern sparitic speleothems that formed at isotopic equilibrium (Johnston et al., 2013). The combination of these two approaches (present-day dripwater SIcc and calcite δ13C in sparitic speleothems) can be used to reconstruct the past MATinf for high

  13. Bat ticks revisited: Ixodes ariadnae sp. nov. and allopatric genotypes of I. vespertilionis in caves of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Kontschán, Jenő; Kováts, Dávid; Kovács, Richárd; Angyal, Dorottya; Görföl, Tamás; Polacsek, Zsolt; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2014-04-27

    In Europe two ixodid bat tick species, Ixodes vespertilionis and I. simplex were hitherto known to occur. Bat ticks were collected from cave walls and bats in Hungary. Their morphology and genotypes were compared with microscopy and conventional PCR (followed by sequencing), respectively. A year-round activity of I. vespertilionis was observed. Molecular analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of twenty ticks from different caves showed that the occurrence of the most common genotype was associated with the caves close to each other. A few specimens of a morphologically different tick variant were also found and their COI analysis revealed only 86-88% sequence homology with I. simplex and I. vespertilionis, respectively. The microenvironment of caves (well separated from each other) appears to support the existence of allopatric I. vespertilionis COI genotypes, most likely related to the distance between caves and to bat migration over-bridging certain caves. The name I. ariadnae sp. nov. is given to the new tick species described here for the first time.

  14. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors)

  15. Hydrogeology and water chemistry of Infranz catchment springs, Bahir Dar Area, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    The major springs in the Infranz catchment are a significant source of water for Bahir city and nearby villages, while they help to sustain Infranz River and the downstream wetlands. The aim of the research was to understand the hydrogeological conditions of these high-discharge springs, and to explain the hydrochemical composition of spring waters. Water samples from rainwater and springs were collected and analyzed and compared for major cations and anions. The hydrochemical data analysis showed that all water samples of the springs have freshwater chemistry, Ca-HCO3 type, while deep groundwater shows more evolved types. This indicates limited water-rock interaction and short residence time for the spring waters. The rise of NO3- and PO43- may indicate future water quality degradation unless the anthropogenic activities upgradient and nearby are restricted. The uptake of 75% of spring water for water supply of Bahir Dar results in wetland degradation. Key words: Spring water, Infranz River, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, hydrochemistry

  16. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vieira de Araujo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  17. Seasonally-resolved trace element concentrations in stalagmites from a shallow cave in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, N.; Banner, J.; Miller, N. R.; Carlson, P. E.; Breecker, D.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution (sub-annual/seasonal) paleoclimate records extending beyond the instrumental period are required to test climate models and better understand how climate warming/cooling and wetting/drying are manifested seasonally. This is particularly the case for areas such as the southwest United States where precipitation and temperature seasonality dictate the regional climate. Study of a 20thcentury stalagmite (Carlson et al., in prep) documented (1) seasonal variation in trace element compositions of a stalagmite from a shallow, well-ventilated cave and (2) demonstrated the seasonal variation in stalagmite Mg to be in agreement with predicted temperature-dependent fractionation between water and calcite. The seasonal nature of variability was constrained by monitoring the cave on a monthly basis (Casteel and Banner, 2015; Carlson et al., in prep). Here we expand on using stalagmites from shallow, well-ventilated caves as archives of seasonally-resolved climate recorders by studying trace element variations in two coeval modern stalagmites (SBFC-1 and SBFC-2) cored from Sitting Bull Falls, southern New Mexico. Seasonal cycles will be confirmed by analyzing Mg, Ba, and Sr in in-situ calcite precipitated on artificial substrates as available (July, Sept., and Nov. 2017). The chronology is constrained by semi-automated peak counting and 14C bomb-peak. In addition, principal component analyses of trace element data identify two primary underlying modes of trace element variability for soil-derived elements (Cu, Zn, and Fe) and bedrock-derived elements (Mg, Sr, and Ba). We hypothesize that the soil-derived elements are transported by seasonal infiltration of organic colloids and the bedrock-derived elements are ­­controlled by variability in cave air temperature, drip water, and calcite growth rate. The two modes of variability will be calibrated against instrumental data over the 20th century. When complete, these new seasonally resolved proxy records will

  18. Mimogonellus dreybrodti sp. n., a new cave-inhabiting Osoriinae from Laos (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Steiner, Helmut

    2017-10-17

    A new osoriine species, Mimogonellus dreybrodti Yin & Steiner, sp. n., collected from a cave in Houaphanh Province, Laos, is described and illustrated. This represents the third Mimogonellus species in Asia, and the first in the genus known to inhabit a cave environment.

