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Sample records for cave naracoorte south

  1. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

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    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  2. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

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    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  3. Digital Geologic Map of the Wind Cave quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Wind Cave quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map...

  4. Geologic history of the Black Hills caves, South Dakota

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    Palmer, Arthur N.; Palmer, Margaret; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Cave development in the Madison aquifer of the Black Hills has taken place in several stages. Mississippian carbonates first underwent eogenetic (early diagenetic) reactions with interbedded sulfates to form breccias and solution voids. Later subaerial exposure allowed oxygenated meteoric water to replace sulfates with calcite and to form karst and small caves. All were later buried by ~2 km of Pennsylvanian–Cretaceous strata.

  5. Preliminary results of excavations at Lincoln Cave, Sterkfontein, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reynolds, SC

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent excavations of undisturbed deposits within the Lincoln Cave, Sterkfontein, have conclusively demonstrated that at least one of the deposits is mid-late Pleistocene in age. The artefacts recovered from this excavation are in a datable context...

  6. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

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    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  7. Late quaternary paleotemperatures derived from a speleothem from Cango caves, Cape Province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Talma, AS

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen isotope temperature record over a large part of the past 30,000 yr has been obtained for the southern Cape Province of South Africa by combining data on the isotopic composition of a stalagmite from a deep cave with that of a confined...

  8. Hominin-bearing caves and landscape dynamics in the Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

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    Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Berger, Lee R.

    2013-02-01

    This paper provides constraints on the evolution of the landscape in the Cradle of Humankind (CoH), UNESCO World Heritage Site, South Africa, since the Pliocene. The aim is to better understand the distribution of hominin fossils in the CoH, and determine links between tectonic processes controlling the landscape and the evolution and distribution of hominins occupying that landscape. The paper is focused on a detailed reconstruction of the landscape through time in the Grootvleispruit catchment, which contains the highly significant fossil site of Malapa and the remains of the hominin species Australopithicus sediba. In the past 4 My the landscape in the CoH has undergone major changes in its physical appearance as a result of river incision, which degraded older African planation surfaces, and accommodated denudation of cover rocks (including Karoo sediments and various sil- and ferricretes) to expose dolomite with caves in which fossils collected. Differentially weathered chert breccia dykes, calibrated with 10Be exposure ages, are used to estimate erosion patterns of the landscape across the CoH. In this manner it is shown that 2 My ago Malapa cave was ˜50 m deep, and Gladysvale cave was first exposed; i.e. landscape reconstructions can provide estimates for the time of opening of cave systems that trapped hominin and other fossils. Within the region, cave formation was influenced by lithological, layer-parallel controls interacting with cross-cutting fracture systems of Paleoproterozoic origin, and a NW-SE directed extensional far-field stress at a time when the African erosion surface was still intact, and elevations were probably lower. Cave geometries vary in a systematic manner across the landscape, with deep caves on the plateau and cave erosion remnants in valleys. Most caves formed to similar depths of 1400-1420 mamsl across much of the CoH, indicating that caves no longer deepened once Pliocene uplift and incision occurred, but acted as passive

  9. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

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    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  10. Two new species of freshwater flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Continenticola) from South American caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Stella; Morais, Ana Laura; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Leal-Zanchet, Ana

    2016-03-14

    The diversity of freshwater triclads in the Neotropical region is considered to be low, but extensive areas of South America remain almost unexplored. Herein we describe two cave-dwelling, new species of Girardia, one from a transition zone of the Cerrado and Caatinga phytophysiognomies and the other from the Cerrado phytophysiognomy. The species from the Cerrado-Caatinga transition is a troglobite, eyeless and whitish; the species from the Cerrado area is possibly a troglophile, since it shows heavily pigmented body and eyes. Each species is easily recognized by a unique combination of features in its external morphology and copulatory apparatus. The two new species of Girardia show a restricted distribution, even the troglophile, and occur in caves without legal protection. Therefore, they must be considered as vulnerable organisms in a conservation context.

  11. Early Pleistocene hominid teeth recovered in Mohui cave in Bubing Basin, Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; Richard Potts; HOU Yamei; CHEN Yunfa; WU Huaying; YUAN Baoyin; HUANG Weiwen

    2005-01-01

    Two hominid teeth recovered in Mohui cave are morphologically distinguished from Australopithecus in Africa, but close to Homo erectus in China. These teeth are therefore provisionally assigned to Homo erectus. The associated mammalian fauna include Gigantopithecus blacki, Nestoritherium sp., Sus xiaozhu, Sus peii and Ailuropoda microta, which are typical early Pleistocene taxa in South China. The general characteristics of the Mohui faunal assemblage are similar to the Longgupo site, which is dated to 2 Ma, implying a contemporaneity for the two sites. To date, compared with the discoveries in Africa, far fewer early Pleistocene hominid fossils have been recovered in Asia, and there are intensive controversies concerning their stratigraphic provenience and typological and temporal positions. The hominid fossils from Mohui cave, with their reliable biostratigraphic positions and distinct typological features, provide important evidence regarding the issue of early human origins and evolution.

  12. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

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    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  13. Contemporary flowstone development links early hominin bearing cave deposits in South Africa

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    Pickering, Robyn; Kramers, Jan D.; Hancox, Philip John; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Woodhead, Jon D.

    2011-06-01

    The Cradle of Humankind cave sites in South Africa preserve fossil evidence of four early hominin taxa: Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, Paranthropus robustus and early Homo. In order to integrate this record into a pan-African scenario of human evolutionary history it is critical to have reliable dates and temporal ranges for the southern African hominins. In the past a lack of precise and accurate chronological data has prevented the evaluation of the temporal relationships between the various sites. Here we report new uranium-lead (U-Pb) radiometric ages obtained from sheets of calcium carbonate flowstone inter-bedded between clastic cave sediments at the site of Swartkrans, providing bracketing ages for the fossiliferous deposits. The fossil bearing units of Swartkrans, specifically the Hanging Remnant and Lower Bank of Member 1, are underlain by flowstone layers dated to 2.25 ± 0.05 Ma and 2.25 ± 0.08 Ma and capped by layers of 1.8 ± 0.01 Ma and 1.7 ± 0.07 Ma. The age bracket of the Member 1 deposits is therefore between 2.31 and 1.64 Ma. However, by combining the U-Pb with biostratigraphic data we suggest that this can be narrowed down to between 1.9 and 1.8 Ma. These data can be compared with other recently dated sites and a radiometrically dated U-Pb age sequence formed: Sterkfontein Member 4, Swartkrans Member 1, Malapa, and Cooper's D. From this new U-Pb dataset, a pattern of contemporary flowstone development emerges, with different caves recording the same flowstone-forming event. Specifically overlapping flowstone formation takes place at Swartkrans and Sterkfontein at ~ 2.29 Ma and ~ 1.77 Ma, and at Sterkfontein and Malapa at ˜ 2.02 Ma. This suggests a regional control over the nature and timing of speleothem development in cave deposits and these flowstone layers could assist in future correlation, both internal to specific deposits and regionally between sites.

  14. Impacts of Alterations of Organic Inputs on the Bacterial Community within the sediments of Wind Cave, South Dakota, USA

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    Chelius Marisa K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind Cave (WICA in the Black Hills of South Dakota, like many mostly dry caves in temperate regions is an energy-starved system.The biotic communities that reside in these systems are low in diversity and simple in structure, and sensitive to changes in externalinputs of organic matter. Caves open to tourist traffic offer an opportunity to study the impacts of organic matter amendments in theform of human and rodent hair and dander, clothing lint, material from rodent activity (nesting materials and feces, and algal growthin and around artificial lighting. This study reports on the impacts of carbon amendments from humans and rodents on the bacterialand archaeal communities within the sediments of WICA from annual surveys and from a manipulative study that added lint (‘L’;cellulose plus rodent dander and rodent hair, rodent feces (‘F’, and a combination of both (‘LF’. The survey confirmed that bacterialbiomass was higher in regions of the cave with the highest rates of lint (hair and natural clothing fibers input. The manipulative studyfound that organic amendments in the forms of lint (L and rodent feces (F altered the WICA bacterial community structure in bothabundance and diversity, with the combined lint and feces (LF amendment having the most significant response. The high similarityof the LF and L communities suggests that the cave bacterial community is more carbon than nitrogen limited. The implication ofcave development to management practices is immediate and practical. Even small amounts of lint and organic matter foreign tocave bacteria significantly compromise the integrity of the endemic community resulting in the replacement of undescribed speciesby assemblages with at best, unknown impacts to natural cave features.

  15. 120-150 ka human tooth and ivory engravings from Xinglongdong Cave, Three Gorges Region, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xing; HUANG Wanbo; XU Ziqiang; MA Zhibang; J. W. Olsen

    2004-01-01

    Rich paleoanthropological materials were unearthed in primary context from the Xinglongdong Cave in Fengjie County, Chongqing, South China, including a human tooth, numerous mammalian fossils, some stone artifacts and a Stegodon tusk exhibiting intentional engravings. Based on biostratigraphic data and uranium series dating, the cave was utilized as a human shelter about 120000-150000 years ago. It is the first time that an archaic Homo sapiens fossil has been unearthed from the Three Gorges Region. Engravings on the Stegodon tusk appear in groups, making up simple and abstract images. It is the earliest known engravings created by human beings; it exhibits great potential for the study of the origin of art and the development of ancient cultures in south China and bears important implications for the origin of modern humans in East Asia.

  16. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoenvironmental context of Wonderwerk Cave in the southern Kalahari, South Africa

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    Scott, Louis; Avery, Margaret; Bamford, Marion; Berna, Francesco; Brink, James; Brook, George; Chazan, Michael; Ecker, Michaela; Fernandez-Jalvo, Yolanda; Goldberg, Paul; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Rossouw, Lloyd; Thackeray, Francis; Horwitz, Liora

    2014-05-01

    Wonderwerk Cave, located in the arid southern Kalahari in South Africa, is an exceptional site, since it preserves a two million year long record of human occupation. While research on older levels in various excavation sections of the cave deposits is ongoing, we focus here on the younger levels that span the last 35,000 years. We present the results of past and recent work on zooarchaeology, macrobotany, palynology, phytoliths, stable isotopes, micromorphology and speleothem growth, which track marked diachronic environmental fluctuations. Except for a hiatus of ~33-23 ka, growth and isotope data for a speleothem near the cave entrance suggests moist conditions from ~35-33, and ~22-14 ka with brief, dry episodes at ~34, ~22 and ~15 ka. Temperatures were cool except for an increase ~16-14 ka after which cold conditions equivalent to the Younger Dryas event occurred. In Stratum 5 (>12.5 ka in Excavation 1), relatively low carbon isotope (δ13C) values, pollen in the speleothem, and pollen in dung deposits indicate that the vegetation included a large C3 component during this phase. While the climate experienced sharp fluctuations in moisture when stalagmite growth was interrupted, more severe drying occurred by ~12 ka as indicated by dung pollen. Pollen in Stratum 4d (undifferentiated by stratum sub-phases) suggest that warmer grassy conditions developed before 11 ka, which is supported by δ13C values in OES that suggest a greater C4plant component in Stratum 4dII associated with the Oakhurst-like archaeological industry. Undifferentiated Stratum 4d indicates moderate moisture availability (pollen) but sub-phase 4dII suggest drying (OES δ18O). C3-presence (OES δ13C) in the vegetation became stronger again in Stratum 4dI (Oakhurst) and Stratum 4cII (Wilton). This is supported by Asteraceae pollen especially ~8.5 ka. Except for a fluctuation in OES δ18O values in Stratum 4cII, δ18O and pollen and micromammal composition suggest progressive aridity until ~6 ka

  17. Linking speleothem and soil magnetism in the Pau d'Alho cave (central South America)

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    Jaqueto, Plinio; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Novello, Valdir F.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Karmann, Ivo; Strauss, Becky E.; Feinberg, Joshua M.

    2016-10-01

    Mineral magnetism of Pau d'Alho cave sediments, soils outside the cave, and in the stalagmite #6 (ALHO6) in Midwest Brazil is presented. This high growth-rate speleothem ( 168 mm/ka) encompasses the past 1355 years. Oxygen and carbon isotope data from the same stalagmite allow for a direct comparison of the magnetic signal with changes in paleoprecipitation and soil dynamics at the surface. Magnetic experiments include isothermal remanent magnetization, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, hysteresis loops, first-order reversal curves, and low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The main magnetic remanence carriers in ALHO6 are magnetite and goethite, with a nearly constant relative proportion. Remanent coercivities of magnetite in all our samples are within 14-17 mT for an average grain-size of 1-2 µm, in the range of pedogenic magnetite, thus suggesting the detrital grains deposited in the stalagmite were produced in the soil above the cave. Magnetic remanence variations follow δ13C and δ18O data, suggesting a climatic control on the input of magnetic minerals into the Pau d'Alho cave system. The concentration of magnetic minerals in the stalagmite is governed by soil erosion above the cave, which by its turn is controlled by soil erosion and vegetation cover. Dry periods are associated with less stable soils and result in higher mineral fluxes carried into karst systems. Conversely, wetter periods are associated with soils topped by denser vegetation that retains micrometer-scale pedogenic minerals and thus reduces detrital fluxes into the cave.

  18. Contribution to the speleology of Sterkfontein cave, Gauteng province, South Africa.

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    Martini Jacques E. J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present more data about the speleological aspect of the Sterkfontein Cave, famous for its bone breccia which yielded abundant hominid remains. They also briefly review the previous voluminous studies by numerous authors, which are mainly dealing with the paleontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology of the breccia. The present investigations were oriented to hitherto poorly investigated aspects such as detail mapping of the cave, its country rock stratigraphy and recording the underground extension of the basal part of the breccia body. The cave consists of a complex network of phreatic channels, developed along joints in Neoarchaean cherty dolostone over a restricted surface of 250x250m. The combined length of all passages within this area amounts to 5,23km. The system extends over a height of about 50m and the dry part of it is limited downwards by the water-table appearing as numerous static pools. The fossiliferous breccia (= Sterkfontein Formation forms an irregular lenticular mass 75x25m horizontally by 40m vertically, which is included within the passage network. It crops out at surface and in the cave, and resulted from the filling of a collapse chamber, which was de-roofed by erosion. The present investigation confirmed that the cave and the Sterkfontein Formation are part of a single speleogenetic event. The breccia resulted from cavity filling by sediments introduced from a pit entrance, whereas many of the phreatic passages around it, which are developed at the same elevation, were only partly filled or remained entirely open up to present. This filling took place mainly in a vadose environment. Taking into account the age of the Sterkfontein Formation (>3,3-1,5 My, from base to top, the geomorphic evolution of the landscape and the context of other caves in the region, it seems that the cave might have started to form 5 My ago. It has been continuously developing up to present as a result of a slow drop of the water-table.

  19. Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota

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    Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on

  20. Bondi Cave and the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition in western Georgia (south Caucasus)

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    Pleurdeau, David; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Pinhasi, Ron; Yeshurun, Reuven; Higham, Tom; Agapishvili, Tamar; Bokeria, Maka; Muskhelishvili, Alexander; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Nomade, Sébastien; Poupeau, Gérard; Bocherens, Hervé; Frouin, Marine; Genty, Dominique; Pierre, Monique; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Lordkipanidze, David; Tushabramishvili, Nikoloz

    2016-08-01

    The late Pleistocene expansion of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) into Eurasia and the concurrent demise of the Neanderthals appears to be a complex and regionally variable process. The southern Caucasus region, with its rich cave-sites, has recently provided important results regarding this process. In this paper we report on the results of fieldwork in Bondi Cave, Western Georgia, providing a new radiocarbon chronology, stratigraphic observations, analyses of lithic technology and provenance, faunal and floral remains as well as paleoenvironmental data. The cave includes Middle Palaeolithic (ca, 45,000 ka cal. BP) cultural horizons and a long Upper Palaeolithic sequence (ca. 40,000-27,000 cal. BP from layer V to IV). A modern human tooth was found in layer Vb. We estimate its age at 39,000-35,800 Cal BP (95.4%), based on the Bayesian age model we built. If the context of the tooth is reliable, as we think it is, this would make it the oldest morphologically modern human in the Caucasus. Upper Palaeolithic hunting of tur and bison, as well as the collection of various plants including flax is attested. Mobile Upper Palaeolithic foragers inhabited the cave in generally cold and dry periods, but a mosaic of environments, including forests and meadows, was nonetheless available to them. The archaeological sequence of Bondi and adjacent sites indicates a substantial time gap between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupations, thus disproving Neanderthal-AMH interaction in this area and lending support to a replacement scenario in the southern Caucasus, assuming of course that the Early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) is related to the arrival of AMHs.

  1. Remarkable discovery in a cave of south west Morocco: Siagona taggadertensis n.sp. (Carabidae: Siagoninae)

    OpenAIRE

    Junger, Bernard; Faille, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Five species of the genus Siagona Latreille 1804 (Carabidae: Siagoninae) are known from Morocco. Siagona taggadertensis n. sp., a remarkable species of Carabidae from a Moroccan cave is described. This insect is spectacular by its large size (one of the largest species of the genus), its external morphology, which isolates it from all the north african representant of the genus, and for the conditions of its discovery: its only known from the remains of six specimens, all of them foun...

  2. High-resolution Holocene South American monsoon history recorded by a speleothem from Botuverá Cave, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J. P.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Stríkis, Nicolás M.; Wang, Xianfeng; Deininger, Michael; Catunda, Maria Carolina A.; Ortega-Obregón, C.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.

    2016-09-01

    A Holocene stalagmite from Botuverá Cave, southeastern Brazil was analyzed by LA-ICPMS for Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca. The observed variability in the record was demonstrated to be modulated by prior calcite precipitation, and, thus, is interpreted to reflect monsoon intensity. We find that the calcite δ18O is strongly correlated with Sr/Ca, indicating that atmospheric circulation over South America and monsoon intensity have been tightly correlated throughout most of the Holocene, both directly responding to solar precession. Comparison with other contemporaneous high-resolution hydroclimate records reveals that SAMS has shown a degree of complexity during the Holocene not previously detected, with periods where the South American Convergence Zone (SACZ) expanded to cover most of the South American sub-continent, and coincident with periods of low-SST in the north Atlantic. We also detect periods where rainfall amount in northeastern and southeastern Brazil are markedly anti-phased, suggesting a north-south migration of SACZ, which it appears to be mediated by solar irradiance. The high-resolution nature of our record allow us to examine the effect that Holocene climate anomalies had upon SAMS dynamics and hydroclimate in southeastern Brazil, in particular the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. In addition to confirm the internal structure of the events, we also detect the possible consequences of the climatic anomalies upon ocean-atmosphere interactions through its effects upon SAMS.

  3. Radiometric dating of the Earlier Stone Age sequence in excavation I at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, Michael; Ron, Hagai; Matmon, Ari; Porat, Naomi; Goldberg, Paul; Yates, Royden; Avery, Margaret; Sumner, Alexandra; Horwitz, Liora Kolska

    2008-07-01

    We present here the results of 44 paleomagnetic measurements, and single cosmogenic burial and optically stimulated luminescence ages for the Earlier Stone Age deposits from Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape, South Africa. The resulting paleomagnetic sequence: N>R>N>R>N constrains the Earlier Stone Age strata in this part of the site to between approximately 0.78-1.96 Ma. A single cosmogenic date of approximately 2.0 Ma from the base of the section offers some corroboration for the paleomagnetic sequence. Preliminary results indicate that the small lithic assemblage from the basal stratum may contain an Oldowan facies. This is overlain by several strata containing Acheulean industries. The preliminary radiometric dates reported here place the onset of the Acheulean at this site to approximately 1.6 Ma, which is roughly contemporaneous with that of East Africa.

  4. A newly discovered Gigantopithecus fauna from Sanhe Cave, Chongzuo, Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN ChangZhu; QIN DaGong; PAN WenShi; TANG ZhiLu; LIU JinYi; WANG Yuan; DENG ChengLong; ZHANG YingQi; DONG Wei; TONG HaoWen

    2009-01-01

    Among the most important faunas in the Late Cenozoic, the Gigantopithecus faunas have received:a good deal of attention. The Gigantopithecus fauna recently discovered in Sanhe Cave consists of more than 80 mammal species, including cf. Hominidae, Pongo sp., Hylobates sp., Sinomastodon yangzien-sis, Stegodon preorientalis, Cervavitus fenqii, Dicoryphochoerus ultimus and Sus xiaozhu. It is the southernmost Gigantopithecus fauna found so far in China. Its geological age is estimated to be Early Pleistocene based on the fauna and stratigraphic correlation. The significant increase in the estimated body sizes of Ailuropoda, Gigantopithecus and Tapirus shows that the Sanhe fauna is middle Early Pleistocene, later than those from Wushan and Liucheng (early Early Pleistocene). Paleomagnetic dating of the fossil-bearing strata in Sanhe Cave gives an age of approximately 1.2 Ma. The fauna is characterized by tropical-subtropical forest types, including Pongo sp., Tupaia sp., la sp., Typhlomys intermedius, etc., and it lacks Palaearctic types. It is a typical tropical forest fauna, suggesting an en-vironment with a lush forest and a warm and humid climate. The discovery of the Sanhe Gigantopith-ecus fauna is significant for establishing the chronological stages of the Gigantopithecus faunas in China, and for discussing their origin, evolution and dynamics.

  5. Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of Jewel Cave National Monument and Vicinity, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRI, JECA, JECA digital map) adapted from U.S. Geological Survey mylars by DeWitt (2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of Jewel Cave National Monument and Vicinity, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  6. Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of the Jewel Cave Northwest Quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRI, JECA, JWNW digital map) adapted from U.S. Geological Survey mylars by DeWitt (2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of the Jewel Cave Northwest Quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR) files,...

  7. Taphonomic analysis of the Middle Stone Age faunal assemblage from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jessica C

    2010-01-01

    A detailed taphonomic analysis is provided for the mammalian and tortoise faunal assemblages from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B). It is the first of several reports on the fauna from this site, and must necessarily precede analyses focused on higher level interpretations of Middle Stone Age (MSA) butchery, transport, and hunting behavior. The taphonomic work shows that the faunal assemblage is well preserved and there are discernable differences in the taphonomic pathways to which the fauna was subjected at PP13B between the Middle and Late Pleistocene, between the front and back of the cave, and between body size classes. The largest mammals (size classes 2-5, body weight >24 kg) were mainly accumulated by MSA hominins. Size class 1 ungulates also exhibit a degree of hominin modification consistent with some hominin accumulation of fresh carcasses, but this is more variable through time and includes an observable degree of independent carnivore contribution. Basic taxonomic comparisons reveal a low representation of small mammals, tortoises, and marine mammals at PP13B relative to larger (>4.5 kg) terrestrial mammals. This is a different pattern from other MSA sites along the southwestern coast of South Africa, where small mammals and tortoises are abundant. A microscopic study of the bone surfaces confirms that MSA hominins exploited these small faunal components opportunistically, while focusing most heavily on large terrestrial ungulates. All faunal components show evidence of carnivore scavenging of hominin food debris and a high degree of density mediated destruction. Raptors are at no point implicated as major accumulators of any fauna. The study demonstrates that the full spectrum of MSA faunal exploitation can only be understood when the large mammal, small mammal, and tortoise components of fossil assemblages have all been subjected to comprehensive taphonomic analyses.

  8. Pollen analysis of hyena coprolites and sediments from Equus Cave, Taung, southern Kalahari (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Louis

    1987-07-01

    Equus Cave, in Quaternary tufa near Taung in the semiarid woodland of the southern Kalahari, yielded 2.5 m of sediment in which a rich assemblage of bones and coprolites was preserved. The fossils were accumulated mainly by hyenas during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Pollen from coprolites reflects diet as well as vegetation over relatively large areas visited by hyenas, while pollen from sediments represents more local sources. The pollen sequence derived from coprolites and sediments demonstrates how the vegetation evolved from open grassland with small shrubs and occasional trees during the late Pleistocene, to open savanna with more small shurbs, then, during the last 7500 yr, to modern savanna. Temperatures were not more than 4°C cooler and it was slightly moister than today during the late Pleistocene phase; it became gradually warmer but relatively dry before optimal temperature and moisture conditions developed around 7500 yr B.P. Climatic conditions slightly less favorable for woodland occurred during part of the late Holocene.

  9. New dates for the introduction of sheep into South Africa: the evidence from Spoegrivier Cave in Namaqualand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, J

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Excavation of Spoegrivier Cave in 1987 yielded an AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon date of 2100 BP for a sheep phalange from the basal layer. Re-Excavation of the cave in 1994 to obtain a larger sample of early livestock produced...

  10. A new genus and species for the first recorded cave-dwelling Cavernicola (Platyhelminthes from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leal-Zanchet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of Brazilian cave fauna has been seriously underestimated. A karst area located in Felipe Guerra, northeastern Brazil, which is a hotspot of subterranean diversity in Brazil, has revealed more than 20 troglobitic species, most of them still undescribed. Based on recent samplings in this karst area, we document the occurrence of the suborder Cavernicola (Platyhelminthes in South American hypogean environments for the first time and describe a new genus and species for this suborder. Hausera Leal-Zanchet & Souza, gen. n. has features concordant with those defined for the family Dimarcusidae. The new genus is characterized by two unique features, viz. an intestine extending dorsally to the brain and ovovitelline ducts located dorsally to the nerve cords, which is complemented by a combination of other characters. The type-specimens of Hausera hauseri Leal-Zanchet & Souza, sp. n. are typical stygobionts, unpigmented and eyeless, and they may constitute an oceanic relict as is the case of other stygobiotic invertebrates found in this karst area in northeastern Brazil.

  11. Fossil Suidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Aves Cave I and nearby sites in Bolt’s Farm Palaeokarst System, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickford, M.; Gommery, D.

    2016-07-01

    Excavations carried out since 2011 at Bolt’s Farm Palaeokarst System, South Africa, have led to the recovery of interesting remains of suids, notably from Aves Cave I. The taxa present are Potamochoeroides hypsodon and Notochoerus capensis, the same as those that occur at Makapansgat. The new Notochoerus material, which includes an upper third molar and a lower fourth premolar, strengthens the conclusion that this genus is a suine and not a tetraconodont as thought for the past half century. Potamochoeroides has thickened mandibular rami indicating that it descended from the genus Dasychoerus that dispersed into Africa from Eurasia about 5 million years ago. Other karst deposits at Bolt’s Farm have yielded a younger suid fauna comprising Metridiochoerus andrewsi and Phacochoerus modestus, indicating that the Bolt’s Farm Karst System was active for a considerable period of time (ca 4.5 Ma - 1.8 Ma). The fact that all the suid taxa from Bolt’s Farm are hypsodont indicates that the palaeoenvironment contained abundant grass. (Author)

  12. Taphonomic and paleoecological change in the large mammal sequence from Boomplaas Cave, western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler

    2013-12-01

    Excavations conducted by H.J. Deacon in the 1970s at Boomplaas Cave (BPA) uncovered a stratified sequence of Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) deposits spanning the last >65,000 years. This study provides the first comprehensive and integrated taphonomic and paleoecological analysis of the BPA large mammals, with a focus on its implications for understanding human adaptations and environmental changes in southern Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR), an area that features prominently in understanding modern human origins. Taphonomic data indicate a complex history of human, carnivore, and raptor accumulation of the large mammal assemblage. The anthropogenic signal is largely absent from the bottom of the sequence (>65,000 years ago), intermediate in MSA and LSA assemblages from ~50,000 to 20,000 years ago, and strong in LSA deposits post-dating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). When viewed in the broader CFR context, the inferred occupation history of BPA is consistent with the hypothesis that both MSA and LSA human populations were concentrated on the submerged coastline from ~60,000 to ~20,000 years ago. Intensive occupation following the LGM parallels an apparent increase in regional population densities, which may have been driven in part by rising sea levels. The BPA ungulate assemblage is characterized by the rise and decline of a taxonomically diverse grazing community, which peaks during the LGM. These changes are not correlated with taphonomic shifts, meaning that they are likely driven by environmental factors, namely the expansion and contraction of grassland habitats. Changes in ungulate diversity indicate that effective precipitation was highest during the LGM, corresponding with an intensified winter rainfall system. This is consistent with recent arguments that the LGM in this region may not have been extremely harsh and arid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geology of the Jewel Cave SW Quadrangle, Custer County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, William A.

    1963-01-01

    The Jewel Cave SW quadrangle is in the southwestern part of the Black Hills in Custer County, S. Dak., about midway between Edgemont, S. Dak., and Newcastle, Wyo. All the rocks that crop out within the quadrangle are of sedimentary origin and range in age from Pennsylvanian to Early Cretaceous. The Minnesota Formation of Pennsylvania and Permian age, which is about 1,000 feet thick, was studied in outcrop and from two diamond-drill cores. In the subsurface the upper part of the formation consists of gray sandstone, very fine grained dolomite, and anhydrite. The anhydrite has been leached from the formation near the outcrop, perhaps in the early part of the Cenozoic Era, and the resulting subsidence has produced collapse breccias in the Minnelusa and milder deformation in the overlying units. In the collapse breccias the rocks have been oxidized and are red, whereas in the subsurface they are gray. The anhydrite cement of the subsurface sandstone has been replaced by calcite, and the dolomite beds have been partially converted to limestone. The Opeche Formation of Permian age consists of 75 to 115 feet of red siltstone and shale and two thin gypsum beds. The Minnekahta Limestone of Permian age is about 40 feet thick. The Spearfish Formation of Permian and Triassic age is about 550 feet thick and consists of red siltstone red sandstone, dolomite, and gypsum. The dolomite and gypsum beds are restricted to the lower half of the formation. In the northeast corner of the quadrangle the gypsum beds have been dissolved by ground water. The Sundance Formation of Late Jurassic age is divided into five members that have a total thickness of about 360 feet. The Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age ranges in thickness from 60 to 120 feet. It consists of blocky weathering noncarbonaceous mudstone and subordinate beds of limestone and sandstone. The Inyan Kara Group of Early Cretaceous age has been subdivided into the Lakota Formation and the Fall River Formation. The Lakota

  14. Luminescence- and Infrared-Radiofluorescence dating of the Acheulean- to Middle Stone Age sedimentary sequence at Montagu Cave, Western Cape Provence, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tobias; Archer, Will; Sumner, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Montagu Cave is an archaeological site located on the edge of the Langeberg mountain range, about 160 km NE of Cape Town, in South Africa. The archaeological and sedimentary units at Montagu Cave comprise two Acheulean sequences which are separated from one another by a substantial archaeological hiatus. There is an additional Middle Stone Age sequence which overlies the Acheulean horizons, and contains layers attributed to the Howiesons Poort, as well as multiple other Middle Stone Age sub-stages. Hence, Montagu Cave provides a unique opportunity to investigate quite complex population level questions concerning the behavioral differences between modern and pre-modern populations in southern Africa. However, thus far, the chronological context of the sediment-layers at the site remains unclear. It is therefore critical to provide a resilient chronological framework for the timing of human activity at the site. This study concerns the potential of luminescence dating for the sedimentary sequence preserved at Montagu cave. The collected samples are tested on their quartz- and feldspar luminescence signal properties. Various optical dating techniques (quartz OSL; pIRIR290) will be applied, and the results of each compared in order to obtain information on the suitability of the material for luminescence dating, and to establish a chronological framework for this important archaeological site. Furthermore, the infrared-radiofluorescence (IR-RF) signal behavior will be tested on potassium feldspars, as IR-RF is a method being able to date back up to > 600 ka. IR-RF therefore has the potential to cover the expected time-frame of the sediments at Montagu-cave.

  15. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 - 90 Ka) Lithic Industries at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douze, Katja; Wurz, Sarah; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Blombos Cave is well known as an important site for understanding the evolution of symbolically mediated behaviours among Homo sapiens during the Middle Stone Age, and during the Still Bay in particular. The lower part of the archaeological sequence (M3 phase) contains 12 layers dating to MIS 5 with ages ranging from 105 to 90 ka ago (MIS 5c to 5b) that provide new perspectives on the technological behaviour of these early humans. The new data obtained from our extensive technological analysis of the lithic material enriches our currently limited knowledge of this time period in the Cape region. By comparing our results with previously described lithic assemblages from sites south of the Orange River, we draw new insights on the extent of the techno-cultural ties between these sites and the M3 phase at Blombos Cave and highlight the importance of this phase within the Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphy.

  16. 75 FR 4417 - Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, SD AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of... Statement, Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 102(2)(C) of... Environmental Impact Statement (Plan), Wind Cave National Park, Custer County, South Dakota. On December 3,...

  17. Methane concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4) in the Nerja Cave system (South Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Etiope, Giuseppe; Benavente, José; Ojeda, Lucia; Liñán, Cristina; Carrasco, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Air in underground caves often has methane (CH4) concentrations below the atmospheric level, due to methanotrophic or other unkown CH4 consuming processes. Caves are thus considered a potential sink for atmospheric methane. If globally important, this underground CH4 oxidation should be taken into account in the atmospheric methane budget, in addition to the known soil methanotrophy and tropospheric/stratospheric sinks. A large set of data is however necessary to understand how and how much methane from external atmospheric air is consumed in the caves. While methane concentration data are available for several caves worldwide, its isotopic composition and variations in space and time are poorly documented. We measured methane concentration and stable C isotope composition (δ13C) in the Nerja cave (Southern Spain) air during two surveys in March and April 2015. CH4 concentration decreases progressively from the more external cave rooms, with atmospheric levels of 1.9 ppmv, to the more internal and isolated rooms down to 0.5 ppmv. δ13C increases correspondingly from -47 ‰ to -41 ‰ (VPDB). CH4 is systematically 13C-enriched (δ13C > -45) in areas of the cave where the concentration is below 1.4 ppmv. This combination of concentration decrease and 13C-enrichment towards the more internal and isolated zones of the cave confirms the importance of CH4 oxidation, likely driven by methanotrophic bacteria. Further data, including stable H isotope composition of sub-atmospheric CH4 concentrations, CO2 and microbial analyses, shall be acquired over time to assess the actual role of methanotrophic bacteria and seasonal controls in the CH4 consumption process.

  18. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  19. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans.

  20. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Underhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  1. Multidimensional GIS modeling of magnetic mineralogy as a proxy for fire use and spatial patterning: evidence from the Middle Stone Age bearing sea cave of Pinnacle Point 13B (Western Cape, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R; Fisher, Erich C

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the spatial patterning of burning and occupation within an early Middle Stone Age (MSA) sea cave in the Western Cape Province of South Africa by creating a multidimensional model of archaeomagnetic data recovered from all excavated units. Magnetic susceptibility and other mineral magnetic parameters are shown to provide an excellent proxy for the anthropogenic alteration and spread of burnt material into the surrounding unaltered cave deposits. The identification of combustion features and areas of occupation or different activities within the site can be determined because the movement of people throughout the cave mixes magnetically strong hearth material with magnetically weak unaltered sediments. This is also indicated by micromorphological analysis. The degree of enhancement is also shown to indicate the extent to which a deposit has been altered, and therefore, intensity of occupation, because multiple heatings of deposits are needed to form the concentrations of iron minerals occurring in some layers. This is further supported by a comparison with artifact density for the layers. Variation in the magnetic values between different areas of the site is noted with major occupation or fire building occurring in the front of the cave during earlier MIS 6 periods, while during later MIS 5 periods the entire cave is occupied intensively. The oldest, MIS 11 deposits at the rear of the cave indicate no evidence of enhancement and an apparent absence of any anthropogenic signature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Re-analysis of the hominid radii from Cave of Hearths and Klasies River Mouth, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, O M; Grine, F E

    1997-06-01

    Two of the few postcranial fragments from the late Early Stone Age and/or the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa are the proximal radii from the Cave of Hearths and Klasies River Mouth. The Cave of Hearths fossil is metrically indistinguishable from both archaic (e.g., Neandertals) and recent humans, and presents a mosaic of primitive and modern features. The primitive include a relatively slender neck and thick cortical bone (the latter of which distinguishes recent humans from archaic, Early Modern, and Upper Paleolithic hominids); the modern includes an anteromedially (rather than medially) facing radial tuberosity. Its extreme collo-diaphyseal angle is unusual, although it can be matched by modern homologues. The neck-shaft angle of some Neandetral and Early Modern radii also appears to match that of the Cave of Hearths specimen. The Klasies River Mouth radius also has thick cortical bone of the neck. It is morphologically indistinguishable from Early Modern and Neandertal homologues. These, and other fossils, suggest a mosaic pattern of evolution in the postcranial skeleton of the late Early Stone Age and/or Middle Stone Age inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Cave Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    hypothesis, that cave rings are formed in the same manner as coffee rings[3], that is, due to the enhanced deposition at the edges of sessile drops ...ring’ is the deposit formed when a sessile drop of a solution containing dissolved particles, such as coffee or salt, dries. This was investigated by...who expanded on Deegan et al.[3] to find an exact form for the evaporation flux over a sessile drop . It turns out that solving 179 for the flux is

  4. Caves and Karsts of Northeast Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday William R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available At least potentially karstifiable rocks cover much of the surface of Egypt and northern Libya. Study of caves and other karstic features of this region has been hampered by lack of roads, rapid disintegration of the surface of friable, poorly consolidated limestone, wind-blown sand and other factors. Interbedding with marly aquicludes hampers speleogenesis locally. Calcareous and evaporite karsts are present, however, and their waters are important albeit generally limited resources. Large quantities of fresh water are lost through submarine springs downslope from Libya’s Gebel al Akhdar range; the caves and karst of that range may be among the world’s greatest. A recent attempted compendium of caves and karsts of Egypt and Libya contains several important errors; the supposed 5+ km Ain Zayanah Cave does not exist and the Zayanah System includes several smaller caves. The Bir al Ghanam gypsum karst of northwest Libya, however, has caves up to 3.5 km long. In Egypt, the Mokattam, South Galala, Ma’aza, Siwa and Western Desert karsts and the “White Desert” chalk karst of Farafra Depression are especially important. Qattara and nearby depressions may be karstic rather than structural in origin. Unique Wadi Sannur Cave is the world’s largest gour and a potential World Heritage site. Little knownsandstone karsts or pseudokarsts in southwestern Egypt may contain analogues of features recently identified on Mars. The well-publicised Uweinat caves of northwestern Sudan are talus caves.

  5. Chronology of guitarrero cave, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T F; Gillespie, R; Gowlett, J A; Hedges, R E

    1985-08-30

    Dating by accelerator mass spectrometry of wooden artifacts, cord, and charcoal samples from Guitarrero Cave, Peru, supports the antiquity of South America's earliest textiles and other perishable remains. The new dates are consistent with those obtained from disintegration counters and leave little doubt about the integrity of the lower Preceramic layers and their early cultivars. Re-evaluation of the mode of deposition suggests that most of the remains resulted from short-term use of the cave in the eighth millennium B.C., with a possible brief human visit as early as 12,560 years ago.

  6. Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa) in context: The Cape Floral kingdom, shellfish, and modern human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marean, Curtis W

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and anatomical evidence suggests that Homo sapiens arose in Africa between 200 and 100ka, and recent evidence suggests that complex cognition may have appeared between ~164 and 75ka. This evidence directs our focus to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6, when from 195-123ka the world was in a fluctuating but predominantly glacial stage, when much of Africa was cooler and drier, and when dated archaeological sites are rare. Previously we have shown that humans had expanded their diet to include marine resources by ~164ka (±12ka) at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B) on the south coast of South Africa, perhaps as a response to these harsh environmental conditions. The associated material culture documents an early use and modification of pigment, likely for symbolic behavior, as well as the production of bladelet stone tool technology, and there is now intriguing evidence for heat treatment of lithics. PP13B also includes a later sequence of MIS 5 occupations that document an adaptation that increasingly focuses on coastal resources. A model is developed that suggests that the combined richness of the Cape Floral Region on the south coast of Africa, with its high diversity and density of geophyte plants and the rich coastal ecosystems of the associated Agulhas Current, combined to provide a stable set of carbohydrate and protein resources for early modern humans along the southern coast of South Africa during this crucial but environmentally harsh phase in the evolution of modern humans. Humans structured their mobility around the use of coastal resources and geophyte abundance and focused their occupation at the intersection of the geophyte rich Cape flora and coastline. The evidence for human occupation relative to the distance to the coastline over time at PP13B is consistent with this model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  8. First record of the family Pseudochiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from continental South America--a Pseudochiridium from a Brazilian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schimonsky, Diego Monteiro; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Mahnert, Volker

    2014-12-02

    The small pseudoscorpion family Pseudochiridiidae Chamberlin, 1923 comprises two genera and 12 extant species recorded from Asia (Burma, Christmas Island, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Nicobars and Sumba), eastern, central and southern Africa (Chad, D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania), Madagascar, Seychelles (Aldabra), North America (Florida) and the Caribbean Islands of Dominican Republic and Cuba (Harvey 2013, Barba & Barroso 2013); one unidentified species is mentioned for the fauna of Mexico (Ceballos 2004). A fossil species has been described from Dominican amber by Judson (2007), who predicted the presence of this family in South America. 

  9. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA; El sistema de la Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km{sup 2}. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  10. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 - 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa - Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Turid Hillestad; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Still Bay, c. 76-72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources.

  11. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 – 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa – Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Turid Hillestad; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Still Bay, c. 76–72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources. PMID:27509023

  12. Luminescence dating at Rose cottage cave: a progress report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Woodborne, S

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Deal with infrared-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence dates from Rose Cottage Cave in South Africa. Discrepancy between luminescence and radiocarbon dates; Concentration of radioactive elements in sediments before and after leaching...

  13. Small mammal utilization by Middle Stone Age humans at Die Kelders Cave 1 and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    Reported here are the results of a taphonomic analysis of the small mammals (between 0.75 kg and 4.5 kg adult body weight) and size 1 bovids (≤20 kg adult body weight) from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites of Die Kelders Cave 1 (DK1) and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6), Western Cape Province, South Africa. This study provides a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of MSA small mammals with a focus on discerning the role of humans in their accumulation and the implications for human behavioral adaptations. Based on comparisons with control assemblages of known accumulation, it is evident that humans accumulated many of the Cape dune mole-rats, hares, and size 1 bovids at DK1. The patterning of cut-marked and burned mole-rat remains at DK1 provides evidence in the MSA for the systematic utilization of small mammals for their skins and as a protein source. Unlike DK1, small mammals and size 1 bovids constitute only a small portion of the PP5-6 mammals and they exhibit little evidence of human accumulation. Nocturnal and diurnal raptors accumulated most of the small fauna at PP5-6. The nominal presence of small mammals in the PP5-6 fauna is atypical of MSA sites in the Cape Floristic Region, where they are abundant and often constitute large portions of MSA archaeofaunas. DK1 humans maximized the environmental yield by exploiting low-quality resources, a strategy employed possibly in response to localized environmental conditions and to greater human population densities. In comparison, the MIS5-4 humans at PP5-6 did not exploit small mammals and instead focused on higher-quality resources like shellfish and large ungulates. Humans and predators accumulated few small mammals at PP5-6, suggesting that these taxa may have been less abundant near the site and/or that humans could afford to concentrate on high-quality resources, perhaps because of a higher-yield local environment. This study suggests that an adaptive response to the environmental conditions of MIS4 was

  14. Data on the Limanu Cave mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Dumitraş

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of diphractometric X-rays analyses on powders, we emphasize an association of minerals in the Limanu Cave from South Dobrogea, made up of hydroxylapatite, brushite, calcite, gypsum and dolomite as the main minerals and quartz and illite as secondary minerals.

  15. An early bone tool industry from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origins of modern human behaviour, symbolism and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshilwood, C S; d'Errico, F; Marean, C W; Milo, R G; Yates, R

    2001-12-01

    Twenty-eight bone tools were recovered in situ from ca. 70 ka year old Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave between 1992 and 2000. These tools are securely provenienced and are the largest collection to come from a single African Middle Stone Age site. Detailed analyses show that tool production methods follow a sequence of deliberate technical choices starting with blank production, the use of various shaping methods and the final finishing of the artefact to produce "awls" and "projectile points". Tool production processes in the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave conform to generally accepted descriptions of "formal" techniques of bone tool manufacture. Comparisons with similar bone tools from the Later Stone Age at Blombos Cave, other Cape sites and ethnographic collections show that although shaping methods are different, the planning and execution of bone tool manufacture in the Middle Stone Age is consistent with that in the late Holocene. The bone tool collection from Blombos Cave is remarkable because bone tools are rarely found in African Middle or Later Stone Age sites before ca. 25 ka. Scarcity of early bone tools is cited as one strand of evidence supporting models for nonmodern behaviour linked to a lack of modern technological or cognitive capacity before ca. 50 ka. Bone artefacts are a regular feature in European sites after ca. 40 ka, are closely associated with the arrival of anatomically modern humans and are a key behavioural marker of the Upper Palaeolithic "symbolic explosion" linked to the evolution of modern behaviour. Taken together with recent finds from Klasies River, Katanda and other African Middle Stone Age sites the Blombos Cave evidence for formal bone working, deliberate engraving on ochre, production of finely made bifacial points and sophisticated subsistence strategies is turning the tide in favour of models positing behavioural modernity in Africa at a time far earlier than previously accepted. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. 广西平乐鸡母岩发现的晚更新世人类牙齿化石%LATE PLEISTOCENE HOMININ TEETH FROM THE JIMUYAN CAVE,PINGLE COUNTY, GUANGXI,SOUTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王頠; 黄超林; 谢绍文; 鄢成林

    2011-01-01

    Five hominin teeth are recently discovered at the Jimuyan Cave in Pingle County, Southern China. The Jimuyan Cave is located at Juntang Village(24° 29' 52. 8" N,110° 50' 0. 79" E) ,20km southeast to the Pingle Town,with 163. 2m above the sea level. Mammalian fauna of the cave consists of eleven species,including: Macaca sp. ,Pongo pygmaeus weidenreichi, Hystrix cf. Subcristata, Ursus thibetanus ,Ahuropoda melanoleuca baconi ,Stegodon orhentalis, Tapirus sinensis,Sus scrofa,Muntiacus sp.,Cervus sp. And Bovidae gen. Et sp. Indet. This faunal assemblage contains four genera that are either extinct or no longer present in this region, including Stegodon, Tapirus, Ailuropoda and Pongo, which is distinctly different from that of Holocene, however similar to that of Late Pleistocene in Southern China. Thus, age of this fauna is dated to Late Pleistocene by biostratigraphy comparison. The hominin teeth in Jimuyan Cave are morphologically different from those of already known Homo erectus and Early Homo sapiens, nevertheless, similar to those of Late Homo sapiens in South China. This finding presents significant fossil evidence for the study of modern hunan origin and evolution in East Asia.The origin of modern humans is a controversial scientific topic at present. Based on fossil evidence of Homo sapiens in Africa are more ancient than that in Eastern Asia. With the results of molecular biology analysis, most of the anthropologists and geneticists support the hypothesis of modern humans originated in Africa. So far,the oldest fossils come from Omo-Kibish and Herto in Ethiopia, with the age of 160ka and 190ka respectively. The characteristics of these fossil skulls are intervenient between Homo sapiens and Homo heidelbergensis. Some of the hominin fossils,dated to 74 ~ 134ka,have been discovered at Klasies estuary in South Africa, but it is difficult to confirm whether these materials belong to modern human. Fossil hominin unearthed at Qafzeh and Skhul in Israel, Middle

  17. Dunhuang Mogao Caves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    AS the 20th century approached, a Taoist discovered a cave on the desolate Gobi in Northwest China. Within this cave were hidden more than 40,000 pieces of Buddhist scripture, embroideries, paintings and books on various subjects, such as religion, history,

  18. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  19. Carroll Cave: a Missouri legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll Cave is one of the premiere caves of Missouri and the Ozarks region. At over 20 miles of surveyed passage, it is the 2nd longest cave in the state and 33rd longest in the nation. It is also the largest known cave formed in the Ordovician aged (443-485 million years ago) Gasconade Dolomite o...

