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Sample records for cave hunan province

  1. Seismic Zonation of Central-Southern Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Xu Guangyin; Chen Kun; Gao Mengtan

    2007-01-01

    Based on basic data used in compiling the Zonation Map of Earthquake Ground Motion Parameters in China, recent research on seismic safety assessment for engineering sites in central-southern Hunan Province, the new attenuation relationships of moderate earthquakes and the background seismicity data obtained by modern instrumental earthquake records since 1970, a new result of seismic zonation of central-southern Hunan Province is provided. The result shows that the area with PGA = 0.05g has obviously increased in the new map compared with the previous one and is relatively consistent with the seismic disaster characteristics of moderate earthquakes that took place in the central-southern part of Hunan in recent years.This result will benefit the research and compilation of a new-generation seismic zonation map of earthquake ground motion parameters and the seismic hazard assessment in the moderate earthquake active regions in the central and eastern part of China.

  2. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    OUYANG, Fanfan; Deng, Fangming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents, new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation, food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally, it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Provinc...

  3. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanfan; OUYANG; Fangming; DENG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents,new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation,food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally,it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Province,problem causes,in combination with control measures related to food safety both at home and abroad.

  4. Agro-ecosystem Emergy Evolution and Trend in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-lin; LI Ming-jie; HOU Mao-zhang; LI Sha; LONG Yu-zi; WANG Mao-xi

    2012-01-01

    Using the emergy analysis method,we conduct trend analysis of changes in the total emergy,input and output structure,various emergy indicators of agro-ecosystem in Hunan Province during the period 1999-2008.The results show that during the study period,total emergy input basically remained stable,but the emergy input structure was constantly optimized,of which the input of non-renewable industrial assistant emergy increased by 38.4%,from 4.00E +22 sej to 5.53E +22 sej,and the input of renewable organic emergy declined from 1.32E +23 sej to 1.20E + 23 sej;total emergy yield and yield efficiency of this system were promoted dramatically,and in 2008,the total emergy yield reached 1.69E +23 sej,increasing by 23.8% as against that in 1999,the net emergy yield ratio rose from 0.79 to 0.96;since the environmental loading ratio also tended to rise constantly,from 1.12 to 1.79,the sustainability index of this system also experienced the slow downward trend,from 0.71 to 0.54,always less than 1,indicating that the agriculture in Hunan Province is the high consumption-driven ecosystem in general,with obvious features of extensive development.

  5. Characteristics of tailings from metal mines in Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-guo; ZHANG Hui-zhi; ZENG Guang-ming; HUANG Bao-rong; LI Xin; XU Wei-hua

    2005-01-01

    The tailing soils were from 10 mining areas in Hunan Province. To predict the potential impact of tailings on nearby environments, the characteristics such as the pH value, loss on ignition, cation exchange capacity, and the concentration and speciation of heavy metals in the tailings were investigated. Based on these characteristics, the pollution index and danger index were calculated so as to evaluate the priorities of remediation. The results show that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn exceed the tolerable levels of the phytotoxicity in the most tailings. The large proportion of heavy metals exists in the form of residual fraction in most tailings, followed by sulfides/organic and Fe/Mn oxide fractions, and a little in the exchangeable and carbonate fraction. The calculated pollution indices for the tailing samples range from 1.41 to 83.42, which indicates that all the tailings contain heavy metals at a level that causes toxicity to the ecosystem. The danger indices for the tailing samples range from 0.06 to 387.00. The highest value of the danger indices is that of Yongzhou sample, reaching 387.00; the lowest one is that of Xikuangshan sample, only 0.06. Considering the results of pollution index and danger index in combination, the priority of remediation is determined to be Yongzhou, Baoshan, Xiangtan and Lengshuijiang.

  6. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China. PMID:26318061

  7. Prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, De-Ming; Lv, Cong-Cong; Tan, Lei; Zhang, Tie-Niu; Yang, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a cosmopolitan parasitic-opportunistic pathogen that can be found throughout the world. However, little information is available about prevalence of B. coli in pigs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of B. coli in pigs was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China, between January 2012 and August 2014. A total of 3925 diarrheic fecal samples from nine representative administrative regions in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined for the presence of B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites using microscopy after sedimentation with water. The overall prevalence of B. coli in pigs was 36.9 % (1450/3925). The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses potential threats to human health. The results of the present investigation have important implications for the control of B. coli infections in pigs in Hunan province, subtropical China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of B. coli prevalence in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Hunan Province Based on Structural Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naman; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Using the method of structural equation and balanced scorecard,this paper establishes the evaluation indicators and evaluation model for the performance of 21 rural cooperative economic organizations in X City of Hunan Province,and analyzes the relationship between indicators and dimensions of performance evaluation indicators,in order to find the influencing factors,obstacles and successful experience concerning the development of rural cooperative economic organizations. According to model analysis and conclusions,this paper sets forth the recommendations for promoting the development of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province,in order to provide a scientific basis for the institutional design and mechanism innovation of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Sows in Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT. Overall, 31.3% (373/1191 of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4% and autumn (34.9% than in spring (24.6% and winter (23.9%. Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1 : 1024 to 17.4% (titer = 1 : 64. The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China.

  10. Research on the Consumption Function of Rural Residents in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature review,according to relevant consumption data in Hunan Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook during1978-2009,the thesis selects three indexes involving the average income per rural resident,per capita living expenses of rural residents and percapita savings to conduct the unit root and co-integration test on the consumption and net income per rural residents in Hunan Province by adoptingthe generalized difference method and EVIEWS6.0,then according to the Modigliani Hypothesis of Consumption,Duesenberry Hypothesis of Con-sumption and Keynes Absolute Income Hypothesis,the thesis makes a fitting of Hunan consumption function model,aiming to find out the consump-tion function model suitable to Hunan Province.The results show that,Keynesian consumption function based on Absolute Income Hypothesis pas-ses the statistical test and econometric test,while the consumption function model based on Relative Income Hypothesis and that based on Life Cy-cle Hypothesis do not,which proves that the consumption function model based on Absolute Income Hypothesis is better suited for describing the re-lations between rural consumption and income in Hunan Province.Taking into account the low marginal propensity of consumption of the rural resi-dents in Hunan Province,the thesis proposes to expand consumption demand of rural residents:firstly,developing characteristic economy and im-proving the income level of rural residents;secondly,perfecting the social security system in rural areas and maintaining the consumption confi-dence of rural residents;thirdly,ameliorating the circulation system.

  11. Evaluation on the Development of Agricultural Circular Economy in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using conceptual model of BPEIR(Behavior-Pressure-Effect-Impact-Response) and Delphi method,we establish the evaluation index system of agricultural circular economy including four indices,namely index of socio-economic development,index of reducing input of resources,index of recycling of resources and index of safety of environment and resources.We conduct comprehensive evaluation on developmental level of agricultural circular economy from 1998 to 2007 in Hunan Province.The analysis results show that the agricultural circular economy of Hunan Province from 1998 to 2007,on the whole,has the tendency of development with annual growth rate of 1.89%.The annual decrease rate of recycling of resources and reducing input of resources from 1999 to 2003 is 25% and 11% respectively,which has become the main factor impeding development of agricultural circular economy.After the year 2003,it is mainly reducing input of resources.

  12. GEOCHEMISTRY OF BASALT AND XENOLITHS AND ITS DEEP PROCESS IN DAOXIAN COUNTY,HUNAN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Hua; XI Xiao-shuang; JIN Zhen-min; HUANG De-zhi

    2001-01-01

    @@ Deep xenolith are important samples for us to know composition and nature of the deep crust.There are many new volcanos which can all kinds of xenoliths such as a lower crustal graulite,and upper mantle-derived peridolite and lherzolite.In eastern China,there occured many deep xenoliths in Mesozoic-Cenzoic alkaline basalt.Besides these,some small volcanos eruptions were founded in southern Hunan province,which age is about 132-151 Ma.

  13. Regional Division of Production and Development Strategy of Citrus in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu YANG; Wen DENG; Jianquan LI; Weihong WANG; Guolin HUANG; Ping ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research regional division of citrus production and development strategies in Hunan Province. [Method] According to Rural Statisti- cal Yearbook in Hunan Province during 2002-2011, Citrus in Hunan province were divided into three production regions, namely, superior region, sub-superior and non- superior region. On the base of the divisions, the ecological regionalization and brand strategy, Optimization of regional distribution and developing strategy were proposed, with consideration of avoiding frozen zones, in this paper. [Result] Fresh and processing bases of mandarin orange (C.unshiu Marc), and specialty industries of seedless ponkan(C.reticulata Blanco), Bingtang orange (C.sinensis Osbeck Bing- tangcheng), Dayongjuhuaxinyou (Cgrandis (L.) Osbeck Dayongjuhuaxinyou) and An- jiangxiangyou (C.grandis (L.) Osbeck Anjiangxiangyou) should be constructed, where fresh fruit is dominant, supplemented by canned fruit and juice. Industry belt of sat- suma orange, fresh or processing food, is mainly built, for proportion of early and earlier ripe satsuma orange is over 50% of total yield in Xiangzhong citrus zone; in- dustry belt of excellent fresh navel orange and processing sweet orange should be highlighted in Xiangnan. [Conclusion] The research provides references for decision- making for governments, especially on optimization of citrus production regions and development of citrus industry.

  14. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingliang; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Using spatial data integration and database technology,analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province,the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones,thus formulating"one map"of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hunan above the provincial level.It has been proved that the system has good application effect and promising development in land management for land management departments and development zones.

  15. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mingliang

    2013-01-01

    Using spatial data integration and database technology, analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province, the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones, thus formulating “one map†of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hu...

  16. Research on Morphological Characteristics of Big-eared Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus macrotis) in Hunan Province%湖南省翼手目新纪录大耳菊头蝠形态特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇清; 张佑祥; 胡德夫

    2012-01-01

    From November to December, 2009,a survey on cave-dewelling bats in Majiaotong Cave of Fenghuang County and Tangle Cave of Jishou City was made ,both sites locate in the western part of Hunan Province,totally six horseshoe bat were collected. Measuring the morphological characteristics and the skull datas,meanwhile,eomparing with two documented subspecies of Rhinolophus macrotis ,they were identified as the subspecies R. macrotis episcopus ,which was first recorded in Hunan Province. A brief account on the current situation and distribution of R. macrotis was presented in this paper. All of the specimens were kept in the animal collections of Jishou University.%2009年11—12月,在湘西凤凰县水打乡马脚通洞和吉首市堂乐洞进行翼手类调查时,采集到6号菊头蝠标本。对其外形和头骨进行测量,并与文献记载的大耳菊头蝠2个亚种的特征进行比较,鉴定为大耳菊头蝠四川亚种(Rhinolophusmacrotizepiscopus),属湖南省翼手目新记录。标本保存于吉首大学动物标本室。

  17. A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophry-idae from the northwestern Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang MO, Youhui SHEN, Honghui LI, Xiushan WU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae, Megophrys tuberogranulatus Shen, Mo et Li, sp. nov. (Holotype HNUL 03080902, adult male, SVL: 38.2 mm, from Sangzhi County, Hunan Province, is described. Megophrys tuberogranulatus is closely related to both Megophrys kuatunensis and Megophrys minor. Characters of the new species that differentiate this species from close relatives are skin granulated with big tubercles on the dorsal sides of both thigh and tibia, the bigger inner metacarpal tubercle, upper eyelid wider than the interorbital space, hind limbs longer, overlapping of the left and right calcaneal parts. The type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of Life Sciences College of Hunan Normal University [Current Zoology 56 (4: 432–436, 2010].

  18. Effects of sea surface temperature anomaly on flooding events in Hunan province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinjia; Wang, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) on flood-season precipitation in Hunan Province (the main grain-producing area in China) and change trend of the related flooding events. Based on the observation data of flood seasons in 44 stations of Hunan province from 1970-2013 and the sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from the Met Office Hadley Center, the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, power spectrum analysis and correlation analytical method have been conducted to identify the key time and marine regions which influence flood-season rainfall distribution. According to these analyses, two main spatial patterns of precipitation have been observed. The first and remarkable pattern is generally distributed uniformly throughout the region and is characterized by a 2-3-year and 20-23-year periods. The decadal variability has a negative correlation with the summer SSTA in the Indian Ocean near the equator, while the interannual variability is associated with the previous autumn and winter SSTA in the eastern Pacific. The second pattern illustrates dry-wet difference, indicating a north-to-south opposite, in a 3-year periods. The key area for influencing this mode is distributed in the Equator Pacific especially in the previous autumn and winter (known as ENSO). Furthermore, based on the EOF results of precipitation, we introduced the historical flooding event records of Hunan province and developed the spatial distribution maps and probability density curves for the direct economic losses in the years of anomaly and normal rainfall. The results reveal that the anomaly years suffer more serious losses and there is a corresponding relationship between north-to-south opposite precipitation mode and regional economic loss differences. With the function of illustrating the variation trend of hazards and the critical influence factor, these results are the data foundation for flood risk assessment. It can be used as a

  19. Current Development Situations and Countermeasures for Tobacco Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinbin; LUO; Jianqiang; XU

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces development history of China’s farmers’ specialized cooperatives and connotation and mechanism of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives. Then, it analyzes current development situations of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hunan Province. On the basis of analysis, it puts forward development countermeasures, including realizing circulation of tobacco land, strengthening propaganda of laws on tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, increasing operation effect of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, enhancing guidance and supervision of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, as well as improving specialized service level.

  20. GEOCHEMISTRY OF BASALT AND XENOLITHS AND ITS DEEP PROCESS IN DAOXIAN COUNTY,HUNAN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG; Hua; XI; Xiao-shuang; JIN; Zhen-min; HUANG; De-zhi

    2001-01-01

    Deep xenolith are important samples for us to know composition and nature of the deep crust.There are many new volcanos which can all kinds of xenoliths such as a lower crustal graulite,and upper mantle-derived peridolite and lherzolite.In eastern China,there occured many deep xenoliths in Mesozoic-Cenzoic alkaline basalt.Besides these,some small volcanos eruptions were founded in southern Hunan province,which age is about 132-151 Ma.……

  1. The Genetic Types of Baiyun Cave in Lincheng County of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping; SUN; Jian; WANG; Xiaoman; ZHANG; Qianhua; ZHENG; Huafang; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Baiyun Karst Caverns in Lincheng County,Hebei Province,is a rare karst caverns in subhumid climate region of the north.It was developed in carbonatite strata,particularly in Zhangxia formation of the Middle Cambrain series.Erosion-corrosion landscape and chemical deposition landscape are abundant,They are various shapes,curtain drapery,cave flag,cave shield,stalactite,stalagmite,cave flowers,botryoid,soda straw are developed,especially heligmite,soda straw,cave flowers are the most characteristic.

  2. estimation and Projection of hIV/AIds epidemic and Treatment demand in Beijing and hunan Province with spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ma; Guo-wu Liu; and Ning Wang; Min Liu; Min Zheng; Xi Chen; Hong-yan Lu; Hong-guang Chen; Jun Zheng; Gui-ying Li; Juan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the HIV/AIDS epidemic and treatment demand and predict the situation in the next ifve years with Spectrum. Methods Using Spectrum (version:3.54) to estimate the number of new HIV infections, number of people living with HIV, need for ART in adults and children, need for PMTCT and cotrimoxazole in Beijing and Hunan Province. Data used in the model including high-risk populations monitoring data and demographic information, was collected from Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hunan Center for Disease Control and Prevention and extracted from statistical yearbooks and published literatures. Results Few new HIV/AIDS were reported in Beijing prior to 1994, however, the number of HIV infections was increasing rapidly from 1995 to 2008, and decreased after that, increased rapidly again after 2012. The number of patients who need antiretroviral treatment was increasing among the group aged between 15-49 years with young patients aged 15-24 years peaked in 2010 and decreased rapidly after that. Few HIV-infected patients were reported before 1997 in Hunan Province, and the number of new infections was increasing rapidly since 1998. The number of patients who need antiretroviral treatment was increasing among the group aged between 15-49 years since 2000 with young patients aged 15-24 years in need of antiretroviral therapy increasing continuously. Conclusions After HIV infection was ifrst founded in Beijing and Hunan Province, there was a slow growth and then a rapid growth of HIV epidemic. According to prediction of Spectrum, the demand for antiretroviral therapy in Beijing would begin to decline since 2011, meanwhile, the HIV epidemic in Hunan Province would enter a rapid growth period with the demand for antiviral therapy continuing to increase. In this study, Spectrum was applied to estimate the HIV epidemic situation and need for treatment in the next ifve years in Beijing and Hunan Province. It provides the basis for health

  3. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of Indosinian granites in Hunan Province and its petrogenetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuejun; FAN Weiming; LIANG Xinquan; PENG Touping; SHI Yuruo

    2005-01-01

    The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of three typically Indosinian granitic plutons with peraluminous and potassium-rich affinities (Tangshi ultraunit for Weishan and Baimashan, and Longtan ultraunit for Guandimiao) is presented in Hunan Province, South China. The analyses of zircons from biotite monozonite granites for Weishan, Baimashan and Guandimiao plutons show the single and tight clusters on the concordia, and yield the weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 244±4, 243±3 and 239±3 Ma, respectively, representing the crystallized ages of these Indosinian granites. These data suggest that the Indosinian granitic plutons as previously thought formed at a narrow age span. In combination with other data, it is inferred that the Indosinian granites within the South China Block probably distributed in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces as planar shape, and were the derivation of the crustal materials in the intracontinental thickening setting. These precisely geochronological data provide important constraints for better understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of the Indosinian peraluminous granites and early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Block.

  4. Estimating health damage cost from secondary sulfate particles - a case study of Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ji-ming; LI Ji; YE Xue-mei; ZHU Tian-le

    2003-01-01

    China's coal-dominated energy pattern has resulted in large amount of SO2 emissions. Estimate of the sulfur-related health damage cost is necessary to help perform systematic cost-benefit analysis and set national energy and emissions control priorities. Current researches were confined to gaseous SO2 in urban areas; however, secondary sulfate (SO42-) particles can exert serious impact in a wider region. Based on the concept of "intake fraction", CALPUFF long-range dispersion model and 180 sample emission sources, multiple regression equation was obtained with good correlation(r=0.85), which illustrates that populations were key parameters to determine intake fraction but source characteristics were insignificant. Based on the formula and the population distribution data, county-level intake fractions were mapped for Hunan Province(range: 1.1×10-6-3.2×10-6) of China. A combination of county-level SO2 emissions with the intake fractions yields a total 1.98 tons of sulfate(SO42-) inhalation, and resulting total health damage cost to be 0.76(willingness to pay approach) or 0.16(human capital approach) billion USD in 1997, about 2.1% or 0.45% of GDP in Hunan in 1997. Average health damage cost per ton of SO2 emission is 930(willingness to pay approach) or 200 USD(human capital approach). The results demonstrated that more stringent regulation should be forced.

  5. The ecological function regionalization of Hunan province%湖南省生态功能区划的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会平

    2011-01-01

    以湖南省为研究区域,利用模糊数学综合评判方法,通过分析自然、区域经济的区位条件、资源与生态环境状况、生态功能和经济社会发展基础,利用地理信息系统的空间叠置法、相关分析法和专家集成法综合评判,将湖南省划分为5个生态功能区和17个生态功能亚区,并且绘制了湖南省生态功能区划图.为湖南省的生态建设和政策决策提供科学依据,也为湖南省的市州开展生态功能区划工作提供参考.%Taking Hunan province as the studying area, and through analyzing the location conditions of natural and regional economic, resources and ecological conditions, ecological functions and the basis of economic and social development and overlay, and using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, correlation analysis and expert integration method of GIS, Hunan province was divided into 5 ecological function areas, 17 ecological function sub-areas. In addition, the figure of ecological function regionalization of Hunan province was drawa These works will provide the scientific basis for ecological construction and policy decision of Hunan province, also provide reference for developing ecological function regionalization in Hunan's city and state.

  6. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu; WU XianZhu; LI YiYin; DENG ChengLong; WU XiuJie; PEI ShuWen

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, three excavations have been carried out at a late Pleistocene human fossil site of Huan-glong Cave in Yunxi County, Hubei Province of China, which unearthed seven human teeth, dozens of stone tools, mammal fossils and other evidence indicating human activities. During the third excava-tion in 2006, in the same layer as the human teeth, we found some patches of black materials embed-ded in the deposit. We doubted that this black deposit layer is the remains of burning or even human use of fire at the cave. To further explore the possibility of human fire use at the Huanglong Cave, we examined samples directly taken from the black deposit layer and compared them with samples taken from several places in the cave using three methods: micromorphology, element content determination and deposit temperature analysis. Our results indicate that the contents of carbon element in the black deposit reach 64.59%-73.29%. In contrast, contents of carbon element of the comparative samples from other parts in the cave are only 5.82%-9.49%. The micromorphology analysis of the black de-posit samples reveals a plant structure like axial parenchyma, fibrocyte, uniseriate ray and vessel.High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that the stratum possibly underwent a high temperature in the nature. Based on these lab analyses, we are sure that the black layer in the Huanglong Cave is the remains of fire and combustion did occur in the cave 100000 years ago. Taking other evidence of human activities found in the Huanglong Cave into consideration, we believe that the evidence of fire from the Huanglong Cave was caused by the human activities of controlled use of fire.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 2.1b from Hunan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Weixing; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Hunan 23/2013, belonging to the predominant subgenotype 2.1b. This strain was originally isolated from diseased pigs in Hunan Province, China. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV stains circulating in China and in selecting and developing a suitable vaccine candidate for CSF control.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Isolate of Classical Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Subgenotype 2.1b from Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weixing; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Faxing; Zhang, Zhi; Dong, Yaqin; Li, Xiaocheng

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Hunan 23/2013, belonging to the predominant subgenotype 2.1b. This strain was originally isolated from diseased pigs in Hunan Province, China. This report will help in understanding the molecular diversity of CSFV stains circulating in China and in selecting and developing a suitable vaccine candidate for CSF control. PMID:26205876

  9. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfu Zeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day, respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10−4. The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  10. Susceptibility gene for stroke or cerebral infarction in the Han population in Hunan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danheng Mo; Hongwei Xu; Wensheng Zhou; Qiming Yang; Jianwen Yang; Bo Xiao; Qidong Yang

    2013-01-01

    The scavenger receptor class B type I gene can protect against atherosclerosis; a mononucleotide polymorphism is associated with differences in blood lipid metabolism, postprandial serum lipid levels, insulin resistance, coronary artery disease and familial hyperlipidemia. In this study, the scavenger receptor class B type I gene exon 1 G4A gene polymorphism in atherosclerotic cerebral infarction patients, cerebral hemorrhage patients and normal controls was detected using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The results showed that the GA + AA genotype frequency of scavenger receptor class B type I gene G4A in atherosclerotic cerebral infarction patients was similar to that in cerebral hemorrhage patients and normal controls; however, the A allele frequency was significantly lower than that in normal controls. The serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with the scavenger receptor class B type I gene G4A GA + AA genotype was significantly higher, while the serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower than that in patients with the GG genotype, in both the atherosclerotic cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage groups. The serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with the scavenger receptor class B type I gene G4A GA + AA genotype was significantly higher, while the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly lower than those in normal controls with the GG genotype. Our experimental results suggest that the G4A polymorphism of the scavenger receptor class B type I gene is a possible predisposing risk factor for atherosclerotic cerebral infarction, and that it has no association with cerebral hemorrhage in the Han population in Hunan province of China. The A allele is possibly associated with the metabolism of high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Two Rainstorms in the Southwest of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Xiao-hua; DAI; Jin; YANG; Ke; ZHU; He-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Using NCEP 1°× 1° reanalysis data within 6 h, conventional observational data, data from regional automatic rainfall stations, satellite cloud pictures and Doppler radar data, we compared the physical conditions, dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of two rainstorms in the southwest of Hunan Province on May 12 and June 15 in 2011. The results showed that the first process was triggered by strong cold air under unstable potential, while the second process was caused by shear line appearing from the east; during the first process, cold air divided into many parts and moved towards south, rainfall was uniform and lasted for a long time, while rainfall was relatively concentrated and strong, and lasted for a short time during the second process; the peak of K index appeared only during the second process; no sign of heavy rainfall was found from satellite cloud pictures and radar echo pictures during the first process, while obvious cloud cluster and echo ribbons could be found from satellite cloud pictures and radar echo pictures during the second process, which were the sign of heavy rainfall; slow movement of echo or little movement resulted in the second rainstorm, and constant echo intensity was the main reason for the occurrence of the second rainstorm. In addition, there was low-level southwest jet during the two processes, which provided favorable conditions for the transportation of water vapor and energy during the two processes. However, there was a great difference between the two rainstorms in the intensity and thickness of low-level jet, that is, the intensity and thickness of low-level jet during the first process were obviously weaker than these during the second process.

  12. Survey on Farming Culture of Ancient Villages and Tourism Development: A Case Study of Hongjiang City in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; FANG

    2014-01-01

    The origin of human civilization is based on agriculture and settlement,and the ancient villages preserved up to now can be rated as " museum and historical library of rural lifestyle and rural culture",which are of important historical and cultural value. Through the field survey of farming culture resources of ancient villages in Hongjiang City of Hunan Province,this article classifies and evaluates the farming culture and ancient village resources,and sets forth the following recommendations for the development of ancient village tourism: strengthening the product differentiation development; focusing on the cultivation and integration of resources; enhancing the village environmental remediation.

  13. Evaluation of Comprehensive Agricultural Production Capacity Based on Factor Analysis:A Case Study of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzhu; RAO

    2013-01-01

    Based on the basic connotation of comprehensive agricultural production capacity,this article establishes the comprehensive agricultural production capacity indicator system on the basis of statistics. This indicator system consists of 5 parts ( input scale of factors,output scale of factors,output rate of factors,ability to resist disaster and ensure production,and modern operation level) and 14 specific indicators. Based on factor analysis method,we use this indicator system to conduct systematic empirical analysis of the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in 14 cities and prefectures of Hunan Province. The results show that although the overall level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in Hunan Province tends to grow continuously and steadily,there are significant inter-regional differences in the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity; in terms of the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity,there is great room for improvement. Finally the following policy recommendations are put forward: strengthening balanced regional development and improving the overall level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity; strengthening the building of land carrying capacity; strengthening the building of agricultural ecological balance; strengthening the building of the scientific and technological support capacity.

  14. Fixed Ammonium in Major Types of Paddy Soils in Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YANGZHU; LIAO JIPEI; SUN YUHUAN; FENG YUEHUA; HUANG YUNXIANG

    2003-01-01

    The contents, affecting factors, seasonal changes and availability of fixed ammonium in major types ofpaddy soils derived from different parent materials in Hunan Province, China, were studied using the Silva-Bremner method by laboratory and pot experiments. Results showed that the content of fixed ammoniumin the plough horizons ranged from 88.3 mg kg-1 to 388.1 mg kg-1, with 273.2 ± 77.7 mg kg-1 on average,accounting for 11.2% of total soil N on average. Content of fixed ammonium decreased in the order of newlylacustrine clayey paddy soil > alluvial sandy paddy soil > purple clayey paddy soil > newly alluvial sandypaddy soil > yellow clayey paddy soil > reddish-yellow clayey paddy soil > granitic sandy paddy soil. Therewere four distribution patterns of fixed ammonium in the profiles to 1-m depth, i.e., increase with the depth,decrease with increasing depth, no distinct change with the depth, and abrupt increase or decrease in somehorizon. Percentage of fixed ammonium in total N increased with the depth in most of the soils. Fixationof NH4+ by soil was higher at 30 ℃ than at 20 ℃ and 40 ℃, and continuous submergence benefited thefixation of NH4+ in newly alluvial sandy paddy soil, purple clayey paddy soil and alluvial sandy paddy soil,while alternating wetting and drying contributed to the fixation of NH4+ in yellow clayey paddy soil mostly.Fixed ammonium content in the test paddy soils was significantly correlated with < 0.01 mm clay content(P < 0.05), but not with < 0.001 mm clay content, total N, organic N and organic matter. Fixed ammoniumcontent varied with rice growth stages. Application of N fertilizer promoted fixation of NH4+ by soil, and Nuptake by rice plant promoted release of fixed ammonium from the soil. Recently fixed ammonium in paddysoil after N fertilizer application was nearly 100% available to rice plant, while native fixed ammonium wasonly partly available, varying with the soil type and rice type.

  15. Huanglong Cave, a new late Pleistocene hominid site in Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xianzhu; LIU Wu; GAO Xing; YIN Gongming

    2006-01-01

    For the past 20 years the modern human origins debate has received a significant amount of attention in paleoanthropological research. Primarily supported by the evidence of earlier dates of anatomically modern human fossils and genetic studies, the "Out of Africa" hypothesis is based on the belief that the ancestor of all modern humans, including modern Chinese, came from Africa. The opposite hypothesis "Mutiregional evolution" proposes that continuous evolution occurred on a regional scale, for which human paleontology offers strong support. However, due to the paucity of hominid fossils in China between 100 and 50 ka, support to the latter hypothesis is currently weak. This is a report here of five human fossil teeth, and associated stone tools and mammal fossils from a newly discovered cave site, Huanglong Cave, located in Yunxi County,Hubei Province, China. Preliminary studies indicate:(1) the morphological features of the human fossils resemble those of late Pleistocene human fossils from China; (2) the stone tools display patterns of both the southern and northern Paleolithic cultures of China; (3) the mammal fossils represent the "Ailuropoda-Stegodon" faunal unit which lived in southern China throughout the Pleistocene. ESR and U-series dating on animal teeth and a stalagmite derived from the same layer as the human teeth indicate two possible ages: 103±1.6 ka and 44±12.5 ka. In addition to other evidence presented here, it is believed that hominid occupation of the cave was likely around 100 ka. If this age is further substantiated, Huanglong Cave will be the first late Pleistocene hominid fossil site in China where anatomically modern humans lived about 100 ka. The human fossils and other related materials from Huanglong Cave will provide important information for research on the origin of modern Chinese.

  16. The Meso-Scale Analysis of “6.18” Severe Rainfall Event in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hai; YIN; Zhong-hai; DENG; Zhao-ping; ZHOU; Jiang-zhong; TANG; Ming-hui

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to analyze the mesoscale and small scale system that influenced the strong rainfall in Hunan from June 18 to 20 in 2010. [Method] By dint of regular observation material and rainfall in regional automatic station, TBB of FY-2C geostationary meteorological satellite, characteristics and causes of one heavy rainfall event in Hunan Province on 18-20 June 2010 were studied. [Result] The rainstorm happened under the southwest warm and wet torrent at the edge of subtropical high when the ground cold air intruded, which triggered the release of unstable energy. The water vapor from Bay of Bengal and South China Sea sent abundant water vapor to south China. The water vapor strengthened, which synchronized with the rainstorm. The ground mesoscale convergence line and the mesoscale low pressure intensified the rainstorm. Changes of pressure field reflected the changes of rainfall and indicated the location and movement of heavy rainfall. [Conclusion] The study provided theoretical basis to understand the rainstorm formation mechanism and improve disaster prevention capacity.

  17. Study on Development of Cassava Industry in Hunan Province%湖南省木薯产业发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴声佩; 刘恩平

    2011-01-01

    分析湖南省木薯产业的发展现状.发展木薯的可行性及湖南省木薯发展存在的问题,提出湖南省木薯产业的发展策略,为湖南省木薯产业发展提供决策参考。%The current situation of cassava industry, the feasibility of developing cassava industry and the existent problems in the development of cassava industry in Hunan Province are analyzed. The developmental strategy for cassava industry in Human Province is put forward to provide reference for the development of cassava industry in Hunan Province.

  18. Ecological evolution across the Permian/Triassic boundary at the Kangjiaping Section in Cili County, Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The stratigraphic sequence of calcimicrobialite facies at the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) boundary has well recorded the biotic and environmental transition across the end-Permian catastrophic events. The biostratigraphy, microfacies, carbon isotopes, and fossil records across the P/Tr boundary have been studied at the Kangjiaping Section in Cili County, Hunan Province. Three biostratigraphic zones, Palaeofusulina-Colaniella Zone, Hindeodus parvus Zone, and Isarcicella staeschei Zone, are identified. The excursion of δ13Ccarb exhibits a sharp negative shift in the calcimicrobialite at the P/Tr boundary, which is roughly accordant with the abrupt bioclastic decline. In addition, five types of microfacies are recognized, including algal-foraminifer bioclastic limestone, algal-laminated calcimicrobial limestone, oolitic grainstone, vermiculate limestone, and intraclastic wackstone. The results indicate that the changeover of ecosystem from metazoan reef to calcimicrobialite in Cili is a classic case of marine ecological evolution during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition.

  19. U-Pb dating of early Mesozoic granodioritic intrusions in southeastern Hunan Province, South China and its petrogenetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岳军; 范蔚茗; 郭锋; 李惠民; 梁新权

    2002-01-01

    The NE-trended Mesozoic granodioritic intrusions are spatially and temporally associated with the copper multi-metal mineralization in southeastern Hunan Province, South China. U-Pb dating result of single-grained zircons of four samples respectively from Shuikoushan, Baoshan, western Tongshanling and eastern Tongshanling intrusions reveals that their crystallization age spans a range from 172 Ma to 181 Ma, which also represents the oldest age of the regional copper multi-metal mineralization. Some of the zircon grains give an upper intercept age of about 1753 Ma and 207Pb/206Pb apparent age of (1752 ± 4) Ma, implying the involvement of the pre-Cambrian metamorphic (possible Middle Proterozoic) basement in their genesis. The presence of such a kind of zircon grains in these granodiorites indicates either that the parental magmas were assimilated by basement rocks during magma ascent or that lower/middle crustal rocks were one of the important components during the melting process.

  20. Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in a coastal cave, Aceh Province, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, J.; Rubin, C. M.; Sieh, K.; Horton, B.; Daly, P.; Majewski, J.; Ismail, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geological studies of coral reefs and coastal plains have uncovered short and incomplete records of predecessors for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Here we present a longer and more-complete mid- to late Holocene tsunami history from an extraordinary sedimentary deposit in northwestern Aceh Province, Sumatra. We exposed clastic sediment in six trenches up to 2 m deep within a sheltered limestone cave 200 m from the present coastline. The trim line of the 2004 tsunami is about 25 m above sea level and 15 m above the top of the 10-m high entrance to the cave. Within the cave, the deposits of 2004 comprise a 15 - 20 cm thick, laterally continuous sand sheet. Beneath this youngest tsunami sand is a insect feeding bats (Microchiroptera). Many similar couplets of sand and bat guano occur lower in the stratigraphic sequence. The sands have many diagnostic features of the 2004 deposit, namely a distinctly marine geochemical signature, high-diversity foraminiferal assemblages that include offshore species, normal grading, basal rip-up clasts, lenticular laminations, and articulated bivalves. Minor, local, non-tectonic normal and decollement faults that break the layers at several locations are likely due to strong ground shaking. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and molluscs establish a mid- to late Holocene age range for the tsunami sands. Other than the 2004 deposit, layers younger than about 2,000 years are absent, because by about 2,000 years ago, accommodation space beneath the level of the rocky entrance to the cave had been filled. Pending analyses will reveal whether three clay layers within the sequence are of marine or of freshwater origin.

  1. [Virological surveillance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and its genetic characteristics in Hunan Province, 2009-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Huang, Yi-Wei; Liu, Yun-Zhi; Li, Fang-Cai; Chen, Zhang; Li, Wen-Chao; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Shi-Xiong; Gao, Li-Dong

    2013-03-01

    To understand and master the dynamic variation of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011, and to know the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses. Throat swab specimens of influenza-like illness patients were collected from sentinel hospitals and tested for influenza by fluorescent PCR or virus isolation methods. Partial isolates were selected for sequencing. The sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5. 05 software. From the 20th week of 2009 to the 52nd week of 2011, 17 773 specimens were tested. 3 831 specimens were influenza-positive with a positive rate of 21. 6%, of which 1 794 were positive specimens of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, accounting for 46. 8%00 of the influenza-positives. There were 2 epidemic peaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, which were in the 41st-53rd week of 2009 and the 1st-12nd week of 2011, respectively. The HA genes of 23 strains that were selected for sequencing had close relationship; the distribution of strains in the phylogenetic tree was basically in chronological order. The complete genome sequence analysis showed that all of 8 gene segments of 7 strains were homologous to the vaccine strain, and there was no gene reassortment. The HA amino acid sites of the 23 strains were highly similar to the vaccine strain (98. 2% - 100. 0% in homology), but all 23 strains had P83S, S203T and 1321V mutations. The 222 site mutation that may lead to enhanced virulence was found in the A/Hunan/YQ30/2009 strain. The mutation was D222E. There was no oseltamivir resistance mutation found in all strains. The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011 had a bimodal distribution. There was no large-scale variation of virus genes. The clinical use of oseltamivir was still effective. Key words: Pandemic (H1N1) 2009; Surveillance; Genetic characteristics

  2. [Virological surveillance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and its genetic characteristics in Hunan Province, 2009-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Huang, Yi-Wei; Liu, Yun-Zhi; Li, Fang-Cai; Chen, Zhang; Li, Wen-Chao; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Shi-Xiong; Gao, Li-Dong

    2013-03-01

    To understand and master the dynamic variation of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011, and to know the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses. Throat swab specimens of influenza-like illness patients were collected from sentinel hospitals and tested for influenza by fluorescent PCR or virus isolation methods. Partial isolates were selected for sequencing. The sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5. 05 software. From the 20th week of 2009 to the 52nd week of 2011, 17 773 specimens were tested. 3 831 specimens were influenza-positive with a positive rate of 21. 6%, of which 1 794 were positive specimens of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, accounting for 46. 8%00 of the influenza-positives. There were 2 epidemic peaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, which were in the 41st-53rd week of 2009 and the 1st-12nd week of 2011, respectively. The HA genes of 23 strains that were selected for sequencing had close relationship; the distribution of strains in the phylogenetic tree was basically in chronological order. The complete genome sequence analysis showed that all of 8 gene segments of 7 strains were homologous to the vaccine strain, and there was no gene reassortment. The HA amino acid sites of the 23 strains were highly similar to the vaccine strain (98. 2% - 100. 0% in homology), but all 23 strains had P83S, S203T and 1321V mutations. The 222 site mutation that may lead to enhanced virulence was found in the A/Hunan/YQ30/2009 strain. The mutation was D222E. There was no oseltamivir resistance mutation found in all strains. The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011 had a bimodal distribution. There was no large-scale variation of virus genes. The clinical use of oseltamivir was still effective. Key words: Pandemic (H1N1) 2009; Surveillance; Genetic characteristics PMID:23757845

  3. 湖南省辣椒上首次发现象耳豆根结线虫%First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii on pepper in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; 宋志强; 成飞雪; 程菊娥; 张德咏; 刘勇

    2015-01-01

    应用线虫比较形态学、同工酶技术和 IGS-PCR 技术,对采自湖南省永州地区辣椒上的根结线虫进行种类鉴定。结果表明,该病原线虫为象耳豆根结线虫(Meloidogyne enterolobii ),这是首次在湖南地区发现象耳豆根结线虫。%The root-knot nematodes on pepper collected from Yongzhou,Hunan Province were identified by using morphological characters,isozymes and IGS-PCR.The results suggested that the root-knot nematodes were Meloidogyne enterolobii .It was the first report of Meloidogyne enterolobii in Hunan Province.