  19. 222 Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The 222 Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m -3 to 6607 Bq.m -3 and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a -1 for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a -1 for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a -1 . All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a -1 suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  20. Food sources of selected terrestrial cave arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Nováková, Alena; Režňáková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-46 ISSN 1768-1448 Grant - others:Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * caves * Collembola * Diplopoda * feeding habits * Isopoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. Late Quaternary speleogenesis and landscape evolution in a tropical carbonate island: Pango la Kuumbi (Kuumbi Cave, Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kourampas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuumbi Cave is one of a group of caves that underlie a flight of marine terraces in Pleistocene limestone in eastern Zanzibar (Indian Ocean. Drawing on the findings of geoarchaeological field survey and archaeological excavation, we discuss the formation and evolution of Kuumbi Cave and its wider littoral landscape. In the later part of the Quaternary (last ca. 250,000 years?, speleogenesis and terrace formation were driven by the interplay between glacioeustatic sea level change and crustal uplift at rates of ca. 0.10-0.20 mm/yr. Two units of backreef/reef limestone were deposited during ‘optimal’ (highest highstands, tentatively correlated with MIS 7 and 5; (mainly erosive marine terraces formed in these limestones in ‘suboptimal’ highstands. Kuumbi and other sub-terrace caves developed as flank margin caves, in the seaward portion of freshwater lenses during such ‘suboptimal’ highstands. Glacioeustacy-induced fluctuations of the groundwater table may have resulted in shifts from vadose (with deposition of well-developed speleothems to phreatic/epiphreatic conditions in these caves. At Kuumbi, Late Pleistocene (pre-20,000 cal. BP ceiling collapse initiated colluvial deposition near-entrance and opened the cave to large plants and animals, including humans. A phase of terminal Pleistocene human occupation ca. 18,500-17,000 cal. BP resulted in the deposition of a dense assemblage of Achatina spp. landsnails, alongside marine molluscs and mammal remains (including zebra, buffalo and other taxa now extinct on Zanzibar. The Holocene part of the cave stratigraphy near-entrance records phases of abandonment and intensified late Holocene human use.

  2. Solar-forced diurnal regulation of cave drip rates via phreatophyte evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Coleborn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a detailed study of drip rate variations at 12 drip discharge sites in Glory Hole Cave, New South Wales, Australia. Our novel time series analysis, using the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, reveals pronounced oscillations at daily and sub-daily frequencies occurring in 8 out of the 12 monitored sites. These oscillations were not spatially or temporally homogenous, with different drip sites exhibiting such behaviour at different times of year in different parts of the cave. We test several hypotheses for the cause of the oscillations, including variations in pressure gradients between karst and cave due to cave breathing effects or atmospheric and earth tides, variations in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in viscosity of water with daily temperature oscillations, and solar-driven daily cycles of vegetative (phreatophytic transpiration. We conclude that the only hypothesis consistent with the data and hydrologic theory is that daily oscillations are caused by solar-driven pumping by phreatophytic trees which are abundant at the site. The daily oscillations are not continuous and occur sporadically in short bursts (2–14 days throughout the year due to non-linear modification of the solar signal via complex karst architecture. This is the first indirect observation leading to the hypothesis of tree water use in cave drip water. It has important implications for karst hydrology in regards to developing a new protocol to determine the relative importance of trends in drip rate, such as diurnal oscillations, and how these trends change over timescales of weeks to years. This information can also be used to infer karst architecture. This study demonstrates the importance of vegetation on recharge dynamics, information that will inform both process-based karst models and empirical estimation approaches. Our findings support a growing body of research exploring the impact of trees on speleothem paleoclimate proxies.