  20. A new species of the South East Asian genus Sarax Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) and synonymization of Sarax mediterraneus Delle Cave, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Wolff, Jonas; Hörweg, Christoph

    2015-09-04

    A new species of the whip spider genus Sarax Simon, 1892 from Cebu Island in the Philippines is described: Sarax huberi sp. nov. With the description of this species, the diversity of the genus is increased to three species in the Philippines. Some additional data on their natural environment and their specific habitat are presented and compared with sibling species. The synonymization of Sarax mediterraneus Delle Cave, 1986 with Sarax buxtoni (Gravely, 1915) is carried out.

  1. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  2. Influence of stratigraphic factors on the failure mechanisms of sinkholes related to man-made underground caves at Cutrofiano (South-Eastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Margiotta, Stefano; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    An increasing number of areas in southern Italy are being interested by sinkholes related to the presence of man-made cavities, with underground quarries representing the more problematic typology of anthropogenic caves in terms of instability. The case of Cutrofiano (Apulia, SE Italy) is here presented as a representative case study. This territory is well known for the underground quarrying activity of soft calcarenitic rocks that caused in the last decades widespread phenomena of subsidence at the surface, with extensive damage and problems to the main communication routes in the area. A very complex and intricate network of subterranean galleries is present underground, for a total development on the order of several tens of kilometres. The Gravina Calcarenite Formation, that is the object of the underground quarries, consists of whitish calcarenite with an upper greenish clayey-sandy interval rich in fossils. This formation is overlain by grey sandy clays (Subapennine Clays) grading upward to fossil-rich sands (Brindisi Sands). In recent years, clay mining has been resumed at the ground surface, following the opening of a cement factory, and resulting in the realization of wide open-pit quarries. The local sedimentary sequence is closed by terraced calcarenite deposits, that holds a phreatic groundwater body. The results of detailed geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by laboratory tests, show that in the Cutrofiano area the thickness of the stratigraphical succession, the depth of the underground galleries, the structural conditions of the rock mass, and the failure mechanisms observed within the quarries are variable. The geological model reconstructed represents the base for the implementation of numerical simulations, which are aimed at defining the eventual mechanisms of rock failure, up to the formation of the sinkhole. Local changes in the stratigraphy are very common in the area, due to the overall slight attitude of the

  3. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing

  4. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  5. Energy expenditure in caving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Giorgia; Marini, Elisabetta; Curreli, Nicoletta; Tuveri, Valerio; Comandini, Ornella; Cabras, Stefano; Gabba, Silvia; Madeddu, Clelia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Rinaldi, Andrea C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE) was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1), respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  6. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  7. The Gruta de las Maravillas (Aracena, South-West Iberia): Setting and origin of a cave in marbles from dissolution of pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Pedrera, A.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; López-Chicano, M.; Azor, A.; Martín-Rosales, W.; Ruano, P.; Calaforra, J. M.; Hódar-Pérez, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Gruta de las Maravillas cave is located at the WNW side of the Cerro del Castillo hill in Aracena (Huelva, SW Spain). The cavity is hosted within marbles included in a strip of high-grade metamorphic rocks belonging to the so-called Aracena Massif in the southernmost Ossa-Morena Zone. The hill is made up of granodiorites, marbles, quartzites, and gneisses, with the foliation trending N110°E and dipping roughly 60-80° towards NE. The marbles appear highly deformed in ductile conditions, with isoclinal folds of different sizes, boudins, porphyroblasts with sigmoidal morphology, and left-lateral S-C shear fabrics. Close to the granodiorite contact, the marbles include a thin band of disseminated and massive pyrite, partially transformed to Fe-oxides. Analysis of the brittle deformation and the associated paleostresses indicates a NE-SW oriented maximum compression, probably related to the latest Variscan collisional tectonics (300 Ma; Late Carboniferous). The Gruta de las Maravillas is divided into three main levels (located at ~ 650, ~ 665 and ~ 685 m a.s.l.), the dissolution having progressed from top to bottom in different stages of stability of the water table. The initial dissolution phases were probably favoured by the presence of pyrite in the host rock, which, in turn, would have caused acidification of the circulating water. Favouring this hypothesis, a thin layer of Fe-oxides, locally including gypsum, covers some parts of the cave walls. The morphology and structure of the cavity result from interaction between the general NNE dipping foliation with sub-perpendicular joints, the pyrite-bearing band in the host marbles, and the descending water table.

  8. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  9. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  10. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2017-08-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  11. Bony anomaly of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the seemingly rare occurrence of bone formation within the proximal superior aspect of Meckel's cave thus forming a bony foramen for the proximal trigeminal nerve to traverse. The anatomy of Meckel's cave is reviewed and the clinical potential for nerve compression from this bony anomaly discussed.

  12. Subjectivity inherent in by-eye symmetry judgements and the large cutting tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a l...

  13. Meningiomas of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, R; Innocenzi, G; Ciappetta, P; Domenicucci, M; Cantore, G

    1992-12-01

    A series of 16 patients with meningiomas of Meckel's cave is reported. Trigeminal neuralgia, typical or atypical, was the initial symptom in 10 patients (62.5%). At admission, trigeminal signs and symptoms were present in 15 patients (93.7%); in 7 patients (43.7%), trigeminal dysfunction was combined with the impairment of other cranial nerves. On retrospective analysis, these patients fall into two clinical groups that differ also in prognosis. Group 1 comprises eight patients with trigeminal signs and symptoms only. These patients had small meningiomas strictly affecting Meckel's cave. Total removal of the tumor was achieved in seven of eight patients, without adjunctive postoperative neurological deficits. In this group, there were no tumor recurrences. Group 2 comprises the other eight patients in whom trigeminal dysfunction was combined with impairment of other cranial nerves. These patients had large tumors arising from Meckel's cave and secondarily invading the cavernous sinus (five patients) or extending into the posterior fossa (two patients) or largely growing into the middle fossa (one patient). Total removal was achieved in only one patient, and a worsening of the preoperative neurological status was observed in four patients; there were three cases of tumor progression. A subtemporal intradural approach (used in the past in every case) is still used for the small tumors of Group 1 with good results. Since 1985, for tumors involving the cavernous sinus, we have employed a frontotemporal craniotomy with extradural clinoidectomy and superior and lateral approach to the cavernous sinus. When the tumor extends toward the posterior fossa, we use a combined temporosuboccipital-transpetrosal approach.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Characterization of Microbial Community in Lascaux Cave by High Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Lise; Dubost, Audrey; Luis, Patricia; Pommier, Thomas; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2017-04-01

    The Lascaux Cave in South-Est France is an archeological landmark renowned for its Paleolithic paintings dating back c.18.000 years. Extensive touristic frequenting and repeated chemical treatments have resulted in the development of microbial stains on cave walls, which is a major issue in terms of art conservation. Therefore, it is of prime importance to better understand the microbial ecology of Lascaux Cave. Like many other caves, Lascaux is quite heterogeneous in terms of the nature and surface properties of rock walls within cave rooms, as well as the succession of rooms/galleries from the entrance to deeper areas of the cave. Lascaux Cave displays an additional levels of heterogeneity related to the presence of discontinuous stains on certain types of cave walls. We compared the microbial community (i.e. both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial populations) colonizing cave walls of different rooms/galleries, in and outside stains and in different cave layers, in successive years. Quantitative PCR analysis of cave wall samples gave in the order of 102 copies of 18S rRNA genes and 105 copies of 16S rRNA genes per ng of DNA, indicating significant colonization of all cave walls by micro-eukaryotes and especially bacteria. Illumina metagenomic analyses of cave wall samples was carried out based on four ribosomal DNA markers targeting bacteria, archaea, fungi, and other micro-eukaryotes. The results showed that the four microbial communities were highly diverse in and outside stains, as several hundred genera of microorganisms were identified in each. Proteobacteria were more prominent within stains whereas Bacteroidetes and Sordariomycetes were more prominent outside stains. High-throughput sequencing also showed that the nature/surface properties of cave walls were the main factor determining the structure and composition of microbial communities, ahead of the other heterogeneity factors studied i.e. location within the cave, presence of stain and sampling

  15. New Species of Campodeidae (Diplura) from Mexican caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, Alberto; Palacios, Jose; Garcia, Arturo; Montejo, Maira

    2016-01-01

    Six new taxa of Campodeidae (Diplura) are described in the genera Litocampa, Juxtlacampa, Oncinocampa, and Tachycampa. We also redescribe the interesting species Juxtlacampa juxtlahucensis Wygodzinsky, 1944 from Juxtlahuaca cave in Guerrero, Mexico. All of these taxa are cave-dwelling species with more or less noticeable troglobiomorphic features They inhabit the subterranean ecosystem in six limestone massifs and one lava tube cave in the central states of Mexico. Four of these species are included in the "tachycampoide" group and one species in the "podocampoide" group (sensu Bareth & Conde). Nine species already known in Central and South America of the "tachycampoide" group, in such poorly-sampled regions compared with the eight species in the well-sampled Mediterranean region (Ibero-Sardinia and north Africa), suggest an American origin for this group.

  16. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  17. Spiders in caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    World experts of different disciplines, from molecular biology to macro-ecology, recognize the value of cave ecosystems as ideal ecological and evolutionary laboratories. Among other subterranean taxa, spiders stand out as intriguing model organisms for their ecological role of top predators, their unique adaptations to the hypogean medium and their sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance. As the description of the first eyeless spider (Stalita taenaria), an array of papers on subterranean spider biology, ecology and evolution has been published, but a comprehensive review on these topics is still lacking. We provide a general overview of the spider families recorded in hypogean habitats worldwide, we review the different adaptations of hypogean spiders to subterranean life, and we summarize the information gathered so far about their origin, population structure, ecology and conservation status. Finally, we point out the limits of the knowledge we currently have regarding hypogean spiders, aiming to stimulate future research. PMID:28446696

  18. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  19. Exploring old caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luana Belli, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Quarries, caves and mines often contain fossils. During the '30s in Rome, the urban expansion needs for building materials such as gravel, sand and clay were extracted from quarries that surrounded the city. One of these quarries in particular, in the area of Saccopastore (Nomentana area 3 km from the University Sapienza Roma) returned an ancient human fossil skull belonging to a Neanderthal (most likely a female) who lived in Latium about 120,000 years ago. Detailed studies of this fossil were carried out by Sergio Sergi, the son of the founder of the Museum of Anthropology in Rome, Giuseppe Sergi. The museum was founded in 1884 and was later transferred to the University City (1934) where it is still located. Professor Maria Luana Belli, a science teacher in the Liceo Scientifico "G. Keplero" is a volunteer and collaborator with the Museum "G. Sergi", and she and her students retrace the places of the discovery on the trail of the Neanderthals, for understanding the evolution of the territory in a perspective of interdisciplinary teaching.

  20. GEOMORPHIC ANALYSIS OF MAWSMAI CAVE, MEGHALAYA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Chandra Jha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Mawsmai Cave of Meghalaya. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist’s destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists. The cave is located in the East Khasi Hill region near Cherrapunjee and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the world’s largest rainfall region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this caves. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Keywords: Cave, Limestone, Stalactite, Stalagmite, Pillar, Solution.

  1. The future of the CAVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFanti, Thomas; Acevedo, Daniel; Ainsworth, Richard; Brown, Maxine; Cutchin, Steven; Dawe, Gregory; Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Johnson, Andrew; Knox, Chris; Kooima, Robert; Kuester, Falko; Leigh, Jason; Long, Lance; Otto, Peter; Petrovic, Vid; Ponto, Kevin; Prudhomme, Andrew; Rao, Ramesh; Renambot, Luc; Sandin, Daniel; Schulze, Jurgen; Smarr, Larry; Srinivasan, Madhu; Weber, Philip; Wickham, Gregory

    2011-03-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4-6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  2. The future of the CAVE

    KAUST Repository

    DeFanti, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  3. The tardigrade fauna of Australian marine caves: with descriptions of nine new species of Arthrotardigrada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Boesgaard, Tom M; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-05-28

    Marine caves are known to support a rich macrofauna; however, few studies have focused on meiofauna. Marine cave meiofaunal tardigrades have been reported from Japan and the Mediterranean Sea and a preliminary list of species including a redescription of Actinarctus neretinus Grimaldi de Zio, D'Addabbo Gallo, Morone De Lucia, Vaccarella and Grimaldi, 1982 was reported from Fish Rock Cave and Jim's Cave on the coast of Australia. This study is the fourth in a series describing the unique meiofauna in two Australian submarine caves located off the coast of New South Wales, describing nine new species.        Only 67 tardigrades were collected from the two caves, yet these contained a high diversity of at least 16 different species which are quite different in the two caves. The fauna includes nine arthrotardigrade genera: Actinarctus, Batillipes, Dipodarctus, Halechiniscus, Raiarctus, Styraconyx, Tanarctus, Tholoarctus, and Wingstrandarctus. This fauna is different from that reported for the high energy beaches along the East Coast of Australia.        We describe nine new species comprising a single batillipedid and eight halechiniscids: Batillipes solitarius nov. sp., Dipodarctus australiensis nov. sp., Dipodarctus susannae nov. sp., Raiarctus jesperi nov. sp., Raiarctus katrinae nov. sp., Tanarctus hirsutospinosus nov. sp., Tholoarctus oleseni nov. sp., Wingstrandarctus stinae nov. sp. and Wingstrandarctus unsculptus nov. sp.

  4. The caves of Cunday (Colombia, South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der Th.; Nelson, H.W.

    1955-01-01

    A short time ago rumors reached Bogota that a big cavesystem had been discovered by some farmers in the southwest of the department of Tolima, between the villages of Cunday and Purificación. This region belongs morphologically and geologically to the Eastern Cordillera, and forms the westernmost sp

  5. Summit firn caves, mount rainier, washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiver, E P; Mumma, M D

    1971-07-23

    Heat and steam from the crater fumaroles have melted over 5700 feet (1737 meters) of cave passage in the ice-filled east crater of Mount Rainier. The caves are in approximate balance with the present geothermal heat release. Future changes in the thermal activity of the summit cone will cause corresponding changes in cave passage dimensions, location, and ceiling and wall ablation features.

  6. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  7. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in caves of the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice A. B. Galati

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phlebotomine species captured during the period from January 1998 to June 2000 in 12 caves located in the Serra da Bodoquena, situated in the south central region of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Three of the caves are situated further north (in Bodoquena county, seven in the central area (Bonito county and two in the south (Jardim county. These last two caves and three of those in Bonito are located at the west side of the ridge. Eighteen species of phlebotomines were captured within the caves: Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932, Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942, Brumptomyia galindoi (Fairchild & Hertig, 1947, Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989, Lutzomyia almerioi Galati & Nunes, 1999, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Martinsmyia oliveirai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1970, Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962, Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942, Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar, 1929, Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939, Psathyromyia campograndensis (Oliveira, Andrade-Filho, Falcão & Brazil, 2001, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944, Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929, Pintomyia kuscheli (Le Pont, Martinez, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin, 1998, Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927 and Sciopemyia sp. A total of 29,599 phlebotomine sandflies was obtained. Lutzomyia almerioi was absolutely predominant (91.5% over the other species on both sides of the Bodoquena ridge, with the exception of the southern caves in which it was absent. It presents summer predominance, with nocturnal and diurnal activities. The species breeds in the caves and was captured during daytime both in the dark area and in the mouth of the caves. Martinsmyia oliveirai, the second most frequent sandfly, also presents a summer peak and only predominated over the other species in one cave, in which there

  8. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  9. The cave fauna of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Elliott; James R. Reddell; D. Craig Rudolph; G.O. Graening; Thomas S. Briggs; Darrell Ubick; Rolf L. Aalbu; Jean Krejca; Steven J. Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Hidden biodiversity is revealed in this study of California's subterranean fauna, which contains distinctive elements that differentiate it from other North American regions. Since 1975, the rate of discovery of new species has accelerated with funded projects in most of the important cave areas of the state, including our own studies. Here we compile all...

  10. Environmental conditions of Borra Cave, Visakhapattanam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haraprasad Bairagya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Borra of Eastern Ghats and ranked as the second largest cave of India just after Belum Caves situated in the same state Andhrapradesh, India. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist?s destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists in the Eastern Ghats. The cave is located in the Ananthagiri hills of the Eastern Ghats region near Visakhapattanam and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the sub-equatorial region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this cave. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Various viruses and bacteria are in the cave interior along with different other creatures. The Borra cave helps the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, India, to earn huge economic benefits for the sake of tourism industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10526 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 150-166

  11. Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genty Dominique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl that has provided several speleothempalaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring theVillars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and inthe hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explainsthe sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from thelower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring.A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations and thedrip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between twonearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a dailyscale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave airtemperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence ofthe outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoringover a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minorelements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, whichimplies a different seepage pathway

  12. High resolution pCO2 monitoring reveals ventilation of Bunker Cave (NW Germany) and its impact on speleothem growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Sylvia; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the environmental processes that influence geochemical proxies archived in speleothems depends critically on detailed cave monitoring. Cave air pCO2 is one of the most important factors controlling speleothem growth. The pCO2 concentration of cave air depends on (i) the productivity of its source(s), (ii) CO2-transport dynamics through the epikarst and (iii) cave ventilation processes. We monitored the pCO2 concentration ca. 100 m from the lower entrance of the Bunker-Emst-Cave system (NW Germany) with a CORA CO2-logger at a two-hourly resolution between April 2012 and February 2014. Near-atmospheric minimum pCO2 concentrations of 408 ppm are observed in winter, while higher values up to 811 ppm are recorded in summer. Higher summer concentrations are due to increased plant and soil microbial activity, resulting in elevated CO2 in the soil, which is transferred to the cave with infiltrating water. Generally, the front passages of Bunker Cave are well ventilated. Besides the seasonal pattern, pCO2 concentrations vary at diurnal scale. Correlations of pCO2 with the temperature difference between surface and cave air are positive during summer and negative in winter, with no clear pattern for spring and autumn months. Thus, Bunker Cave ventilation is driven by temperature and density differences between cave and surface air, with two entrances at different elevations allowing dynamic ventilation. During summer, relatively cooler cave air flows from the upper to the lower entrance, while in winter this pattern is reversed due to ascending warm cave air. The situation is further complicated by preferential south/southwestern winds that point directly on the cave entrances. Thus, cave ventilation is frequently disturbed, especially during periods of higher wind speed. Modern ventilation systematics only developed when the two cave entrances were artificially opened (1863 and 1926). Before that, ventilation was restricted and cave pCO2 concentrations were

  13. Using CAVE technology for functional genomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensen, Christoph W

    2002-01-01

    We have established the first Java 3D-enabled CAVE (CAVE automated virtual environment). The Java application programming interface allows the complete separation of the program development from the program execution, opening new application domains for the CAVE technology. Programs can be developed on any Java-enabled computer platform, including Windows, Macintosh, and Linux workstations, and executed in the CAVE without modification. The introduction of Java, one of the major programming environments for bioinformatics, into the CAVE environment allows the rapid development applications for genome research, especially for the analysis of the spatial and temporal data that are being produced by functional genomics experiments. The CAVE technology will play a major role in the modeling of biological systems that is necessary to understand how these systems are organized and how they function.

  14. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  15. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  16. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  17. Martian cave air-movement via Helmholtz resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kaj; Titus, Timothy N.; Okubo, Chris; Cushing, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Infrasonic resonance has previously been measured in terrestrial caves by other researchers, where Helmholtz resonance has been suggested as the plausible mechanism resulting in periodic wind reversals within cave entrances. We extend this reasoning to possible Martian caves, where we examine the characteristics of four atypical pit craters (APCs) on Tharsis, suggested as candidate cave entrance locations. The results show that, for several possible cave air movement periods, we are able to infer the approximate cave volumes. The utility of inferring cave volumes for planetary cave exploration is discussed.

  18. Chemical deposits in evaporite caves: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Forti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical deposits inside evaporite (gypsum, anhydrite and halite caves are far less common than those developed within limestone or volcanic cavities. Moreover they exhibit a lower scarce mineralogical variability due to several reasons, the most important of which are: 1 calcium sulfate and sodium chloride are by far less reactive than calcium carbonate; 2 evaporite outcrops normally have a low mineralogical variability within the cave recharge areas. Therefore these karst environments were less investigated from this point of view in the past: no general paper exists on speleothems developing in halite and anhydrite caves until present, while the last printed one on gypsum (and anhydrite karst appeared around 20 years ago. Several mineralogical studies were carried out in the last decades in caves from different evaporite areas proving that some of them host peculiar minerogenetic mechanisms, which are, at the moment, exclusive for these areas, and sometimes also brought to light to rare or even new cave minerals. In the present paper, together with an overview on all the actually known minerogenetic mechanisms active within the evaporite caves, the related chemical deposits and speleothems are shortly described. Far from being exhaustive, the recent mineralogical research on evaporite caves puts in evidence their unexpected richness in peculiar hosted speleothems and rare cave deposits. Seven out of the fifty known evaporite cave minerals, and around 10 speleothem types/subtypes are exclusive to these environments. Taking into account that only a few evaporite areas have been, so far, studied, it is highly probable that in the near future many more new cave deposits will be discovered, thus increasing the mineralogical interest of these unique caves.

  19. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  20. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  1. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in caves of the mainland and the island of Madeira has provided new data about the distribution and diversity of millipedes. A review of millipedes from caves of Portugal is presented, listing fourteen species belonging to eight families, among which six species are considered troglobionts...

  2. Radiocarbon intercomparison program for Chauvet Cave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzange, Marie-Therese; Delque-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Goslar, Tomasz; Grootes, Pieter Meiert; Higham, Tom; Kaltnecker, Evelyne; Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Oberlin, Christine; Paterne, Martine; van der Plicht, Johannes; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Valladas, Helene; Clottes, Jean; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon intercomparison program on 3 different charcoal samples collected in one of the hearths of the Megaceros gallery of Chauvet Cave (Ardeche, France). This cave, rich in parietal decoration, is important for the study of

  3. Cavernous hemangioma of Meckel's cave. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlings, M G; Tucker, W S

    1988-04-01

    A case of a cavernous hemangioma located within Meckel's cave and involving the gasserian ganglion is described in a patient presenting with facial pain and a trigeminal nerve deficit. Although these lesions have been reported to occur in the middle fossa, this is believed to be the first case of such a vascular malformation arising solely from within Meckel's cave.

  4. [Anatomic variants of Meckel's cave on MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Hadj-Rabia, M; Iffenecker, C; Fuerxer, F; Bekkali, F; Francke, J P; Doyon, D

    1998-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives an accurate analysis of Meckel's cave variability. Images were acquired in 50 patients with several sections for anatomical comparison. Using several sections, MRI is a suitable method for better analysis of the trigeminal cistern. The most frequent findings are symmetrical trigeminal cisterns. Expansion of Meckel's cave or its disappearance has pathological significance.

  5. Radiocarbon intercomparison program for Chauvet Cave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzange, Marie-Therese; Delque-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Goslar, Tomasz; Grootes, Pieter Meiert; Higham, Tom; Kaltnecker, Evelyne; Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Oberlin, Christine; Paterne, Martine; van der Plicht, Johannes; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Valladas, Helene; Clottes, Jean; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon intercomparison program on 3 different charcoal samples collected in one of the hearths of the Megaceros gallery of Chauvet Cave (Ardeche, France). This cave, rich in parietal decoration, is important for the study of

  6. A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam, part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail extending towards the entrance. The dark blue-green colour down the centre suggests that cyanobacterial growth follows the track of the wind-deflected roof drip. The dry silty cave sediment provides material for accretion onto the biological mat. This is the only example known from Borneo and one of the very few known from outside of Australia.

  7. Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera spelaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2011-08-01

    The cave lion, Panthera spelaea, was widespread across northern Eurasia and Alaska/Yukon during the Late Pleistocene. Both morphology and DNA indicate an animal distinct from modern lions (probably at the species level) so that its disappearance in the Late Pleistocene should be treated as a true extinction. New AMS radiocarbon dates directly on cave lion from across its range, together with published dates from other studies - totalling 111 dates - indicate extinction across Eurasia in the interval ca. 14-14.5 cal ka BP, and in Alaska/Yukon about a thousand years later. It is likely that its extinction occurred directly or indirectly in response to the climatic warming that occurred ca. 14.7 cal ka BP at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1, accompanied by a spread of shrubs and trees and reduction in open habitats. Possibly there was also a concomitant reduction in abundance of available prey, although most of its probable prey species survived substantially later. At present it is unclear whether human expansion in the Lateglacial might have played a role in cave lion extinction. Gaps in the temporal pattern of dates suggest earlier temporary contractions of range, ca. 40-35 cal ka BP in Siberia (during MIS 3) and ca. 25-20 cal ka BP in Europe (during the 'Last Glacial Maximum'), but further dates are required to corroborate these. The Holocene expansion of modern lion ( Panthera leo) into south-west Asia and south-east Europe re-occupied part of the former range of P. spelaea, but the Late Pleistocene temporal and geographical relationships of the two species are unknown.

  8. Denuded cave in Podbojev laz, Rakov Škocjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Stepišnik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a denuded cave situated in the area of Podbojev laz, on the northwestern side of the Rakov Škocjan. Morphometric and morphogenetic properties of several sections of the denuded cave and its surroundings are described in detail. The denuded cave developed from an epiphreatic cave system which used to function as an outflow cave system from the Rak valley. Morphometrical analysis of the slopes show that the denuded cave was developedin stages. As the surrounding surface is not flattened, the cave roof must have been denuded gradually.

  9. Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenya is one of the few countries in which karst cavities are scarce with respect to volcanic ones, which are widespread throughout the whole country. The great variability in lava composition allowed the evolution of very different cavities, some of which are amongst the largest lava tubes of the world. As normal for such a kind of cave, the hosted speleothems and cave minerals are scarce but important from the minerogenetic point of view. Anyway up to present no specific mineralogical research have been carried out therein. During the 8th International Symposium on Volcanospeleology, held in Nairobi in February 1998, some of the most important volcanic caves of Kenya have been visited and their speleothems and/or chemical deposits sampled: most of them were related to thick guano deposits once present inside these cavities. Speleothems mainly consisted of opal or gypsum, while the deposits related to guano often resulted in a mixture of sulphates and phosphates. The analyses confirmed the great variability in the minerogenetic mechanisms active inside the volcanic caves, which consequently allow the evolution of several different minerals even if the total amount of chemical deposit is scarce. Among the observed minerals kogarkoite, phillipsite and hydroxyapophyllite, must be cited because they are new cave minerals not only for the lava tubes of Kenya, but also for the world cave environment. The achieved results are compared with the available random data from previous literature in order to allow an updated overview on the secondary cave minerals of Kenya.

  10. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  11. Does the Cave Environment Reduce Functional Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Camile Sorbo; Batalha, Marco Antonio; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2016-01-01

    Caves are not colonised by all taxa present in the surface species pool, due to absence of light and the tendency to food limitation when compared to surface communities. Under strong species sorting during colonisation and later by the restrictive environmental filter, traits that are not adaptive in subterranean habitats may be filtered out. We tested whether cave communities were assembled by the restrictive regime propitiated by permanent darkness or by competitive exclusion due to resource scarcity. When compared to surface communities, the restrictive subterranean regime would lead to lower functional diversity and phenotypic clustering inside the caves, and the opposite should be expected in the case of competitive exclusion. Using isopods (Oniscidea) as model taxa, we measured several niche descriptors of taxa from surface and cave habitats, used a multivariate measure of functional diversity, and compared their widths. We found phenotypic overdispersion and higher functional diversity in cave taxa when compared to surface taxa. On the one hand, the dry climate outside of caves hampered the survival of several taxa and their ecological strategies, not viable under severe desiccation risk, culminating in the clustering of functional traits. In contrast, this restriction does not occur inside of caves, where isopods find favourable conditions under lower predation pressures and more amenable environmental parameters that allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Our results showed that, at least for some taxa, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought. The high functional diversity we found inside caves adds an additional reason for the conservation of these sensitive environments.

  12. 太行山南段洞栖蝙蝠的分布及栖息地重要性分析%Distribution and analysis of the importance of underground habitats of cave-dwelling bats in the south of Taihang Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 王延校; 何新焕; 牛红星

    2011-01-01

    Populations and underground habitats of cave-dwelling bat species were investigated in the south of Taihang Mountain. Data were collected during 76 surveys in 38 underground sites, 28 of which had not been surveyed previously by bat researchers. Between August 2009 and September 2010, approximately 17 000 bats were recorded. They represented nine species which belonged to four genera of two families. The most abundant species was Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. Data were collected on many cave variables such as the total length of passages (L) , the maximal width ( W) and the maximal height ( H). A conservation scoring system was proposed for the sites investigated, and the roosts were evaluated for their conservation importance. Each site was assigned a combined total by adding scores for the species observed in the cave. Scores for the individual species were obtained by multiplying the species abundance (Ai) and the species points (Mi). The most important sites in the area were Huanglianshu Tunnel and Jianhe Caves. The former served as hibemaculum and nursery roost to c. 2500 bats representing eight species and the latter to c. 2100 bats representing five species. Based on cluster and principal component analyses, there were no significant difference between the two sides of the southern Taihang Mountain in terms of either bat species and population sizes. There were significant difference in the total length of passages, the maximal width, the maximal height and canopy cover between hibernation and non-hibernation sites. Principal component analysis indicated that topographic condition, concealment and human disturbance were the first three components of bat habitat selection. The load of the first three components was 85. 96%. At present, many big caves which contained large bat populations and several species of concern have been, or will be, developed as tourist sites. Cave-dwelling bats in the region are a facing serious crisis of survival. The data will help

  13. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  14. Bilateral Meckel's cave amyloidoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültaşli, N; van den Hauwe, L; Bruneau, M; D'Haene, N; Delpierre, I; Balériaux, D

    2012-05-01

    Primary solitary amyloidoma of Meckel's cave is rare, and a bilateral location is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 12 cases in the literature have described such a primary lesion, including one case of bilateral involvement of Meckel's cave. We report here on the case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with pseudotumor masses involving both Meckel's caves and responsible for trigeminal neuropathy. The final diagnosis of amyloidoma was made on the basis of histological examination of surgical biopsy specimens.

  15. Hydrogeology of Gradišnica and Gašpinova jama caves in karst aquifer between Planinsko polje and Ljubljanica Springs (Central Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez turk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground karst water is accessible only in two caves near Logatec town (30 km south of Ljubljana, central Slovenia; Gradišnica and Gašpinova jama caves. Water level and water temperature were continuously measured more than one year in both caves. Gradišnica and Gašpinova jama caves belong to the same karst aquifer, therefore fluctuations of water level are almost identical and simultaneous.According to our measurements,fluctuations are significant;they rach at least 50 m.Incontrast,water temperature is significantly different at both locations.Mean difference is 1-2 °C, the highest measured was 5 °C. Relatively high temperature differences are due to recharge characteristics of the aquifer. It is fed by waters which have different surface origin. Water temperature in Gradišnica Cave directly reflects temperatureof the surface Unica River at medium water condition. On the contrary, the Unica River influences on water temperature in Gašpinova jama Cave at the highest floods only.Ithappens when discharge of the surface Unica River at Haasberg exceeds 40 m3/s. Water temperature becomes similarin larger part of the aquifer between both discussed caves, at such high water conditions only. Temperature of underground water tells us much about the origin of the water, which feeds discussed caves.

  16. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Levy

    2008-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis) may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically...

  17. Evaluating the Carrying Capacity in The Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija is a multidesignation site, located in south western part of Slovenia. In 1986 the Škocjanske jame - Škocjan Caves were listed in UNESCO world heritage list, in 1996 the Government of Republic Slovenia established the Regional Park Škocjanske jame, Slovenija. In 1999 the underground course of The Reka River in Škocjan Caves was designated a Ramsar site as first underground wetland of international importance. The park lies within three locations Natura 2000. In 2004 Park Škocjanske jame became a MAB locality as The Karst Biosphere Reserve. The tourist activity was already developed in the early 19th century. Today's research projects are focused on quality of caves microclimate, in order to enable the cave to remain as pristine as possible due to tourism and on the other hand to provide safe environment for people who work in the caves, and on quality of the water that flows from buffer zone to the underground world an then to the sea in Italy. The tourist activity increased during the past years. With the aim of nature conservation and protection the management plan was developed and special programme of monitoring started in order to detect changes in the environment due to the anthropogenic impact. In the park we consider the estimation of the carrying capacity as a key element for preparation of proper management guidelines for the tourism development in site. The caves system is rich in several halls and tunnels and distinguishes the caves for its variety of dimensions. There are several limitations of the visits and number of visitors. They merely depend on spatial characteristic of the caves and its surroundings and on human resources of the experts stuff that is in charge of guiding tourists groups to the caves. There is no simple formula that could be used for evaluation of capacity on general, but detailed studies of several locations and suitable description of parameters could give us an idea of proposing the

  18. PERISCOPE: PERIapsis Subsurface Cave OPtical Explorer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar sub-surface exploration has been a topic of discussion since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter identified openings (cave skylights) on the surface of the moon...

  19. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  20. Adult peripheral neuroepithelioma in Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midroni, G; Dhanani, A N; Gray, T; Tucker, W S; Bilbao, J M

    1991-02-01

    A case of peripheral neuroepithelioma arising from the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's cave is presented. The discussion emphasizes the pathological criteria for the diagnosis of a peripheral neuroepithelioma and the current controversy about the classification of this and related tumors.

  1. Tree-mould caves in Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaal Ludovit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tube-shaped caves are described in this work, which origined in consequence of weathering the trees. Their length ranges from 5.8 to 17 m. All of them occur in neovolcanic rocks of Middle Slovakia, in epiclastic andesite conglomerates, breccias or in the tuffs. Some other caverns are close to the entrance of this caves, however they are inaccessible for a man. Thin rim of silicates (opal or chalcedony occurs in some of them.

  2. Hypogene caves of the central Appalachian Shenandoah Valley in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Wil

    2017-01-01

    Several caves in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia show evidence for early hypogenic conduit development with later-enhanced solution under partly confined phreatic conditions guided by geologic structures. Many (but not all) of these caves have been subsequently invaded by surface waters as a result of erosion and exhumation. Those not so affected are relict phreatic caves, bearing no relation to modern drainage patterns. Field and petrographic evidence shows that carbonate rocks hosting certain relict phreatic caves were dolomitized and/or silicified by early hydrothermal fluid migration in zones that served to locally enhance rock porosity, thus providing preferential pathways for later solution by groundwater flow, and making the surrounding bedrock more resistant to surficial weathering to result in caves that reside within isolated hills on the land surface. Features suggesting that deep phreatic processes dominated the development of these relict caves include (1) cave passage morphologies indicative of ascending fluids, (2) cave plans of irregular pattern, reflecting early maze or anastomosing development, (3) a general lack of cave breakdown and cave streams or cave stream deposits, and (4) calcite wall and pool coatings within isolated caves intersecting the local water table, and within unroofed caves at topographic locations elevated well above the local base level. Episodes of deep karstification were likely separated by long periods of geologic time, encompassing multiple phases of sedimentary fill and excavation within caves, and reflect a complex history of deep fluid migration that set the stage for later shallow speleogenesis that continues today.

  3. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  4. Airborne microorganisms in Lascaux Cave (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Martin-Sanchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lascaux Cave in France contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings. The importance of the paintings, one of the finest examples of European rock art paintings, was recognized shortly after their discovery in 1940. In the 60’s of the past century the cave received a huge number of visitors and suffered a microbial crisis due to the impact of massive tourism and the previous adaptation works carried out to facilitate visits. In 1963, the cave was closed due to the damage produced by visitors’ breath, lighting and algal growth on the paintings. In 2001, an outbreak of the fungus Fusarium solani covered the walls and sediments. Later, black stains, produced by the growth of the fungus Ochroconis lascauxensis, appeared on the walls. In 2006, the extensive black stains constituted the third major microbial crisis. In an attempt to know the dispersion of microorganisms inside the cave, aerobiological and microclimate studies were carried out in two different seasons, when a climate system for preventing condensation of water vapor on the walls was active (September 2010 or inactive (February 2010. The data showed that in September the convection currents created by the climate system evacuated the airborne microorganisms whereas in February they remained in suspension which explained the high concentrations of bacteria and fungi found in the air. This double aerobiological and microclimate study inLascauxCave can help to understand the dispersion of microorganisms and to adopt measures for a correct cave management.

  5. Raman spectroscopy in the study of hydrothermal cave minerals: Implications for research on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gázquez, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Sanz, Aurelio; Audra, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Regarding that the ExoMars mission of the ESA, scheduled for launch in 2018 will be equipped with a Raman spectrometer, investigations by Raman spectroscopy on Earth's minerals are essential to interpret data coming from this further mission to Mars. Among terrestrial minerals, cave minerals represent an opportunity to better understand the genesis of Martian minerals and the evolution of Mars itself, in particular by studying minerals formed in hydrothermal conditions, as well as those generated due to hydrothermal alteration of previous materials. The absence of solar radiation, practically constant temperature at daily and seasonal scale and the presence of liquid water are some of the attractions which make caves interesting for Martian research. In the present work, we have studied a great variety of cave minerals from hypogenic/thermal mine-caves like the Giant Geode of Pulpí (south-eastern Spain), the caves of the Naica mine (northern Mexico), the caves of the San Giovanni Mountain (Sardinia, Italy) and Baume Galinière Cave (south-eastern France). Carbonate, sulphate, sulphurs and polymetallic oxyhydroxides are the most common minerals found in these cavities. Among them, it is worth noting the presence of several minerals of the jarosite group and gypsum, since these minerals have been recently discovered on the Mars surface. Both of them are hydrated minerals, which genetic mechanisms are linked to the presence of liquid water. In the case of jarosite minerals, identification of species like argentojarosite and plumbojarosite confers worth to the Raman technique against other methodologies, like XRD by which the characterization of the jarosite group minerals is difficult. As a consequence of the recent discovery of Ca-rich sulphates (probably gypsum) on the surface of Mars, attention has been focused on the terrestrial gypsiferous formations. The gypsum samples from the Giant Geode of Pulpí and the caves of the Naica mine, which are subject of this

  6. Habitat Management Plan for Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Logan Cave NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Logan Cave NWR, to...

  7. Groundwater Quality Monitoring at Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to establish long-term groundwater parameters associated with the outflow from Logan Cave and the implication to the aquatic resources in the cave.

  8. Stability analysis of subgrade cave roofs in karst region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 赵明华; 曹文贵

    2008-01-01

    According to the engineering features of subgrade cave roof in karst region, the clamped beam model of subgrade cave roof in karst region was set up. Based on the catastrophe theory, the cusp catastrophe model for bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof and safe thickness of subgrade cave roof in karst region was established. The necessary instability conditions of subgrade cave roof were deduced, and then the methods to determine safe thickness of cave roofs under piles and bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof were proposed. At the same time, a practical engineering project was applied to verifying this method, which has been proved successfu1ly. At last, the major factors that affect the stability on cave roof under pile in karst region were deeply discussed and some results in quality were acquired.

  9. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Linnea M.; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Kirk S Zigler

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave co...

  10. Using bioenergetic models to estimate environmental conditions in anchialine caves

    OpenAIRE

    Klanjšček, Tin; Cukrov, Neven; Cukrov, Marijana; Geček, Sunčana; Legović, Tarzan

    2012-01-01

    Ways of deducing information on physicochemical characteristics of anchialine caves from measurements of sedentary biota are investigated. First, photographs of Ficopomatus enigmaticus from two different anchialine caves are used to draw qualitative conclusions on water circulation patterns and organic loads of the two caves. Next, the ability of bioenergetic models to quantify average conditions in anchialine caves from information on abundance, distribution, morphological characteristcs, an...

  11. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  12. Final Critical Habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia...

  13. Final Critical Habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia...

  14. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa and volcanic caves in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Declan Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the history of the Cave Exploration Group of East Africa with special reference to the exploration of volcanic caves. It demonstrates that the group has concentrated on two main areas, the Chyulu HiIls and Mt. Suswa, although other areas have also been studied. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa has had to cope with various problems. The most important of which are related to the socio-economic conditions of a developing country. These problems have not prevented the group from making a valuable contribution to vulcanospeleology.

  15. Comparing the suitability of geophysical methods in the study of a cave in marbles: A case study of Gruta de las Maravillas (Aracena, Southwest Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Martínez Moreno, Francisco; Galindo Zaldívar, Jesús; Pedrera Parias, Antonio; Ullod, Teresa Teixidó i.; Ruano Roca, Patricia; Peña Ruano, Jose Antonio; González Castillo, Lourdes; Ruiz Constan, Ana; López Chicano, Manuel; Martín Rosales, Wenceslao

    2014-05-01

    Different geophysical methods have been applied to determine the geometry of caves, considering the host rock, depth, dimension, presence of water and other parameters. The Gruta de las Maravillas cave is located in marbles interlayered with gneiss, quartzite and granodiorite along the suture between South Portuguese and Ossa Morena zone. This cave is probably formed as a consequence of the presence of pyrite and iron oxides mineralization that interacted with the surrounding marble host rocks. In order to analyze the continuity of the Gruta de las Maravillas cave (Aracena, southwest Spain) geophysical methods has been used on the known cave in order to check their suitability. These results allow investigating the prolongation of the cave in surrounding areas, performing a comprehensive study of the Cerro del Castillo hill containing the cavity. Microtopography with differential GPS and cave topography with an accuracy of 0.01 m were measured. The first geophysical method employed were a regional microgravity, with and SCINTREX CG-5 gravimeter that reaches an accuracy up to 0.001 mGal. In the obtained residual anomaly map, negative values are associated with negative density contrast, which are related to the known cave position. In addition, residual gravity minima suggest the presence of other unknown cavities. The anomalies attributed to possible new shallow and deep caves have been studied in a second step with the application of other eight detailed geophysical methods along profiles to test the response of each of them to the presence of cavities: microgravity, magnetic, electrical resistivity tomography, induced polarization, seismic P-waves velocity tomography, ray tracing coverage, common offset and ground-penetrating radar. Moreover, the known cave has walls covered with iron oxides that determine magnetic anomaly minima and intermediate resistivity values (~2000 ohm.m) on the ERT profiles versus the host marble rocks (~45000 ohm.m). After a detailed

  16. Is it always dark in caves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not used from underground life.

  17. Meckel's cave meningiomas with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G A; Herz, D A; Leeds, N; Strully, K

    1975-06-01

    Two patients with Meckel's Cave meningiomas were initially hospitalized as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Four-vessel angiography was necessary to exclude other causes of bleeding while demonstrating these lesions. Apoplectic presentation in both cases led to early diagnosis and successful surgical therapy. A review of the literature reveals subarachnoid hemorrhage to be a rarity in association with meningiomas. The two patients currently reported are believed to be the only examples on record of hemorrhagic meningiomas arising from the region of Meckel's Cave.

  18. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  19. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  20. Observations on aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae from ten caves in the Ojców National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, carried out in 2010–11, focuses on species composition and distribution of cyanobacterial and algal communities colonizing ten caves (Biała, Ciemna, Koziarnia, Krakowska, Łokietka, Okopy Wielka Dolna, Sąspowska, Sypialnia, Zbójecka and Złodziejska Caves in the Ojców National Park (South Poland. A total of 85 taxa were identified, 35 of them belonging to cyanobacteria, 30 chlorophytes, and 20 belonging to other groups of algae. Aerophytic cyanobacteria dominated in these calcareous habitats. Nine species, Gloeocapsa alpina, Nostoc commune, Chlorella vulgaris, Dilabifilum arthopyreniae, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Muriella decolor, Neocystis subglobosa, and Orthoseira roseana, were the most abundant taxa in all the caves. The investigated microhabitats offer relatively stable microclimatic conditions and are likely to be responsible for the observed vertical distribution of aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae.

  1. Occurrence and Distribution of Cave Dwelling Frogs of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The life in subterranean caves always needs a high degree of biological adaptability, due to its unusual ecosystem. The cave dwelling species usually get selected from preadapted biological traits for cave life. The cave dwelling tendencies in frog are very uncommon. Majority of reported cave frogs usually prefer cave for temporary shelter. In India, the biospeleological inventory is still in its primary stage. Till date no serious attempt has been taken to understand the cave dwelling habitat for any frog in India. Inspite of it, in India time to time various reports on natural histories of anurans reveal its cave dwelling tendencies. On the basis of personal observations and available literature in this report I have documented the occurrences and distributions of five cave dwelling frogs of India. Common biological traits from all the established cave frogs, which could be referred as preadapted for cave life, have been discussed. Further, the possible threats and IUCN status of each discussed species has been highlighted.