  4. Epidemiology of Birth Defects Based on a Birth Defect Surveillance System from 2005 to 2014 in Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Xie

    Full Text Available To describe the epidemiology of birth defects (BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan Province, China, between 2005 and 2014.The BD surveillance data of perinatal infants (for stillbirth, dead fetus or live birth between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth were collected from 52 registered hospitals of Hunan between 2005 and 2014. The prevalence rates of BDs with 95% confidence interval (CI and crude odds ratio (ORs were calculated to examine the associations of infant gender, maternal age, and region (urban vs rural with BDs.From 2005 to 2014, there were a total of 925413 perinatal infants of which 17753 had BDs, with the average prevalence of 191.84 per 10000 PIs (perinatal infants, showing a significant uptrend. The risks of BDs are higher in urban areas versus rural areas (OR = 1.20, in male infants versus female infants (OR = 1.19, and in mothers above age 35 versus those below age 35 (OR = 1.24. The main five types of BDs are Congenital heart defects (CHD, Other malformation of external ear (OMEE, Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of kidney (CMK, and Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTE. From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence rates (per 10000 PIs of CHD and CMK increased significantly from 22.56 to 74 (OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 2.65-4.11 and from 7.61 to 14.62 (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30-2.84, respectively; the prevalence rates of congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects (NTDs decreased significantly from 11.8 to 5.29 (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.31-0.65 and from 7.87 to 1.74 (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.38, respectively.The prevalence rates of specific BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan have changed in the last decade. Urban pregnant women, male perinatal infants, and mothers above age 35 present different prevalence rates of BDs. Wider use of new diagnosis technology, improving the ability of monitoring, strengthening the publicity and education are important to reduce the prevalence of BDs.

  5. Long-term variations of estimated global solar radiation and the influencing factors in Hunan province, China during 1980-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling; Lin, Aiwen; Wang, Lunche; Xia, Xiangao; Gong, Wei; Zhu, Hongji; Zhao, Zhenzhen

    2016-04-01

    Long-term variation of estimated global solar radiation (E g↓) and its relationship with total cloud cover (TCC), low cloud cover (LCC), water vapor content (WVC) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were investigated based on the observations at 21 meteorological stations in Hunan province, China. Long-term variations of all variables were calculated for each station; the Mann-Kendall trend test was used to detect the significant level of temporal development trend for each variable; the Pearson correlation analysis was used to measure their linear relationships. Annual E g↓ generally decreased at the rate of -2.11 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1 in Hunan province during 1980-2013. Seasonal mean E g↓ decreased at the rate of -11.99 × 10-3, -4.71 × 10-3 and -4.51 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1 in summer, autumn and winter, respectively, while the increasing trend was observed in spring (15.74 × 10-3 MJ m-2 decade-1). The annual variation of E g↓ in Hunan province was dominantly determined by the variations of AOD (0.33 × 10-3 decade-1) and LCC (0.24 % p decade-1). But the spatial variation of E g↓ in Hunan province was complex. All 21 stations were divided into four groups according to the long-term trends of E g↓, TCC, LCC, AOD and WVC. An increasing E g↓ was observed at stations in group 1, which was determined by the variability of TCC. The variability of AOD and TCC might contribute to the increasing E g↓ in group 2. There were decreasing trends of E g↓ for the stations in group 3 and group 4, which were largely determined by the increases of AOD and LCC.

  6. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Hu; Hong Tan; Yang Gao; Tianxiang Wang; Qiang Xiao

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 200...

  7. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.

  8. Investigation on the Seasonal Trend of Fruit Markets in Changsha, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This investigation on the seasonal trend of fruit markets in Changsha indicated that the fruit varieties on the market in Changsha were abundant, up to 49 varieties; seasonal fresh fruits were continuously provided around the year; most fruits were domestic produce from all over the country, and about 39% of the varieties were imported mainly from southeast Asia, America, New Zealand and Brazil; the imported fruits and a few kinds of domestic fruits were higher in the quality grades than most domestic fruits, which accounted for approximately half of the total fruit volume; and fruit prices varied markedly with fruit varieties, quality grades and time of marketing. In a word, the Hunan fruit industry must increase fruit quality and diversity in order to achieve a favourable position in the strong international competition.

  9. Productivity analysis in nature reserve: A case study in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lan-hui; Tian Shu-rong

    2007-01-01

    Although there are abundant natural resources in nature reserves, poverty is a common feature of the social economy in the communities surrounding nature reserves. Income from forestry is still the main source for residents living around nature reserves.The structure of inputs and outputs, i.e. productivity, in the forestry sector in nature reserves is quite different from one reserve to another. Productivity can be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods owing to the characteristics of DEA. The promotion of productivity in nature reserve is an effective way to improve the living condition in areas neighboring nature reserves.Thus, one typical national nature reserve in Hunan is selected in this study with the intent to measure productivity in the area and then to analyze the factors affecting its productivity.

  10. Genetic Polymorphism of Nine Non-CODIS STR Loci in Hu-nan Province-based Chinese Han Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Juan-juan; LIU Ying; GUO Ya-dong; YAN Jie; CHANG Yun-feng; CAI Ji-feng; LU Ting; ZHA Lagabaiyila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the allelic frequency distribution and genetic parameters of nine non-CODIS DNA index systems of the short tandemrepeat (STR ) loci (D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364, and GATA198B05). Methods A total of 353 blood samples were collected, extracted, amplified, and analyzed fromunrelated healthy individuals of Han na-tionality in Hunan Province, China. Results O ne hundred and fourteen alleles were observed in the pop-ulation with corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from0.001 0 to 0.323 0. For all the nine non-CODIS STR loci, the observed genotypic data showed no significant deviations fromthe Hardy-W einberg equi-librium. The Ho, He, PIC, D P, and PE of the studied non-CODIS STR loci ranged from0.108 0 to 0.195 0, 0.805 0 to 0.892 0, 0.770 0 to 0.860 0, 0.925 0 to 0.966 0 and 0.607 0 to 0.780 0, respectively. Conclusion N ine non-CODIS STR loci have high degrees of polymorphisms, which may be useful in in-dividual forensic identification and parentage testing in forensic practice.

  11. The molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the arsenic mining impacted sites in Hunan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuqing; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Zhaoxiang; Hu, Yajun; Wu, Songlin; Chen, Baodong

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can establish a mutualistic association with most terrestrial plants even in heavy metal contaminated environments. It has been documented that high concentrations of toxic metals, such as arsenic (As) in soil could adversely affect the diversity and function of AMF. However, there are still gaps in understanding the community composition of AMF under long-term As contaminations. In the present study, six sampling sites with different As concentrations were selected in the Realgar mining area in Hunan Province of China. The AMF biodiversity in the rhizosphere soils of the dominant plant species was investigated by sequencing the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragments using 454-pyrosequencing technique. A total of 11 AMF genera were identified, namely Rhizophagus, Glomus, Funneliformis, Acaulospora, Diversispora, Claroideoglomus, Scutellopora, Gigaspora, Ambispora, Praglomus, and Archaeospora, among which Glomus, Rhizophagus, and Claroideoglomus clarodeum were detected in all sampling sites, and Glomus was the dominant AMF genus in the Realgar mining area. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil pH, total As and Cd concentrations were the main factors influencing AMF community structure. There was a negative correlation between the AMF species richness and the total As concentration in the soil, but no significant correlation between the Shannon-Wiener index of the AMF and plants. Our study showed that high As concentrations can exert a selective effect on the AMF populations. PMID:26899650

  12. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant. PMID:26164922

  13. Ecological evolution across the Permian/Triassic boundary at the Kangjiaping Section in Cili County,Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG QinXian; TONG JinNan; SONG Haidun; YANG Hao

    2009-01-01

    The stratigraphic sequence of calcimicrobialite facies at the Permian-Triassic (P/Tr) boundary has well recorded the biotic and environmental transition across the end-Permian catastrophic events.The bio-stratigraphy,microfacies,carbon isotopes,and fossil records across the P/Tr boundary have been studied at the Kangjiaping Section in Cili County,Hunan Province.Three biostratigraphic zones,Pa-laeofusulina-Colaniella Zone,Hindeodus parvus Zone,and Isarcicella staeschei Zone,are identified.The excursion of δC exhibits a sharp negative shift in the calcimicrobialite at the P/Tr boundary,which is roughly accordant with the abrupt biociastic decline.In addition,five types of microfacies are recognized,including aigal-foraminifer bioclastic limestone,algal-laminated calcimicrobial limestone,oolitic grainstone,vermiculate limestone,and intraclastic wackstone.The results indicate that the changeover of ecosystem from metazoan reef to calcimicrobialite in Cili is a classic case of marine ecological evolution during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition.

  14. [Lead uptake by plant in soil-plant system at lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Hua; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ji, Yan-Fang; Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Contents of lead in several crops as well as its uptake and distribution by paddy in typical lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis. The average concentration of lead in rice, maize and soy bean in the deposit was 2.4, 1.2 and 3.3 times higher than that in control area, respectively, suggesting that crops in the deposit were heavily contaminated by the element. Significant difference of the lead concentrations in crops was found among different crop species and different organs of the same crops. The average concentration of lead followed the trend: soy bean > rice > maize (among crop species), and root > haulm > seed (among organs). Paddy root exhibited strong binding and tolerant capacity to lead. Correlation analysis indicated that soil lead was main retention in paddy root, whereas the gaseous lead might be the main source for lead in the aerial part of crop. Heavy metals such as Hg, Cd as well as Pb co-enriched in crops, therefore the mechanism and health risk of the combined pollution of heavy metals in the deposit crops should be paid attention to.

  15. Purification and characterization of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-dong; LI Bo; YU Zheng-ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the physical and chemical properties of an arginine ester hydrolase from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus in Hunan province of China. Methods :The arginine ester hydrolase (AEH) was isolated from the venom of Chinese Trimeresurus mucrosqumatus by a combination of ionexchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sepharose Cl-6B and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Results: The purified protein named TM-AEH,a glycoprotein with carbohydrate content of 0.5 % neutral hexose and 0. 75 % sialic acid,a relative molecular mass of 29.0 kDa,and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5. 2. It shares with an extinction coefficient (E0.1%/cm) of 1.332 at 280 nm,consisted of 225 amino acid residues ,and migrated as a band under reduced or non-reduced condition in basic PAGE. TM-AEH was a highly thermostable protein and was stable to pH changes between 5 and 9. The optimum temperature and optimum pH were 55℃ and 8. 4 for its catalytic activity respectively,which was inhibited by Fe3+ and Cu2+. Conclusion:This protein can exhibit higher BAEE-hydrolysing activity and fibrinogenolytic activity as compared to that of whole venom.

  16. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cave of the speleological province of Bambuí, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings.

  17. 湖南省水利行业投融资方式探讨%Discussion on Investment and Financing Mode of Water Conservancy Industry in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雄艳

    2013-01-01

    首先通过研究湖南省水利行业2000-2008年投融资情况,发现湖南省水利行业资金来源较为单一、投资主体较少;然后通过研究湖南省“十二五”水利行业发展的战略,运用指数平滑分析法测算出湖南水利行业未来五年的资金供求,计算出资金缺口.为有效解决湖南省“十二五”水利建设资金缺口,在借鉴水利行业投融资模式的基础上,结合湖南水利行业的特点,提出了湖南省水利行业投融资模式的设计思路和促进投融资顺利开展的保障措施.%With the rapid development of water industry in China,fund demand of water conservancy construction has grown substantially so that financial issues of project construction become critical.Firstly,with the research of the investment and financing of water conservancy industry in Hunan province from 2000 to 2008,it's expounded that source of funds for water conservancy industry in Hunan province is relatively single and investor of it is less.With the study of development strategy of water conservancy industry in "12th Five-Year Plan" in Hunan,the capital supply and demand of water conservancy industry in the next five years in Hunan is estimated with exponential smoothing method and the funding gap is calculated.In order to effectively solve the funding gap,basing on the investment and financing mode of the water industry,the paper presents design ideas of that in Hunan with the characteristics of water conservancy industry in Hunan,and puts forward safeguard measures to ensure the smooth progress of the investment and financing.water conservancy investment and financing safeguard measures

  18. Follow-up study on management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng YQ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuqin Zeng,1,* Jianxian Xu,1,* Shan Cai,1 Fen Jiang,1 Anmei Hu,2 Huayun Liu,3 Chengli Bei,4 Ping Chen11Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shenzhen City Baoan District Central Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Yueyang First People’s Hospital, Yueyang, Hunan, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Changsha Central Hospital, Changsha, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: In 2009, our study showed an extreme imbalance and disparity in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels of public hospitals (PHs in Hunan Province of the People’s Republic of China, especially in second-level PHs. Moreover, most Chinese citizens accept their health care services in first- and second-level PHs for economic and geographical reasons, as well as because of the incomplete transfer system in the health care services. To improve diagnosis and treatment ability of pulmonologists in second-level PHs, an intervention that provided training combined with spirometry equipment was carried out in three PHs from six second-level PHs. The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate the changes associated with COPD-related health resources allocation and the effect of the intervention 4 years later.Methods: The data regarding the availability of spirometers, inhalation agents for COPD, and COPD-related health care education for local residents were collected from 57 PHs in 2009 and 48 PHs in 2013. Pulmonologists working in these PHs were asked to complete a questionnaire individually. Six second-level PHs (three in the intervention group and the other three in the control group [without training and spirometry equipment] that further took part in the survey in 2009 were reevaluated to determine the doubtful diagnostic ratio and the confirmation ratio of COPD. The

  19. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  20. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  1. Fixed Ammonium Content and Maximum Capacity of Ammonium Fixation in Major Types of Tillage Soils in Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang-zhu; HUANG Shun-hong; WAN Da-juan; HUANG Yun-xiang; ZHOU Wei-jun; ZOU Ying-bin

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the status of fixed ammonium, fixed ammonium content, maximum capacity of ammonium fixation, and their influencing factors in major types of tillage soils of Hunan Province, China, were studied with sampling on fields, and laboratory incubation and determination. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Content of fixed ammonium in the tested soils varies greatly with soil use pattern and the nature of parent material. For the paddy soils, it ranges from 135.4 ± 57.4 to 412.8±32.4 mg kg-1, with 304.7±96.7 mg kg-1 in average; while it ranges from 59.4 to 435.7 mg kg-1, with 230.1 ± 89.2 mg kg1 in average for the upland soils. The soils developed from limnic material and slate had higher fixed ammonium content than the soils developed from granite. The percentage of fixed ammonium to total N in the upland soils is always higher than that in the paddy soils. It ranges from 6.1 ± 3.6% to 16.6 ±4.6%, with 14.0% ± 5.1% in average for the paddy soils and it amounted to 5.8 ±2.0% to 40.1 ± 17.8%, with 23.5 ± 14.2% in average for upland soils. (2) The maximum capacity of ammonium fixation has the same trend with the fixed ammonium content in the tested soils. For all the tested soils, the percentage of recently fixed ammonium to maximum capacity of ammonium fixation is always bellow 20% and it may be due to the fact that the soils have high fertility and high saturation of ammonium-fixing site. (3) The clay content and clay composition in the tested soils are the two important factors influe ncing their fixed ammonium content and maximum capacity of ammonium fixation. The results showed that hydrous mica is the main 2:1 type clay mineral in <0.02 mm clay of the paddy soils, and its content in 0.02-0.002 mm clay is much higher than that in < 0.002 mm clay of the soils. The statistical analysis showed that both the fixed ammonium content and the maximum capacity of ammonium fixation of the paddy soils were positively correlated with

  2. Research on the Relationship between Income and Consumption of the Urban Residents in Hunan Province on the Basis of Error Correction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using error correction model, I conduct co-integration analysis on the research of the relationship between the per capita practical consumption and per capita practical disposable income of urban residents in Hunan Province from 1978 to 2009. The results show that there is a co-integration relationship between the per capita practical consumption and the practical per capita disposable income of urban residents, and based on these, the corresponding error correction model is established. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward as follows: broaden the income channel of urban residents; create goods consuming environment; perfect socialist security system.

  3. An Analysis of the Cultural Check and Balance Function of the Cave God Legends in Western Hunan%湘西洞神传说文化制衡作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧

    2012-01-01

    The legends of Cave Gods refer to the oral texts focusing on the supernatural beings, ghosts, monsters, goblin animals. Such legends, with their rich contents, have displayed a unique natural environment and historical and cultural environment of Western Hunan. They are essential texts which represent people's views of life, ethics, religion, custom, arts, etc. This article, based on the existing texts of the Cave Gods legends, concludes that there are several cultural check and balance functions like "respecting the balance of the nature and ecology", "praising highly for social stability, unity and harmony", "entertaining the public of Western Hunan", "interpreting the acts of beliefs in witches and ghosts", which make a solid foundation for the a further exploration and research on the legend of Cave Gods in Western Hunan.%湘西洞神传说是指以湘西洞穴中的神仙、鬼怪、妖兽为传说核的民间口述文本。这些传说以丰富的内容展现了湘西地区独特的自然环境和历史文化环境,是表现民间生活观、伦理观、宗教观、风俗观和艺术观等价值观的重要文本形式。本文立足于湘西洞神传说现有的传说文本进行研究,总结出“对自然生态平衡行为的推崇”、“对社会安定团结和谐行为的褒扬”、“对湘西民众生活的娱乐”、“对崇巫信鬼行为的解释”等几个湘西洞神传说的重要文化制衡作用,为进一步发掘和研究湘西洞神传说奠定基础。

  4. Survey and Detection of the Grape Fanleaf Disease in Hunan Province%湖南省葡萄扇叶病调查及检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 聂松青; 罗奕凡; 刘昆玉; 舒广平; 邓子牛; 李大志

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence situation and damages of grape fanleaf disease in main grape production areas in Hunan province, such as northwest Hunan, southern Hunan, middle Hunan and western Hunan, were investigated, and the suspected disease plants from each area were detected by biological method and molecular biological method. The results showed that in main grape production areas of Hunan province, many grape varieties occurred grape fanleaf disease, such as Xiahei-seedless, Red-earth, Jinxing-seedless, Golden-finger, etc., but the Vitis davidii var. davidii from western Hunan showed a certain resistance to the grape fanleaf disease. The symptoms of the grape fanleaf disease generally showed as follows: the leaf was degreening and yellowing; the serrate leaf margin turned to sharpening or out-of-shape; the growth of grape plants was influenced seriously, thus weakening tree vigour, reducing yield and decreasing fruit quality. The biological detection results indicated that among 54 collected samples, 52% samples presented systemic mottle and distortion in Qianrihong and Benshi tobacco varieties. Moreover, the molecular biological detection results revealed that 29 out of 54 samples detected grape fanleaf disease virus, and the detection rate of the Jinxing-seedless and the Red-earth was relatively high.%对湘西北、湘南、湘中和湘西等葡萄主产区的扇叶病发病及危害情况进行了调查,并通过生物学和分子生物学的方法对各地区的疑似病株进行了检测。结果表明:在湖南的葡萄主产区,葡萄扇叶病的感病品种较多,在夏黑无核、红地球、金星无核和金手指等品种上均有发生,但湘西的刺葡萄表现出对葡萄扇叶病有一定的抗性;感病症状总体上表现为叶片褪绿、黄化,叶缘锯齿变尖锐或形状不规则,并严重影响葡萄植株的生长,导致树势减弱、产量下降、果实品质变差;生物学检测结果显示,采集的54

  5. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  6. On Attitude Survey to Miao Language in Western Hunan Province%湘西地区苗族语言态度探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿继勇

    2012-01-01

    As a complex social and psychological phenomenon, language attitude profoundly affects people's language behavior and language identity. This paper, based on the survey of Miao people' s attitude towards Miao language in Western Hunan Province, analyzes the cognitive evaluation, the emotional attitude, and the language learning and protection of Miao people towards their native language. It also explains the different social variables that influence the attitude of Miao language, and accordingly proposes some suggestions of how to protect minority language and culture in western region of Hunan Province.%语言态度作为一种复杂的社会心理现象,深刻影响着人们的语言行为与语言认同。本文通过对湘西地区苗族语言态度的调查,分析了苗族对于母语的认知评价,情感态度及学习、保护母语的行为倾向,解释了不同社会变项对苗族语言态度的影响,并据此对在湘西地区开展民族语言文化保护工作提出了建议。

  7. Current Development of Sports Tourism in Hunan Province and Countermeasures%湖南省体育旅游产业的发展现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳新辉

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of investigating the current development of sports tourism in Hunan province,the paper proposes that it has the developing advantages of region,source,transportation,source of tourists and publication while restricted by the low competition level,monotonous competition content,lack of talents and advanced management and regulations which need improvement.The paper also proposes the development countermeasures of the sports tourism industry in Hunan province.%对湖南省体育旅游产业的发展现状进行了调查和分析,湖南省体育旅游产业具有区位、资源、交通、客源、媒介宣传等发展优势;但尚存在体育赛事级别不高且没有形成常态化,项目形式单一并缺乏地方特色,专业人才匮乏,旅游管理水平落后,政策法规有待完善等问题,据此提出了湖南省体育旅游产业的发展对策。

  8. Correlation analysis of EV71 detection and case severity in hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Hunan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Dong; Hu, Shi-Xiong; Zhang, Hong; Luo, Kai-Wei; Liu, Yun-Zhi; Xu, Qiao-Hua; Huang, Wei; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Zhou, Shuai-Feng; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases has been observed in the Hunan province of mainland China since 2009 with a particularly higher level of severe cases in 2010-2012. Intestinal viruses of the picornaviridae family are responsible for the human syndrome associated with HFMD with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) being the most common causative strains. HFMD cases associated with EV71 are generally more severe with an increased association of morbidity and mortality. In this study, the etiology surveillance data of HFMD cases in Hunan province from March 2010 to October 2012 were analyzed to determine if there is a statistically relevant linear correlation exists between the detection rate of EV71 in mild cases and the proportion of severe cases among all HFMD patients. As the cases progressed from mild to severe to fatal, the likelihood of EV71 detection increased (25.78%, 52.20% and 84.18%, respectively). For all cases in the timeframe evaluated in this study, the presence of virus was detected in 63.21% of cases; among cases showing positivity for virus, EV71 infection accounted for 50.14%. These results provide evidence to support the observed higher morbidity and mortality associated with this outbreak and emphasizes the importance of early detection in order to implement necessary prevention measures to mitigate disease progression.

  9. Correlation analysis of EV71 detection and case severity in hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Hunan Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Dong Gao

    Full Text Available An increase in the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD cases has been observed in the Hunan province of mainland China since 2009 with a particularly higher level of severe cases in 2010-2012. Intestinal viruses of the picornaviridae family are responsible for the human syndrome associated with HFMD with enterovirus 71 (EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16 being the most common causative strains. HFMD cases associated with EV71 are generally more severe with an increased association of morbidity and mortality. In this study, the etiology surveillance data of HFMD cases in Hunan province from March 2010 to October 2012 were analyzed to determine if there is a statistically relevant linear correlation exists between the detection rate of EV71 in mild cases and the proportion of severe cases among all HFMD patients. As the cases progressed from mild to severe to fatal, the likelihood of EV71 detection increased (25.78%, 52.20% and 84.18%, respectively. For all cases in the timeframe evaluated in this study, the presence of virus was detected in 63.21% of cases; among cases showing positivity for virus, EV71 infection accounted for 50.14%. These results provide evidence to support the observed higher morbidity and mortality associated with this outbreak and emphasizes the importance of early detection in order to implement necessary prevention measures to mitigate disease progression.

  10. Golf Tourism Industrfs SWOT Analysis and Countermeasure Research of Hunan Province%湖南省高尔夫旅游产业SWOT分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华庭; 王湘平

    2012-01-01

    湖南是中国的旅游大省,具有开发高尔夫旅游的优势条件,但其发展速度较缓慢,发展瓶颈难以突破。本文依据管理学SWOT原理,结合湖南省高尔夫旅游产业发展的现状,对湖南省高尔夫旅游产业的优势、弱势、机遇和威胁进行了详细分析,并按照管理理论提出了相应的对策,为今后湖南高尔夫旅游产业的进一步发展提供参考。%Hunan province is China's tourism, has the advantages of development of golf tourism, but its pace slow, difficult to break through the bottleneck of development. This article based on SWOT theory of management, combined with the current development of golf tourism industry in Hunan province, the golf tourism industry in Hunan province's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats carried out a detailed analysis, and put appropriate countermeasures according to administrative theory, for future reference for the further development of golf tourism industry in Hunan province.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA:PSYCHODIDAE) IN LIMESTONE CAVES, KHAO PATHAWI, UTHAI THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polseela, R; Vitta, A; Apiwathnasorn, C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the species composition and density of the sand flies found inside four limestone caves at Khao Pathawi, Thap Than District, Uthai Thani Province. Sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps from October 2012 to September 2013. The sand flies were captured between 06:00 PM - 06:00 AM. A total of 11,817 sand flies were collected with a male:female ratio of 1.0:1.2 (5,325:6,492). The specimens were identified as eight species belonging to three genera Phlebotomus, Sergentomyia, Chinius, and comprised of S. anodontis, P. argentipes, P. stantoni, S. barraudi, S. silvatica, S. gemmea, S. indica, and C. barbazani. Sergentomyia anodontis (55.0%) was the predominant species followed by P. argentipes (33.6%) and others. Five species of sand fly were found throughout the year in this area: P. argentipes, P. stantoni, S. anodontis, S. barraudi and S. gemmea. The highest average density of sand flies was found in Ratree cave (35.0 sand flies per trap per night) and lowest in Bandai cave (29.0 sand flies per trap per night). The population of sand fly fluctuated from the highest peak in December (28.5%) to the lowest peak in May (2.3%). The distribution of sand fly species in attraction areas is important for the control program of infection risk of leishmaniasis.

  12. Development Strategy Analysis of BeiBu Gulf Ports for Hunan Province%面向湖南的北部湾港发展策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱念; 李伊; 梁碧兰

    2012-01-01

    中国—东盟自由贸易区建成后的贸易扩大与溢出效应明显,作为中国与东盟全面合作的桥头堡,广西北部湾经济区拥有西南地区最全面便捷的东盟通道,区位优势更加明显;中南制造业大省湖南外向型经济发达,传统的货物出海模式已经不适应湖南经济快速发展的需要,北部湾港作为湖南异地出海口具有可行性与必要性。北部湾港应因地制宜发展具有湘桂特色的"飞地"港口物流。%The expansion and spillover ettects of international commercial tradeare to be easy seen alter the completion of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area. As the pioneer between China and ASEAN countries cooperation, Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone favours the most convenient channel to ASEAN countries for the Southwest China. Sea ports in the Beibu Gulf are good out- let choices for Hunan province, manufacturing industry province in Middle-South China, whose traditional cargo sea model is no longer suitable for its rapid economy development. This article discusses the feasibility and necessity of the Beibu Gulf ports for I-lunan outlets, and makes a SWOT model analysis, from the view of win-win strategy, and the development of the Beibu Gulf ports, putting forward the construction of upgrading the Beibu Gulf ports by using the leverage the development of Hunan prov-ince.

  13. Comparison of two approaches for measuring household wealth via an asset-based index in rural and peri-urban settings of Hunan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balen Julie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing concerns regarding inequities in health, with poverty being an important determinant of health as well as a product of health status. Within the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, disparities in socio-economic position are apparent, with the rural-urban gap of particular concern. Our aim was to compare direct and proxy methods of estimating household wealth in a rural and a peri-urban setting of Hunan province, P.R. China. Methods We collected data on ownership of household durable assets, housing characteristics, and utility and sanitation variables in two village-wide surveys in Hunan province. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and principal axis factoring (PAF to generate household asset-based proxy wealth indices. Households were grouped into quartiles, from 'most wealthy' to 'most poor'. We compared the estimated household wealth for each approach. Asset-based proxy wealth indices were compared to those based on self-reported average annual income and savings at the household level. Results Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that PCA and PAF yielded similar results, indicating that either approach may be used for estimating household wealth. In both settings investigated, the two indices were significantly associated with self-reported average annual income and combined income and savings, but not with savings alone. However, low correlation coefficients between the proxy and direct measures of wealth indicated that they are not complementary. We found wide disparities in ownership of household durable assets, and utility and sanitation variables, within and between settings. Conclusion PCA and PAF yielded almost identical results and generated robust proxy wealth indices and categories. Pooled data from the rural and peri-urban settings highlighted structural differences in wealth, most likely a result of localized urbanization and modernization. Further research is needed

  14. 湖南省促农增收的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on Promoting Farmers' Income in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马智利; 邹仁功

    2011-01-01

    To increase peasant income is the primary issue to balance urban and rural development and to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas.Moreover,it is the core of issue of agriculture,rural and farmer.According to the application of gray mathematical model,the data of the rapid development of agriculture in Hunan province in recent years were analyzed to guide the'12th-Five-Year-Plan' agricultural development and farmers income increasing in Hunan province,and put forward the important approaches to improve agriculture and increase income were adjusting invest direction of rural fixed assets and increasing benefit area of rural fixed assets.%促进农民增收是统筹城乡发展、缩小城乡差距的首要问题,是"三农"问题的核心与根本所在。通过总结湖南省最近几年来农业高速发展的经验数据,应用灰色关联度的数学模型,对"十二五"期间湖南省的农业发展以及增加农民收入的问题进行指导,提出调整农村固定资产投资方向、增大农村固定资产的受益面积是促农增收的重要途径。

  15. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  16. Contribution to the speleology of Sterkfontein cave, Gauteng province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Jacques E. J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present more data about the speleological aspect of the Sterkfontein Cave, famous for its bone breccia which yielded abundant hominid remains. They also briefly review the previous voluminous studies by numerous authors, which are mainly dealing with the paleontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology of the breccia. The present investigations were oriented to hitherto poorly investigated aspects such as detail mapping of the cave, its country rock stratigraphy and recording the underground extension of the basal part of the breccia body. The cave consists of a complex network of phreatic channels, developed along joints in Neoarchaean cherty dolostone over a restricted surface of 250x250m. The combined length of all passages within this area amounts to 5,23km. The system extends over a height of about 50m and the dry part of it is limited downwards by the water-table appearing as numerous static pools. The fossiliferous breccia (= Sterkfontein Formation forms an irregular lenticular mass 75x25m horizontally by 40m vertically, which is included within the passage network. It crops out at surface and in the cave, and resulted from the filling of a collapse chamber, which was de-roofed by erosion. The present investigation confirmed that the cave and the Sterkfontein Formation are part of a single speleogenetic event. The breccia resulted from cavity filling by sediments introduced from a pit entrance, whereas many of the phreatic passages around it, which are developed at the same elevation, were only partly filled or remained entirely open up to present. This filling took place mainly in a vadose environment. Taking into account the age of the Sterkfontein Formation (>3,3-1,5 My, from base to top, the geomorphic evolution of the landscape and the context of other caves in the region, it seems that the cave might have started to form 5 My ago. It has been continuously developing up to present as a result of a slow drop of the water-table.

  17. Diplomatic Envoys of Four African Countries Visit Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>With Spring warmth awakening the flowers, ambassadors of Madagascar, Mali, Cameroon and Burundi went to Changsha, Hunan Province, for the 8th Lecture Tour of African Diplomatic Envoys. More than 100 people from the Commerce Bureau, the Development and Reform Commission and the Academy of Social Sciences of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University as well as SOEs and private enterprises took part in the activity.

  18. Burial Caves at Kaivang in Guizhou Province%贵州开阳平寨岩洞葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    贵州省文物考古研究所在开阳县高寨乡发掘围坡田洞、观音洞、仓口洞、幺罗寨洞4处岩洞葬,出土海贝、料珠、铜钱、陶片等文物,初步确定其为花仡佬遗存。%The Guizhou Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated four burial caves at Weipotiandong, Guanyindong, Cangkoudong, and Yaoluozhaidong at Gaozhai, Kaiyang County, Guizhou Province. Seashells, glass beads, copper coins, and pottery shards were unearthed here. These objects possibly belonged to the Huagelao people.

  19. 湖南省中学篮球教练员现状的调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis about the current situation of high school basketball coach in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海军; 郑怡

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等方法,通过对湖南省中学篮球教练员进行调查,分析和研究湖南省中学篮球教练员的现状。并针对其存在的问题提出促进教练员队伍健康发展的建议。%In this paper, with the methods of documents, investigation, intcrviewing experts, questionnaire and mathematical statistics, through the investigations of high school basketball coaches in Hunan Province, it analyzes and discusses the current situation of high school basketball coach in Hunan province. According to the existing problcrn, it makes suggestions to promote the healthy development of the coach team.

  20. Investigation on the Management of Designated Points for Pig Slaughtering in Hunan Province%湖南省生猪定点屠宰管理情况调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文成; 谭运华; 邱伯根; 邓云波; 吕晓星; 刘思华; 龙松青

    2014-01-01

    为了解生猪定点屠宰管理的现状和存在问题,湖南省农业部门对长沙市、郴州市、衡阳市等地的屠宰管理情况进行了实地调查研究,并在此基础上提出了相应的对策和建议,为规范生猪定点屠宰管理提供了参考。%To understand the present status and problems in the management of designated points for pig slaughter in Hunan Province,investigations on the pig slaughtering management were carried out in Changsha,Chenzhou and Hengyang in Hunan Province. Based on the investigations,countermeasures and suggestions were proposed to provide references in the standardized management of designated points for pig slaughtering.

  1. Emergence and spread of O16-ST131 and O25b-ST131 clones among faecal CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in healthy individuals in Hunan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-En; Liang, Xiang-Hui; Li, Yan-Ming; Jian, Zi-Juan; Hawkey, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli ST131 strain prevalence in stool specimens from healthy subjects in central China and to molecularly characterize clonal groups. Methods From November 2013 to January 2014, stool specimens from healthy individuals in Hunan Province were screened for ESBL-producing E. coli using chromogenic medium and CTX-M genotypes and phylogenetic groups were determined. ST131 clonal groups were detected by PCR and ch...

  2. 湖南省活禽市场与屠宰加工现状%Investigation on Live Poultry Markets and Poultry Slaughter-Processing in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文成; 谭运华; 邓云波; 吕晓星; 刘思华

    2014-01-01

    In order to know the situation of poultry slaughter-processing and live poultry market in Hunan province and analyze the problems of the management,investigations were carried out in the whole province. Some suggestions were proposed to promote the development of poultry slaughter-processing industry and standardize the management of live poultry markets in this paper,hoping to provide useful inspiration and reference for other regions.%为解湖南省家禽屠宰加工和活禽经营市场现状,分析在管理中存在的问题,在对湖南省活禽经营市场和家禽屠宰加工业进行调查后,提出了促进家禽屠宰加工业发展和规范活禽经营市场管理的建议,以期对全国其他地区的家禽屠宰及活禽交易管理提供启示和参考。

  3. SWOT Analysis of Intellectual Property Rights Strategies for Medicine Enterprise in Hunan Province%湖南省医药企业知识产权战略的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋; 杨俊; 张静; 闫福林; 王大新; 卢光洲; 王静成

    2011-01-01

    本文运用SWOT分析方法,分析湖南省医药企业知识产权战略的优势、劣势、机会和威胁,根据湖南省医药企业知识产权保护现状,提出了湖南省医药企业四大知识产权战略(SO、WO、ST、WT战略).湖南省医药企业必须加强知识产权战略的调整,才能在医药行业激烈的国际竞争中处于有利位置.%This article analyzed the advantage, weakness, opportunity and threat of intellectual property rights (IPR) strategy of pharmaceutical enterprises in Hunan province.In accordance with the current IPR protection of pharmaceutical enterprises in Hunan province, four IPR strategies in pharmaceutical enterprises, which are SO, WO, ST and WT strategy, were brought forward.Pharmaceutical enterprises in Hunan province should strengthen the IPR adjustment, so as to maintain a dominant position in the fierce international competition in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. 湖南省体育彩票销售市场现状分析及对策研究%Analysis of the Present Situation of Sports Lottery Sales Market in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周黎黎; 黄晓灿; 范运祥

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the methods of literature review,interview investigation,theory synthesis and so on,this paper makes a systematic research on the present situation of sales market of sports lottery in Hunan province and points out the main problems in the current sales market of sports lottery in Hunan province.It puts forward the countermeasures from the aspects of awareness enhancement,team building,strengthening advocacy,rich variety,increasing sales volume and so on,in order to provide certain references for developing the sales market of sports lottery in Hunan province.%采用文献资料、访问调查、理论综合等多种研究方法,对湖南省体育彩票销售市场的现状进行系统分析研究,指出湖南省体育彩票市场存在的主要问题,并从提高认识、队伍建设、加强宣传、丰富种类、提高销量等方面提出发展对策,旨在为湖南省体育彩票市场发展提供参考。

  5. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  6. 湖南白族学生体质量指数分析%Analysis on the body mass index of Bai nationality students in Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大元; 张惠娟; 石慧娟; 龚兴牡; 梁成青

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of body mass index ( BMI) and nutrient status of Bai nationality students aged 6 - 16 years old in Hunan province.Methods: The body height and weight of Bai nationality students were measured by anthropological method, and the BMI was calculated by formula.Results: The averages of BMI gradually increased with age increasing.Before 11 years old, the average of girls'BMI surpassed to that of boys', however, after 12 years old, the average of the boys'exceeded that of girls' The average of Bai nationality students'BMI was higher than that of Han ones of nationwide in 2000, however, was lower than that of Kazak ones in the same period.There was significant difference between boys and girls in nutritional status.Conclusion: The general nutrition status of Bai nationality students in Hunan province is good.However, the phenomena of malnutrition, overweight and obesity still exist in the Bai nationality students, nutrition education should be strengthened in students from primary and middle school.%目的:了解6 ~16岁湖南白族学生体质量指数分布特征及其营养现状.方法:应用人体测量法测量白族学生的身高和体质量,用公式计算体质量指数.结果:白族学生的BMI值随年龄增长呈现逐年增加趋势;11岁以前,女生的BMI均值低于男生,12岁后又高于男生;白族学生的BMI值高于2000年全国汉族学生,低于同期哈萨克族学生,白族男生和女生营养状况差异有统计学意义.结论:6~16岁湖南白族学生总体营养状况良好,但仍有营养不良、超重肥胖现象存在,应继续加强中小学生的营养教育.

  7. Analysis of Components of Rice Cost in Hunan Province%湖南省稻谷成本构成要素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丹蓉; 夏卫生; 胡贤辉; 刘业辉; 谢炳庚

    2011-01-01

    为了充分调动农民的种粮积极性,达到同工同酬的目的,通过大量现场调研并对湖南省典型地区生产成本、销售成本和政府补贴的综合计算和分析提出具有可操作性的直接补贴参考标准。结果表明,早、中、晚稻的生产成本存在明显的类型差异性和地区差异性,特别是地区差异非常显著;最高地区的日工资为71元,还未达到市场工资标准,但已是最低地区的2.6倍;为了达到同工同酬的目标,有必要实施地区差异性补贴。拟将湖南省各地区分为4个梯度,进行差异性补贴,使日工资基本接近,从而缩小农村内部的贫富差距,提高农民生产的积极性。%To stimulate farmers’initiatives effectively and to make sure that people get the same amount of wage for doing the same kind of work,a criterion of direct subsidies was provided on the basis of lots of field work.Calculation and analysis of the typical areas of Hunan Province based on the production cost,cost of sales and government subsidies indicated that in terms of production cost of early,middle and late rice,significant differences in types and areas were found.Differences among areas were especially noticeable.The highest daily wage of some areas,though failed to reach the standard wage set by the market,was 2.6 times that of other areas,which was at the bottom.Therefore,to make sure that people in different areas get the same amount of wage for doing the same kind of work,it is quite necessary to implement the differentiated subsidy policy.And at this stage,in order to narrow the financial gap among farmers and to stimulate farmers' initiatives,this program plans to divide Hunan Province into four districts of various production-cost gradients,so as to implement the differentiated subsidy policy well.