  3. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  4. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure

  5. Microbial communities in a coastal cave: Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Busquets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a part of an ongoing project on the role of microbes in the biogeochemistry of Majorcan caves, the species diversity of microbial communities present in cave pools of anchialine waters in the Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, western Mediterranean is investigated by a culture-dependent method. Two-hundred and forty-eight strains isolated from this characteristic cave environment of the littoral karst are identified by whole-cell-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and phylogeneticaly by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Total cell counts and species diversity of the bacterial communities decreas with the distance to the entrance of the cave and to the sea. Strains are mainly identified as members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Around 20% of the isolates are able to precipitate carbonates. Calcite is the predominant phase, growing in all the precipitates, although struvite is also found in one Pseudomonas and in one Aspergillus cultures. Differences in crystal characteristics of external shape (habit and growth are observed according to the bacterial species promoting the precipitates. Bacteria associated with multicolored ferromanganese deposits, present in several parts of the cave, are also studied and are identified as Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Nocardioides luteus. The preponderance of Pseudomonas species and the possible contribution of bacteria in calcite deposition are discussed.

  6. Spring-recharging in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anil P.

    2009-01-01

    in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

  7. Characterization of the hydrogeology of the sacred Gihon Spring, Jerusalem: a deteriorating urban karst spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Ronit Benami; Grodek, Tamir; Frumkin, Amos

    2010-09-01

    The Gihon Spring, Jerusalem, is important for the major monotheistic religions. Its hydrogeology and hydrochemistry is studied here in order to understand urbanization effects on karst groundwater resources, and promote better water management. High-resolution monitoring of the spring discharge, temperature and electrical conductivity, was performed, together with chemical and bacterial analysis. All these demonstrate a rapid response of the spring to rainfall events and human impact. A complex karst system is inferred, including conduit flow, fissure flow and diffuse flow. Electrical conductivity, Na+ and K+ values (2.0 mS/cm, 130 and 50 mg/l respectively) are very high compared to other nearby springs located at the town margins (0.6 mS/cm, 15 and <1 mg/l respectively), indicating considerable urban pollution in the Gihon area. The previously cited pulsating nature of the spring was not detected during the present high-resolution monitoring. This phenomenon may have ceased due to additional water sources from urban leakage and irrigation feeding the spring. The urbanization of the recharge catchment thus affects the spring water dramatically, both chemically and hydrologically. Appropriate measures should therefore be undertaken to protect the Gihon Spring and other karst aquifers threatened by rapid urbanization.

  8. Behavioral response of cave and surface Asellus aquaticus to water current

    OpenAIRE

    Dacar, Maja

    2017-01-01

    There are many questions regarding what influences the emergence of new species. Firstly and above all, is the appearance of differences within a certain specie, where a certain part is isolated from the group and continues its own evolution. One of these differences appear between the surface- and cave-dwelling Asellus aquaticus, as the ability to hold on to their surface. The discovery of these differences was carried out using a method of experiment, namely on the cave-dwelling Asellus ...

  9. Asymmetric Meckel Cave Enlargement: A Potential Marker of PHACES Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J N; Wycoco, V

    2017-06-01

    PHACES syndrome is a complex of morphologic abnormalities of unknown cause and includes posterior fossa abnormalities; head and neck infantile hemangiomas; arterial, cardiac, and eye anomalies; and sternal or abdominal wall defects. Accurate identification of the syndrome is important for optimal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement, a potential novel imaging marker, in a population of patients referred for evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome. Eighty-five patients referred for neuroimaging evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome were identified and stratified on the basis of their ultimate clinical PHACES diagnosis categorization into PHACES, possible PHACES, or not PHACES. MR imaging studies were subsequently reviewed for the presence or absence of unilateral Meckel cave enlargement, with the reviewer blinded to the ultimate PHACES syndrome categorization. Twenty-five of 85 patients (29%) were ultimately categorized as having PHACES or possible PHACES according to consensus guidelines. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was present in 76% (19/25) of these patients and in 82% (19/23) of only those patients with definite PHACES. This finding was present in none of the 60 patients determined not to have PHACES syndrome. In 7/19 patients (37%) with this finding, subtle MR imaging abnormalities consistent with PHACES were missed on the initial MR imaging interpretation. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was a common feature of patients with PHACES in our cohort and may serve as a novel imaging marker. Increased awareness of this imaging feature has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of PHACES. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Direct radiocarbon dates for prehistoric paintings at the Altamira, El Castillo and Niaux caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladas, H.; Cachier, H.; Maurice, P.; Arnold, M.; Quiros, F.B. de; Valdes, V.C.; Uzquiano, P.