  2. Solar-forced diurnal regulation of cave drip rates via phreatophyte evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleborn, Katie; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Baker, Andy; Navarre, Owen

    2016-11-01

    We present results of a detailed study of drip rate variations at 12 drip discharge sites in Glory Hole Cave, New South Wales, Australia. Our novel time series analysis, using the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, reveals pronounced oscillations at daily and sub-daily frequencies occurring in 8 out of the 12 monitored sites. These oscillations were not spatially or temporally homogenous, with different drip sites exhibiting such behaviour at different times of year in different parts of the cave. We test several hypotheses for the cause of the oscillations, including variations in pressure gradients between karst and cave due to cave breathing effects or atmospheric and earth tides, variations in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in viscosity of water with daily temperature oscillations, and solar-driven daily cycles of vegetative (phreatophytic) transpiration. We conclude that the only hypothesis consistent with the data and hydrologic theory is that daily oscillations are caused by solar-driven pumping by phreatophytic trees which are abundant at the site. The daily oscillations are not continuous and occur sporadically in short bursts (2-14 days) throughout the year due to non-linear modification of the solar signal via complex karst architecture. This is the first indirect observation leading to the hypothesis of tree water use in cave drip water. It has important implications for karst hydrology in regards to developing a new protocol to determine the relative importance of trends in drip rate, such as diurnal oscillations, and how these trends change over timescales of weeks to years. This information can also be used to infer karst architecture. This study demonstrates the importance of vegetation on recharge dynamics, information that will inform both process-based karst models and empirical estimation approaches. Our findings support a growing body of research exploring the impact of trees on speleothem paleoclimate proxies.

  3. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Allegrucci

    Full Text Available The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA. Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  4. Instrumenting caves to collect hydrologic and geochemical data: case study from James Cave, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Madeline E.; Schwartz, Benjamin F.; Orndorff, William; Doctor, Daniel H.; Eagle, Sarah D.; Gerst, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers are productive groundwater systems, supplying approximately 25 % of the world’s drinking water. Sustainable use of this critical water supply requires information about rates of recharge to karst aquifers. The overall goal of this project is to collect long-term, high-resolution hydrologic and geochemical datasets at James Cave, Virginia, to evaluate the quantity and quality of recharge to the karst system. To achieve this goal, the cave has been instrumented for continuous (10-min interval) measurement of the (1) temperature and rate of precipitation; (2) temperature, specific conductance, and rate of epikarst dripwater; (3) temperature of the cave air; and (4) temperature, conductivity, and discharge of the cave stream. Instrumentation has also been installed to collect both composite and grab samples of precipitation, soil water, the cave stream, and dripwater for geochemical analysis. This chapter provides detailed information about the instrumentation, data processing, and data management; shows examples of collected datasets; and discusses recommendations for other researchers interested in hydrologic and geochemical monitoring of cave systems. Results from the research, briefly described here and discussed in more detail in other publications, document a strong seasonality of the start of the recharge season, the extent of the recharge season, and the geochemistry of recharge.

  5. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  6. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIRLLEY RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI. Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  7. Late Pleistocene carnivores (Carnivora: Mammalia) from a cave sedimentary deposit in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Shirlley; Avilla, Leonardo S; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H; Bernardes, Camila

    2014-11-28

    The Brazilian Quaternary terrestrial Carnivora are represented by the following families: Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae Mephitidae and Mustelidae. Their recent evolutionary history in South America is associated with the uplift of the Panamanian Isthmus, and which enabled the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Here we present new fossil records of Carnivora found in a cave in Aurora do Tocantins, Tocantins, northern Brazil. A stratigraphical controlled collection in the sedimentary deposit of the studied cave revealed a fossiliferous level where the following Carnivora taxa were present: Panthera onca, Leopardus sp., Galictis cuja, Procyon cancrivorus, Nasua nasua and Arctotherium wingei. Dating by Electron Spinning Resonance indicates that this assemblage was deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), at least, 22.000 YBP. The weasel, G. cuja, is currently reported much further south than the record presented here. This may suggest that the environment around the cave was relatively drier during the LGM, with more open vegetation, and more moderate temperatures than the current Brazilian Cerrado.

  8. Meckel's cave tuberculoma with unusual infratemporal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Somasundaram, S; Rao, Ravi M; Radhakrishnan, V V

    2007-07-01

    The authors describe a rare case of intracranial tuberculoma of the Meckel's cave and cavernous sinus with extension into the infratemporal fossa causing widening of the foramen ovale and adjacent bone destruction. The rarity of the lesion and the unusual extension of the lesion are presented with a brief review of literature.

  9. Xanthoma in Meckel's cave. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H; Oka, K; Nakayama, Y; Tomonaga, M

    1991-04-01

    A case of xanthoma located within Meckel's cave and the semilunar ganglion is described in a patient with a trigeminal nerve deficit. This is the first case of xanthoma in such a location. The distinctive morphological appearance is illustrated and the possible histogenesis is discussed.

  10. The Crystals Cave in a test tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, C.; Romero, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    It's quite easy to understand formation of crystals in Nature by evaporation of the solutions that contain minerals, but many times we have realised that our pupils hardly understand that precipitation is a process mostly caused by changing parameters in a solution, like pH, temperature, etc. and not necessarily depending on evaporation. We propose a hands-on activity using the context of the Cave of the Crystals in Naica's mine, Mexico. The Crystals Cave is a wonderful place where giant crystals of selenite (gypsum) have grown feeding from a supersaturated anhydrite solution1. Miners discovered the cave filled with hot water, and drained it to explore the gallery. The cave is now a giant laboratory where scientists are looking for the keys to understand geological processes. Teaching sequence (for students 15 years old) is as follows: DISCOVERING A MARVELLOUS PLACE: We showed our pupils several images and a short video of the Cave of the Crystals and ask them about the process that may have caused the phenomenon. Whole-class discussion. PRESENTING A CHALLENGE TO OUR STUDENTS: "COULD WE CREATE A CRYSTALS CAVE IN A TEST TUBE?" EXPERIMENTING TO IMITATE NATURE: Students tried to grow crystals simulating the same conditions as those in Naica's mine. We have chosen KNO3, a salt more soluble than gypsum. We added 85 g of salt to 200 ml of water (solubility of KNO3 at 25°C is 36 g per 100 gr of water) and heated it until it is dissolved. Afterwards, we poured the solution into some test tubes and other recipients and let them cool at room temperature. And they got a beautiful crystals cave!! THINKING A LITTLE MORE: we asked pupils some questions to make them think about the process and to predict what would happen in different situations. For example: a) What would happen with crystals if we heated the tubes again? or b) What would happen if we took the remaining solution from the tubes and keep it in the fridge? PROVING A NEW HYPOTHESIS: Pupils collected the remaining

  11. A >400 kyrs archive of sedimentation in Scladina cave (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonhof, Hubert; Bonjean, Dominique; Pirson, Stéphane; van der Lubbe, Jeroen; Hellstrom, John; Scholz, Denis; Verheyden, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Scladina Cave, near the Meuse River in Belgium, is well-known for its well preserved Neanderthal fossils and stone tools. Cave research started in the 1970's, when archeological findings near the entrance of the cave initiated a long-running excavation programme in the -at that time- almost completely sediment-infilled cave. Over the past decades, a wealth of mammal fossils, stone tools, and a mandible of a Neanderthal child were found, and the complex sedimentary context of the cave strata was reconstructed in high detail. Crucial to understanding the cave stratigraphy is the construction of an absolutely dated age model. Until recently, this age model was based on a number of OSL ages, pollen stratigraphy and a few U-series ages on flowstone and stalagmite calcite. These U-series ages, however, had much lower precision than can be obtained by modern MC-ICP-MS techniques. In this study, we present new and more precise U-series ages for the major flow stone levels in Scladina Cave (upper stratigraphical sequence), and two flowstone levels from Sous-Saint-Paul Cave (lower stratigraphical sequence). The oldest flow stone layer dates back to > 400 ka, and the youngest represents the Holocene. The age model shows that flow stone formation typically occurred during warm climate conditions. These findings help to improve the existing age model for Scladina Cave significantly, and place better constraints on the age of individual fossils, and fossil assemblages in the cave.

  12. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  13. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L N; Miller, Ana Z; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  14. Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal: Background to the excavations of middle stone age and iron age occupations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wadley, L

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouth in South Africa. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 27. Henshilwood C. and Sealy J. (1997). Bone artefacts from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, southern Cape, South Africa. Curr. Anthropol. 38, 890–895. 28. Henshilwood C.S., d’Errico F... C.S., d’Errico F., Yates R., Jacobs Z., Tribolo C., Duller G.A.T., Mercier N., Sealy J.C., Valladas H., Watts I. and Wintle A.G. (2002). Emergence of modern human behaviour: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa. Science 295, 1278...

  15. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  16. Cave Entrance dependent Spore Dispersion of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Various Sediments of Iron Ore Cave in Brazil: a colloquy on human threats while caving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of fungi. The fungal community present in a cave also includes pathogenic and opportunistic species out of which some are also served as energy sources in such energy stared ecosystems. Studies on microbial diversity and their role on such energy starved ecosystem are scarce. The present study was aimed to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi present in the various sediment of an iron ore cave and to recognize them as pathogenic and/or opportunistic species. Further the impact of cave entrance on the spore depositions on various distances dependent sediments were analyzed. The results suggest a diverse microbial community inhabiting the cave and an influence of cave entrance over spore deposition on various sediments. We counted a total of 4,549 filamentous fungi that included 34 species of 12 genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Penicillium, Torula, Trichoderma, Mucor and Rhizopus. A positive significant relation was observed between spore deposition and distance from cave entrance (p= 0.001. Areas of potential mycoses risks were recognized. This is the first study on microbiological community of an iron ore cave in the country.

  17. Dandak: a mammalian dominated cave ecosystem of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual darkness, high humidity with almost constant geophysical factors are some of the abiotic factors which make the cave ecosystem unique. For any species a high degree of adaptation is always needed to thrive in such an ecosystem. Mammals in general have never adapted to cave life but they can play a major role in the cave ecosystem. Structurally, the Dandak cave has two distinct chambers that are completely different from each other in several geophysical factors. Thus both the cave chambers offer two distinct types of ecological niche. In the present study we found that both chambers of this cave were dominated by mammals all year round. Additionally, the group of mammals using the outer chamber completely differs from the group using the inner one. Possible geophysical factors responsible for such differences are discussed.

  18. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  19. Hotspot mitigation in the StarCAVE

    KAUST Repository

    Rhee, Jordan

    2010-01-27

    Rear-projected screens such as those in Digital Light Projection (DLP) televisions suffer from an image quality problem called hot spotting, where the image is brightest at a point dependent on the viewing angle. In rear-projected mulit-screen configurations such as the StarCAVE at Calit2, this causes discontinuities in brightness at the edges where screens meet, and thus in the 3D image perceived by the user. In the StarCAVE we know the viewer\\'s position in 3D space and we have programmable graphics hardware, so we can mitigate this effect by performing post-processing in the inverse of the pattern, yielding a homogenous image at the output. Our implementation improves brightness homogeneity by a factor of 4 while decreasing frame rate by only 1-3 fps.

  20. Toxicity and Geochemistry of Missouri Cave Stream Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, C. A.; Besser, J.; Wicks, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Water and sediment quality are among the most important variables affecting the survival of stygobites. In Tumbling Creek Cave, Taney County Missouri the population of the endangered cave snail, Antrobia culveri, has declined significantly over the past decade. The cause of the population decline is unknown but could be related to the quality of streambed sediment in which the cave snail lives. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity and concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment of Tumbling Creek Cave and five other caves in Missouri. These sediments were analyzed to assess possible point sources from within the recharge areas of the caves and to provide baseline geochemical data to which Tumbling Creek Cave sediments could be compared. Standard sediment toxicity tests and ICP-MS analysis for heavy metals were conducted. Survival and reproduction of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, did not differ significantly between cave sediments and a control sediment. However the growth of amphipods differed significantly among sites and was significantly reduced in sediments from Tumbling Creek Cave relative to controls. Concentrations of several metals in sediments differed substantially among locations, with elevated levels of zinc and copper occurring in Tumbling Creek Cave. However, none of the measured metal concentrations exceeded sediment quality guidelines derived to predict probable effects on benthic organisms and correlations between sediment metal concentrations and toxicity endpoints were generally weak. While elevated metal levels may play a part in the cave snail's decline, other factors may be of equal or greater importance. Ongoing analyses of persistent organic contaminants and total organic carbon in cave sediments, along with continued water quality monitoring, may provide data that will allow us to better understand this complicated problem.

  1. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Borba, Luis A B; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Almeida, Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior, José Valentim

    2004-06-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months did not show abnormalities.

  2. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Falavigna,Asdrubal; Luis A. B. Borba; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani [UNIFESP; Almeida,Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior,José Valentim

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months d...

  3. Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onac Bogdan P.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cioclovina Cave in Romania’s Southern Carpathians is a world-renowned cave site for its paleontological, anthropological, andmineralogical (type locality of ardealite finds. To date, over 25 mineral species have been documented, some unusual for a caveenvironment. This paper presents details on the occurrence of collinsite [Ca2(Mg,Fe2+(PO42·2H2O], atacamite [Cu22+Cl(OH3], andkröhnkite [Na2Cu2+(SO42·2H2O] based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, stable isotope analyses, and scanningelectron microscope imaging. This is the first reported occurrence of kröhnkite in a cave environment. Atacamite representsthe weathering product (in the presence of Lower-Cretaceous limestone-derived chlorine of copper minerals washed into the cavefrom nearby ore bodies. Atacamite and kröhnkite have similar sources for copper and chlorine, whereas sodium probably originatesfrom weathered Precambrian and Permian detrital rocks. Collinsite is believed to have precipitated from bat guano in a damp, nearneutralpH environment. The results show the following sequence of precipitation: ardealite-brushite-(gypsum-atacamite-kröhnkite.This suggests that the observed mineral paragenesis is controlled by the neutralization potential of the host-rock mineralogy and theconcentrations of Ca, Cl, Cu, and Na.

  4. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environme......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE......This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...

  5. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically 0.9 m, and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 µS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a pre-existing layer of higher salinity.

  6. Bacteria and free-living amoeba in the Lascaux Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Fabiola; Alabouvette, Claude; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-01-01

    The Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940, and by 1960 it had received up to 1800 daily visitors. In 1963, the cave was closed and in 2001 it was invaded by a Fusarium solani species complex which was treated for four years with benzalkonium chloride. However, Lascaux Cave bacteria have only been poorly investigated. Here we show that the cave is now a reservoir of potential pathogenic bacteria and protozoa which can be found in outbreaks linked to air-conditioning systems and cooling towers in community hospitals and public buildings.

  7. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2015-11-01

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to (222)Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors.

  8. A brief history of exploration in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, USA; Una historia abreviada de las exploraciones en la cueva Lechuguilla, Nuevo Mexico, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, J. T. M.; Davis, D. G.

    2016-07-01

    Lechuguilla Cave, a complex three-dimensional cave with a single known entrance, is located in remote desert terrain in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, in southeastern New Mexico, USA. The Guadalupe Mountains there contain uplifted limestone and dolomite rock in the Permian-age Capitan Reef complex. Hundreds of caves have been found in this region, but Lechuguilla Cave greatly exceeds the size of all others known. It was only a small pit mined for bat guano in the early twentieth century. In the 1970s the Cave Research Foundation performed digs at the bottom, where profuse air movement had been noted in the debris. This work ceased but another team of cavers visited in 1984, hearing and feeling the significant air, and began a digging project approved by the Park. The cavers dug into continuing passage in 1986. It was explored in three major branches, generally trending west/southwest to east/northeast, parallel to the reef face, with north-south connections along deep rift features. Depositional and corrosional events during sulfuric-acid speleogenesis created remarkable speleothems and speleogenesis, and the cave has often been called the Jewel of the Underground. The rapidly growing cave passed 80 km of surveyed length by 1990. Within the first ten years of exploration, 28 large-scale expeditions led to the cave reaching 113 km in length. From 1997 to 2013, 109 additional kilometers were mapped with smaller teams of up to 12 cavers per expedition. Exploration and mapping is now done in three to five expeditions per year, and recent work has focused on climbs and smaller leads such as tight crawls and fissures that were previously passed. Significant discoveries continue to be found using these techniques. The cave reaches a depth of 475 m and has been mapped to over 222 km in length. Exploration to the extreme ends is efficiently done with multi-day expeditions, using established camps in each branch. Cavers from the United States and dozens of other countries

  9. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  10. Linkage of cave-ice changes to weather patterns inside and outside the cave Eisriesenwelt (Tennengebirge, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schöner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of perennial ice masses in karst caves in relation to the outside climate is still not well understood, though a significant potential of the cave-ice for paleo-climate reconstructions could be expected. This study investigates the relationship between weather patterns inside and outside the cave Eisriesenwelt (Austrian Alps and the ice-surface changes of the ice-covered part of the cave from extensive measurements. It is shown that under recent climate the cave ice mass balance is more sensitive to winter climate for the inner parts of the cave and sensitive to winter and summer climate for the entrance near parts of the cave. For recent climate conditions ice surface changes can be well described from cave atmosphere measurements, indicating a clear annual cycle with weak mass loss in winter due to sublimation, stable ice conditions in spring until summer (autumn for the remoter parts of the cave and significant melt in late summer to autumn (for the entrance near parts of the cave. Interestingly, surface ice melt plays a minor role for ablation at the inner parts of the cave. Based on our measurements and other observations it is rather likely that sublimation was the major source for ice loss in Eisriesenwelt since the begin of the 20th century. Build-up of the ice in spring (as expected from theory was not observed as a general feature of the ice dynamics. Generally, the ice body currently appears in a quite balanced state, though the influence of show-cave management on ice mass-balance could not be clearly quantified.

  11. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability.

  12. Paleoclimatic impact on vertebrate activities: a speleothem record from Power Mill Creek Cave, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Schubert, B. W.; Wang, X.; Rowe, H. D.; Buckles, J.; Kaufmann, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Two speleothem samples were collected from Power Mill Creek Cave (PMCC), Missouri, for uranium-series dating at the University of Minnesota and stable isotopic analyses at the University of Kentucky. The speleothem samples found in the cave were attached to the bones of an extinct ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii). A femur was propped up on one stalagmite (PMCC1) and cemented to it by subsequent layers of flowstone. The other stalagmite (PMCC2) formed on top of a scapula. The ages of the speleothem samples range between 52,900 and 660 years old. Very few absolute dates on M. jefferesonii are known from the south-central United States and none of these are associated with paleoclimate data. With high-precision U-Th dates and the unique sample, PMCC1, we can narrow the age range of this M. jeffersonii to be between 42,100 ± 400 and 38,500 ± 500 years ago. In addition, we obtained carbon and oxygen isotope data on sample PMCC1 for a time period between 53 to 35 ka and reconstructed the regional climatic and vegetation changes. In general, climatic oscillations and vegetation changes in this region are consistent with the earlier study from speleothem samples of Crevice Cave, Missouri (Dorale et al., 1998). The midcontinental climate cooled and forest replaced grassland between 55 and 41 ka. Then, the temperature suddenly increased at 37 ka. Preliminary analysis of oxygen isotope oscillation shows that this warming around 37 ka was even more dramatic than that reported in the previous investigation at Crevice Cave. Based on these data, the sloth was living in a forested environment associated with a transitional climate. It is likely that these sudden cooling and subsequent warming changes between 42 and 37 ka had an impact on vertebrate communities in this region. Determining the degree of these impacts requires additional comparisons between well dated vertebrates and climatic records.

  13. Carbon dioxide budgets in cave air and carbon in speleothems; insights from a shallow cave in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Frank; Phillips, Dominika

    2017-04-01

    The conventional view that hydrological inputs (e.g. drip-water degassing) comprise the dominant source of cave air CO2 has been challenged by recent studies that emphasise the importance of direct advection of gaseous CO2from above and beneath cave voids (e.g. 'soil air' and 'ground air'). A better understanding of CO2 gas budgets in caves is important, not only for the correct interpretation of δ13C values and 14C activity data in speleothems, but also for an understanding of the wider role of karst in the global carbon cycle as a source or sink of atmospheric CO2. This study presents new results from a combined air-temperature and CO2 monitoring programme at a small multi-chamber cave in SE Ireland (Ballynamintra cave, Co. Waterford), building on an earlier study at this cave (Baldini et al., 2006). Episodic, low-amplitude but temporally coherent diurnal-scale cave air temperature fluctuations detected almost simultaneously by a series of temperature loggers within the cave were used to detect air mass advection. The sequence and pattern of temperature fluctuations at different locations within the cave enabled the identification of discrete air-inflow and air-outflow events. These diurnal-scale events occur episodically throughout the year in the winter/ spring and summer/autumn temperature ventilation regimes of the cave. Importantly, changes in cave air pCO2 values recorded by an infra-red logger located in the inner chamber a few metres from the back of the cave occur contemporaneously with the air-mass displacement events, and are consistent with direct advection of CO2-rich soil air via fractures in the subjacent cave roof and walls. In the winter regime, episodic diurnal-scale air outflow events draw CO2-rich air over the logger, resulting in short-lived pulses of air, typically containing c. 0.7% CO2 (by volume), several times the ambient cave air CO2 values at this site. Similar events occur during the summer/autumn thermal regime, but these reach

  14. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS: a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant information remains fragmented in isolated publications and databases. This fragmentation makes assessing the conservation status of marine cave species especially problematic, and this issue should be addressed urgently given the stresses resulting from planned and rampant development in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS initiative is to create a comprehensive taxonomic and ecological database of known species from marine caves and anchialine systems worldwide and to present this as a Thematic Species Database (TSD of the World Register of marine Species (WoRMS. WoRCS will incorporate ecological data (e.g., type of environment, salinity regimes, and cave zone as well as geographical information on the distribution of species in cave and anchialine environments. Biodiversity data will be progressively assembled from individual database sources at regional, national or local levels, as well as from literature sources (estimate: >20,000 existing records of cave-dwelling species scattered in several databases. Information will be organized in the WoRCS database following a standard glossary based on existing terminology. Cave-related information will be managed by the WoRCS thematic editors with all data dynamically linked to WoRMS and its team of taxonomic editors. In order to mobilize data into global biogeographic databases, a Gazetteer of the Marine and Anchialine Caves of the World will be established. The presence records of species could be eventually georeferenced for submission to the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and constitute an important dataset for biogeographical and

  15. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  16. Aspergillosis of the Petrous Apex and Meckel's Cave

    OpenAIRE

    Ederies, Ash; Chen, Joseph; Aviv, Richard I.; Pirouzmand, Farhad; Bilbao, Juan M.; Thompson, Andrew L.; Symons, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    Cranial cerebral aspergillosis is a rare entity in immunocompetent patients. Invasive disease involving the petrous apex and Meckel's cave has rarely been described. We present a case of localized invasive petrous apical and Meckel's cave disease in an immunocompetent patient who presented with hemicranial neuralgic pain.

  17. Meckel's cave epidermoid with trigeminal neuralgia: CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, A; Steinbaum, S; Chakeres, D W

    1984-12-01

    An epidermoid tumor of Meckel's cave was found in a middle-aged woman with trigeminal neuralgia. On CT the lesion had negative attenuation numbers of fat and extended from an expanded Meckel's cave through the porous trigeminus into the ambient and cerebellopontine angle cisterns. Surgical excision provided relief of the patient's trigeminal neuralgia.

  18. Aspergillosis of the Petrous Apex and Meckel's Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederies, Ash; Chen, Joseph; Aviv, Richard I; Pirouzmand, Farhad; Bilbao, Juan M; Thompson, Andrew L; Symons, Sean P

    2010-05-01

    Cranial cerebral aspergillosis is a rare entity in immunocompetent patients. Invasive disease involving the petrous apex and Meckel's cave has rarely been described. We present a case of localized invasive petrous apical and Meckel's cave disease in an immunocompetent patient who presented with hemicranial neuralgic pain.

  19. Intratentorial lipomas with Meckel's cave and cerebellopontine angle extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, M J; Robles, H A; Rao, K C; Armonda, R A; Ondra, S L

    1995-08-01

    An unusual case of bilateral intratentorial lipomas with extension into Meckel's caves and the cerebellopontine angle is described. Surgical and histopathologic correlation demonstrate that the lipoma encased the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's caves. The origin of the lipoma from the anteromedial margins of the tentorium is discussed and correlated with a recently proposed theory for the development of intracranial lipomas.

  20. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    Eight heavy metals content in the dominant animal groups, soil and water in Malang and Dashui caves ... Dashui cave is situated in the urban zone of Guiyang City, Guizhou, and Guizhou Aluminum ... cient of a metal in animal suggests higher absorption capacity of ... Pb, As, Cd and Hg, respectively, while the ranking of.

  1. 36 CFR 7.68 - Russell Cave National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Russell Cave National Monument. 7.68 Section 7.68 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.68 Russell Cave National Monument. (a...

  2. Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Fadi H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon. The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes. The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show δ18OV-PDB values of about -5.0‰ and δ13C V-PDB values of -11.8‰, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in δ18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2‰, and δ13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1‰. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals ‘invading’ the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes, and the slight depletion in δ18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated δ18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2‰ matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

  3. Terrestrial cave invertebrates of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETAR BERON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biospeleological research in Bulgaria started in 1921 in the Ledenika Cave. From 65 caves of “Vrachanski Balkan” Nature Park and its surroundings have been recorded a total of 218 species of terrestrial invertebrates, including 32 species of troglobionts, most of them endemic to Vrachanska Planina Mts. (including the caves near Lakatnik: Isopoda Oniscoidea – 4, Chilopoda – 1, Diplopoda – 5, Opiliones – 2, Pseudoscorpiones – 3, Araneae – 3, Collembola – 2, Diplura – 2, Coleoptera, Carabidae – 7, Coleoptera, Leiodidae – 3. Troglobites are known from 51 caves, the richest being the caves near Lakatnik (Temnata dupka - 10, Zidanka - 7, Razhishkata dupka - 5, Svinskata dupka - 6, Kozarskata peshtera - 5, near Vratsa (Ledenika - 11, Barkite 8 - 5, Belyar - 6, Toshova dupka near Glavatsi - 6 and others.

  4. Adenocarcinoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L; Arulampalam, T; Johnston, F; Symon, L

    1995-12-01

    A rare localization of adenocarcinoma in Meckel's cave is reported in a 58-year-old woman, who had a 5-month history of pain and altered sensation in the second division of the left trigeminal nerve. Removal of the lesion was achieved by a subtemporal route. Histology showed this to be an adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent investigations for a primary tumor; the investigations were all negative, and the patient was subsequently treated with a course of radiotherapy. At 4-month follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence, and she remains symptomatically well. The various mechanisms of secondary localization are discussed.

  5. Urang Cave Karst Environmental Development, as Tourism Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijono Srijono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst environment become an alternative tourist destination as well as to boost local revenues. In karst environments in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, formed Urang Cave, with an interesting endokarst phenomenon. This study aims to do zoning district Urang Cave as tourist sites. The research method is using contour maps as a base map of Urang Cave karst environment geomorphological mapping. Geomorphological data processing is using ArcView GIS 3.3 program. Land use map refers to RBI, scale 1:25.000. Geomorphological analysis refers to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 1456.K/20/MEM/2000, and petrography. Each development zone is analyzed its geophysical environmental element, then set scoring and value summation. For comprehensive environmental element analysis, chemical analysis of rocks, and water-soil chemistry. In reference to Minister of Energy Mineral Resource decrees No. 1456/K/20/MEM/2000, Urang Cave zoning defined into 3 (three zone, as follow: the Protected Zone, Cultivation Zone 1, and Cultivation Zone 2. Protected Zone, consists of Urang Cave tunnel/hallway with a unique spheleothem in it. This zone as a cave tracking site tourism, potential to produce karst water as a decent drinking water while maintaining hardness. Cultivation Zone 1 is spreading about 200 m in distance from outer appearance of spring around the cave hallway. In this zone mining of cave sediments may be done in the inactive form caves, without changing the state of the existing major exokarst morphology. Cultivation Zone 2, an outer zone, located farthest from the tunnel/hallway Urang Cave. Utilization of this zone as a limestone mining quarry, although only on a small scale.

  6. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS): a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Martínez, Alejandro; Álvarez, Fernando; Boxshall, Geoff; Humphreys, William F.; Jaume, Damià; Becking, L.E.; Muricy, Guilherme; Hengstum, van Peter J.; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Decock, Wim; Vanhoorne, Bart; Vandepitte, Leen; Bailly, Nicolas; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant

  7. Reliability analysis of the velocity matching of coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗善明; 缪协兴

    2002-01-01

    The matching relationship between coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face is analyzed in detail from the angle of reliability. The coupling equation of reliability is established correspondingly, and the mathematical equation of the coefficient of velocity matching of coal cutting and caving is obtained, which meets a certain reliability demand for making the working procedure of coal caving not influence coal cutting of coal-cutter. The results show that the relationship between the coefficient of the velocity matching and the reliability of coal cutting and caving system is linear on the whole when R<0.9. It is pointed out that different numerical value should be selected for different coal face according to different demand for reliability.

  8. Radon as a natural tracer for underwater cave exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csondor, Katalin; Erőss, Anita; Horváth, Ákos; Szieberth, Dénes

    2017-07-01

    The Molnár János cave is one of the largest hypogenic caves of the Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) and mainly characterized by water-filled passages. The major outflow point of the waters of the cave system is the Boltív spring, which feeds the artificial Malom Lake. Previous radon measurements in the cave system and in the spring established the highest radon concentration (71 BqL(-1)) in the springwater. According to previous studies, the origin of radon was identified as iron-hydroxide containing biofilms, which form where there is mixing of cold and thermal waters, and these biofilms efficiently adsorb radium from the thermal water component. Since mixing of waters is responsible for the formation of the cave as well, these iron-hydroxide containing biofilms and the consequent high radon concentrations mark the active cave forming zones. Based on previous radon measurements, it is supposed that the active mixing and cave forming zone has to be close to the spring, since the highest radon concentration was measured there. Therefore radon mapping was carried out with the help of divers in order to get a spatial distribution of radon in the cave passages closest to the spring. Based on our measurements, the highest radon activity concentration (84 BqL(-1)) was found in the springwater. Based on the distribution of radon activity concentrations, direct connection was established between the spring and the István-room of the cave, which was verified by an artificial tracer. However, the distribution of radon in the cave passages shows lower concentrations (18-46 BqL(-1)) compared to the spring, therefore an additional deep inflow from hitherto unknown cave passages is assumed, from which waters with high radon content arrive to the spring. These passages are assumed to be in the active cave formation zone. This study proved that radon activity concentration distribution is a useful tool in underwater cave exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. USING GIS FOR CAVES MODELLING AND ANALYSIS. THE STUDY CASE OF ANINA MINING AREA (BANAT MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTUGYAN Laurențiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available GIS started to be used also in caves’ mapping, but the work in this area is quite less widespread as surface mapping. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to caves’ digital modelling and analysis, using GIS and geovisualization techniques. COMPASS program is a software package designed for editing, processing, analysing and visualizing data on computer mapping caves. The programs allow input caves, reviewing data, obtaining statistics on caves, view plans from different angles on the monitor, and finally these views can then be printed. In this paper, we obtain digital models for endokarstic landforms situated in a karstic area in the South-West of Romania. We convert the Speleological data from analog into digital data and then obtained a virtual model for 4 cavities. Modelling karst cavities using GIS software require certain advantages and disadvantages. As advantages we can observe the fact that employing such a program can export a cave modelling in various formats and can include the function of spatial analysis in various programs, and the introduction of such objects in the Web Free and accessible. The main drawback to COMPASS program is given the simplicity and the limitation in modelling caves’ galleries. This program gives the form of tubes, pipes, made from a variety of geometric shapes. For Anina Mining Area, where nowadays local authorities are trying to develop tourism as a branch of economic recovery, these digital data regarding the most important caves in the area could be very useful in the management plans and in the tourist strategies.

  10. Stability Assessment of Natural Caves Using Empirical Approaches and Rock Mass Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordá-Bordehore, L.

    2017-08-01

    The stability of underground voids such as caves can be assessed, in an initial approximation, by geomechanical classifications such as the Barton Q index. From a geomechanical viewpoint, the stability of 137 large span natural caves was analyzed herein. The caves were graphically represented based on existing tunnel and underground graphs, according to width and rock quality index Q. Many natural caves analyzed by a tunnel-type engineering approach could result as apparently unstable when represented in empirical existing graphics and would require reinforcements incompatible with speleothems and large chamber heights. A new graph and equation are proposed herein for the maximum span, for the exclusive case of caves, resulting in a reliable representation of large stable natural caves. The main contribution is a new stability chart for natural caves, consisting of two zones: a zone where stable caves are represented and a zone where unstable caves and collapsed caves are located.

  11. Vision-mediated interaction with the Nottingham caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Ahmed; Bayomi, Sahar; Green, Jonathan; Pridmore, Tony; Benford, Steve

    2003-05-01

    The English city of Nottingham is widely known for its rich history and compelling folklore. A key attraction is the extensive system of caves to be found beneath Nottingham Castle. Regular guided tours are made of the Nottingham caves, during which castle staff tell stories and explain historical events to small groups of visitors while pointing out relevant cave locations and features. The work reported here is part of a project aimed at enhancing the experience of cave visitors, and providing flexible storytelling tools to their guides, by developing machine vision systems capable of identifying specific actions of guides and/or visitors and triggering audio and/or video presentations as a result. Attention is currently focused on triggering audio material by directing the beam of a standard domestic flashlight towards features of interest on the cave wall. Cameras attached to the walls or roof provide image sequences within which torch light and cave features are detected and their relative positions estimated. When a target feature is illuminated the corresponding audio response is generated. We describe the architecture of the system, its implementation within the caves and the results of initial evaluations carried out with castle guides and members of the public.

  12. Strategies for Creating Prescribed Hydraulic Fractures in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2017-04-01

    The cave mining method was traditionally applied to massive low-grade, weak orebodies at shallow depths (less than 500 m) that favour cave propagation under gravity. Currently, this method is being applied to stronger orebodies and is taking place at depths of up to 2000 m below the surface. To ensure continuous cave propagation, preconditioning of the orebody is essential in this latter caving environment to improve rock mass caveability and to decrease fragmentation sizes. Hydraulic fracturing was initiated in the oil industry and is now being used in the cave mining industry as a preconditioning method and for stalled caves reactivation. A limitation of conventional hydraulic fracturing in the cave mining industry is that the hydraulic fracture orientation is uncontrollable and is dictated by the minimum in situ stress orientation. The preconditioning effectiveness of orientation-uncontrollable hydraulic fractures is limited in some geotechnical conditions, and the concept of creating orientation-controllable hydraulic fractures, here termed prescribed hydraulic fractures, is proposed to fill this gap. In this paper, the feasibility of the proposed approaches to creating prescribed hydraulic fractures is presented based on previous studies and numerical modelling. The numerical modelling code reliability in simulating the hydraulic fracture propagation and reorientation process was validated by comparing with laboratory results in the reported literature. In addition, the sensitivity of the prescribed hydraulic fracturing to the in situ stress condition and rock mass properties is examined.

  13. Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillmore, G.K. E-mail: g.k.gillmore@bradford.ac.uk; Phillips, P.S.; Denman, A.R.; Gilbertson, D.D

    2002-07-01

    An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m{sup -3}) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m{sup -3} in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m{sup -3}). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system.

  14. Radon in the creswell crags Permian limestone caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, G K; Phillips, P S; Denman, A R; Gilbertson, D D

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m(-3)) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m(-3) in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m(-3)). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system.

  15. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Price

    2014-01-01

    Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  16. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Price

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  17. The Sinicization of Dunhuang Mogao Cave Buddhist Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ōhashi Katsuaki

    2014-02-01

    that time in Dunhuang, there was a group of artisans which included painters and sculptors with great skill and creativity, who had learned the traditional culture of the Han Chinese in order to construct these caves. In other words, the best quality of central district’s art was relocated into Dunhuang. The 257thand 428thMogao Caves clearly describe the acceptance of a different civilization. In the center of the former cave’s Southern wall, a building was painted in the middle of Chonbul. It is a traditional Chinese roof-tile with Chiwei at the ends of both ridges, while an Indian Buddhist stupa with a top of stupa shaped like a pillar sits at the top in the center of the ridge, and Fans (narrow and lengthy flags wave on either side of the stupa.In the structure, standing at the Seated Statue with Lotus Pattern, the Buddhist statue is at the center with Dayi wearing something similar to a mourning clothes, and Buddhist image of Jia Shi stand at both sides. There are also curtains, which hang under the eaves in front of the Buddhist statue. It is certain to say that there exists a robust and creative appetite when one civilization accepts features of a different civilization; which can be seen through this bold collaboration in which a stupa of Indian Buddhism which was used as the basis for arch, the traditional wooden structure of Han Chinese. Moreover, this structure is a significant piece of pictorial data which conveys the situation at the time, where within Chinese architecture, the stupa, enshrined Buddha’s ashes, and the Buddhist temple enshrined statue of the Buddha were still unspecialized. As Bultapdo was a stupa located along the South side of the Western wall in the latter cave 428, the demand for higher stories was required as enhanced construction was seen as sacred and valuable. Therefore, construction increased from being single-story to multi-story. The murals are surrounded by four small stupas which encircle the main stupa. While all of the

  18. Rockbolting in gateroads of top coal caving longwall faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Z. [SCT Ltd. (China); Jiang, J. [Yanzhou Coal Mining Co. Ltd. (China)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents technology development of rockbolting in gateroads of top coal caving longwall faces in Yanzhou. The development work has been concentrated on understanding behaviour of gateroads of top coal caving longwalls; introducing a monitoring based feedback design approach; upgrading rockbolting consumables and equipment; optimisation of rockbolting practice; development of effective supplemental reinforcement technique; and last but not the least, establishment of necessary legal framework such as consumables standards and practice guidelines. The paper then highlights aspects of future development work with rockbolting in gateroads of top coal caving longwall faces, such as integrated cutting/bolting cycle for higher drivage rate.

  19. Do cave features affect underground habitat exploitation by non-troglobite species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Enrico; Manenti, Raoul; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Many biospeleological studies focus on organisms that are exclusive inhabitants of the subterranean realm, but organisms that are not obligate cave-dwellers are frequent in caves, and may account for a substantial portion of biomass. Moreover, several taxa that are usually epigeous are regularly found inside caves, but for most of them it is unknown whether they accidentally enter them, or whether they actively select caves for specific environmental features. In this study we analysed the community of non-strict cave-dwelling organisms (amphibians, gastropods, spiders and orthopterans) in 33 caves from Central Italy, to assess how environmental factors determine community structure. Cave features strongly affected the distribution of the taxa considered. The combined effect of cave morphology and microclimate explained nearly 50% of the variation of community structure. Most of community variation occurred along a gradient from deep, dark and humid caves, to dry caves with wider entrances and extended photic areas. Most of species were associated with humid, deep and dark caves. Most of the non-troglobiont amphibians and invertebrates did not occur randomly in caves, but were associated to caves with specific environmental features. Analysing relationships between cave-dwelling species and environmental variables can allow a more ecological and objective classification of cave-dwelling organisms.

  20. Calcite Farming at Hollow Ridge Cave: Calibrating Net Rainfall and Cave Microclimate to Dripwater and Calcite Chemical Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremaine, D. M.; Kilgore, B. P.; Froelich, P. N.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) and trace element records in cave speleothems are often interpreted as climate changes in rainfall amount or source, cave air temperature, overlying vegetation and atmospheric pCO2. However, these records are difficult to verify without in situ calibration of changes in cave microclimate (e.g., net rainfall, interior ventilation changes) to contemporaneous variations in dripwater and speleothem chemistry. In this study at Hollow Ridge Cave (HRC) in Marianna, Florida (USA), cave dripwater, bedrock, and modern calcite (farmed in situ) were collected in conjunction with continuous cave air pCO2, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, radon-222 activity, airflow velocity and direction, rainfall amount, and drip rate data [1]. We analyzed rain and dripwater δD and δ18O, dripwater Ca2+, pH, δ13C and TCO2, cave air pCO2 and δ13C, and farmed calcite δ18O and δ13C to examine the relationships among rainwater isotopic composition, cave air ventilation, cave air temperature, calcite growth rate and seasonal timing, and calcite isotopic composition. Farmed calcite δ13C decreases linearly with distance from the front entrance to the interior of the cave during all seasons, with a maximum entrance-to-interior gradient of Δδ13C = -7‰ . A whole-cave "Hendy test" at distributed contemporaneous farming sites reveals that ventilation induces a +1.9 ± 0.96‰ δ13C offset between calcite precipitated in a ventilation flow path and out of flow paths. Farmed calcite δ18O exhibits a +0.82 ± 0.24‰ offset from values predicted by both theoretical calcite-water calculations and by laboratory-grown calcite [2]. Unlike calcite δ13C, oxygen isotopes show no ventilation effects and are a function only of temperature. Combining our data with other speleothem studies, we find a new empirical relationship for cave-specific water-calcite oxygen isotope fractionation across a range of temperatures and cave environments: 1000 ln α = 16

  1. Spatial organization and connectivity of caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Guglielmi, Yves; Camus, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The main particularity of karst systems is their hierarchical organization as three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drain. They are recognized as having a major influence on fluid flow at reservoir scale. However, a karstic network is generally hardly continuously observable and their great intrinsic heterogeneity makes their characterization very complex. This media can be only observed by speleological investigation, conditioned to human possibilities. As a result, only few parts can be observed and therefore it is required to model the non-observable parts for reservoir characterizations. To provide realistic 3D models, non-observable karstic features will be generated using parameters extracted from observed ones. Morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional karstic network provides quantitative measures that can (i) give information on speleogenesis processes, (ii) be used to compare different karst systems, (iii) be correlated with hydrogeological behavior and (iii) control the simulation of realistic karst networks. Recent work done on the subject characterize the karstic network as a whole, without genetic a-priori. However, most of observable caves appears to have a polygenic history due to modifications in boundary conditions and some different karst features can be observed in a same cavity. To study the geometrical organization of caves, we propose to analyze 3D speleological topographies for which speleogenetic context is known. This way, it is possible to characterize karst features according to speleogenetic processes. Several morphometric descriptors have been calculated on three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological works. Some parameters describe the existence of preferential direction of karstification and preferential flow paths, other parameters describe the complexity, geometry and connectivity of the three-dimensional karstic networks. Through the study of fifteen different caves, 150km of 3D data have been analyzed

  2. Deposition of calcium carbonate in karst caves: role of bacteria in Stiffe's cave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercole Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria make a significant contribution to the accumulation of carbonate in several natural habitats where large amounts of carbonates are deposited. However, the role played by microbial communities in speleothem formation (stalactites, stalagmites etc. in caves is still unclear. In bacteria carbonate is formed by autotrophic pathways, which deplete CO2 from the environment, and by heterotrophic pathways, leading to active or passive precipitation. We isolated cultivable heterotrophic microbial strains, able to induce CaCO3 precipitation in vitro, from samples taken from speleothems in the galleries of Stiffe’s cave, L’Aquila, Italy. We found a large number of bacteria in the calcite formations (1 x 104 to 5 x 109 cells g-1. Microscopic examination, in laboratory conditions at different temperatures, showed that most of the isolates were able to form calcium carbonate microcrystals. The most crystalline precipitates were observed at 32°C. No precipitation was detected in un-inoculated controls media or in media that had been inoculated with autoclaved bacterial cells. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that most of the carbonate crystals produced were calcite. Bacillus strains were the most common calcifying isolates collected from Stiffe’s Cave. Analysis of carbonate-solubilization capability revealed that the non-calcifying bacteria were carbonate solubilizers.

  3. Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh

    are acoustically coupled through an air-filled interaural canal (IAC) often illustrated and modelled as a simple tube, which allows sound to propagate through the skull from one ear to the other and considerably enhance the cues for directional hearing. Theoretically, different combinations of frequency dependent......Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds...... is IAC trabeculated and irregularly shaped but it also communicates with a set of highly complex, air-filled canals in the skull extending to the base of the beak. We tested the possible influence of these communicating cavities by measuring eardrum directionality and interaural transmission before...

  4. Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Logan Cave NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  5. Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  6. Groundwater Quality Monitoring at Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the current project was to continue establishing a long term groundwater quality monitoring program at Logan Cave that would allow groundwater threats...

  7. Center for Advanced Energy Studies: Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The laboratory contains a four-walled 3D computer assisted virtual environment - or CAVE TM — that allows scientists and engineers to literally walk into their data...

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence dating at Rose Cottage Cave

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates are compared with stratigraphically associated C-14 dates from Rose Cottage Cave. The OSL dates overlap the accepted C-14 chronology except for one sample that overestimates the expected age...

  9. Contaminant concentrations in water and sediments from Shelta Cave

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shelta Cave is a cavern system which lies under the northwestern portion of the City of Huntsville, Alabama. The National Speleological Society owns property which...

  10. Velcro Tubes 2004 Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Velcro Tubes section of the detailed map of Timpanogos Cave created by Brandon Kowallis 2004 using Adobe Illustrator 10. The map was created from Rod Horrock's...

  11. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  12. Unexplored diversity and conservation potential of neotropical hot caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladle, Richard J; Firmino, João V L; Malhado, Ana C M; Rodríguez-Durán, Armando

    2012-12-01

    The term hot cave is used to describe some subterranean chambers in the Neotropics that are characterized by constantly high ambient temperatures generated by the body heat of high densities of certain bat species. Many of these species have limited geographic ranges, and some occur only in the hot-cave environment. In addition to the bats, the stable microclimate and abundant bat guano provides refuge and food for a high diversity of invertebrates. Hot caves have so far been described in the Caribbean and in a few isolated locations from Mexico to Brazil, although there is some evidence that similar caves may be present throughout the tropics. The existing literature suggests these poorly known ecosystems, with their unique combination of geomorphology and bat-generated microclimate, are particularly sensitive to disturbance and face multiple threats from urbanization, agricultural development, mining, and tourism.