  8. A STUDY ON THE BRYOPHYTES OF KARST CAVE THRESHOLD AT KUNMING AREA IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, P.R.CHINA%中国昆明地区岩溶洞穴洞口带苔藓植物研究(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖; 彭涛; 李晓娜; 赵传海

    2004-01-01

    164 bryophyte specimens were collected from 12 karst caves in Yunnan Province, P.R. China. We found 25 species in 18 genera and 10 families which were listed with site, substrate, altitude, date, collectors . Fieldwork indicated the bryophytes grew within 0~26 m at the cave entrance. The cave luminous liverwort Cyathodium cavernarum Kunze was recorded in 6 caves. Two turf species, Gymnostomum aurantiacum (Mitt) Jaeg and G. recurvirostre Hedw. were associated with travertine deposition such as stalactite or wet stalagmite at thresholds.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF BAT ECTOPARASITE LEPTOCIMEX INORDINATUS FROM BAT-DWELLING CAVE, KANCHANABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Samung, Yudthana; Payakkapol, Anon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2016-01-01

    Bat bugs are blood-feeding insects of bats or warm blooded animals and humans. Since 2011, Leptocimex spp (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) has been reported in Thailand. However, microscopic examination of Leptocimex spp is complicated, especially when the entire body of the specimen is not available. To confirm the phenotypic identification of L. inordinatus from a limestone bat cave in Thailand, partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA were PCR amplified and sequenced, which revealed 97% sequence identity with Cimicidae family members, being most similar to Cacodminae gen. sp. and C. vicinus, both bat bugs. Phylogenetic tree construction showed that L. inordinatus has a separate genetic lineage from that of with human bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus or C. lectularius), swallow bugs and other tick species. The presence of L. inordinatus in a bat-dwelling cave frequented by humans presents a potential public health problem requiring attention in particular regarding the possibility of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. PMID:27086421

  10. 中部崛起的力量在于扩大开放%The Driver for the Rise of Central China Lies in Enlarging Opening up——Special Interview of He Tongxin, Vice Governor of the People's Government of Hunan Province, by Special Edition of China's Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺同新

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hunan Province refined four advantages in practice, got to know that the driver for the rise of Central China lies in enlarging opening up, and summarized the following points: to open to both domestic and overseas investors, attract both domestic and foreign capital, seek cooperation with both domestic and foreign partners,open up both domestic and international market, face reality, promote and absorb outside investment and encourage private capital is an important motive force, strategic measure and realistic choice for Hunan in quickening the development. This article clearly points out the five important fields that Hunan seeks for domestic and foreign cooperation in.

  11. 湖南省县域水稻的区域比较优势研究%Regional Comparative Advantage of Rice in the Countries of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓平洋; 曾福生

    2013-01-01

    通过综合比较优势指数法构建效率优势指数、规模优势指数以及综合比较优势指数3个指标,对湖南省122个县(市/区)在2000~2011年这12a的水稻比较优势进行了测定,根据综合比较优势指数形成的原因,将各县(市/区)的水稻综合比较优势划为3类:效率型、规模型和平衡型水稻种植优势区域;在优势区域划分的基础上提出了相应的水稻种植发展对策建议.%Using the comprehensive comparative advantage index method,three indicators,including efficiency advantage index,the scale advantages index and aggregated advantage index,were constructed to determine the comparative advantage of rice in 122 counties of Hunan Province from 2000 to 2011.According to the forming reasons of comprehensive comparative advantage indices,the comprehensive comparative advantage of rice in each county (city/district) was divided into three types,efficiency type,scale type and balance type.Then,the corresponding strategies and suggestions were put forward for development of rice planting.

  12. Ten newly recorded species of spermatophyte in Hunan Province%10种湖南省种子植物新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建军; 周电; 黎明; 周辉; 刘应志; 喻勋林

    2015-01-01

    记述了湖南省种子植物分布新纪录种10种。这些新记录种隶属于7科、10属,分别是山卷耳、思茅厚皮香、迎春樱桃、西桦、嵩明省沽油、山东万寿竹、海南蜘蛛抱蛋、广西柳叶箬、蛊羊茅、卵花甜茅等。%Ten species of spermatophyte reported for the first time in Hunan Province are newly recorded,which belong to seven families and ten genera.including Cerastium pusillum Ser.,Ternstroemia simaoensis L.K.Ling,Cerasus dis-coidea Yu et Li ,Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don,Staphylea forrestii Balf.f.,Disporum smilacina A.Gray , Aspidistra hainanensis W.Y.Chun &F.C.How ,Isachne guangxiensis W.Z.Fang ,Festuca fascinata Keng ex S.L. Lu ,Glyceria tonglensis C.B.Clarke.

  13. Tectonic property and deformation history of Sangzhi-Shimen synclinorium corridor profile in western margin region of Hunan-hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建华; 王明艳; 朱美衡; 刘学锋; 张或丹; 刘辰生

    2004-01-01

    The Sangzhi-Shimen synclinorium, which is in the western margin region of the Hunan-Hubei Province and as the southeast part of the middle Yangtze platform, is a second-level tectonics unit in the south of this region.Along the profile, it can be divided into 5 third-level structure belts. By the comprehensive interpretation of seismic data and magnetotelluric (MT) sounding data, it is found that the surface structure is not in accordance with that of the underground, and this un-coordination can be conducted by many decollement surfaces between the layers.There are three periods of deformation in its geo-history in this region: before the early Yanshan stage, during the early Yanshan stage and after the early Yanshan stage, while the main deformation period is during the early Yanshan stage. And the mechanism of deformation is the thrust faults in basement, which are controlled by many decollements, in addition to the decollement of the cap-rock.

  14. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs. PMID:27026539

  15. Impact of Small-scale Production Mode on Citrus Industry of Hunan Province,China——Based on the Investigation on Citrus Industry in Shimen County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale farmer is defined by the domestic and foreign experts and scholars.They point out that since the fragmentation of production and the diseconomy of scale in small-scale farmer is inconsistent with the characteristics of scale and technology of modern agricultural production,it is necessary to eliminate the adverse effects of existing mode in order to provide theoretical references for the relevant researches.Citrus industry in Shimen County,Hunan Province,China is introduced from the aspects of natural geographical condition and socio-economic benefit.Impact of small-scale production mode on citrus production in Shimen County is discussed.Firstly,blindness of small-scale production is the main reason leading to overproduction of citrus.Secondly,small-scale production mode has limitation on the acceptance of new technologies,restricts the operation of geographical trademark,and constraints the enthusiasm of enterprises in entering the agricultural field.Finally,suggestions are put forward,such as encouraging the circulation of rural land,improving the organization degree of farmers,changing the work function of grass-roots government and perfecting the agricultural financial credit system.

  16. 论抗战时期的湘政建设与湖南田赋征实%The“Management on Hunan Political Affairs”and“Land Tax Paid in Kind”in Hunan Province during the Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁也

    2015-01-01

    湖南的田赋征实是在开展湘政建设的大背景之下实施的。农业增产运动和行政改革都是湘政建设的重要内容。通过改良稻种、拓荒、植棉的途径致力于农业增产,为田赋征实的开展奠定了物质基础。建立一套适应粮食统制的粮食管理机构与为提高基层行政效率而实行的新县制这两方面也是湖南田赋征实开展的重要制度保障。这些行之有效的湘政建设是确保湖南田赋征实成功的重要原因之一。%With the development of “Management on Hunan Political Affairs”, Hunan province implemented the policy of“Land Tax paid in Kind”. Agricultural production movement and administrative reform were main substances of the “Management on Hunan Political Affairs”. By the means of improvement rice germplsm, colonized and cotton growing to increase the agricultural production, all of which laid the material foundation for the development of“Land Tax paid in Kind”. Establishing a set of food management institutions adapting to the Control Grain Policy and practicing the New County System for improving the administrative efficiency of substratums, which two aspects were also important institutional guarantee for carrying out the “Land Tax paid in Kind”. It was these effective“Management on Hunan Political Affairs”that were one of the important reasons to ensure the successful of the“Land Tax paid in Kind”.

  17. Hunan Gold Corporation Visiting South America to Develop Gold Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On November 2nd,Hunan Gold Corporation signed a cooperation agreement to collaboratively exploit gold resources in South America.Gold Corporation has made its first"Step Out",initiating its overseas landscape layout of resources.Gold Corporation is a leading enterprise of nonferrous metals in Hunan Province,the

  18. Present Situation Investigation of Pollination for Asian Sacred Lotus in Jiangxi Province, Hunan Province and Hubei Province%赣湘鄂三省荷花授粉现状调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭凤; 颜志立; 邵有全

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize present situation of Asian sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) in Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei Provinces, beekeepers who collected lotus pollen and lotus growers were interviewed with following aspects on July 5-11, 2012: ways of beekeeping and managing bees, income of beekeepers and lotus growers, necessity of bee pollination for lotus, meanwhile numbers and species of wild pollinators for lotus among three provinces were investigated. Results indicated that, there were fewer numbers and species of wild pollinators for lotus in three provinces, main wild pollinators were Hymenoptera insects as follows: Xylocopa sinensis Smith, Xylocopa valga Gestaecker, Xylocopa appendiculata Smith, Halictus aerarius Smith, Halictus subopacus Smith and so on, so high yield of lotus seed should be depended on bee pollination, bee pollination was more conducive to beekeepers and lotus growers to obtain higher yields. The best time of bee collecting lotus pollen was 5:00-8:00; temperature and wind-force were the main factors which affect the bee collection lotus. The price fluctuation of lotus pollen was influenced by natural disaster, marketing channel and supply-demand relationship. Beekeepers’age structure presented aging trend.%  为掌握赣湘鄂三省荷花(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn)授粉现状,2012年7月5—11日在江西、湖南、湖北三省对采收荷花粉蜂农以及当地荷花种植户进行了采访调查,针对蜂农放蜂和蜂群管理方式,蜂农和荷花种植户收益,蜜蜂为荷花授粉的必要性开展调查,同时在三省进行了荷花野生传粉昆虫数量和种类的资源调查。调查表明:三省荷花野生传粉昆虫种类和数量均较匮乏,经鉴定,荷花野生传粉昆虫主要为膜翅目昆虫,包括中华木蜂(Xylocopa sinensis Smith)、紫木蜂(Xylocopa valga Gestaecker)、黄胸木蜂(Xylocopa appendiculata Smith)、铜色隧蜂(Halictus aerarius Smith)、尖肩隧蜂(Halictus subopacus

  19. Changes in the exchange rate,foreign trade and economic growth---Taking Hunan Province as an example%汇率变动、对外贸易与经济增长--以湖南省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宪; 周亮; 陈勇

    2014-01-01

    Since the exchange reform in July selected in 2005 to 2013 December quarterly data,through establishing simultaneous equation model,using 3SLS(three stage least two surplus method)measurement method of RMB exchange rate changes on the impact of Hunan province foreign trade,economic growth empirical research. The empirical results show that:the real effective exchange rate of RMB appreciation of 1%,to reduce the rate of economic growth of 0.612%;import and export volume of Hunan Province,the growth rate decreased by 2.79%,the real effective exchange rate of RMB appreciation has a tightening effect on Hunan province economy growth.%选取了2005年7月汇改以来至2013年12月的季度数据,通过建立联立方程模型,利用3SLS(三阶段最小二剩法)计量方法就人民币汇率的变动对湖南省对外贸易、经济增长的影响进行实证研究。实证结果表明:人民币实际有效汇率升值1%,经济增长速度降低0.612%;湖南省进出口额的增长速度降低2.79%,人民币实际有效汇率升值对湖南省经济总量的增长有紧缩效应。

  20. Heavy metal pollution of soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province%湘江中下游农田土壤和蔬菜的重金属污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉霞; 郭朝晖; 肖细元; 陈同斌; 廖晓勇; 宋杰; 武斌

    2008-01-01

    A total of 219 agricultural soil and 48 vegetable samples were collected from the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River (the Hengyang-Changsha section) in Hunan Province. The accumulation characteristics, spatial distribution and potential risk of heavy metals in the agricultural soils and vegetables were depicted. There are higher accu- mulations of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural soils, and the contents of Cd (2.44 mg kg-1), Pb (65.00 mg kg-1) and Zn (144.13 mg kg-1) are 7.97, 3.69 and 1.63 times the corresponding background contents in soils of Hunan Province, respectively. 13.2% of As, 68.5% of Cd, 2.7% of Cu, 2.7% of Ni, 8.7% of Pb and 15.1% of Zn in soil sam- ples from the investigated sites exceeded the maximum allowable heavy metal contents inthe China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, Grade II). The pollution characteristics of multi-metals in soils are mainly due to Cd. The contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in vegetable soils are significantly higher than the contents in paddy soils. 95.8%, 68.8%, 10.4% and 95.8% of vegetable samples exceeded the Maximum Levels of Contami- nants in Foods (GB2762-2005) for As, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations, respectively. There are significantly positive correlations between the concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in vegetables and the concentrations in the corresponding vegetable soils (p<0.01). It is very necessary to focus on the potential risk of heavy metals for food safety and human health in agricultural soils and vegetables in the midstream and downstream of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province of China.

  1. 湖南省疟疾发生的时空演化过程分析%Analysis of Temporal-spatial Evolution Process About Malaria in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷俊华; 曾绍琴; 李光强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the evolutionary pattern of malaria in Hunan Province from 1983 to 1992. Methods Using the quantitative expression method of the temporal - spatial evolution pattern based on the barycenter pattern and the data distribution of onset space as weighting factor, the annual barycentric coordinates of malaria were calculated, the barycenter transfer curve of malaria was generated, and then the temporal - spatial evolution process of malaria in Hunan Province was expressed quantitatively. Results After the analysis, the transfer curve of malaria evolution in Hunan Province during the period of 10 years was concluded, and it mainly showed a shifting process from northwest to southeast. Conclusions The feasibility and accuracy of the quantitative expression method of the temporal - spatial evolution pattern are proved through the contrast experiment. The results suggest that there is no correlation between the process pattern of malaria evolution and the spatial scale of statistical analysis.%目的 研究湖南省1983 - 1992年疟疾发展演化模型.方法 利用基于重心模型的时空演化模型定量化表达方法,并以发病空间分布数据为权重,通过计算每年度疟疾重心坐标,生成疟疾重心转移曲线,从而定量地表达湖南省疟疾的时空演化过程.结果 分析得出了全省10年间疟疾演化转移过程曲线,大致表现为由西北向东南转移.结论 通过对比实验证明方法的可行性与正确性;疟疾演化过程模型与统计分析的空间尺度无关.

  2. Survey on Medical Students Abuse during Clinical Clerkships in Hunan Province%湖南省实习期医学生受虐状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕艳霞; 邓云龙; 姜红娟; 丁大为; 聂华林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of medical students abuse during clinical clerkships. Methods Clerkship abuse checklist developed by Shizuko Nagata -Kobayashi was used anonymously in 329 medical students in 8 teaching hospitals in Hunan province. Results In all five types of medical student abuse we investigated, verbal abuse (n = 210,67. 3%,P=0. 734)was the most common .The sources of abuse were:nurses(n=97.26. l%)vs verbal abuse,attending physician(n= 19,20. 9%)vs physical abuse,resident physician(n= 19,18. 2%)vs academic abuse,attending physician(n= 32,19. 9%)vs sexual harassment,attending physician and resident physictan(n = 36,20. 8%)vs gender discrimination. Surgical department was reported as the most common abusive site of verbal abuse(n=109,31. 6%),physical abuse (n = 32,36. 0%),sexual harassment(n = 42,38. 5%)and gender discrimination (n = 56,37. 1%). Internal medicine (n = 42,38. 5%)was reported as the most common abusive site of academic abuse. Conclusion The phenomenon of medical student abuse is common in Hunan province. All kinds of the abuse have bad effect on students. The main sources of abuse are physicians and nurses. The abuse happens most in surgery and gynecology.%目的 了解医学院校学生在临床实习期期间虐待的发生情况.方法 按照分层随机抽样的方法选取湖南省6所医学院校的8家直属、附属医院共312名实习医学生为调查对象,采用Shizuko Nagata- Kobayashi的医学实习生虐待调查表进行回顾性调查.结果 在医学生虐待的5种类型中,言语虐待事件发生的频率最高(n=210,67.3%,P=0.734).从施虐者来看,言语虐待的施虐者中护士占第一位(n=97,26.1%),躯体虐待中为主治医师(n=19,2o.9%),学业虐待中为住院医师(n=19,18.2%),性骚扰中也是主治医师(n=32,19.9%),性别歧视中住院医师和主治医师并列第一(n=36,20.8%).从虐待事件的发生科室来看,言语虐待和躯体虐待均以外科(n=109,31.6%、n=32

  3. 湖南省全科医生转岗培训效果评价%Position Transition Training for General Practitioners in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君; 晏强; 谭晓东; 贺晓华; 方亦兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of position transition training for general practitioners ( GPs ) in Hunan Province. Methods A survey was conducted among GPs who had participated in position transition training programs in 2010 in six randomly selected training bases of Hunan Province. Totally 420 questionnaire copies were distributed and 398 valid copies were collected. Results The subjects' sex ratio was 2. 06 : 1 ( male: female ), average age ( 34. 8 ±11. 2 ) years old, and average work experience ( 13. 0 ±6. 7 ) years. The proportion of assistant doctor, resident doctor, chief physician and above was 52.0% , 35.2% , and 12. 8% , respectively. The proportion of subjects with secondary technical diploma, junior college degree, and bachelor's degree was 16. 8% , 56. 8% , and 26. 4% , respectively. The proportion of full - time trainee and part -time trainee was 44. 2% and 55. 8% respectively. The average economic loss during the training program was ( 7 274. 7 ± 632. 9 ) yuan RMB. The subjects were good at clinical knowledge and skills, but poor at preventive healthcare knowledge and skills and auxiliary examination results. Conclusion Position transition training policies and measures, trainee selection criteria, training base construction, and teaching management should be improved and enhanced.%目的 评价湖南省全科医生转岗培训工作效果,为今后全科医生培养提供政策参考.方法 随机抽取6个全科医生转岗培训基地,对2010年度的培训学员进行整群抽样调查,发放问卷420份,回收有效问卷398份.结果 学员男女性别比为2.06:1,平均年龄(34.8±11.2)岁,平均工作年限(13.0±6.7)年;职称结构:助理医师占52.0%,执业医师占35.2%,主治以上职称医师占12.8%;学历结构:中专占16.8%,大专占56.8%,本科占26.4%.全脱产参与培训者占44.2%,半脱产参与培训者占55.8%;培训期间平均经济损失为(7 274.7±632.9)元.学员对临床知识技能的掌握情况较好,预

  4. The Development Situation and Prospects of Dairy Industry in Hunan Province in 2012%2012年湖南省奶业的发展状况与前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹; 张婷; 张佩华; 王加启; 沈维军; 兰欣怡; 刘海林; 覃春富; 柴宇光

    2013-01-01

    为促进湖南省奶业发展,本文对2012年湖南省奶业信息进行了监测.监测结果表明,2012年湖南省奶牛存栏数比2011年下降59.8%.生鲜乳价格持续走低,而奶牛饲料价格普遍上涨.生鲜乳质量安全状况一般,防治费用较高,部分乳制品加工企业拖欠奶款严重,使奶牛养殖面临困境.%In order to promote the development of dairy industry in Hunan province,some information of dairy industry in this province was monitoned in this essay.The results showed that the total number of dairy herds in 2012 was 59.8% lower than which in 2011 in Hunan Province.Raw milk price declined continuously while the prices of dairy cattle feedstuffs generally rose.The quality of raw milk was mediocreby with the higher cost in prevention.Dairy farming was in trouble due to some of the dairy processing factories were seriously in arrears.

  5. Primary Sn-rich titianite in the Qitianling granite, Hunan Province, southern China: An important type of tin-bearing mineral and its implications for tin exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Lei; WANG RuCheng; CHEN Jun; ZHU JinChu; ZHANG WenLan; WANG DeZi; YU APeng

    2009-01-01

    The Oitianling calc-alkaline granite in Hunan Province (South China) has attracted much attention since the discovery of the Furong super-large tin deposit. The present study provides new mineralogical data to address their implications for exploration of tin deposits. In the Taoxiwo granite in the southeastern part of the Qitianling granite body, Sn-rich titanite was identified as an important type of Sn-bearing mineral. The titanite commonly occurs with biotite as euhedral crystals, exhibiting typical envelope-like shape and sector-zoning texture. These indicate that the titanite most likely crystallized in the mag-matic stage. Electron-microprobe analyses show that the titanite is enriched in tin up to 1.12 wt% SnO2,with an average of 0.43 wt%. With the crystallization of the granite, primary minerals undertook hydro-thermal alteration by magma-derived fluids. Subsequently, in the hydrothermal stage, the primary Sn-bearing titanite was altered (at least partially), but still preserved its typical envelope-shaped outline. Micro-scale cassiterite is a representative product of such alteration; other secondary minerals include fluorite, ilmenite, Sn-bearing rutile and quartz. Therefore, the titanite, commonly present in the calc-alkaline granites, can be treated as an important Sn-carrying mineral in the Qitianling granite, reflecting the primary magmatic environment with tin enrichment. The hydrothermal alteration of the primary titanite and subsequent crystallization of cassiterite recorded a process of leaching and accumulation of tin in magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Sn-bearing granite. Thus, this titanite has important implications for tin exploration.

  6. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  7. 湖南通道染制侗布的民族植物学研究%Ethnobotanical research on the dying Dong cloth in Tongdao, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光华; 佘朝文; 曾汉元; 黄蔚霞; 马志尧; 罗健

    2012-01-01

    Dong nationality people have had the Dong cloth for hundreds of years. An ethnobotanical survey on the dying Dong cloth in Tongdao f Hunan Province, was carried out. The process of the dying Dong cloth was found to be very complicated and the plants used for the dying Dong cloth were different more or less among makers. The plants involved in the dying Dong cloth in Tongdao included 16 species,belonging to 14 families, 16 genera. All of them had some medicinal properties. Several plants were reported for the first time in the dying Dong cloth. The ethnobotanical knowledge of the dying Dong cloth had lost a lot in the villages. The further research is necessary.%侗族人民千百年来,一直从事侗布的染制.该文对湖南通道的侗布染制进行了详细的民族植物学研究,发现侗布的染制工艺繁杂,不同的人所用的植物有较大差异.侗布染制共涉及野生及栽培植物16种,分属14科16属.这些植物都有一定的药用功效,有些植物在染布中属首次报道.侗布染制的民族植物学知识在各个村寨流失严重,需要加强挖掘和整理.

  8. 湖南省1808例犯罪精神病人司法精神病学鉴定资料分析%Study on the Forensic Psychiatric Assessment of 1808 Criminal Insanes in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟华; 周亮; 邬力祥; 肖水源; 黎芝

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨湖南省司法精神病学鉴定结果为无/限定刑事责任能力的犯罪精神病人的特征.方法:利用自编档案资料采集表,对湖南省2005 -2009年经司法精神病学鉴定为无/限定刑事责任能力的1808例犯罪精神病人进行资料收集.结果:1808例犯罪精神病人中,生活在农村的未婚中青年男性占绝大多数,受教育程度较低,职业以农民为主,犯罪类型中以故意杀人罪(39.0%)和故意伤害罪(31.1%)分布最多,精神障碍诊断类型中以精神病性障碍(79.1%)最多,接受强制治疗者有284(15.7%)例.结论:湖南省犯罪精神病人大多数为农村中青年男性,接受强制治疗的比例很低.%Objective: To describe the characteristics of forensic psychiatrics expertise of criminal insanes in Hunan province. Methods: Data on 1808 criminal insanes in Hunan province from 2005 to 2009 were collected by self-compiled archive-collected table. Results: From 2005 to 2009, a total of 1808 criminal insanes were identified in Hunan Province. The majority of the 1808 cases were male, young and middle-aged, lived in rural area, and had low education level. The main types of the criminal cases were homicide and intentional injury, and psychotic disorder ranked the first mental illness diagnosis. Conclusion: Only a small proportion of criminal insanes had received compulsory treatment in Hunan province.

  9. A Study on Suicide Cognition of Medical Students in Hunan Province of China%湖南部分医学院学生自杀认知水平的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯珊珊; 肖水源; 白丽琼

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the knowledge about suicide among medical students in Hunan province of China and to provide scientific basis for preventing suicide. Methods:A total of 446 students were selected by random cluster sampling techniques and their knowledge of suicide was assessed by the Suicide Knowledge Questionnaire. Results, The correctness rates of three schools were 58.29%, 59.14% and 57.94% respectively. School teaching was the main channel for medical students to obtain suicide knowledge. Conclusion: Medical students have not received adequate education on suicide, and have some severe misunderstanding about suicide.

  10. 基于Dijkstra和GIS的湖南省应急物流模型研究%Model study of emergency logistics in Hunan Province based on Dijkstra and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢金龙; 武献宇

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics and logistics for the emergency needs of the logistics for the study area in Hunan Province. emergency supplies distribution models and algorithms based on the Dijkstra algorithm and GIS is proposed, and examples of the model is validated.%针对应急物流的特点和需求,以湖南省区域物流为研究对象,提出了一种基于Dijkstra算法和GIS的应急物资配送模型和算法,并用实例对模型进行了验证。

  11. Investigation of hyperbaric oxygenation medicine development in Hunan province of China%湖南省高压氧医学发展现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阿莉; 彭争荣; 祖映翔; 肖平田; 刘敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To know the development status of hyperbaric oxygen(HBO)medical discipline in Hunan Province.Methods Questionnaire,field survey,panel discussion,interview and the other methods were used to know human resources,equipments and facilities,medical treatment,teaching,research and other matters related to HBO medicine in this investigation.Results There are totally 288 hospitals at all levels carrying out HBO therapy provincially.Among them,municipal and county hospitals account for 34.0% and 55.9% respectively.The number of healthcare practitioners for HBO is 956.As for physician,junior and intermediate staff take up 41.8% and 35.7% respectively.Approximately two thirds of nurses are intermediate (63.1%).The largest part of technician is occupied by primary (68.8%).74.8% of physicians graduated as bachelor,however,most of nurses(66.0%)and technicians(75.8%)only have diploma below the bachelor level.Among 407 medical oxygen cabins in Hunan Province,air compression chambers (ACC)account for 45.4%.71.5% medical units within our survey use HBO.Annual income achieve 100-200 thousand for HBO therapy in 71.2% hospitals.86.1% hospitals are carrying out less than 5 HBO programs.HBO is established as a independent discipline in 20.83% hospitals.HBO special clinic service is set up in 25.0% hospitals while HBO special ward is not set up in any hospitals.In the recent 5 years,there were 33 research subjects about HBO,and 88 papers were published,and teaching subjects existed in only 6 medical units.The awareness rate of HBO is only 11.2% in non-medical staff.Conclusions The popularization of HBO medicine is fairly limited in Hunan Province presently.Research and teaching of HBO medicine is weak and social awareness is low.At the same time,allocation of human resource in HBO discipline is unreasonable,the distribution and type composition ratio of the HBO equipment are not uniform.For HBO,the configuration of clinical application is not perfect,the application is passive

  12. 湖南省蚱总科的调查(直翅目)%A survey of Tetrigoidea from Hunan province (Orthoptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑哲民

    2014-01-01

    5 families,19 genera and 36 species of Tetrigoidea from Hunan province are recorded in the present study,among them three species are new to science,i.e.Mazarredia hupingshanen-sis sp.nov.,Mazarredia hunanensis sp.nov.and Aalatettix hupingshanensis sp.nov. Mazarredia hupingshanensis sp.nov.is allied to Mazarredia convexa Deng,Zheng & Wei, 2007,but differs in:1)width of frontal ridge which between antennae is wider than that of first segment of antenna;2)upper margin of pronotum with slightly wave-like in profile;3)hind process of pronotum reaching the top of hind femur;4)lower margin of midfemur straight;5) lower outer side of hind femur with no black;6)hind tibia with brown. Length of body:♂6 mm;length of pronotum:♂6 mm;length of hind femur:♂5 mm. Holotype ♂,Hunan:Shimen(Hupingshan),17-Sept.-2004,collected by Wang Ji-Liang. Mazarredia hunanensis sp.nov.is allied to Mazarredia platynota Zheng et Ou,2010,but differs in:1 )vertex and frontal ridge forming an obtuse rounded in profile;2)frontal ridge slightly concave before lateral oculus in profile;3)lateral oculus being in the middle of the anteri-or margin of eyes;4)upper margin of pronotum slightly wave-like before shoulders and straight behind it in profile;5)width of midfemur is narrower than the width of tegmina;6)lower outer side of hind femur with no black;7)hind tibia brown. Length of body:♀9 mm;length of pronotum:♀10 mm;length of hind femur:♀5.2 mm. Holotype ♀,Hunan:Yuangling,1-Sept.-2004,collected by Wang Ji-Liang. Aalatettix hupingshanensis sp.nov.is allied to Aalatettix leshanensis Zheng,Cao & Chen, 2011 and Aalatettix cangshanensis Zheng,Lin & Zhang,2013.It differs from both in:1)vertex and frontal ridge forming a rounded in profile;2)upper margin of pronotum nearly straight in profile;3)hind process of pronotum reaching knee of hind femur.The new species also differs from A.cangshanensis in:1)vertex protruding before the anterior margin of eyes in dorsal view;2)lower margin of midfemur

  13. 湖南省耕地及粮食生产变化分析%Analysis of Change of Cultivated Land and Grain Production in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红霞; 谢永红; 王翠红; 杨君; 袁红

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] This paper aimed at exploring the countermeasures for cultivated land protection and food security assurance and providing references for the formulation of policies related to cultivated land and grain production of the whole province.[Methods] Data of population,cultivated land,grain and others in Hunan Province during 1989 to 2008 were collected by county(district).The changes of cultivated land and grain production of the whole province were analyzed using Geographical Information System(GIS).[Results] The population was increasing continuously,the total area of cultivated land was reducing as a whole in spite of increasing in one or two year in one or two county,the total grain production and per capita grain yield was fluctuated within a certain range in recent 20 years of the whole province.The reducing of cultivated land was mainly due to the industrialization and urbanization development.The unbalanced quantity and quality of cultivated land,various natural disasters,readjustment of industry structure and inner readjustment in the agriculture,variety improvement and improvement of cultivated technology mainly affected of the grain production.[Conclusions] The protection of the quantity and quality of cultivated land has to be strengthened to ensure food security.It is important to enhance the ability of resisting drought and flood disasters by improving the construction of agriculture establishment in order to insure the productivity of cultivated land,to increase farmer’s enthusiasm for growing grain with favourable food policy,to improve the per unit area yield of grain by variety improvement and to increase grain sown area by enlarging the double-cropping rice sown area.%[目的]探求保护耕地和保障粮食安全的对策,为湖南省耕地和粮食相关决策制定提供参考。[方法]以县(区)为单位收集了湖南省1989~2008年人口、耕地和粮食等数据,利用地理信息系统平台分析了全省耕

  14. 湖南省耕地及粮食生产变化分析%Analysis of Change of Cultivated Land and Grain Production in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红霞; 谢永红; 王翠红; 杨君; 袁红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探求保护耕地和保障粮食安全的对策,为湖南省耕地和粮食相关决策制定提供参考.[方法]以县(区)为单位收集了湖南省1989 ~2008年人口、耕地和粮食等数据,利用地理信息系统平台分析了全省耕地、粮食的变化情况.[结果]全省20年人口持续增加,耕地面积整体减少,粮食总量及人均粮食占有量在一定范围内波动.工业化、城市化等是导致耕地减少的主要原因,耕地在数量和质量上占补不平衡、自然灾害的影响、农业产业结构的调整、品种改良和种粮技术的提高是影响粮食生产的重要原因.[结论]要确保全省粮食安全,必须加强耕地质和量上的保护,通过改善农业基础设施建设提高抵御旱涝灾害能力以保障耕地生产力,通过惠粮等政策提高农民种粮积极性,通过改良品种提高粮食单产,通过提高双季稻种植面积增大粮食播种面积.%[Objective] This paper aimed at exploring the countermeasures for cultivated land protection and food security assurance and providing references for the formulation of policies related to cultivated land and grain production of the whole province. [ Method] Data of population, cultivated land, grain and others in Hunan Province during 1989 to 2008 were collected by county (district). The change of cultivated land and grain production of the whole province were analyzed using Geographical Information System (CIS). [ Result] The population was increasing continuously, the total area of cultivated land was reducing as a whole in spite of increasing in one or two year in one or two county, the total grain production and per capita grain yield was fluctuated within a certain range in recent 20 years of the whole province. The reducing of cultivated land was mainly due to the industrialization and urbanization development. The unbalanced quantity and quality of cultivated land, various natural disasters, readjustment of industry

  15. The Development Current Situation and Prospects of Dairy Industry in Hunan Province in 2013%2013年湖南省奶业发展现状与前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩奇鹏; 李松励; 张养东; 张佩华; 朱丹; 张婷; 刘海林

    2014-01-01

    To regain the people's confidence in the dairy industry in Hunan province, this article in 2013 conducted an investigation on the development status of dairy industry. Survey results showed that, although the number of dairy cows in Hunan province in 2013 fell 0.96% over 2012, but raw milk prices continued to rise, and dairy feed was used more scientific and rational. Meanwhile, the quality and safety situation of raw milk had been greatly improved. Through government support and corporate restructuring, some dairy products processing enterprises have pay off the milk of dairy farmers. By the introduction of domestic and foreign advanced equipment and the management idea, there will be new development for dairy breeding in Hunan.%本文对2013年湖南省奶业的发展现状进行了调研,调研结果表明,虽然2013年湖南省奶牛存栏数比2012年下降0.96%,但是生鲜乳价格持续上涨,而且奶牛饲料使用更加科学合理。同时,生鲜乳质量安全状况得到了很大改善。通过政府的支持和企业改组,部分乳制品加工企业拖欠奶农的奶款已经基本还清,同时引进国内外先进设备和管理思路,使湖南奶牛养殖业进入新的发展阶段。

  16. Research on the Innovation Efficiency of High-Tech Industry of Hunan Province Based on DEA%基于DE A的湖南省高技术产业创新效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹兴; 黄玲雁

    2014-01-01

    针对湖南省高技术产业的创新效率,运用DEA方法,构建评价指标体系,以2000-2011年高技术产业的投入产出数据为依据,通过MATLAB建模进行评价分析。结果表明:湖南省高技术产业创新效率整体不高,在研究人员和经费方面存在较大过剩。在此基础上进一步分析了导致创新效率非有效性的原因。%Referring to the innovation efficiency of high -tech industry of Hunan province,this paper uses the method of DEA to establish evaluation index system.Based on the input -output data from 2000 to 2011,it builds a model by MATLAB to evaluate and analyze the data.The results show that the whole innovation efficiency of high-tech industry of Hunan province is not high,and R&D personnel and expenditure have a large surplus. Based on these,it further analyzes the causes of innovation inefficiency.

  17. Research on the Innovation Efficiency of High-Tech Industry of Hunan Province Based on DEA%基于DE A的湖南省高技术产业创新效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹兴; 黄玲雁

    2014-01-01

    针对湖南省高技术产业的创新效率,运用DEA方法,构建评价指标体系,以2000-2011年高技术产业的投入产出数据为依据,通过MATLAB建模进行评价分析。结果表明:湖南省高技术产业创新效率整体不高,在研究人员和经费方面存在较大过剩。在此基础上进一步分析了导致创新效率非有效性的原因。%Referring to the innovation efficiency of high -tech industry of Hunan province,this paper uses the method of DEA to establish evaluation index system.Based on the input -output data from 2000 to 2011,it builds a model by MATLAB to evaluate and analyze the data.The results show that the whole innovation efficiency of high-tech industry of Hunan province is not high,and R&D personnel and expenditure have a large surplus. Based on these,it further analyzes the causes of innovation inefficiency.

  18. 湖南省休闲农业发展的SWOT分析及对策研究%SWOT Analysis for Development of Leisure Agriculture in Hunan Province and Its Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振国; 朱雅玲; 祝琪雅; 刘英; 胡任远

    2012-01-01

    发展休闲农业对促进农村生产发展、提高农民生活水平等都有着十分重要的作用.利用SWOT的分析方法,分析了湖南省休闲农业发展的优势、劣势、机遇和挑战,针对制约湖南休闲农业发展的相关因素,提出了加强政府引导,科学规划布局,提高经营水平、完善公共基础设施,发掘地方文化资源、加强市场推广等相应对策.%Development of leisure agriculture plays an important role in promoting development of rural production and enhancing the living standards of farmers. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of development of leisure agriculture in Hunan Province were analyzed by SWOT method, and according to the factors which restricted the development of leisure agriculture in Hunan Province, some strategies were proposed as follows: strengthening government guidance, scientifically planning layout, enhancing operation level, perfecting communal infrastructure, mining local cultural resources, and reinforcing market popularization.