    1992-01-01

    Among things that most strikingly distinguish modern humans from other hominids and the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to represent things and events pictorially. Complex paintings of the type discovered in the Altamira, El Castillo, Niaux and Lascaux caves represent an important stepping stone in the cultural evolution of humankind. Until now dates were derived from style or dated remains left by prehistoric visitors and could be biased by prolonged occupation or visits unrelated to painting activity. Here we report the first radiocarbon dates for the charcoal used to draw stylistically similar bisons in these caves: 14,000 ± 400 yr BP in the Spanish caves of Altamira, 12,990 ± 200 yr BP in El Castillo, and 12,890 ± 160 yr BP for a bison of different style in the French Pyrenean cave of Niaux. Our results demonstrate the imprecise nature of stylistic dating and show that painting dates derived from remains of human activities should be used with caution. (Author)

  11. An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.

    1987-02-01

    Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  13. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  14. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  15. Three new cave-dwelling trechine ground beetles from eastern and southeastern Serbia (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new troglobitic trechine ground beetle species are described from three caves in eastern and southeastern Serbia: Duvalius (Paraduvalius bogovinae sp. n., from the Bogovinska Pećina Cave, village of Bogovina, Kučajske Planine Mts., near Boljevac, eastern Serbia; D. (P. milutini sp. n., from the Samar cave system, village of Kopajkošara, Mt. Kalafat, near Svrljig, southeastern Serbia, and D. (P. beljanicae sp. n., from the Velika Atula Cave, village of Strmosten, Mt. Beljanica, near Despotovac, eastern Serbia. The new species are easily distinguished from relatives. All important morphological features, along with the diagnoses and illustrations of the new taxa are presented. The new species are relicts and endemics of eastern and southeastern Serbia. They probably belong to old phyletic lineages of Tertiary or even pre-Tertiary origin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038

  16. Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700-11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Dani; Danin, Avinoam; Power, Robert C; Rosen, Arlene M; Bocquentin, Fanny; Tsatskin, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danny; Yeshurun, Reuven; Weissbrod, Lior; Rebollo, Noemi R; Barzilai, Omry; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-07-16

    Flowering plants possess mechanisms that stimulate positive emotional and social responses in humans. It is difficult to establish when people started to use flowers in public and ceremonial events because of the scarcity of relevant evidence in the archaeological record. We report on uniquely preserved 13,700-11,700-y-old grave linings made of flowers, suggesting that such use began much earlier than previously thought. The only potentially older instance is the questionable use of flowers in the Shanidar IV Neanderthal grave. The earliest cemeteries (ca. 15,000-11,500 y ago) in the Levant are known from Natufian sites in northern Israel, where dozens of burials reflect a wide range of inhumation practices. The newly discovered flower linings were found in four Natufian graves at the burial site of Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Large identified plant impressions in the graves include stems of sage and other Lamiaceae (Labiatae; mint family) or Scrophulariaceae (figwort family) species; accompanied by a plethora of phytoliths, they provide the earliest direct evidence now known for such preparation and decoration of graves. Some of the plant species attest to spring burials with a strong emphasis on colorful and aromatic flowers. Cave floor chiseling to accommodate the desired grave location and depth is also evident at the site. Thus, grave preparation was a sophisticated planned process, embedded with social and spiritual meanings reflecting a complex preagricultural society undergoing profound changes at the end of the Pleistocene.