  13. The biogeochemistry of anchialine caves: Progress and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations of anchialine caves and sinkholes have identified complex food webs dependent on detrital and, in some cases, chemosynthetically produced organic matter. Chemosynthetic microbes in anchialine systems obtain energy from reduced compounds produced during organic matter degradation (e.g., sulfide, ammonium, and methane), similar to what occurs in deep ocean cold seeps and mud volcanoes, but distinct from dominant processes operating at hydrothermal vents and sulfurous mineral caves where the primary energy source is mantle derived. This review includes case studies from both anchialine and non-anchialine habitats, where evidence for in situ chemosynthetic production of organic matter and its subsequent transfer to higher trophic level metazoans is documented. The energy sources and pathways identified are synthesized to develop conceptual models for elemental cycles and energy cascades that occur within oligotrophic and eutrophic anchialine caves. Strategies and techniques for testing the hypothesis of chemosynthesis as an active process in anchialine caves are also suggested.

  14. Some new cave diving exploration results from Croatian karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Davor; Garasic, Mladen

    2017-04-01

    In the recent years, several international cave diving expeditions took place in the Dinaric karst of Croatia. The objectives were conducting a new research of previously known karstic springs and also exploring new ones. The deepest karst cave in Croatia filled with water is Crveno jezero (lake) near Imotski town, with water depth of 281 meters and total cave depth of 528 meters. Volume of water in this cave is about 16 millions m3. Diving expeditions were held in 1997 and 1998.The deepest karst spring in the Dinaric karst of Croatia is Vrelo of Una River (with max discharge about 100 m3/s), where divers measured depth of -248 meters. Explorations were made in 2007 and 2016. Sinac spring in Pla\\vsko Polje has been dived to the depth of -203 meters. Cave diving was done in 1984, 1999, 2003, 2007 - 2016. Furthermore, very popular springs of the river Kupa (-155 m) in Gorski Kotar (explored since1995 till 2015), river Gacka (-105 in depth, 1150m in length) in Lika, explored from 1992 to 2016, river Cetina (-110 m in depth, 1300 m in length), cave diving explored from 2000 to 2016 in the Dalmatinska Zagora, Rumin Veliki spring (- 150 m in depth) in the Sinjska Krajina (explored and dived in 2006 and 2010), than rivers Krnjeza and Krupa in Ravni kotari with diving depths of over 100 meters (in 2004 and 2005) and so on. Along the Adriatic coast in Croatia there are many deep and long submarine springs (vrulje), ie. caves under seawater springs. called - vruljas for example Vrulja Zecica with over 900 meters ine length and Vrulja Modrič with completely flooded cave channels that extend over 2300 meters in length. Cave diving was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Vrulja Dubci is also worth mentioning (dived and explored in 2000), 161 meters deep and so on. Tectonic activity plays a dominant role in the creation and function of these caves. Geological, hydrogeological and lithostratigraphic conditions are also very important in speleogenesis of these caves in Croatian karst

  15. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  16. Review of Hydraulic Fracturing for Preconditioning in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been used in cave mining for preconditioning the orebody following its successful application in the oil and gas industries. In this paper, the state of the art of hydraulic fracturing as a preconditioning method in cave mining is presented. Procedures are provided on how to implement prescribed hydraulic fracturing by which effective preconditioning can be realized in any in situ stress condition. Preconditioning is effective in cave mining when an additional fracture set is introduced into the rock mass. Previous studies on cave mining hydraulic fracturing focused on field applications, hydraulic fracture growth measurement and the interaction between hydraulic fractures and natural fractures. The review in this paper reveals that the orientation of the current cave mining hydraulic fractures is dictated by and is perpendicular to the minimum in situ stress orientation. In some geotechnical conditions, these orientation-uncontrollable hydraulic fractures have limited preconditioning efficiency because they do not necessarily result in reduced fragmentation sizes and a blocky orebody through the introduction of an additional fracture set. This implies that if the minimum in situ stress orientation is vertical and favors the creation of horizontal hydraulic fractures, in a rock mass that is already dominated by horizontal joints, no additional fracture set is added to that rock mass to increase its blockiness to enable it cave. Therefore, two approaches that have the potential to create orientation-controllable hydraulic fractures in cave mining with the potential to introduce additional fracture set as desired are proposed to fill this gap. These approaches take advantage of directional hydraulic fracturing and the stress shadow effect, which can re-orientate the hydraulic fracture propagation trajectory against its theoretical predicted direction. Proppants are suggested to be introduced into the cave mining industry to enhance the

  17. Mineralogy of Iza Cave (Rodnei Mountains, N. Romania

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    Tamas Tudor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The secondary minerals from Iza Cave result from the interactions of karst water and/or cave atmosphere with a variety of sedimentaryand metamorphic rocks. The cave passages expose at various extents Eocene limestones and conglomerates, Oligocene blackshales, Upper Precambrian micaschists, marble and dolomitic marble and associated ore deposits. Twelve secondary mineralsidentified in the cave (carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, oxides and hydroxides, and silicates are presented in this study. Calcite,aragonite, gypsum, brushite and hydroxylapatite are the components of common speleothems in the limestone, dolomite andconglomerate areas of the cave. Ankerite crusts are related to areas with pyrite mineralization within the metamorphic carbonaterocks. Goethite, jarosite, hematite and gypsum form various speleothems in the sectors within micaschists and conglomerates. Largeweathering deposits occurring in passage areas developed within micaschists consist of illite, kaolinite, jarosite, goethite, gypsumand alunite. The extent of the weathering deposits occurring on non-karst rocks in the underground environment makes this cave aparticularly interesting site for studies of water-rock interactions.

  18. Multivariate analyses with end-member mixing to characterize groundwater flow: Wind Cave and associated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Valder, Joshua F.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryPrincipal component analysis (PCA) applied to hydrochemical data has been used with end-member mixing to characterize groundwater flow to a limited extent, but aspects of this approach are unresolved. Previous similar approaches typically have assumed that the extreme-value samples identified by PCA represent end members. The method presented herein is different from previous work in that (1) end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior knowledge; (2) end-member mixing was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on major hydrologic processes; (3) a method to select an appropriate number of end members using a series of cluster analyses is presented; and (4) conservative tracers were weighted preferentially in model calibration, which distributed model errors of optimized values, or residuals, more appropriately than would otherwise be the case. The latter item also provides an estimate of the relative influence of geochemical evolution along flow paths in comparison to mixing. This method was applied to groundwater in Wind Cave and the associated karst aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. The end-member mixing model was used to test a hypothesis that five different end-member waters are mixed in the groundwater system comprising five hydrogeologic domains. The model estimated that Wind Cave received most of its groundwater inflow from local surface recharge with an additional 33% from an upgradient aquifer. Artesian springs in the vicinity of Wind Cave primarily received water from regional groundwater flow.

  19. New distribution record for the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes inermis inermis cope, from the Patoka River drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two specimens of the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes (Orconectes) inermis inermis Cope, were collected from a cave referred to as Audrey’s Cave on May 21, 2001...

  20. Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Amos; Fischhendler, Itay

    2005-04-01

    Isolated caves are a special cave type common in most karst terrains, formed by prolonged slow water flow where aggressivity is locally boosted. The morphometry and distribution of isolated caves are used here to reconstruct the paleohydrology of a karstic mountain range. Within a homogenous karstic rock sequence, two main types of isolated caves are distinguished, and each is associated with a special hydrogeologic setting: maze caves form by rising water in the confined zone of the aquifer, under the Mt. Scopus Group (Israel) confinement, while chamber caves are formed in phreatic conditions, apparently by lateral flow mixing with a vadose input from above.

  1. Geologic controls on cave development in Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lucas, Philip C.; Lambert, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Burnsville Cove in Bath and Highland Counties (Virginia, USA) is a karst region in the Valley and Ridge Province of the Appalachian Mountains. The region contains many caves in Silurian to Devonian limestone, and is well suited for examining geologic controls on cave location and cave passage morphology. In Burnsville Cove, many caves are located preferentially near the axes of synclines and anticlines. For example, Butler Cave is an elongate cave where the trunk channel follows the axis of Sinking Creek syncline and most of the side passages follow joints at right angles to the syncline axis. In contrast, the Water Sinks Subway Cave, Owl Cave, and Helictite Cave have abundant maze patterns, and are located near the axis of Chestnut Ridge anticline. The maze patterns may be related to fact that the anticline axis is the site of the greatest amount of flexure, leading to more joints and (or) greater enlargement of joints. Many of the larger caves of Burnsville Cove (e.g., Breathing Cave, Butler Cave–Sinking Creek Cave System, lower parts of the Water Sinks Cave System) are developed in the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, the stratigraphic unit with the greatest surface exposure in the area. Other caves are developed in the Silurian to Devonian Keyser Limestone of the Helderberg Group (e.g., Owl Cave, upper parts of the Water Sinks Cave System) and in the Devonian Shriver Chert and (or) Licking Creek Limestone of the Helderberg Group (e.g., Helictite Cave). Within the Tonoloway Limestone, the larger caves are developed in the lower member of the Tonoloway Limestone immediately below a bed of silica-cemented sandstone. In contrast, the larger caves in the Keyser Limestone are located preferentially in limestone beds containing stromatoporoid reefs, and some of the larger caves in the Licking Creek Limestone are located in beds of cherty limestone below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Geologic controls on cave passage morphology include joints, bedding planes, and

  2. Study of radiocarbon dynamics of Baradla Cave, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Mihály; Dezsö, Zoltán; Futo, Istvan; Siklósy, Zoltan; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Koltai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Carbon isotope composition of speleothems and their parent drip water reflects the isotope composition of the atmospheric CO2, the soil and the host rock and can sometimes be influenced even by the cave atmosphere. Owing to the fact that 14C in the bedrock has long decayed, the bedrock derived carbon content of the seepage water can be considered as inactive or "dead carbon". The initial dead carbon proportion (dcp) of a stalagmite or tufa layer, caused by the incorporation of the inactive carbon, can be calculated with the help of the C-14 level differences between the contemporary atmosphere and the formed stone carbonate. The revolutionary technological advances of 14C (AMS) have brought the possibility of analysing 14C dynamics of karst systems due to the small amount of demanded material. The Baradla-Domica Cave is the largest cave of Gömör-Torna Karst, a karst area situated in the northeast of Hungary, and located on the Slovakian-Hungarian borderland. The approximately 26 km long cave is a typical example of multi-level speleogenesis. As a case study we have investigated several recent (age < 50 years) and older (age about 10-11 kyrs) stalagmites and recent drip water, some freshwater tufa samples and the recent cave air carbon-dioxide of the Baradla-cave to study the carbon dynamics and dead carbon level there. According four modern stalagmites (formed 1991-2004) the current dcp is very small in Baradla Cave (3-7%). Stalagmites deposited in Holocene (U/Th dated) were also characterized by very small dead carbon contents (1-11% dcp). Outside the cave a dpc about 20-25% was found in a freshwater tufa sample. This relatively low dead carbon content might be either explained by the thinness of the limestone bedrock above (56-80 m) or the relatively fast infiltration conditions, or their combined effect. Cave air is enriched in CO2 (2-5 times higher than in natural air, not homogenous) but the source of this surplus CO2 is not the limestone according its

  3. Brezstropa jama v Podbojevem lazu, Rakov Škocjan = Denuded cave in Podbojev laz, Rakov Škocjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Abramović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a denuded cave situated in the area of Podbojev laz, on the northwesternside of the Rakov Škocjan. Morphometric and morphogenetic properties of several sectionsof the denuded cave and its surroundings are described in detail. The denuded cave developedfrom an epiphreatic cave system which used to function as an outflow cave system from theRak valley. Morphometrical analysis of the slopes show that the denuded cave was developedin stages. As

  4. Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheeptham N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic caves have been little studied for their potential as sources of novel microbial species and bioactive compounds with new scaffolds. We present the f irst study of volcanic cave microbiology from Canada and suggest that this habitat has great potential for the isolation of novel bioactive substances. Sample locat ions were plot ted on a contour map that was compiled in ArcView 3.2. Over 400 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Helmcken Falls cave in Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia. From our preliminary screen, of 400 isolates tested, 1% showed activity against extended spectrum ß-lactamase E. coli, 1.75% against Escherichia coli, 2.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii, and 26.50% against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, 10.25% showed activity against Micrococcus luteus, 2% against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 9.25% against Mycobacterium smegmatis, 6.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 7.5% against Candida albicans. Chemical and physical characteristics of three rock wall samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy and f lame atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, and aluminum (Al were the most abundant components while magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and barium (Ba were second most abundant with cadmium (Cd and potassium (K were the least abundant in our samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of microscopic life forms in all three rock wall samples. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 82 isolates revealed that 65 (79.3% of the strains belong to the Streptomyces genus and 5 (6.1% were members of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia and Erwinia genera. Interestingly, twelve (14.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences showed similarity to unidentif ied ribosomal RNA sequences in the library databases, the sequences of these isolates need to be further investigated using the EzTaxon-e database (http://eztaxon-e. ezbiocloud.net/ to determine whether

  5. Carbon dioxide seasonality in dynamically ventilated caves: the role of advective fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marek; Faimon, Jiří; Godissart, Jean; Ek, Camille

    2017-08-01

    The seasonality in cave CO2 levels was studied based on (1) a new data set from the dynamically ventilated Comblain-au-Pont Cave (Dinant Karst Basin, Belgium), (2) archive data from Moravian Karst caves, and (3) published data from caves worldwide. A simplified dynamic model was proposed for testing the effect of all conceivable CO2 fluxes on cave CO2 levels. Considering generally accepted fluxes, i.e., the direct diffusive flux from soils/epikarst, the indirect flux derived from dripwater degassing, and the input/output fluxes linked to cave ventilation, gives the cave CO2 level maxima of 1.9 × 10-2 mol m-3 (i.e., ˜ 440 ppmv), which only slightly exceed external values. This indicates that an additional input CO2 flux is necessary for reaching usual cave CO2 level maxima. The modeling indicates that the additional flux could be a convective advective CO2 flux from soil/epikarst driven by airflow (cave ventilation) and enhanced soil/epikarstic CO2 concentrations. Such flux reaching up to 170 mol s-1 is capable of providing the cave CO2 level maxima up to 3 × 10-2 mol m-3 (70,000 ppmv). This value corresponds to the maxima known from caves worldwide. Based on cave geometry, three types of dynamic caves were distinguished: (1) the caves with the advective CO2 flux from soil/epikarst at downward airflow ventilation mode, (2) the caves with the advective soil/epikarstic flux at upward airflow ventilation mode, and (3) the caves without any soil/epikarstic advective flux. In addition to CO2 seasonality, the model explains both the short-term and seasonal variations in δ13C in cave air CO2.

  6. Numerical simulation of formation and preservation of Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Shi, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Ice caves exist in locations where annual average air temperature is higher than 0 °C. An example is Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi Province, the largest ice cave in China. In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanism of formation and preservation of the ice cave, we use the finite-element method to simulate the heat transfer process at this ice cave. There are two major control factors. First, there is the seasonal asymmetric heat transfer. Heat is transferred into the ice cave from outside very inefficiently by conduction in spring, summer and fall. In winter, thermal convection occurs that transfers heat very efficiently out of the ice cave, thus cooling it down. Secondly, ice-water phase change provides a heat barrier for heat transfer into the cave in summer. The calculation also helps to evaluate effects of global warming, tourists, colored lights, climatic conditions, etc. for sustainable development of the ice cave as a tourism resource. In some other ice caves in China, managers have installed airtight doors at these ice caves' entrances with the intention of "protecting" these caves, but this in fact prevents cooling in winter and these cave ices will entirely melt within tens of years.

  7. Geologic map of the Jam Up Cave and Pine Crest quadrangles, Shannon, Texas, and Howell Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The Jam Up Cave and Pine Crest 7.5-minute quadrangles are located in south-central Missouri within the Salem Plateau region of the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province. About 2,400 to 3,100 feet (ft) of flat-lying to gently dipping Lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, mostly dolomite, chert, sandstone, and orthoquartzite, overlie Mesoproterozoic igneous basement rocks. Unconsolidated residuum, colluvium, terrace deposits, and alluvium overlie the sedimentary rocks. Numerous karst features, such as sinkholes, caves, and springs, have formed in the carbonate rocks. Many streams are spring fed. The topography is a dissected karst plain with elevations ranging from about 690 ft where the Jacks Fork River exits the northeastern corner of the Jam Up Cave quadrangle to about 1,350 ft in upland areas along the north-central edge and southwestern corner of the Pine Crest quadrangle. The most prominent physiographic feature is the valley of the Jacks Fork River. This reach of the upper Jacks Fork, with its clean, swiftly-flowing water confined by low cliffs and bluffs, provides one of the most beautiful canoe float trips in the nation. Most of the land in the quadrangles is privately owned and used primarily for grazing cattle and horses and growing timber. A large minority of the land within the quadrangles is publicly owned by the Ozark National Scenic Riverways of the National Park Service. Geologic mapping for this investigation was conducted in 2005 and 2006.

  8. Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeon, Lauriane; Burke, Ariane; Higham, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The timing of the first entry of humans into North America is still hotly debated within the scientific community. Excavations conducted at Bluefish Caves (Yukon Territory) from 1977 to 1987 yielded a series of radiocarbon dates that led archaeologists to propose that the initial dispersal of human groups into Eastern Beringia (Alaska and the Yukon Territory) occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This hypothesis proved highly controversial in the absence of other sites of similar age and concerns about the stratigraphy and anthropogenic signature of the bone assemblages that yielded the dates. The weight of the available archaeological evidence suggests that the first peopling of North America occurred ca. 14,000 cal BP (calibrated years Before Present), i.e., well after the LGM. Here, we report new AMS radiocarbon dates obtained on cut-marked bone samples identified during a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of the Bluefish Caves fauna. Our results demonstrate that humans occupied the site as early as 24,000 cal BP (19,650 ± 130 14C BP). In addition to proving that Bluefish Caves is the oldest known archaeological site in North America, the results offer archaeological support for the “Beringian standstill hypothesis”, which proposes that a genetically isolated human population persisted in Beringia during the LGM and dispersed from there to North and South America during the post-LGM period. PMID:28060931

  9. Flow Classification and Cave Discharge Characteristics in Unsaturated Karst Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, G.; Mahmud, K.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we utilize the spatial array of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of the Golgotha Cave, SW Australia, developed in Quaternary aeolianite (dune limestone), with the aim of understanding infiltration water movement via the relationships between infiltration, stalactite morphology and groundwater recharge. Mahmud et al. (2015) used the Terrestrial LiDAR measurements to analyze stalactite morphology and to characterize possible flow locations in this cave. Here we identify the stalactites feeding the drip loggers and classify each as matrix (soda straw or icicle), fracture or combined-flow. These morphology-based classifications are compared with flow characteristics from the drip logger time series and the discharge from each stalactite is calculated. The total estimated discharge from each area is compared with infiltration estimates to better understand flow from the surface to the cave ceilings of the studied areas. The drip discharge data agrees with the morphology-based flow classification in terms of flow and geometrical characteristics of cave ceiling stalactites. No significant relationships were observed between the drip logger discharge, skewness and coefficient of variation with overburden thickness, due to the possibility of potential vadose-zone storage volume and increasing complexity of the karst architecture. However, these properties can be used to characterize different flow categories. A correlation matrix demonstrates that similar flow categories are positively correlated, implying significant influence of spatial distribution. The infiltration water comes from a larger surface area, suggesting that infiltration is being focused to the studied ceiling areas of each chamber. Most of the ceiling in the cave site is dry, suggesting the possibility of capillary effects with water moving around the cave rather than passing through it. Reference:Mahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to

  10. Speleothems in gypsum caves and their paleoclimatological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaforra, J. M.; Forti, P.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights the relationship between speleothems growing inside gypsum caves and the particular climate that existed during their development. Speleothems in gypsum caves normally consist of calcium carbonate (calcite) or calcium sulphate (gypsum) and the abundance of such deposits greatly differs from zone to zone. Observations carried out over the last 20 years in gypsum caves subjected to very different climates (Italy, Spain, New Mexico, northern Russia, Cuba, Argentina) highlight wide variation in their cave deposits. In arid or semi-arid climates, the speleothems are mainly composed of gypsum, whilst in temperate, humid or tropical regions, carbonate formations are largely predominant. In polar zones no speleothems develop. These mineralogical details could be useful paleoclimatic indicators of climate change. The interpretation proposed is based on the fact that in gypsum karst the kind of speleothems deposited is determined by competition between the two principal mechanisms that cause precipitation of calcite and gypsum. These mechanisms are completely different: calcite speleothem evolution is mainly controlled by CO2 diffusion, while gypsum deposits develop mostly due to evaporation. Therefore, the prevalence of one kind of speleothem over the other, and the relationship between the solution precipitation processes of calcite and gypsum, may provide evidence of a specific paleoclimate. Additionally, other non-common deposits in gypsum caves like moonmilk, cave rafts and dolomite speleothems can be used as markers for the prevalence of long, dry periods in humid areas, seasonal changes in climate, or rainfall trends in some gypsum areas. Moreover, the dating of gypsum speleothems could contribute paleoclimatic data relating to dry periods when calcite speleothems are not deposited. In contrast, the dating of calcite speleothems in gypsum caves could identify former wet periods in arid zones.

  11. Ancient human footprints in Ciur-Izbuc Cave, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David; Robu, Marius; Moldovan, Oana; Constantin, Silviu; Tomus, Bogdan; Neag, Ionel

    2014-09-01

    In 1965, Ciur-Izbuc Cave in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania was discovered to contain about 400 ancient human footprints. At that time, researchers interpreted the footprints to be those of a man, woman and child who entered the cave by an opening which is now blocked but which was usable in antiquity. The age of the prints (≈10-15 ka BP) was based partly on their association with cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) footprints and bones, and the belief that cave bears became extinct near the end of the last ice age. Since their discovery, the human and bear evidence and the cave itself have attracted spelunkers and other tourists, with the result that the ancient footprints are in danger of destruction by modern humans. In an effort to conserve the footprints and information about them and to reanalyze them with modern techiques, Ciur-Izbuc Cave was restudied in summer of 2012. Modern results are based on fewer than 25% of the originally described human footprints, the rest having been destroyed. It is impossible to confirm some of the original conclusions. The footprints do not cluster about three different sizes, and the number of individuals is estimated to be six or seven. Two cases of bears apparently overprinting humans help establish antiquity, and C-14 dates suggest a much greater age than originally thought. Unfortunately, insufficient footprints remain to measure movement variables such as stride length. However, detailed three-dimensional mapping of the footprints does allow a more precise description of human movements within the cave.

  12. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John

    2016-05-01

    The steeply-dipping-dolostone-hosted caves of the Sierra de Arnero (N Spain) contain low-gradient relict canyons with up to ten mapped levels of ferromanganese stromatolites and associated wall notches over a vertical range of 85 m, the highest occurring ~ 460 m above base level. Despite a plausible speleogenetic contribution by pyrite oxidation, and the irregular cave-wall mesomorphologies suggestive of hypogenic speleogenesis, the Arnero relict caves are dominantly epigenic, as indicated by the conduit pattern and the abundant allogenic sediments. Allogenic input declined over time due to a piracy-related decrease in the drainage area of allogenic streams, explaining the large size of the relict Arnero caves relative to the limited present-day outcrop area of the karstified carbonates. Allogenic-sediment input also explains the observed change from watertable canyons to phreatic conduits in the paleo-downstream direction. Stromatolites and notches arguably formed in cave-stream passages at the watertable. The best-defined paleo-watertables show an overall slope of 1.7°, consistent with the present-day relief of the watertable, with higher-slope segments caused by barriers related to sulfide mineralization. The formation of watertable stromatolites favored wall notching by the combined effect of enhanced acidity by Mn-Fe oxidation and shielding of cave floors against erosion. Abrasive bedload further contributed to notch formation by promoting lateral mechanical erosion and protecting passage floors. The irregular wallrock erosional forms of Arnero caves are related partly to paragenesis and partly to the porous nature of the host dolostones, which favored irregular dissolution near passage walls, generating friable halos. Subsequent mechanical erosion contributed to generate spongework patterns. The dolostone porosity also contributes to explain the paradox that virtually all Arnero caves are developed in dolostone despite being less soluble than adjacent

  13. Late Glacial Tropical Savannas in Sundaland Inferred From Stable Carbon Isotope Records of Cave Guano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, C. M.; Bird, M. I.; Bull, I.; Dungait, J.; Bryant, C. L.; Ertunç, T.; Hunt, C.; Lewis, H. A.; Paz, V.

    2008-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Period (LGP), reduced global sea level exposed the continental shelf south of Thailand to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo to form the contiguous continent of Sundaland. However, the type and extent of vegetation that existed on much of this exposed landmass during the LGP remains speculative. Extensive bird and bat guano deposits in caves throughout this region span beyond 40,000 yr BP, and contain a wealth of untapped stratigraphic palaeoenvironmental information. Stable carbon isotope ratios of insectivorous bird and bat guano contain a reliable record of the animal's diet and, through non-specific insect predation, reflect the relative abundance of major physiological pathways in plants. Various physiological pathways of carbon fixation in plants yield differing stable carbon isotope ratios. Stable carbon isotope values of C3 plants are lower than C4 vegetation due to different enzymatic discriminations of the heavy isotope through the carbon fixing pathways. In tropical locales, grasses nearly always follow the C4 photosynthetic pathway, whereas tropical rainforest uses C3 photosynthesis, providing a proxy for vegetation and therefore climate change in the past. Here we discuss four guano stable-isotope records, based on insect cuticle and n-alkane analysis, supplemented by pollen analysis. All sites suggest a C3 dominated ecosystem for the Holocene, consistent with the wet tropical forest vegetation present at all locations. Two sites from Palawan Island, Philippines, record stable carbon isotope values of guano that document a drastic change from C3 (forest) to C4 (savanna) dominated ecosystems during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A third location, at Niah Great Cave, Malaysia, indicates C3-dominant vegetation throughout the record, but does display variation in stable carbon isotope values likely linked to humidity changes. A fourth location, Batu Caves in Peninsular Malaysia, also indicates open vegetation during the LGM. Vegetation

  14. ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States)]. E-mail: anne.r.skinner@williams.edu; Blackwell, B.A.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Martin, Sara [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Ortega, A. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Golovanova, L.V. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Doronichev, V.B. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Mezmaiskaya Cave has yielded more than 10,000 artifacts, thousands of very well preserved faunal remains, and hominin remains, found in seven Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) and three Upper Paleolithic levels. A complete Neanderthal infant skeleton was preserved in anatomical juxtaposition lying on a large limestone block, overlain by the earliest Mousterian layer, Layer 3. Twenty-four skull fragments from a 1-2 year-old Neanderthal infant, showing post-mortem deformation, occurred in a pit originating in the Mousterian Layer 2 and penetrating into underlying layers 2A and 2B(1). Bone from Layer 2A was dated by AMS {sup 14}C at 35.8-36.3{+-}0.5 kyr BP. Direct dating of Neanderthal bone from Layer 3 gave an age of 29 kyr, but that is now considered to be due to contamination by modern carbon. Fourteen large mammal teeth from Layers 2 through 3 have been dated by standard electron spin resonance (ESR). Low U concentrations in both the enamel and dentine ensure that ESR ages do not depend significantly on the U uptake model, but do depend strongly on the sedimentary dose rates. Assuming a sedimentary water concentration equal to 20 wt%, ESR ages for the Mousterian layers range from 36.2 to 73.0{+-}5.0 ka.

  15. Building 887: An Aladdin's Cave for Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Building 887 on the Prévessin site is home to numerous experiments bringing together physicists and engineers from around the world. Its diversity makes the huge building a replica of CERN in miniature. The Installation unit of the SL EA group in front of the support structure for the ATLAS muon chambers. From left to right, seated: Pierre Gimenez, Yves Bonnet, Yves Naveau, Alain Pinget, Christian Becquet, Camille Adenot; standing: Philippe Guillot, Thierry Reynes, Monserrat Zurita-Perez, Claude Ferrari et Denis Gacon. The big wheel to be used for the ATLAS muon chambers (see below) is much the most spectacular installation currently occupying Building 887. But it is far from being the only attraction. Push open the heavy doors of this immense hall and it is a bit like entering a physicists' Aladdin's cave. The building, 55 metres wide and 300 metres long, is a treasure trove of engineering and technology, a CERN in miniature, housing dozens of collaborations from all over the world. With its 150...

  16. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  17. Structural and hydrological controls on the development of a river cave in marble (Tapagem Cave - SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sallun Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapagem Cave (or Devil’s Cave is a river cave developed in the dolomite marble karst of the Serra do André Lopes (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Although this region is a plateau with significant variation in elevation and a humid subtropical climate, the cave is an anomalous feature in the André Lopes karst because there are few other caves. The marble, which is in a synclinal structure with subjacent phyllites, is a karst aquifer perched above the regional base level (Ribeira River and has little allogenic recharge. The cave developed on a secondary anticline on the northwest flank of the marble synform forming a blind valley, the Tapagem River sink, that is an underground tributary of Ostras River. Development of the cave is due to the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley and the large allogenic catchment area of the sink. In plan view, the morphology of the cave can be divided into three different sectors. The first sector, known as the Tourist Sector, has extensive collapse rooms, fossil passages and a variety of speleothems of notable dimensions. The second and most extensive sector is the river passage, which is a sinuous gallery controlled by marble banding with NE-SW cleavage and NW-SE fractures. In cross-section, the passages are vadose canyons up to 70 m in height, controlled by the marble banding. Four NW-SE diabase dykes in this passage do not affect its direction in plan view. The third sector is an extensive network of passages and collapse rooms, which are interlaced in plan view and on different levels, forming a maze pattern. Initially, the Tapagem and Ostras Rivers developed on a gentle surface and flowed into the Ribeira River. With the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley, the Tapagem River partially infiltrated via a paleosink into the upper passage of the “Erectus Room," remaining a half-blind valley. Following a series of collapses and obstructions, the River next infiltrated via the current

  18. Identifying Source Mixing and Examining Water Chemistry Variations: The Carroll Cave - Toronto Springs System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Located in the Missouri Ozarks, Carroll Cave is a dendritic stream cave system, formed in Ordivician Gasconade dolomite. In 2002, a new survey effort was launched under the auspices of the Carroll Cave Conservancy to provide a comprehensive map of the system. Since that time, 29.89 km of estimated p...

  19. Distribution of meiofaunal abundances in a marine cave complex with secondary openings and freshwater filtrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Monterroso, Óscar; Núñez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ). Meiofaunal communities (0.062–0.5-mm body size) have been largely neglected in ecological studies about communities inhabiting sea caves. In the present study, we analysed meiofaunal communities from Los Cerebros cave, a shallow marine cave (3–8 m in depth, 80 m long), with secondary openings in the inner...

  20. A Framework for Aligning Instructional Design Strategies with Affordances of CAVE Immersive Virtual Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Leah T.; Buss, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing availability of immersive virtual reality (IVR) systems, such as the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and head-mounted displays, for use in education contexts is providing new opportunities and challenges for instructional designers. By highlighting the affordances of IVR specific to the CAVE, the authors emphasize the…

  1. Fossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments: a study of four cave sites from Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. T. Moldovan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fossil invertebrates from cave sediments have been recently described as a potential new proxy for paleoenvironment and used in cross-correlations with alternate proxy records from cave deposits. Here we present the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves from two climatically different regions of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. Some of the identified taxa are new for science, and most of them are indicative for either warm/cold stages or dry/wetter oscillations. In two caves the fossil invertebrates records indicate rapid climate oscillations during times known for a relatively stable climate. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures, and hydraulic regimes could be gathered. This paper analyses the potential of fossil invertebrate records as a paleoenvironmental proxy, potential problems and pitfalls.

  2. Aggregate Resources Study, Cave and Steptoe Valleys, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Quartzite Creek Range 8 CV-AS Bgan Range Do Dolomite 9 CV-A9 Cave Valley Ls Limestone 10 Cv-Xf0- Egan Range Qtz Quartzite 11 CV-All Egan Range LS...Limestone 12 CV-A12 Cave Valley Aaf a Sandy Gravel G-GM 13 CV-A13 Bgan Range Vii Quartz Latite 14 CV-A14 Cave Valley Ls Limestone 7r 7 FIELD OBSERVATIONS...SO-A2 Bgan Range Vu Dacitic Ash-flow Tuff 25 SO-A3 Steptoe Aalf Sandy Gravel GP-GM Valley 26 SO-A4 Steptoe Aafs Sandy Gravel GE-GM Valley 27 S0-A5

  3. Microbial Communities and Associated Mineral Fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuezva Soledad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, bothon walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. Thecolonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes.Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of rhombohedral calcite crystals, andspheroid to hemispheroid CaCO3 elements. Colonies distribution seems to be controlled by microenvironmental conditions inside thecavity. The areas of the cave showing higher temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration fluctuations presented a minorbiomineralization capability.

  4. Chromatic perception of non-invasive lighting of cave paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoido, Jesús; Vazquez, Daniel; Álvarez, Antonio; Bernabeu, Eusebio; García, Ángel; Herraez, Juán A.; del Egido, Marian

    2009-08-01

    This work is intended to deal with the problems which arise when illuminanting Paleolithic cave paintings. We have carried out the spectral and colorimetric characterization of some paintings located in the Murcielagos (bats) cave (Zuheros, Córdoba, Spain). From this characterization, the chromatic changes produced under different lighting conditions are analysed. The damage function is also computed for the different illuminants used. From the results obtained, it is proposed an illuminant whose spectral distribution diminishes the damage by minimizing the absorption of radiation and optimises the color perception of the paintings in this cave. The procedure followed in this study can be applied to optimise the lighting systems used when illuminating any other art work

  5. Medical illustration: from caves to cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafrir, J; Ohry, A

    2001-06-01

    The human body has been depicted in ancient cave-paintings, in primitively sculpted figures, and through all the ages in various forms of artistic expression. The earliest medical texts were descriptive but not illustrated. Later, as it became clear that knowledge of the human body and all its systems was essential to the practice of healing, texts were accompanied by illustrations which became an integral part of the teaching process. The illustrators included artists, whose interest was primarily artistic, but who were sometimes employed by surgeons or physicians to illustrate their texts. Occasionally, the physicians or scientists accompanied their texts with their own illustrations, and in the last century, medical illustration, in its infinite variety of techniques, has been developed as a profession in its own right. As knowledge was extended, permitted by social and cultural change, as well as by technological advances, the types of illustrations have ranged from gross anatomy through dissections showing the various organ systems, histological preparations, and radiological images, right up to the computerized digital imagery that is available today, which allows both static and dynamic two- and three-dimensional representations to be transmitted electronically across the world in a matter of seconds. The techniques used to represent medical knowledge pictorially have been as varied as the illustrators themselves, involving drawing, engraving, printing, photography, cinematography and digital processing. Each new technique has built on previous experience to broaden medical knowledge and make it accessible to an ever-widening audience. This vast accumulation of pictorial material has posed considerable problems of storage, cataloguing, retrieval, display and dissemination of the information, as well as questions of ethics, validity, manipulation and reliability. This paper traces these developments, illustrating them with representative examples drawn from

  6. Rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia: Meckel's cave meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaid, Abdullah; Schaeffer, Todd; Virojanapa, Justin; Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-07-01

    The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia is vascular compression. However, other causes must be excluded. It is very unlikely that a meningocele presents with symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia. We present a rare case of a patient presenting with left trigeminal neuralgia. Thin-slice CT and MRI showed a transclival Meckel's cave meningocele. The patient underwent endoscopic repair of the meningocele, which resulted in complete resolution of her symptoms. Meckel's cave meningocele or encephalocele should be considered among the differential diagnoses of trigeminal neuralgia. Meningocele repair should be suggested as the first treatment option in this rare situation.

  7. Luminescence of Speleothems in Italian Gypsum Caves: Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Shopov, Yavor Y; Forti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence of 3 speleothem samples from the Acquafredda karst system and 1 from the Novella Cave (Gessi Bolognesi Natural Park, Italy) has been recorded using excitation by impulse Xe- lamp. All these carbonate speleothems are believed to be formed only from active CO2 from the air, because the bedrock of the cave consist of gypsum and does not contain carbonates. The obtained photos of luminescence record the climate changes during the speleothem growth. U/Th and 14C dating proved that studied speleothems started to grow since about 5,000 years ago. The detailed analyses of the luminescence records is still in progress.

  8. Spanish Civil War caves of Asturias in archaeology and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, J.; Moshenska, G.

    2016-01-01

    As the Spanish Civil War drew to a close, retreating Republican troops in the northern region of Asturias took refuge in caves in the mountains from the brutal victor’s justice of the Francoist forces. In this paper we examine three of these caves in the context of the Civil War experiences of the rural municipality of Santo Adriano, based on a combination of archaeological recording and oral history interviews. The paper focuses on the role of the La Ponte-Ecomuseum, a grassroots heritage or...

  9. Seasonal temperature variations controlling cave ventilation processes in Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Vieten

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two years of cave monitoring investigate ventilation processes in Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico. The cave is 1,440 m long with a large main passage (about 120,000 m3. Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varies seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1,800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 permits the estimation of a cave air exchange time of 36 ± 5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,300 ± 1,000 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between cave and surface temperature indicate that the seasonal temperature cycle is the main driver of the alternation between a well-ventilated winter mode and a near-stagnant summer mode. The winter mode is characterized by a positive buoyancy contrast at night leading to maximal cave ventilation, while cave ventilation is at a minimum during summer. Between winter and summer, a transitional mode of partial cave ventilation is observed. On shorter time scales (diurnal to weekly, cave pCO2 is also influenced by atmospheric pressure but this variation is one order of magnitude lower than the seasonal pCO2 change. The cave morphology of Cueva Larga including its large volume, tubular shape and the obstructed cave entrance geometry are important boundary conditions for the observed ventilation patterns. Our findings emphasize that cave systems with varying morphology have to be studied individually in order to correctly describe ventilation processes.

  10. Lipid biomarker and compound-specific isotope analysis of cave sediments: a new approach to investigating past vegetation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, A.; Griffiths, T.; Robson, S.

    2009-12-01

    Caves are vital archives for records of terrestrial palaeoenvironmental change, as they form sheltered sediment traps capable of preserving long environmental sequences. Due to their unique role in the landscape, they are also intimately connected to the archaeology and palaeoecology of the parent region. Chemical proxy records preserved in speleothems (chemically precipitated cave deposits) have long been used as a tool in palaeoclimatic research, but clastic sediments deposited by air, water, and breakdown of the surrounding rock also have much to contribute. However, although well researched in a sedimentary context, the geochemical records contained in these deposits, especially organic parameters, have been less well-studied. Here we present the first in-depth study of the organic geochemistry of cave sediment sequences, using samples from two south-east Asian caves, and focusing on plant-derived lipid biomarkers and their associated compound-specific carbon isotope records. The work aimed to establish: whether routine extraction and analysis of compounds was feasible in this context at acceptable sample sizes; whether there was a significant vegetation-derived contribution to the record; whether the depositional mode of the sediment (colluvium, midden, channel fill etc) affects the organic composition; and whether the records show coherent and interpretable variation through time. Two sites were studied: Niah Cave in Borneo, where the sediments recovered are a mixture of colluvium and channel fill and date back to >40 ka; and Hang Boi in Vietnam, where the principal deposit is a Holocene occupation midden dominated by land-snail shells. To recover the lipid fraction 7 g aliquots of freeze-dried sediment were extracted by sonication in 95:5 dichloromethane:methanol. Excess solvent was then removed via rotary evaporation and the extracts derivatised with BF3-Methanol and BSTFA prior to analysis by GC-MS. The lipid extracts contain a range of compounds including

  11. The first troglobitic Pseudonannolene from Brazilian iron ore caves (Spirostreptida: Pseudonannolenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Luiz Felipe Moretti; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Pseudonannolene spelaea n. sp. is the first strictly cave-dwelling species described for the family Pseudonannolenidae. It is found in iron ore caves in the Brazilian Amazon. The family Pseudonannolenidae is exclusively Neotropical and frequently found in caves of Brazil, from which 20 species are known. The new species is compared with its congeners and with related cave-dwelling species. The family Pseudonannolenidae is discussed, and comments are presented on the conservation status of the caves where the species is found, which potentially may be the target of anthropogenic impacts resulting from iron ore extraction.

  12. Application of electrical resistivity imaging on Divaška jama cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Mihevc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI is a widely used tool in geophysical survey of various subsurface structures. To establish its applicability for karst subsurface, ERI was conducted in Divača karst above caves of Trhlovca and Divaška jama and in its continuation as denuded cave on slopes of Radvanj collapse doline. Empty cave passages were not detected with ERI as electrical resistivity difference between voids and highly resistive carbonate bedrock is too small. On the other hand, denuded caves and cave sections, filled with loamy material, can be clearly distinguished.

  13. Gas discharges in fumarolic ice caves of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T. P.; Curtis, A. G.; Kyle, P. R.; Sano, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Fumarolic ice caves and towers on Erebus are the surface expression of flank degassing on the world's southernmost active volcano. The caves are formed by warm gases and steam escaping from small vents on the lava flow floors that melts the overlying ice and snow. Extremophiles in the caves may be analogues for extraterrestrial environments. Over the past four Austral summers, mapping, gas and thermal monitoring conducted under the Erebus Caves Project has provided insights into the ice cave formation processes and the relationships between cave structures, magmatic processes, and weather. Gas samples were collected during the 2012 - 2013 field season in 4 ice caves (Warren, Harry's Dream, Sauna, Haggis Hole) as well as the thermal ground at Tramway Ridge. The vents at all of these sites are characterized by diffuse degassing through loose lava or cracks in the lava flow floor. Vent temperatures ranged from 5 to 17°C in most caves and at Tramway Ridge. In Sauna cave the temperature was 40°C. Gases were sampled by inserting a perforated 1 m long, 5 mm diameter stainless steel tube, into the vents or hot ground. Giggenbach bottles, copper tubes and lead glass bottles were connected in series. The gases were pumped at a slow rate (about 20 ml per minute) using a battery pump for 12-24 hours to flush the system. After flushing samples were collected for later analyses. All samples are dominated by atmospheric components, however, carbon dioxide (0.1 to 1.9%), methane (0.005 to 0.01%), hydrogen (0.002 to 0.07%), and helium (0.0009 to 0.002 %) are above air background. Nitrogen (average 74%) and oxygen (23.5%) are slightly below and above air values, respectively. Helium isotopes show minor input of mantle derived helium-3 with 3He4He ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.18 RA (where RA is the ratio of air). This represents the first detection of hydrogen and helium in the caves. Methane could be produced by anaerobic respiration of subsurface microbes or hydrothermal

  14. Dolomite in caves: Recent dolomite formation in oxic, non-sulfate environments. Castañar Cave, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana María; Martín Pérez, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Dolomite is a common mineral in the rock record but rare in recent superficial environments. Where it does occur, it is related to anoxic, sulfate-rich environments and microbial activity. The occurrence of some dolomite deposits in caves, however, indicates that dolomite formation is also possible in oxic, non-sulfate settings. Dolomite is forming at 17 °C and in oxic-vadose conditions on the host rocks and aragonite speleothems of the Castañar Cave, Cáceres, Spain. It appears as...

  15. A second species of Euscorpiops Vachon from caves in Vietnam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae). Cave Euscorpiops scorpion from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2014-09-01

    Euscorpiops dakrong sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of one male and one female collected in the Dakrong Nature Reserve cave system, Dakrong District, Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions of the genus Euscorpiops, but it is characterized by a slender body and elongated pedipalps. This new scorpion taxon represents the second species of Scorpiopinae discovered in a cave system and may be yet another endemic element in the fauna of Vietnam. Some taxonomic propositions on the generic position of Scorpiops oligotrichus Fage, 1933 are also suggested.

  16. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  17. Assessment of the dose from radon and its decay products in the Bozkov dolomite cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenská, K; Thinová, L; Zdímal, V

    2008-01-01

    The dose from radon and its progeny remains a frequently discussed problem. ICRP 65 provides a commonly used methodology to calculate the dose from radon. Our work focuses on a cave environment and on assessing the doses in public open caves. The differences in conditions (aerosol size distribution, humidity, radon and its progeny ratio, etc.) are described by the so-called cave factor j. The cave factor is used to correct the dose for workers which is calculated using the ICRP 65 recommendation. In this work, the authors have brought together measured data of aerosol size distribution, unattached and attached fraction activity, and have calculated the so-called cave factor for the Bozkov dolomite cave environment. The dose conversion factors based on measured data and used for evaluating the cave factor were calculated by LUDEP software, which implements HRTM ICRP66.

  18. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  19. Recognition of microclimate zones through radon mapping, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.I.; LaRock, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radon concentrations range from temperature and barometric pressure, similar to other Type 2 caves. Most of the cave is developed in three geographic branches beneath the entrance passages; these areas maintain Rn levels independent of surface effects, an indication that Rn levels in deep, complex caves or mines cannot be simply estimated by outside atmospheric parameters. These deeper, more isolated areas are subject to convective ventilation driven by temperature differences along the 477-m vertical extent of the cave. Radon concentrations are used to delineate six microclimate zones (air circulation cells) throughout the cave in conjunction with observed airflow data. Suspected surface connections contribute fresh air to remote cave areas demonstrated by anomalous Rn lows surrounded by higher values, the presence of mammalian skeletal remains, CO2 concentrations and temperatures lower than the cave mean, and associated surficial karst features.

  20. The occurrence of coliform bacteria in the cave waters of Slovak Karst, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, Milan; Gaálová, Barbora; Cíchová, Marianna; Prokšová, Miloslava; Haviarová, Dagmar; Fľaková, Renáta

    2015-05-01

    The diversity and abundance of coliform bacteria (taxonomically enterobacterias), an important quality water indicator, were determined for four representative caves in Slovak Karst: Domica Cave, Gombasecká Cave, Milada Cave and Krásnohorská Cave. Three hundred and fifty-two enterobacterial isolates were successfully identified by biochemical testing (commercial ENTEROtest 24) and selected isolates confirmed by molecular techniques (PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis). A total of 39 enterobacterial species were isolated from cave waters, with predominance of Escherichia coli, Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp. PCR amplification of lacZ gene is not specific enough to provide a reliable detection of coliform bacteria isolated from the environment. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that all of the selected isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. In general, physical and chemical parameters of cave waters in Slovak Karst corresponded to national drinking water quality standards.