  19. 湖南省公路交通暴雨风险评价研究%Assessment of rainstorm risk to highway in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武永峰; 张勇; 陈鲜艳; 尚赞娣; 刘布春

    2011-01-01

    Supported by geographic information system (GIS) technique and gray comprehensive assessment meth- od, this study set up a rainstorm risk evaluation model of highway based on the raster data, through which the rain- storm risk of the highways in Hunan Province were evaluated. The risks of the rainstom were graded into low, mid- dle, relatively high, high and very high. The results of the risk evaluation are validated using the local disaster los- ses and shows that the regions with the serious road washouts are mainly distributed in Yueyang, Yongzhou, Chenz- hou, Changde, Zhangjiajie, Xiangxi and Loudi, and their rainstorm risks are greater than that of other regions. The mostly damaged highways locate in the high risk areas and above it. It is proved that the risk model is effective for the assessment on the rainstorm risk of the highways. boundaries and reveals the spatiotemporal patterns of the support forecasts of the rainstorm disaster of highways. The model breaks through the limitation of administrative rainstorm risk of the highways, even supplies a technical%以湖南省为例,在地理信息系统技术和灰色综合评价方法的支持下,建立了基于栅格数据的公路交通暴雨风险评价模型,对湖南省公路交通暴雨风险状况进行了评价与分析。结果表明:公路水毁情况严重的岳阳、永州、郴州、常德、张家界、湘西以及娄底等地,其暴雨风险水平亦较高;受灾国道和省道几乎均处于较重度以上暴雨风险区。说明本风险评价模型具有一定的可信度。基于栅格数据层建立的公路交通暴雨风险评价从空间上突破了行政界限的制约,突出显示了公路受灾风险的时空格局,为公路暴雨灾害预报提供了技术支持。

  20. Use of Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry Technique to model Danxia red bed landform slope stability by discrete element modeling - case study at Mt. Langshan, Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Scott; Hua, Peng; Luobin, Yan; Zhi, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Important to the evolution of Danxia landforms is how the rock cliffs are in large part shaped by rock collapse events, ranging from small break offs to large collapses. Quantitative research of Danxia landform evolution is still relatively young. In 2013-2014, Chinese and Slovak researchers conducted joint research to measure deformation of two large rock walls. In situ measurements of one rock wall found it to be stable, and Ps-InSAR measurements of the other were too few to be validated. Research conducted this year by Chinese researchers modeled the stress states of a stone pillar at Mt. Langshan, in Hunan Province, that toppled over in 2009. The model was able to demonstrate how stress states within the pillar changed as the soft basal layer retreated, but was not able to show the stress states at the point of complete collapse. According to field observations, the back side of the pillar fell away from the entire cliff mass before the complete collapse, and no models have been able to demonstrate the mechanisms behind this behavior. A further understanding of the mechanisms controlling rockfall events in Danxia landforms is extremely important because these stunning sceneries draw millions of tourists each year. Protecting the tourists and the infrastructure constructed to accommodate tourism is of utmost concern. This research will employ a UAV to as universally as possible photograph a stone pillar at Mt. Langshan that stands next to where the stone pillar collapsed in 2009. Using the recently developed structure-from-motion technique, a 3D model of the pillar will be constructed in order to extract geometrical data of the entire slope and its structural fabric. Also in situ measurements will be taken of the slope's toe during the field work exercises. These data are essential to constructing a realistic discrete element model using the 3DEC code and perform a kinematic analysis of the rock mass. Intact rock behavior will be based on the Mohr Coulomb

  1. Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance in county-level laboratories in Hunan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Peilei; Bai Liqiong; Liu Fengping; Ou Xichao; Zhang Zhiying; Yi Songlin; Chen Zhongnan

    2014-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF showed high sensitivity and specificity in previous studies carried out in different epidemiological and geographical settings and patient populations in high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries.However,there were little data obtained by validation or demonstration study of the assay in China.In this study,the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF was investigated in two county-level laboratories in Hunan Province,China.Methods Consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and suspicion for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were enrolled.For each patient suspected to have PTB,three sputum specimens (one spot sputum,one night sputum,and one morning sputum) were collected and each sputum was tested with smear microscopy,L(o)wenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture,and Xpert MTB/RIF test.For comparison across subgroups and testing methods,95% confidence intervals were calculated.All analyses were done with SPSS 16.0,and P <0.05 was regarded as significant.Results For case detection,the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% for smear-and culture-positive TB and 88.6% for smear-negative and culture-positive TB; the overall sensitivity was 94.5% for all culture-positive patients.The specificity was 99.8%.The sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22.0% in clinical TB patients and the specificity reached 100.0% in the group of patients who are infected with nontuberculous mycobacteria.For the detection of rifampin resistance,the sensitivity of MTB/RIF RIF-resistance detection was 92.9%,and the specificity was 98.7%.Of the 26 Xpert MTB/RIF-positive and RIF-resistant patients confirmed by LJ proportion tests,20 (76.9%) patients were infected by MDR-TB.Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a highly sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of TB and RIF resistance,which will enable it to have the potential to be used in county-level laboratories and lead to the reduction of the infectious pool and improvements in TB

  2. Hunan Concentrated on Improving Development Quality and Performance of Nonferrous Metalslndustry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Working Conference of Hunan Province Nonferrous Metals Industry was recently held in Changsha.Chen Quanxun,Counselor of theState Council,and President of China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association,said that under the economic new normal stage,Hunan Province nonferrous metals industry

  3. 湖南省物流装备制造业集群构建分析%The Build Analysis of Logistics Equipment Manufacturing Industry Cluster in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓爱民; 小平; 文慧; 田流

    2014-01-01

    分析了我国物流业快速发展下的物流装备制造业及其产业集群带来的发展机遇,湖南省作为装备制造业大省有优势和实力发展物流装备制造业。本文在波特-珰宁模型的基础上,首次引入装备制造业中的龙头(核心)企业作用,构建基于核心企业的装备制造业集群竞争力模型,由此从生产要素、需求条件、龙头(核心)企业、相关产业和支持产业的表现、企业战略、结构和竞争对手、国际合作与跨国公司、政府行为和机遇等八个方面,进行具有竞争力的湖南物流装备制造业集群构建分析,以期为湖南物流装备制造业集群发展提供决策依据。%the author analyzes the development opportunity of the logistics equipment manufactur-ing industry and its cluster with the logistics industry rapid development in our country under, Hunan province, as a powerful province of equipment manufacturing industry, has advantages and strength to development of logistics equipment manufacturing industry. Based on Porter-Dangning model in this pa-per, firstly introducing the role of a leading (core) enterprise in equipment manufacturing industry, con-structs a competitive model of equipment manufacturing industry cluster, on this basis, from the factors of production, demand conditions, leading (core) enterprises, the performance of the relevant industry and support industry, enterprise strategy, structure and competition, international cooperation and multina-tional companies, government behavior and the opportunity, such as eight aspects to analyze a competi-tive building of logistics equipment manufacturing industry cluster of in Hunan province,in order to provide a basis for decision-making in logistics equipment manufacturing industry cluster development of Hunan province.

  4. A Research of Industrial Structure Optimization under Low-Carbon Constrains in Hunan Province%低碳约束下湖南省产业结构优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锐; 刘岑婕; 屈晓翔

    2014-01-01

    在湖南省“十二五”规划工业产业节能减排的背景下,如何在碳减排目标的基础上,实现产业结构优化,成为湖南省面临的重大挑战.本文构建低碳约束下湖南省主导产业选择指标体系,计算并选取湖南省无低碳约束和有低碳约束下的主导产业.进一步,本文设计无低碳约束、弱低碳约束和强低碳约束三种情景模拟,分析不同的低碳约束条件对湖南省主导产业选择的影响.本文结论如下:1)无低碳约束条件下,湖南省主导产业包括有色金属冶炼及压延加工业等碳生产力较低的行业,低碳约束条件下,湖南省主导产业包括食品制造业等碳生产力较高的行业.这表明,考虑低碳约束条件,湖南省主导产业由碳生产力较低的行业向碳生产力较高的行业转变.2)情景模拟结果表明,一些传统支柱型产业仍是湖南省产业结构优化中需重点发展的产业,且随着低碳政策的深化和节能减排目标的扩大,战略性产业如医药制造业成为主导产业,在产业结构优化中发挥中坚作用.%In the background of industrial energy conservation in the Hunan “Twelfth Five Year Plan”,how to achieve the industrial structure optimization on the basis of carbon reduction becomes a major challenge in Hunan Province.We devel-oped the leading industries index system under low carbon constraint.Then,we selected the leading industries without carbon constraint or with low carbon constraint.This paper also designed three scenario simulation———without carbon constraints, weak carbon constraint and strong carbon constraint———to analyze how different carbon constraints influence the choice of the leading industries in Hunan Province.The conclusions are as follows:1 )Without carbon constraint,the leading industries in Hunan are industries with lower carbon productivity like non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing industry

  5. 湖南省老年人牙齿缺失及修复情况抽样调查%A sampling investigation of tooth loss and prosthetic condition of the elderly people in Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘哲; 冯云枝

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the condition of tooth loss and denture restoration of the elderly people in Hunan Province. Methods The survey of tooth loss and denture restoration of the elderly people in Hunan was conducted using randomly sampling stratified cluster method. Results The prevalence of tooth loss of the elderly was 64.8% , and the percentage of edentulous people was 2.44%. There were only 35.6% of the elderly had prosthesis, and 41.8% of the missing teeth were repaired. For the repair rate of missing teeth, there was statistical significance between urban and rural, as well as between male and female ( P 0.05 ). Furthermore, inappropriate dental prosthesis appeared most frequently among the elderly people. Conclusion More work should be done to improve the repair rate of missing teeth among the elderly in Hunan. Moreover, it is necessary to prevent inappropriate or offensive dental prosthesis.%目的 了解湖南省老年人牙齿缺失及义齿修复情况.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样的方法,对湖南省老年人牙齿缺失及义齿修复情况进行抽样调查.结果 老年人牙齿缺失率为64.8%,无牙颌率为2.44%,义齿修复率为35.6%,牙齿修复率为41.8%.不同性别、城乡间牙齿修复率有差异(P0.05);义齿修复种类以"不良修复体"所占比例最高.结论 湖南省老年人牙齿修复率有待进一步提高,且要避免不良修复体.

  6. Phlebotomine sand flies of edible-nest swiftlet cave of Lang Ga Jiew Island, Chumphon province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittsamart, B; Samruayphol, Suchada; Sungvorayothin, Sangsit; Pothiwat, Ratcharin; Samung, Yudthana; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2015-09-01

    The present study reported for the first time phlebotomine sandfly species inhabiting edible-nest swiftlet cave of the isolated island, based on field collections made during June 2010-May 2011. The insect diversity was relatively lower to that of mainland caves. All species, Phlebotomus stantoni, Sergentomyia anodontis, Sergentomyia bailyi, Sergentomyia gemmea, Sergentomyia hodgsoni and Sergentomyia punjabensis were either endemic island species or native elsewhere in Thailand. Sergentomyia hodgsoni was the most prevalent species accounted for 94.7% and classified as a troglophile species. Seasonal pattern of the phlebotomine abundance and some aspects of their population characteristics were described and discussed. Two ectoparasites, Ornithodorus and Paracimex sp. were also incidentally collected from the swiftlet cave.

  7. Cesarean section distribution in midwifery institutions in Hunan Province in 2012%2012年湖南省助产机构剖宫产率分布情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小英; 吴颖岚; 王华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution characteristics of cesarean section in midwifery institutions in 2012 (3 + 1) in Hunan province and provide some references for controlling cesarean section.Methods The distribution of cesarean delivery in 2012 (3 + 1) in Hunan province were retrospectively analyzed.Results The peaks of cesarean delivery rate in the midwifery institutions most appeared in the first quarter in 2012.That the county or township institutions hadn't properly control cesarean delivery played a key role in cesarean section rate staying at a high level.Conclusions Strengthening the control regulation and midwives training of county or township midwifery organizations will be the breakthrough for controlling cesarean delivery rate in our province.%目的 分析湖南省2012年度(3+1)模式各级助产机构剖宫产率分布情况,为探讨控制剖宫产率的有效途径提供科学依据.方法 对湖南省2012年(3+1)模式各市州剖宫产率分布情况进行回顾性分析.结果 2012年度各市州助产机构剖宫产率峰值大部分出现在一季度;剖宫产率居高不下的关键在于县级、乡级助产机构剖宫产率的控制不当.结论 加强对县级、乡级助产机构剖宫产率控制的监管及助产人员培训,将是我省控制剖宫产率的突破口.

  8. The Top-down Design of Hunan Province High-tech Park Innovation System Base on Efficiency Evaluation%基于效率评价的湖南省高新区创新体系顶层设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴平; 唐承丽; 周龙

    2015-01-01

    构建高新区创新体系是高新区可持续发展的必然选择。湖南省高新区创新体系的顶层设计应以构建各创新主体为中心的网络化、开放化、协同化发展的多元联动创新网络体系为建设目标,通过DEA模型对湖南省12家高新区创新效率进行评价,结果表明全省多数高新区都存在纯技术效率和规模效率都偏低的问题,仅5家园区为DEA有效单元,进一步对非DEA有效单元进行投影分析指出其效率提升方向,最后就全省高新区创新体系建设提出了完善措施。%It is the necessary choice to construct the innovation system of new and high‐tech zones for the sustainable development of new and high‐tech zones. The top‐level design of innovation system of new and high‐tech zones in Hunan Province should take multi‐linkage innovation net‐work system of networking ,opening and cooperative development with the center of various innovation subjects as the construction objectives.Through the model of DEA ,it evaluates the innovation efficiency of 12 new and high‐tech zones in Hunan Province and the result shows that most of the new and high‐tech zones have the problems of low pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. And there are only five parks have the DEA effective unit. Besides ,it further has projection analysis on the non‐DEA effective unit and points out their direction for efficiency improvement.Finally ,it puts forward the perfect measures on the construction of innovation system of new and high‐tech zones in Hunan Province .

  9. Occurring Characters and Trend of Diseases and Insect Pests of Rice in Hunan Province%湖南省水稻病虫害发生特点及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀秀; 张政兵; 尹丽; 谭小平

    2012-01-01

    With favorable geography and climate conditions, Hunan Province is very suitable for rice growth, also beneficial to the occurrence of rice pests and diseases. In recent years, rice stem borers, hopper, leaf roller and sheath blight occurred widespread and severe and new pests are continuously emerging, which became a serious threat to agricultural production. With the effect of climate warming and changes in cultivation ways, rice pests and diseases will continue to be severe in next several years in Hunan.%湖南省地理、气候条件优越,适宜水稻生长,也利于各种水稻有害生物的发生危害.对2001~2011年水稻螟虫、稻飞虱、稻纵卷叶螟、纹枯病等主要病虫害及次要病虫害的发生特点进行了分析.预计受气候变暖、水稻耕种方式改变等因素的影响,今后一段时期湖南省水稻病虫害发生将呈现增加趋势.

  10. 基于钻石模型的湖南省农业产业集群分析%Analysis of Agricultural Industry Cluster in Hunan Province by Diamond Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭菁; 胡麦秀

    2011-01-01

    基于波特的钻石模型,从生产要素,需求状况,相关与辅助产业,企业战略、结构和同业竞争等4个关键因素,及机会和政府行为2个辅助因素,对湖南省农业产业集群的现状进行了简述和相关分析,提出在当前大力推进现代化农业建设的背景下,湖南应大力发展农业产业集群,促进现代农业建设.%Based on Michael Porter's Diamond Model, the status quo of agricultural industry cluster in Hunan Province was reviewed and analyzed from four key factors (production factors, demand status, related and assistant industry,strategy and structure of enterprise and horizontal competition) and two assistant factors (opportunity and government behavior).It proposed that under the background of vigorously promoting modem agricultural construction at present,Hunan should greatly develop agricultural industry cluster and promote modem agricultural construction.

  11. RISK ZONING OF FLOOD DISASTER ALONG XIANGJIANG RIVER IN HUNAN PROVINCE%湘江湖南段洪水灾害综合风险区划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫宏伟; 李少青; 陶建军; 刘晗; 肖志坤

    2011-01-01

    Risk zoning of flood disaster is the base of flood risk management.The advance in resolution of data can guide flood control,and flood insurance in a macroscopic view is available.Taking the catchment area along Xiangjiang River in Hunan Province as an example,and on the basis of elementary principles of natural disasters risk assessment,calculative model was established to obtain comprehensive flood disaster risk value which was computed by the integrated dangerous degree and comprehensive socio-economic vulnerability.Based on 30 m ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model(GDEM) data,climate data from 37 meteorological stations during 1971 to 2006,and 2008 socioeconomic statistic data,with the support of ArcGIS and quantitative geo-science methods,the regionalization map of comprehensive risk of flood disaster in study area was drawn by calculating proportion of risk areas.The regionalization map divided general risk assessed results mainly into four grades,that is,the lower risk region,moderate risk region,higher risk region and the highest risk regions.The results show that the highest integrated dangerous degree of flood disaster areas are mainly distributed in Xiangyin and Chang-Zhu-Tan region which along the lower reaches of Xiangjiang River.The highest comprehensive socioeconomic vulnerability areas is distributed in urban that in high population density.Xiangyin,Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan and Hengyang belong to the highest comprehensive flood disaster risk areas.The results can provide quantitatively theoretic basis for environmental management and ecological risk decision-making.%以湘江湖南段河流沿线地区为例,基于自然灾害风险评价的基本原理构建了洪水灾害综合风险值计算模型,即综合危险度和综合社会经济易损度的叠加。利用研究区全球数字高程模型(GDEM)数据、1971~2007年地面气象站观测数据和2008年社会经济统计数据等,借助地理信息系统(GIS)技术和地学

  12. 湖南省长沙市博林金谷小区建筑设计与规划%On design and planning for architectural design of Bolinjingu complex in Changsha city of Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2015-01-01

    以湖南省长沙市柏林金谷小区的建筑设计和规划为研究内容,提出了“人文与自然和谐相处”的设计理念,对小区中的规划布局、道路系统、绿化景观系统、建筑设计进行了详细的说明,以供参考和借鉴。%Based on the architectural design and planning for Bolinjingu complex in Changsha city of Hunan province,the paper points out the design idea of the harmonious relationship between humankind and nature,and indicates the planning layout,road system,reforestation land-scape system,and architectural design,so as to provide some reference.

  13. 湖南省两型产品认定标准的研究与实践%Research and Practice of Identification Standards for Resource-saving and Environment-friendly Products in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林

    2014-01-01

    从两型产品的定义、分类及主要特征等方面,分析研究了湖南省两型产品认定的标准理论体系,并介绍了湖南省两型产品认定及政府采购支持的开展情况。%The paper introduces the definition, classification and main characteristics of resource-saving and environment-friendly products (two-oriented products), analyzes the standard theoretical system of two-oriented products, and presents the identification of two-oriented products as well as the government procurement support in Hunan province.

  14. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Underhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  15. 湖南芷江石雕工艺行业从业人员现况调查%A Survey of Current Employees of Stone -carving in Zhijiang County of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晴晴

    2013-01-01

    Stone-carving plays a vital role in transmitting the cultural elements in the age -old architectures and buildings , for the sake of the cultural information in great varieties and in different periods , which is to be positively inherited and spread one generation after another . The stone-carving in Zhijiang County of Hunan Province enjoys an insurmountable cultural and artistic value for its thriving themes and forms , exquisite crafts and techniques , profound implication and connotation , gorgeous designs and artistry , hence a prosperous development up to now . In light of the prospect of the stone -carving , a survey of current employees in Zhijiang County of Hunan Province is comprehensively conducted as a result .%  石雕是古建筑中的主要文化元素之一,石雕的内容、形式传递着不同时代的文化信息,同时对文化思想的传播产生着积极的影响。芷江民间石雕内容形式丰富、工艺精美、内涵深厚丰满、艺术特色强,具有很高的文化、艺术价值,当下芷江石雕工艺行业发展到了一个关键时期,基于对这个传统工艺行业发展前景的探索与研究,就芷江石雕行业从业人员的现状进行了较为全面的调查。

  16. 湖南省体育产业统计指标体系设置与实施研究%Research on Statistical Indicators System and the Implementation of Sports Industry in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少英; 王美芬

    2012-01-01

    In the rapid development of sports industry in Hunan Province,the urgent need for management and decision-making as comprehensive and accurate sports industry statistics.Sports industry statistics includes three levels and 8 categories.The core index system should include industrial development,industrial spending,social benefits,management and integrated development and evaluation and so on.Statistics in the implementation and protection of the sports industry,the relevant government departments should strengthen the statistical work of great importance to the sports industry,strict implementation of national standards and to develop "Sports Industry in Hunan Province Statistical plan" to further clarify the division of labor statistics,the important of the sports industry to improve the quality of statistics And authority.%由于湖南省体育产业快速发展,迫切需要为管理和决策提供全面准确的体育产业统计数据。体育产业的统计范畴包括三个层次,八个大类,其核心指标体系包括产业发展、产业支出、社会效益、经营管理、综合发展与评价等。在体育产业统计实施与保障中,应该加强政府部门对体育产业统计工作的重视,严格执行国家标准和制定《湖南省体育产业统计工作实施方案》,进一步明确体育产业统计工作的重要性,提高统计质量与权威性。

  17. Relationship between Sports Injury and Sports Scene of Gymnasts in Hunan Province%湖南省体操运动员运动损伤与运动场景的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邦华

    2012-01-01

    本文运用问卷调查法为主要研究方法,以湖南省体操运动员运动损伤者为研究对象,探讨我省体操运动员运动损伤成因与运动场景的关系,旨在最大限度地预防运动损伤的发生。结果显示:运动场景是导致运动员运动损伤的重要原因之一;在运动损伤的运动员中,由于运动场景的原因,城与乡、一线队与二线队、男与女的受伤人数比例成显著差异。而一线队与二线队运动员因“情景回顾”受伤人数比例无明显差异。%Through using the method of questionnaire, taking the sports injury of gymnasts in Hunan province as research subject, this paper discusses the relationship between sports injury and sports scene of gymnasts in Hunan province, the main purpose is to maximize the prevention of sports injuries. The result shows that sports scene is one of the main factors caused the sports injury. In the sports injury of athletes, because of sports scene, city and countryside, the first team and second team, male and female number wounded proportion have significant diffe - rence. While the first team and second team players for "episodic recall" the number of injured ratio was not sig- nificantly different.

  18. An Empirical Research on Local Legislation and Institutional Construction of Corruption Prevention:a Case Study of Hunan Province and Guangdong Province%预防腐败地方立法实证考察与制度构想——以湖南、广东为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺志军; 袁艳霞; 马晓云

    2015-01-01

    The implemention of CPC's policy on corruption prevention leads to the tasks of local legislation on corruption prevention.The analysis of typical local legislative documents on corruption prevention sheds some lights on the enactment of Hunan Province Provisions on Corruption Prevention.%落实党预防腐败的政策就提出了预防腐败地方立法任务.解读预防腐败地方立法典型文本,可为制定《湖南省预防腐败条例》这一地方性法规提供经验.

  19. A new leech species (Hirudinida: Erpobdellidae: Erpobdella) from a cave in the West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Joanna M; Bielecki, Aleksander; Kur, Jarosław; Pikuła, Dorota; Kilikowska, Adrianna; Biernacka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Erpobdella borisi n. sp. is a predatory leech inhabiting cave waters in Iran. Probably, it is either a troglobiont or troglophile. The leech has no eyes, and the complete mid-body somite is divided unequally into five annuli. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters and COI gene sequence indicate the species to be closely related to Erpobdella japonica, E. octoculata and E. testacea.

  20. A new leech species (Hirudinida: Erpobdellidae: Erpobdella) from a cave in the West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Joanna M; Bielecki, Aleksander; Kur, Jarosław; Pikuła, Dorota; Kilikowska, Adrianna; Biernacka, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Erpobdella borisi n. sp. is a predatory leech inhabiting cave waters in Iran. Probably, it is either a troglobiont or troglophile. The leech has no eyes, and the complete mid-body somite is divided unequally into five annuli. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters and COI gene sequence indicate the species to be closely related to Erpobdella japonica, E. octoculata and E. testacea. PMID:26623905

  1. 基于自组织理论的湖南旅游系统演化分析%Study on the Evolution of the Tourism System in Hunan Province Based on the Self-organization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎友兵; 张颖辉

    2012-01-01

    Based on the factor analysis and grey relation analysis, the paper came up with conclusions, which contains low overall development level of Hunan tourism,weak synergy effect within the system, low cyclic utilization rate and diffieult to realize catastrophe in short time. In order to improve the structure and the functions of the tourism system in Hunan province and realize the transition of the organization ,the paper put forward the measures and suggestions containing increasing the government guidance,improving the synergy effect within the area and the departments,building the containable development mode and quickening the amalgamation of the tourism industry and the information industry.%因子分析和灰色关联分析的结果表明:湖南省旅游系统综合发展水平总体不高,系统内部协同效应不强,系统循环利用率低,短期内难以实现整体“突变”;只有充分发挥政府协调机制作用,提高区域和部门的协同发展效应,创建湖南旅游系统可持续循环发展模式,加快旅游产业和信息产业融合步伐,才能促进湖南旅游系统结构与功能的提升,实现组织层次的跃迁。

  2. On Chinese Taekwondo Hall Management Trend from South Korea Taekwondo Hall Management Mode——Taking Hunan Province as an Example%从韩国跆拳道馆管理模式看中国跆拳道馆管理趋势——以湖南省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继生; 喻业

    2012-01-01

    Based on the situations of Taekwondo in China energy development reality,through using the methods of literature,field survey,interview and logical analysis and other research methods,in cultural studies and sociology perspective,the paper does the investigation of Taekwondo Gymnasiums in Hunan province about their current situations of management modes,and summarizes the lessons from Korea Taekwondo Center Management mode merit,of Hunan province Taekwondo tendency,with purpose of providing some practical data and theoretical support for Hunan province and China's Taekwondo Development.%文章基于跆拳道运动在我国劲势发展的现实情况,采用文献资料法,实地考察法,访谈法和逻辑分析法等研究方法,在文化学和社会学的视角下,调查湖南省跆拳道馆管理模式现状,并总结借鉴韩国跆拳道馆管理模式的可取之处,展望湖南省跆拳道馆趋势,以期为湖南省及我国跆拳道馆的发展提供一些现实数据和理论支持。

  3. Protection of Intellectual Property Right for Geographical Indications of the Traditional Specialty in Hunan Province%湖南传统特产的地理标志知识产权保护思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志国; 王树婷; 熊晚珍; 钟学斌

    2012-01-01

    There are 27 national geographical indication products, 39 national geographical indication brands and 24 national agro-products geographical indications in Hunan Province at present, and there were two national origin marks in Hunan Province in the past. At first, the status quo of protection of intellectual property right for geographical indications of the traditional specialty in Hunan Province was analyzed from protection of geographical indication products, registration of geographical indication brand, registration of agro -products geographical indication and management of origin mark. Then, some suggestions were put forward as follows: (1) To mine, sort out and protect the traditional specialty -related intangible cultural heritage, especially the traditional craft, traditional art, traditional medicine and minority. (2) To study the characteristics of geographical indications deeply from natural factors and human factor of specialty. (3) To strengthen protection of intellectual property right for geographical indications of traditional specialty in order to enhance international competitiveness of it. (4) To make full use of special mark of geographical indication product and heritage of agricultural brand, and to integrate traditional specialty brands from the protecting area of geographical indication. (5) To combine safeguarding intangible cultural heritage of traditional specialty with building of eco-cultural protection area or eco-cultural preservation area, especially with the national eco-cultural protection area for Tujia and Miao nationalities in Wulin mountain area.%湖南现有27种国家地理标志产品、39件国家地理标志商标、24种国家农产品地理标志,原有2种国家原产地标记.文章从地理标志产品保护、地理标志商标注册、农产品地理标志登记、原产地标记管理等方面,分析该省传统特产的地理标志知识产权保护现状,并建议:(1)挖掘、整理、保护与传统名优

  4. Research on Promotion of Regional Independent Innovation Alliance --Based on 14 Districts of Hunan Province%推进区域自主创新联盟发展研究——基于湖南十四个市州的调研分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余博; 易伟义

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the status of the Hunan regional innovation capability and industry development of Hunan Province, conductes a survey of Hunan regional independent innovation alliances, and explores the problems. The promotion of Hunan regional independent innovation alliance should focus on strategic emerging industries and regional leading industry, and the focus and field of promotion has been discussed.%通过对湖南区域创新能力现状、湖南区域产业发展现状进行分析,对湖南区域技术创新联盟的组建情况进行调查统计后其认为,湖南区域自主创新联盟发展应在战略性新兴产业和区域主导产业内重点推进。在战略性新兴产业内,应该在高端工程机械装备、轨道交通装备等领域内重点推进。各市州也应该根据各自主导产业或优势产业情况,在相应的领域内重点推进。

  5. 湖南省开展自然资源资产负债核算的可行性探讨%Discussions on the Feasibility of Carrying out the Assets and Liabilities Accounting of Natural Resources in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍格致; 杨亦民; 周慧滨

    2016-01-01

    自然资源资产负债核算是加强我国生态文明建设的一项制度创新。十八届三中全会提出了探索编制自然资源资产负债表,对领导干部实行自然资源资产离任审计。编制自然资源资产负债表是一个崭新的课题。通过文献综述研究认为,自然资源价值理论和计量方法的研究成果,为湖南省开展自然资源资产负债核算提供了理论指导和技术支持。湖南省编制自然资源资产负债表的基础条件已具备、政策要求已明确,形成了基本的自然资源管理体系和基础资料,开展自然资源资产负债核算完全可行。%Natural resource assets and liabilities accounting is a system innovation to strengthen the construction of ecological civilization in china. The third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee proposed to explore the preparation of the balance sheet of natural resources, the implementation of the audit of natural resources assets of leading cadres. The preparation of the balance sheet of natural resources is a new topic. Through literature review, the research results of natural resources value theory and measurement methods provide theoretical guidance and technical support for the development of natural resources assets and liabilities accounting in Hunan province. Hunan Province in the preparation of natural resources balance sheet conditions have been met, the policy requirements has been clear, formed the basic natural resource management system and the basic data, natural resource assets and liabilities accounts entirely feasible.

  6. The Fungitoxicity of Four Fungicides to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Hunan Province%4种杀菌剂对湖南省黄瓜霜霉病菌的毒力作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任磊; 张松柏; 张德咏; 张胜平; 彭静; 刘勇

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] The aim is to clarify the fungitoxicity of the fungicides with different action modes against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in Hunan province- [Methods] The fungitoxicity of four fungicides to Pseudoperonospora cubensis of Hunan province was tested by leaf disc floating method. [Results] The results showed the fungitoxicity (EC50) in metalaxyl, cymoxanil, azoxystrobin and dimethomorph to Pseudoperonospora cubensis were 15,613-17.266, 10.13-13.465, 3,834-5.444 and 9.122-9.915 mg/L, respectively. [Conclusions] The resistance ratio to azoxystrobin was high, and the resistance ratios to the other three fungicides were lower. However, the index of relative toxicity of azoxystrobin was significantly higher than that of the other three fungicides.%[目的]明确不同作用机理的杀菌剂对湖南省黄瓜霜霉病菌的毒力.[方法]采用叶盘漂浮法测定4种不同作用机理的杀菌剂(甲霜灵、霜脲氰、嘧菌酯、烯酰吗啉)对湖南省不同地区黄瓜霜霉病菌的毒力.[结果]湖南省黄瓜霜霉病菌对甲霜灵、霜脲氰、嘧菌酯、烯酰吗啉的毒力(EC50)分别为15.613~17.266、10.313~13.465、3.834~5.444、9.122~9.915 mg/L.[结论]湖南省黄瓜霜霉病菌对嘧菌酯的抗性倍数较高,其他3种杀菌剂抗性倍数均较低;但是嘧菌酯相对毒力指数显著高于其他3种杀菌剂.

  7. 河南西峡云华溶洞翼手目动物的调查%Preliminary Research of Chiroptera in Yunhua Karst Cave of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁子安; 刘冰许; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    In October 2001 and September 2010, the chiropteni in Yunhua Karat Care of Henan Province was investigated. The results showed that chiroptera in this area belong to 4 families, 4 genera and 7 species. Among them, 4 species (57.1%) were Oriental realm spe cies, and 3 species (42.9% ) were cosmopolitan species. According to the present status of chiroptera resources in Yunhua Karat Cave, de tailed countermeasures for bat protection were put forward.%2001年10月和2010年9月,对河南省西峡县云华洞翼手目动物进行了调查.通过标本采集、鉴定分类,初步查明该溶洞分布翼手目动物共7种,隶属4科4属.其中,东洋界种4种,占总数的57.1%;广布种3种,占总数的42.9%.此外,根据蝙蝠资源的现状,提出了具体的保护建议.

  8. The Development of Tourism and Karst Landscape of Shilong Cave in Liupanshui City,Guizhou Province%六盘水石龙洞的岩溶地貌景观和旅游开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌洪星; 杨洪

    2013-01-01

    石龙洞属于岩溶洞穴,洞内发育溶痕、锅穴、顶板溶沟、倒石芽等溶蚀地貌;化学沉积类型丰富,主要有钟乳石、石笋、石柱、石帷幕、石珊瑚、月奶石等。这些造型奇特、形态各异的地貌构造是旅游和进行洞穴研究的良好场所。%Shilong Cave Long Cave in Liupanshui City,Guizhou Province is of a karst cave,It has deueloped many corrosion landform inside,including karst marks,kettle,shingles karsten,stone teeth,ect. Moreover, numerous electro-deposition structure such as stalactite,stalagmite, columns, curtain, stony corals and stonemoon stand in the cave. These karst landscape come in modelling unusual and diverse shapes,The con-ditions are advantaged tourism developmen,have prodigious potential to area of speleology research.

  9. A Study on Integration between Miao and Tujia Ethnic Minorities in Western Hunan Province%当代湘西苗族土家族互化现象探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李然; 王真慧

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes mutual transformation between Tujia and Miao ethnic groups in Fenghong and Mianhuaqi Villages of Baojing County and villages along Shuangxi River banks in Guzhang County in Western Hunan Province. It analyzes reasons of transformation from aspects of ethnic policy, cultural interaction and ethnic intermarriage. Mutual transformation between Mia and Tujia ethnic groups in this area reflects complicated relations of both cooperation and competition between ethnic groups and multiplicity of ethnic group identity.%文章描述了湘西保靖丰宏、棉花旗和古丈双溪河沿岸村落的土家族苗族相互转化的现象,并从民族政策、文化互动和族际通婚等几个角度分析了转化的原因。苗族土家化与土家族苗化反映了湘西各族群既合作又竞争的复杂族群关系,也体现了族群认同的多重性。

  10. 湖湘文化视角下湖南红色旅游问题与对策研究%On the Issues and Countermeasures of Red Tourism in Hunan Province from the Perspective of Huxiang Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐永芳; 江波

    2014-01-01

    本文从湖湘文化的内涵入手,探讨了湖南省红色旅游资源的主要特点,分析了渗透湖湘文化特征的湖南红色旅游领域目前的主要问题,从旅游线路规划、旅游产品开发、接待服务、市场推广和人才培养五个方面提出了相应的策略,对于推动湖南旅游产业发展有较好的现实意义。%From the connotation of Huxiang culture,this paper discusses the main features of the red-tourism resources in Hunan proVince and explores the main issues in this field. And then,this paper puts forward some countermeasures from the following fiVe as-pects,namely,route planning,tourism products deVelopment,reception serVices,market promotion and talent cultiVation.

  11. On Improving College Graduates' Employment of Hunan Province Based on Entrepreneurship Education%以创业教育带动我省大学生就业工作的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张应军; 王幼凡

    2011-01-01

    In light of the serious employment situation for undergraduates of the whole nation,prompting undergraduates' employment through entrepreneurship education has become the important strategy for dealing the undergraduates' nationwide serious employment situation.Recently the undergraduates in Hunan province facing many difficulties in enterprise,and strengthen the entrepreneurship education is very crucial for them to improve their abilities in enterprise.In author's view,positive results can be attained only by building enterprise stage,expanding job-obtaining channels,improving employment environment,enhancing graduates' job opportunities and guiding undergraduates' entrepreneurship.%全国大学生就业形势严峻,以创业带动就业成为从中央到地方应对大学生就业难题的重大战略。当前我省大学生创业面临着许多困难,迫切需要通过加强创业教育提高大学生的创业能力。只有通过搭建创业平台,拓展创业途径,改善创业环境,增加大学生的创业机会,积极引导大学生创业,才能取得实效。

  12. Investigation and Analysis of the Parent-child Relationship of College Students in Hunan Province%湖南省大学生亲子关系调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翼丞

    2016-01-01

    从湖南省内21所高校大学生的抽样调查来看,大学生亲子关系与其家庭背景和条件、父母收入和学历水平有着显著的相关性;大学生对家庭教育普遍持认可态度。学校应通过多种途径、多种形式来建立和完善与学生家庭的合作机制,共同促进学生发展;政府应该通过教育均衡发展来推动家庭教育步入良性循环。%A sample survey of 21 colleges and universities in Hunan province shows that there is a significant posi-tive correlation between college students’parent-child relationship and family background and conditions, parental income and education level. College students generally approve of family education. Colleges and universities should establish and improve cooperation system with families of students in a variety of ways and forms, which can jointly promote the development of students. The government should promote family education into a virtuous circle by bal-anced development of education.

  13. Research on Development Status and Strategy of Rural Highways in Hunan Province%湖南省乡村公路发展现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中莉; 王忠伟

    2009-01-01

    乡村公路是公路网的重要组成部分,是保障农村社会经济发展最重要的基础设施之一,是农村地区最主要甚至是一些地区唯一的运输通道.文章在分析当前湖南省乡村公路的发展现状及存在问题的基础上,从养护、资金、客运和规划等方面提出乡村公路发展的一些对策建议.%As an important part of road network, rural highway is one of the most important infrastructures ensuring social and economic development of rural areas, and the most critical transport channel in rural areas even the only one in some areas.Based on the analysis of development status and existing problems of rural highway in Hunan Province, some strategy and sugges-tion of rural highway development was proposed, including aspects of maintenance, funds, passenger transport, planning and so on.

  14. Exploration on Ideas of Constructing the Resource Pool for Higher Vocational Education and Teaching in Hu'nan Province%湖南省高职教育教学资源库建设的思路探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左石华

    2014-01-01

    总结国内外研究现状和相关理论,探求湖南省高职教育教学资源库的研究目标、研究内容、技术路线、研究思路、研究方法等。该资源库的建设基于“职教新干线”平台,为实现课程资源共建、共享提供了建设思路。%This paper summarized the current situation and rele-vant theories of domestic and foreign studies, explored the re-source pool for higher vocational education and teaching in Hu'nan Province from the research objectives, research contents, technical paths, research ideas, and research methods. The con-struction of the resource pool is based on the"new route for voca-tional education", with the aim to provide ideas for the joint con-struction and sharing of curriculum resources.

  15. 湖南省公益林保护建设分析与对策%Analysis and counter measures of protection and construction for public welfare forest in Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长清

    2011-01-01

    公益林是指为维护和改善生态环境,保持生态平衡,保护生物多样性等满足人类社会的生态、社会需求和可持续发展为主体功能,提供公益性、社会性产品或服务的森林.为加强生态公益林的建设、保护和管理,各个省都制定了相应的规范.在介绍湖南省公益林资源和管理现状的基础上,分析了湖南省公益性建设成效和存在问题,提出了湖南省公益林保护建设对策.结果将为地方公益性保护建设和管理制度的完善提高决策依据.%Public welfare forests have the main body functions of maintaining and improving the ecological environment, keeping the ecological balance and protecting biodiversity for human society ecological, social demand and sustainable development. Public welfare forests also provide public welfare, social products or services. In order to enhance the protection and management of public welfare forest, every provinces have formulated corresponding specifications. The present situation of resources and management of public welfare forest in Hunan province were introduced, the results and existing problems of public welfare forests were analyzed, then protection solution of public welfare forests were put forward. The results would be help for decision-making basis to improve the management system of the public welfare forests.

  16. Re-Os isotope dating of molybdenites in the Huangshaping Pb-Zn-W-Mo polymetallic deposit,Hunan Province,South China and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO JunMing; HUA RenMin; QU WenJun; QI HuaWen; LIN JinFu; DU AnDao

    2007-01-01

    The large-scale Huangshaping Pb-Zn-W-Mo polymetallic deposit is located in the central Nanling mineralization zone, South China. Six molybdenite samples from the Huangshaping deposit were selected for Re-Os isotope measurement in order to define the mineralization age of the deposit. It yields a Re-Os isochron age of 154.8±1.9 Ma(2σ),which is in accordance with the Re-Os model ages of 150.9-156.9 Ma. This age is about 7 Ma younger than their host granite porphyry, which was dated as 161.6±1.1 Ma by zircon U-Pb method using LA-ICPMS. All these ages demonstrate that the Huangshaping granite and related Pb-Zn-W-Mo deposit occurred in the middle Yanshanian period, when many other granitoid and related ore deposits emplaced and formed, e. G. The Qitianling granite and Furong tin deposit, the Qianlishan granite and giant Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Mo-Bi deposit and Jinchuantang Sn-Bideposit in the nearby area. They constitute the main part of the magmatic-metallogenic belt of southern Hunan, and represent the large-scale metallogeny in middle Yanshanian in the area. The lower rhenium content in molybdenite of Huangshaping deposit suggests that the ore-forming material was mainly of crust origin.