  17. Measurements of 427 Double Stars With Speckle Interferometry: The Winter/Spring 2017 Observing Program at Brilliant Sky Observatory, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2018-04-01

    In the winter and spring of 2017, an aggressive observing program of measuring close double stars with speckle interferometry and CCD imaging was undertaken at Brilliant Sky Observatory, my observing site in Cave Creek, Arizona. A total of 596 stars were observed, 8 of which were rejected for various reasons, leaving 588 pairs. Of these, 427 were observed and measured with speckle interferometry, while the remaining 161 were measured with a CCD. This paper reports the results of the observations of the 427 speckle cases. A separate paper in this issue will report the CCD measurements of the 161 other pairs.

  18. Shallow groundwater investigations at Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (MDNR-DGLS) conducted investigations of the upper aquifer in the vicinity of the abandoned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant in southwest St. Charles County, Missouri. The objective of the investigation was to better define the relationships between precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater recharge and shallow groundwater discharge within the study area, thereby assisting the Department of Energy in designing an appropriate groundwater monitoring plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The results of the investigations indicate that the upper aquifer has been affected by karst development but that well developed karst does not exist on or around the site. Dye traces conducted during the study have shown that surface water which leaves the site enters the subsurface in losing streams around the site and travels rapidly to one or more local springs. Upper aquifer recharge areas, constructed from dye trace and potentiometric data, generally follow surface water drainage patterns on the south side of the site, but cross surface-water drainage divides north of the site. Nine springs may receive recharge from site runoff, depending upon the amount of runoff. In addition to these springs, one perennial spring and two intermittent springs to the southwest of the site may receive recharge from site infiltration. 25 refs., 13 figs

  19. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

    OpenAIRE

    D. Brent Jones; Larisa R.G. DeSantis

    2016-01-01

    The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos) approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they...

  20. Estimation of effective doses to cavers based on radon measurements carried out in seven caves of the Bakony Mountains in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, Norbert; Somlai, Janos; Szeiler, Gabor; Szabo, Balazs; Schafer, Istvan; Kovacs, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, as the practice of extreme sports is spreading, potholing is becoming more and more popular. As a result, both the number of cavers and the time spent in the caves have been on the rise. There are some cavers known to have spent some 5000 h in caves over a span of 10 years. In poorly ventilated caves, radon exhalated from cave rocks and deposits may accumulate and cause significant doses to cavers. In this study, the radon concentration in seven caves in the Bakony Mountains, Hungary, was measured by continuous and integrated measurement devices. Measured values for the different caves were rather different, and varied between 50 and 24,000 Bq m -3 . The average radon concentration over the measurement period was approximately 10,000 Bq m -3 in five of the seven caves inspected. By assuming an average of 470 h year -1 spent in caves, effective doses to cavers were estimated. The expected annual effective dose, in case of an equilibrium factor of 0.6, was 19.7 mSv.

  1. Bullita cave system, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, tropical Australia; Sistemas de cuevas de Bullita, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, Australia tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, K. G.; Martini, J. E. J.

    2016-07-01

    In the monsoon tropics of northern Australia, Bullita Cave is the largest (123 km) of a group of extensive, horizontal, joint-controlled, dense network maze caves which are epikarst systems lying at shallow depth beneath a well-developed karrenfield. The Judbarra / Gregory Karst and its caves are restricted to the outcrop belt of the thin, sub-horizontal, Proterozoic Supplejack Dolostone. Karst is further restricted to those parts of the Supplejack that have escaped a secondary dolomitisation event. The karrenfield and underlying cave system are intimately related and have developed in step as the Supplejack surface was exposed by slope retreat. Both show a lateral zonation of development grading from youth to old age. Small cave passages originate under the recently exposed surface, and the older passages at the trailing edge become un roofed or destroyed as the, by then deeply-incised, karrenfield breaks up into isolated ruiniform blocks and pinnacles. Vertical development of the cave has been generally restricted to the epikarst zone by a 3m bed of impermeable and incompetent shale beneath the Supplejack which first perched the water-table, forming incipient phreatic passages above it, and later was eroded by vadose flow to form an extensive horizontal system of passages 10-20m below the karren surface. Some lower cave levels in underlying dolostone occur adjacent to recently incised surface gorges. Speleogenesis is also influenced by the rapid, diffuse, vertical inflow of storm water through the karrenfield, and by ponding of the still-aggressive water within the cave during the wet season dammed up by levees of sediment that accumulate beneath the degraded trailing edge of the karrenfield. The soil, and much biological activity, is not at the bare karren surface, but down on the cave floors, which aids epikarstic solution at depth rather than on the surface. (Author)