  1. Comparison of 3D point clouds produced by LIDAR and UAV photoscan in the Rochefort cave (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Kaufmann, Olivier; Le Mouelic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different kind of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g. Agisoft, PhotoModeler3D, VisualSFM). We present here a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The site is located in the Belgian Variscan fold-and-thrust belt, a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. A LIDAR scan has been acquired in the main chamber of the cave (~ 15000 m³) to spatialize 3D point cloud of its inner walls and infer geological beds and structures. Even if the use of LIDAR instrument was not really comfortable in such caving environment, the collected data showed a remarkable precision according to few control points geometry. We also decided to perform another challenging survey of the same cave chamber by modelling a 3D point cloud using photogrammetry of a set of DSLR camera pictures taken from the ground and UAV pictures. The aim was to compare both techniques in terms of (i) implementation of data acquisition and processing, (ii) quality of resulting 3D points clouds (points density, field vs cloud recovery and points precision), (iii) their application for geological purposes. Through Rochefort case study, main conclusions are that LIDAR technique provides higher density point clouds with slightly higher precision than photogrammetry method. However, 3D data modeled by photogrammetry provide visible light spectral information

  2. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  3. Incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in cave tour guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, M; Bilban-Jakopin, C; Vrhovec, S

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and micronucleus tests (MN) were performed in 38 subjects, cave tour guides and in appropriate control group. The dominant type of chromosomal aberrations in tourist guides were chromosomal breaks (0.013 per cell) and acentric fragments (0.011 per cell). In the control group, these aberrations were present up to 0.008 on cells. Considering the analysed cells of the guides in total (33,556), the incidence of dicentric and rings range is below 0.0008 on cells, even though three dicentric and ring chromosoms were found already in the first 1000 in vitro metaphases of some guides. Only 0.0003 dicentrics and neither other translocations were found in control group (ambiental exposure). The incidence of micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked lymphocytes ranged from 12-32 per 500 CB cells in the cave tour guides and from 4-11 per 500 CB cells in control group. Measurements of radon and its daughters were performed at different locations in the cave. Annual doses from 40-60 mSv were estimated per 2000 work hours for cave guides. The changes found in the genome of somatic cells may be related to the exposure doses of radon and its daughters, although smoking should not be ignored.

  4. Designing a Virtual Reality Game for the CAVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    remains uncommon and expensive. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of VR games, and in particular games for the CAVE, now that affordable solutions are close to reach as more powerful hardware is available at low price. The focus is also on the methodology to be pursued while designing a VR game...

  5. Numerical analysis of application for induction caving roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jian-hua; ZHOU Ke-ping; LI Xi-bing; YANG Nian-ge; SU Jia-hong

    2005-01-01

    New method for handling roof of the base successive mining is proposed, which is induction caving in the roof. The key is that it is made certain to the station of the space-time in the induction caving roof, as the stress is released with the mining process. And applying the catastrophe theory, the influencing factors of induction caving roof are studied in the emptied areas, such as the mechanical property of the surrounding rock, the area of the gob,the scope and dimension of tensile stress. The results show that the key factor is the area of the gob to the method of the induction caving roof. Then according to the geology and the ore characteristic, the three dimension FEM mechanical model is built in Tongkeng Mine, the laws of the tensile stress are analyzed to the space and the time in the roof with the mining, then it is rational design to the mine step and time of the handing the roof.

  6. Inside the neutrino cave, close to the target complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows on the left the shielding of the target complex, T9 and T11 for the wide and narrow beams. The direction of the primary proton beam faces the camera. Between the shielding and the cave wall are housed the magnets cooling pipes. The pulley block allows displacements inside the shielding.

  7. [A case of epidermoid tumor inside the Meckel's cave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, H; Ottomo, M; Nakamura, T; Yokota, A

    1997-10-01

    An epidermoid tumor inside the Meckel's cave is rare. The symptoms caused by this tumor include trigeminal neuralgia, facial hypesthesia and paresis of the 3rd, 4th and 6th nerves. A case of epidermoid tumor inside Meckel's cave was presented. A 54-year-old female who had complained of 3rd nerve palsy with right facial hypesthesia since 3 years before was referred to our clinic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the tumor at Meckel's cave. The tumor removal was performed using the orbito-zygomatic approach. To avoid injury of the internal carotid artery and nerves inside the cavernous sinus, removal of the tumor inside the capsule was carried out leaving the capsule. Postoperatively, the tumor removal was confirmed by MRI and improvement of the 3rd and the 5th nerve palsy was obtained three months after surgery. This case suggests that the capsule of the tumor inside the Meckel's cave should be allowed to remain to avoid injury of the adjacent 4th, 5th and 6th nerves and of the internal carotid artery.

  8. Sheet flow caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal lobes of sheet flows of pahoehoe lava sometimes form three-dimensional nests, initially separated by partitions consisting of accreted ‘skins” of each lobe. Melting breaks down these partitions, forming a uniform flow unit. In Kilauea Caldera we have found and mapped sizable drained cavities in low-slope sheet flows. Their general pattern includes three-dimensional nests, with partially melted septa evident in some examples. Christmas Cave is the most extensive found to date, with 632 meters surveyed on two levels. It is located at the lower end of an inflated sheet flow tongue which underwent local deflation as a result of drainage through the cave after its parameters were partially fixed. Small conduit remnants persist in its boundary ridges. The major part of the cave consists of wide, low nestled chambers. Meltdown of such partitions is one of the few emplacement mechanisms of thermal erosion which may not involve any mechanical element. Additional caves in this caldera are being identified and studied.

  9. Cyathura specus, a new cave Isopod from Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1965-01-01

    During the years 1958-1960, several shipments of specimens collected in the Caguanes Caves of Cuba were sent to the United States National Museum by GILBERTO SILVA TABOADA. Mr. SILVA'S collections included 3 specimens of a blind anthurid isopod, which I determined to be a species of Cyathura, simila

  10. Study of firedamp release in sub-level caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, F.S.; Sanz Delgado, M.A.; Iturriaga Trenor, S.; Alberdi Vinas, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field work developed in the pits of 'Hullera Vasco-Leonesa' in Santa Lucia (Leon) to control firedamp release is described. Conclusions obtained concerning gas emission, irregularity and firedamp balance in sub-level caving winning faces are discussed. Some definitions of basic concepts in firedamp studies are also included. 7 figs.

  11. Bacteria associated with the bleached and cave coral Oculina patagonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Omry; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    The relative abundance of bacteria in the mucus and tissues of Oculina patagonica taken from bleached and cave (azooxanthellae) corals was determined by analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from cloned libraries of extracted DNA and from isolated colonies. The results were compared to previously published data on healthy O. patagonica. The bacterial community of bleached, cave, and healthy corals were completely different from each other. A tight cluster (>99.5% identity) of bacteria, showing 100% identity to Acinetobacter species, dominated bleached corals, comprising 25% of the 316 clones sequenced. The dominant bacterial cluster found in cave corals, representing 29% of the 97 clones sequenced, showed 98% identity to an uncultured bacterium from the Great Barrier Reef. Vibrio splendidus was the most dominant species in healthy O. patagonica. The culturable bacteria represented 0.1-1.0% of the total bacteria (SYBR Gold staining) of the corals. The most abundant culturable bacteria in bleached, cave, and healthy corals were clusters that most closely matched Microbulbifer sp., an alpha-proteobacterium previously isolated from healthy corals and an alpha-protobacterium (AB026194), respectively. Three generalizations emerge from this study on O. patagonica: (1) More bacteria are associated with coral tissue than mucus; (2) tissue and mucus populations are different; (3) bacterial populations associated with corals change dramatically when corals lack their symbiotic zooxanthellae, either as a result of the bleaching disease or when growing in the absence of light.

  12. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RADOLOVIĆ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian coastal karst abounds in submerged caves that host a variety of environmental conditions depending on the geomorphology, depth and submarine groundwater discharge. One example is the Y-Cave, a shallow, mostly submerged, horizontal cave on Dugi Otok Island, on the eastern Adriatic coast. This study was aimed at examining the temporal and spatial variability of the marine cave environment, including temperature, salinity, light intensity, cave morphology and hydrodynamism, along with the dissolutional effect caused by the mixing of sea and freshwater. The general distribution of organisms in the Y-Cave was positively correlated to the light gradient and reduced water circulation, thus the highest species diversity and abundance were recorded in the front part of the cave. The phylum Porifera was the most dominant group, and the poriferan species diversity in the cave ranks among the ten highest in the Mediterranean. The middle part of the cave, although completely dark, hosts an abundant population of the gastropod Homalopoma sanguineum and clusters of the gregarious brachiopod Novocrania anomala, whose presence could be connected to tidal hydrodynamics. The absence/scarcity of sessile marine organisms and pronounced corrosion marks at shallow depths inside the cave suggest a freshwater impact in the upper layers of the water column. A year long experiment with carbonate tablets revealed three different, independent ongoing processes affected by the position in the cave: bioaccumulation, dissolution and mechanical erosion. The results of long-term temperature readings also revealed water column stratification within the cave, which was not disturbed by either tidal or wave action. The shallow, partly submerged and relatively small Y-Cave is characterised by a suite of complex environmental conditions, which, together with the resulting distribution of organisms, are unique to this cave.

  13. The relationship between caves minerals and hypogene speleogenesis along the Cerna Valley (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onac, B. P.; Sumrall, J.; Tamas, T.; Povara, I.; Veres, D.; Darmiceanu, V.; Lascu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Over 100 caves are known to develop in the Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone that outcrops on both sides of the Cerna Valley in southwestern Romania. High temperature anomalies are rather uncommon in the cave environment; however, in certain caves in the lower part of Cerna Valley one can measure air temperatures as high as 40°C. This situation is due to the presence of thermal water pooling or flowing through the caves or to the hot steam that rises along fractures from deeper thermal water pools. During the long evolution of the thermo-mineral activity along the Cerna Valley interaction has occurred on a wide scale between the cave host rock or/and cave sediments and the ascending hot steam or/and thermal solutions of all types (mainly sulfide-rich). The present work documents the products of these processes and record the occurrence of twenty-four secondary cave minerals (both of primarily or replacement origin) precipitated under particular cave environments. Among these, glauberite, apjonite, halotrichite, pickeringite, rapidcreekite, tamarugite, and darapskite are the most interesting. The mineral samples were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope analyses with the scope of linking the cave minerals with possible hypogene speleogenetic processes. The isotopic measurements (δ34S) performed on sulfate speleothems contribute valuable information on both minerals and caves origin. Apart from two minerals (i.e., calcite and gypsum), which were identified in every cave investigated so far, all the others fall into three distinct associations that have resulted from specific reactions under highly particular settings in Diana (sulfate-dominated association), Adam (phosphate-dominated), and Great Sălitrari (sulfate/phosphate/nitrate-rich association) caves. These three remarkable cave occurrences are presented along with morphological features that confirm the

  14. A post-wildfire response in cave dripwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Gurinder; Treble, Pauline C.; Andersen, Martin S.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Coleborn, Katie; Baker, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Surface disturbances above a cave have the potential to impact cave dripwater discharge, isotopic composition and solute concentrations, which may subsequently be recorded in the stalagmites forming from these dripwaters. One such disturbance is wildfire; however, the effects of wildfire on cave chemistry and hydrology remains poorly understood. Using dripwater data monitored at two sites in a shallow cave, beneath a forest, in southwest Australia, we provide one of the first cave monitoring studies conducted in a post-fire regime, which seeks to identify the effects of wildfire and post-fire vegetation dynamics on dripwater δ18O composition and solute concentrations. We compare our post-wildfire δ18O data with predicted dripwater δ18O using a forward model based on measured hydro-climatic influences alone. This helps to delineate hydro-climatic and fire-related influences on δ18O. Further we also compare our data with both data from Golgotha Cave - which is in a similar environment but was not influenced by this particular fire - as well as regional groundwater chemistry, in an attempt to determine the extent to which wildfire affects dripwater chemistry. We find in our forested shallow cave that δ18O is higher after the fire relative to modelled δ18O. We attribute this to increased evaporation due to reduced albedo and canopy cover. The solute response post-fire varied between the two drip sites: at Site 1a, which had a large tree above it that was lost in the fire, we see a response reflecting both a reduction in tree water use and a removal of nutrients (Cl, Mg, Sr, and Ca) from the surface and subsurface. Solutes such as SO4 and K maintain high concentrations, due to the abundance of above-ground ash. At Site 2a, which was covered by lower-middle storey vegetation, we see a solute response reflecting evaporative concentration of all studied ions (Cl, Ca, Mg, Sr, SO4, and K) similar to the trend in δ18O for this drip site. We open a new avenue for

  15. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  16. Millennial Scale Cycles from Speleothems of the Gibraltar Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Meighan; Mattey, Dave; Atkinson, Tim; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Rock of Gibraltar contains many solution caves which initially formed near sea level and now span elevations to over 300m as a result of slow uplift over time. In the modern climate, Gibraltar holds an important position near the southern limit of the tracks taken by the depressions that deliver rainfall to Europe from the North Atlantic sector of the atmosphere. Monitoring in St. Michaels and Ragged Staff caves has been carried out since 2004 by monthly sampling and deployment of logging instruments which reveals that speleothem growth is most strongly influenced by seasonally reversing cave ventilation that permeates the entire rock. The results provide unprecedented insight into how cave environments respond to seasonal change, variations in sea level and neotectonic uplift and the ways that regional climate is recorded as chemical proxies in an evolving cave environment. We present an overview of the results of this proxy record of precipitation, sea level and environmental change, including new analysis within this 500ka record. A general mean isotopic composition of 1ka time slices have been stacked into a preliminary record from over twenty speleothems. Within this we look at higher resolution time slices to examine the occurrence of millennial scale cycles which occur within the Gibraltar record. During glacial maxima, the Gibraltar record shows elevated δ18O and associated higher δ13C caused by greater degassing or lower soil pCO2 from weakened vegetative activity during cool arid glacials. Highly resolved millennial scale warming events which seem to match the Greenland ice core record give insights into SST changes and atmospheric reorganization at Gibraltar.

  17. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species.

  18. The first troglobitic species of freshwater flatworm of the suborder Continenticola (Platyhelminthes from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Teles de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian cave diversity, especially of invertebrates, is poorly known. The Bodoquena Plateau, which is located in the Cerrado Biome in central Brazil, has approximately 200 recorded caves with a rich system of subterranean water resources and high troglobitic diversity. Herein we describe a new troglobitic species of Girardia that represents the first obligate cave-dwelling species of the suborder Continenticola in South America. Specimens of the new species, which occur in a limestone cave in the Bodoquena Plateau, in the Cerrado biome, are unpigmented and eyeless. Species recognition in the genus Girardia is difficult, due to their great morphological resemblance. However, the new species can be easily recognized by a unique feature in its copulatory apparatus, namely a large, branched bulbar cavity with multiple diverticula.

  19. Seasonal Temperature Variations controlling Cave Ventilation Processes in Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A.; Vieten, R.; Warken, S. F.; Schrӧder-Ritzrau, A.; Miller, T. E.; Scholz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Two years of monthly monitoring result in much better understanding of ventilation processes in caves. Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico is 1440 m long with a large main passage (about 116,000 m3). Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varied seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 made it possible to estimate a cave air exchange time of 36±5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,200±800 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between cave and surface temperature show that the seasonal temperature cycle is the main driver of the alternation between a well-ventilated winter mode and a near-stagnant summer mode. The winter mode is characterized by a positive buoyancy contrast at night leading to maximal cave ventilation, while during summer ventilation is at a minimum. Between winter and summer, a transitional mode of partial cave ventilation is observed. On shorter time scales (diurnal to weekly), cave pCO2 is also influenced by atmospheric pressure but this variation is one order of magnitude lower than the seasonal pCO2 change. The cave morphology of Cueva Larga including its large volume, tubular shape and the obstructed cave entrance geometry are important boundary conditions for the observed ventilation patterns. Our findings emphasize that cave systems with varying morphology have to be studied individually in order to correctly describe ventilation processes.

  20. Ancient lineage, young troglobites: recent colonization of caves by Nesticella spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-09-04

    The evolution and origin of cave organisms is a recurring issue in evolutionary studies, but analyses are often hindered by the inaccessibility of caves, morphological convergence, and complex colonization processes. Here we investigated the evolutionary history of Nesticella cave spiders, which are mainly distributed in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China. With comprehensive sampling and phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses, we investigated the tempo and mode of diversification and the origins of these troglobites. We also aimed to determine which factors have influenced the diversification of this little-known group. Coalescent-based species delimitation validated the 18 species recognized by morphological inspection and also suggested the existence of cryptic lineages. Divergence time estimates suggested that Nesticella cave spiders in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau constituted a monophyletic troglobite clade that originated in the middle Miocene (11.1-18.6 Ma). Although the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau clade was composed exclusively of troglobite species, suggesting an ancient common subterranean ancestor, we favor multiple, independent cave colonizations during the Pleistocene over a single ancient cave colonization event to explain the origin of these cave faunas. The diversification of plateau Nesticella has been greatly influenced by the sequential uplift of the plateau and likely reflects multiple cave colonizations over time by epigean ancestors during Pleistocene glacial advances. We concluded that plateau cave Nesticella represent an ancient group of spiders, but with young troglobite lineages that invaded caves only recently. The absence of extant epigean relatives and nearly complete isolation among caves supported their relict status. Our work highlights the importance of comprehensive sampling for studies of subterranean diversity and the evolution of cave organisms. The existence of potentially cryptic species and the relict status of Nesticella

  1. Return rates from intertidal foraging from Blombos Cave to Pinnacle Point: Understanding early human economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vynck, Jan C; Anderson, Robert; Atwater, Chloe; Cowling, Richard M; Fisher, Erich C; Marean, Curtis W; Walker, Robert S; Hill, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The south coast of South Africa provides the earliest evidence for Middle Stone Age (MSA) coastal resource exploitation by early Homo sapiens. In coastal archaeology worldwide, there has been a debate over the general productivity of intertidal foraging, leading to studies that directly measure productivity in some regions, but there have been no such studies in South Africa. Here we present energetic return rate estimates for intertidal foraging along the southern coast of South Africa from Blombos Cave to Pinnacle Point. Foraging experiments were conducted with Khoi-San descendants of the region, and hourly caloric return rates for experienced foragers were measured on 41 days near low tide and through three seasons over two study years. On-site return rates varied as a function of sex, tidal level, marine habitat type and weather conditions. The overall energetic return rate from the entire sample (1492 kcal h(-1)) equals or exceeds intertidal returns reported from other hunter-gatherer studies, as well as measured return rates for activities as diverse as hunting mammals and plant collecting. Returns are projected to be exceptionally high (∼ 3400 kcal h(-1) for men, ∼ 1900 kcal h(-1) for women) under the best combination of conditions. However, because of the monthly tidal cycle, high return foraging is only possible for about 10 days per month and for only 2-3 h on those days. These experiments suggest that while intertidal resources are attractive, women and children could not have subsisted independently, nor met all their protein-lipid needs from marine resources alone, and would have required substantial additional energy and nutrients from plant gathering and/or from males contributing game.

  2. Search for an artificially buried karst cave entrance using ground penetrating radar: a successful case of locating the S-19 Cave in the Mt. Kanin massif (NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The S-19 Cave was with its explored depth of 177 m one of the most important caves of the Mt. Kanin massif, but after its discovery in 1974, a huge snow avalanche protection dyke was constructed across the cave entrance. To excavate the buried cave, the accurate location of the cave had to be determined first. Since the entrance coordinates were incorrect and no markers were available, application of geophysical techniques was necessary to do this. A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR with special 50 MHz rough terrain antennas was selected as the single suitable geophysical method for the given conditions where thick debris overlay a rugged limestone surface. Nevertheless, it was not possible to directly detect the relatively narrow cave entrance itself due to data resolution limits. However, a historical photo of the area showed that the cave entrance was located in a local depression, which therefore represented the main target of the GPR survey. Seven GPR profiles were measured across the rough and steep surface causing difficulties in traversing the area with sensitive research equipment. In all recorded radargrams a small depression was clearly imaged under debris, and recognized as a topographic feature with the cave entrance. Based on the GPR data interpretation, the exact location for digging was determined and the thickness of debris assessed at 6.5–7 m. A massive excavation by a dredger resulted in a successful opening of the cave entrance, confirming both its geophysically determined location and its estimated depth. The application of an advanced geophysical method was therefore proven successful in providing a solution to this specific case in karst exploration and an important cave was saved.

  3. The engineering classification of karst with respect to the role and influence of caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltham Tony

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The engineering classification of karst defines various complexities of ground conditions, in terms of the hazards that they provide to potential construction. Karst is divided into five classes (from immature to extreme. The three key parameters within the classification are caves (size and extent, sinkholes (abundance and collapse frequency and rockhead (profile and relief. As one component of karst, caves are a hazard to foundation integrity, though natural surface collapses over caves are extremely rare. A cave roof is normally stable under engineering loading where the roof thickness is greater than 70% of the cave width. Construction can proceed over or around caves that are known. The main difficulty is finding unseen voids; ground investigation in mature karst may require extensive borehole probing, and microgravity is the most useful geophysical technique.

  4. A comparative study on the microbial activities in some caves from Padurea Craiului Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dora SAMUEL

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms represent a heterogeneous group, widely spread in different environments. Our goal in this study was to determine whether microorganisms are present in four particular Transylvanian caves, which are: Ungurului Cave, Izvor Cave, Lesianei Cave, and Moanei Cave, all situated in the Pădurea Craiului Mountains. All of those caves are often visited by tourists. In order to conceive this study we have collected and analyzed different samples, using enzymatic and microbiological methods; the samples were taken from the floor deposits, wall deposits and sludge. Some enzymatic activities were studied, such as: catalase activity, phosphatase activity, actual and potential dehydrogenase activity, urease activity as well as the non-enzymatic catalytic activity. We have also computed the EISQ – which is the enzymatic indicator of soil or sludge quality – based on the results obtained by studying the enzymatic activities.

  5. Climate indexes of phytoliths from Homo erectus' cave deposits in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weiming; LIU Jinling; ZHOU Xiaodan

    2003-01-01

    A study on phytoliths and their climate indexes is carried out from Homo erectus' cave deposits in Hulu Cave, Nanjing. Evidence shows that phytolith assemblages of the cave deposits are dominated by the cold resistant types with a lower warm index, reflecting an overall cold inclined climate. This possibly connects the cave deposits with glacial climate to a great extent, which is in accordance with the northern fauna revealed by fossil mammals and temperate climate indicated by pollen assemblages. According to the distributional state of the phytoliths and their climate indexes on 4 profiles in the cave, it is revealed that profiles Ⅰ and Ⅱ display certain cold/warm, and dry/wet fluctuations; profile Ⅲ shows a humid and cold condition with the highest humility in the cave deposits; while profile Ⅳ indicates a possible quick accumulating process because of its stable climate indexes except for its bottom and top.

  6. Mineralogical data on bat guano deposits from three Romanian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Giurgiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical studies performed on crusts, nodules and earthy masses from the Romanian caves Gaura cu Muscă, Gaura Haiducească and Peștera Zidită have revealed the presence of three different phosphate associations. The minerals have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Five phosphates have been identified in the samples, with hydroxylapatite the only common mineral in all the three caves. Brushite, taranakite, leucophosphite and variscite are the other phosphates identified. Associated minerals include gypsum, calcite, quartz and illite-group minerals. Aside from differences in the lithology, the occurrences of the different phosphate minerals indicate variable pH and humidity conditions near or within the guano accumulations.

  7. Cave dwelling Onychophora from a Lava Tube in the Galapagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new population of velvet worms (Onychophora inhabiting a lava tube cave in the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos, is reported here. The population size is large, suggesting that they may be troglophilic. Its members are darkly pigmented, with no obvious troglomorphic features. Their 16S rRNA sequence showed no differences when compared to an unidentified species of surface velvet worm from the same island, thus supporting cave and surface populations belong to the same species. Based on the 16S rRNA data, the Galapagos velvet worms derived from an Ecuadorian/Colombian clade, as would be expected of ease of dispersal from the nearest mainland to the Galapagos Islands.

  8. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyperthermic inner room beneath an adjoining tumulus with no connection evident on the surface. Two lengthy, sinuous hollow tumuli also are present in this part of the caldera. These findings support Walkers conclusions that hollow tumuli provide valuable insights into tumulus-forming mechanisms, and provide information about the processes of emplacement of pahoehoe sheet flows.

  9. [Progress on the degeneration mechanism of cave fishes' eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xian; Ning, Tiao; Xiao, Heng

    2012-08-01

    Attempts to understand the degeneration of the eyes in cave fish has largely been explained by either various extents of gradual degeneration, ranging from partial to total loss, observed in various species or by acceleration of loss caused by dark environments. However, neither the theory of biological evolution developed by Charles Darwin nor the neutral theory of molecular evolution formulated by Kimura Motoo adequately explains these phenomena. Recent trends in utilizing multidisciplinary research, however, have yielded better results, helping reveal a more complex picture of the mechanisms of degeneration. Here, we summarize the current progress of the research via morphology and anatomy, development biology, animal behavior science and molecular genetics, and offer some perspectives on the ongoing research into the development and degeneration of eyes in cave fish.

  10. The CAVES Project - Exploring Virtual Data Concepts for Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bourilkov, D

    2004-01-01

    The Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System (CAVES) project concentrates on the interactions between users performing data and/or computing intensive analyses on large data sets, as encountered in many contemporary scientific disciplines. In modern science increasingly larger groups of researchers collaborate on a given topic over extended periods of time. The logging and sharing of knowledge about how analyses are performed or how results are obtained is important throughout the lifetime of a project. Here is where virtual data concepts play a major role. The ability to seamlessly log, exchange and reproduce results and the methods, algorithms and computer programs used in obtaining them enhances in a qualitative way the level of collaboration in a group or between groups in larger organizations. The CAVES project takes a pragmatic approach in assessing the needs of a community of scientists by building series of prototypes with increasing sophistication. In extending the functionality of existi...

  11. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  12. MEIOFAUNAL DIVERSITYAND NEMATODE ASSEMBLAGES IN TWO SUBMARINE CAVES OF A MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. APE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Submarine caves are environments of great ecological interest because of the occurrence of peculiar conditions, such as the attenuation of light and reduced water turnover, which can determine oligotrophic conditions from the entrance to the interior part of the cave. These environmental gradients may influence the distribution of the communities inhabiting submarine caves. In this study we investigated the meiofaunal community and nematode assemblages from the sediments inside and outside two submarine caves in Ustica Island Marine Protected Area (southwest Italy: Grotta Falconiera and Grotta dei Gamberi. Consistently with a general pattern of distribution reported by several studies on benthic organisms, our results showed a decrease in the abundance and changes in the taxa composition of the meiofaunal community along the exterior-interior axis of the caves, also highlighting the dissimilarity between the dark and semi-dark communities. We found a significant influence of the availability of organic matter (i.e. phytopigment concentrations on the distribution and composition of both the meiofauna and the nematode community inside the caves. Different nematode assemblages characterized the inside and the outside of the two caves, with species occurring exclusively in the sediment of both caves, particularly in the dark portions, and completely absent in the external sediments. Environmental features of submarine caves may affect food resources inside the caves and consequently trophic nematode assemblages. Our results showed a difference in feeding strategies between nematodes inhabiting the caves and those living outside, suggesting that in the two caves investigated, bacteria might represent the most important food source for nematodes.

  13. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

    OpenAIRE

    D. Brent Jones; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos) approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they...

  14. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulec Janez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ≥ 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

  15. Investigation of Sediment Pathways and Concealed Sedimentological Features in Hidden River Cave, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, S.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Reinhardt, E. G.; McNeill-Jewer, C.; Eyles, C.

    2016-12-01

    Hidden River Cave is part of a cave system hydrogeologically related to Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and is a multi-level active cave system with 25km of mapped passages. Upper levels experience flow during flood events and lower levels have continuously flowing water. Improper industrial and domestic waste disposal and poor understanding of local hydrogeology lead to contamination of Hidden River Cave in the early 1940s. Previously used for hydroelectric power generation and as a source of potable water the cave was closed to the public for almost 50 years. A new sewage treatment plant and remediation efforts since 1989 have improved the cave system's health. This project focuses on sedimentological studies in the Hidden River Cave system. Water and sediment transport in the cave are being investigated using sediment cores, surface sediment samples and water level data. An Itrax core scanner is used to analyze sediment cores for elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, radiography, and high resolution photography. Horizons of metal concentrations in the core allow correlation of sedimentation events in the cave system. Thecamoebian (testate amoebae) microfossils identified in surface samples allow for further constraint of sediment sources, sedimentation rates, and paleoclimatic analysis. Dive recorders monitor water levels, providing data to further understand the movement of sediment through the cave system. A general time constraint on the sediment's age is based on the presence of microplastic in the surface samples and sediment cores, and data from radiocarbon and lead-210 dating. The integration of various sedimentological data allows for better understanding of sedimentation processes and their record of paleoenvironmental change in the cave system. Sediment studies and methodologies from this project can be applied to other karst systems, and have important applications for communities living on karst landscapes and their water management policies.

  16. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  17. Epidermoid tumor within Meckel's cave--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, T; Dindorkar, K; Muzumdar, D; Goel, A

    2000-01-01

    A rare case of an epidermoid tumor lying within Meckel's cave is reported. A 27-year-old housewife presented with complaints of right facial hypesthesia for two and a half years. On examination she had partial loss of touch sensation in the right trigeminal nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor located at the right petrous apex and cavernous sinus. The epidermoid tumor was excised through a lateral basal subtemporal approach. The symptoms resolved following surgery.

  18. Tuberculoma in the Meckel's cave: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A; Nadkarni, T; Desai, A P

    1999-09-01

    A case of an intracranial tuberculoma located within the confines of the Meckel's cave is presented. The patient was young, non-immunocompromised and otherwise in good health. The granuloma mingled with the fibres of the trigeminal nerve. The lesion mimicked a trigeminal neurinoma in its clinical presentation, preoperative investigations and intraoperative consistency and vascularity. The rarity of the location and possible mode of transmission of infection to this site is discussed. The literature on this subject is briefly reviewed.

  19. Spontaneous Meckel's cave hematoma: A rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Concetta Alafaci; Giovanni Grasso; Francesca Granata; Daniele Marino; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Francesco Tomasello

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is vascular compression. However, other causes must be considered. Among these, spontaneous hematoma of the Meckel′s cave (MC) causing symptomatic TN is very rare. Case Description: We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-month history of left TN and diplopia. Neuroradiological examinations revealed a well-defined hematoma in the left MC. The patient underwent surgical decompression with a progressive ne...

  20. Searching for Chambers and Caves in Teotihuacan's Sun Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Arrieta, E.; Barba P., L.; Becerril, A. D.; Belmont, E.; Carrillo, I.; Cabrera M., J. I.; Esquivel, O.; Grabski, V.; López R., J. M.; Manzanilla N., L.; Martínez D., A.; Menchaca R., A.; Moreno, M.; Núñez C., R.; Plascencia, J. C.; Rangel, M.; Villoro, M.

    2003-06-01

    In this work a status report of a search for caves in the Sun pyramid in Teotihuacan, México is presented. From an archeological perspective the main goal is to gather evidence to determine whether the pyramid was a state or a funerary temple. The general layout of the detector that is being built is an updated version of the one originally proposed by Alvarez et al..

  1. Middle Paleolithic and Uluzzian human remains from Fumane Cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Bailey, Shara E; Peresani, Marco; Mannino, Marcello A; Romandini, Matteo; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The site of Fumane Cave (western Lessini Mountains, Italy) contains a stratigraphic sequence spanning the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic. During excavations from 1989 to 2011, four human teeth were unearthed from the Mousterian (Fumane 1, 4, 5) and Uluzzian (Fumane 6) levels of the cave. In this contribution, we provide the first morphological description and morphometric analysis of the dental remains. All of the human remains, except for Fumane 6, are deciduous teeth. Based on metric data (crown and cervical outline analysis, and lateral enamel thickness) and non-metric dental traits (e.g., mid-trigonid crest), Fumane 1 (lower left second deciduous molar) clearly belongs to a Neandertal. For Fumane 4 (upper right central deciduous incisor), the taxonomic attribution is difficult due to heavy incisal wear. Some morphological features observed in Fumane 5 (lower right lateral deciduous incisor), coupled with the large size of the tooth, support Neandertal affinity. Fumane 6, a fragment of a permanent molar, does not show any morphological features useful for taxonomic discrimination. The human teeth from Fumane Cave increase the sample of Italian fossil remains, and emphasize the need to develop new methods to extract meaningful taxonomic information from deciduous and worn teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical Analysis of Resistivity Anomalies Caused by Underground Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, V.; Averbach, A.; Frid, M.; Dudkinski, D.; Liskevich, G.

    2017-03-01

    Geophysical prospecting of underground caves being performed on a construction site is often still a challenging procedure. Estimation of a likelihood level of an anomaly found is frequently a mandatory requirement of a project principal due to necessity of risk/safety assessment. However, the methodology of such estimation is not hitherto developed. Aiming to put forward such a methodology the present study (being performed as a part of an underground caves mapping prior to the land development on the site area) consisted of application of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) together with statistical analysis utilized for the likelihood assessment of underground anomalies located. The methodology was first verified via a synthetic modeling technique and applied to the in situ collected ERT data and then crossed referenced with intrusive investigations (excavation and drilling) for the data verification. The drilling/excavation results showed that the proper discovering of underground caves can be done if anomaly probability level is not lower than 90 %. Such a probability value was shown to be consistent with the modeling results. More than 30 underground cavities were discovered on the site utilizing the methodology.

  3. Lesions in Meckel's cave: variable presentation and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D W; Menezes, A H

    1987-11-01

    A series of 12 patients with mass lesions arising from Meckel's cave is presented. Patients' age on presentation ranged from 13 months to 71 years. Nine of the 12 patients had symptoms referable to the fifth cranial nerve, but only three complained of facial pain. The 12 patients presented eight different pathological entities, including meningioma, lipoma, schwannoma, malignant melanotic schwannoma, arachnoid cyst, neurofibroma, epidermoid tumor, and chordoma. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were most useful in localizing the lesion to Meckel's cave. All 12 patients underwent a subtemporal approach to the lesion, and gross total removal was achieved in 11. Postoperative results were excellent with no increased neurological deficits seen 3 months postoperatively. Most patients had resolution of the cranial nerve deficits except for fifth nerve function, which was impaired in nine patients postoperatively. This series demonstrates that lesions in Meckel's cave can have a varied and unusual presentation, as well as an assortment of pathology. Total removal of lesions in this area resulted in relief of symptoms in most patients, with minimum morbidity.

  4. Critical caving erosion width for cantilever failures of river bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangui Wang; Shangfu Kuang; Jialin Su

    2016-01-01

    The cantilever failure is one of the typical bank failures, in which the lateral caving erosion at the bottom of the bank plays an important role. When the caving erosion width is larger than a certain value, the cantilever failures such as shear, toppling and stress failures may occur. In order to understand the condition of the cantilever failure, the collapse mechanisms of the cantilever failures are studied based on the bank stability theory and flume experiment. According to the bank stability equation with the lateral erosion, the critical caving erosion width (CCEW) formulas for the shear and toppling failures of simple slope bank were derived in this paper. The formulas show that the CCEW increases as the overhanging soil thickness and soil cohesion increase, and decreases as the crack depth on the bank surface and the slope angle of the bank increase. And these formulas were tested with experimental data, which shows the predicted values are good agreement with experimental data. The paper reveals a quantitative expression on the process of the river cantilever failure.

  5. Measuring Light Air Ions in a Speleotherapeutic Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubal, Z.; Bartušek, K.; Szabó, Z.; Drexler, P.; Überhuberová, J.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with a methodology proposed for measuring the concentration of air ions in the environment of speleotherapeutic caves, and with the implementation of the AK-UTEE-v2 ionmeter. Speleotherapy, in the context of its general definition, is the medical therapy that utilizes the climate of selected caves to treat patients with health problems such as asthma. These spaces are characterized by the presence of high air humidity and they make extreme demands on the execution of the measuring device, the Gerdien tube (GT in the following) in particular, and on the amplifier electronics. The result is an automated measuring system using a GT with low-volume air flow, enabling long-term measuring of air ion concentration and determination of spectral ion characteristics. Interesting from the instrumentation viewpoint are the GT design, active shielding, and execution of the electrometric amplifier. A specific method for the calculation of spectral ion characteristics and the mode of automatic calibration were proposed and a procedure of automatic measurement in the absence of attendants was set up. The measuring system is designed for studying and long-term monitoring of the concentration of light negative ions in dependence on climatic conditions and on the mobility of ions occurring in the cave.

  6. A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Ramos Donato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation Index’ (CCI were established. We also used a rapid assessment protocol to measure cave vulnerability for prioritization of conservation/restoration actions (RAP-cr comparing natural cavities with the same lithology, due to “strictu sensu” peculiarities. Based on the protocols applied in caves of the municipality of Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, we concluded that the present method attended to the needs for the classification of the caves into categories of conservation/restoration status, using little time and financial effort, through rapid diagnostics that facilitate the comparisons. In this perspective, the CCI can be used to indicate areas that should be protected and caves that should be prioritized to have initiated activities of conservation and restoration.

  7. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  8. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  9. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Bona, F; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Badino, G; Isaia, M

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Genetic Types of Baiyun Cave in Lincheng County of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping; SUN; Jian; WANG; Xiaoman; ZHANG; Qianhua; ZHENG; Huafang; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Baiyun Karst Caverns in Lincheng County,Hebei Province,is a rare karst caverns in subhumid climate region of the north.It was developed in carbonatite strata,particularly in Zhangxia formation of the Middle Cambrain series.Erosion-corrosion landscape and chemical deposition landscape are abundant,They are various shapes,curtain drapery,cave flag,cave shield,stalactite,stalagmite,cave flowers,botryoid,soda straw are developed,especially heligmite,soda straw,cave flowers are the most characteristic.

  11. Analysis of the dialectical relation between top coal caving and coal-gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-zheng; XIA Yong-jun; TANG Bing; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2009-01-01

    According to the different engineering mechanical states of top coal caving and normal stoping of gaseous loose thick coal seams, the dialectical relation between this caving method and dynamic disasters was analyzed by simulating the change of stress states in the process of top coal initial caving with different mining and caving ratios based on the ANSYS10.0. The variation of elastic energy and methane expansion energy during first top coal caving was analyzed by first weighting and periodic weighting and combining with coal stress and deformation distribution of top coal normal stoping as well as positive and negative examples in top coal caving of outburst coal seam. The research shows that the outburst risk increases along with the increase of the caving ratio in the initial mining stage. In the period of normal stoping, when the mining and caving ratio is smaller than 1:3 and hard and massive overlying strata do not exist (periodic weighting is not obvious), it is beneficial to control ground stress leading type outburst. Thus, it is unreasonable to prohibit top coal caving in dangerous and outburst prone areas.

  12. The significance of the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus P. Kritzinger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi Monachi Captivi should, in view of the similarities with the first cave episode and the high incidence of literary devices employed in it, be recognised for its value in the interpretation of this vita. The book was intended as a defence of, and an exhortation to a life of celibacy and this dual purpose is clearly demonstrated in both episodes in which a cave is used as the setting. The second cave episode has been neglected in the scholarly debate about the purpose of the book and this article attempts to set the record straight.

  13. Natural and anthropogenic factors which inf luence aerosol distribution in Ingleborough Show Cave, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring in Ingleborough Show Cave (N. Yorkshire, UK reveals the inf luence of tourism and cave management techniques on different parameters of the cave atmosphere. Exploratory aerosol monitoring identif ied a 0.015 ± 0.03 mg/m3 (≈70% reduction in airborne particulates within the f irst 75 meters of cave passage and two major aerosol sources within this artif icially ventilated show cave. Autogenic aerosol production was identif ied close to active stream ways (increases of <0.012 mg/m3, suggesting the expulsion of water-borne aerosols during turbulent water f low. The presence of tourist groups also increased aerosol concentrations within the cave (increases of <0.021 mg/m3, either by transporting them from an allogenic source or through the disturbance of particles which had previously been deposited within the cave environment. Exploratory aerosol data is presented alongside more routine analytical monitoring, helping to contextualise the impact of cave management strategies on natural cave atmospherics.

  14. Subaerial freshwater phosphatic stromatolites in Deer Cave, Sarawak — A unique geobiological cave formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    A suite of distinctive freshwater subaerial phosphatic stromatolites is developed close to the northeastern entrance of Deer Cave, Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Borneo, in conditions of very low light but ample supply of nutrients from guano. These stromatolites are not particulate; they are composed of alternating layers of more porous and more dense amorphous hydroxylapatite. This biomineralization occurs as moulds of coccoid (the majority) and filamentous (less abundant) cyanobacteria. Mineralization occurs at a pH of ~ 7.0 in the extracellular sheaths and in micro-domains of varying carbonate content in the surrounding mucus of the biofilm. The most recent surfaces that are not yet strongly mineralized show still-living filamentous, coccoid and rod-shaped forms. Trace element composition shows enrichment in metal ions, especially Mn and Zn. The stromatolites are present as horizontal shelves arranged in series on a steep rock face that is vertically under a guano-laden shelf. The rock face undergoes active dissolution from acidic guano drainage water (e.g., pH of 2.43) and from aggressive rainwater from an overhead discharge. However, the rock surface under the stromatolite is protected while the rest of the cliff face is backcut, creating a hoodoo-like effect. The stromatolites are ~ 15-20 cm deep, ~ 4-7 cm thick, and of variable width, generally ~ 50 cm. Eventually, guano and biological detritus in the descending water film lodge in the lee of the stromatolite lip, causing local acidification and erosion of stromatolite and rock on the underside of the ledge. A dynamic equilibrium is established between upward accretion of the fresh surface and destruction at the base such that the base of the stromatolite does not reflect the date of its inception and the stromatolite climbs up the wall.

  15. A conceptual hydrotectonic model of water level fluctuation in a cave at the Vienna Basin (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardege, Jonas; Plan, Lukas; Winkler, Gerhard; Baron, Ivo; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Eisensteinhöhle is a hydrothermally overprinted cave at the south-western margin of the Miocene Vienna pull-apart Basin. The basin has been formed by a still active NE-SW trending sinistral strike slip fault associated with NNE-SSW striking normal faults. These faults create pathways for thermal water to rise from the central basin and emerge in several lukewarm thermal springs along the basin margin. The cave was opened during quarrying in 1855 and is developed in a Miocene marine carbonate breccia. It has a crevice-shape while the morphology in most parts is coined by hydrothermal karstification. It is about 2 km long and has a vertical extend of 87 m. At the deepest point, there is a small pond filled with 14.5 °C warm water. This is about 5 °C above the annual average and it shows that there is some connection to a nearby subthermal spring with similar temperature. The water level fluctuates within a range of 3 m and at a certain level the water drains through a hole into a nearby slightly deeper gallery. This pond has attracted considerable attention because sporadic records of water level and discharge measurements since 1992 did not show any correlation with regional precipitation. Within the framework of the SPELEOTECT project (Austrian Science Fund # P25884-N29), the current tectonic activity of two faults along the margin of the Vienna Basin as well as the fault controlling the orientation of the cave are monitored by means of high-resolution moiré extensometers. Since October 2015, data loggers measure water level and temperature in the pond as well as CO2 in the air. A pumping test during medium water level, where the whole pond was emptied showed a volume of only 2800 l and a discharge of 4.5 l/h. Water temperature and hydrochemistry hint towards a mix of old thermal components and young meteoric components. However, water level and temperature change abruptly with no obvious relation to precipitation. Within the first year of the continuous

  16. The Homo sapiens Cave hominin site of Mulan Mountain,Jiangzhou District,Chongzuo,Guangxi with emphasis on its age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN ChangZhu; PAN WenShi; ZHANG YingQi; CAI YanJun; XU QinQi; TANG ZhiLu; WANG Wei; WANG Yuan; LIU JinYi; QIN DaGong; R.Lawrence Edwards; CHENG Hai

    2009-01-01

    One of the most hotly debated and frontal issues in paleoanthropology focuses on the origins of modern humans.Recently,an incomplete hominin mandible with a distinctly weaker mental protuberance than modern human and a great variety of coexisting fossil mammals were unearthed from the Homo sapiens Cave of Mulan Mountain,Chongzuo,Guangxi.The mammalian fauna from the Homo sapiens Cave characterized by the combination of Elephas kiangnanensis,first occurring Elephas maixmus,and Megatapirus augustus,and strikingly different from the Early Pleistocene Gigantopithecus fauna and the Middle Pleistocene Ailuropoda-Stogodon fauna of South China could be regarded as an early representive of the typical Asian elephant fauna.Faunal analysis,biostratigraphic correlation,and,most importantly,U-series dating all consistently support an estimate of ca.110 ka for the age of the fossil Homo sapiens and coexisting mammalian fauna,that is,the early Late Pleistocene.The fauna is mainly made up of tropical-subtropical elements,but grassland elements have a much greater variety than forest elements,which probably indicates a drier climate at that time.This discovery of early Homo sapiens at the Mulan Mountain will play a significant role in the study of the origin and its environmental background of modern humans.

  17. Food for thought: Sub-fossil and fossil chelonian remains from Franchthi Cave and Megalopolis confirm a glacial refuge for Emys orbicularis in Peloponnesus (S. Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Evangelos; Delfino, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Peloponnesus peninsula (S. Greece) shows a remarkable extant chelonian fauna that has received considerable attention from a molecular and morphological point of view. Here we present new evidence from the fossil and sub-fossil record of two important sites in the area, Franchthi Cave and Megalopolis. The archaeological material from Franchthi Cave (Upper Paleolithic - Neolithic/latest Pleistocene - early Holocene) represents food remains from small game prey of the humans that inhabited the cave. The palaeontological material from Megalopolis (Late Pleistocene) comes from old and new excavations. The studied specimens, combined with information from molecular, climatic and zoological works, provide for the first time direct evidence for the presence of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis, in the glacial refuge of South Greece that was hypothesized on the basis of the results of molecular investigations. We also describe other chelonian taxa present in the localities, the Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni and the Balkan stripe-necked terrapin Mauremys rivulata, and review previously published chelonian material from Peloponnesus.