  17. Determine of Haydite Shale's Firing System of Yiyang City, Hunan Province%湖南益阳陶粒页岩烧成制度的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志云; 李玉平; 庄鹏; 曾卫; 黎军

    2012-01-01

    Taking the shale in a certain mine of Hunan Yiyang as the object of study, the basic characteristics of the Shale is determined through the means of XRD analysis and TG-DSC curve analysis. The range of haydite shale expansion temperature is identified by high-temperature wetting angle detector and energy-saving box-type furnace. The impact of the holding time,heating rate on the expansion of haydite shale is analyzed. And the ideal firing system is gotten. All targets of the ceramsite getting from twice pilot experiment were achieved the standard of GBT17431. 2-2010.%以湖南益阳某矿山的页岩为研究对象,在地质调查基础上,通过XRD分析、TG-DSC分析确定了页岩陶粒的基本特征;用高温润湿角测定仪、箱式电炉确定了陶粒页岩的发生膨胀的温度范围;分析了保温时间、升温速率等因素对陶粒页岩膨胀的影响;获得了该页岩理想的烧成制度.在实验室研究的基础上组织了两次工业级中试试验,获得了各项指标均达到GBT17431.2-2010标准要求的页岩陶粒产品.

  18. Precise dating of abrupt shifts in the Asian Monsoon during the last deglaciation based on stalagmite data from Yamen Cave, Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDWARDS; R.; Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Based on 33 U/Th dates and 1020 oxygen isotopic data from stalagmite Y1 from Yamen Cave, Guizhou Province, China, a record of the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) was established. The record covers the last deglaciation and the early Holocene (from 16.2 to 7.3 ka BP) with an average oxygen isotope resolution of 9 years. The main millennial-scale deglacial events first identified in Greenland (Greenland Interstadial Events: GIS 1e through GIS 1a) and later in China are clearly present in the Y1 record. By analogy to earlier work, we refer to these as Chinese Interstadials (CIS): CIS A.1e to CIS A.1a. The onset of these events in Y1 δ18O records are nominally dated at: 14750±50, 14100±60, 13870±80, 13370±80, and 12990±80 a BP. The end of CIS A.1a or the beginning of the Younger Dryas (YD) event is nominally at 12850±50 a BP and the end of the YD dates to 11500±40 a BP. The δ18O values shift by close to 3‰ during the transition into the Bφlling-Allerφd (BA, the onset of CIS A.1e) and at the end of the YD. Comparisons of Y1 to previously published early Holocene records show no significant phase differences. Thus, the East Asia Monsoon and the Indian Monsoon do not appear to have been out of phase during this interval. The Y1 record confirms earlier work that suggested that solar insolation and North Atlantic climate both affect the Asian Monsoon.

  19. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia. PMID:23870460

  20. 湘西地区农村留守儿童体格发育状况调查分析%Investigation of Physical Development among Left-behind Children in Rural Areas in Western Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春梅; 杨娜; 张惠娟; 胡蕖; 唐莹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physical development among left - behind children ( whose parents are working in other areas or provinces ) in rural areas in western hunan province, China, with an attempt to provide evidence for policy - making. Methods The physical development and its influencing factors of 1 527 left - behind children and 738 non - left -behind children in western hunan province were mvestigated from July to Auguts, 2009. These children, aged 3 - 6 years, belonged to Han Nationality and two minority ethnic groups ( Tujia and Miao ). Results The Z scores of age - specific weight and age - specific height showed significantly difference between the left - behind children and non - left - behind children ( both P <0. 01 ). The incidence of low hody weight and growth retardation was 11. 7% among left - behind children and 4. 7% among non - left - behind children ( P <0. 01 ). It was notable that the incidence of low body weight and growth retardation was significantly higher among Miao children than among Han children ( P <0. 01 ) . while so such difference was found between Tujia children and Han children ( P > 0. 05 ). The incidence of low body weight was significantly lower in Tujia children than in Miao children ( P <0. 05 ). The hemoglobin level and prevalence of anemia showed significant differences among children of different ethnic groups ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The left - hehind children in western Hunan Province have poorer nutritional status than non - left - behind children. Local health authorities should pay more attention to this population and provide essential guidance and supports.%目的 了解湘西土家族、苗族、汉族3~6岁留守儿童体格发育状况,为促进留守儿童生长发育提供依据.方法 2009年7-8月对湘西地区土家族、苗族、汉族1 527名3~6岁留守儿童(留守组)及738名非留守儿童(非留守组)的体格发育水平及影响因素进行调查,并比

  1. 省级尺度国土空间生态保护红线划定--以湖南省为例%Delimitating Red Line of Ecological Protection for Territorial Spatial Planning:A Case Study of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世发; 马梅; 蔡玉梅; 念沛豪

    2015-01-01

    It is very import to delimitate red line of ecological protection for territorial spatial planning. This paper proposed a quantitative framwork to delimit red line of ecological protection. First, we defined biodiversity, flood storage, conservation of water and soil, headwater conservation and desertification control as the main factors to ecological problems at the provincial scale. Then, based on the theories of ecological service and security, core elements were chosen for analyzing the ecological problems referring to the requirements of macro decision-making, participatory “bottom-up” method was further utilized to map the ecological red line. In this model, main ecological problems and most sensitive areas in territorial space were identified by the means of“top-down”method. And then the red line of ecological protection was delimitated by using“bottom-up” model integrating GIS with RS. Hunan Province was selected as the case study area to delimit the red line of ecological protection using the proposed framework. Three scenarios (i.e. ecological protection at low level, at medium level, and at high level, respectively) were set for analyzing the distribution of each individual ecological element. Results indicate that medium-level protection scenario is befitting for delimiting red line from the perspective of biodiversity. Ecological corridors is required to be further conserved on the basis of present conservation areas;whereas low-level protection scenario was selected for flood storage, Dongting Lake and its inundated area should be included in the protection region;and the spatial pattern of headwater conservation shows great difference. The large-scale mountains in the east, west and south parts have high values while the hills in the central part as well as the plain in the north show low values of headwater conservation; As for conservation of water and soil, mountains such as the Wuling, Xuefeng in the west and the Luoxiao in the east

  2. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  3. Geochemistry and detrital zircon geochronology of Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks in eastern Hunan Province and their tectonic significance%湘东新元古代沉积岩的地球化学和碎屑锆石年代学特征及其构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏鸣; 于津海; 孙涛; 凌洪飞; 陈培荣; 赵葵东; 陈卫峰; 刘潜

    2012-01-01

    This study presents new geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isutopic data for Neoproterozoic meta-sedimentary rocks in the Xiangxiang-Liling area, eastern Hunan Province and Guiyang area, southeastern Hunan Province. Geochemical data show that the sedimentary rocks from these two areas have similar and moderate composition maturity. However, large K2O/Na2O variations suggest that these sedimentary rocks experienced different degree of the eluviation. Rare earth element ( REE) patterns of these sedimentary rocks from two areas are similar to those of post-Archean Australian shales (PAAS) with slightly high concentrations, especially for heavy REEs. The sedimentary rocks of the Banxi Group in the eastern Hunan Province have higher compatible elements (e. G. Sc, Cr, Ni) than the Sinian sedimentary rocks in the southeastern Province, implying that provenance of the former has more intermediate to mafic rocks than the later. U-Pb dating results of detrital zircons from two sedimentary rocks indicate that a Neoproterozoic sedimentary rock in eastern Hunan Province has abundant 850 ~800Ma detritus without ~ 1000Ma ones, suggesting its affinity with the Yangtze Block. However, a Neoproterozoic sedimentary rock in southeastern Hunan Province contains many Grenvillian detrital zircons and less ~ 2. 5Ga ones without - 800Ma elastic materials, similar to those in the Cathaysia Block. This difference suggests that the boundary between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks probably pass between the Xiangxiang-Liling area, eastern Hunan Province and Guiyang area, southeastern Hunan Province. Previous study (Wang et al. , 2010a) has indicated that Early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in these two areas have detritus similar to the Cathaysia Block, suggesting that their provenances are in the Cathaysia Block. Consequently, the sediments in the eastern Hunan Province change significantly from Late Neoproterozoic (Sinian) to Early Paleozoic time (Middle Cambrian) , suggesting a tectonic

  4. 旅游业发展与经济增长关系的实证研究——以湖南省为例%Empirical Research on Relationship between Tourism Development and Economic Growth- A Case Study of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦银娣; 杨森; 胡凯玲; 李伯华

    2012-01-01

    通过建立国内旅游收入、入境旅游外汇收入与GDP之间的经济计量模型,运用协整理论及格兰杰(Granger)因果检验,研究湖南省是否存在"旅游主导"经济,或者"经济带动"旅游业发展,并通过模型检验研究了湖南省国内旅游收入、入境旅游外汇收入对经济增长的贡献额度。研究结果表明:湖南省存在旅游主导经济增长,国内旅游收入对经济增长的贡献度较高于入境旅游外汇收入。经济增长对入境旅游业发展有显著影响,但对国内旅游发展影响较小。%By building econometric models among domestic tourism income, inbound tourism revenue and GDP, and using co-in tegration theory and Granger Causality Tests, this article tries to find out it "tourism-leading" economy or "economy-drive- tourism development" existed in Hunan Province. Then it studies the contribution of domestic tourism income and inbound tourism revenue to economy growth in Hunan Province by model checking. The results show that there is "tourism-leading" e conomy existed in Hunan Province. The contribution of domestic tourism income to economy growth is higher than inbound tourism revenue. Economy growth has a significant impact on inbound tourism hut less impact on domestic tourism.

  5. 湖南涟源县龙山森林公园种子植物区系初步研究%A Preliminary Study on the Spermatophytic Flora of Longshan Forest Park in Lianyuan of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家湘; 赵丽娟; 李传霞

    2009-01-01

    Longshan Forest Park which is an isolated mountain in central Hunan province,is located at the floral boundary of Central China and East China,with various ecological conditions and different vegetational types.There are 1486 wild species of seed plants belonging to 687 genera of 158 families in this area.The whole floral natures of seed plants belong to mainly temperate,mixed with abundant tropical areal-types,it shows distinct transition chartecteristic between the tropic and temperate,but in families and genera level,there are higher proportion in the tropical areal-types,it means that the natures of tropical geographic affinities are distinct in this area.Otherwise,the dominant large families and large genera are majority position in statistic of floral composition.In studies of relationship of floral geography,comparing to some neighbor areas in Hunan province,the flora of Longshan are more similar to those of Gaowanjie in Guzhang county by the higher similarity between the both areas in species and genera and family statistic,but there is a low similarity between Longshan and Nanyue Hengshan.It demonstrates that the isolate mountain of Longshan is only independent in landform,is not in their flora,and absent in endemic floristic elements.Based on above mentions,the flora of Longshan are more impacted by the flora of Wuling Mountain.Thus,their flora shoud be belong to a part of the floristic region of Central China,with some transitional floristic characteristics between Central China and East China.%涟源县龙山森林公园是湖南省中部的一座孤山,位于华中植物区和华东植物区的分界线上,生境多样,植被类型丰富,有野生种子植物158科、687属、1486种(含种下等级).植物区系总体性质以温带性质为主,兼有大量热带成分的混杂,具有较强的过渡性质.但是,在科、属级水平上均表现出较强的热带地理亲缘性.优势大科、大属在区系组成统计上占有突出位置.与邻近

  6. 湘西洛塔禁伐恢复林木本植物群落特征研究%STUDIES ON THE RESTORATION TREE SPECIES COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LUOTA REGION IN WESTERN HUNAN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏; 薛跃规; 朱远锋; 李兆林

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the restoration community for 20a of Luotaregion in western Hunan province.The results are shown as follows:the ap pearance of this community is characterized by the middle and low phaneropytes s uch as Acer davidii,Dendrobenthamia capitata,et al.The shrub layer occupies the important position in the structure of the community.There are 96 kinds of t rees,shrubs and vine species in this community.It shows that the community diversity is hig her than that of restoring for 40a.The structure of the community is not steadil y developing toward the climax state.%对湘西洛塔喀斯特地貌植物群落20年恢复林进行样方调查,结果表明:该植物群落的外貌由青榨槭、四照花、枫香、杜英、楠木等中小高位芽植物决定,其结构主要以灌木层为主,整个群落正处于一个向顶极状态发展的阶段.调查的数据还表明,在50 m×4 m样地内有木本植物96种,比自然恢复40年的阿堀村风水林物种多样性高.个体高度与径级结构以灌木层和幼苗占绝对数量,说明该群落的物种丰富,其木本植物的配置还未达到稳定状态,正向着顶极状态发展.

  7. Iron and manganese emission standard for industrial wastewater discharge in Hunan province%湖南省工业废水中铁锰排放标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青梅; 马超; 向仁军; 刘湛; 陈灿

    2014-01-01

    The production process, waste water treatment technology, current situation of pollutant discharge of enterprises involving iron or manganese are investigated. The water of current polluted rivers in typical iron or manganese contaminated area of Hunan province is sampled and analysized. With reference to the international iron and manganese limits in the discharged waste water, this standard prescribes the limit of iron in wastewater discharged from existing enterprises is 10 mg/L; the limit of iron in wastewater discharged from new enterprises is 5 mg/L; the limit of manganese in wastewater discharged from enterprises is 1 mg/L.%通过对湖南省典型铁锰污染区域的钢铁、有色金属、电解锰及化工企业生产工艺、废水处理技术与污染物排放现状及受污染河流环境质量现状进行调查的基础上,参照国外废水中铁锰污染物排放限值,规定湖南省工业废水中现有企业总铁的排放标准限值为10 mg/L,新建企业废水中总铁排放标准限值为5 mg/L;湖南省工业废水中总锰的排放标准限值为1 mg/L.

  8. Behavior Analysis of Farmers Engaging in Two-Oriented Agriculture Production Self-Consciously in Hunan Province%湖南省农户自为从事两型农业生产的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建华; 乌东峰

    2013-01-01

    With the developmemnt of industrialization and urbanization,China's agriculture is facing the dual constraints of resources and environment.It has been proved that this dual constraints will not be solved unless China commits itself to resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture.This paper based on questionnaire investigation of 332 farmers in Hunan Province investigate the behavior of farmers engaging in Two-Oriented Agriculture Production self-consciously.At present,the farmers'attitude of developing Two-Oriented Agriculture Production being negative,the subjective norm of developing Two-Oriented Agriculture Production lacking certain pressure,the farmers'Perceived behavioral control ability being low.These lead to the intention of farmers ingaging in Two-Oriented agriculture production self-consciously being low.%随着工业化、城镇化的深入发展,我国农业发展面临资源环境的双重约束.解决我国农业资源环境双重约束的根本出路在于走资源节约型、环境友好型农业(即“两型农业”)之路.以湖南省332个农户为研究对象,通过问卷调查考察农户自为从事两型农业生产的行为.调查显示,当前农户对发展两型农业的行为态度给予负面评价,在主观规范上缺少一定的压力以及感知行为控制能力低下,从而导致农户自为发展两型农业的意向低下.

  9. Experimental Study on Mineral Processing of a Jiangkou Type Iron Ore From Hu'nan Province%湖南省某江口式铁矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹健; 邓圣为; 田宗平

    2014-01-01

    The TFe content of a Jiangkou type iron ore in Hunan province is 29 .63%, of that mainly in hematite and silicate , as well as small amount of magnetite and limonite .High silicon, poor iron, low sulfur and phosphorus are main features of the ore .For recovery of iron minerals , experimental studies with methods of magnetic separation , high intensity magnetic separation and reverse flotation were carried out .Eventually , low intensity magnetic separation was conducted first to separate magnetite , then high intensity magnetic separation combined with reverse flotation were carried out to recycle hematite , and an iron concentrate containing TFe 58 .07% with a recovery rate of 65 .95%was obtained .%湖南省某江口式铁矿含TFe 29.63%,铁主要是以赤铁矿和硅酸铁为主,还有少量磁铁矿和褐铁矿,具有高硅、贫铁、低硫、低磷的特点。为回收矿石中的铁,进行了弱磁、强磁、反浮选等工艺试验研究。最终确定采用“弱磁选回收磁铁矿—强磁选和反浮选回收赤铁矿”联合工艺流程,可获得TFe 58.07%、铁回收率65.95%的铁精矿。该工艺为类似铁矿的开发提供借鉴。

  10. 湖南花岩溪国有林场野生动物分布现状及保护对策%Wildlife Distribution and Conservation Strategy in Huayanxi State Forest Farm of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜二虎; Schindele Werner; 包源; 栾慎强; 戴振华

    2014-01-01

    The Huayanxi State Forest Farm of Hunan Province has rich wildlife resources,of which Ardei-dae birds are representative.Based on the composition,distribution and habitats of the wildlife in Huay-anxi State Forest Farm,we suggest firstly the rare species and Ardeidae birds should be taken as the key species,secondly conservation of the key species and their habitats enhanced,thirdly the farm divided into protection area,conservation area and production area according to the distribution of the key species and different measures taken in different divisions,and finally sustainable forest management methods used to reduce disturbance to wildlife and their habitats in forest management in Huayanxi State Forest Farm.%湖南花岩溪国有林场野生动物丰富,尤其鹭科鸟类是林场的代表性动物。根据花岩溪林场野生动物组成、分布状况及栖息地特点,建议:将珍稀野生动物及鹭科鸟类作为关键物种,加强关键物种及其栖息地的保护;将林场划分为保护区域、保持区域和生产区域进行经营管理;采用可持续的森林经营技术,减少对野生动物及栖息地的干扰破坏。

  11. A relative study on assets structure and firm performance of listed companies in Hunan Province%湖南省上市公司资产结构与公司绩效的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨远霞

    2014-01-01

    以2003-2012年间湖南省上市公司为样本,采用多元线性回归对其资产结构与公司绩效之间的关系进行了实证研究。结果表明,湖南省上市公司流动资产比率与公司绩效呈微弱的正相关关系,固定资产比率对公司绩效的影响不显著,总资产周转率与公司绩效呈显著正相关关系。研究还发现,公司规模与公司绩效呈显著正相关关系,资产负债率与公司绩效呈显著负相关关系。%In recent years, the capital structure is increasingly concerned by scholars, and becomes a hot issue. But study of the relationship between capital structure and corporate performance is not enough, and the object of current study in China is mainly the whole of listed companies or an industry, instead of in a provincial area. Based on the listing corporations in Hunan Province from 2003 to 2012, this paper uses multiple linear regression to study the relationship between the assets structure and Firm Performance. The results show that there is weak positive correlation between current assets ratio and corporate performance, the effect of fixed assets ratio on corporate performance is not significant, and that there is significantly positive correlation between the total assets turnover and the company performance. The study has also found that there is significantly positive correlation between the scale of the company and company performance, and significantly negative correlation between debt ratio and corporate performance is found as well.

  12. Analysis on Interest Conflict of Policy-oriented Agricultural Insurance in Hunan Province%湖南省政策性农业保险中的利益冲突分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖勇

    2012-01-01

    Policy-oriented agricultural insurance has some characteristics such as the subject value is difficult to confirm,the risk is difficult to transfer and the products have public nature.Policy-oriented agricultural insurance pilot in Hunan province has made tremendous achievements,but there are also many problems such as insurance payments is less,the total financial subsidies is low but the proportion is too high,insurance density is low and so on.Presently the interest conflict among the three bodies of agricultural insurance,which include government,farmers and insurance companies,is the root cause of the problems.We should introduce the agricultural insurance intermediary companies as a relatively independent to effectively eliminate the interest conflicts and achieve the basic objectives of policy-oriented f agricultural insurance.%政策性农业保险具有标的价值难以确认、风险难以转移、产品具有公共性等特点。湖南省政策性农业保险试点取得了巨大的成就,但也存在保险赔付低、财政补贴总额偏低但占比过高、保险密度低等问题。目前农业保险三大主体——政府、农民和保险公司之间的利益冲突是造成诸多问题的根本原因,应引进相对独立的农业保险中介公司,有效消除各方利益冲突,实现政策性农业保险的基本目标。

  13. Analysis on Status and Development Strategy for National Fitness System in Hunan Province%湖南省全民健身体系的现状及发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓军

    2011-01-01

    Due to the regional and social economic development, the national fitness movement in Hunan province has strong representative feature. Although, the sports clubs, social sports chieved certain scale and level, the national fitness system mainly affected instructor team and sports facility have aby the economic basis, the fitness ideas, organization and sports playgrounds and facilities. Therefore, we should perfect this system, such as making a wholly plan for the system, expanding fitness propaganda, strengthening the social sports instructor team, improving the organization management system and enlivening the sports market economy.%由于地域和经济社会发展的特殊性,湖南全民健身运动具有较强的代表性。其体育社团、社会体育指导员队伍和体育场地设施都已具备一定规模和水平,但全民健身体系的完善也受到了经济基础、健身观念、组织机构和体育场地设施等因素的制约。要完善这个体系,需要统筹规划,加大健身宣传力度,加强社会体育指导员队伍建设,完善组织管理体制和搞活体育市场经济。

  14. Etiological Characteristics and Traceability of Vibrio cholerae in Hunan Province in 2010%2010年湖南省霍乱弧菌病原学特征及溯源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃迪; 湛志飞; 夏昕; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 刘运芝; 黄一伟; 龙智钢; 张红

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析2010年湖南省霍乱弧菌分离株的病原学特征,比较霍乱疫情分离株与常规监测分离株之间的克隆相关性,追溯传染源. 方法 对疫情与监测分离到的42株霍乱弧菌进行常规生物分型和PCR检测毒力基因,对23株代表株进行药敏试验,对18株代表株通过脉冲场凝胶电泳( PFGE)获得电泳图谱,利用BioNumerics软件对图谱进行聚类分析,探讨菌株间的相关性. 结果 2010年从湖南省霍乱疫情中分离10株霍乱弧菌均为O139群,ctxA阳性率100%.常规监测分离霍乱弧菌32株,其中O1群15株,全部为ctxA阴性株;O139群17株,ctxA阳性率94.11%.23株霍乱弧菌耐药结果显示强力霉素、复方新诺明的耐药率分别为47.83%、56.52%,发现1株对诺氟沙星、环丙沙星耐药.PFGE方法显示有5种脉冲场凝胶电泳图谱,相似率在82% ~ 100%之间,甲鱼中分离的O139群霍乱弧菌与霍乱疫情分离菌株之间高度同源. 结论 湖南省霍乱弧菌存在紧密相关的流行克隆群;被O139群霍乱弧菌污染的甲鱼很可能是湖南省霍乱疫情发生的主要传染来源,海冰产品的监测是霍乱防控的重点;要密切关注对诺氟沙星、环丙沙星的耐药变化.%Objective To analyze the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Hunan province in 2010, to compare cholera epidemic strains with routine monitoring strains in homology, and to trace the source of infection. Methods Forty-two strains isolated from epidemic and routine monitoring were tested for conventional biotyping and virulence gene by PCR. Twenty-three representative strains were tested for drug susceptibility. Electrophoresis maps were obtained from 18 representative strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and analyzed for clusters and correlations by BioNumerics software. Results All of the 10 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae outbreaks in Hunan province belonged to 0139 group. The

  15. 湖南省1996-2010年狂犬病流行趋势和防治现状%Epidemic Trend and Control of Rabies in Hunan Province During the Period of 1996~ 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琦; 刘运芝; 张斯钰; 高立冬; 蔡亮; 王世清; 张红; 刘富强; 胡世雄; 曾舸

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemic trend and current status of rabies control in Hunan Province from 1996 to 2010. Methods Rabies case reports were collected to retrospectively analyze the epidemic trend. Direct immunofluores-cence assay (DFA) and nested PCR were employed to detect the monitoring samples, including brain tissues of dogs and saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, serum or urine which were collected from the rabies patients from 2008 to 2010. Genetic characteristics of rabies virus were also analyzed. We investigated the current situation of disposal after exposure to rabies among rural residents by sampling survey. Results The rabies case reports in Hunan Province were increasing continuously from 1996 until reaching to the peak in 2004, and decreasing since 2007. Of the 2,437 tissue samples from the dogs' brain, 72 were positive under DFA and the positive rate was 2.95%. The DFA positive samples were redetected by RT- PCR and the positive rate was 0.94% (23/72). 104 samples of saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, serum and urine were detected by RT- PCR from the rabies patients, with 11 positives and the positive rate was 10.58%. All the isolated rabies viruses belonged to genotype I. More than 90 % rural residents knew about rabies, but only 20.1 % knew the high risk behaviors of rabies and 17.3% knew the prevention measures after exposure to rabies. 89.09% of the patients with level III exposure did not use rabies passive immune agents. Conclusions The epidemic situation of rabies in Hunan Province has been decreasing with the implementation of a series of measures. Lack of correct understanding of rabies and the poor economic condition are the main reasons for nonstandard disposal after exposure to rabies.%目的 分析1996 -2010年湖南省狂犬病的流行趋势及防治现状.方法 利用疫情报告资料回顾分析狂犬病的流行趋势;采用直接免疫荧光法(DFA)和巢式PCR等方法对监测标本进行病原学检测及病毒基因特征分析

  16. Analysis on the body mass index of students of Miao nationality in the border area of Hunan province,Hubei province,Chongqing and Guizhou province%湘鄂渝黔边区苗族学生体质量指数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠娟; 黄大元; 吴国运; 梁成青; 熊健

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the distribution characteristics of body mass index (BMI) and nutritional status of 6 ~ 16 -year old students of Miao nationality in the border area of Hunan province, Hubei province, Chongqing and Guizhou province. Methods:The body height and body weight of students of Miao nationality were measured by anthropometric method, then BMI was calculated by a formula, the distribution characteristics of BMI and nutritional status were analyzed. Results: The BMI values of male students and female students showed a increasing trend year by year with age, the annual increasing degrees of male students and female students were 0. 40kg/m2 and 0. 55kg/m2, respectively; the average value of BMI in female students under 11 years was significantly lower than that in male students under 11 years; but the average value of BMI in female students more than 12 years was significantly higher than that in male students more than 12 years; except 15 - year old group, the BMI values of male students of Miao nationality in various age groups were higher than those of male students of Han nationality, there was significant difference among the most age groups ( P < 0. 05); the BMI values of female students of Miao nationality in various age groups were higher than the average value of BMI in national students of Han nationality ( P< 0. 05 ), the rates of malnutrition and overweight/obesity were lower the average levels of national students of Han nationality in 2005; there was no significant difference in the nutritional status between male students of Miao nationality and female students of Miao nationality. Conclusion: The general nutritional status of 6 ~ 16 -year old students of Miao nationality in the border area of Hunan province,Hubei province, Chongqing and Guizhou province is good, but the phenomena of malnutrition, overweight and obesity still exists, nutritional education should be strengthened in students.%目的:了解湘鄂渝黔边区6~16

  17. 2013年上半年湖南省蔬菜产销形势分析%Analysis of Half-yearly Production and Marketing Situations for Vegetable in Hunan Province in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪端华; 易斌; 王培根; 左雄建; 杨建国

    2013-01-01

    In the first half of 2013, the production situation in Hunan Province had been generally keeping sound. The planting area in whole province had been keeping stable and increasing. Influenced by weather and bird flu, the vegetable supply pressure in"vegetable lacking spring"were larger than previous years, and the vegetable prices kept at a high level once; entered in May and June, with a big scale of spring vegetable and summer vegetable coming into market, the vegetable prices began to drop rapidly and went lower than the same period of last year. For next period, vegetable production and marketing situations will be more severe because of the constant high temperature and drought. Therefore, it suggests that to strengthen the field management for vegetable in garden and alpine, to rush plant fast growing leaf vegetable early, and to raise seedlings of autumn vegetable, in order to ensure vegetable supply in "vegetable lacking summer".%2013年上半年,湖南省蔬菜生产形势整体良好。全省蔬菜播种面积稳中有增。蔬菜价格因天气和禽流感等因素影响,"春淡"蔬菜供需压力同比往年更加紧张,价格一度高位运行;进入5、6月,随着春夏菜的大量上市,蔬菜价格开始大幅回落,且价格低于2012年同期。下一阶段由于受持续高温干旱天气影响,蔬菜产销形势较为严峻。建议加强存园蔬菜及高山蔬菜的田间管理工作,及早抢播速生叶类蔬菜,同时做好秋栽蔬菜的育苗工作,保障"夏淡"期间蔬菜供应。

  18. 湖南莽山国家级自然保护区两栖动物资源调查与分析%Amphibian Resources in Mangshan National Nature Reserve of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅祺; 杨道德; 费冬波; 莫吉炜; 宋玉成

    2012-01-01

    为掌握野生动物资源现状,促进自然保护区的有效管理,2008~2011年,作者每年在湖南莽山国家级自然保护区(以下简称莽山自然保护区)对10条调查样带(长3~6km,单侧宽5m)内的两栖动物资源进行实地调查,同时将该保护区海拔400~1800m的区域按200m均匀地分为7个海拔小带,对两栖动物垂直分布特点进行研究.结果显示,莽山自然保护区现已记录两栖类36种,隶属2目7科.其中以蛙科17种和角蟾科6种为多;其动物区系组成以34种东洋界种类占明显优势,并以17种华中区与华南区共有种为主;有国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物1种,中国特有种12种.寒露林蛙(Ranahanluica)、棘腹蛙(Paaboulengeri)和中国雨蛙(Hylachinensis)为莽山自然保护区两栖动物新纪录.莽山自然保护区两栖动物垂直分布现象较明显,大致以海拔1400m为分界点,两栖动物物种组成有较大变化;海拔600~800m小带的物种数最多.最后基于历史资料,分析了两栖动物多样性的历史变迁.%In order to understand the situation of wildlife resources and promote the effective management of nature reserve,we surveyed the amphibian resources 3 times by 10 transects (3—6 km length, 5 m unilateral width) in Mangshan National Nature Reserve of Hunan Province once a year from 2008 to 2011. The vertical distribution patterns of amphibians were analyzed by every 20 meters elevation change between the range of 400 - 1 800 m. Total of 36 species of amphibians belonging to 7 families of 2 orders were recorded in the field survey. The amphibian fauna was dominated by oriental species (34 species) , of them 17 species distributed in both Central and South China. The vertical distribution of amphibians was obvious in the range 400 - 1 400 m in altitude. Moreover, the elevation with most species richness ranged of 600 m to 800 m. Rana hanluica, Paa boulengeri, and Hyla chinensis were firstly recorded in Hunan Mangshan

  19. Analyses of cosmetic sanitary quality in Hunan Province in 2010%2010年湖南省化妆品卫生质量检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳红; 孙振球; 史静琤; 沈敏学; 胡婧璇; 雷世岳; 胡明

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a scientific foundation for cosmetic supervision and administration based on the analysis of the sanitary quality of cosmetics in Hunan Province during 2010.Methods: According to Cosmetic Sanitary Standards (set by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China), 150 random samples of cosmetics in Hunan were assayed both for microbial items (including total plate count, fungus and yeast, fecal coliform, staphylococcus aureus,pseudomonas aeruginosa) and chemical items (including 17 kinds of prohibited substances and 14 kinds of restricted substances).Results: The total rate of cosmetics failing to meet the standards was 22.0% of the 150 samples;specific rates for failing perfumes, skin care products (eye cream) and deodorant products were, relatively, 70.6%, 60.00%, and 44.4%. Four kinds of prohibited substances, including diethylphthalate, acrylamide, asbestos and neodymium, as well as 2 kinds of restricted substances, including triclosan and formaldehyde, were found to exceed standards. None of microbial items exceeded standard levels.Conclusion: The sanitary quality control of cosmetics is lax. Administrative departments should not only reinforce their post-production supervision with respect to cosmetics, but also consolidate their control over the process of cosmetic production in order to solve the problem of toxic residues or illegal and intentional adulterations.%目的:评价2010年湖南省化妆品卫生质量状况,为更好地进行监督管理提供科学依据.方法:依据中华人民共和国卫生部《化妆品卫生规范》,随机抽取150份2010年湖南省市售化妆品并对其进行卫生学检验,包括微生物指标(菌落总数、霉菌和酵母菌、粪大肠菌群、金黄色葡萄球菌、铜绿假单胞菌)和化学指标(17种禁用物质和14种限用物质).结果:抽检化妆品的总体不合格率为22.0%,其中香水类,护肤类(眼部用)及除臭类化妆品不合格率较高,分别为70.6

  20. 基于SWOT定量分析的果蔬品电子商务体系构建研究--以湖南大湘西为例%Based on the SWOT Quantitative Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Product Build e-commerce System Research--- in Western Hunan,Hunan province as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仁孚; 黄成菊

    2015-01-01

    以湖南大湘西地区果蔬品为例,运用SWOT定量分析法,对该地区果蔬品电子商务发展进行内部、外部环境因素分析,明确湖南大湘西电子商务果蔬品的优势、劣势、机遇及挑战,提出构建果蔬品电子商务体系势在必行。文章根据湖南大湘西地区实际情况,提出果蔬品电子商务体系的构建对策,旨在为大湘西地区以及其他不发达地区构建果蔬品电子商务体系提供一定的指导意见。%The fruit and vegetable products in hunan big xiangxi area,for example,using quantitative analysis method of SWOT,fruit and vegetable products e-commerce development in the area are internal and external environmental factors anal-ysis,clear hunan western hunan e-commerce fruit and vegetable product strengths,weaknesses,opportunities and challenges,it is imperative to fruit and vegetable product electronic commerce system is put forward.Article according to the actual circum-stance of hunan west hunan area,put forward countermeasures for construction of fruit and vegetable products e-commerce system,and aims at providing a big xiangxi region and other underdeveloped areas build a fruit and vegetable products e-com-merce system provide certain guidance.

  1. Evaluation of Agricultural Resilience of Households after Drought in Paddyfield in Dingcheng in Hunan Province%湖南鼎城水田农作区农户农业旱灾后恢复力评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立龙; 苏筠

    2011-01-01

    以水田农业典型区——湖南鼎城为研究区域,采用人户问卷调查的形式,运用主成分分析法对农户农业旱灾后的恢复情况进行评价分析.结果发现:被调查的各乡镇农业旱灾后恢复力存在较大差异.农户农业旱灾后恢复力随着人均粮食产量的增加先升高后降低;随着人均家庭收入增加出现了“M”型趋势;不同地貌类型的农户农业旱灾后恢复力排序为东北部地区>西北部地区>南部地区>中部地区;家庭收入水平、地貌类型和作物种植结构对农户农业旱灾后恢复力地提升有较大影响.最后,根据调查分析结果提出了几点具体措施,以帮助鼎城区农户提升农业旱灾后的恢复力.%Taking typical paddyfield region, Oingcheng in Hunan Province, as research area to evaluate agricultural resilience of households after drought by using principal component analysis based on questionnaires. The results showed that large gap existed between each instigated town's and village's agricultural resilience after drought; agricultural resilience after drought of households increased first and then reduced with increasing per capita grain yield; a "M" trends appeared with increase of per capita family income; the sequence of households' agricultural resilience after drought from high to low based on different geomorphologic types ordered as northeast>northwest>southem>central; family income level, geomorphologic types and crop planting structure have huge impact on increase of agricultural resilience after drought. In the end, some specific measures were proposed according to the analysis results to help the households in Dingcheng increase their agricultural resilience after drought.

  2. 湖南柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的危害特点研究初报%The Damage Characteristics of Tetradacus citri Chen on Different Citrus Varieties in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文力; 杨水芝; 潘美山; 陈海玲; 黄泽培; 龙建国; 肖伏莲

    2011-01-01

    采用定点观察和普查的方式对湖南省吉首市、麻阳县柑橘大实蝇的危害特点进行了研究.结果表明:柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的危害时间由早到晚依次为:脐橙>温洲蜜柑>冰糖橙≥大红甜橙=广柑>椪柑;其危害最严重的品种是脐橙,虫果率达63%,其次是早熟温洲蜜柑和冰糖橙,达22%,再次是椪柑,达6%;同时还发现,柑橘不同品种果皮表面存在产卵假痕迹现象.这些结果可为柑橘大实蝇的防治提供理论参考依据.%The damage characteristics of Tetradacus citri Chen in Mayang County, Jishou City, Hunan Province were investigated by fixed-point observation method and general survey method. The results indicated that the harm time of Tetradacus citri Chen on different varieties of citrus ordered as navel orange>satsuma mandarin>Citrus sinensis ^Citrus sineasis Osbeck cv. Dahong= Citrussinensis (L.) Osbeck >Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan; the damage level of Tetradacus citri Chen on different varieties of citrus ordered as navel orange>early mature satsuma mandarin and Citrus sinensis >dtrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan, and the insect infestation ratio of navel orange, early mature satsuma mandarin, Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan was 63%, 22%, 22% and 6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the research also showed that there are fake oviposition traces of Tetradacus citri Chen on the Peels of different varieties of citrus. These results above can provide the theory basis for the control of Tetradacus citri Chen.

  3. Study on the sleep quality and its inlfuencing factors of rural left-behind elderly in Hunan province%湖南省农村留守老年人睡眠状况及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 谢丽琴; 陈晓岗

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解湖南省农村留守老人的睡眠质量及其影响因素。方法:采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表及一般情况调查表等对566名湖南农村留守老年人进行调查。结果:湖南省农村留守老年人睡眠质量总平均分为(7.50±3.81)分,睡眠质量差者占42.1%。女性、近2周患病、低生活能力为农村留守老人睡眠质量的危险因素;男性、子女返乡天数、高社会支持为农村留守老人睡眠质量的保护因素。结论:湖南省农村留守老年人睡眠质量较差,受生理及心理社会等多重因素的影响,应采取多种方式对农村留守老人进行干预,以提高睡眠质量。%Objective:To explore the sleep quality and its inlfuencing factors of rural left-behind elderly in Hunan province. Methods:To investigate the sleep quality and it's inlfuencing factors of the 566 rural left-behind elderly with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and demographics. Results:The average score of PSQI of the 566 rural left-behind elderly was 7.50±3.81, 42.1%elderlys had bad sleep quality. Female, illness within two weeks, and poor ADL skills are the main risk factors,while strong social support and children return are the positive factors. Conclusion:The overall sleep quality of rural left-behind elderly is poor and can be affected by social-psychological and physical factors. Various means should be taken to improve the overall sleep quality among the elderly.