  2. Feasibility study for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site is radioactively and chemically contaminated at levels that exceed certain standards and guidelines for protecting human health and the environment. The ongoing site characterization and environmental monitoring programs provide information on the nature and extent of contamination, including information for off-site areas to which contaminants have migrated or could migrate in the future. Although humans and biota are not adversely impacted by site contaminants at this time, the purpose of DOE's remedial action program is to preclude the potential for such impacts in the future by implementing long-term environmental restoration and waste management decisions. The DOE is addressing long-term management of the Weldon Spring site through an integrated environmental decision-making process. Supporting information for the feasibility study is provided in Appendixes A through J. This information addresses scoping (Appendix A), engineering technologies (Appendix B), potential health and environmental impacts (Appendixes C, D, E, F, H and I), regulatory requirements (Appendix G), and letters of consultation received from the various agencies contacted (Appendix J). Additional engineering information is presented in supporting technical reports

  3. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tmc@servidor.unam.mx; Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural. Xicontencatl y General Anaya s/n. (04120) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, D. [National Institute of Nuclear Research.. Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5 (52045), Salazar, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Institute of Geophysics, National University of Mexico, Circuito Institutos, CU (04510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cabrera, L. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern.

  4. Exposure to radon in caves and abandoned mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The significance for health of exposure to radon daughters during leisure excursions in discussed mines or caves is considered for visitors with interests in speleology, mineral collecting, mining history and youth training. General members of the public might also enter tunnels. Potential annual exposures based on radon measurements in various mines and caves are estimated and it is concluded that the annual exposure of individuals who undertake frequent and prolonged trips to underground systems might exceed 10 6 Bq h m -3 . Exposures to general members of the public are likely to be much lower. The National Radiological Protection Board has developed proposals for a coherent and comprehensive scheme to promote dose limitation in a wide range of circumstances. These are described, with current initiatives on consultation with National Associations, local Government and many special interest groups. (author)

  5. The relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and visitor numbers in the homothermic zone of the Balcarka Cave (Moravian Karst during a period of limited ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of CO2 levels with and without human presence was studied in a selected site (Gallery Chamber of the homothermic zone of the Balcarka Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic during the fall, a period of limited ventilation. There were recognized various factors controlling the cave CO2 levels under different conditions in the exterior and interior. When visitors were absent, CO2 levels were controlled by the advective CO2 fluxes linked to cave airflows and reaching up to ~1.5x10-3 mol s-1. These fluxes exceed by orders of magnitude the exchanged diffusive fluxes (up to 4.8x10-8 mol s-1 and also the natural net flux (from 1.7x10-6 to 6.7x10-6 mol s-1imputing given chamber directly from overburden. The natural net flux, normalized to unitary surface area, was estimated to be 2.8x10-8 to 1.1x10-7 mol m-2 s-1, based on a perpendicular projection area of the chamber of ~ 60 m2. When visitors were present, the anthropogenic CO2 flux into the chamber reached up to 3.5x10-3 mol s-1, which slightly exceeded the advective fluxes. This flux, recalculated per one person, yields the value of 6.7x10-5 mol s-1. The calculations of reachable steady states indicate that anthropogenic fluxes could almost triple the natural CO2 levels if visitors stayed sufficiently long in the cave.