  18. Phototrophic microorganisms in biofilm samples from Vernjika Cave, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Slađana; Jovanović, Jelena; Predojević, Dragana; Trbojević, Ivana; Blagojević, Ana; Subakov Simić, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    Caves represent specific natural monuments in terms of structure, complexity and beauty which can be found worldwide. Even though they are considered extreme environments, they are still a unique habitat for a large number of organisms that grow and proliferate here. Often can be seen that the cave walls are differently coloured as a consequence of the biofilm development. Biofilms represent complex communities of microorganisms that can develop on different kind of surfaces, including various rock surfaces. Each microbe species play a different role in a community, but their development on stone surfaces can cause substantial damage to the substrates through different mechanisms of biodeterioration and degradation. There is an increased interest in the phototrophic component of biofilms (aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae), especially cyanobacteria, an ancient microorganisms capable to survive the most diverse extreme conditions. These phototrophs can easily be found at cave entrances illuminated by direct or indirect sunlight and areas near artificial lights. Cyanobacteria and algae were investigated in biofilm samples taken from the entrance of Vernjika Cave in Eastern Serbia. Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were documented, with Cyanobacteria as a group with the highest number of recorded taxa. Chroococcalean species were the most diverse with the most frequently encountered species from the genus Gloeocapsa. Phormidium and Nostoc species were commonly recorded Oscillatoriales and Nostocles, respectively. Among Oscillatoriales species, it was noticed that one Phormidium species precipitates CaCO3 on it's sheats. Trebouxia sp. and Desmococcus olivaceus were frequently documented Chlorophyta, and representatives of Bacillariophyta were exclusively aerophytic taxa, mostly belonging to the genera Luticola and Humidophila. Measured ecological parameters, temperature and relative humidity, were influenced by the external climatic changes, while light

  19. Paleoenvironment of Fort Union Formation, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrum, C.

    1983-08-01

    Rocks of Paleocene age are represented in the Cave Hills of northwestern South Dakota by the Ludlow, Cannonball, and Tongue River members of the Fort Union Formation. The Cave Hills are situated within the southern margin of the Williston basin, 80 mi (130 km) north of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Numerous fine-grained, fining-upward sedimentary sequences comprise the Ludlow Member and are attributed to meandering streams occupying a low-gradient lower alluvial to upper deltaic plain. The Cannonball Member is 130 ft (40 m) thick in the North Cave Hills and is represented by two fine-grained, coarsening-upward sandstone mudstone sequences. A distinct vertical succession of sedimentary facies occur within each sequence representing offshore/lower shoreface through upper shoreface/foreshore depositional environment. A north to northeast depositional strike for the Cannonball shoreline is inferred from ripple crest and cross-bed orientations. The basal part of the Tongue River consists of approximately 40 to 50 ft (12 to 15 m) of lenticular sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, thin-bedded lignite, and kaolinite beds representing thin broad channels, point-bar, levee, overbank, and nearshore swamp depositional environments. Massive fluvial channel sandstones measuring several tens of ft in thickness overlie the fine-grained basal Tongue River lithologies. These channel sandstones represent the continued progradation of continental/fluvial/coastal plain depositional environments eastward over the marine sandstones of the Cannonball Member.

  20. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  1. Drip water electrical conductivity as an indicator of cave ventilation at the event scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew C; Wynn, Peter M; Barker, Philip A; Leng, Melanie J

    2015-11-01

    The use of speleothems to reconstruct past climatic and environmental change through chemical proxies is becoming increasingly common. Speleothem chemistry is controlled by hydrological and atmospheric processes which vary over seasonal time scales. However, as many reconstructions using speleothem carbonate are now endeavouring to acquire information about precipitation and temperature dynamics at a scale that can capture short term hydrological events, our understanding of within cave processes must match this resolution. Monitoring within Cueva de Asiul (N. Spain) has identified rapid (hourly resolution) changes in drip water electrical conductivity (EC), which is regulated by the pCO2 in the cave air. Drip water EC is therefore controlled by different modes of cave ventilation. In Cueva de Asiul a combination of density differences, and external pressure changes control ventilation patterns. Density driven changes in cave ventilation occur on a diurnal scale at this site irrespective of season, driven by fluctuations in external temperature across the cave internal temperature threshold. As external temperatures drop below those within the cave low pCO2 external air enters the void, facilitating the deposition of speleothem carbonate and causing a reduction in measured drip water EC. Additionally, decreases in external pressure related to storm activity act as a secondary ventilation mechanism. Reductions in external air pressure cause a drop in cave air pressure, enhancing karst air draw down, increasing the pCO2 of the cave and therefore the EC measured within drip waters. EC thereby serves as a first order indicator of cave ventilation, regardless of changes in speleothem drip rates and karst hydrological conditions. High resolution monitoring of cave drip water electrical conductivity reveals the highly sensitive nature of ventilation dynamics within cave environments, and highlights the importance of this for understanding trace element incorporation into

  2. The genesis of a lava cave in the Deccan Volcanic Province (Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lava tubes and channels forming lava distributaries have been recognized from different parts of western Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP. Openings of smaller dimension have been documented from the pāhoehoe flows around Pune, in the western DVP. A small lava cave is exposed in Ghoradeshwar hill, near Pune. Detailed field studies of the physical characteristics, structure and morphology of the flows hosting the lava tube has been carried out. This is the first detailed documentation of a lava cave from the DVP. The lava cave occurs in a compound pāhoehoe flow of Karla Formation, characterized by the presence of lobes, toes and small scale features like squeeze-ups. Field observations and measurements reveal that the dimensions of the cave are small, with low roof and a maximum width of 108 cm. The cave morphology along the 20 m passage varies from circular to semi-circular, with a twilight zone to the north. The gentle micro-topography at Ghoradeshwar controlled the advancement of pāhoehoe lobes and toes within the sheet lobe. The pre-flow gradients towards the north led to the progression of flow from the east, where the cave opening is presently seen. Dimensions and related morphology of the lava cave suggest that it can be best described as a small sub-crustal cave formed by draining of an inflated of pāhoehoe lava lobe. At Ghoradeshwar, besides the natural lava cave, Buddhist caves carved in pāhoehoe lava flows are also observed, indicating that early man took advantage of the existing openings in pāhoehoe flows and sculpted the caves to suit their requirements.

  3. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  4. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  5. High endemism at cave entrances: a case study of spiders of the genus Uthina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Tingting; Zheng, Guo; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries. Both bPTP and BPP identified the 13 clades as 13 separate species, while GMYC identified 19 species. Furthermore, our results revealed high endemism at cave entrances. Of the 13 provisional species, twelve (one known and eleven new) are endemic to one or a cluster of caves, and all of them occurred only at cave entrances except for one population of one species. The only widely distributed species, U. luzonica, mostly occurred in epigean environments while three populations were found at cave entrances. Additionally, eleven new species of the genus are described. PMID:27775081

  6. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  7. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylenia Chiari

    Full Text Available Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  8. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza

    Full Text Available Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching.

  9. Paleontology. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] 1-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Mammoth Cave (Kentucky) was designated as a national park in 1941 because of its beautiful hills and valleys, scenic rivers, and the vast cave system located within its boundaries. Outstanding physiographic features include karst terrains, sandstone capped plateaus, and bluffs overlooking rivers and streams, which provide an unusually wide variety…

  10. Research on Feasibilityof Top-Coal Caving Based on Neural Network Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the neural network technique, this paper proposes a BP neural network model which integratesgeological factors which affect top-coal caving in a comprehensive index. The index of top-coal caving may be usedto forecast the mining cost of working faces, which shows the model's potential prospect of applications.

  11. Environmental Monitoring in the Mechara caves, Southeastern Ethiopia: Implications for Speleothem Palaeoclimate Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrat Asfawossen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of palaeoclimate records in speleothems depends on the understanding of the modern climate of the region, the geology, the hydrology above the caves, and the within-cave climate. Monitoring within-cave climate variability, geochemistry of speleothem-forming drip waters, and associated surface and groundwater, provides a modern baseline for interpretation of speleothem palaeohydrological and palaeoclimate records. Here, we present results of such monitoring of the Mechara caves in southeastern Ethiopia, conducted between 2004 and 2007. Results show nearly constant within-cave climate (temperature and humidity in all caves, which generally reflects the surface climate. Groundwater and surface water geochemistry is similar across the region (except slight modification by local lithological variations and modern drip water isotope data fall close to regional Meteoric Water Line, but speleothems further from equilibrium. Holocene and modern speleothems from these caves give high-resolution climate records, implying that the Mechara caves provide a suitable setting for the deposition of annually laminated speleothems that could record surface climate variability in a region where rainfall is sensitive to both the strength of the intertropical convergence zone as well as Indian Monsoon variability.

  12. Phylogenetic evidence from freshwater crayfishes that cave adaptation is not an evolutionary dead-end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David B; Breinholt, Jesse; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; López-Mejía, Marilú; Owen, Christopher L; Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Fetzner, James W; Crandall, Keith A

    2017-08-14

    Caves are perceived as isolated, extreme habitats with a uniquely specialized biota, which long ago led to the idea that caves are "evolutionary dead-ends." This implies that cave-adapted taxa may be doomed for extinction before they can diversify or transition to a more stable state. However, this hypothesis has not been explicitly tested in a phylogenetic framework with multiple independently evolved cave-dwelling groups. Here, we use the freshwater crayfish, a group with dozens of cave-dwelling species in multiple lineages, as a system to test this hypothesis. We consider historical patterns of lineage diversification and habitat transition as well as current patterns of geographic range size. We find that while cave-dwelling lineages have small relative range sizes and rarely transition back to the surface, they exhibit remarkably similar diversification patterns to those of other habitat types and appear to be able to maintain a diversity of lineages through time. This suggests that cave adaptation is not a "dead-end" for freshwater crayfish, which has positive implications for our understanding of biodiversity and conservation in cave habitats. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Convergent Evolution of Unique Morphological Adaptations to a Subterranean Environment in Cave Millipedes (Diplopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Golovatch, Sergei; Wesener, Thomas; Tian, Mingyi

    2017-01-01

    Animal life in caves has fascinated researchers and the public alike because of the unusual and sometimes bizarre morphological adaptations observed in numerous troglobitic species. Despite their worldwide diversity, the adaptations of cave millipedes (Diplopoda) to a troglobitic lifestyle have rarely been examined. In this study, morphological characters were analyzed in species belonging to four different orders (Glomerida, Polydesmida, Chordeumatida, and Spirostreptida) and six different families (Glomeridae, Paradoxosomatidae, Polydesmidae, Haplodesmidae, Megalotylidae, and Cambalopsidae) that represent the taxonomic diversity of class Diplopoda. We focused on the recently discovered millipede fauna of caves in southern China. Thirty different characters were used to compare cave troglobites and epigean species within the same genera. A character matrix was created to analyze convergent evolution of cave adaptations. Males and females were analyzed independently to examine sex differences in cave adaptations. While 10 characters only occurred in a few phylogenetic groups, 20 characters were scored for in all families. Of these, four characters were discovered to have evolved convergently in all troglobitic millipedes. The characters that represented potential morphological cave adaptations in troglobitic species were: (1) a longer body; (2) a lighter body color; (3) elongation of the femora; and (4) elongation of the tarsi of walking legs. Surprisingly, female, but not male, antennae were more elongated in troglobites than in epigean species. Our study clearly shows that morphological adaptations have evolved convergently in different, unrelated millipede orders and families, most likely as a direct adaptation to cave life.

  14. Tuberculoma of the Cavernous Sinus and Meckel's Cave in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V R Roopesh; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Verma, Surendra Kumar; Barathi, S Deepak; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar; Bidkar, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous infection of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave is extremely rare. In this report, we describe a patient with tuberculoma of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave, extending to the petrous apex. The patient underwent microsurgical excision of the lesion and antitubercular chemotherapy resulting in a good outcome. We describe the diagnostic difficulties and review the relevant literature.

  15. Extra-axial ependymoma of posterior fossa extending to the Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Fuat; Tuna, Hakan; Bozkurt, Melih; Deda, Haluk

    2005-06-01

    An extra-axial ependymoma extending from the left cerebellopontine corner to the Meckel's cave is reported. This lesion's clinical, radiological, and histological characteristics are presented. This tumor's infrequent extra-axial location, extension to the Meckel's cave and possible origin are discussed.

  16. Geological conditions of origin of the Potočka zijalka cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Potočka zijalka cave on Mt. Ol{eva in Southern Karavanke during excavation of cave sediments of Würm age that contain cultural remains of the Cromagnon Man also large amounts of gravel were before the Badenian transgression, from the Central Alps during Miocene.

  17. Resource Documentation and Recharge Area Delineation of a Large Fluvial Karst System: Carroll Cave, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Located along Wet Glaize Creek in the central Missouri Ozarks, Toronto Spring is a distributary spring system where surface stream flow mixes with flow from the Carroll Cave system. Following recharge area delineations for Thunder River and Confusion Creek in Carroll Cave, flow from these rivers wa...

  18. [Spatial structure of the community of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) hibernating in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P; Kurmaeva, N M; Shepelev, A A; Il'in, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the spatial distribution and localization of bats have been studied during their hibernation in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka. The proportion of cave area occupied by bats varies from 70 to 93% in large caves (> 60000 m2), decreasing to 50% in medium-sized caves (10000-60000 m2) and to less than 30% in small caves (bats choose sites near cave openings, up to 25% prefer central parts, but most bats (about 66%) concentrate in the deepest parts of caves. Among wintering species, higher rates of occurrence and shelter occupancy are characteristic of Plecotus auritus. Myotis daubentonii, and M. mystacinus, whereas M. dasycneme and M. brandtii show the highest degree of aggregation. The optimal temperature range for the wintering of all bat species is 2-4 degrees C. Myotis brandtii, Eptesicus nilssonii, and M. daubentonii prefer to hibernate in open spaces of cave ceilings; M. mystacinus. E. serotinus, and Pl. auritus usually occupy the middle and upper parts of walls; while M. dasycneme and M. nattereri occur mainly in hollows on ceilings.

  19. Low regional diversity of late cave bears mitochondrial DNA at the time of Chauvet Aurignacian paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, Celine; Berthonaud, Veronique; Fosse, Philippe; Gely, Bernard; Maksud, Frederic; Vitalis, Renaud; Philippe, Michel; van der Plicht, Johannes; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The Chauvet-Pont d'Arc and Deux-Ouvertures caves, located along the Ardeche River (France), contain abundant remains of the extinct cave bear (Ursus spelaeus). Because they also display a variety of Palaeolithic anthropogenic evidences, such as the earliest charcoal drawings recorded to date (Chauve

  20. Mineralogical analyses in various caves from the Băile Herculane area, the Cerna Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Marincea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to show results from the mineralogical analyses performed on samples from three caves in the Baile Herculane area. All minerals presented here are described for the first time in the cave from which they were sampled.

  1. Sa Cova d'es Carritx: a new p rehistoric cult cave on Menorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth D. Whitehouse

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 a previously unknown cave was discovered on the island of Menorca in the western Mediterranean. It was found to contain h uman skeletal remains and an extraordinary collection of artefacts made of wood and horn, some of which contained human hair. The cave appears to have been used during the first millennium BC for ritual purposes.

  2. 36 CFR 290.3 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... governmental agencies and the public, including those who utilize caves for scientific, educational, or..., or values. (1) Biota. The cave provides seasonal or yearlong habitat for organisms or animals, or... inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places because of their research importance for history...

  3. The small but clear gravity signal above the natural cave 'Grotta Gigante' (Trieste, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Fabbri, Julius; Rossi, Lorenzo; Handi Mansi, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Gravity observations are a powerful means for detecting underground mass changes. The Italian and Slovenian Karst has a number of explored caves, several are also touristic due to their size (e.g. Grotta Gigante in Italy; Skocjianske Jame and Postojnska Jama in Slovenia). Just a few years ago another big cave was discovered by chance close to Trieste when drilling a tunnel for a motor-highway, which shows that more caves are expected to be discovered in coming years. We have acquired the gravity field above the Grotta Gigante cave, a cave roughly 100 m high and 200 m long with a traditional spring-gravity meter (Lacoste&Romberg) and height measurements made with GPS and total station. The GPS was made with two different teams and processing algorithms, to cross-check accuracy and error estimate. Some stations had to be surveyed with a classical instrument due to the vegetation which concealed the satellite positioning signal. Here we present the results of the positioning acquisitions and the gravity field. The cave produces a signal of 1.5 mGal, with a clear elongated concentric symmetry. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the Karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing caves. This will have a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will for example allow to plan the urban development at a safety distance from subsurface caves.

  4. The freshwater crabs of Ethiopia, northeastern Africa, with the description of a new Potamonautes cave species (Brachyura: Potamonautidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumberlidge, N.; Clark, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent collection of freshwater potamonautid crabs from a newly-explored cave in Ethiopia included a new species of Potamonautes MacLeay, 1838, which is described. The new species is associated with caves but is not troglobitic because it has no special morphological adaptations for life in caves

  5. 78 FR 59923 - Cave Run Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cave Run Energy, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing.... Project No.: 14376-001. c. Date Filed: July 21, 2013. d. Submitted By: Cave Run Energy, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cave Run Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Licking River, in Rowan and Bath...

  6. 77 FR 56117 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System; Mammoth Cave National Park, Bicycle Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... country of the park north of the Green River; the Mammoth Cave Railroad Bike & Hike Trail; and the White... offering guided rides on park trails and canoe and kayak liveries began shuttle services on the Green and... vicinity of the Mammoth Cave Hotel and Historic cave entrance. Over the years, these trails were improved...

  7. MR imaging of the Meckel's cave: anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Chang Jin; Lim, Soo Mee; Kim, Dae Hong; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    The Meckel's cave is a dural recess containing trigeminal nerve and ganglion, extending from the posterior fossa into the middle cranial fossa. Using MRI, internal architecture in the Meckel's cave can be discernible, even a small nodule within it can be detected. There are a wide spectrum of disease process occurring in and or in the vicinity of the Meckel's cave. Disease can be classified into pathology of the trigeminal nerve proper, within the trigeminal cistern and outside the trigeminmal cistern. These classification depending on the location will aid in interpretation of pathology of Meckel's cave. We will demonstrate the MR anatomy and various pathologies of the Meckel's cave.=20.

  8. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  9. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  11. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtijari, M. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Vaupotic, J.; Gregoric, A.; Stegnar, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobal, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kobal@ijs.si

    2008-02-15

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m{sup -3} were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m{sup -3}. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 {mu}Sv in summer and 2.5 {mu}Sv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv.

  12. Stalagmites from Spannagel cave (Austria) and holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollweiler, N.; Mangini, A.; Spötl, C.; Scholz, D.; Mühlinghaus, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Spannagel cave is located around 2,500 m asl at the end of the Tux Valley in Tyrol (Austria) close to the Hintertux glacier. While the area above the cave is ice free at present, it was covered by ice during past glacials as well as during colder periods of Interglacials. Presently, the temperature inside the cave is between 1.8° and 2.0° C. We used the d18O time-series of three stalagmites which grew in small distance from each other. This speleothem record is not influenced by effects of kinetic isotope fractionation due to the low temperatures in the cave. The stalagmites were precisely dated with the U/Th-method. The combined record (COMNISPA, Vollweiler et al. 2006) shows substantial variability within the last 9 kyr with features like the Holocene Climatic Optimum between 7.5 and 6.5 kyr, the Mediaeval Warm Period between 1.2 and 0.7 kyr and the Roman Warm Period between 2.25 and 1.7 kyr. In contrast, periods of lower temperatures are visible between 7.9 and 7.5, 5.9 and 5.1, 3.5 and 3 kyr, and during the LIA between 600 and 150 yr. The period between 5.9 and 5.1 kyr has equivalence in many records from various regions in both hemispheres corresponding to global cooling. It also includes the time of the Alpine Iceman at 5.3 kyr. The timing of the climatic variations revealed by COMNISPA agrees approximately with that shown by other Alpine archives. Joerin et al. (2006) dated wood and peat samples which were released by melting Swiss Alpine glaciers located between Engadin and Valais. Both the d18O maxima and minima recorded in COMNISPA clearly have counterparts in the glacier recession record. Comparisons of COMNISPA with other archives have shown that our stalagmite curve does not only record local climate but also the history of European climate. The extremely high correlation to the Hematite Stained Grain record of Bond et al. (2001) suggests that COMNISPA is a good archive for climate in the North Atlantic region (Mangini et al. 2007). In addition

  13. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hudson, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gokhale, N. [Madge Networks, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  14. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Tebo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth’s surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth’s surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO, including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the

  15. Karst show caves – how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection – experiment in Postojna cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gabrovšek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave Early Warning and Measuring System. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an Early Warning System (EWS. One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organisation allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is a regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  16. Reasons for large fluctuation of radon and CO2 levels in a dead-end passage of a karst cave (Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vaupotič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of radon concentration were performed at three geomorphologically different locations in Postojna Cave, Slovenia. In the part of the cave open to visitors, annual average radon activity concentrations of 3255 ± 1190 Bq m−3 and 2315 ± 1019 Bq m−3 were found at the lowest point (LP and in the Lepe jame (Beautiful Caves, BC, respectively. A much higher average of 25 020 ± 12 653 Bq m−3 was characteristic of the dead-end passage Pisani rov (Gaily Coloured Corridor, GC, in which CO2 concentration also reached very high values of 4689 ± 294 ppm in summer. Seasonal variations of radon and CO2 levels in the cave are governed by convective airflow, controlled mainly by the temperature difference between the cave and the outside atmosphere. The following additional sources of radon and CO2 were considered: (i flux of geogas from the Earth's crust through fractured rocks (radon and CO2 source, (ii clay sediments inside the passage (radon source and (iii the soil layer above the cave (radon and CO2 source.

  17. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work, carried out with an integrated methodological approach, focuses on the use of near surface geophysics techniques, such as ground penetrating radar GPR and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and geomorphological analysis, in order to reconstruct the cave distribution and geometry in a urban context and, in particular, in historical centres. In fact, there are a lot of historical Mediterranean sites born on an original rupestrian settlement, of which often the new generations forgot the memory and new urban areas built on them burying any marks. The interaction during recent centuries between human activity (caves excavation, birth and growth of an urban area) and the characters of the natural environment were the reasons of a progressive increase in hazard and vulnerability levels of several sites. The reconstruction of a detailed cave map distribution is the first step to define the anthropic and geomorphological hazard in urban areas, fundamental basis for planning and assessing the risk. The integrated near surface geophysics and geomorphological techniques have been applied to the case study of Tursi hilltop town and its older nucleus called Rabatana, located in the south-western sector of the Basilicata (southern Italy), representing an interesting example of the deep bond between natural and man-made environments such as precious cultural heritage. The history of this settlement has always been deeply connected with the characteristics of the neighbouring environment and it seems possible that the first settlement was built by excavating the slopes of the sandy relief. It was a typical rupestrian settlement, where meteoric water was stored inside some cisterns excavated on the slopes. During recent centuries, the increase in territory development by humans produced an increase in cave excavation in the Tursi-Rabatana urban area. To reconstruct the extremely complex near-surface hypogeal environment excavated in the sandy layers, a geophysical

  18. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral characteristics of dissolved organic carbon in cave drip waters and their responses to environment changes: Four cave systems as an example in Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE XingNeng; WANG ShiJie; ZHOU YunChao; LUO WeiJun

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the responses of fluorescence spectral characteristics of cave drip waters to modern environment and climate changes is key to the reconstructions of environmental and climatic changes using fluorescence spectral characteristics of speleothems. The fluorescence spectral characteristics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in four active cave systems were analyzed with a three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectral analysis method. We found that the fluorescence types of DOC were mainly of fulvic-like and protein-like fluorescences, both in soil waters and cave drip waters. The intensity of fulvic-like fluorescence was positively correlated with the concentrations of DOC, suggesting that the DOC of cave drip waters was derived from the overlying soil layer of a cave system. Compared with the other cave systems, the variation range of the excitation and emission wavelengths for fulvic-like fluorescence of cave drip waters in Liangfeng cave system that had forest vegetation was smaller and the excitation wavelength was longer, while its fluorescence intensity varied significantly. By contrast, the excitation and emission wavelengths and fluorescence intensity for that in Jiangjun cave system that had a scrub and tussock vegetation showed the most significant variation, while its excitation wavelength was shorter. This implies that the variation of vegetation overlying a cave appears to be a factor affecting the fluorescence spectral characteristics of cave drip waters.

  19. Morphological and speleothemic development in Brujas Cave (Southern Andean Range, Argentine): palaeoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Peña, José Luis; Mikkan, Raúl; Osácar, Cinta; Quinif, Yves

    2004-02-01

    Brujas Cave, in the Southern Andean Range, is a well-known endokarstic site in Argentina. However, the origin and evolution of this cave system are poorly known. Based on morphological cave features as well as characteristics of cave deposits, we propose a meteogene drawdown cave genesis, including a change from phreatic to vadose conditions related to the high rate of fluvial downcutting in the area. During the vadose period, various cave-related deposits, including authogenic calcite and gypsum speleothems, allogenic volcanic ash and external tufas were deposited. Gypsum crusts are the oldest cave deposits identified (90.2-64.3 ky BP). Their origin, deduced from isotopic characteristics ( ∂34S=9.6‰), is related to the oxidation of pyrite contained in the Jurassic limestone bedrock as well as the dissolution of overlying Jurassic-Triassic evaporite formations. Gypsum crust deposition is associated with evaporation of water flowing and seeping into the cave during arid environmental conditions. Calcite deposits precipitated from flowing water under equilibrium conditions represent the main speleothem growth period (67.6-34 ky BP in age). Their stable isotope values ( ∂13C=-3‰ to -5‰ and ∂18O=-9‰ to -11‰) may indicate slightly humid and warm conditions related to the regional Minchin lacustrine phase and global oxygen isotope stage 3. Following this stage, a seismic event is evidenced by accumulations of broken stalactites. Seepage calcite speleothems covering cave walls were deposited under disequilibrium conditions by evaporation, probably during Holocene time. Finally, another more recent gypsum deposition period represented by gypsum balls has been differentiated. Micromorphological as well as isotopic ( ∂34S=5.6‰) data indicate that these gypsum forms are related to cyclic processes (solution-deposition) from water seeping into the cave under arid conditions. In addition, intense volcanic activity in the area during Holocene time is deduced

  20. Detrital cave sediments record Late Quaternary hydrologic and climatic variability in northwestern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Tyler S.; van Hengstum, Peter J.; Horgan, Meghan C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

    2016-04-01

    Detrital sediment in Florida's (USA) submerged cave systems may preserve records of regional climate and hydrologic variability. However, the basic sedimentology, mineralogy, stratigraphic variability, and emplacement history of the successions in Florida's submerged caves remains poorly understood. Here we present stratigraphic, mineralogical, and elemental data on sediment cores from two phreatic cave systems in northwestern Florida (USA), on the Dougherty Karst Plain: Hole in the Wall Cave (HITW) and Twin Cave. Water flowing through these caves is subsurface flow in the Apalachicola River drainage basin, and the caves are located just downstream from Jackson Blue (1st magnitude spring, > 2.8 m3 s- 1 discharge). Sedimentation in these caves is dominated by three primary sedimentary styles: (i) ferromanganese deposits dominate the basal recovered stratigraphy, which pass upsection into (ii) poorly sorted carbonate sediment, and finally into (iii) fine-grained organic matter (gyttja) deposits. Resolving the emplacement history of the lower stratigraphic units was hampered by a lack of suitable material for radiocarbon dating, but the upper organic-rich deposits have a punctuated depositional history beginning in the earliest Holocene. For example, gyttja primarily accumulated in HITW and Twin Caves from ~ 5500 to 3500 cal yr. BP, which coincides with regional evidence for water-table rise of the Upper Floridian Aquifer associated with relative sea-level rise in the Gulf of Mexico, and evidence for invigorated drainage through the Apalachicola River drainage basin. Gyttja sediments were also deposited in one of the caves during the Bølling/Allerød climate oscillation. Biologically, these results indicate that some Floridian aquatic cave (stygobitic) ecosystems presently receive minimal organic matter supply in comparison to prehistoric intervals. The pre-Holocene poorly sorted carbonate sediment contains abundant invertebrate fossils, and likely documents a period

  1. Early Neanderthal constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaubert, Jacques; Verheyden, Sophie; Genty, Dominique; Soulier, Michel; Cheng, Hai; Blamart, Dominique; Burlet, Christian; Camus, Hubert; Delaby, Serge; Deldicque, Damien; Edwards, R Lawrence; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Lévêque, François; Maksud, Frédéric; Mora, Pascal; Muth, Xavier; Régnier, Édouard; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Santos, Frédéric

    2016-06-02

    Very little is known about Neanderthal cultures, particularly early ones. Other than lithic implements and exceptional bone tools, very few artefacts have been preserved. While those that do remain include red and black pigments and burial sites, these indications of modernity are extremely sparse and few have been precisely dated, thus greatly limiting our knowledge of these predecessors of modern humans. Here we report the dating of annular constructions made of broken stalagmites found deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwest France. The regular geometry of the stalagmite circles, the arrangement of broken stalagmites and several traces of fire demonstrate the anthropogenic origin of these constructions. Uranium-series dating of stalagmite regrowths on the structures and on burnt bone, combined with the dating of stalagmite tips in the structures, give a reliable and replicated age of 176.5 thousand years (±2.1 thousand years), making these edifices among the oldest known well-dated constructions made by humans. Their presence at 336 metres from the entrance of the cave indicates that humans from this period had already mastered the underground environment, which can be considered a major step in human modernity.

  2. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland.

  3. Step back! Niche dynamics in cave-dwelling predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Isaia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The geometry of the Hutchinson's hypervolume derives from multiple selective pressures defined, on one hand, by the physiological tolerance of the species, and on the other, by intra- and interspecific competition. The quantification of these evolutionary forces is essential for the understanding of the coexistence of predators in light of competitive exclusion dynamics. We address this topic by investigating the ecological niche of two medium-sized troglophile spiders (Meta menardi and Pimoa graphitica). Over one year, we surveyed several populations in four subterranean sites in the Western Italian Alps, monitoring monthly their spatial and temporal dynamics and the associated physical and ecological variables. We assessed competition between the two species by means of multi regression techniques and by evaluating the intersection between their multidimensional hypervolumes. We detected a remarkable overlap between the microclimatic and trophic niche of M. menardi and P. graphitica, however, the former -being larger in size- resulted the best competitor in proximity of the cave entrance, causing the latter to readjust its spatial niche towards the inner part, where prey availability is scarcer ("step back effect"). In parallel to the slight variations in the subterranean microclimatic condition, the niche of the two species was also found to be seasonal dependent, varying over the year. With this work, we aim at providing new insights about the relationships among predators, demonstrating that energy-poor environments such as caves maintain the potential for diversification of predators via niche differentiation and serve as useful models for theoretical ecological studies.

  4. Classification of Thermal Patterns at Karst Springs and Cave Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, A.J.; Covington, M.D.; Peters, Albert J.; Alexander, S.C.; Anger, C.T.; Green, J.A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Alexander, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Rhabditophanes schneideri (Rhabditida) phoretic on a cave pseudoscorpion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcić, Bozidar P M; Sudhaus, Walter; Dimitrijević, Rajko N; Makarov, Slobodan E; Tomić, Vladimir T

    2008-11-01

    Information of phoretic nematode-pseudoscorpion associations and cases of parasitism on five European species of pseudoscorpions was summarized by Curćic et al. [Curcić, B.P.M., Dimitrijević, R.N., Makarov, S.E., Lucić, L.R., Curcić, S.B., 1996. Further report on nematode-pseudoscorpion associations. Acta arachnol. 45, 43-46; Curcić, B.P.M., Sudhaus, W., Dimitrijević, R.N., Tomić, V.T., Curcić, S.B., 2004. Phoresy of Rhabditophanes schneideri (Bütschli) (Rhabditida: Alloionematidae) on pseudoscorpions (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones). Nematology 6 (3), 313-317]. An examination of a sample of the cavernicolous pseudoscorpion Neobisium rajkodimitrijevici (Curcić and Tomić, 2006) (comprising a holotype male and a paratype tritonymph) from a cave in Eastern Serbia revealed this false scorpion to be a nematode carrier; the present paper reports this finding and extends our knowledge of phoresy of Rhabditophanes on pseudoscorpions. This is the first time that the rhabditid R. schneideri (Bütschli, 1873) has been noted in association with a cavernicolous pseudoscorpion. There must be some patchily distributed micro-habitats in caves where saprobiotic nematodes and small arthropods can complete their life-cycles, for example something like deposits of bat guano. The transportation of Rhabditophanes J3 by pseudoscorpions indicate that Neobisium specimens often visit these micro-habitats to find their prey.

  6. Classification of thermal patterns at karst springs and cave streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Andrew J; Covington, Matthew D; Peters, Andrew J; Alexander, Scott C; Anger, Cale T; Green, Jeffrey A; Runkel, Anthony C; Alexander, E Calvin

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode.

  7. Features of deep cave sediments: their influence on fossil preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo, R.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse how physical and chemical deep-cave sediment features preserve the morphological and geochemical characteristics of paleontological materials. Detrital sediment chemistry and clast size are fundamental because they provide a soft, impervious and plastic environment in which fossil remains are transported with minimal erosion. Sediment mineralogy provides a carbonate- and phosphate-buffered environment in which molecules of biological origin hydrolyze slower than in open-air environments or even at cave entrance sites. Because permafrost did not develop in the Iberian Peninsula (at least at the altitudes of inhabited caves, sediment desiccation never took place. In addition, sediment -pores were not aerated, which protected fossil remains from air (oxygen-linked weathering. The annual-temperature variation inside sediment was negligible, which contributed to amino acid racemization dating. Collagen amino acid and amino acid racemization analysis of cave bear and man samples from cave sediments dated from different Oxygen Isotope Stages (4": Sidrón, Amutxate, Troskaeta, El Toll, Coro Tracito, Ekain, Lezetxiki, La Pasada, Eirós; 5": Reguerillo and Arrikrutz; 6"-7": Sima de los Huesos demonstrate that important amounts of almost intact collagen still remain in teeth dentine. Fossil DNA search seems to be very promising.En este trabajo se analiza el papel que juegan las características físicas y químicas de los sedimentos de galerías profundas de cuevas en la preservación de los caracteres morfológicos y paleobiomoleculares del material paleontológico incluido en dichos sedimentos. Los aspectos geoquímicos y de tamaño de grano del sedimento son críticos: las características generan un medio blando, plástico e impermeable que permite el transporte -mecánico sin grave deterioro del material (en coladas de barro; las características químicas mineralogía del sediment* proporcionan un ambiente con tampón fosfatado

  8. Pollen and lithological data from the Bukovynka Cave deposits as recorders of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic change in the eastern foothills of the Carpathian Mountains (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia GERASIMENKO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of clastic sediments of the BukovynkaCaveshows biotic and climatic changes during the Middle Pleniglacial (the Trapeznyi Chamber, Late Glacial and Holocene (the Sukhyi Chamber in the south-eastern part of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The artesian BukovynkaCaveis located near the villageof Stal’nivtsi(the Chernivtsi region, in the PrutRiver basin. It is developed in the Miocene gypsum strata. The Quaternary clastic infilling of the cave, as well as mammal taphonomy has been previously studied in the Trapeznyi Chamber (Vremir et al., 2000; Ridush, 2004; Ridush et al., 2012, whereas palaeomagnetic research and its palaeoenvironmental implication has been provided for the Sukhyi Chamber (Bondar and Ridush, 2014. The results of pollen and grain-size studies of clastic deposits in both chambers, supported by mammal finds, are presented in this paper. In the Chernivtsi region, the pollen study has been previously performed (without 14C-dating on the Upper Pleistocene loess-paleosol section of Snyatyn and on the Onut site of the Holocene flood-plain deposits of the River Prut (Artyushenko et al., 1982. 39 samples from the cave sediments have been processed for grain-size analyses using the ‘pipette’ technique by Kachinsky (1965. In order to get pollen from clastic sediments, the following technique has been applied: heating with 10% HCl and 10% KOH, cold treatment with HF, disintegration in a solution of Na4P2O7 and separation in heavy liquid (CdI2 and KI with a specific gravity 2.2. The abundance and good preservation of pollen show that the cave chambers turned periodically into sedimentation traps. Mammal bones are also mostly well preserved. Re-deposited pollen are abundant in the Trapeznyi Chamber but occur very rarely in the Suchyi Chamber. The present-day vegetation near the cave is a meadow-steppe surrounded by Carpinus-Quercus forest. The high proportion of Pinus sylvestris pollen in the surface soil samples (30-40% does not

  9. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-xiang Xie; Ke Yang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Safety and Efficiently Caving of Ministry of Education

    2009-06-15

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the macro stress shell, (MSS) distribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteristics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide theoretic references to the surrounding rocks stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. The use of passive seismological imaging in speleogenetic studies: an example from Kanaan Cave, Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehmé Carole

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many parameters that control the evolution of caves stands the volume of unconsolidated clay sediments generally produced by the alteration of the calcareous rocks. Here we introduce the use of a passive seismological imaging technique to investigate the clay deposits and estimate its total volume in a cave. Applied for the first time for speleogenesis studies, the HVSR (Horizontal / Vertical Spectral Ration is a geophysical technique that can help better interpret cave geomorphology. We apply seismological spectral techniques (H/V ratio on ambient noise vibrations to derive the clay volume, as well as its shape. This technique applied on the clay volume reveals some internal details, such as fallen blocks prior to the deposit accumulation and helps to understand deposit evacuation dynamics. The study focuses on the Kanaan Cave, located in Metn District, Lebanon, and reveals new stages related to the cave speleogenesis. This technique could be applied on ‘paragenetic’ caves where clay volume is frequently present in order to constrain the clay volume and reconstruct the buried floor shape of the cave, underneath the clay deposit.

  11. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  12. In situ acetylene reduction activity of Scytonema julianum in Vapor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asencio Antonia Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation was measured in situ for the first time by acetylene reduction for a greyish mat composed of Scytonema julianum in cave- like environments. Mat-specific rates (129.9-215.7 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for daytime fixation and 65.1-120.6 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for nighttime fixation recorded in the Vapor cave differed considerably due to the energy reserves stored during photosynthesis being exhausted and used in the dark phase. The most influential environmental parameter for nitrogen fixation in the Vapor cave is temperature in the daytime and nighttime fixations. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria may contribute considerably to the overall nitrogen cycle in harsh environments such as caves. Nitrogenase activity in Scytonema julianum was roughly 30 times higher than that of Scytonema mirabile, which also grew in cave environments, which is due to the characteristics of each site. The entrance of Vapour cave (Spain faces SE, measures 0.75 x 0.6 m and opens to shafts of a total depth of 80 m. Its dimensions and environmental conditions (relative humidity up to 100%; maximum temperature, 43oC imply that it is isolated from external influences, and that the microclimate differs substantially from that experienced externally. Nitrogen fixation, photon flux density, relative humidity and temperature in the Vapor cave were taken hourly over a 24-hour period in winter.

  13. Diversity and role of cave-dwelling hematophagous insects in pathogen transmission in the Afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-04-12

    The progressive anthropization of caves for food resources or economic purposes increases human exposure to pathogens that naturally infect cave-dwelling animals. The presence of wild or domestic animals in the immediate surroundings of caves also may contribute to increasing the risk of emergence of such pathogens. Some zoonotic pathogens are transmitted through direct contact, but many others require arthropod vectors, such as blood-feeding insects. In Africa, hematophagous insects often play a key role in the epidemiology of many pathogens; however, their ecology in cave habitats remains poorly known. During the last decades, several investigations carried out in Afrotropical caves suggested the medical and veterinary importance particularly of insect taxa of the Diptera order. Therefore, the role of some of these insects as vectors of pathogens that infect cave-dwelling vertebrates has been studied. The present review summarizes these findings, brings insights into the diversity of cave-dwelling hematophagous Diptera and their involvement in pathogen transmission, and finally discusses new challenges and future research directions.

  14. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  15. Rock fall simulation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Dart, Richard L.; Reichenbach, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Rock fall from limestone cliffs at Timpanogos Cave National Monument in American Fork Canyon east of Provo, Utah, is a common occurrence. The cave is located in limestone cliffs high on the southern side of the canyon. One fatality in 1933 led to the construction of rock fall shelters at the cave entrance and exit in 1976. Numerous rock fall incidents, including a near miss in 2000 in the vicinity of the trail below the cave exit, have led to a decision to extend the shelter at the cave exit to protect visitors from these ongoing rock fall events initiating from cliffs immediately above the cave exit. Three-dimensional rock fall simulations from sources at the top of these cliffs have provided data from which to assess the spatial frequencies and velocities of rock falls from the cliffs and to constrain the design of protective measures to reduce the rock fall hazard. Results from the rock fall simulations are consistent with the spatial patterns of rock fall impacts that have been observed at the cave exit site.

  16. Microbial Diversity in a Venezuelan Orthoquartzite Cave is Dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel A Barton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave, an orthoquartzite (SiO4 cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrate the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82-84% by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%, which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in Roraima Sur Cave is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems.

  17. Holocene palaeoecological changes recorded in mollusc-bearing cave sediments, the Cave above the Słupska Gate (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanek, M.; Krajcarz, M; Krajcarz, M.T.; Alexandrowicz, W.P.

    2016-07-01

    The Cave above the Słupska Gate (southern Poland) contains about 2m depth of mollusc-bearing deposits. Radiocarbon and archaeological dating indicate that these deposits accumulated during the Holocene (Preboreal to Subatlantic), although the earliest layers may date from the end of the Pleistocene. Eight layers of silts, sands and loess-like deposits were distinguished at the site. Seven of them contained identifiable snail shells, sometimes n large numbers, and sparse remains of vertebrates and archaeological artefacts. The molluscan assemblages retrieved from the cave contain over 40 taxa and 1,200 specimens. The balance of species distributed among 11 oogeographical groups enabled us to identify four assemblages which differ in their ecological structure and in the composition of the fauna. The oldest fauna (Late Glacial/Preboreal and/or Preboreal) with many shade-loving species is typical of a cool climate. Episodes of drying are evidenced by the loess-like deposits and the occurrence of open-country snails such as the glacial relic Vallonia tenuilabris. This species disappeared in the younger part of the Early Holocene, which is the most distinctive feature of the Słupsko Hill sequence. The Middle Holocene climatic optimum is characterised by abundantand diverse fauna which is typical of mixed and deciduous forests with distinct oceanic influences. The critical Discus ruderatus and Discus rotundatus succession reflects the general trends in European malacofaunas. The Late Holocene record may bear some hiatuses, but the shift away from a complete forest fauna is evident. (Author)

  18. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  19. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu; WU XianZhu; LI YiYin; DENG ChengLong; WU XiuJie; PEI ShuWen

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, three excavations have been carried out at a late Pleistocene human fossil site of Huan-glong Cave in Yunxi County, Hubei Province of China, which unearthed seven human teeth, dozens of stone tools, mammal fossils and other evidence indicating human activities. During the third excava-tion in 2006, in the same layer as the human teeth, we found some patches of black materials embed-ded in the deposit. We doubted that this black deposit layer is the remains of burning or even human use of fire at the cave. To further explore the possibility of human fire use at the Huanglong Cave, we examined samples directly taken from the black deposit layer and compared them with samples taken from several places in the cave using three methods: micromorphology, element content determination and deposit temperature analysis. Our results indicate that the contents of carbon element in the black deposit reach 64.59%-73.29%. In contrast, contents of carbon element of the comparative samples from other parts in the cave are only 5.82%-9.49%. The micromorphology analysis of the black de-posit samples reveals a plant structure like axial parenchyma, fibrocyte, uniseriate ray and vessel.High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that the stratum possibly underwent a high temperature in the nature. Based on these lab analyses, we are sure that the black layer in the Huanglong Cave is the remains of fire and combustion did occur in the cave 100000 years ago. Taking other evidence of human activities found in the Huanglong Cave into consideration, we believe that the evidence of fire from the Huanglong Cave was caused by the human activities of controlled use of fire.

  20. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  1. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tmc@servidor.unam.mx; Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural. Xicontencatl y General Anaya s/n. (04120) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, D. [National Institute of Nuclear Research.. Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5 (52045), Salazar, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Institute of Geophysics, National University of Mexico, Circuito Institutos, CU (04510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cabrera, L. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern.

  2. Characteristics of ground behavior of fully mechanized caving faces in hard thick seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Yong-lu(索永录)

    2003-01-01

    It is showed in practice that the support load and its fluctuation is large, the periodic weighting is obvious and can be divided into two kinds, the large and small pressure, sometimes the behavior of the large pressure is very violent in hard thick seam caving faces. These are obviously different from those of the generally soft or medium hard seam caving feces. All above these are summarized, and the causes aroused these are researched. Finally the powered support selection of hard thick seam caving faces is discussed.

  3. Impact of biocide treatments on the bacterial communities of the Lascaux Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Fabiola; Alabouvette, Claude; Jurado, Valme; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-07-01

    The Lascaux Cave contains a remarkable set of paintings from the Upper Palaeolithic. Shortly after discovery in 1940, the cave was modified for public viewing and, in 2001, was invaded by a Fusarium solani species complex. Benzalkonium chloride was used from 2001 to 2004 to eliminate the fungal outbreak. In this study, we carried out a sampling in most of the cave halls and galleries. Sequence analysis and isolation methods detected that the most abundant genera of bacteria were Ralstonia and Pseudomonas. We suggest that, as a result of years of benzalkonium chloride treatments, the indigenous microbial community has been replaced by microbial populations selected by biocide application.

  4. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of Teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the Sun Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T; Martinez, G; Mendoza, D; Juarez, F; Cabrera, L

    2005-01-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern.

  5. Microbial activity in the subterranean environment of Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Carpa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Six cave material samples from Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains, were microbiologically andenzymologically analyzed. The microbiological analyses consisted in determining the presence ofoligotrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, nitrate and nitrite bacteria, denitrifiers and determining thepresence of micromycetes. In order to form a complete image on the microbial processes from this habitat,the bacteriological analyses were completed with quantitative and qualitative enzymological analyses. At allthe six samples of cave material the next quantitative enzymatic activities were performed: actual andpotential dehydrogenase, catalase and phosphatase. Only regarding the intensity of the processesdifferences were noticed. The qualitative enzymatic activities: amylase, dextranase, saccharase, maltaseand levanase, were not present at studied samples.