  4. A Research on Plants Communities of Fall Color Leaf in Xianyuling landscape Landscape resort Resort of Hunan Province%湖南仙庾岭风景名胜区秋色叶植物群落研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙冰; 彭重华

    2014-01-01

    Xianyuling landscape resort of Hunan province belongs to the hilly area in middle subtropical zone w hose typical plant community is evergreen broad - leaved forest . This article conducts a research on general plant community type ,structure and the species composition in Xianyuling landscape resort ,and the results show that plants community of fall - color leaf can be divided into five categories:Cinnamomum camphora · Liquidambar community ,Liquidambar community ,Sassafras tzumu community ,Quercus fabri community and Sapium discolor community .Through the analysis of community composition ,structural characteristics and landscape characteristics of various typical communities , the article offers references for the selection and rational use of fall -color tree resources and restoration of forest landscape , w hich are helpful to the succession research of deciduous forest vegetation that contains evergreen composition in this area of middle subtropical zone .%指出了湖南仙庾岭风景名胜区属于中亚热带丘陵地区,地带性典型植物群落为常绿阔叶林。对景区总体植物群落类型及其结构、种类组成进行了调查研究,结果表明:秋色叶植物群落可以划分为5类:香樟·枫香群落、枫香群落、檫木群落、白栎群落、山乌桕群落,通过分析各典型群落的种类组成、结构特征及景观特征,为选择和合理运用秋色叶树种资源、山林植物景观修复提供依据,有助于该区系中亚热带含有常绿成分的落叶林植被的演替研究。

  5. Study on flora composition and species diversity of Changiostyrax raxdolichocarpa communities in northwestern Hunan province%湘西北长果安息香群落区系组成与特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张程; 彭重华; 刘晖; 曹铁如

    2012-01-01

    在对湖南桑植龙潭坪、石门壶瓶山长果安息香种群进行野外调查的基础上,分析了其群落的区系,比较了两地长果安息香分布核心样地的生境、群落特征及物种多样性.结果表明:(1)两个样地共出现维管植物82科153属229种.其中蕨类植物7科11属16种,裸子植物1科1属2种,被子植物74科141属211种;(2)长果安息香区系成分复杂,科级与属级地理成分热带性质较强;(3)长果安息香群落垂直结构复杂,以中小高位芽植物为主;(4)样地植物种类丰富,灌木层的各项物种多样性指数均高于乔木层和草本层.%The vegetation data of Changiostyrax raxdolichocarpa population forest in Hupingshan and Sangzhi, Hunan province were used as the information for studying the flora composition and species diversity. The results showed that a total of 82 families( 153 genera,229 species) of vascular plants were found within these two sample plot, including 7 families(ll genera, 16 species) of peridophyte; 1 family ( 1 genera, 2 species) of gymnospperme, 74 families ( 141 genera, 211 species) of angiospermae. The floristic elements are complex, strong tropical geographical elements were found at family-level and genus-level. Vertical structure of the community is also complex, dominated by mesophanerophytes and microphanerophytes. The community is rich in plant species, especially the diversity of shrub layer, which were higher than those of the tree layer and herb layer.

  6. 湖南通道侗族端午节中的民族植物学%Ethnobotanical Activities at the Dragon-Boat Festival in Tongdao, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光华; 佘朝文; 蒋向辉; 石诗博; 曾婷婷

    2013-01-01

    Through long-term ethnobotanical investigation,we have discovered many ancient customs,including sacrificial,medicinal bathing,ornamental,and potherb customs,that take place at the traditional Dragon-Boat Festival in Tongdao County,Hunan Province.At this festival,people make full use of a large number of different plants when carrying out these customs.We recorded that plants hanging beside doors included 4 species,belonging to 4 different plant families and 4 genera; plants for bathing included 31 species,belonging to 20 families and 28 genera; while wild plants for healthcare included 47 species,belonging to 33 different families and 44 genera,most of which were wild medicinal plants having different functions.The uses of some of the plants recorded are reported for the first time.Reasons for the different uses of plants requires scientific investigation.Ethnobotanical knowledge is rich in the Dong communities and needs to be explored and studied comprehensively.%通过长期的民族植物学调查,我们发现通道侗族端午节文化习俗古老,保留有传统的祭祀、药浴、配戴饰品、食用保健野菜等习俗.在端午节中,人们利用的植物种类丰富,用于悬挂门户的植物有4种,涉及4科4属;用于药浴的植物有31种,涉及20科28属;用于保健的野生植物有47种,涉及33科44属.这些植物大多为野生药用植物,它们作用不一,用法也不尽相同,而其中一些能用来悬挂、药浴及保健的植物未见有相关报道,它们所包含的科学知识需要进一步去揭示.通道侗族聚居区的民族植物学知识蕴藏丰富,值得仔细深入地发掘和全面研究.

  7. Investigation on the relation factors and analysis on Hunan province's all people's body-building programme%影响湖南群众体育发展的有关因素调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌

    2001-01-01

    we conducted a sample survey in 64 counties and urban districts of the first-phase(1995-2000)implementation of all people's body-building programme and made a comparative analysis on the same items before and after it was implemented.The findings turn out that the prospects of all people's body-building activities in Hunan province are optimittic.Almost everything,including the special-purpose sports grounds for mass body-building,activities,propaganda,funds input,sports instruction centers,activity centers and physique check systems,has made distinct improvement,but a relatively small number of people take part in the body-building activites and there still exist quite a few problems in how to push all people's body -building movement in a scientific,normal and effective way in its actual implementation.This research topic defines the present situation and the problems needed to be solved in implementing the programme,puts forward relevant countermeasures and provides the reference basis to better implement the programme.%通过对湖南64个县(市区)全民健身计划纲要第1期工程实施情况进行调查,并将《纲要》实施前后的情况进行对比分析,结果表明:湖南群众体育活动法规制度建设及内容、宣传和表彰;国民体质检测系统、科研和电子信息网络等情况较实施前有进步。但对迅猛发展的现阶段社会需求来说,还是一个非常薄弱的环节。研究提出了加强对群众体育活动的法律法规的宣传力度及其薄弱环节的监控等对策。

  8. The Construction of Talents with Regard to the System of Land and Mineral Resources in Hunan Province in the New Period%新时期湖南省国土资源系统人才队伍建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文君

    2016-01-01

    人才建设是当前国土资源管理工作的重要内容,高层次专业人才、高素质复合人才、信息化技术人才、法治专门人才成为国土资源部门急需人才。湖南省国土资源系统人才队伍建设虽取得一定进展,但高素质人才不足,专业技术人才和综合性人才占比低,行政机关人员年龄偏大,人才队伍建设缺乏顶层设计。因此,未来应推进全省国土资源人才队伍顶层设计,制定人才发展战略,创新完善人才遴选引进、培育开发、考核激励和人才建设投入等人才工作体制机制,统筹推进人才梯队建设和国土资源人才法治化建设等。%Talent training constitutes important aspects of the management of land and resources. High-level professionals, high qualiifed personnel, information-based talent, and the rule of law talents are becoming urgently needed talents in the ifeld of land resources. Shortage of high quality talent, low proportion of professional and technical personnel and a comprehensive talent, older executive staff, lack of top-level design for building talent team have been the major problems that Hunan province face in land and resource talent construction. Therefore, in the future, top-level design for building talent team must be accelerated. Talent development strategy must be set up. Talent development mechanism in talent selection and introduction, cultivation and development, assessment and motivation, and investment in talent building should be innovated and improved. In addition, echelon construction and building the rule of law related talents should be balanced to be promoted.

  9. 四川资中圣灵洞成因演化及保护%Origin, Evolution and Protection of Shengling Cave in Zizhong City, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万新南; 杨菊; 袁小铭; 蒋兴奎; 赵发明; 司毅

    2012-01-01

    Comparing huge cave developing in vast and massive limestone in different geological eras, this paper mainly discusses the origin and evolution of Shengling Cave in thin lake-facies limestone of Jurassic red stratum, and analyzes the deposit process of big stalagmites in the cave. Based on the results of the research, the paper puts forward some suggestions for protecting the cave and its environment.%对比发育各地质时代巨厚成片碳酸盐岩(包括侏罗纪砾岩灰岩)中、大型岩溶洞穴研究,重点讨论资中侏罗纪红层地区薄层湖相淡水灰岩洞的形成与演化机理,进而根据其发育的地层与构造条件,分析洞内大型石钟乳类钙华沉积的形成过程.提出了圣灵洞地质遗迹保护措施,它包括防止人为的洞内、洞外构件破坏及清洁水源与洞体周边环境的保护.

  10. 湖南省中学生交通违规行为现状调查及影响因素分析%Investigation of traffic law violations among middle school students in Hunan province and the influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦琦; 朱松林; 马苑; 何琼; 谭爱春; 胡国清

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解湖南省中学生交通违规行为发生情况,探讨不同程度交通违规行为的影响因素.方法:采用分层整群抽样方法随机抽取湖南省16个中学96个班的学生及其家长作为研究对象.由学生回顾最近1年内5种常见违规行为出现情况,影响因素中的家庭支持功能和家长教养方式分别采用家庭功能评定量表和子女教育心理控制源量表进行评价,其他变量通过自编问卷进行调查.采用Kruskal-Wallis H检验和无序多分类logistic回归分析数据.结果:湖南省中学生在过去1年中5种交通违规行为发生率为16.6%~43.3%,"过马路闯红灯或不走人行横道线"回答"经常"或"几乎总是"的学生占8.2%,其他4种交通违规行为的学生所占比例均不到4%.同时出现1~5种交通违规行为学生的比例依次为25.3%,17.8%,10.2%,6.2%和3.4%.Logistic回归发现:出现1种违规行为的影响因素包括地区、初/高中和是否为独生子女;出现2种违规行为的影响因素包括地区、初/高中、性别、是否为独生子女和是否为班干部;出现3种及以上违规行为的影响因素包括学校类别、初/高中、性别、是否为班干部、家庭支持功能和家长教养方式.结论:仅少部分学生经常或几乎每次都出现交通违规行为,或同时出现多种交通违规行为.学校安全教育和干预应将交通违规程度较重学生作为重点.%Objective To determine the incidence of traffic law violations among middle school students of Hunan province and to identify the influencing factors.Methods Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were used to randomly select students from 96 classes of 16 middle schools.Road traffic law violations were measured through recalling the occurrence of 5 common violations in the prior year.Most of influencing factors were collected by self-designed questionnaire except for family support function and parenting that were measured by the family

  11. Cognition on Emerging Infectious Diseases of Rural Doctors in Hunan Province%湖南省3个县乡村医务人员对新发传染病认知水平调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓常青; 杨倩; 钟贵良

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解湖南省3个县乡村医生对新发传染病认知水平,为农村新发传染病防治提供科学依据。方法应用自行设计的调查表,采用多级抽样的方法,抽取湖南省3个县(长沙县、平江县、邵东县)9个乡卫生院的乡村医生共209名作为调查对象,了解乡村医生基本情况、对新发传染病相关知识的知晓情况、对几种常见和不常见新发传染病知识知晓情况、对新发传染病政策相关知识知晓情况、新发传染病知识知晓主要途径等。结果本组调查对象对严重急性呼吸综合征(severe acute respiratory syndromes, SARS)、甲型H1N1流感等常见新发传染病的相关知识有一定程度的了解,尤其是SARS和甲型H1N1流感的传播途径知晓率达80.9%;对不常见的新发传染病,如埃博拉出血热病毒、莱姆病的相关知识知晓率偏低;对于新发传染病政策相关知识正确率较低,最低的是“甲类传染病未实行网络直报报告时间”一项,知晓率仅为4.3%。对新发传染病知识知晓途径通过培训获得的仅占5.3%。结论应加大乡村医生新发传染病防治相关知识、政策及操作技能的培训力度,扩大培训方式,提高其新发传染病防治能力。%Objective To understand the cognition on emerging infectious diseases of rural doctors in Hunan province, to provide a scientific basis for preventing emerging infectious diseases in rural areas. Methods With multistage sampling, totally 209 doctors from rural hospitals in 9 towns of 3 counties (Changsha County, Pingjiang County, Shaodong County) in Hunan Province were investigated by self-designed questionnaires to understand the basic information of rural doctors, their basic knowledge on emerging infectious diseases, the understanding of the policies regarding emerging infectious diseases, the way to know emerging infectious diseases, etc. Results Most of the respondents knew much on

  12. 湖南农村双亲留守儿童生长发育影响因素分析%Status and influencing factors of growth and development among rural left-behind children in Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭喜春; 罗家有

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨湖南省农村<7岁双亲留守儿童生长发育状况及其影响因素.方法 按照分层整群随机抽样原则,对随机选择的湖南省4县市695名<7岁农村留守儿童和592名对照儿童进行调查.结果 双亲留守儿童与对照儿童的生长迟缓率分别为18.7%、16.4%,低体重率为2.0%、2.2%,超重率为1.0%、0.5%,肥胖率为3.7%、2.9%,差异均无统计学意义(x2=1.184,P=0.276;x2=0.015,P=0.821;x2=1.038,P=0.358;x2=0.748,P=0.387);双亲留守儿童贫血检出率(33.4%)高于对照儿童(26.0%)(x2=8.265,P=0.004);多分类logistic回归分析结果显示,出生体重较重、不贫血、不挑食、家庭人口数较多、母亲文化程度较高,则身高别体重Z评分(WHZ)较高;母亲年龄较大及外出务工时间较长,则WHZ较低;父亲外出务工时间较长,年龄别身高Z评分(HAZ)较高;出生体重较重、散居、母亲文化程度较高,则年龄别体重Z评分(WAZ)较高;母亲年龄较大,WAZ评分低.结论 湖南省学龄前双亲留守儿童生长发育存在迟缓现象,母亲年龄较大、母亲外出务工而造成的母亲照顾缺失对儿童的生长发育有延缓作用.%Objective To investigate the status and related influencing factors of growth and development among rural left-behind children under 7 years old in Hunan province. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 695 rural left-behind children and 592 controls for a questionnaire survey and physical measurement. Results The incidence rates were 18.7% and 16.4% for growth retardation,2. 0% and 2. 2% for underweight,3. 7% and 2. 9% for overweight,and 3. 7% and 2. 9% for obesity, respectively, among the left-behind and control children, with no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0. 2 for all). The rate of anemia in left-behind children (33. 4% ) was significantly higher than that of the control (26. 0% ,x2 = 8. 265 ; P = 0. 004). The results of multivariate logistic

  13. 湖南省汝城县土源性线虫病感染现状调查%Survey on Current Status of Geohelminthes Disease Infection in Rucheng County, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹月娥; 朱金林; 朱晓英; 朱敏燕; 游晓敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the epidemic status and trends of geohelminthe disease and assess the effectiveness of its prevention in Rucheng County, Hunan Province, and to provide the reference for the development of the future strategies of geohelminthes control.Methods Five administrative villages were randomly selected from five towns in Rucheng County, Hunan Province.More than 200 residents in each administrative village were selected.Kato - Katz thick smear technique was used for quantitative determination of helminth eggs in faeces and the degree of infection (egg per gram, EPG) was calculated.The tube- filter paper culture method was used to separate oncosphere.Results Totally 1,000 residents were checked in five surveyed sites.Four kinds of geohelminthes were found.The total infection rate was 10.2%, of which 5.6% in roundworm, 3.5% in hookworm, 0.7% in trichuris, and 0.4% in enterobius.No statistically significant difference was found in the infection rates of roundworm and hookworm among the 5 towns (x2 = 4.29, P >0.05; and x2 = 4.74, P >0.05).The infection rates of male and female showed no statistically significant difference (x2 = 2.97, P > 0.05).There were statistically significant differences in the infection rate of hookworm between male and female (x2 = 10.19, P<0.01).There were statistically significant differences in the infection rate of hookworm among all age groups (x2 =49.5, P<0.01).Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for 29%.Necator americanus accounted for 71%.Conclusions Compared with the first survey results 20 years ago, the infection rate declines significantly.Universal prevention and treatment knowledge of parasitic diseases, feces harmless treatment and deworming drugs for the focus groups still need to continuously strengthen in the rural areas in order to consolidate the results of prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases.%目的 了解掌握汝城县土源性线虫病流行现状和趋势,评估其防治效果,为

  14. The records and implications of Mg,Sr and Ba in cave water and active speleothems in Jiguan Cave,western Henan Province%豫西鸡冠洞洞穴水及现代沉积物Mg,Sr和Ba记录及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小凤; 张志钦; 杨琰; 彭涛; 赵景耀; 张银环; 聂旭东; 刘肖; 李建仓; 凌新有

    2014-01-01

    Speleothems contain a number of suitable proxies reconstructing climate environmental changes, which is a top topic in current research.Due to the variety of sources and complex factors,trace elements are less frequently used than the oxygen isotopes in climate studies.However,they are used to reveal the groundwater runoff in the epikarst overlying the cave with the process and the surface environment.Induc-tively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spec-trometry(ICP-OES)have been used to analyse the trace elements of Ca、Mg、Sr and Ba in cave water and ac-tive formations in Jiguan Cave during December,2009 and August,2013.Jiguan Cave (33°46′N,111°34′E) is located in Luanchuan county,western Henan Province,which is north of the Qinling ranges-Huaihe River and southeast of Loess Plateau,while at the foot of the northern watershed of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River.It main exposed rocks are Sinian chlorite marbles.Located in the typical east Asian monsoonal zone,the Jiguan Cave area is typically has cold/dry winters and warm/wet summers.More than 50 % of the total annual precipitation occurs in summer.The mean annual temperature and precipitation recorded at a nearby meteorological station are 12.1±0.9 ℃ and 846±181 mm (1957-2009)respectively.In the paper, trace elements such as Ca,Mg,Sr and Ba in cave water and active formations collected in Jiguan Cave were analyzed with ICP-MS and ICP-OES.The Mg/Ca,Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca of cave water varied between 0.2-0.8, (1.2-6.0)×10-3 and (0.3-2.0)×10-3 respectively.Mg/Ca can respond to the environment outside the cave faithfully.The wet-dry condition of the karst system is suggested as the dominant controller of Mg/Ca ratios in cave pool water and underground rivers,whereas the Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca may have nothing to do with precipitation and temperature.The Mg/Ca,Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in active speleothems varied between (9-50)×10-3 ,(0.1-1.2)×10-3 and (0

  15. 辽宁省城市社区体育在实施过程中的权力运行机制的研究%A Aesearch on City Community Sports in Implementation Process Authority Operational Mechanism in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭东

    2011-01-01

    The research uses the questionnaire survey procedure,the mathematical method of average, research techniques and so on literature material law, has conducted the investigation and study to the Hunan Province partial city community sports authority operational mechanism present situation.The research demonstrated the Hunan Province city community sports organization manages has not brought to the enough attention, the authority operational mechanism quite is also chaotic, the populace sports authority operational mechanism in the management by supervision, the fund raising mechanism, the communication mechanism and aspects and so on location resources development use mechanism insufficiently is also perfect and mature, proposed conforms to the Hunan Province city community sports actual need community sports authority operational mechanism improvement countermeasure,formulates when the development community sports service policy for the government related functional departments refers.%研究采用问卷调查法、数理统计法、文献资料法等研究方法,对辽宁省部分城市社区体育权力运行机制的现状进行了调查研究。研究显示:辽宁省城市社区体育组织管理还没有引起足够的重视,权力运行机制还比较混乱,群众体育权力运行机制在监督管理、筹资机制、沟通机制和场地资源开发利用机制等方面还不够健全和成熟,提出符合辽宁省城市社区体育实际需要的社区体育权力运行机制的改进对策,供政府有关职能部门制定发展社区体育服务政策时参考。

  16. Hunan Rare Earth Group Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Following Guangdong,Guangxi,Fujian and Jiangxi,Hunan announced that it would consolidate its rare earth resources-the consolidation plan of Hunan Rare Earth Group has been approved. Consolidation of the rare earth industry of south China is in full swing.According to "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of Rare Earth Industry"(hereinafter referred to as "Several Opinions")released in 2011,

  17. 湖南侗族学生Heath-Carter体型发育特征分析%Characteristics of Heath-Carter somatotype development in Dong students from Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮建辉; 吴亿中; 雷鸣枝

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many methods for studying the somatotype of adults or children. Among them, Heath-Carter somatotype method is a comprehensive evaluation method. Using this method, 10 items of anthropometric indicators are selected and 3 factors which could be gotten to represent relative content of body fat, growth degree of skeletal muscle and relative height and thinness of body (relative line degree), are calculated, respectively.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the rules and characteristics of somatotype development in Dong students from Hunan province, so as to supplement the essential data for physical anthropology.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A cross-sectional investigation was performed at the Department of Biological Engineering, Huaihua College of Hunan Province in May 2006.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 989 Dong students (boys 492, girls 497), aged 7 to 17 years, were selected from the primary schools or middle schools of Tongdao Dong Nationality Autonomous Country in Hunan province and recruited into the present study. All the selected students were verified healthy by physical examinations at school. The subjects were divided into two groups by gender, and each group was divided into 11 subgroups according to the age.METHODS: By Heath-Carter somatotype method, 10 anthropological indexes were measured. Each indicator was measured twice and the average value was selected. The above-mentioned data were input into the computer to form a database. The following indicators were calculated in turn: 3 factors on somatotype, coordinate values of X and Y on somatotype chart, mean of dimensional distances from the average somatotype to all somatotypes in the sample, difference between the two somatotypes in three-dimensional space and frequency distribution of each somatotype.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, body mass, upper arm circumference, calf circumference, intracondylar diameters of humerus and femur, skinfold of brachial triceps, subscapular skinfold, skinfold of

  18. Analysis of high yield formation of rapeseed in Hunan province and high-yield cultivation measures%湖南高产油菜的产量构成特点及主要栽培措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官春云; 谭太龙; 王国槐; 王峰; 官梅

    2011-01-01

    对2008-2009年参加湖南省油菜高产创建活动的高产田块产量及其形成特点进行分析.结果表明:平均产量为3084 kg/hm2的油菜田块角果数为6.522×107个/hm2,每果粒数为20.5粒,千粒重4.077 g;冬前苗单株绿叶数约10片,单株总叶数16片,最大叶长近45 cm,叶宽18 cm,干物质产量为4 841.85 kg/hm2;盛花期株高为136 cm,主茎总节数31.8节,主茎绿叶数17片,第一片无柄叶长28.8 cm,宽13 cm,10 cm以上分枝数10.6个,干物质产量为11 225.1 kg/hm2;成熟期株高为180 cm,分枝数11个,干物质产量(去角果)为9 118.65 kg/hm2.高产田块主要栽培措施为:9月7-15日播种,培育壮苗,10月10-25 日移栽;土壤肥力中等,精细整地;施用45%高效复合肥450~750 kg/hm2,另加15 kg/hm2硼肥作底肥,苗期适当追施尿素;或施优质农家肥1.5×104kg/hm2,25%复合肥375 kg/hm2,加15 kg/hm2硼肥作底肥,苗期适当追施尿素150~225 kg/hm2;种植密度1.2× 105株/hm2,及时灌排水和防治病虫草害等.%According to the analysis of yield level and yield characteristics of typical block in Hunan province in 2008-2009, preliminary results are obtained. Yield components and physiological index in different growth stages of rapeseed yielded around 3 084 kg/hm2 in Hunan are: number of siliques is 6.522 × 107/hm2, seed number is 20.5/ silique, thousand grain weight of rapeseed is 4.077 g. Green leaf number per plant in seedlings before winter (1/10) is nearly 10, total leaf number is 16, maximum leaf length nearly 45 cm, leaf width 18 cm, dry matter yield before winter is 4 841.85 kg/ hm2. Plant height in florescence stage is 136 cm, nodes number on the main stalk is 31.8, green leaf number on the main stalk is 17, first piece of sessile leaf length is 28.8 cm, width 13 cm, branch quantity (≥10 cm)is 10.6, the total mass of dry matter is 11 225.1 kg/hm2. Plant height in maturity stage is 180 cm, number of branch quantity is 11 and total amount of dry matter (silique

  19. 湖南省城市群生态网络构建与优化%Developing and optimizing ecological networks in urban agglomeration of Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海伟; 孔繁花; 祈毅; 王红扬; 周艳妮; 秦正茂

    2011-01-01

    On a regional scale , large habitat patches which are important regional sources of biological diversity can provide important functions in habitat protection for biodiversity conservation. However, due to rapid urbanization, large habitat patches have become increasingly fragmented, and are almost like an island surrounded by the built-up area. The connectivity among these habitat patches is gradually waning. Changes in land use around these large patches have very strong impacts and seriously threaten regional biodiversity conservation. Habitat fragmentation would lead to smaller and more isolated animal populations and the isolated populations are more vulnerable to local extinction and inbreeding depression. An Ecological network is a representation of the biotic interaction in an ecosystem while ecological network planning is a method that combines fragmented habitat patches to form landscapes with spatial integrity and habitat networks. This method can help raise the quality of natural ecosystems and protect biodiversity. Thus, the establishment of ecological networks and the restoration of the links between isolated habitat patches would be quite beneficial to ecosystem services. In this paper, based on the theory and principles of Landscape Ecology and Conservation Biology, taking urban agglomeration in Hunan Province as the example, the potential ecological corridors were quantitatively simulated using the Least-Cost Path and Scenario Analysis Methods with the help of Remote Sensing and GIS technology. The strength of the interaction between green patches was then evaluated quantitatively based on the Gravity model. The impacts of' the result of potential ecological networks by the cost surface were also analyzed. Finally, suggestions on how to optimize the ecological network were accordingly put forward. This paper tried to answer the following three questions: (1) what are the potential ecological corridors of urban agglomeration in Hunan Provence and

  20. 湘西地区城镇居民体育锻炼现状调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Current Situation of Sports Exercises of Urban Residents in the West of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红

    2014-01-01

    By using the methods of literature, expert interview and questionnaire,the article has randomly selected 1200 urban residents as the research objects from Jishou, Fenghuang, Huayuan, Baojing of the West of Hunan Province, investigated and analyzed the basic characteristics of participants, physical exercise motivation, time, frequency, intensity. The results show that: in the exercise of the residents, the proportion of women is higher than men, the elderly accounts for the majority, the main motivation to participate in the sports exercises is to fit shape, weight loss, mental and physical pleasure, ease the pressure and entertainment. The frequency of them most is 3-5 times every week, the duration of each exercise is in 30-60 minutes, most of their exercises are with medium intensity, most residents in the square, park, units or residential area sports venues as places for exercises, most choose to do outdoor fitness equipment exercises, fitness walking, climbing, most select the form of doing with friends or colleagues, the main factors affecting the residents to participate in sports exercises include the lack of time, lack of facilities and not interested sports.%采用文献资料法、访谈法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等研究方法,随机抽取湘西地区吉首、凤凰、花垣、保靖4个城镇1200名居民为调查对象,从体育锻炼参与者基本特征、体育锻炼动机、时间、频率、强度等方面进行调查与分析,研究结果表明:在参加体育锻炼的居民中,女性所占的比例高于男性,中老年人占多数,参加体育锻炼的主要动机是健美体形,减肥、愉悦身心,缓解压力和娱乐。每周参加3-5次锻炼,每次锻炼的持续时间在30-60分钟,以中等强度为主的人数比例最高,大多数居民以广场、公园、单位或住宅小区体育场所作为锻炼场所,选择体育锻炼的项目主要为户外健身器械、健身走、登山,选择

  1. Effect evaluation on tobacco control propaganda of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Hunan Province%湖南省肺结核患者控烟宣传效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳; 刘二勇; 成诗明; 简学武; 白丽琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the smoking and quitting smoking and smoke-free families established of pul-monary TB patients by intervening in Hunan Province.Methods To use unified designed questionnaire,collected and ana-lyzed information of 35 567 pulmonary tuberculosis patients which went to TB center for medical treatment include smoking, awareness of the harm caused by active smoking,quit smoking and smoke-free families in 7 prefectures and 68 counties CDC during 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010.Results 35 567 pulmonary TB patients were registered of which 13 304 is smokers,to-tal smoking rate was 37.41%,6289 smokers have quit smoking by intervening;awareness rate of smoking harm has in-creased from 88.67% to 96.90%;4320 smoking families have become new smoke-free families,increased 42.24%.Con-clusion Publicity on smoking harm should be strengthened to TB patients,raise awareness,reduce smoking rates,im-prove TB cure rate,promote the dual goal of TB control and tobacco control.%目的:评价湖南省在肺结核患者中开展控烟宣传活动的效果。方法应用统一设计的调查问卷,对湖南省7个地市及其所隶属68个县级结核病防治中心2008年7月1日—2010年7月1日所有前来就诊登记的所有的35567例肺结核患者吸烟、吸烟危害知晓情况、戒烟情况及无烟家庭建立等内容进行调查分析。结果共登记35567例肺结核患者,其中13304例患者吸烟,总吸烟率为37.41%,通过戒烟指导有6289例患者戒烟;对于前来就诊的肺结核患者,肺结核患者吸烟危害的知晓率由原来的88.67%上升到96.90%;4320例吸烟肺结核患者家庭转为新无烟家庭,无烟家庭新增加了42.24%。结论应加大对肺结核患者吸烟危害的宣传力度及深度,提高吸烟危害知晓率,降低吸烟率,提高治愈率,促进控制结核病和控烟的双重目标。

  2. 湖南省永州市鸟类区系特征及群落结构研究%A Study on Avifauna and Community Structure in Yongzhou, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆鹰; 李常健; 万亮; 庾太林; 黄乘明

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨不同生境、不同季节对鸟类群落结构及多样性的影响,笔者于2012年3月至2013年2月采用样线调查法对湖南省永州市的鸟类群落组成进行了调查.结果表明,记录到的鸟类共计9目33科121种,该地的夏候鸟有26种,留鸟59种,冬候鸟20种,旅鸟16种.在85种繁殖鸟中,东洋界鸟类有48种,占繁殖鸟总数的56.47%.从数量上看,留鸟是鸟类的构建主体;从整体上看,鸟类的物种数和总数量在春季和秋季呈现高峰,冬季最低.在不同季节中,春季的鸟类多样性指数和均匀度指数最高,分别为2.9901和0.7245;在不同生境中,全年鸟类多样性指数由高到低依次为灌草丛地>农田>林地>水域>村庄,均匀度指数为灌草丛地>农田>水域>林地>村庄.%The impact of different habitats and seasons on the community structure of birds was investigated by line transect method in Yongzhou,Hunan province from March in 2012 to February in 2013.The results showed that there were 121 species which belong to 9 orders and 33 families.Among of which,there were 26 summer visitors,59 residents,20 winter visitors and 16 passing migrants.Additionally,there were 85 breeding birds including 48 Oriental species (56.47%) in the study area.The resident birds were the dominant bird group in terms of bird abundance.The bird community structure of Yongzhou varied in seasons and two peaks of the species number and population abundance were observed in spring and autumn,and the lowest value was observed in winter.The highest Shannon-Wiener index (2.9901) and evenness index (0.7245) were observed in spring.The highest total Shannon-Wiener index was observed in mountain shrub,followed by farmland,woodland,water area and village,and the highest evenness index was also observed in mountain shrub,followed by farmland,water area,woodland and village.

  3. The Investigation of the Epidemiology Feature of Children Burns in Chang-Zhu-Tan Region of Hunan Province%湖南省长株潭地区儿童烧伤流行病学调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋香; 丁四清; 牛英

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiologic feature of children burns in Chang-Zhu-Tan region of Hunan Province. Methods; Stratified random cluster sampling method was used in this study. From January 2010 to December 2010,the clinic data of children hum patients from 50 days old to 14 years old in 3 hospitals of Chang-Zhu-Tan region was collected and the patients or their parents were surveyed with a questionnaire designed by us. Results: Different age groups (less than 3 years,4 ~6 years,7 ~ 14 years) were divided respectively. The most common cause of burn is hot liq-uid(56.1% ) ,and hot flame the second(31. 8% ). Indoor burns happened more common than outdoors (83. 3% vs. 16. 7% ). Living room is the most common place where children burns happened (47. 3% ). Most burns happened in daytime (75. 8% ) and in summer or autumn (62. 5% ) . Conclusion; In Chang-Zhu-Tan region, 0-3 years seemed to be the most common age group of children burn. Hot liquid or steam is the most common burn cause. Indoor burns seemhappened more common than outdoors. Children are easier to be burned in daytime and in summer or autumn.%目的:总结分析湖南省长株潭地区儿童烧伤的流行病学特征.方法:采用分层随机抽样法抽取湖南省长株潭地区3所医院,收集其2010年1月至2010年12月间收治的0-14岁烧伤患儿病历资料,并对烧伤患儿或其家长进行问卷调查.结果:各年龄段患儿烧伤构成比依次为0-3岁(62.1%)、4-6岁(24.2%)以及7-14岁(13.6%).致伤原因构成比依次为热液烧伤(56.1%)、火焰烧伤(31.8%)、其他原因烧伤(12.1%).83.3%的烧伤发生在室内,客厅为最主要的烧伤发生场所占47.3%.75.8%的患儿烧伤发生在白天(6:00-18:00).62.5%的患儿烧伤发生在夏、秋两季(6月-11月).结论:在长株潭地区,婴幼儿时期(0-3岁)为儿童烧伤的易发年龄段;热液/热蒸汽造成的烧烫伤是儿童烧伤最常见的类型;室内特别是客厅为儿童

  4. 湖南四水入洞庭湖水沙演变及成因分析%Changes of Runoffand Sediment Discharge into Dongting Lake from the Four Rivers in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃红燕; 谢永宏; 邹冬生

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of hydrological data from 1951 to 2009 of four representative gauging stations (Xiang- tan, Taojiang, Taoyuan, Shimen), the changes of runoff and sediment discharge into Dongting Lake from the Four Rivers (Xiang River, Zi River, Yuan River and Li River) in Hunan Province were investigated using Mann-Kendall trend test, moving average value and double mass analysis. The results showed that annual run- off was highest in Xiang River (657 x 108m3), intermediate in Yuan River (640 x 108m3) and Zi River (229 x 10Sm3), and lowest in Li River (147 ~ 108m3). However, the changes of annual runoff of the Four Rivers were in- significant (P 〉 0.05), with several up-down processes. Annual sediment discharge was highest in Yuan River (1 051 ~ 104t), intermediate in Xiang River.(959~ 104t) and Li River (382~ 1040, and lowest in Zi River (199x 104 t).The annual sediment discharge from the Four Rivers showed a significantly decreasing trend generally (P 〈 0.001). Changes of annual runoff and annual sediment discharge were consistent in Xiang River before 1980s, in Zi River after 1960s, in Yuan River before 1980s and in Li River before 1990s. Moreover, the time of abrupt change in annual sediment discharge was different among the Four Rivers, with Xiang River in 1996, Zi River in 1973-1974, Yuan River in 1997-1998 and Li River in 1998, and the time of abrupt beyond 95% confidence interval was 1999, 1963, 1988, 2001 in Xiang River, Zi River, Yuan River and Li River, respectively. Double mass analysis between annual runoff and annual sediment discharge showed that Xiang River had one turning point in 1991, Zi River three points in 1961, 1981 and 1997, Yuan River two points in 1979 and 1997, Li River one point in 1996. Turning points of annual sediment discharge in Four Rivers were closely related to the con- struction of large-scale reservoirs. The reduction of annual runoff, increase of vegetation cover and construc

  5. 湘西地区城镇居民体育锻炼现状调查与分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Current Situation of Sports Exercises of Urban Residents in the West of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料法、访谈法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等研究方法,随机抽取湘西地区吉首、凤凰、花垣、保靖4个城镇1200名居民为调查对象,从体育锻炼参与者基本特征、体育锻炼动机、时间、频率、强度等方面进行调查与分析,研究结果表明:在参加体育锻炼的居民中,女性所占的比例高于男性,中老年人占多数,参加体育锻炼的主要动机是健美体形,减肥、愉悦身心,缓解压力和娱乐。每周参加3-5次锻炼,每次锻炼的持续时间在30-60分钟,以中等强度为主的人数比例最高,大多数居民以广场、公园、单位或住宅小区体育场所作为锻炼场所,选择体育锻炼的项目主要为户外健身器械、健身走、登山,选择与朋友、同事一起锻炼的形式较多,影响居民参加体育锻炼的主要因素是缺乏时间、缺乏场地设施和没兴趣。%By using the methods of literature, expert interview and questionnaire,the article has randomly selected 1200 urban residents as the research objects from Jishou, Fenghuang, Huayuan, Baojing of the West of Hunan Province, investigated and analyzed the basic characteristics of participants, physical exercise motivation, time, frequency, intensity. The results show that: in the exercise of the residents, the proportion of women is higher than men, the elderly accounts for the majority, the main motivation to participate in the sports exercises is to fit shape, weight loss, mental and physical pleasure, ease the pressure and entertainment. The frequency of them most is 3-5 times every week, the duration of each exercise is in 30-60 minutes, most of their exercises are with medium intensity, most residents in the square, park, units or residential area sports venues as places for exercises, most choose to do outdoor fitness equipment exercises, fitness walking, climbing, most select the form of doing with friends or colleagues, the

  6. 湖南稻区稗草对二氯喹啉酸的抗性研究%Studies on Resistance of Echinochloa crusglli to Quinclorac in the Rice Plantation Area in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国兰; 余柳青; 刘都才; 刘雪源; 陆永良; 柏连阳

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse study was carried out to determine the resistance level to quinclorac of 29 barnyard grass bio-types collected from rice planting area in Hunan province. The result showed that the biotype collected from Shaoyang suburb was the most susceptible barnyard grass to quinclorac,the EC50 was 76.3883 g a. i. /hm2. The biotype collected from Shaoyang suburb as the susceptible biotype, the biotypes collected from Zhihukou town in Yiyang and Wangcheng in Changsha presented very high resistance to quinclorac,the EC50 was 1567.164 g a. i. /hm2 and 2477.542 g a. i./hm2 respectively, and its resistance index was riched to 20.52 and 32.43 respectively which indicated the two biotypes had resistance to quinclorac on high level. Among 29 biotypes 10 were resistant to quinclorac with a EC50 value ranged from 155.9318 to 375.114 g a. i./hm2 ,and a resistant index ranged from 2.02 to 4.91. And the susceptibility to quinclorac of the other 16 biotypes was decreasing with the EC50 value ranged from 84.0203 to 151.596 g a. i. /hm2 ,and the resistant index ranged from 1.10 to 1.98.%利用整株测定法,测定湖南省主要稻区29个稗草生物型对二氯喹啉酸的抗性.结果表明,湖南省隆回县的生物型稗草对二氯喹啉酸最敏感,其EC50为76.3883 g a.i./hm2,为敏感生物型.湖南省益阳芷湖口镇和湖南省长沙望城县(直播田)的生物型稗草对二氯喹啉酸的EC50分别为1567.164 g a.i./hm2和2477.542 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数分别达20.52和32.43,表明这两种生物型稗草的抗药性处于高水平抗性.其中10个生物型稗草的EC50为155.9318 ~375.114 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数为2.02 ~4.91,表明这些生物型稗草已产生抗性.而其余16个生物型稗草的EC50为84.0203 ~151.596 g a.i./hm2,抗药性指数为1.10 ~1.98,表明这些地方稗草的敏感性正在下降.