  6. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  7. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  8. Seasonal variations of radon and the radiation exposure levels in Nerja cave, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Canete, S.; Perez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-01-01

    222 Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja cave (Spain) (3 o 52'35''W 36 o 43'50''N) were measured by continuous monitoring using Alpha-Guard, Genitron instrument equipment. The 222 Rn measurements were carried out for a complete annual cycle in the different halls: Vestibule hall from July 2003 to June 2004, Ballet hall from July 2004 to June 2005 and Mirador hall from July 2005 to June 2006. Starting from the entrance of the cave we successively find the Vestibule hall, the Ballet hall and the Mirador hall. The range of 222 Rn levels were of 8-627 Bq m -3 for the Vestibule hall, 28-575 Bq m -3 for the Ballet hall and 38-578 Bq m -3 for the Mirador. The aim of this study was to detect seasonal variation patterns of 222 Rn concentrations. The seasonal variations of 222 Rn concentrations are discussed in relation to various meteorological factors measured inside and outside the cave. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists with different equilibrium factors have been evaluated. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists only represent a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population. - Highlights: → The aim of the study was to detect seasonal variation of 222 Rn concentrations. → 222 Rn concentrations in the air-cave were measured by continuous monitoring. → The 222 Rn measurements were carried out in the different halls of the cave. → The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists have been evaluated.

  9. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  10. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  11. Earthquakes as collapse precursors at the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in the Belgian Ardennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelbeeck, Thierry; Quinif, Yves; Verheyden, Sophie; Vanneste, Kris; Knuts, Elisabeth

    2018-05-01

    Collapse activation is an ongoing process in the evolution of karstic networks related to the weakening of cave vaults. Because collapses are infrequent, few have been directly observed, making it challenging to evaluate the role of external processes in their initiation and triggering. Here, we study the two most recent collapses in the Dôme chamber of the Han-sur-Lesse Cave (Belgian Ardenne) that occurred on or shortly after 3rd December 1828 and between the 13th and 14th of March 1984. Because of the low probability that the two earthquakes that generated the strongest ground motions in Han-sur-Lesse since 1800, on 23rd February 1828 (Mw = 5.1 in Central Belgium) and 8th November 1983 (Mw = 4.8 in Liège) occurred by coincidence less than one year before these collapses, we suggest that the collapses are related to these earthquakes. We argue that the earthquakes accelerated the cave vault instability, leading to the collapses by the action of other factors weakening the host rock. In particular, the 1828 collapse was likely triggered by a smaller Mw = 4.2 nearby earthquake. The 1984 collapse followed two months of heavy rainfall that would have increased water infiltration and pressure in the rock mass favoring destabilization of the cave ceiling. Lamina counting of a stalagmite growing on the 1828 debris dates the collapse at 1826 ± 9 CE, demonstrating the possibility of dating previous collapses with a few years of uncertainty. Furthermore, our study opens new perspectives for studying collapses and their chronology both in the Han-sur-Lesse Cave and in other karstic networks. We suggest that earthquake activity could play a stronger role than previously thought in initiating cave collapses.

  12. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  13. Use of thermal springs for geochemical exploration in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study an attempt was made to examine precious metals in the localities of the hydrothermal areas in the central Rift valley with the objective of whether thermal springs can hit mineral deposits. Thus, Filwoha, Sodere, Ambo and Wondogenet thermal spring areas were selected and specimens were collected for gold, ...

  14. Analysis of the main factors affecting the evaluation of the radon dose in workplaces: The case of tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, Carlos; Quindos, Luis Santiago; Fuente, Ismael; Nicolas, Jorge; Quindos, Luis

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of radon exist in several workplaces like tourist caves mainly because of the low ventilation rates existing at these enclosures. In this sense, in its 1990 publication, the ICRP recommended that high exposures of radon in workplaces should be considered as occupational exposure. In developed caves in which guides provide tours for the general public great care is needed for taking remedial actions concerning radon, because in some circumstances forced ventilation may alter the humidity inside the cave affecting some of the formations or paintings that attract tourists. Tourist guides can work about 1900 h per year, so the only option to protect them and other cave workers from radon exposure is to apply an appropriate system of radiation protection mainly based on limitation of exposure by restricting the amount of time spent in the cave. Because of the typical environmental conditions inside the caves, the application of these protecting actions requires to know some indoor air characteristics like particle concentration, as well as radon progeny behaviour in order to get more realistic effective dose values In this work the results of the first two set of radon measurements program carried out in 10 caves located in the region of Cantabria (Spain) are presented

  15. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of