  6. An Experimental Study of the Thermal Behavior of the Courtyard Style Cave Dwelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳峰; 刘亚; 刘加平

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the courtyard on moderating the hush climate and improving the thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling, and the interaction amongst the ambient, the courtyard and its surrounding cave rooms were investigated. A field measurement was carried out in such a typical dwelling in the winter. The results presented in this paper prove the ability of this dwelling to transform an extreme winter environment outside cave rooms into a better outdoor community space and will be helpful for modern architects to seek a low cost housing solution with concern for sustainable development.

  7. Sensing turbulent flow and heat transport in a cave conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, D.; Lucia, F. J.; Jennings, J. W.; Wilson, J. L.; Tyler, S. W.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Dwivedi, R.; Boston, P.; Burger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Cave systems provide an extreme example of complex subsurface porous media, dominated by flow through an interconnected network of conduits. Whether water or air-filled, these flow systems have been largely observed subjectively, with only a few simple quantitative measurements of flow and pressure. In the spring of 2008 a joint campaign of New Mexico Tech and the University of Nevada Reno entered the 210m deep, ~8m "diameter," keyhole shaped, subhorizontal, Left Hand Tunnel, a large air-filled conduit in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, with the intent to observe fluid flow with modern thermally-based instruments. The conduit experiences countercurrent, thermally stratified flow, with mean velocities in each layer less than 0.1m/s. It is part of a geothermally forced, large-scale convection cell. Two instruments were deployed. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) fiber optic cable was stretched over 1km of the tunnel, and partially suspended by balloons to the roof, to sense spatial and low-frequency (0.01Hz) temporal variations of temperature with a resolution approaching 0.05 degree C. The mean temperature difference between layers was on the order of 0.5 degree and the caveward (subhorizontal) temperature gradient was 1 degree/400m. Influences of connecting subvertical shafts, wet areas of the cave, human activity, and diurnal fluctuations were observed. The second instrument, a 7m tall tower with an array of eight 300Hz thermocouple temperature sensors, with a sensitivity approaching 0.005 degree, was deployed 200m into the tunnel and used to detect high- frequency temperature fluctuations associated with turbulence and the stratified flow. Turbulence structure of each layer was similar. Temperature fluctuation (and turbulence intensity?) was significantly greater near the boundary between layers and its steep vertical gradient of mean temperature. Results from this 3-day campaign, as limited as they are, suggest that there is a wealth of information and

  8. [Paratrigeminal epidermoid originated in the meckel's cave (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Y; Morii, S; Tachibana, S; Saito, T; Ohwada, T

    1976-05-01

    We have reported a case of paratrigeminal epidermoid originated in the Meckel's cave. A 30 years old man was admitted to the department of neurosurgery with chief complaints of continuous right facial pain and numbness of entire right side of the face of three years duration. The positive neurological findings were hypesthesia over the distribution of the right trigeminal nerve, absence of the right corneal reflex and nystagmus on left lateral gaze. Caloric response was absent on the right side, however the audiogram showed normal. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was within normal limit. Electromyography showed giant spike in the right masseter and temporal muscles. Radiogram of the skull revealed a bone-destroying lesion over the medial florr of the right middle fossa involving the apex of the petrous bone (Fig 1). Right carotid angiography showed straightening and forward displacement of C4- C5 portion of the carotid siphon in the lateral view, and vertebral angiography showed displacement of basilar artery to the left side, upward displacement of the right posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar artery in the frontal view (Fig. 2, 3). At the time of operation, an epidermoid was identified in the Meckel's cave and totally removed microsurgically. Small amount of the tumor extending into the posterior fossa was also removed (Fig. 4, 5, 6, 7). Postoperative course was uneventfull except for an episode of headache and high fever of short duration, suggesting the signs of meningial irritation. Two months postoperativelly patient was relived of facial pain and was discharged with sensory impairment of the right trigeminal nerve distribution. Only 11 cases of paratrigeminal epidermoid, including the cases localized in the Meckel's cave have been reported in the past literatures (Table 1). In this paper we have discussed about the symptomatology and clinical data of paratrigeminal epidermoid and compared with those of trigeminal neurinoma, and meningioma originated

  9. Suitable Strategies for the Development of Sahoolan Watery Cave Geotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, tourism is one of the largest and most beneficial industries in the world and in many countries it is used as a development strategy. Geotourism or geological tourism is emerging as a new global phenomenon. It is a form of natural area tourism that specifically focuses on geology and landscape. Because of appropriate planning and recognizing advantages and limitations, this kind of tourism can play an important role in the national development and diversification of local economy. There is a wide variety of caves in Iran, including calcareous (karst, salt, ancient and human-made caves which Sahoolan is one of the most important of them. Though Sahoolan has a great range of potentials for geotourism development, geotourism is just emerging and taking its first developmental steps. So these questions arise: What are the potentialities and limitations of Geotourism development in this region? Which strategies are required for developing this type of tourism and following national and regional development?2. Theoretical Bases Geotourism is a new phenomenon in tourism industry. It is defined as tourism activity pertaining to geology and geomorphology, and the natural resources of landscape, landforms, fossil beds, rocks and minerals, with an emphasis on appreciating the processes that are creating and have created such features. Geotourism’s first definition appeared after 1990s. An early definition of geotourism was made by Thomas Hose. He specifically focused on geology and geomorphologic sites. The goal of geotourism is to maintain the character of place. It is not just travelling to undisturbed natural areas or to centers of human activity but travelling to destinations where nature and humans come together to produce a working landscape. The focus is to encourage visitation to an area by visitors who value the same working landscapes valued by the residents. Ideally, geotourism can be beneficial for both

  10. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  11. Debris flow hazard assessment for the Oregon Caves National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, John

    1983-01-01

    After experiencing a devastating debris flow in the Oregon Caves National Monument, the National Park Service needs an evaluation of the hazard of additional flows. Soil properties at six random sites were compared with those at the source of the debris flow. Although all sites had soils that could become unstable with sufficient moisture, soil at one site had properties similar to those at the scar and the potential for another flow was confirmed. The report suggests that winter weather conditions be closely monitored and compared to the antecedent conditions prior to the known failure. When the threshold for additional mass wasting is believed imminent, appropriate action can be taken to insure the safety of work personnel and the public. The peak streamflow that preceded the 5,200 cu yds of debris is estimated to have a 0.5 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. (USGS)

  12. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15‰, and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10‰ suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature

  13. Meningioma involving Meckel's cave: transpetrosal surgical anatomy and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Steward, David L; Pensak, Myles L

    2002-09-01

    Meningiomas originating in Meckel's cave (MC) are uncommon lesions that represent 1% of all intracranial meningiomas. Innovations in skull base surgery have enabled resection of these lesions with less morbidity, but require an intimate knowledge of both lesional pathology and regional microneuroanatomy. To review the surgical and clinical considerations involved in the management of MC meningiomas, we retrospectively reviewed data from patients who underwent transpetrosal resection of primary MC meningiomas between 1984 and 1998. Of 146 patients who underwent transpetrosal removal of meningiomas, 7 were believed to have tumors originating in MC. All 7 patients presented with trigeminal dysfunction, facial pain, and/or headache. Complete tumor removal was achieved in 5 of the 7 patients. Facial hypoesthesia or anesthesia, paralysis of cranial nerve VI, and ophthalmoplegia were among the postoperative complications encountered. Meningiomas of MC represent treatable lesions whose diagnosis requires prompt imaging of patients with trigeminal dysfunction and symptoms of facial pain and headache.

  14. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of time-series magnesium (δ26Mg isotope data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are placed against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rain water or snow as well as soil and hostrock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07 ‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15 ‰ and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04 ‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is in concert with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07 ‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10 ‰ record changes in outside air temperature as driving factor rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73 ‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43 ‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature affecting soil zone activity

  15. Microclimatic, chemical, and mineralogical evidence for tafoni weathering processes on the Miaowan Island, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rihui; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Tafoni were widely distributed around the world; however, their processes of development remain unclear. In this study, the roles of microclimatic, geochemical and mineralogical processes on tafoni development along the subtropical coastline of the Miaowan Island, south China, are investigated. Field observations were carried out during three visits to the island over a four-year period (2011-2015). The orientation of 184 tafoni openings were measured, and micrometeorological changes of three tafoni on opposite sides of the island were monitored by pocket weather trackers (Kestrel 4500) in two periods. Samples of residual debris inside three tafoni hosted in a large boulder, the parent rock of the tafoni, and from the weathering profile of a nearby bedrock outcrop were collected for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The field observations showed that tafoni were of different sizes and constantly produced flakes and debris inside the tafoni caves, indicating their on-going active development. An increase in Na in residual debris in tafoni caves on the Miaowan Island is the most obvious evidence of salt weathering. Salt weathering inside tafoni caves is not intense and does not match the salt-rich environment outside the caves, indicating that the influence of salt is not strong. The loss of K, Ca, and Mg in the residue samples, and the appearance of the clay mineral montmorillonite are caused by chemical weathering. Most of the tafoni openings face mountains, demonstrating the effect of humidity in tafoni weathering. Tafoni cave shapes are related to the distribution of humid water vapour, which tends to collect at the top of the cave, and leads to more intensive development here than in other parts. Drastic daily changes in relative humidity inside tafoni caves accelerate mechanical weathering owing to swelling and shrinking of salt and clay minerals. The Miaowan Island tafoni are formed by weathering, but they cannot be simply

  16. Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Cortes A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The large microclimatic stability is a basic characteristic of the subterranean karst systems and causes a high sensitivity to changesin environmental conditions. High-accuracy monitoring of Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain determined the temporal evolution of theaerodynamic processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. This cave is characterizedby a very stable microclimate, with high and relatively constant radon content (the mean value is 32200 Bq/m3, roughly, and thestandard deviation is 7600 Bq/m3 and a moderate and quite stable CO2 concentration (the mean value is 3730 ppm and the standarddeviation is 250 ppm. Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimaticprocesses are described with regard to the gas exchange between the cave and the outside atmosphere. There is a complexmicroclimatic functional relationship between the meteorological and cave microclimate conditions and the diffusion and flow of tracergases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Transient variations of tracer gas on cave airare controlled by natural barometric fluxes and anthropogenic forced ventilation due to uncontrolled opening of cave entrance. Theshort-term fluctuations of gas levels on cave air reveal distinct patterns during the exhalation process of theses gases from the netof fissures and pores to the cave atmosphere, depending on the isolation effect of soil and host rock.

  17. Antibiotic resistance is prevalent in an isolated cave microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirandeep Bhullar

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotics. The origin of the genes associated with this resistance is of significant importance to our understanding of the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. A growing body of evidence implicates environmental organisms as reservoirs of these resistance genes; however, the role of anthropogenic use of antibiotics in the emergence of these genes is controversial. We report a screen of a sample of the culturable microbiome of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, in a region of the cave that has been isolated for over 4 million years. We report that, like surface microbes, these bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics; some strains were resistant to 14 different commercially available antibiotics. Resistance was detected to a wide range of structurally different antibiotics including daptomycin, an antibiotic of last resort in the treatment of drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Enzyme-mediated mechanisms of resistance were also discovered for natural and semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotics via glycosylation and through a kinase-mediated phosphorylation mechanism. Sequencing of the genome of one of the resistant bacteria identified a macrolide kinase encoding gene and characterization of its product revealed it to be related to a known family of kinases circulating in modern drug resistant pathogens. The implications of this study are significant to our understanding of the prevalence of resistance, even in microbiomes isolated from human use of antibiotics. This supports a growing understanding that antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard wired in the microbial pangenome.

  18. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 2 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cryocalcite layers, extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  19. In-situ stress measurements and stress change monitoring to monitor overburden caving behaviour and hydraulic fracture pre-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puller Jesse W.; Mills Ken W.; Jeffrey Rob G.; Walker Rick J.

    2016-01-01

    A coal mine in New South Wales is longwall mining 300 m wide panels at a depth of 160–180 m directly below a 16–20 m thick conglomerate strata. As part of a strategy to use hydraulic fracturing to manage potential windblast and periodic caving hazards associated with these conglomerate strata, the in-situ stresses in the conglomerate were measured using ANZI strain cells and the overcoring method of stress relief. Changes in stress associated with abutment loading and placement of hydraulic fractures were also measured using ANZI strain cells installed from the surface and from underground. Overcore stress mea-surements have indicated that the vertical stress is the lowest principal stress so that hydraulic fractures placed ahead of mining form horizontally and so provide effective pre-conditioning to promote caving of the conglomerate strata. Monitoring of stress changes in the overburden strata during longwall retreat was undertaken at two different locations at the mine. The monitoring indicated stress changes were evi-dent 150 m ahead of the longwall face and abutment loading reached a maximum increase of about 7.5 MPa. The stresses ahead of mining change gradually with distance to the approaching longwall and in a direction consistent with the horizontal in-situ stresses. There was no evidence in the stress change monitoring results to indicate significant cyclical forward abutment loading ahead of the face. The for-ward abutment load determined from the stress change monitoring is consistent with the weight of over-burden strata overhanging the goaf indicated by subsidence monitoring.

  20. Interhemispheric precipitation seesaw: mirror images of oxygen isotopic records from caves in S. Brazil and E. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Edwards, R. L.; Auler, A. S.; Cheng, H.; Ito, E.

    2004-12-01

    We have obtained a high resolution oxygen isotopic record of cave calcite from Caverna Botuverá (27° 13Ś, 49° 09Ẃ), South Brazil. The chronology was determined by 16 high-resolution U/Th ages. We interpreted our record, spanning from 40 ka through 15 ka, in terms of meteoric precipitation changes in this low-latitude location. The oxygen isotopic profile broadly follows local insolation changes and shows millennial-scale variation with amplitudes as large as 3 per mil, similar to (but not in phase with) some Northern Hemispheric observations (e.g., Wang et al., 2001; Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Yuan et al., 2004). Using independent age scales, we compare our record to contemporary records from Hulu Cave, East China (Wang et al., 2001), and the GISP2 Ice Core, Greenland (Grootes and Stuiver, 1997). Minima in δ 18O (wet periods) at our site are synchronous with maxima in δ 18O (dry periods) in East China and vice versa. Our wet phases also correspond to minima in δ 18O (cold periods) in Greenland and vice versa. This anti-phased precipitation relationship between Botuvera and Hulu, two low-latitude locations, may be related to asymmetry in Hadley cell circulation in two hemispheres, associated not with seasonal changes as observed today, but with millennial-scale climate shifts. If the Botuvera and Hulu records are broadly representative of low-latitude rainfall in their respective hemispheres, and if rainfall is directly related to absolute humidity, then the atmospheric see-saw pattern that we observe could have important consequences because of water vapor's greenhouse properties. Reference: Bar-Matthews M. et al., 2003. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, 3181-3199. Wang Y.J. et al., 2001. Science 294, 2345-2348. Yuan D.X. et al., 2004. Science 304, 575-578. Grootes P.M. and Stuiver M, 1997. Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 26455-26470.

  1. Field Plot Points for Wind Cave National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Wind Cave NP were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 2 parts - (1) Physical Descriptive...

  2. Contaminant analyses of water and sediment at Key Cave, Lauderdale County, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water and sediment samples were collected from Key Cave and analyzed for 20 metals and 78 organic chemicals. Results indicated the presence of p,p'-DDE and elevated...

  3. Free-living amoebae in sediments from the Lascaux Cave in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Sanchez A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lascaux Cave in France is an old karstic channel where the running waters are collected in a pool and pumped to the exterior. It is well-known that water bodies in the vicinity of humans are suspected to be reservoirs of amoebae and associated bacteria. In fact, the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba astronyxis, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba sp. and Hartmannella vermiformis were identif ied in the sediments of the cave using phylogenetic analyses and morphological traits. Lascaux Cave sediments and rock walls are wet due to a relative humidity near saturation and water condensation, and this environment and the presence of abundant bacterial communities constitute an ideal habitat for amoebae. The data suggest the need to carry out a detailed survey on all the cave compartments in order to determine the relationship between amoebae and pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Summary Report 2012 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR in 2012. Calls were classified using EchoClass(v1.1) software, but classification of calls...

  5. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 and 2015 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  6. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  7. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Summary Report 2012 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012. Calls were classified using EchoClass(v1.1) software, but classification of...

  8. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    . The results yielded new data on poorly understood groups of annelids, but also on some more general aspects of regarding colonization and speciation processes to submarine caves. From an annelid evolution perspective, we produced new phylogenetic studies for Protodrilidae (with the description of four new...... genera), Saccocirridae and Nerillidae, as well as novel results on the character evolution and diversity of these groups. From the more general prospective of the cave colonization, our results highlight the importance of shift of habitats is a crucial process to understand the morphological change...... observed in certain cave lineages. The most obvious case in represented by crevicular cave lineages with interstitial ancestors, convergently evolving into suspension feeding forms....

  9. Three new cave-dwelling trechine ground beetles from eastern and southeastern Serbia (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new troglobitic trechine ground beetle species are described from three caves in eastern and southeastern Serbia: Duvalius (Paraduvalius bogovinae sp. n., from the Bogovinska Pećina Cave, village of Bogovina, Kučajske Planine Mts., near Boljevac, eastern Serbia; D. (P. milutini sp. n., from the Samar cave system, village of Kopajkošara, Mt. Kalafat, near Svrljig, southeastern Serbia, and D. (P. beljanicae sp. n., from the Velika Atula Cave, village of Strmosten, Mt. Beljanica, near Despotovac, eastern Serbia. The new species are easily distinguished from relatives. All important morphological features, along with the diagnoses and illustrations of the new taxa are presented. The new species are relicts and endemics of eastern and southeastern Serbia. They probably belong to old phyletic lineages of Tertiary or even pre-Tertiary origin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038

  10. A High-Resolution Absolute-Dated Late Pleistocene Monsoon Record from Hulu Cave, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y. J. Wang; H. Cheng; R. L. Edwards; Z. S. An; J. Y. Wu; C.-C. Shen; J. A. Dorale

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen isotope records of five stalagmites from Hulu Cave near Nanjing bear a remarkable resemblance to oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores, suggesting that East Asian Monsoon intensity...

  11. Cave-dwelling cyclopoids (Crustacea, Copepoda) from Venezia Giulia (northeastern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoch, Fabio

    1987-01-01

    Description of some troglobiont cyclopids from cave waters of Venezia Giulia (northeastern Italy). Acanthocyclops gordani Petkovski, Acanthocyclops venustus stammen (Kiefer), Acanthocyclops troglophilus (Kiefer), Diacyclops charon (Kiefer) and Diacyclops tantalus (Kiefer), are recorded for the first

  12. Proposal: Conservation of Price's Potato Bean on Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to conduct monitoring response of Price's potato bean to overstory tree removal and understory grass control at Sauta Cave NWR.

  13. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  14. True Color Orthophotography for Timpanogos Cave National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This imagery dataset was used to map the vegetation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument. This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery...

  15. Ice Caves in Hebrus Valles: A Target Location for the First Human Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Davila, A.; Fairen, A. G.; Rodriguez, A. P.; Rask, J.; Zavaleta, J.

    2016-09-01

    Caves at Hebrus Valles are an ideal exploration target on Mars as they provide shelter, water ice, more benign temperatures, and are interesting sites for astrobiology, ensuring critical resources for the establishment of a long-term human base.

  16. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  17. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 to 2015 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  18. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  19. Cultivating imagination: development and pilot test of a therapeutic use of an immersive virtual reality CAVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Nicolalde, F Daniel; Ponto, Kevin; Kinneberg, Megan; Freese, Vito; Paz, Dana

    2013-01-01

    As informatics applications grow from being data collection tools to platforms for action, the boundary between what constitutes informatics applications and therapeutic interventions begins to blur. Emerging computer-driven technologies such as virtual reality (VR) and mHealth apps may serve as clinical interventions. As part of a larger project intended to provide complements to cognitive behavioral approaches to health behavior change, an interactive scenario was designed to permit unstructured play inside an immersive 6-sided VR CAVE. In this pilot study we examined the technical and functional performance of the CAVE scenario, human tolerance of immersive CAVE experiences, and explored human imagination and the manner in which activity in the CAVE scenarios varied by an individual's level of imagination. Nine adult volunteers participated in a pilot-and-feasibility study. Participants tolerated 15 minute long exposure to the scenarios, and navigated through the virtual world. Relationship between personal characteristics and behaviors are reported and explored.

  20. A Re-appraisal of the Stratigraphy, Palaeontology and Dating of Cow Cave, Chudleigh, Devon, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Jim W.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cow Cave is an important Quaternary paleontological site in Chudleigh Gorge, Devon, UK., now known to have a sequence of cave-earths and stalagmite floors that range in age from Upper Middle Pleistocene (~MIS 7 interglacial through to the Holocene (Flandrian and the present day. Excavations in 1927-1934, and again in 1962-3, have provided a rich fauna, with some artefacts. Here, the stratigraphy of the deposits is now more fully described and the faunal remains are considered in their stratigraphical contexts. Data supporting the existence of former cave entrances are presented along with an analysis of the processes of sedimentation and taphonomy with their climatic interpretations. Based on recent U-Th dating of a critical Stalagmite horizon, a chronology of the mid-Pleistocene to Holocene sequence is discussed. Finally, further excavation in Cow Cave and nearby sites is recommended.

  1. On the adaptations to cave life of some different animal groups (first note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the major and common adaptations to the cave environment ofdifferent animal groups. The common features are: anophthalmia, depigmentation, apterism in the caseof insects, body shape and ecophysiological adaptations.

  2. Reassessing Coxcatlan Cave and the early history of domesticated plants in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2005-07-05

    Reanalysis and direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of the cucurbit assemblage from Coxcatlan Cave provide information on the timing and sequence of the initial appearance of three domesticated plants in the Tehuacán Valley (Puebla, Mexico) and allow reassessment of the overall temporal context of plant domestication in Mexico. Cucurbita pepo is the earliest documented domesticate in the cave, dating to 7,920 calibrated calendrical (cal) years B.P. The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is dated at 7,200 cal years B.P. Cucurbita argyrosperma does not appear until 2,065 cal years B.P. The earlier identification of Cucurbita moschata specimens is not confirmed. Seventy-one radiocarbon dates, including 23 accelerator mass spectrometry dates on cucurbits, provide ample evidence of postdepositional vertical displacement of organic materials in the western half of Coxcatlan Cave, but they also indicate that the eastern half of the cave was largely undisturbed.

  3. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Gräser, J; Aspek, W; Gschnaller, J

    2014-11-01

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a(-1) only in the copper mine.

  4. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  5. Climatic control on the growth of gigantic gypsum crystals within hypogenic caves (Naica mine, Mexico)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Paolo S.; Fricker, Mattias B.; Günther, Detlef; Forti, Paolo; Mercuri, Anna-Maria; Loreti, Mara; Capaccioni, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Three hypogenic caves within the Naica mine of Mexico ( Cueva de los Cristales — CLC, Ojo de la Reina — OR, and Cueva de las Velas — CLV) host spectacular gypsum crystals up to 11 m in length. These caves are close to another shallow cave of the area ( Cueva de las Espadas — CLE), with which they cover a 160 m-deep vertical section of the local drainage basin. Similar to other hypogenic caves, all these caves lack a direct connection with the land surface and should be unrelated with climate. A record of multi-technique fluid inclusion data and pollen spectra from cave and mine gypsum indicates surprisingly that climatic changes occurring at Naica could have controlled fluid composition in these caves, and hence crystal growth. Microthermometry and LA-ICP-Mass Spectrometry of fluid inclusions indicate that the shallow, chemically peculiar, saline fluid (up to 7.7 eq. wt.%NaCl) of CLE could have formed from evaporation, during a dry and hot climatic period. The fluid of the deep caves was instead of low salinity (˜ 3.5 eq. wt.% NaCl) and chemically homogeneous, and was poorly affected by evaporation. We propose that mixing of these two fluids, generated at different depths of the Naica drainage basin, determined the stable supersaturation conditions for the gigantic gypsum crystals to grow. Fluid mixing was controlled by the hydraulic communication between CLE and the other deep caves, and must have taken place during cycles of warm-dry and fresh-wet climatic periods, which are known to have occurred in the region. Pollen grains from a 35 ka-old gypsum crystal of CLC corresponds to a fairly homogenous catchment basin made of a mixed broadleaf wet forest, which suggests precipitation during a fresh-wet climatic period and confirms our interpretation of the fluid inclusion data. The unusual combination of geological and geochemical factors of Naica suggests that other hypogenic caves found elsewhere may not host similar crystals. However, this work shows that

  6. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  7. A multi-year monitoring project of the high-altitude Cenote ice cave, Dolomites, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Francesco; Santagata, Tommaso; Spötl, Christoph; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Dal Molin, Luca; De Waele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    The Cenote ice cave hosts one of the most voluminous cave glaciers of the Dolomites. This 280 m-deep abyss was discovered in 1994 after the entrance had opened as a result of the abrupt emptying of a small lake at 2940 m a.s.l. in the Regional Park of Fanes, Sennes and Braies. The cave consists of a massive, 130 m-thick layered ice deposit carved by meltwater tunnels and chimneys excavated from below by ascending air. At the lower limit of the cave glacier a shaft opens - ice-free and 165 m deep - leading into a dome occupied by a cave rock glacier with typical terminal tongue embankments. A research project was launched to monitor long-term movements and volume changes of this ice deposit as well as to understand the cave microclimate and the potential for future palaeoclimate studies. During October 2015 a first expedition performed a complete survey of the final chamber using a Leica HDS7000, a phase difference laser scanner equipped with a dual axis compensator, on-board control, a wavelenght of 1.5 microns, a laser "CLASS 1" with a flow rate of 187 m and a resolution of 0.1 mm. A scan station was performed also at 110 m above the bottom of the shaft to map in detail the lower side of the hanging ice glacier. This survey has provided the detailed volume of the chamber (420,000 m3) as well as a first record of the position of the ice masses hanging on the ceiling and of the rock glacier at the bottom. Barometric, temperature and humidity dataloggers have been installed in the cave to record the microclimate. In addition pollen traps have been installed to study the present flux of pollen at the surface and inside the cave, while preliminary analyses on pollen grains preserved in the ice are being carried out. The Cenote ice cave research project aims to shed light on the climate evolution of the Dolomites during the last hundreds or possibly thousands of years, as well as on the more recent environmental changes that lead to the upward melting of the cave

  8. Recreational Impacts on the Microclimate of the Gorilla Limestone Cave in Shoushan National Nature Park of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Ho, Lih-Der

    2017-04-01

    This study reports a continuous microclimate monitoring carried out in the Gorilla Cave (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) between December 2015 and December 2016. This limestone cave is located in the Mt. Shoushan, which is mainly composed of limestone and mudstone. This study tried to assess the recreational impacts to the microclimate of the cave by monitoring the CO2, temperature, humidity and barometric pressure. Two monitoring stations were set up respectively at the front part (station A) and the end of the cave (station B). We also set up an auto-operated time-lapse camera at the entrance of the cave to record the numbers of tourists, and their entering time and the durations in cave. As carbon dioxide in the limestone cave may have negative impact to both speleothems and visitors, our presentation focuses on the variations of CO2 concentration in the Gorilla Cave. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of CO2 concentration were observed. The fluctuations are closely related with the temperature outside the cave. In summer, when the temperature outside the cave maintained at 30。C, fluctuations of CO2 concentration in the cave will become chaotic. The CO2 concentration would fluctuate around 1000ppm most of the day, but it would be relatively low ( 500ppm) during the noon. In winter, when temperature outside the cave maintained below 25゜C, the fluctuation of CO2 concentration in cave presented a steady state ( 400-500 ppm). Only at the noon, the temperature outside the cave rose above 25 ゜C, the CO2 concentration inside the cave would increase. There were 1,517 tourists entered the cave during the monitoring period. The average number of visitors in a group is 13, and each group averagely stayed for 15 minutes. Over half of the visitors (776 tourists) entered the cave in December, due to lower humidity, drier in the cave and less dripping water in winter. After tourists entered the cave, the CO2 concentration value of station A rose instantly. However, most tourists stayed

  9. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda

  10. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda (

  11. Retreat and extinction of the Late Pleistocene cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Mateusz; Popović, Danijela; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Marciszak, Adrian; Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Nadachowski, Adam; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato) is a typical representative of Pleistocene megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Last Glacial. Detailed knowledge of cave bear extinction could explain this spectacular ecological transformation. The paper provides a report on the youngest remains of the cave bear dated to 20,930 ± 140 14C years before present (BP). Ancient DNA analyses proved its affiliation to the Ursus ingressus haplotype. Using this record and 205 other dates, we determined, following eight approaches, the extinction time of this mammal at 26,100-24,300 cal. years BP. The time is only slightly earlier, i.e. 27,000-26,100 cal. years BP, when young dates without associated collagen data are excluded. The demise of cave bear falls within the coldest phase of the last glacial period, Greenland Stadial 3. This finding and the significant decrease in the cave bear records with cooling indicate that the drastic climatic changes were responsible for its extinction. Climate deterioration lowered vegetation productivity, on which the cave bear strongly depended as a strict herbivore. The distribution of the last cave bear records in Europe suggests that this animal was vanishing by fragmentation into subpopulations occupying small habitats. One of them was the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland in Poland, where we discovered the latest record of the cave bear and also two other, younger than 25,000 14C years BP. The relatively long survival of this bear in karst regions may result from suitable microclimate and continuous access to water provided by deep aquifers, indicating a refugial role of such regions in the Pleistocene for many species.

  12. Cockroaches (Insecta, Blattodea from caves of Polillo Island (Philippines, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian C. Lucanas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches collected during a protracted series of fieldwork in several limestone caves in Polillo Island, Philippines were taxonomically studied. A new species of Nocticola (Nocticolidae, N. gonzalezi Lucañas & Lit, sp. n., is described. The male of Periplaneta banksi Hanitsch (Blattidae is described for the first time. Altogether, the present cave cockroach fauna of the island consists of six species.

  13. Image–guided resection of small lesions in the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, M.; Krauss, J K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective The microsurgical resection of tumors or vascular lesions in the cavernous sinus and the neighbouring Meckel's cave has been considered as hazardous because of often associated cranial nerve morbidity. Despite increasing consent that many of such tumors should not undergo surgical therapy, the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave may harbour small lesions of various origin, which are amenable for surgical resection. Surgery in this anatomical area needs a...

  14. Blind flight? A new troglobiotic orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Trond Andersen; Viktor Baranov; Linn Katrine Hagenlund; Marija Ivković; Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte; Martina Pavlek

    2016-01-01

    The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous belie...

  15. Marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea: a sponge biodiversity reservoir within a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    Full Text Available Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%, generic (70%, and species level (47.5%, the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each, 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection.

  16. A Low-Power Sensor Network for Long Duration Monitoring in Deep Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A.; Johnson, I.; Bick, T.; Winclechter, C.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Teare, S. W.; Arechiga, R. O.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring deep and inaccessible caves is important and challenging for a variety of reasons. It is of interest to study caves environments for understanding cave ecosystems, and human impact on the ecosystems. Caves may also hold clues to past climate changes. Cave instrumentation must however carry out its job with minimal human intervention and without disturbing the fragile environment. This requires unobtrusive and autonomous instrumentation. Earth-bound caves can also serve as analogs for caves on other planets and act as testbeds for autonomous sensor networks. Here we report on a project to design and implement a low-power, ad-hoc, wireless sensor network for monitoring caves and similar environments. The implemented network is composed of individual nodes which consist of a sensor, processing unit, memory, transceiver and a power source. Data collected at these nodes is transmitted through a wireless ZigBee network to a central data collection point from which the researcher may transfer collected data to a laptop for further analysis. The project accomplished a node design with a physical footprint of 2 inches long by 3 inches wide. The design is based on the EZMSP430-RF2480, a Zigbee hardware base offered by Texas Instruments. Five functioning nodes have been constructed at very low cost and tested. Due to the use of an external analog-to-digital converter the design was able to achieve a 16-bit resolution. The operational time achieved by the prototype was calculated to be approximately 80 days of autonomous operation while sampling once per minute. Each node is able to support and record data from up to four different sensors.

  17. Hydrothermal phenomena in Risovaca cave and within Vencac massif Shumadies, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzak-Tomić Janina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Risovaca cave are found, for the karst, atypical alteration in the limestones structure. Also, morphogenesis of the object can not be logically interpret. Those differences are result of hydrothermal process in initial phase of karstic cycle. And then activity of hot water and hot emanations brought up to the metasomatism and destruction of rock, enormous excrete of ornaments and later, ceiling collapse and fill up of cave room.

  18. Virtual reality and the CAVE: Taxonomy, interaction challenges and research directions

    OpenAIRE

    Muhanna A. Muhanna

    2015-01-01

    One of the main goals of virtual reality is to provide immersive environments that take participants away from the real life into a virtual one. Many investigators have been interested in bringing new technologies, devices, and applications to facilitate this goal. Few, however, have focused on the specific human–computer interaction aspects of such environments. In this article we present our literature review of virtual reality and the Cave Automated Virtual Environment (CAVE). In particula...

  19. Managing trauma in the South African mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, R Paul

    2005-01-01

    Deep sub-surface mining is one of South Africa s leading industries. It is also one of the most dangerous. While safety is maintained as much as possible to minimize cave-ins and other accidents, underground tremors and earthquakes are commonplace and unpredictable and usually involve life threatening injuries and loss of life. Crisis intervention and trauma management are essential to helping workers cope with mining accidents. This article describes the trauma management program developed by the employee assistance program at the Chamber of Mines in South Africa to respond to workplace accidents.

  20. Immersive Collaborative Analysis of Network Connectivity: CAVE-style or Head-Mounted Display?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeil, Maxime; Dwyer, Tim; Klein, Karsten; Laha, Bireswar; Marriott, Kim; Thomas, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    High-quality immersive display technologies are becoming mainstream with the release of head-mounted displays (HMDs) such as the Oculus Rift. These devices potentially represent an affordable alternative to the more traditional, centralised CAVE-style immersive environments. One driver for the development of CAVE-style immersive environments has been collaborative sense-making. Despite this, there has been little research on the effectiveness of collaborative visualisation in CAVE-style facilities, especially with respect to abstract data visualisation tasks. Indeed, very few studies have focused on the use of these displays to explore and analyse abstract data such as networks and there have been no formal user studies investigating collaborative visualisation of abstract data in immersive environments. In this paper we present the results of the first such study. It explores the relative merits of HMD and CAVE-style immersive environments for collaborative analysis of network connectivity, a common and important task involving abstract data. We find significant differences between the two conditions in task completion time and the physical movements of the participants within the space: participants using the HMD were faster while the CAVE2 condition introduced an asymmetry in movement between collaborators. Otherwise, affordances for collaborative data analysis offered by the low-cost HMD condition were not found to be different for accuracy and communication with the CAVE2. These results are notable, given that the latest HMDs will soon be accessible (in terms of cost and potentially ubiquity) to a massive audience.

  1. A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

  2. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

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    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  3. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Caves and Rock Fracture Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2017-01-01

    The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond. We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can fluorish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a Field Guide to Unknown Organisms for developing life detection space missions.

  4. Meckel's cave access: anatomic study comparing the endoscopic transantral and endonasal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in endonasal endoscopy have facilitated the surgical access to the lateral skull base including areas such as Meckel's cave. This approach has been well documented, however, few studies have outlined transantral specific access to Meckel's. A transantral approach provides a direct pathway to this region obviating the need for extensive endonasal and transsphenoidal resection. Our aim in this study is to compare the anatomical perspectives obtained in endonasal and transantral approaches. We prepared 14 cadaveric specimens with intravascular injections of colored latex. Eight cadavers underwent endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches to Meckel's cave. Six additional specimens underwent an endoscopic transantral approach to the same region. Photographic evidence was obtained for review. 30 CT scans were analyzed to measure comparative distances to Meckel's cave for both approaches. The endoscopic approaches provided a direct access to the anterior and inferior portions of Meckel's cave. However, the transantral approach required shorter instrumentation, and did not require clearing of the endonasal corridor. This approach gave an anterior view of Meckel's cave making posterior dissection more difficult. A transantral approach to Meckel's cave provides access similar to the endonasal approach with minimal invasiveness. Some of the morbidity associated with extensive endonasal resection could possibly be avoided. Better understanding of the complex skull base anatomy, from different perspectives, helps to improve current endoscopic skull base surgery and to develop new alternatives, consequently, leading to improvements in safety and efficacy.

  5. “Spray Technique: Tracing the Sketch Traditions of Limestone Cave in Lenggong, Perak”

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    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological research provides the widest opportunity for researchers to analyse various aspects and disciplines appropriate to the subject and the object of choice. Subject and object selection is the work of exploration artefacts found in particular sites and archaeological heritage. Exploration and excavation on of a world heritage site such as Lenggong enables researchers to uncover various archaeological artefacts that are rich and meaningful. To find evidence of the strength and benefits of an artefact, further studies on each artefact should be carried out continuously. This essay will track the wisdom of the ancient artists use to produce paintings in a limestone cave in Lenggong, Perak, using spray techniques. Some artefacts that are identified as cave paintings show a very interesting sketch technique that are unique and special. This essay will also examine some of the cave paintings in other caves in Perak and also other caves in several countries as comparison. Studies involving cave paintings in Malaysia are new compared to Western countries. Thus, the study of one of the technique which is spray technique can open the eyes of the audience to acknowledge and recognise the ancient heritage. It also hoped that this study is able to increase the body of knowledge that goes beyond the boundaries of the arts district and the country.

  6. Studies of condensation/evaporation processes in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Freitas Chris R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The condensation/evaporation process is important in caves, especially in tourist caves where there is carbon dioxide enriched air caused by visitors. The cycle of condensation and evaporation of condensate is believed to enhance condensation corrosion. The problem is condensation is difficult to measure. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and modelling condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of the condensate as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux are tested and used to collect 12 months of data. The study site is the Glowworm tourist cave in New Zealand. The work describes an explanatory model of processes leading to condensation using data based on measurements of condensation and evaporation as part of a single continuous process of water vapour flux. The results show that the model works well. However, one of the most important messages from the research reported here is the introduction of the condensation sensor. The results show that condensation in caves can actually be measured and monitored, virtually in real time. In conjunction with the recent developments in data logging equipment, this opens exciting perspectives in cave climate studies, and, more generally, in hydrogeological studies in karst terrains.

  7. Minerals and speleothems of the József-hegy Cave (Budapest, Hungary.

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    Leél-Őssy Szabolcs

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the József-hegy Cave, a cave of hydrothermal origin with an abundance of minerals unknown so far in Hungarycame to light. Diversity and the frequency of the occurrence of crystals make this cave similar to the Lechuguilla Cave, even ifthe dimensions of the mineral precipitations and the passages do not compare in scale. The variety and mass of carbonates andsulphates are surprising. This paper describes the minerals and speleothems of the József-hegy Cave, their occurrence and genesis,including determined ages. The 41 U/Th measurements suggest that speleothems begun to develop in the upper level of the cavemore than 350 ka ago. Some of these dated old speleothems were developing in dry passages, thus the uppermost passages of theJózsef-hegy Cave have been dry at least for 350 ka. The karst water level was still at the main passage 200 ka ago and dropped to120 m asl by the time of ~100 ka before present.

  8. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cave-dwelling invertebrates were studied according to their composition, biodiversity, distribution and threats in the Atlantic Forest Central Biodiversity Corridor, a priority area for conservation actions in Brazil. Twelve obligate cave species were found, plus 495 troglophile species. Araneae (103 spp., Coleoptera (61 spp., Diptera (56 spp. and Lepidoptera (38 spp. were the richest taxa. The richness was higher in the carbonate caves (63 spp., sd = 16.7 and the highest diversity in granitic caves (H´= 2.68, sd = 0.5. The spatial turnover was 63.45 and similarity less than 30%. The total richness was correlated with the linear extension of the caves (Rs = 0.757, p ≤ 0.05. Surrounding area deforestation and religious and tourist use were the main threats. Emergency attention is recommended regarding protective actions, management and conservation of caves of extremely high biological importance.

  9. Variations of karst underground air temperature induced by various factors (Cave of Županova jama, Central Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravbar, Natasa; Kosutnik, Jure

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of air temperature ( T) monitoring, basic statistical and time series analysis was employed to evaluate thermal states of cave atmosphere variations. Long-term, seasonal and event comparative analysis as well as spectral and cross-correlation analysis was conducted. The results show the relative stability of air T in the isolated part of the cave, whereas variable air T was observed in the parts close to entrances and the surface. The distinctive seasonality in this part of the cave demonstrates that air convection is a driving force for the heat exchange between the cave and the surrounding environment. External air T and heat conducted through the rock walls are also an important factor influencing the cave climate, while heat released by the ice deposit and by water infiltrating through the cave ceiling has a negligible effect. Occasional irregular variations in daily patterns are caused by human impact.

  10. Understanding of δ13C behavior and its significance in the Furong Cave system through a 10-year cave monitoring study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Li, H. C.; Li, T.; Li, X.; Yuan, N.; Zhang, T.

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how speleothem δ13C to reflect paleoclimate and paleovegetation changes calls for understanding of δ13C behavior in a cave system. We have conducted a monitoring study in Furong Cave, Chongqing, China since 2005 involving multiple sites in the overlying soil and inside the cave. The measured proxies include pCO2 of the atmosphere, soil and cave air; dripping rate, pH, electronic conductivity, Ca2+, HCO3-, d13CDIC of the dripwaters; and deposition rate, d13C of seasonally selected carbonate deposits. The many observations from this study are: (1) Soil pCO2 is close to the atmospheric pCO2 in winter and reaches >10000 ppm during the summer due to high productivity under warm and wet climates. (2) The pCO2 in cave air is slightly higher than Soil pCO2 and atmospheric pCO2 in winter (400~900 ppm), but elevates up to ~2000 ppm around October due to seepage of soil CO2 into the cave. The cave air pCO2 exhibits double peaks following the seasonal rainfall (1st peak in April-June controlled by Indian monsoon and 2nd peak in July-September influenced by the North Western Pacific monsoon). The cave air pCO2 has about 2-3 month lag to the soil pCO2. (3) Under the influence of soil CO2 and rainfall, the d13CDIC of drpiwaters are depleted in the summer and enriched during the winter. During 2009-2011, southwestern China experienced extremely drought due to summer monsoon failure. The d13CDIC of dripwater in Furong Cave was strongly enriched because of low soil CO2 productivity, less transportation of soil CO2 into the cave, and high CO2 ratio from bedrock input. Dripping rate does not affect the d13CDIC significantly. (4) The d13C of speleothems is controlled by the open/closed system of the seepage pathway on the first order. Monitoring site MP1 owns a relatively open system shown by fast dripping rates, low Ca and HCO3- contents, and low carbonate deposition rate. The d13C of modern deposits from this site not only shows the seasonal variation following

  11. Manganese and Iron Interactions in Cave and Rock Varnish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Spilde, M. N.; Northup, D. E.; Mullen, K.; Bargar, J.; Carey, R.

    2004-12-01

    Microbial communities in arid land caves and surface desert environments interact with Fe and Mn, yielding deposits of intimately associated Fe- and Mn-oxides as a result. Although the geological setting and fundamental rock makeup may be similar in some cases, the environments of these two types of communities differ radically. The manner in which the organisms interact with the rock environment may reflect these differences in the resulting minerals, although the biological oxidation mechanisms of Mn and Fe may be similar. We are mapping the Mn and Fe deposition patterns in the mineral coatings in relation to the concentrations of organic carbon indicative of microbial presence, identifying minerals that are biogenic, along with isolating the perpetrators responsible and reproducing relevant minerals in the laboratory. We are also uncovering the underlying biodiversity as revealed by molecular phylogenetic techniques. The ultimate goal is to determine the degree of microbial responsibility for the secondary mineral deposits observed and the potential role of these communities in both dissolution of subsurface bedrock and deposition of surface oxide coatings. Synchrotron XRF and XRD data reveal differences in the mineralogy of the coatings. Lithiophorite is the predominate crystalline Mn-mineral in cave samples, although crystal size is small. TEM analyses show that the Mn-oxides range from amorphous or microcrystalline to exhibiting coherent crystalline lattices. XRF mapping indicates that Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb are associated with the Mn-oxides. In the desert surface oxide samples birnessite predominates the crystalline minerals. X-ray maps show a laminated structure with a complex and variable chemistry, including variability in trace elements such as Ni and Pb. DNA extraction of rock varnish samples, followed by the construction of clone libraries from community DNA, demonstrated the apparent predominance of cyanobacteria in rock varnish communities. The clone

  12. Hydrochemical controls on aragonite versus calcite precipitation in cave dripwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Lozano, Rafael P.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the paleoclimatic relevance of primary calcite to aragonite transitions in stalagmites, the relative role of fluid Mg/Ca ratio, supersaturation and CO32- concentration in controlling such transitions is still incompletely understood. Accordingly, we have monitored the hydrochemistry of 50 drips and 8 pools that are currently precipitating calcite and/or aragonite in El Soplao and Torca Ancha Caves (N. Spain), investigating the mineralogy and geochemistry of the CaCO3 precipitates on the corresponding natural speleothem surfaces. The data reveal that, apart from possible substrate effects, dripwater Mg/Ca is the only obvious control on CaCO3 polymorphism in the studied stalagmites and pools, where calcite- and aragonite-precipitating dripwaters are separated by an initial (i.e. at stalactite tips) Mg/Ca threshold at ≈1.1 mol/mol. Within the analyzed ranges of pH (8.2-8.6), CO32- concentration (1-6 mg/L), supersaturation (SIaragonite: 0.08-1.08; SIcalcite: 0.23-1.24), drip rate (0.2-81 drops/min) and dissolved Zn (6-90 μg/L), we observe no unequivocal influence of these parameters on CaCO3 mineralogy. Despite the almost complete overlapping supersaturations of calcite- and aragonite-precipitating waters, the latter are on average less supersaturated because the waters having Mg/Ca above ∼1.1 have mostly achieved such high ratios by previously precipitating calcite. Both calcite and aragonite precipitated at or near oxygen isotopic equilibrium, and Mg incorporation into calcite was consistent with literature-based predictions, indicating that in the studied cases CaCO3 precipitation was not significantly influenced by strong kinetic effects. In the studied cases, the calcites that precipitate at ∼11 °C from dripwaters with initial Mg/Ca approaching ∼1.1 incorporate ∼5 mol% MgCO3, close to the published value above which calcite solubility exceeds aragonite solubility, suggesting that aragonite precipitation in high-relative-humidity caves is

  13. Fossil Orangutan-like hominoid teeth from Late Pleistocene human site of Mulanshan cave in Chongzuo of Guangxi and implications on taxonomy and evolution of orangutan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO LingXia; WANG CuiBin; JIN ChangZhu; QIN DaGong; PAN WenShi

    2009-01-01

    Fossil records indicate orangutan-like hominoids have been widely distributed in south China during Pleistocene,although currently only surviving in the tropical forests of Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia.This paper describes the recently discovered hominoid fossil teeth from human site of Mulanshan cave in Chongzuo of Guangxi,whose geological age is the Late Pleistocene,about 11000 yeas age based on associated mammal fauna and U-series dating.Compared with those of modern and subfossil orangutans from Indonesia,other fossil great apes from China,the hominoid teeth from Mulanshan cave are orangutan-like,but show somehow different from Indonesia's orangutans,the average sizes of cheek teeth larger and occlusal enamel wrinkles less and simpler.They are classified temporarily as the subspecies of Pongo pygmaeus weidenreichi.Concerning the variations of morphological features and dental sizes of orangutan-like teeth from southern China and neighboring northern Vietnam,different subspecies or species or genus possibly,but the key evidence is necessary to be identified.