  7. 自尊量表对湖南中学生的适用性研究%The adaptation of self-esteem inventory for middle school students in Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许新赞

    2008-01-01

    Objective For the sake of analyzing the self-esteem inventory(SEI) accordance with the middle school students of China. Methods Through random sampling, the research has made an investigation to the middle school students in Yueyang, Changsha and Hengyang city of Hunan province. Results Through factor analysis,the research proved the Chinese SEI is composed of 6 factors, that is ,family-self, self-satisfaction, ability-self,emotion-self,socialpeer-self and school-self. Through reliability analysis, the reliability of six factors ranges from 0.4255 to 0.7268, the reliability of the whole scale is 0.7567. Through validity analysis, the correlations between six factors are significant( P<0.01 ) except between family-self and school-self,ranging from 0. 007 to 0.313 ,the correlations between factors and total scores are significant, ranging from 0. 454 to 0. 658. Conclusion The research indicates the SEI accormodate the middle school students of China in some way. While their differences indicate it need to be revised in accordance with the middle school students of China.%目的 检验Coopersmith的自尊量表(SEI)对湖南中学生的适应性.方法 本研究采用随机抽样的方法对湖南岳阳、长沙以及衡阳三个地区的中学生进行调查.结果 通过对湖南被试资料的因素分析得到6个因素,家庭自我、自我满意感、能力自我、社会-同伴自我、情感自我以及学校自我,信度分析中6个因素信度在0.4255~0.7268之间,总量表信度为0.7567;内部一致性效度分析中6个因素间相关系数为0.007~0.313,各因素与量表总分的相关系数为0.454~0.658,除了家庭自我与学校自我分量表之间不存在显著相关外,其他因素间以及因素与总分间的相关都非常显著(P<0.01).结论 本研究表明SEI对湖南中学生有一定的适应性,但在以后的工作中应对该量表进行进一步的修订,以便编制更适合我国中学生的自尊量表.

  8. 水口山水稻土与菜地土中砷的有效性%Availability of arsenic in paddy and vegetable soils in Shuikoushan mining area of Hunan Province, South-central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雁鸣; 冯人伟; 韦朝阳

    2012-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from the surrounding areas of Shuikoushan mining area in Hunan Province of South-central China to determine the soil total and available arsenic contents and the soil physical and chemical properties (pH value, organic matter content, and clay content ) , with the differences of the test parameters in two agricultural soils ( vegetable soil and paddy soil) and the relationships between the soil available arsenic content and the soil physical and chemical properties analyzed. The average content of the arsenic in paddy soil and vegetable soil was 72. 01 and 30.71 mg · kg-1, respectively, being close to or exceeding the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard II. There existed significant differences in the soil physical and chemical properties between the two agricultural soils, with the higher contents of clay and organic matter but lower pH value in paddy soil than those in vegetable soil, and the paddy soil being obviously acidified. The total arsenic content in vegetable soil was far higher than that in paddy soil, but the available arsenic content of the two soils had less difference. Except for total arsenic , the available arsenic content in paddy soil was significantly positively correlated with organic matter content, and that in vegetable soil was significantly positively correlated with pH value. In the Shuikoushan mining area, vegetable soil had a higher risk of arsenic pollution than paddy. soil, and thus, necessary remediation strategies or adjustment of land use pattern should be adopted to reduce the health risk of soil arsenic contamination.%对湖南省水口山矿冶周边土壤进行采样分析,以土壤砷总量与有效态砷含量以及土壤基本理化性质(pH、有机质含量、土壤粘粒含量)为参数,研究各参数在两种土地利用类型(菜地土和水稻土)间的差异以及有效态砷与土壤理化性质之间的关系.结果表明,水口山水稻土与菜地土平均砷含量分别达72

  9. Analysis of Microbial Indexes in Peripheral Water of Rural Centralized Water Supply in Hunan Province%湖南省农村集中式供水末梢水微生物指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅; 吴传业; 黄涛; 胡建安

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the microbial contamination of rural centralized water supply and explore efficient preventive measures, so as to provide a basis for the improvement of water quality of rural centralized water supply. Methods The drinking water quality of 2,006 centralized water supply points in rural areas of 93 counties (districts) in Hunan Province in 2011 was monitored according to the relevant national standards of water quality testing. The microbial indicators of samples in different conditions were analyzed statistically. Results The total qualified rate of microbial indicators in 4,012 peripheral water samples of rural centralized water supply was 40.28%. The microbial indicators showed statistically significant difference among centralized water supplies with different water treatment processes as well as various water source types (P < 0.001). The water quality in the dry season was better than that in the wet season (P<0.001). The total number of colonies was positively correlated with turbidity. Conclusions The total qualified rate of microbial indicators in peripheral water of rural centralized water supply is related to the factors like water treatment process and water source types. It suggests that to improve the quality of rural centralized water supply, water treatment should be integrated, sanitary management of water factory should be strengthened, water source protection should be promoted, and health education should be popularized in rural areas.%目的 了解湖南省农村集中式供水微生物污染状况,探讨有效防治措施,为改善农村集中式供水水质提供依据.方法 按国家有关水质检验标准对2011年湖南省93个县(区)2006处农村集中式供水点的饮用水水质进行监测,统计分析不同条件对水质微生物指标的影响.结果 4012份农村集中式供水末梢水微生物指标合格率为40.28%,不同水处理工艺、水源类型的集中式供水微生物指

  10. Control Effects of Tianshifu Soil Conditioners on Cd Contamination in Paddy Fields of Hunan Province%“田师傅”土壤调理剂应用于湖南Cd污染稻田的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴元; 田发祥; 谢运河; 纪雄辉

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Tianshifu soil conditioners on rice growth and their control effects on Cd absorption and accumulation in rice, a test was carried out in the field typical y pol uted by Cd in Hunan Province. The results showed that the Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and the combination of Tian-shifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner al could promote rice growth, im-prove rice yield and reduce significantly Cd content in rice grains. ln Beishan, the Cd contents in rice grains treated by Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial condi-tioner and the combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner were reduced by 37.63% (P combination of Tianshifu soil condi-tioner and soil bacterial conditioner > Tianshifu soil bacterial conditioner. ln addition to reducing Cd absorption in rice, as described in the lime application treatment, the application of Tianshifu soil conditioners also inhibited the transportation of Cd from rice straws to rice grains. The Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner also effec-tively improved the soil acidity, increased the soil pH value and reduced soil avail-able Cd content to some extent.%采取湖南典型 Cd污染的大田试验,研究“田师傅”系列土壤调理剂对水稻生长的影响及降低水稻吸收积累 Cd的效果。结果表明,“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施皆可促进水稻生长,提高水稻产量,并显著降低稻米 Cd含量。北山点“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施的稻米 Cd含量分别比常规施肥下降37.63%(P<0.05)、32.59%(P<0.05)、27.95%(P<0.05);湘潭点则分别下降54.36%(P<0.05)、50.19%(P<0.05)、45.22%(P<0.05),皆达到食品安全国家标准,且"田师傅"系列调理剂的降 Cd效果为土壤调理剂>土壤调理

  11. Research on the Information Architecture of the Government Portal Website---As the Inspection Object of the local city of hunan province%政府门户网站信息构建调查研究--以湖南省地级市政府为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲霞

    2014-01-01

    本文以湖南省地级市为考察对象,分析研究了地级市政府门户网站的组织系统、导航系统、标识系统和搜索系统的构建,并在此基础上,对地级市政府门户网站的信息构建提出改进策略。%This article takes the loca city of hunan province as the investigation object,analysized and studied the architecture of organizational information system, navigation system, identification system and retrieval system,and put forward the improvement strategies of information architecture of the local city government portal website.

  12. A Study on the Financial Gap of Environmental Protection Industry in Hunan Province during the 12th Five-Year Plan%“十二五”时期湖南环保产业发展的融资缺口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺立; 李远航

    2012-01-01

    “十二五”期间,湖南省将环保产业列为重点发展的战略性新兴产业之一。笔者基于经济核算的基本原理,对“十二五”期间湖南省环保产业发展的资金需求、资金供给和资金缺口进行了预测、分析,并针对性地提出了解决融资缺口问题的政策措施。笔者的研究对于保障“十二五”时期湖南环保产业发展的资金支持具有指导作用,对于国内其他地区经济发展的资金缺口预测具有借鉴意义。%During thel2th Five-Year Plan, the environmental protection industry has been listed as one of the strategic emerging industries for Hunan Province. This article is to project and analyze the financial needs, and financial supply and financial gap of the environmental protection industry development during the 12th Five-Year Plan based on the basic principles of economic accounting, and then come up with the policy targeted at the problem on addressing the financial gap. The study has its guiding role for guaranteeing the financial support of the development of environmental protection industry in Hunan Province, and could be used as reference on projecting the funding gap for the economic development in other areas of the country.

  13. 2007-2011年湖南省蚊媒传染病与蚊虫密度季节消长相关性分析%Analysis on Correlation Between Mosquito-borne Diseases and Seasonal Fluctuation of Mosquito Density in Hunan Province from 2007 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕炜; 黄谊; 段丽琼; 姚松银

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索湖南省蚊虫密度季节消长和流行性乙型脑炎、疟疾和登革热等蚊媒传染病发病的关系.方法 收集湖南省2007-2011年疟疾、乙脑和登革热发病资料和蚊虫种群密度季节消长监测资料,用Pearson相关系数法进行分析.结果 2007-2011年蚊虫密度与同期蚊媒疾病发病率相关系数r=0.6881,P=0.0134.结论 湖南省蚊虫密度季节消长数据与蚊媒病发病率中度相关,反映出蚊虫密度与蚊媒病之间存在复杂联系.%Objective To explore the association between seasonal fluctuation of mosquito density and mosquito - borne diseases in Hunan Province. Methods We collected the incidence data of malaria, Japanese encephalitis and dengue and the monitoring data about seasonal fluctuation of mosquito population density in Hunan Province during the period of 2007 — 2011, and then all the data were analyzed by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results The incidence of mosquito- borne diseases was moderately correlated with mosquito population densities during the period of 2007 - 2011 ( r = 0.6881, P = 0.0134). Conclusions The results suggest that there are complex links between mosquito population densities and mosquito- borne diseases.

  14. On Regional Economic Opening and Economic Growth——Empirical Analysis of Economic Openness Degree in Hunan Province%区域开放与经济增长——基于湖南经济开放度的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭慧君

    2011-01-01

    Based on the horizontal comparison of regional economic opening of Hunan province in 2009,the degree of economic openness is in great difference.The different resulted in unbalanced regional economic growth and restricted economic development of Hunan province.Some suggestions on how to improve the level of economic opening and to develop the balanced regional economic are listed,such as : understanding the comparative low total economic openness degree to develop potential positively;inducing and making full use of the foreign capital and the developed coastal areas in order to promote rapid economic development;using local resource superiority and following the market regulation to accelerate industrial structure adjustment;implementing strategies of "bringing in" and "going out" and combine them together as well.%2009年湖南省各市州的对外开放情况横向比较表明,省区内部的开放差异较为明显,导致地区经济增长不平衡、发展受限制。为提高湖南对外开放水平,推动经济均衡发展,要认识到其整体开放度偏低的事实,积极发挥潜力;要积极引进和充分利用国外及沿海发达地区的资本,促进经济快速发展;要根据自身的资源禀赋,以市场为主导手段,加快产业结构调整;要实施"引进来"与"走出去"相结合的战略。

  15. Correlation of individualeum length with body height in Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Chongqing city%湘鄂渝黔边区苗族学生同身寸与身高的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大元; 石慧娟; 梁成青; 吴国运; 熊健

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索湘鄂渝黔边区苗族学生同身寸与身高的关系.方法 应用人体测量法测量了1896名(年龄6~16岁)苗族学生的同身寸和身高.结果 得出男女生各年龄组同身寸长、身高均值;除16岁女生组外,同身寸长与身高呈正的直线相关.结论 同身寸长和身高有直线相关性,可用同身寸长推算身高.%Objective To explore the correlation of the individualeum length with the body height of Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Chongqing city. Methods The individualeum length and body height of 1896 normal students (aged 6-16) of Miao nationality were measured by anthropological method, and the analysis of the linear regression was done. Results The means that the individualeum length and the body height of different ages and sexes were obtained. The correlation between the individualeum length and the body height of all the male age groups and the female groups except 7 was positively related, and the regression equation was also established. Conclusion The correlation between the individualeum length and the body height was positively related of Miao nationality students in the border area of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing and Cuizhou provinces, the figures of stature can be calculated by the individualeum length.

  16. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  17. Soil heavy metal contamination and acid deposition: experimental approach on two forest soils in Hunan, Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-han, Liao; Zhaohui, Guo; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    In 1985, a tailing dam collapsed in Hunan province (southern China) leading to soil contamination by heavy metals from the tailings waste. Moreover, acid deposition becomes more and more serious in this area. In this context, two forest soils (a red soil and a yellow red soil, typically and commonly found in southern China) were collected from Hunan. The objectives are (i) to determine releases and changes in speciation fractions of heavy metals (especially Cd, Cu, and Zn) when the soils are ...

  18. Baiyun Cave in Naigu Shilin, Yunnan Karst, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Baiyun cave is a 380 m long karst cave in the Naigu Shilin, situated 70 km southeast of Kunming,Yunnan Province, China. The prevailing orientations of the cave passages are N110°-120°E and N0°-10°W and those of the fissures in the cave are N30°-40°W and N20°-30°W. The cave is developed in the thick-bedded Lower Permian Qixia Formation. The cave has an active water flow and is currently at the near water-table stage. There are large amounts of different infills of cave sediments. The cave shows different stages of paragenesis. The palaeomagnetic analysis of cave sediments shows that their ages are younger than 780 ka B.P. (the Brunhes Chron). The upper part of the sampled profile belongs to the reverse Blake event (112.3-117.9 ka B.P.). The formation of the Baiyun cave is directly connected with the development of the Naigu Shilin. The formation of karst underground and surface features depends on the regional tectonic deformation and the Cenozoic extension of the study area.``

  19. 湖北郧西白龙洞洞穴发育与古人类生存环境探讨%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE CAVE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUND OF HOMININ OCCUPATION AT BAILONG CAVE,YUNXI COUNTY, HUBEI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇丽; 武仙竹; 裴树文

    2012-01-01

    湖北省郧西县白龙洞是20世纪70年代发现的一处重要的中更新世古人类遗址,先后经过4次正式发掘,除出土7枚直立人牙齿化石和60余件石制品外,还有2件骨制品和29种伴生哺乳动物化石.本文对白龙洞洞穴发育进行分析,对堆积物的粒度、磁化率、粘土矿物、氧化物和哺乳动物群等进行分析和测试.结果表明,白龙洞发育起始于上新统沙坪组碳酸盐岩和下伏中元古界武当山群变质岩系不整合接触面,洞穴围岩为沙坪组砾岩、藻灰岩和生物格架灰岩;洞穴发育初期由沿不整合面渗流的裂隙水引起,之后垂直渗流为溶蚀的主要方式.洞穴堆积物主要为红色粘土,形成于北亚热带-暖温带温暖湿润环境,堆积物充填早期气候相对较为干凉,后期逐渐转为相对温暖湿润的森林草原环境,动植物资源繁盛,有利于古人类生存和活动.白龙洞古人类生存环境的研究对揭示鄂西-三峡地区中更新世古人类生存环境背景具有重要意义.%Bailong cave site,which was discovered in 1976,is an important Middle Pleistocene paleoanthrological site in China. It is located in Shenwuling village, Anjia town, Yunxi County, Hubei Province (latitude 32°59'40.0"N, longitude 110°31'33. 6"E,550m above sea level). Since its discovery,the site was excavated for four times in the past 30 years. A large number of cultural remains including 7 Homo erectus teeth, more than 60 stone artifacts, 2 bone artifacts and 29 mammalian fossil species were excavated from the site. Paleomagnetic dating and faunal analysis show that the cave deposits were formed in the Middle Pleistocene.The Bailong cave is located in the northwest margin of Wudang Geological Uplift, Qinling Orogenic Belt. The cave began its development in the margin between the metamorphic rock of Wudangshan Croup of Middle Proterozoic and conglomerate,algal limestone of Shaping Formation of the Pliocene. Conglomerate

  20. The Research of Correlation between Characteristics of Independent Directors and Corporate Performance---Data from Hunan and Hubei Provinces%独立董事特征与公司业绩相关性研究--基于湖南与湖北两省的数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游新彩; 颜申跃

    2016-01-01

    This paper selected listed companies in Hunan and Hubei province from 2012 to 2014 as the research sample;by using the multivariate linear regression model to study the relationship between the characteristics of the independent di-rector and company performance. The results prove that the proportion of independent directors and the female independent directors have a positive correlation with the company performance. Education degree and the proportion of the independent directors with professional background of accounting have some differences between two provinces. In Hunan province, educa-tion degree of independent directors and the proportion of the independent directors with professional background of account-ing have remarkable effects on the company performance. But in Hubei, there is a positive but non-significant correlation be-tween them, and the salary of independent directors has a negative correlation with the company performance. So the company must be under the premise of having female independent directors, ensuring the scale of independent director to prior appoint the complex independent directors who have rich professional knowledge and professional background.%本文以2012—2014年湖南与湖北两省上市公司为样本,运用多元线性回归模型对独立董事特征与公司业绩之间的相关性进行研究。结果发现:两省上市公司女性独立董事比例与公司业绩存在显著正相关关系,独立董事薪酬、受教育程度以及会计专业背景独立董事比例上两省存在一定的差异。湖南省上市公司独立董事受教育程度以及会计专业背景对公司业绩影响显著,而湖北省上市公司独立董事薪酬与公司业绩呈负相关,受教育程度以及会计专业背景与公司业绩正相关但不显著。因此,必须在拥有女性独立董事的前提下,确保独立董事规模,优先聘任具有丰富专业知识和职业背景的复合型独立董事。

  1. 黑龙江阿城交界洞穴遗址的哺乳动物群%PLEISTOCENE MAMMALIAN FAUNA FROM THE JIAOJIE CAVE AT ACHENG,HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于汇历; 董为

    2011-01-01

    The Jaiojie Paleolithic Site is located in a karstic cave at Acheng, Haerbin Municipality in Heilongjiang Province. It is regarded as the oldest Paleolithic site in the province and also the northernmost one in China up to today. The geographic coordination at the cave entrance measured with the Global Positioning System ( GPS) is 45°21'07. 7"N and 127°05'16. 8"E, with an altitude of 183m. The cave deposits can be divided into 6 layers. Mammalian fossils were unearthed mainly from Layers 5 and 6 in the lower part of the cave deposits. As a Quaternary mammalian fauna,it is chronologically the earliest one in Heilongjiang Province and geographically the northernmost and easternmost in China. Layer 5 is composed of grayish green clay with some yellow clods, and the underlying Layer 6 composed of reddish yellow clay with breccia. Although the site was discovered in 1996 and systematically excavated in 1997,the fossils were never systematically described before 12 taxa were identified as follow; Mar mot a sp., Myospalax cf. Prosilurus, Ochotona sp., Lepus ( Eulagos) mandshuricus ( = Lepus wongi) , Mattes sp., Meles meles, Mustela sibirica, Ursus sp, Crocuta sp., Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis ( = Dicerorhinus mercki) ,Cervus(S. )nippon hortulorum,Capreolus capreolus manehuricus. The fossils from Layer 5 are mostly smaller forms such as Marmota sp.,Myospalax cf.prosilurus,Lepus(Eulagos) mandshuricus( = Lepus wongi) ,etc. ,and those from Layer 6 are mostly larger forms such as Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis, Cervus ( Sika) hortulorum, Crocuta etc. They are mostly northern forms. The fauna lacks typical cold forms such as Coelodonta and Mammuthus, and it was regarded as a fauna exsiting during the transition from temperate period to cold one in North Region. The comparison of fauna compositions shows that the Jiaojie fauna is close to that of the Middle Pleistocene Jinniushan and Miaohoushan faunas in Liaoning Province, the Late Pleistocene Xiaogushan and Gulongshan faunas

  2. 湖南省HIV/AIDS人群中结核病患病及其影响因素研究%TB prevalence in HIV positive population and its influencing factors in Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祖辉; 张传芳; 肖军; 杜一闻; 周富强; 白丽琼

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解湖南省衡阳市珠晖区和雁峰区艾滋病病毒感染者和艾滋病患者(HIV/AIDS)人群中结核病患病特征及其影响因素.方法 采用整群抽样方法,以2002年12月16日至2012年6月30日前在湖南省衡阳市珠晖区和雁峰区确诊且可随访到的连续205例HIV感染者和AIDS患者为研究对象,经知情同意后进行问卷调查、痰涂片、X线胸部摄影、痰培养(BACTECMGIT960快速液体培养法)检查、菌型鉴定以及CD4细胞计数测定.经单因素和多因素分析探讨HIV/AIDS人群中不同性别、年龄、可疑结核症状等因素对合并结核病的影响.结果 205例筛查对象中,共诊断结核病患者19例,TB/HIV双重感染率为9.3%(19/205);单因素分析表明,调查对象的不同年龄、家庭年纯收入、是否为艾滋病患者和是否有可疑结核病症状与结核病患病相关.多因素分析表明,年龄大(OR=1.443)、可疑结核病症状(OR =3.124)是HIV/AIDS人群患结核病的危险因素.结论 湖南省衡阳市珠晖区和雁峰区HIV/AIDS人群中有较高的结核病检出率,年龄大和有可疑结核病症状者具有较高的合并患结核病的风险,应加强对HIV/AIDS人群的结核病筛查.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive population and explore its influencing factors.Methods Cluster sampling was used,continuous 205 cases who were diagnosed as HIV positive from December 16,2002 to June 30,2012 in Zhuhui district and Yanfeng district of Hunan province and could be followed up and traced were enrolled in the study.All patients were screened after informed content through questionnaire,sputum smear examination,chest X-ray examination,liquid culture (BACTECTM MGITTM 960 operating system),mycobacterium species identification (for liquid culture positive) and CD4 testing.Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify the impacts of different sex

  3. Study on community of rare and endangered plant Davidia involucrate in Hupingshan Nature Reserve of Hunan province%壶瓶山自然保护区珍稀濒危植物珙桐群落的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洋; 金晓玲; 薛会雯; 张程; 石求辉; 张日清

    2011-01-01

    The resources and community structure of Davidia involucrata in Hupingshan Nature Reserve of Hunan province were studied by using the sample plot method. The results show that: (1) There were 65 vascular plant species in the community belonging to 37 families and 59 genera. The composition of Davidia involucrata community mainly consists of the East Asia distribution, the rate reached to 27.1% (16 genera), and the next was North Temperate distribution, about 20. 3% (12 genera). The component of species had the typical characteristics that it is from the subtropics to the temperate zone. (2) The community vertical structure was simple, which composed of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and interlayer plant. Herb layer grew better than tree layer and shrub layer. In term of life form, 32. 3% phanerophytes were on the top, the composition of life form was similar to that in subtropical evergreen and deciduous forest. (3) The importance value of Davidia involucrata was 70. 3, The Simpson and Shannon-wiener diversity indices in herb layer were higher than that in tree layer and shrub layer. The Pielou indexs (Jsw and Js) in tree layer were higher than herb layer and shrub layer. (4) According to the age structure.It's indicated that Davidia involucrata community in Hupingshan Nature Reserve had not yet developed into its climax, and the spatial pattern of the whole population was of clumping distribution. Natural regeneration ability of Davidia involucrata was weak and seed germination was low, and seedling rate was less, the forest rehewal was given priorty to shooting.%为了解湖南省壶瓶山自然保护区内野生珙桐资源的分布和植物群落情况,采用样方调查法,对野生珙桐资源的分布、植物群落特点和生境进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)珙桐群落中共有维管束植物65种,隶属37科59属.植物区系组成以东亚分布最多,达16属,占27.1%.其次是北温带分布,共12属,占20.3%.珙桐群落区系的

  4. Plant resources investigation and hyperaccumulator screening in Xiangtan manganese mine area of Hunan Province, central-south China%湘潭锰矿区植物资源调查及超富集植物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有志; 罗佳; 张灿明; 刘庆; 郭丹丹

    2012-01-01

    A sampling plot investigation was conducted on the plant resources in the Xiangtan manganese mine area of Hunan Province. In the study area, the plant resources were abundant, with 53 species belonging to 28 families. Most of the plant species were wild, and a few were cultivated. The majority of the plants were perennial, and the fewer were annual. Most plants were shrub and grass, and a few were tree. These results indicated that the current local communities were dominated by perennial shrub and grass, which were at the primary stage of succession towards subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest after the original plants were completely damaged by digging exploitation. The analysis on the Mn enrichment by the plant species showed that there was a significant difference in the Mn concentration between roots and stems or leaves. Most plant species had higher Mn concentration in their underground parts than in their aboveground parts, and only a few was in adverse. Moreover, different plant species had significant differences in their capability of enriching Mn. The Mn concentrations in Cyperus rotundus aboveground and underground parts were higher than 10000 mg ? Kg-1 (the critical concentration for hyperaccumulators) , and the biological concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were larger than 1 (the assessment criteria of hyperaccumulators) , indicating that C. Ro tundus had a super capability in enriching Mn. It was also found that the biomass of C. Rotundus in medium and high Mn mine areas was 507. 06 g ? M-2, which met the requirement of hyperac-cumulators, I. E. , hyperaccumulator should have high biomass, and suggested that C. Rotundus could be the first selection of hyperaccumulator for the ecological restoration of moderately and highly Mn-polluted areas.%通过设置样地,对湘潭锰矿区的植物资源进行了全面调查.结果表明:锰矿区植物丰富,共有28科,53种,植物以自然定居种为主,少见人工栽培种;生

  5. 社区护士对社区护理学课程需求的调查%A survey of community nursing curriculum requirements in community nurses in Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任森; 肖洁华

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查了解湖南省社区卫生服务机构中社区护士对社区护理学课程的实际需求,为社区护理学教程提供可靠的教学依据。方法:根据社区护理教材的内容采用自行设计的调查问卷,对湖南省5个城市中189名社区卫生护士进行调查,问卷有效回收率为92.6%。结果:社区护理人员认为较常用的内容依次为:社区营养与膳食管理(85.7%)、突发性公共卫生事件的处理(76.7%)、社区环境评估(69.8%)、人际沟通能力(69.8%)、流行病学与统计学应用(66.7%)、社区康复护理(64.0%)、家庭访视与家庭护理(51.9%);较少使用的内容依次是:社区健康档案管理(54.5%)、社区护理概述(36.0%)、常见传染病慢性病的护理(31.7%)、特殊人群保健(30.2%)、职业病(25.4%);社区护士对社区护理学学时的需要所占比例依次是:56~70节(45.0%)、41~55节占(29.6%)、71节以上(14.3%)、40节以下(11.1%)。结论:社区卫生服务机构中护理人员缺乏,应增加高职高专院校护理学专业学生的社区护理学课程;社区护理学课程应以预防保健为主,适当增加课时数,理论与实践紧密结合,建立实用型社区护理课程体系。%Objective To investigate the actual needs that community nurses have on community nursing courses in community health service organization in Hunan province,to provide a reliable teaching basis for the community nursing courses.Methods Investigations on 189 community health nurses in 5 cities,this is conducted on the self-designed questionnaires based on community nursing textbook content,the effective recovery rates of questionnaire is 92.6%.Results Community nursing personnel think the more important content is:community nutrition and dietary management 85.7%,the handling of sudden public health event 76.7%,and community environment assessment 69.8%,and

  6. 湖南省妇幼保健机构保健工作现状调查%Investigation on health status of maternal and child care institutions in Hunan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智昱; 杜其云

    2009-01-01

    To observe the health status of maternal and child care institutions in Hunan province, provide scientific ev-idence for decision-making on maternal and child care. Methods: A survey was conducted through national management information web-based reporting system of women and children health facilities, 137 maternal and child health care institutions were investigated, including a provincial-level agency, 14 state-level agencies and 122 county-level agencies. The contents included basic status of maternal and child health care, human resources, health services and medical technologies, group health care work. The data were analyzed via SPSS 15.0 and Excel 2003. Results: ①Basie status: the average amount of people participating in maternal and child health care was 15, with 124 of pro-vincial-level, 17 of state-level and 14 of county-level. ②Healtheare clinic: the average person-time of the out-patients receiving ma-ternal health care was 6 475, while the average person-time of the out-patients receiving child health care was 7 821. ③The development of health care: the proportions of maternal health care management, prenatal diagnosis management, reproductive health and family plan-ning, assisted reproductive health were 98.5%, 12. 4%, 84. 7% and 6. 6%, respectively; more than 70% of the institutions carried out growth and development of children , child nutrition, child development and the promotion of high-risk infants; training courses were con-dueted for 6 times, 429 people-times were trained and 26 people-times were received for further education, 646 people-times went to grass roots. Conclusion: The investment of government agencies is inadequate and the human resources should be strengthened, at the same time, group health should be further in-depth, and information management should be improved.%目的:了解湖南省各级妇幼保健机构保健工作现状,为各级卫生行政部门的决策提供科学依据.方法:采用全国妇幼卫

  7. 油菜田看麦娘对精喹禾灵的抗性水平及抗性机理研究%Resistance level of Alopecurus aequalis to quizalofop-P-ethyl in rape in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝玮玮; 刘艺妩; 刘祥英; 罗坤; 柏连阳

    2014-01-01

    采用培养皿种子萌发法和盆栽法测定了湖南省境内长沙市、永州市、常德市、益阳市、浏阳市、岳阳市、娄底市7个市州10个地区油菜田看麦娘潜在抗药性种群对精喹禾灵的抗性水平,测定了常德市桃源地区看麦娘潜在抗药性种群以及敏感种群谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GSTs)对精喹禾灵的敏感性,对桃源地区看麦娘抗性品系及敏感品系ACCase 基因片段进行扩增和测序,比较了两种生物型的基因序列。培养皿种子萌发法测定结果表明:常德市桃源地区看麦娘抗药性生物型对精喹禾灵的抗性水平最高,抗性倍数为10.50倍,其他地区看麦娘抗性倍数在2.01~7.09倍之间,抗性水平不明显;盆栽法测定结果表明:桃源地区看麦娘抗性倍数最高,为25.30倍,其他地区看麦娘抗性倍数在2.43~9.47倍之间,尚未产生明显抗药性。经精喹禾灵处理后,看麦娘抗药性生物型的 GSTs 活力在第5天明显高于敏感生物型,表明 GSTs 的活性是引起看麦娘对精喹禾灵抗性的重要因子。通过靶标基因片段扩增与 DNA 测序比对发现,抗药性生物型氨基酸序列第93位比敏感生物型多出一个丙氨酸,抗药性的产生与靶标基因的突变是否相关需要进行进一步验证。%In order to investigate the resistance level and mechanism of Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.to quizalofop-P-ethyl in rape,10 potential resistant biotypes were collected from 7 cities in Hunan Province and the susceptible biotype was obtained from Nanjing Agricultural University.The resistance level of A.aequalis to quizalofop-P-ethyl was assessed by two methods:seed bioassay and whole-plant bioassay.The enzymology mechanism of Taoyuan Town potential resistant biotype and Nanjing Agricultural University susceptible biotype was studied with the important metabolic enzyme glutathione-s-transferase(GSTs),and the resistance mechanism at the

  8. 基于特色旅游的营销策略研究--以湖南省为例%On the Marketing Strategies of the Characteristic Tourism-A Study based on Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽华; 罗霞

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, tourism has gradually become the new hot of modern international tourism, and to develop characteristic tourism has become an important way to improve the competitiveness of regional tourism, revitalize and be conducive to the development of local economy. Through analyzing the present situation of Hunan of the development of special tourism products, tourism products in Hunan and the characteristics of different types according to the buying behavior of travel motivation, this paper puts forward the corresponding marketing strategies.%近年来,特色旅游逐渐成为现代国际旅游的新热点,开发特色旅游成为提高区域旅游竞争力的重要途径,有益于地方经济的振兴和发展。通过对湖南现阶段特色旅游产品开发的现状,对湖南特色旅游产品根据不同类型的旅游动机及购买行为提出相应的营销策略。

  9. VARIATION IN URANIUM ISOTOPES OF STALAGMITES FROM SANBAO CAVE, HUBEI PROVINCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PALAEOCLIMATE%湖北三宝洞石笋238U值变化的古气候意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董进国; 刁伟; 孔兴功

    2013-01-01

    通过对湖北三宝洞17支石笋160个测年样品的铀同位素数据分析,发现过去18万年以来石笋238U值长尺度变化与其δ18O记录有一定的负相关关系,与西太平洋海表温度变化具有良好的正相关.石笋238 U值在间冰期波动剧烈,而在冰期波动相对平缓,在冰期—间冰期转型时238U值“爆发式”增大.在轨道尺度上,高浓度238U对应于石笋平均生长速率的高值期,而低浓度值对应于生长速率的低值期.上述结果表明与外界气候变化相关的洞穴上覆土壤的成壤过程和岩溶水文变化可能是控制石笋238U含量变化的主要因素,石笋238U可以作为一个新的洞穴气候环境代用指标,但仍须谨慎对待.%A great number of oxygen isotope ratios and U-Th ages data were collected and studied by the authors for the stalagmites from the Sanbao cave, Hubei Province, China. Uranium-series dating of the speleothem suggests that the stalagmites are formed in the period from the penultimate glacial period up to the present. This paper deals with the relationship between uranium concentration in stalagmites and pa-leoclimate data induced from the 160 precise ICP-MS 230Th data collected from 17 stalagmites from the Sanbao Cave. We discovered that the variations in 238 U show a negative relation with the δ18O records of the studied stalagmites, and a positive relation with the temperature changes in West Pacific Warm Pool. The concentration of 238U in the stalagmites fluctuated rapidly during the interglacial periods, slowly during the glacial periods, and increased sharply in the past two terminations. On the orbital scale, the higher the average growth rate, the higher the uranium concentration is, and vice versa. The results also show that the pedogenic processes of the soil profile above the cave and the complex soil-water-rock interaction are well related with the outer-cave climate changes, possibly responsible for the shifts of uranium

  10. U-series dating of Zhangkou Cave in Yiliang, Yunnan Province: Evidence for human activities in China during 40-100 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guanjun; LI Jiankun; JI Xueping

    2005-01-01

    The cultural deposits at pits T1 and T2 in Zhangkou Cave are intercalated with several flowstone layers. U-series dates show that the capping and 2nd flowstone layers are Holocene of age. The 4th and 5th flowstone layers are ca. 55 and 110 ka old respectively. The lithic artifacts bracketed by them provide unequivocal evidence for hominid presence during this time interval. The "temporal gap" of hominid fossil, widely quoted as in support of the out-of-Africa hypothesis, is most probably an artifact due to systematic errors of dating techniques. The infillings under 6th flowstone layer date to >300 ka, much older than the previous estimate at 15 ka based on classical 14C dating of fossil bones, providing one more example of the limited reliability of this chronometer. With rich relics and favorable conditions for precise dating, this site is promising for further multidisciplinary studies to address issues concerning recent human evolution in China.