  14. Astyanax mexicanus, the Blind Mexican Cave Fish: A Model for Studies in Development and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Richard

    2008-11-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe perpetual darkness of caves has two important consequences for permanent inhabitants. First, eyes and pigmentation lose their primary functions. Second, in the absence of photosynthesis, food is rare. For these reasons, cave-adapted species typically have reduced eyes and pigmentation and increased or more efficient metabolisms. Additionally, other senses are usually augmented to compensate for the loss of vision. Identifying the genetic bases underlying these phenotypic changes will enhance our understanding of the specific pathways involved in control of these phenotypes and, in general, the evolutionary process. Unfortunately, the genetics of most cave animals cannot be studied because they are not easily bred. Blind Mexican tetras, Astyanax mexicanus, are the valuable exception to this rule because fish from the various cave populations are fully interfertile with one another and with eyed sister forms still living in nearby surface streams. Hybrids between surface and cave forms permit genetic analysis of their differences, and study of the pure forms as well as of hybrids allows study of their developmental differences. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis has already identified some specific genes responsible for differences between cave and surface forms as well as other likely candidates; more will be added in the future. This system is a valuable addition to the array of existing models for the study of developmental and evolutionary genetics because cave populations are repositories of numerous naturally occurring mutations affecting development of the eyes and other senses, pigmentation, bone structure, metamerism, and metabolism. These alleles have been prescreened by natural selection for high viability, which simplifies their study. In contrast, new alleles obtained through mutagenesis in other model species are typically burdened with lower viability.

  15. Diversity of cultured bacteria from the perennial ice block of Scarisoara Ice Cave, Romania

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    Corina Iţcuş

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cave ice ecosystems represent a poorly investigated glacial environment. Diversity of cave ice bacteria and their distribution in perennial ice deposits of this underground glacial habitat could constitute a proxy for microbial response to climatic and environmental changes. Scarisoara Ice Cave (Romania hosts one of the oldest and largest cave ice blocks worldwide. Here we report on cultured microbial diversity of recent, 400, and 900 years-old perennial ice from this cave, representing the first characterization of a chronological distribution of cave-ice bacteria. Total cell density measured by SYBR Green I epifluorescence microscopy varied in the 2.4 x 104 – 2.9 x 105 cells mL-1 range. The abundance of cultured bacteria (5 x 102 – 8 x 104 CFU mL-1 representing 0.3-52% of the total cell number decreased exponentially with the ice age, and was higher in organic rich ice sediments. Cultivation at 4˚C and 15˚C using BIOLOG EcoPlates revealed a higher functional diversity of cold-active bacteria, dependent on the age, sediment content and physicochemical properties of the ice. The composition dissimilarity of ice microbiota across the ice block was confirmed by growth parameter variations when cultivated in different liquid media at low and high temperatures. PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments from the cultured ice samples led to the identification of 77 bacterial amplicons belonging to Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, showing variation in distribution across the ice layers. Several identified OTUs were homologous to those identified in other glacial and karst environments and showed partial conservation across the ice block. Moreover, our survey provided a glimpse on the cave-ice hosted bacteria as putative biomarkers for past climate and environmental changes.

  16. Evaluating the cave carbonate chemical signal as a proxy for rain patterns in Mallorca Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Isabel; Cisneros, Mercé; Torner, Judit; Català, Albert; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Iglesias, Miguel; Bladé, Ileana; Fornos, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Mallorca's climate is marked by a strong seasonal cycle in both temperatures and precipitations which is likely to be recorded in the carbonate precipitates formed in its extended karst systems. Here we present isotopes and trace elements measured in dripwaters collected at weakly and/or seasonal bases since spring 2013 in three caves from Mallorca that represent the eastern and S-eastern sector of the island. This information is complemented with isotopic composition of rain events in the same region, other cave environmental parameters and chemistry of seasonal farmed carbonates in the same caves. Drip water results are very consistent between the different studied caves and indicate an important attenuation of the rainfall isotopic signal in the epikarst and only extreme climate conditions such as the severe dry conditions in summer 2015. Farmed carbonates present a clear seasonal cycle with low values, in both carbon and oxygen isotopes, in summer and autumn and high values in winter and spring. This cyclicity can not be attributed to amount effect or rain composition and we propose a close relation to cave environmental conditions. High CO2 concentrations in summer and autumn would avoid degasification reducing the PCP process and resulting in more negative isotopic relationships in both oxygen and carbon isotopes. Coherently, this CO2 cycles are in phase with those of temperature since both reflect ventilation rates in the cave. Nevertheless, ultra-high resolution profiles of Mg/Ca ratios measured by laser ablation on last century carbonate precipitates in the same caves, reveal a inter-annual variability with a persistent cyclicity which show coherent patterns with the instrumental rain records from Mallorca. This comparison reveals the potential of the Mallorca carbonates to reveal the long-term precipitation evolution of the island.

  17. Bacteria, fungi and biokarst in Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K. I.; Northup, D. E.; Pollastro, R. M.; Wright, W. G.; Larock, E. J.

    1995-02-01

    Lechuguilla Cave is a deep, extensive, gypsumand sulfur-bearing hypogenic cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, most of which (>90%) lies more than 300 m beneath the entrance. Located in the arid Guadalupe Mountains, Lechuguilla's remarkable state of preservation is partially due to the locally continuous Yates Formation siltstone that has effectively diverted most vadose water away from the cave. Allocthonous organic input to the cave is therefore very limited, but bacterial and fungal colonization is relatively extensive: (1) Aspergillus sp. fungi and unidentified bacteria are associated with iron-, manganese-, and sulfur-rich encrustations on calcitic folia near the suspected water table 466 m below the entrance; (2) 92 species of fungi in 19 genera have been identified throughout the cave in oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) “soils” and pools; (3) cave-air condensate contains unidentified microbes; (4) indigenous chemoheterotrophic Seliberius and Caulobacter bacteria are known from remote pool sites; and (5) at least four genera of heterotrophic bacteria with population densities near 5×105 colony-forming units (CFU) per gram are present in ceiling-bound deposits of supposedly abiogenic condensation-corrosion residues. Various lines of evidence suggest that autotrophic bacteria are present in the ceiling-bound residues and could act as primary producers in a unique subterranean microbial food chain. The suspected autotrophic bacteria are probably chemolithoautotrophic (CLA), utilizing trace iron, manganese, or sulfur in the limestone and dolomitic bedrock to mechanically (and possibly biochemically) erode the substrate to produce residual floor deposits. Because other major sources of organic matter have not been detected, we suggest that these CLA bacteria are providing requisite organic matter to the known heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the residues. The cavewide bacterial and fungal distribution, the large volumes of corrosion residues

  18. Orthothermographies and 3D modeling as potential tools in ice caves studies: the Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Berenguer-Sempere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many studies focused on the investigation of climatic and glaciological condition of ice caves. Here we present another way to address these studies, applying some methods already used in fields other than geomorphology. The versatility and accuracy provided by the use of modern topography and thermography techniques, using Terrestrial Laser Scanner and current thermographic cameras- and the creation of 3D thermographic models and orthothermographies derived from them - is shown to be a useful tool as it is difficult to obtain data from fieldwork and traditional methods used in caves. This paper presents the potential uses of combined TLS and thermographic techniques for monitoring some important climatological parameters in the sensitive periglacial environment of the Iberian Atlantic high mountains: Peña Castil Ice Cave (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain. A systematic application of such combined technologies to these kind of caves, is expected to contribute to a quantitative and concise characterization of the evolution of the ice as shown by the results of this study.

  19. Diversity of cultivable bacteria involved in the formation of macroscopic microbial colonies (Cave silver on the walls of a cave in Slovenia

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    Blagajana Herzog Velikonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic caves often support white, yellow, grey or pink microbial colonies that are termed ‘cave silver’ by speleologists. Using various sample pre-treatments and culture media, a wide variety of bacteria associated with these colonies were recovered from a cave in Slovenia, Pajsarjeva jama. Decreasing the inoculum size resulted in significant increases in viable counts, while pre-treatments had the opposite effect with the exception of microwave irradiation. While all growth media yielded viable counts, the maximal counts were observed on a low-nutrient TWA medium. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of OTU representatives, the majority of the 80 isolates examined belonged to Streptomyces (25%, Micrococcus (16% and Rhodococcus (10% Other abundant groups were Pseudomonas (9%, Agrobacterium (8%, Lysobacter (6% and Paenibacillus (5%, while members of genera Microbacterium, Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Kocuria, Oerskovia, Sphingomonas, Aerococcus, and Bosea represented a minor portion of cultivable diversity encountered. Members of Streptomyces and Agrobacterium were common to all samples. Although these microorganisms readily form colonies under laboratory conditions, they were unrelated to abundant environmental phylotypes recovered from same samples in a previous study. However, the comparative 16S rRNA analysis showed that microorganisms highly related to the ones obtained in this study were cultivated from other subterranean environments indicating that they might represent true microbial cave dwellers.

  20. Using isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon species and water to separate sources of recharge in a cave spring, northwestern Arkansas, USA Blowing Spring Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine Joy; Pollock, Erik; Hays, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Blowing Spring Cave in northwestern Arkansas is representative of cave systems in the karst of the Ozark Plateaus, and stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) and inorganic carbon (δ13C) were used to quantify soil-water, bedrock-matrix water, and precipitation contributions to cave-spring flow during storm events to understand controls on cave water quality. Water samples from recharge-zone soils and the cave were collected from March to May 2012 to implement a multicomponent hydrograph separation approach using δ18O and δ2H of water and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C–DIC). During baseflow, median δ2H and δ18O compositions were –41.6‰ and –6.2‰ for soil water and were –37.2‰ and –5.9‰ for cave water, respectively. Median DIC concentrations for soil and cave waters were 1.8 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively, and median δ13C–DIC compositions were –19.9‰ and –14.3‰, respectively. During a March storm event, 12.2 cm of precipitation fell over 82 h and discharge increased from 0.01 to 0.59 m3/s. The isotopic composition of precipitation varied throughout the storm event because of rainout, a change of 50‰ and 10‰ for δ2H and δ18O was observed, respectively. Although, at the spring, δ2H and δ18O only changed by approximately 3‰ and 1‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of precipitation and pre-event (i.e., soil and bedrock matrix) water were isotopically similar and the two-component hydrograph separation was inaccurate, either overestimating (>100%) or underestimating (<0%) the precipitation contribution to the spring. During the storm event, spring DIC and δ13C–DIC decreased to a minimum of 8.6 mg/L and –16.2‰, respectively. If the contribution from precipitation was assumed to be zero, soil water was found to contribute between 23 to 72% of the total volume of discharge. Although the assumption of negligible contributions from precipitation is unrealistic, especially in karst systems where rapid flow

  1. The δ13C evolution of cave drip water along discreet flow paths in a central Texas cave: Quantifying kinetic isotope fractionation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickler, P. J.; Carlson, P. E.; Banner, J.; Breecker, D.; Stern, L. A.; Baseman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Gaps remain in our understanding of in-cave processes that influence cave water chemistry during speleothem formation. Quantifying environmental controls on the isotopic and chemical evolution of karst groundwater would improve the accuracy of speleothem-based paleoclimate reconstructions. In this study, drip water chemical evolution along flow paths was sampled monthly at two locations in Inner Space Cavern, Texas, over a period of 8 months. In each of the two locations, cave water drips off a stalactite, flows along a flowstone and subsequently drips off a lower stalactite, allowing cave water to be sampled at two points, 1-2 meters apart, along each flow path. The chemical and isotopic evolution of drip water along its flow path shows seasonality, where 1) summer months (high cave-air pCO2) have small variations in δ13C values along the flow paths, high and relatively invariant DIC and Ca values,; and 2) winter months (low cave-air pCO2) generally have large increases in DIC δ13C values along the flow paths, lower DIC and Ca values. The magnitude of the increase in DIC δ13C values along the flow paths, <~1‰ to ~4‰, is controlled by the extent of DIC loss to CO2 degassing and calcite precipitation which is controlled by the pCO2 gradient between drip water and cave air. If the DIC loss is less than 15%, then the evolution of the δ13C value of the DIC reservoir can be modelled using a Rayleigh distillation model and equilibrium fractionation factors between (CO2(g)-HCO3-(aq)) and (CaCO3-HCO3-(aq)). As the loss of the DIC reservoir increases above 15% the DIC δ13C values become progressively higher such that the ɛ (CO2(g)-HCO3-(aq)) values needed to model the observed results change from equilibrium values of ~8‰ to non-equilibrium values up to ~25‰. The variance in magnitude of carbon isotope fractionation during CO2 degassing cannot be attributed to changes in temperature, and thus we infer significant kinetic isotope effects at higher rates of DIC

  2. Meningeal melanocytoma of Meckel's cave associated with ipsilateral Ota's nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, A R; Villani, M; Angiari, P; Peserico, L

    1983-06-15

    A case of meningeal melanocytoma of the left Meckel's cave associated with ipsilateral Ota's nevus in a 43-year-old woman, was studied by light and electron microscopy. The cells of the tumor were characterized by the presence of dendritic cytoplasmic processes, melanosomes and premelanosomes; hence, they were deemed as neoplastic melanocytes. Moreover, the tumor was lacking in histologic and ultrastructural features of pigmented meningioma, melanotic Schwannoma and primary meningeal melanoma. The prolonged clinical course was different from primary and metastatic malignant melanomas of the meninges. The best treatment appears to be radical excision, when possible; otherwise, the local or partial enucleation followed by radiation therapy has been found to be the best curative to date. On the whole, meningeal melanocytoma cannot be considered as entirely benign, given its morphologic patterns that resemble those of uveal melanoma, and its potential for recurrence. The association of this tumor with Ota's nevus is referred to as having a common origin from an arrested migration of melanoblasts at different stages.

  3. Intradural chordoma of the Meckel's cave: a challenging differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Valeria; Caffo, Maria; Alafaci, Concetta; Granata, Francesca; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Chordomas are midline tumors that arise from embryonic remnants of the notochord and are considered to be malignant tumors because of their tendency to invade and destroy the involved bone. Cases of intradural chordomas without bone involvement have been rarely described with a predilection for prepontine location. The absence of bony invasion renders the complete excision of these tumors more feasible and is related to their better prognosis in comparison to conventional chordomas. Herein we report the first intradural chordoma arising in the Meckel's cave. The intradural location of the lesion, outside midline structures, in the absence of bone infiltration, made the differential diagnosis versus other meningeal lesions such as chordoid meningioma challenging. The intense and strong immunohistochemical expression of pan-cytokeratins, S100, cytokeratin-19 and of the notochordal marker brachyury allowed differential diagnosis toward other tumors showing chordoid morphology. The expression of brachyury, which had not been previously analyzed in intradural chordoma, definitely links the histogenesis of this neoplasia to the notochord, similar to that of conventional chordoma. We also show that, different from conventional chordoma, intradural chordoma does not express the metallo-proteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9, which may account for its indolent biological behavior.

  4. Sphingolipid signalling domains floating on rafts or buried in caves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, R T

    2000-02-01

    Ceramide is a novel lipid mediator involved in regulating cell growth, cell differentiation and cell death. Many studies have focused on characterizing the stimulus-induced production of ceramide and identifying putative downstream molecular targets. However, little remains known about the localization of the regulated production of ceramide through sphingomyelin metabolism in the plasma membrane. Additionally, it is unclear whether a localized increase in ceramide concentration is necessary to facilitate downstream signalling events initiated by this lipid. Recent studies have suggested that detergent-insoluble plasma membrane domains may be highly localized sites for initiating signal transduction cascades by both tyrosine kinase and sphingolipid signalling pathways. These domains are typically enriched in both sphingolipids and cholesterol and have been proposed to form highly ordered lipid rafts floating in a sea of glycerophospholipids. Alternatively, upon integration of the cholesterol binding protein caveolin, these domains may also form small cave-like structures called caveolae. Emerging evidence suggests that the enhanced sphingomyelin content of these lipid domains make them potential substrate pools for sphingomyelinases to produce a high local concentration of ceramide. The subsequent formation of ceramide microdomains in the plasma membrane may be a critical factor in regulating downstream signalling through this lipid messenger.

  5. Pleistocene Deposits in Pierre Saint-Martin Cave, French Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinif, Yves; Maire, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Pleistocene deposits in alpine Pierre Saint-Martin cave are preserved in an abandoned river gallery. The deposits, 300 m long and 25 m high, are composed of a lower unit of fallen blocks overlain by debris flows, a main unit of laminated clay, and a series of river terraces inset into these units. The lower and main units are each overlain by speleothems. The lower unit represents a cold period, probably isotope stage 10. Corroded speleothems above it have given U/Th ages greater than 300,000-330,000 yr B.P. The main unit, with carbonate-rich varves devoid of pollen, represents a glaciation that occurred before 225,000 yr B.P. and probably correlates with stage 8, even though such a glaciation has not been previously recognized in the Pyrenees. The river terraces, covered by many noncorroded speleothems, probably formed during stage 7 (U/Th ages between 194,000 and 211,000-225,000 yr B.P.). Subsequent sinking of an underground river protected the deposits from erosion.

  6. Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave. With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were

  7. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaretto, E. E-mail: elisa@wis.weizmann.ac.il; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S.K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the {sup 14}C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1x10{sup -14}, in isotopic abundances for both {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al respectively (corresponding to {approx}5 x 10{sup 5} atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  8. Dating of prehistoric caves sediments and flints using 10Be and 26Al in quartz from Tabun Cave (Israel): Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaretto, E.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hui, S. K.; Kaufman, A.; Paul, M.; Weiner, S.

    2000-10-01

    There is an important need to develop additional dating methods beyond the 14C limit and independent of thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We propose to apply the method of burial dating to prehistoric sites using the decay of in situ produced radioisotopes 10Be and 26Al. The Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel (Israel) has a sedimentary sequence which represents the type section for about the last 800,000 years in the Levant. The sediments in the cave are mainly of aeolian origin and are rich in quartz. Flint tools are also found in the sediments. Sediment samples and flint tools were selected from the same layer. Physical and chemical procedures to extract 10Be and 26Al atoms from the quartz fraction of the sediments and from the flint samples were developed, while measuring the natural Al levels as a monitor of the atmospheric component of the cosmogenic nuclides. AMS measurements were performed at the 14UD Pelletron Koffler Accelerator Laboratory, Weizmann Institute, and sensitivities of the order of 1×10 -14, in isotopic abundances for both 10Be and 26Al respectively (corresponding to ˜5 × 10 5 atoms) were obtained. First, measurements of a number of Tabun Cave sediment samples and flints show that 10Be and 26Al analyses have the potential for dating prehistoric cave sediments, provided problems relating to the presence of relatively large amounts of stable Al can be solved, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the burial history of the flints prior to being brought into the cave.

  9. Foraminifera in elevated Bermudian caves provide further evidence for +21 m eustatic sea level during Marine Isotope Stage 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hengstum, Peter J.; Scott, David B.; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.

    2009-09-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 deposits in small Bermudian caves at +21 m above modern sea level: (1) a +21 m MIS 11 eustatic sea-level highstand, and (2) a MIS 11 mega-tsunami event. Importantly, the foraminifera reported in these caves have yet to be critically evaluated within a framework of coastal cave environments. After statistically comparing foraminifera in modern Bermudian littoral caves and the MIS 11 Calonectris Pocket A (+21 m cave) to the largest available database of Bermudian coastal foraminifera, the assemblages found in modern littoral caves - and Calonectris Pocket A - cannot be statistically differentiated from lagoons. This observation is expected considering littoral caves are simply sheltered extensions of a lagoon environment in the littoral zone, where typical coastal processes (waves, storms) homogenize and rework lagoonal, reefal, and occasional planktic taxa. Fossil protoconchs of the Bermudian cave stygobite Caecum caverna were also associated with the foraminifera. These results indicate that the MIS 11 Bermudian caves are fossil littoral caves (breached flank margin caves), where the total MIS 11 microfossil assemblage is preserving a signature of coeval sea level at +21 m. Brackish foraminifera ( Polysaccammina, Pseudothurammina) and anchialine gastropods (˜95%, >300 individuals) indicate a brackish anchialine habitat developed in the elevated caves after the prolonged littoral environmental phase. The onset of sea-level regression following the +21 m highstand would first lower the ancient brackish Ghyben-Herzberg lens (<0.5 m) and flood the cave with brackish water, followed by drainage of the cave to create a permanent vadose environment. These interpretations of the MIS 11 microfossils (considering both taphonomy and paleoecology) are congruent with the micropaleontological, hydrogeological and physical mechanisms influencing modern Bermudian coastal cave environments. In

  10. Cave Conservation Priority Index to Adopt a Rapid Protection Strategy: A Case Study in Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15 % of the caves, high for 36 % and average for 46 % of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  11. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  12. Biogeography, phylogeny, and morphological evolution of central Texas cave and spring salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendik, Nathan F; Meik, Jesse M; Gluesenkamp, Andrew G; Roelke, Corey E; Chippindale, Paul T

    2013-09-17

    Subterranean faunal radiations can result in complex patterns of morphological divergence involving both convergent or parallel phenotypic evolution and cryptic species diversity. Salamanders of the genus Eurycea in central Texas provide a particularly challenging example with respect to phylogeny reconstruction, biogeography and taxonomy. These predominantly aquatic species inhabit karst limestone aquifers and spring outflows, and exhibit a wide range of morphological and genetic variation. We extensively sampled spring and cave populations of six Eurycea species within this group (eastern Blepsimolge clade), to reconstruct their phylogenetic and biogeographic history using mtDNA and examine patterns and origins of cave- and surface-associated morphological variation. Genetic divergence is generally low, and many populations share ancestral haplotypes and/or show evidence of introgression. This pattern likely indicates a recent radiation coupled with a complex history of intermittent connections within the aquatic karst system. Cave populations that exhibit the most extreme troglobitic morphologies show no or very low divergence from surface populations and are geographically interspersed among them, suggesting multiple instances of rapid, parallel phenotypic evolution. Morphological variation is diffuse among cave populations; this is in contrast to surface populations, which form a tight cluster in morphospace. Unexpectedly, our analyses reveal two distinct and previously unrecognized morphological groups encompassing multiple species that are not correlated with spring or cave habitat, phylogeny or geography, and may be due to developmental plasticity. The evolutionary history of this group of spring- and cave-dwelling salamanders reflects patterns of intermittent isolation and gene flow influenced by complex hydrogeologic dynamics that are characteristic of karst regions. Shallow genetic divergences among several species, evidence of genetic exchange, and

  13. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400–200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C.; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator–prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the highest quality parts of large prey was delayed until the food could be moved to the cave and processed with the aid of blade cutting tools and fire. Delayed consumption of high-quality body parts implies that the meat was shared with other members of the group. The types of cut marks on upper limb bones indicate simple flesh removal activities only. The Qesem cut marks are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant, suggesting that more (skilled and unskilled) individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones at Qesem Cave. Among recent humans, butchering of large animals normally involves a chain of focused tasks performed by one or just a few persons, and butchering guides many of the formalities of meat distribution and sharing that follow. The results from Qesem Cave raise new hypotheses about possible differences in the mechanics of meat sharing between the late Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic. PMID:19666542

  14. Genesis of folia in a non-thermal epigenic cave (Matanzas, Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia Maria; De Waele, Jo; Melendres, Osmany Ceballo; Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Gonzales, Esteban Ruben Grau; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Torriani, Stefano; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Folia are an unusual speleothem type resembling inverted cups or bracket fungi. The mechanism of folia formation is not fully understood and is the subject of an ongoing debate. This study focuses on an occurrence of folia present in Santa Catalina Cave, a non-thermal epigenic cave located close to Matanzas (Cuba). The sedimentology, morphology, petrology, permeability and geochemistry of these folia have been studied to gain new insight on the processes leading to their development. It is concluded that folia in Santa Catalina Cave formed at the top of a fluctuating water body, through CO2-degassing or evaporation, which may have been enhanced by the proximity to cave entrances. Two observations strongly support our conclusions. (1) When compared to other subaqueous speleothems (e.g. cave clouds) present in the same rooms, folia occur exclusively within a limited vertical interval that likely represents an ancient water level. Folia occur together with calcite rafts and tower cones that developed, respectively, on top of and below the water level. This suggests that a fluctuating interface is required for folia formation. (2) The measured permeability of the folia is too high to trap gas bubbles. Thus, in contrast to what has been proposed in other studies, trapped bubbles of CO2 cannot be invoked as the key factor determining the genesis and morphology of folia in this subaqueous environment.

  15. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves--a curiosity among Arachnida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Smrž

    Full Text Available To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces. We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.

  16. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi) feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves--a curiosity among Arachnida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrž, Jaroslav; Kováč, Ĺubomír; Mikeš, Jaromír; Lukešová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    To date, only morphological and anatomical descriptions of microwhip scorpions (Arachnida: Palpigradi) have been published. This very rare group is enigmatic not only in its relationships to other arachnids, but especially due to the fact that these animals dwell only underground (in caves, soil, and interstitial spaces). We observed the curious feeding habit of the microwhip scorpion Eukoenenia spelaea over the course of one year in Ardovská Cave, located in Slovakia's Karst region. We chose histology as our methodology in studying 17 specimens and based it upon Masson's triple staining, fluorescent light and confocal microscopy. Single-celled cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) were conspicuously predominant in the gut of all studied palpigrades. Digestibility of the consumed cyanobacteria was supported by the presence of guanine crystals, glycogen deposits and haemocytes inside the palpigrade body. Cyanobacteria, the oldest cellular organisms on Earth, are very resistant to severe conditions in caves, including even darkness. Therefore, the cyanobacteria are able to survive in dark caves as nearly heterotrophic organisms and are consumed by cave palpigrades. Such feeding habit is extraordinary within the almost wholly predacious orders of the class Arachnida, and particularly so due to the type of food observed.

  17. The world’s deepest subterranean community - Krubera-Voronja Cave (Western Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reboleira Ana Sofia P.S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface biota extends over a wide variety of habitats that can be spatially interconnected. The largest communities of this subsurface biota inhabit cavities and are well known mainly in caves where biologists are able to have access. Data about deep subterranean communities and arthropods living under one thousand meters was unknown. An expedition to world’s deepest cave, Krubera-Voronja in Western Caucasus, revealed an interesting subterranean community, living below 2000 meters and represented by more than 12 species of arthropods, including several new species for science. This deep cave biota is composed of troglobionts and also epigean species, that can penetrate until -2140 m. Deep subterranean ecosystems should not be seen only as an evolu- tionary dead end towards the troglomorphic syndrome, but also as a shelter for epigean species populations, especially during long periods of time when surface conditions are severe for their survival. Most of the subsurface biota depends on allochthonous sources of organic carbon coming from: water percolating from the surface, sinking streams that enter caves, and activities of animals mov- ing in and out of caves. The biocoenosis and the vertical distribution of invertebrate fauna of Krubera-Voronja are provided, from its entrance to the remarkable depth of 2140 meters, including the discovery of world’s deepest dwelling arthropod.

  18. Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, (Mallorca, Spain: history of exploration and cave description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Merino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera lies in the Llucmajor municipality, in southern Mallorca, and is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands. Currently its surveyed length is over 74,000 metres, including more than 17,000 of underwater extensions. The cave was discovered accidentally in 1968, but it was in 2004 when a major breakthrough shed light on its real extension and importance. The cave roughly shows two tiers of passages, apart from the underwater extensions, the first one is between 7 and 11 m above the mean sea level, the second one is about at the water table level. The importance of the cave is not only related to its extension, but also to the presence of a wide variety of speleothems and outstanding solutional morphologies that evidence a complex evolution. The cave is under the protection of Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Govern de les Illes Balears (the Regional Environmental Authority and was declared Site of Community Importance, within the Natura 2000 Network

  19. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins Greg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

  20. Microbial Diversity and Population Structure of Extremely Acidic Sulfur-Oxidizing Biofilms From Sulfidic Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Stoffer, T.; Lyon, E. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Extremely acidic (pH 0-1) microbial biofilms called snottites form on the walls of sulfidic caves where gypsum replacement crusts isolate sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms from the buffering action of limestone host rock. We investigated the phylogeny and population structure of snottites from sulfidic caves in central Italy using full cycle rRNA methods. A small subunit rRNA bacterial clone library from a Frasassi cave complex snottite sample contained a single sequence group (>60 clones) similar to Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Bacterial and universal rRNA clone libraries from other Frasassi snottites were only slightly more diverse, containing a maximum of 4 bacterial species and probably 2 archaeal species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of snottites from Frasassi and from the much warmer Rio Garrafo cave complex revealed that all of the communities are simple (low-diversity) and dominated by Acidithiobacillus and/or Ferroplasma species, with smaller populations of an Acidimicrobium species, filamentous fungi, and protists. Our results suggest that sulfidic cave snottites will be excellent model microbial ecosystems suited for ecological and metagenomic studies aimed at elucidating geochemical and ecological controls on microbial diversity, and at mapping the spatial history of microbial evolutionary events such as adaptations, recombinations and gene transfers.

  1. [An outbreak of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis among travelers to a bat-inhabited cave in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, A; Kimura, M; Kimura, S; Shimada, K; Miyaji, M; Kaufman, L

    1995-04-01

    Histoplasmosis is known to be endemic in various parts of the world, especially in North and Latin America. In Japan, Histoplasma capsulatum has rarely been isolated from the natural environment. To date, only seven cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Japan including some that were contracted in foreign countries. Herein, we report the occurrence of acute histoplasmosis among Japanese travelers who were exposed to bat guano in a cave near Manaus, Brazil. A group of 8 Japanese travelers entered a cave for a total of 2 hours in March, 1993. All the visitors had been healthy and had no history of abnormal chest roentgenograms. From 10 to 20 days after the exposure, 7 (87.5%) of the 8 individuals developed abnormal symptoms including fever, malaise, loss of appetite, myalgia, arthralgia, chest pain and dry cough. Five (62.5%) had nodular infiltrative shadows with or without hilar lymphadenopathy in the chest roentgenograms. Eight (100%) of the individuals showed serologic evidence of histoplasmosis. Despite the small number of subjects, this high rate of infection may be related to the fact that the subjects stayed in an enclosed area where air exchange was minimal, at the end of a deep cave infested with numerous bats. The cave involved has never been documented as being endemic for histoplasmosis. The threat of H. capsulatum infection in bat-inhabited caves should be emphasized to travelers and also to physicians.

  2. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400-200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-08-11

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator-prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the highest quality parts of large prey was delayed until the food could be moved to the cave and processed with the aid of blade cutting tools and fire. Delayed consumption of high-quality body parts implies that the meat was shared with other members of the group. The types of cut marks on upper limb bones indicate simple flesh removal activities only. The Qesem cut marks are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant, suggesting that more (skilled and unskilled) individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones at Qesem Cave. Among recent humans, butchering of large animals normally involves a chain of focused tasks performed by one or just a few persons, and butchering guides many of the formalities of meat distribution and sharing that follow. The results from Qesem Cave raise new hypotheses about possible differences in the mechanics of meat sharing between the late Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic.

  3. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF ANCIENT MAYA CAVE ARCHITECTURE: RECENT FIELD EFFORTS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rissolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized – often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  4. Digital Preservation of Ancient Maya Cave Architecture: Recent Field Efforts in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Lo, E.; Hess, M. R.; Meyer, D. E.; Amador, F. E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico) is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized - often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  5. Hearth-side socioeconomics, hunting and paleoecology during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran

    2011-02-01

    The late Lower Paleolithic archaeofaunas of Qesem Cave in the southern Levant span 400-200 ka and associate with Acheulo-Yabrudian (mainly Amudian) industries. The large mammals are exclusively Eurasian in origin and formed under relatively cool, moist conditions. The zooarchaeological findings testify to large game hunting, hearth-centered carcass processing and meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic, not unlike the patterns known from Middle and Upper Paleolithic caves in the region. Well-defined hearth features are rarely preserved in Qesem Cave, but the heterogeneous distributions of burned bones indicate areas of frequent hearth rebuilding throughout the occupation sequence. The hominins delayed consumption of high quality body parts until they could be moved to the cave, where hearths were hubs of processing activities and social interaction. Paradoxically, the cut marks on the Qesem bones are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant. These results suggest that several individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones and that the social mechanics of meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave differed from those typical of both the Middle and Upper Paleolithic in the region.

  6. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-01

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  7. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan [WISFIR Laboratory, Earth Physics and Complex System Division, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Riyanto, Erwin [Geotechnical and Hydrology PT. Freeport Indonesia wonbin-ww@hotmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  8. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomova Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocapacity of bacteria inhabiting karstic caves to produce valuable biologically active compounds is still slightly investigated. A total of 46 culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated under aerobic conditions from the Gallery with pre-historical drawings in Magura Cave, Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bacterial isolates aff iliated with Proteobacteria (63%, followed by Actinobacteria (10.9%, Bacteroidetes (10.9%, and Firmicutes (6.5%. A strong domination of Gram-negative bacteria (total 81% belonging to nine genera: Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Commamonas, Acinetobacter, Obesumbacterium, and Myroides, was observed. Gram-positive isolates were represented by the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Micrococcus. One isolate showed a signif icant phylogenetic distance to the closest neighbor and could represent а novel species. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates from Magura Cave were investigated for hydrolytic enzymes production, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Predominance of producers of protease (87%, followed by xanthan lyase (64%, lipase (40%, β-glycosidase (40%, and phytase (21% was observed. Over 75% of the isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave could be a valuable source of industrially relevant psychrotolerant enzymes and bioactive metabolites. This study is a f irst report on the taxonomic composition and biological activity of culturable bacteria inhabiting a cave in Bulgaria.

  9. THE STRUCTURE OF SOIL MESOFAUNA AND MACROFAUNA IN GRODA CAVE, GUNUNGKIDUL

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    Andri Prasetyo

    2017-01-01

      The number of soil macrofauna and mesofauna in Groda Cave can be used as an indicator of bats abundance since bat droppings are food for macrofauna and mesofauna soils. The purpose of this study are to determine the community structure of Groda Cave soil macrofauna and mesofauna  and its correlation with the content of N, P, K. The method used is the observation, taking of macrofauna and mesofauna soils using pit fall traps and tool green technique. Testing the N, P, K of the soil was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP Yogyakarta. The analysis technique used Shannon diversity index-Wienner, Margaleff wealth index, frequency of attendance of  macrofauna and mesofauna soils and its correlation with N, P, K of the land in Groda Cave. The results obtained are that six families mesofauna and 20 families macrofauna soils with moderate diversity index, the highest wealth index was in the Margaleff lit zone, the frequency of the highest attendance in the light zone is Formicidae (0.12, ie dim zones Isotomidae and Diptera (a brown (0.04 and the dark zone is Gryllacididae (0.05. The correlation showed the more the content of N, P, K, the fewer mesofauna and macrofauna soils were found. The uniqueness found in this study is the discovery of one species of Isotomidae in Groda Cave, which has been considered spreading only in Sulawesi, Sumatera, Bali, Lombok, Ternate and Papua.   Keywords: community structure, mesofauna soil, macrofauna soil, Groda Cave

  10. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Renata; Cadeddu, Barbara; Ledda, Fabio; Pronzato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The present synthesis focuses on the so called 'horny sponges' recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was recorded in 105 Mediterranean marine caves hosting four orders of horny sponges belonging to 9 families, 19 genera and 40 species. Species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea harboured in marine caves are 14 with an endemicity value of 35%. For each species morphological descriptions are supported by illustrations both original and from the literature, including the diagnostic traits of the skeleton by light and scanning electron microscopy giving further characterization at the specific level. A detailed map together with a list of all caves harbouring horny sponges is also provided with geographic coordinates.

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of cave deposits at the Xiaogushan prehistoric site, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Fu; Huang, Wei-Wen; Yuan, Bao-Yin; Fu, Ren-Yi; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2010-11-01

    The Xiaogushan cave site is one of the most important prehistoric sites in North China. The stone and bone artifacts found in the cave are similar to European contemporaneous artifacts. Cave deposits consist of five layers that have been dated from 46,353 ± 1179 to 4229 ± 135 cal. yr BP, using radiocarbon dating techniques on charcoal and bone samples collected from Layers 2-5. In this paper, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques were applied to date six samples taken from Layers 1-3. The luminescence properties of the fine-grained and coarse-grained quartz extracts indicate that the materials are suitable for OSL dating using a single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol. The OSL ages obtained are broadly consistent with the stratigraphy and the associated calibrated radiocarbon ages. The dating results show that the cave was first occupied by humans about 70 ka. The human occupation of the cave may be related to climate change. An occupation hiatus is inferred to between ∼ 17 to ∼ 10 ka. The stone and bone artifacts found in Layers 2 and 3 may indicate the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transitions in the region.

  12. A clustering approach applied to time-lapse ERT interpretation - Case study of Lascaux cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan; Sirieix, Colette; Riss, Joëlle; Malaurent, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The Lascaux cave, located in southwest France, is one of the most important prehistoric cave in the world that shows Paleolithic paintings. This study aims to characterize the structure of the weathered epikarst setting located above the cave using Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) combined with local hydrogeological and climatic environmental data. Twenty ERT profiles were carried out for two years and helped us to record the seasonal and spatial variations of the electrical resistivity of the hydraulic upstream area of the Lascaux cave. The 20 interpreted resistivity models were merged into a single synthetic model using a multidimensional statistical method (Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering). The individual blocks from the synthetic model associated with a similar resistivity variability were gathered into 7 clusters. We combined the resistivity temporal variations with climatic and hydrogeological data to propose a geo-electrical model that relates to a conceptual geological model. We provide a geological interpretation for each cluster regarding epikarst features. The superficial clusters (no 1 & 2) are linked to effective rainfall and trees, probably a fractured limestone. Another two clusters (no 6 & 7) are linked to detrital formations (sand and clay respectively). The cluster 3 may correspond to a marly limestone that forms a non-permeable horizon. Finally, the electrical behavior of the last two clusters (no 4 & 5) is correlated with the variation of flow rate; they may be a privileged feed zone of the flow in the cave.

  13. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Manconi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present synthesis focuses on the so called ‘horny sponges’ recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was recorded in 105 Mediterranean marine caves hosting four orders of horny sponges belonging to 9 families, 19 genera and 40 species. Species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea harboured in marine caves are 14 with an endemicity value of 35%. For each species morphological descriptions are supported by illustrations both original and from the literature, including the diagnostic traits of the skeleton by light and scanning electron microscopy giving further characterization at the specific level. A detailed map together with a list of all caves harbouring horny sponges is also provided with geographic coordinates.

  14. Hundreds of automatic drip counters reveal infiltration water discharge characteristics in Australian caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Coleborn, K.; Mahmud, K.; Markowska, M.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the timing and character of cave drip water discharge is crucial for our understanding of speleothem climate proxies. Since 2010, we have established a long-term, national monitoring program of drip water infiltration onto cave stalagmites using automated Stalagmate© loggers. Five karst regions, from semi-arid to sub-tropical climates, have been instrumented. Over 200 loggers (between 10 and 40 per cave) have collected data on the timing and amount of drip water infiltration, from sites of contrasting limestone geology. Here, we present results demonstrating the timing and characteristics of drip water discharge from 2010 to present. At the semi-arid Cathedral Cave, with a range of depths from 0-40 m, there is a decreasing frequency of recharge events with depth below ground surface. High-intensity, long-duration rainfall events are confirmed to be the primary driver of infiltration events at semi-arid sites, whereas annual rainfall amount is the primary driver at a Mediterranean climate site with high primary porosity. Inter-annual variability in the frequency and relative amount of drip water infiltration is compared to climate forcing variables such as the ENSO and surface temperature. Our cave observatory system helps improve our understanding of the drip water recharge process, drip-water related speleothem proxy records, and provides a baseline monitoring network for diffuse groundwater recharge during a period of climate change.

  15. The cave crickets of the genus Dolichopoda from Evvia and Skyros islands: formal description of D. octhoniai and D. saraolacosi (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Alexiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species, D. octhoniai from Evvia and D. saraolacosi from Skyros island (Greece are morphologically described. These two species were collected for the first time at the end of the ‘70s but they were recorded only as nomina nuda without any formal taxonomic description. D. octhoniai is very similar to the other Evvian species D. makrikapa and to D. vandeli and D. petrochilosi from Viotia and Attiki respectively, differing from them only by a few morphological characters. On the other hand D. saraolacosi is very different from all the other species of Central Greece and West Aegean showing some affinity only with the Attiki species D. insignis and with the South Evvian species D. cassagnaui. Relationships among the species inhabiting caves of this area of Greece are discussed in relation to the complex geological history of the West Aegean area and the adjacent mainland.

  16. Subterranean medicine: an inquiry into underground medical treatment protocols in cave rescue situations in national parks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, K; Shalit, M

    2000-01-01

    Caving and spelunking have become increasingly popular over the years, with hundreds of thousands of amateur spelunkers across the country visiting caves. National parks in the United States offer hundreds of caves for all levels of spelunkers and, in fact, many national parks boast caves as either their main or major attraction. In an effort to increase visitor safety and establish subterranean medical treatment protocols, we began an investigation into cave rescue, medical protocols, previously published recommendations concerning cave safety, and visitor and rescue statistics in the national parks. Our inquiry provided little guidance from either the literature or the present US National Parks database for treating underground injuries. However, 2 predominant trends did appear. First, despite the nearly 2 million visitors to the caves in the 14 parks surveyed, there were only about 200 total calls for medical care. The vast number of those calls were for minor injuries. Second, no strict evidence-based treatment protocols for underground injuries exist, probably because they are not feasible. A caving incident database for the national parks would facilitate suggestions for preventative measures for the minor injuries and would help catalog the creative solutions for the rare serious subterranean medical incident.

  17. Stability Assessment of the Gökgöl Karstic Cave (Zonguldak, Turkey) by Analytical and Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniş, Melih; Çolak, Berdan

    2015-11-01

    Turkey has many cave formations and some caves are important tourist attractions. Theses caves have natural and historical characteristics that need to be investigated and protected. An important rock engineering topic is the identification of possible rock falls and collapses in caves that are open to the public and planning preventive measures. In this study, the locations and types of instability problems were identified along a section of 875 m of the Gökgöl cave in Zonguldak, Turkey. The main instabilities were identified as block falls controlled by discontinuities, rock block sliding, and flexural toppling. To obtain the intact rock and rock mass properties of the stratified limestone which is the host rock of the cave, field and laboratory studies were conducted. Stability assessments for four different sections inside the cave were carried out using numerical and analytical methods, and the results were compared. The results of the analyses revealed that some countermeasures and precautions must be implemented to increase the stability in some areas of the Gökgöl cave, especially those which have potential for regional failure.

  18. Protecting the Water Quality of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri, Through Groundwater Recharge Area Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cave...

  19. Some brief considerations concerning the caves from Bistriţa-Năsăud county (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel-Claudiu Gavriloaie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Bistriţa-Năsăud county (Romania there are several interesting caves, most of them beinglocated in Rodnei Mountains. They are generally researched only for scientific issues, being closed for thepublic. In this paper we briefly discuss about 4 of these caves.

  20. Constraints on alpine speleogenesis from cave morphology — A case study from the eastern Totes Gebirge (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Lukas; Filipponi, Marco; Behm, Michael; Seebacher, Robert; Jeutter, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The Totes Gebirge is the largest karst massif in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA). This paper focuses on the eastern part, where two major multiphase alpine cave systems (Burgunderschacht Cave System and DÖF-Sonnenleiter Cave System) are described with respect to morphology, hydrology, and sediments. The caves consist of Upper Miocene galleries of (epi)phreatic genesis and younger vadose canyon-shaft systems. Morphometrical analyses were used to determine the relevance of (1) cave levels (horizontal accumulations of galleries), (2) slightly inclined palaeo water tables of speleogenetic phases, (3) initial fissures, and (4) inception horizons on the development of the cave systems. (Epi)phreatic cave conduits developed preferentially along vertical faults and along only a restricted number of bedding planes, which conforms to the inception horizon hypothesis. For at least one of the systems, a development under epiphreatic conditions is certain and a hydrological behaviour in the "filling overflow manner" is likely. Observations in further major cave systems in the Totes Gebirge identify palaeo water tables of speleogenetic phases that show inclinations of 1.5° ± 1°. Analyses of cave levels reveal distinct peaks for each cave but it is hardly possible to correlate these elevation levels between caves of different parts of the karst massif. Therefore, we conclude that cave levels (strictly horizontal) indicate speleogenetic phases or palaeo water tables respectively, but they cannot be correlated with palaeo base levels or on regional scale. An exact correlation between cave development and palaeo base levels at the surface is only possible with inclined palaeo water tables of speleogenetic phases. For the Totes Gebirge, the inclination directions of the speleogenetic phases imply that palaeo drainage was radial and recharge was autogenic, which is in contrast to observations from other plateaus in the NCA. Differences in fracture properties seem to be the