  11. Evaluation on the Quality and Effect of Measles Prevention and Control in Hunan Province, 2009-2011%湖南省2009~2011年预防控制麻疹策略质量及效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴德芳; 杨彦华; 李放军; 张淑君; 孙倩莱

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价湖南省2009~2011年预防控制麻疹策略的质量及效果.方法 通过综合分析湖南省含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)的接种率,包括常规免疫接种率、麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIAs)和查漏补种接种率、疫苗效价监测、人群免疫成功率及抗体水平监测、麻疹监测系统资料,评价2009~2011年预防控制麻疹的效果.结果 2009~2011年,湖南省常规免疫MCV第一、第二剂报告接种率分别为99.52%、99.33%,SIAs报告接种率和调查接种率均>95%,疫苗效价均达到合格滴度,免疫成功率为89.38%,人群麻疹抗体平均阳性(≥1∶200)率78.28%,抗体几何平均滴度为1∶436.2011年发病率与2009年相比下降了97.46%,<8月龄及≥15岁的病例占全部病例的38.38%.结论 湖南省预防控制麻疹措施效果显著,应继续加强麻疹监测,保持高质量的常规免疫,并针对重点人群开展免疫.%Objective To make an evaluation on the quality and effect of strategies fo measles prevention and control in Hunan province during 2009-2011.Methods To evaluate the effects of vaccination of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in Hunan province during 2009-2011 by analyzing the coverage rate,including coverage of routine vaccination,SIAs,catch up vaccination,surveillance of vaccine efficiency,surveillance of antibody and data from the system of Measles surveillance.Results The inoculation rate of first dose and second dose MCV in routine immunization was 99.52%and 99.33% respectively.Both reported and investigated inoculation rate of SIAs are above 95%,all vaccine efficacy reached a qualified titre.The successful immunization rate was 89.38%,average positive rate of antiboday in population was 78.28%,geometric mean titer level was 1 ∶ 436,the incidence decreased 97.46%,and cases under 8 months or above 15 years of age accounted for 38.38

  12. Investigation and Analysis on the Nation Training Junior Middle School PE Teachers'Professional Burnout in Hunan Province%湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠现状调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅丽

    2014-01-01

    本文通过文献资料调研法、心理测量法、逻辑分析法、数理统计法等研究方法,对湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠现状进行调查分析?结果表明:湖南省国培初中体育教师职业倦怠较为严重,在性别维度差异上,男性体育教师情绪衰竭和非人性化程度高于女性体育教师,而个人成就感低于女性体育教师;在教龄维度差异比较上,教龄11-19年阶段的体育老师情绪衰竭、非人性化维度和低成就感高于其他教龄阶段的教师;在学历维度差异比较中本科学历的体育教师职业倦怠程度高于专科学历的体育教师;在职称维度差异比较上,中教二级职称体育教师职业倦怠程度最为严重,高情绪衰竭、高非人性化和较低的成就感?建议,学校应为体育教师创设一个良好的工作环境,积极主动地关心体育教师的生活,支持?配合体育教师的工作,帮助他们解决一些实际生活困难,协调好教师的工作关系和人际关系,协助体育教师建立一个良好的教学环境。%This essay involves the research and analyze on the laziness of PE teachers in Hunan province junior middle school through literature research,questionnaire survey, logical analytic method,and mathematical statistics techniques. As the result shows: the PE teachers in Hunan province junior middle school,to some extent,are in bad mood for teaching and tired of teaching. In aspect of gender,the masculine gym instructor's non-friendly degree is higher than the feminine gym instructor,but individual sense of achievement is lower than the feminine gym instructor; In the teaching sonority dimension difference comparison,teaching sonority of 11-19 year stage's sports teacher's non-friendly are higher than other teaching sonority stage; The undergraduate course degree's gym instructor's level of tiredness is higher than The college degree's gym instructors. and in the

  13. 湖南省农村居民收入地区差距演变及其结构分解%The Changes and Factor Decomposition of Rural Regional Income Inequality in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤进华; 邓楚雄; 林建永; 刘成武; 吴永兴

    2011-01-01

    农民收入是当前国内研究"三农"问题的热点之一.以湖南省为例,利用Gini系数方法,测度了1993-2008年湖南农村居民收入的地区差距变化,并通过对收入变化对区域差距变化的贡献进行分解,从收入因子的结构效应和集中效应来解释收入变化对区域差距变化的原因:工资性收入是影响农村收入差距格局的最重要因素,表现为1997-2002年间工资性收入的结构变化较快致使收入差距拉大,2002年后区域差距变大则主要是工资性收入的集中性不断增大所致;家庭经营收入在农村居民总收入中的比重下降,但仍是农村居民收入的主要来源,其对收入区域差距影响较小;财产性收入和转移性收入对收入差距格局的贡献虽然不大,但对扩大收入差异的贡献在不断增加,是未来影响农村区域差距变化的重要因素.最后提出了相关建议.%Rural regional income inequality was currently a hot issue studying on rural district. This paper focuses on the changes of rural regional income inequality and measures the income changes of rural residents and decomposes the income structure to concentration effect and structure effect in Hunan from 1993 to 2008 on basis of Gini index, and then explains the causes of its real inequality. In order to explore the factors behind the changes in rural income inequality in Hunan, the overall rural income inequality was decomposed into contributions by different income sources:wages, household operations, properties and transfers. This analysis implies that the wage income will play the most key role on rural regional income inequality in Hunan. The increasing contribution from wages was mainly due to the increase of its share from 1997 to 2002, and was mainly due to evident elevation of its concentration after 2002. In recent years, with the decline of household operations concentration index and its share in total income, it had weak effects in decreasing the

  14. Soil water holding capacity under four typical ecosystems in Wuyunjie Nature Reserve of Hunan Province%湖南乌云界自然保护区典型生态系统的土壤持水性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘春翔; 李裕元; 彭亿; 高茹; 吴金水

    2012-01-01

    Soil water holding capacity is the key index of water conservation capacity of ecosystems and vital parameter of ecological service function in Nature Reserve. Four typical ecosystems including forest, shrub, bamboo, and grassland were selected in the study area of Wuyunjie Nature Reserve (WNR) of Hunan Province and soil physical properties and water holding capacity were studied through field investigation, soil sampling, and laboratory analysis. The results showed that the four typical vegetation-covered lands had greater soil organic matter content ( >76 g/kg), lower bulk density (5 mm in diameter) contents ranging from 22.7% to 52. 3% ) in the surface soil layer (0-20cm) than the local farmland, suggesting that soil structural development was generallybetter in the reserve area. Soil macroporosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Kt) in forest and bamboo ecosystems were greater than those in shrub and grassland ecosystems, which were beneficial to the rainfall transfer to groundwater. However, soil capillary porosity in shrub and grassland ecosystems were higher, indicating that more soil available water could be reserved. The gravimetric soil water holding capacity ( WHCg) in the 0-40 cm soil layer under four typical ecosystems in WNR changed in the following order; forest (83. 5 mm) > bamboo (79. 2 mm) > shrub (66. 9 mm) > grassland (43. 8 mm). However, soil available water holding capacity ( WHCt) were the following; grassland (128.7 mm) > shrub (111.6 mm)> forest (95.9 mm)> bamboo (83.9 mm). On the basis of verifying the definition of total water capacity (>0 Mpa) , WHCf(0-0.01 Mpa) , WHC,(0.01-1.5 Mpa), and unavailable water capacity (>1.5 Mpa), we recommended that WHC% and WHCt could be used to measure soil water holding capacity of ecosystems. WHCg could be used to assess the capability of recharging groundwater and adjusting river flow, while WHC, could be used to assess the potential of soil water holding capability in the ecosystems. These

  15. Relationship between Index of Zooplankton Amount in Lake (Reservoir) and Evaluation Standards for Water Quality ---Taking Five Lakes (Reservoirs) in Hunan Province as Example%湖(库)浮游动物数量指标与水质评价标准关系研究--以湖南省5个湖(库)为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟振宇; 陈灿; 宋伟龙; 成应向

    2013-01-01

    It surveyed the constitute of zooplankton community, the zooplankton amount and the zooplankton dominant species in different representative water qualities and functions lakes (reservoirs) in Hunan province, then using chemical evaluation index Pb/n, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Simpson dominance index to evaluate the pollution degree of surveyed water body. The evaluation results showed that the results of water quality pollution degree evaluated by zooplankton diversity index method was accordant with that evaluated by conventional chemical comprehensive pollution index method; using zooplankton amount to evaluate water quality pollution degree had relatively better reliability, and it also can indirectly reflect water quality pollution degree. Then, the zooplankton amount and dominant species and the limit value for water quality pollution degree in lake (reservoir) in Hunan Province were determined.%对湖南省内不同水质功能代表性湖(库)的浮游动物群落组成,浮游动物数量以及优势种进行了调查研究;采用化学评价指数Pb/n、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson优势度指数分别对目标水体的污染程度进行了评价。评价结果显示:利用浮游动物多样性指数评价湖(库)水质污染程度与常规的化学综合污染指数评价结果基本吻合;利用浮游动物数量评价水质污染程度具有较高的可信度亦能间接反映水质污染程度;在此基础上,界定了湖南省湖库浮游动物数量及优势种与水质污染程度的限值。

  16. Discussion on the Affordable Housing Design——2011' the First Prize Hunan Province Affordable Housing Design Competition Works Analysis%保障性住房设计初探——2011年湖南省保障性住房设计竞赛一等奖获奖作品解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍江军; 王之旷; 王小凡

    2012-01-01

    To solve the low-income family housing of the city, Hunan Province prepares to construct 287,000 new low-cost housing units and 186,000 units of public rental housing in 2011~2015. How to effectively enhance the construction of affordable housing project design level, in a smaller area to achieve the basic function of living, to meet the "aesthetic, economic, practical" requirement, the government authorities and the architectural design should work together to think about. This article describes the background of affordable housing, location and design principles, and affordable housing in Hunan Province in 2011 Design Competition award winning example of a new affordable housing in the design process to fully reflect "protection "word, with a view to the future construction of affordable housing have some reference value.%为解决城市中、低收入家庭住房问题,湖南省拟在2011年~2015年期间,新建廉租房28.7万套,公共租赁房18.6万套。如何切实提升保障性住房建设项目的设计水平,在较小面积上实现基本居住功能,满足"美观、经济、实用"的要求,是政府主管部门和建筑设计单位应当共同思考的问题。本文介绍了保障性住房产生的背景,定位和设计原则,并以2011年湖南省保障性住房方案设计竞赛一等奖获奖作品为例,探讨了在新建保障性住房的设计过程中如何充分体现"保障"二字,以期能对以后的保障性住房建设产生一定的参考意义。

  17. The cohort analysis of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis frome 2011 to 2012 of Taoyuan County in Hunan province%湖南桃源县2011-2012年初治涂阳肺结核治疗队列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋江林; 庄敏芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解湖南省桃源县初治涂阳肺结核防治情况,为结核病控制的可持续发展提供技术依据。方法:对湖南省常德市桃源县2011-2012年登记初治涂阳肺结核治疗情况进行队列分析。结果:2011年1月1日-2012年12月31日登记初治涂阳肺结核705例,其中治愈624例,治愈率88.51%。患者治疗2个月末痰涂片阴转684例,阴转率97.02%,3个月末痰涂片阴转698例,阴转率99.01%。结论:我国结核病防治规划是切实可行的,能够有效遏制结核病疫情的蔓延。%Objective:To understand the situation of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis prevention and control of Taoyuan county in Hunan province,and provide technical basis for sustainable development of TB control.Methods:Cohort analyze the situation of the new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis treatment of Taoyuan County in Changde City Hunan Province from 2011 to 2012 registered.Results:From January 1,2011 to December 31,2012,a total of registered smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 705 cases,624 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 88.51%.At the end of the 2 month treatment 684 patients sputum smear negative conversion,negative conversion rate is 97.02%.At the end of the 3 month treatment 698 patients sputum smear negative conversion,negative conversion rate is 99.01%.Conclusion:the tuberculosis control program in China is feasible, and it can effectively curb the spread of tuberculosis.

  18. Analysis and Regulation Strategies of Tourism Lifecycle in Zhashui Cave, Shaanxi Province%陕西柞水溶洞旅游地生命周期的分析与调控策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝存; 李军富

    2012-01-01

    在深入调查的基础上,以游客增长率为主要指标对陕西柞水溶洞旅游地生命周期各阶段进行了分析,判定柞水溶洞旅游已经经历了探索阶段、发展阶段和衰落阶段,目前正处于复苏阶段.分析了持续发展的制约因素,据此提出了复苏的调控策略:加强旅游规划,创建四位一体的旅游系统;树立大旅游观念,实行区域旅游联合开发;加深旅游产品开发,优化旅游产业结构;加大宣传与促销,扩展客源市场;实现投资多元化,提高从业人员素质.%The tourism area lifecycle of Zhashui cave, Shaanxi province at different stages was analyzed on the basis of in - depth investigation using tourist growth rate as the main indicator. The authors believe that Zhashui cave tourism has gone through the stages of exploration, development and decline, and it is now in the recovery phase. The constraints of sustainable development were analyzed, and regulation strategies based on constraints were presented as follows for this recovery. Firstly, tourism planning should be strengthened to create a four-in - one travel system. Second, a large tourism concept should he established for the joint development of regional tourism. Third, it was important to deepen tourism product development, and optimize the structure of tourism industry. Then, it needed more advertising and promotion to expand tourist market. The last but not the least, we should implement diversification in investment, and improve the quality of employees.

  19. Analysis on Sanitary Quality of Hemodialysis Water in Hospitals of Hunan Province During the Period of 2009 - 2011%湖南省2009-2011年医院血液透析用水卫生质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞浩; 吴传业; 黄涛; 陈彦华; 胡冀; 杨新文

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解近3年湖南省医院血液透析用水的卫生状况,为血透用水卫生质量的规范化管理提供科学依据.方法 于2009-2011年先后采集湖南省的77家不同等级医院的血液透析用水样品,按照《血液透析用水卫生标准》进行理化指标、微生物指标的检测分析和判定.结果 血透用水中氯化物、钙、氯胺、内毒素和菌落总数等超标率分别为11.7%、2.6%、2.6%、23.4%、1.3%,其他项目均合格.三甲医院和非三甲医院透析用水合格率差异无统计学意义.结论 影响湖南省血液透析用水卫生质量的主要因素是氯化物和内毒素,定期监测、及时更换水处理设备组件、加强输配水管路的清洗消毒等措施是提高血液透析用水水质的关键.%Objective To investigate the sanitary quality of hemodialysis water among hospitals of Hunan Province in the past 3 years, and to provide a scientific basis for the standardized management of hemodialysis water. Methods The samples of hemodialysis water were collected from 77 different levels of hospitals in Hunan Province from 2009 to 2011. Physicochemical and microbial indexes of the samples were measured and judged according to Sanitary Standard for Hemodialysis Water. Results The disqualification rates of chloride, calcium, chloramine, esotoxin and total number of bacterial colony were 11. 7%, 2.6%,2.6%, 23.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The other inspection items were qualified. But the qualified rates showed no statistically significant difference between 3A grade hospitals and other grades hospitals. Conclusions The main influencing factors for sanitary quality of hemodialysis water in Hunan are chloride and esotoxin. The key measures to improve the quality of hemodialysis water are to monitor regularly, replace water treatment device in time, wash and disinfect the water pipes.

  20. 侗寨水资源与当地文化--以湖南通道独坡乡上岩坪寨为例%WATER RESOURCES AND NATIVE CULTURE IN DONG VILLAGES:Taking the Shangyanping Village in Tongdao County, Hunan Province as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周大鸣; 李陶红

    2015-01-01

    The rivers, fish ponds, canals for fire extinguishing, wells, springs, paddies, and etc. constitute an active system of water resources in the Shangyanping village where locates in the Dupo town-ship, Tongdao county, Hunan province.Not only does the water resource link the local life and production closely, but it is also pertinent to the local culture manifesting mainly in relations of water to indigenous be-liefs, ecology and institution.The process of the interaction between water and local culture is also a process of production and reproduction of the local knowledge in the Dong villages.%位于湖南省通道县独坡乡的上岩坪寨,河流、鱼塘、消防渠、井、泉眼、稻田等共同构成侗寨水资源的活性系统。水资源不仅与当地生活、生产密切相关,而且与当地文化发生关联,主要体现在水与信仰文化、水与生态文化、水与制度文化。水与当地文化的关联过程,也是侗寨地方性知识的生产与再生产过程。

  1. Status and Problems of Breeding and Utilization of Insect-resistance and Disease-resistance Rice Varieties in Hunan Province%湖南省主要抗病虫品种选育和利用现状与问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小华; 李友荣; 周昆; 魏子生; 黄延科; 侯振

    2011-01-01

    全面分析了湖南省主要病虫灾害的现状、发生趋势,认为随着水稻种植结构和栽培技术的变革以及水稻新品种的应用,病虫害发生种类及其危害性的变化,将使病虫害问题更加突出.在对抗性品种在农业生产中的实际效用进行分析后,提出了抗病虫品种选育和利用中存在的问题及改进意见.%In this paper, the status and occurrence trend of main diseases and insect pests in Hunan province were analyzed. With the reform of planting structure and cultivation techniques and application of new rice cultivars, changes of types of diseases and insect pests and their harmfuiness could deduced to more serious occurrence of diseases and insect pests. After analysis of the actual effect of resistant variety in production, the problems and improvement suggestions about breeding and utilization of insect-resistance and disease-resistance rice varieties were put forward.

  2. 铁肩担道义——《湖南省县(市、区)公共图书馆服务公约》解读%Understanding The Service Pledge of County ( City, District ) Public Library of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖希明

    2011-01-01

    The Service Pledge of County ( City, District ) Public Library of Hunan Province is declaration issued by director of the grass- roots public library facing "open to public free of charge", the new development environment and opportunities. It reflects advanced concepts of librarians of the grass - roots public library , demonstrates the solemn commitment of the grass - roots public library to society and expresses the brave spirit of librarians of the grass - roots public library.%《湖南省县(市、区)公共图书馆服务公约》是基层公共图书馆馆长面临“免费开放”这一新的发展环境和机遇而发表的宣言,它体现了基层图书馆人先进的理念,昭示了基层图书馆对社会的庄严承诺,表达了基层图书馆人勇敢担当的精神。

  3. 湖南省小规模农户参加农业保险影响因素的实证分析%Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of Small-scale Peasant Household Participating Agricultural Insurance in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅美; 匡远配

    2014-01-01

    以湖南省的229位农民作为调查样本,通过建立二元Logistic模型,从农民个人特征、农户家庭特征、农民心理认知三个方面对小规模农户参加农业保险意愿的影响因素进行实证分析。实证结果表明:农民的年龄、农民的文化程度、家里是否有大学生、对农业保险的了解程度、参加农业保险是否有补贴都显著正向影响小规模农户参加农业保险。%Based on the investigated sample of 229 farmers in Hunan province,the study sets a binary Logistic model and makes an empirical analysis about factors that influence the small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance from the perspective of farmers individual characters, peasant families traits, and farmers psychological cognition. The result shows that small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance is positively remarkably affected by the age of farmer, edu-cation degree of farmer, existing college student in the family, realization on agricultural insurance and subsidy provided for participat-ing in the insurance.

  4. O2O电子商务模式在湖南省新农村建设中的应用探索--以石门柑橘为例%Research on the Application of O2O E-Commerce in the New Rural Agricultural Construction of HuNan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旺; 张引琼; 李朋飞

    2014-01-01

    该文阐述了石门柑橘产业的发展现状,通过调研湖南石门柑橘产业建设概况,分析了现存问题,借助新型O2O电子商务模式,探索其在石门柑橘发展中的应用。通过线上线下联动交互的方法,解决了石门柑橘发展中存在的瓶颈问题,促进湖南省新农村建设的发展。%This paper expounded the citrus industry development of ShiMen county, analyzed the current problems in the citrus industry development of ShiMen according to the investigating data, explored the application in the citrus industry depending on newly 020 E-commence pattern, and solved the bottleneck in the citrus industry development of ShiMen through the online-of-fline linkage interaction. It will accelerate the development of the new countryside construction in HuNan province.

  5. 基于叙述性偏好法的理财产品选择偏好研究--以湖南地区为例%Study on Customer's Selection of Bank Financial Products Based on Stated Preference---Hunan Province as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯雯

    2014-01-01

    论文针对客户理财产品选择的偏好进行研究。为深入分析客户的理财行为,采用叙述性偏好法(Stated Preference)进行问卷设计,同时运用多项罗吉特(Multinomial logit)及巢式罗吉特(Nested logit)计量模型建立消费者理财偏好选择模式,并以湖南地区为例,分析该地区客户对于理财商品的偏好,并研究客户群体的理财产品选择行为模式,以期为银行的理财产品开发和监管部门的管理提供一定参考。%This paper studies the preferences of customers' choice on personal financial products. In order to analyze the customer's behavior, with the Stated Preference method applied in the process of questionnaire designing and Multinomial Logit as well as Nested Logit both used in the construction of tbe main model, we take Hunan Province as an example and analyze the customers' preference on the financial products in this region, and extend further research on their behavior patterns. We aim at provide a reference for both local banks and regulatory authorities.

  6. Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of Small-scale Peasant Household Participating Agricultural Insurance in Hunan Province%湖南省小规模农户参加农业保险影响因素的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅美; 匡远配

    2014-01-01

    Based on the investigated sample of 229 farmers in Hunan province,the study sets a binary Logistic model and makes an empirical analysis about factors that influence the small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance from the perspective of farmers individual characters, peasant families traits, and farmers psychological cognition. The result shows that small-scale peasant household’ s will to participate in agricultural insurance is positively remarkably affected by the age of farmer, edu-cation degree of farmer, existing college student in the family, realization on agricultural insurance and subsidy provided for participat-ing in the insurance.%以湖南省的229位农民作为调查样本,通过建立二元Logistic模型,从农民个人特征、农户家庭特征、农民心理认知三个方面对小规模农户参加农业保险意愿的影响因素进行实证分析。实证结果表明:农民的年龄、农民的文化程度、家里是否有大学生、对农业保险的了解程度、参加农业保险是否有补贴都显著正向影响小规模农户参加农业保险。

  7. On The Present Situation Of Implementation For Students Participating In The Sports Curriculum In Elementary And Middle Schools Of Hunan Province%湖南省小学生参与体育课程实施现状的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曙

    2011-01-01

    运用文献资料、问卷调查、访谈等方法对湖南省小学生参与体育课程实施现状进行了研究。结果表明,学生参与体育课程实施的现状是不尽如人意的。表现为学生体育课学时量得不到保证等因素组成。针对这些因素,提出可行性建议,以促进小学体育与健康课程改革的深入健康发展。%Using the methods of literature material,questionnaire survey,interview participated and so on,the paper researches the present situation for the elementary school students participating in the sports curriculum implementation of Hunan Province.The study indicated that the present situation of the sports curriculum implementation is not entirely as desired,the student physical education study period cannot obtain the guarantee and so on.In view of these factors,proposes the feasibility to suggest that promotes the elementary schools sports and the healthy curriculum reform to healthy development.

  8. Carbon storage in 2009 and potential carbon sequestration in future of Cunninghamia lanceolata forests in Hunan province, China%湖南省2009年杉木林碳贮存量及未来固碳潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜利; 项文化; 邓湘雯; 雷丕锋; 方晰

    2014-01-01

    Tree biomass data published in literature were derived to generate allometric equations for 5 age classes of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese ifr) and then the equations were used to estimate stand biomass and carbon storage of 5 age classes. Based on stand area of 5 age classes recorded from forest inventory data in 2009, total carbon storage of C. lanceolata forests was determined for Hunan Province and its 14 subordinated prefectural cities. At the same time, we also selected the data in literature as baseline for the stand biomass at different age of C. lanceolata forests under appropriate management. The current status of stand area distribution of 5 age classes was analyzed for C. lanceolata forests in Hunan and normal forest rule was applied to adjust forest area to achieve an ideal stand area distribution. Consequently, potential carbon sequestration in future of C. lanceolata forests in Human was investigated on the condition of appropriate forest management and ideal area structure of forest age classes after adjustment. The results showed that stand carbon storage of C. lanceolata forests in 2009 accounted for 0.50~227.01 t/hm2, with average stand carbon storage ranging from 5.94 t/hm2 for young forests to 147.25 t/hm2 for over mature forests. Total carbon storage of C. lanceolata forests in Hunan reached 52.16 × 106 t, of which the lowest was 0.42×106 t in Xiangtan City and the highest was 11.97 × 106 t in Huaihua City. Total carbon storage in C. lanceolata forests showed an increasing tendency from 1.94 × 106 t for young forests to 13.12 × 106 t for over mature forests. If appropriate forest management was implemented, total carbon storage of C. lanceolata forests in Hunan would increase to 103.83 × 106 t,which was about two times of the value in 2009. After stand area adjustment for age classes, total carbon storage C. lanceolata forests in Hunan would go up tp 81.10 × 106 t (about 1.5 times of the values in 2009), with ranging from 1.91 × 106

  9. Empowering Women through Caving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabert, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Describes an introductory horizontal caving experience for college-age women who were uncomfortable with their bodies, insecure with movement, and unwilling to take big risks. The darkness and quiet of the cave released inhibitions and promoted group cohesion, feelings of intimacy and safety, self-discovery, and self-confidence. (SV)

  10. A Preliminary Study on the Evolutionary Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements (REE)in Granitoid Rocks and Their Formation Mechanisms in Xianghualing Region,Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜绍华; 邱瑞照

    1991-01-01

    Recognized in the Xianghualing region,South Hunan are three major types of granitoids,i.e.,biotite granite,zinnwaldite-albite granite and xianghuagite,which evolved form the same granitic magma,but were formed at different stages.These granitoid rocks constitute a complete magmatic evolutionary series.With the evolution of magma,REE contents and negative Eu anomalies tend to decrease progressively,and LREE become more and more enriched relative to HREE .The facts mentioned above show that the tendency of REE evolution in granitoid rocks in the region studied is different from that in other regions.Evidence indicates that the granitic magma system became more and more depleted in Si(K+Na),but richer and richer in Al,Li,F and H2O+ during the process of its evolution,re-sulting in relatively weak acidity and strong alkalinity .It may be the most important factor leading to a specific REE evolutionary trend for the granitoid rocks in this region.In addition,the changing oxidation-reduction environments at different evolutionary stages of this magma system may be anoth-er important factor which should be taken into consideration.

  11. 湖南西部新生代农民工体育参与现状研究%The Present Study on Sports Participation of New Generation Migrant Workers in Western of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃英; 朱福军

    2015-01-01

    The study made an investigation into sports participation of new generation migrant workers through literature review, questionnaire and interviews. It reflects the reality and features of the purpose , types, time, venues, and sports consumption flow of new generation migrant workers’ sports participation. It also makes an analysis of factors affecting the workers’ sports participation, and proposal of approaches to improving the undesirable reality, to serve as an academic reference for the sustainable development of new generation migrant works’ sports participation in western Hunan.%通过文献资料、问卷调查与访谈等方法调研湖南省西部地区新生代农民工的体育锻炼情况,从新生代农民工在体育锻炼目的、体育锻炼的内容、时间、场所以及体育消费流向等方面的现状和特征入手,分析影响湖南西部新生代农民工参与体育锻炼的因素,提出改善新生代农民工体育锻炼窘迫现状的途径。

  12. 基于灰色关联分析的城市土地可持续利用综合评价——以湖南省为例%Evaluation of Urban Land Sustainable Use Based on Grey Related Analysis Theory -- A Case Study of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the content of sustainable urban land use, builds the evaluation system of sustainable urban land use from four aspects of resource-saving, environment friendly, economic development and social harmony. A grey related analysis model is used to evaluate urban land sustainable use from the two dimensions of time and space. The research shows that the level of sustainable urban land use in Hunan Province has increased annually, but there is still much room for improvement ; Changsha is the highest level of sustainable urban land use, Shaoyang is the lowest level, and the sustainable urban land use is significantly different in 13 cities. To improve the level of sustainable urban land use, Hunan should further accelerate the pace of economic development, tap the potential of urban land use. Urban land use should be guided by the sustainable development theory, and the cities should actively improve the insufficiency of urban land use.%文章从资源节约、环境友好、经济发展和社会和谐四方面构建城市土地可持续利用评价指标体系,采用灰色关联分析方法从时间和空间两个维度对湖南省城市土地可持续利用水平进行综合评价。认为湖南省城市土地可持续利用水平逐年提高,但仍有较大提升空间;各地级市中长沙城市土地可持续利用水平最高,邵阳最低,各城市土地可持续利用水平差异显著。因此,湖南应进一步加快经济发展速度,提高城市内涵,以可持续发展理论为指导,积极改进城市土地利用中的不足。

  13. 湖南省性别工资差异及其影响因素研究基于家务劳动时间的视角∗%A Study on Gender Wage Gap and Its Influence Factors in Hunan Province Based on the Perspective of Housework Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟波; 楚尔鸣

    2015-01-01

    通过建立理论模型,并用2014年湖南省5县区20个城乡社区的调查数据,从家务劳动时间的视角分析湖南劳动力市场的性别工资差异及其影响因素。结果发现,家务劳动时间是影响湖南劳动力市场性别工资差异的重要因素,同时其他影响因素还有月工资收入、受教育程度、行业等,但职务职称对性别工资差异的影响存在不确定性。因此,政府应大力发展家庭服务业,建立健全覆盖城乡的家庭服务体系,基本满足家庭的服务需求,使女性从家务劳动中解脱出来,同时应通过政策倾斜确保女性培训比例,增强就业竞争实力;规范劳动合同,维护私有及民营企业女性从业者在劳动就业、社会保障等方面的合法权益。%Based on the theoretical model and research data from 20 urban-rural communities of 5 counties in Hunan Province in 2014,the paper analyzes influencing factors of gender wage differentials in Hunan labor market from the angle of housework time.Research results show that housework time is an important factor that affects the gender wage gap of Hunan labor market,and there also exists other influ-encing factors like monthly income,education level,vocation and so on.However,the effect of positional title on gender wage differential shows uncertainty.Therefore,the government should vigorously develop family services,and establish a sound service system covering urban and rural families,basically meeting service requirements and freeing women from housework.At the same time,the government should ensure the proportion of women in vocational training and strengthen their employment competitiveness through policy support.Labor contract should also be strictly regulated,safeguarding the legitimate right of women in employment,social security and so on in private enterprises.

  14. 粮食安全视域下的湖南粮食专业合作社发展研究%Discussion on the Development of Grain Cooperative Organizations in Views of Food Security in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹惠斌

    2012-01-01

    The connotation of food security includes total safety, structural safety, quality security, price security, ecological security and industrial security. Learning from the experience of foreign grain cooperatives to ensure food security, development of the food professional cooperatives in China helps to promote marketization, scalization, intensification and modernization of food production, which is the fundamental way to solve the issue of food security in China. The development of food professional cooperatives in Hunan, which is China's major grain producing areas, is faced with small -scale, poor land transfer, short chain, weakness of water conservancy infrastructure and financing difficulties, and needs to take appropriate measures to resolve and play a positive role in ensuring national food security of food professional cooperatives.%粮食安全的内涵包括总量安全、结构安全、质量安全、价格安全、生态安全和产业安全。借鉴国外粮食合作社保障粮食安全的经验,我国发展粮食专业合作社有利于促进粮食生产的市场化、规模化、集约化和现代化,是解决我国粮食安全问题的根本出路。湖南作为我国粮食主产区,其粮食专业合作社的发展面临着规模小、土地流转不畅、产业链短、农田水利基础设施薄弱及融资难等问题,需要采取相应措施加以解决以发挥粮食专业合作社在确保国家粮食安全中的积极作用。

  15. Development Countermeasures of Small Tourism Towns Based on Synergetics:Taking Hunan Province as an Example%基于协同理论的湖南省旅游小城镇发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟家雨; 柳思维

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary for Chinese social and economic development that the collaborative development between the tourism industry and urbanization.Based on synergetic theory,the article discusses adaptabilities and theoretical basis of small tourism towns.The patterns and countermeasures on the collaborative development of small tourism towns should be used.The patterns could be classified as three levels:the collaborative development of enterprises in core industrial chain,that of industrial cluster,and that of enterprises and business environment,etc.To practice the collaborative development,we should begin from the collaborative development of institute,targets,organization,public relations,and innovation,to the collaborative development of information,etc.Finally,the author highlights that some good and efficient countermeasures should be practiced in small tourism towns,Hunan.%随着旅游城镇的蓬勃发展,旅游业与城镇化的协同发展问题正日益受到人们的关注。基于协同理论,研究认为旅游小城镇的协同发展模式分为三个层次:核心产业链的企业协同、产业集群协同、产业集群与环境协同等。要实现协同发展,应从目标协同、制度协同、组织协同、利益协同、创新协同、信息协同等方面入手。以湖南省为例进行实证分析,提出了相应的对策建议。

  16. 湖南省铅锌尾矿污染区植被修复适生植物选择研究%Screening of Vegetation for Ecological Restoration around Lead-Zinc Tailings Site in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 王琼; 张望; 吴亮亮; 周连碧

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a very effective way to remedy heavy metal polluted site. The investigations and tests on vegetation and plants of Qiaokou & Yongxing Peng lead-zinc tailings area in Zixing city, Hunan shows that: ①Herbs have perfect ability to adapt lead-zinc tailings contaminated land; ②Absorption capacity of heavy metals by plants are mutually influenced by genetic factor and environment domestication;③Caulis Fici Tikouae, Lespedeza bicolor Turc. and Lolium perenne L. have perfect ability of migrating and gathering Pb and zinc, and could be used for ecological restoration at Pb and zinc pollution site.%植物修复技术是重金属污染场地修复十分有效的方法。本研究通过调查、测试湖南资兴市东江湖桥口和永兴棚铅锌尾矿污染区的植物与土壤,分析得出:淤草本植物对铅锌尾矿污染土地有强适应能力;于植物对重金属吸收能力受遗传特性与环境的驯化共同影响;盂地枇杷、胡枝子和黑麦草分别对Pb和Zn有较强的迁移能力和富集能力,可用于Pb和Zn污染地区的生态修复。

  17. Job dissatisfaction and burnout of nurses in Hunan, China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjuan; He, Guoping; Wang, Honghong; He, Ying; Yuan, Qun; Liu, Dan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we focused on measuring levels of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction in the daily practice of nurses in Hunan province, China, analyzed factors related to nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, and explored the relationship between them. Previous studies have shown a high level of burnout and job dissatisfaction among nurses worldwide. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 nurses was conducted. The nurses worked at 20 hospitals in 11 cities and counties throughout China's Hunan province. Nurse burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Nurse-rated job dissatisfaction was described using a four point scale, and work environment was measured using the Nursing Work Index - Practice Environment Scale. The results showed that nurses had high burnout scores and were dissatisfied with their jobs. Staffing, work environment, and work hours were all significantly associated with nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Adequate staffing, improved work environment, and reasonable work hours are related to decreasing nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction.

  18. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  19. 湖南省2009~2011年甲型H1N1流感哨点监测病原学结果及病毒基因特性分析%Virological Surveillance of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Its Genetic Characteristics in Hunan Province,2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 黄一伟; 刘运芝; 李芳彩; 陈长; 李文超; 邓志红; 胡世雄; 高立冬

    2013-01-01

    To understand and master the dynamic variation of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011, and to know the genetic characteristics and drug resistance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses. Throat swab specimens of influenza-like illness patients were collected from sentinel hospitals and tested for influenza by fluorescent PCR or virus isolation methods. Partial isolates were selected for sequencing. The sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 5. 05 software. From the 20th week of 2009 to the 52nd week of 2011, 17 773 specimens were tested. 3 831 specimens were influenza-positive with a positive rate of 21. 6% , of which 1 794 were positive specimens of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, accounting for 46.8% of the influenza-positives. There were 2 epidemic peaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, which were in the 41st-53rd week of 2009 and the lst-12nd week of 2011, respectively. The HA genes of 23 strains that were selected for sequencing had close relationship; the distribution of strains in the phylogenetic tree was basically in chronological order. The complete genome sequence analysis showed that all of 8 gene segments of 7 strains were homologous to the vaccine strain, and there was no gene reassortment. The HA amino acid sites of the 23 strains were highly similar to the vaccine strain (98. 2%~100. 0% in homology) , but all 23 strains had P83S, S203T and I321V mutations. The 222 site mutation that may lead to enhanced virulence was found in the A/Hunan/YQ30/2009 strain. The mutation was D222E. There was no oseltamivir resistance mutation found in all strains. The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan province from 2009 to 2011 had a bimodal distribution. There was no large-scale variation of virus genes. The clinical use of oseltamivir was still effective.%了解和掌握2009~2011年湖南省甲型H1N1流感流行动态和变化规律,掌握甲型H1N1流感流行株基因特性及耐药性情况.收集哨点医院采集的流感样病

  20. The use of ultra deep sequencing technique in the screening program on HIV-1 drug resistance mutation among ART-naïve patients in Hunan province%超深度焦磷酸测序技术用于HIV-1 RT基因区原发性耐药突变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺健梅; 邹潇白; 陈曦; 郑军

    2014-01-01

    目的:利用超深度焦磷酸测序技术(UDS)研究湖南省HIV感染者中原发性耐药流行趋势。方法90份未接受抗病毒治疗的HIV感染者同时采用UDS测序和Sanger测序进行HIV基因型耐药检测,测序结果采用斯坦福大学HIV耐药突变数据库进行分析比对,分析湖南省HIV-1反转录(RT)基因区原发性耐药突变情况。结果 UDS检测成功获取90份测序结果,84.4%为AE亚型(76/90),发现38例(42.2%,38/90)针对RT基因区的耐药突变位点,其中14例样本仅发生核苷类反转录酶(NRTI)耐药突变(15.6%),15例仅发生非核苷类反转录酶(NNRTI)耐药突变(16.7%),9例样本同时发生了NRTI和NNRTI类耐药突变。在16个位置上共发现54次耐药突变。17例(18.9%,17/90)样本有针对RT基因区的中度及以上的耐药突变。传统Sanger法仅检出7例;其中针对NRTI类药物耐药的6例;针对NNRTI类药物耐药的5例。结论 Sanger法测序能够鉴定出显著的耐药性突变(≥20%),但不能及时发现尚未达到显著突变量的突变位点或稀有型抗药型突变(<20%)。而UDS则能更灵敏检测到低频突变毒株,这些耐药突变同样可在药物选择压力下快速的增长引起病毒学治疗失败,导致临床治疗失败。因此选择更高灵敏度和精确度的技术检测低水平耐药突变位点,对于HIV抗病毒临床治疗有着十分重大的意义。%Objective To determine the prevalence rates of nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) TDRs among HIV-1 ART-naïve patients in Hunan province using the ultra deep sequencing(UDS) technique. Methods ART-naïve subjects diagnosed in Hunan between 2010 and 2011 were evaluated by both UDS technique and Sanger sequencing techniques,to the 1%variant level. Mutations were scored using the Stanford HIVdb algorithm to infer the status on drug

  1. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  2. Radon in Caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2005-01-01

    The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources,the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then,the instruments,both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into accounttheir respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the objectof regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations i...

  3. TAILINGS-WATER INTERACTION IN XIANGXI GOLD MINE,HUNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: 1. ENVIRONMENTALLY GEOCHEMICAL EFFECTS%湘西金矿尾矿-水相互作用:1.环境地球化学效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凯旋; 王岳军; 郭锋; 谢焱石

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of tailings were produced during mining in the Xiangxi Gold Mine, Hunan. The interaction of tailing with water has caused the release and migration of heavy metals in tailings and the contamination to surfacial environments of water bodies,soils and vegetables. The main contaminating elements are Au, Sb, As, Hg and W, and this is consistent with the elemental enrichment features of tailings. The water migration coefficients of heavy metals in tailings tend to decreased in the order: Au>Cd>W>Sb>Pb>As>Zn>Cu, similar to the pollution severity in soils and vegetable, indicating that the pollution is controlled by tailings-water interaction. The biological absorption coefficients of heavy metals vary in a complex manner and are larger with Au, Sb, Cd, and Zn. The metallic element concentrations in plants are mainly controlled by their concentrations in soils and plants, and absorption coefficients.%湘西金矿在生产过程中产生了大量的尾矿。该区尾矿-水相互作用强烈,并引起了尾矿中重金属元素的释放、迁移和对水体、土壤、蔬菜等表生环境的重金属污染。污染程度较大的元素均为Au、Sb、As、Cd、Hg、W等,与尾矿中元素的富集特征相一致。尾矿中重金属元素的水迁移能力由大至小顺序为Au、Cd、W、Sb、Pb、As、Zn、Cu。元素的生物吸收系数由大至小顺序为Cd、Au、Zn、Hg、Sb、Cu、Pb、As、W。植物中金属元素浓度主要受土壤中的浓度、植物种类和吸收能力的影响。

  4. Investigation on Status of Human Parasitic Infections and the Influencing Factors in Lianyuan,Hunan Province%湖南省涟源市人体肠道寄生虫感染状况调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新亮; 肖红军; 周宏大; 周述南

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解湖南省涟源市人体肠道寄生虫病感染状况及其影响因素,为制订合理的寄生虫病防治措施提供参考依据. 方法 按照《湖南省人体重要寄生虫病现状调查实施细则》的要求和方法,分层整群抽取4个乡镇进行人体重点寄生虫感染情况调查,采用改良加藤法检查虫卵. 结果 共调查1133人,感染者53人,总感染率为4.68%,蛔虫是主要感染虫种;年龄、性别肠道寄生虫感染率差异无统计学意义;农业人口(x2=8.493,P=0.004)、学历较低(x2=9.20,P=0.01)、饮用井水或河水(x2=7.98,P=0.02)、便后不洗手(x2=6.50,P=0.04)及未使用无害化厕所(x2=4.11,P=0.04)是人体肠道寄生虫感染的危险因素. 结论 蛔虫是当地人体肠道寄生虫感染的主要虫种.应加强针对低学历、卫生习惯/卫生设施较差的重点人群、重点地区的寄生虫病的综合防治工作.%Objective To investigate the status of human parasitic infections and the influencing factors in Lianyuan, Hunan Province, and to provide reference for rational developing prevention and treatment measures of parasitic diseases. Methods According to the Implementation Regulations for Survey on Current Status of Human Important Parasitic Diseases, investigations about the status of human important parasitic infections were performed among residents of 4 towns in Lianyuan, Hunan Province. The Kato- Katz method was used to detect parasite eggs. Results Investigations were performed on 1,133 residents, with a total parasitic infection rate of 4. 68% (53/1,133) , and the main parasite species is ascarid. No statistically significant diffidence was found in the parasitic infection rate among different age - groups and between different genders. Single factor analysis indicated that farming population (x2 =8.493, P = 0.004), lower educational level (x2 = 9. 20, P = 0.01), non-purified water drinking (x2 = 7. 98,P = 0. 02) , seldom washing hands after a bowel movement

  5. Virulence Gene PCR and PFGE Genotyping analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010%湖南省2005年-2010年霍乱疫情分离株的毒力基因PCR及PFGE分型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏昕; 湛志飞; 覃迪; 刘运芝; 高立冬; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 张红

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To understand the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010; to study the colone relations among the strains. Methods: K - B method was employed to test drug sensitivity; ctxAB virulence gene was tested by PCR, and finally molecular typing was carried out by pulsed field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE) for representative strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics. Results; 33 Vibrio cholerae 0139 stains presented a higher drug resistance rate against doxycycline and sulphame -thoxazole of 39. 39% and 75.76% , while a sensitivity of 100% to ciprofloxacin, nor-floxacin and amikacin; The virulence gene PCR results showed all the Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains were cholera toxin genes ctxAB - positive; 24 Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in 2005 and 2010 showed 3 PFGE banding types,and all the strains were homology of 83% - 100% by cluster analysis. Conclusion; Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from cholera epidemic in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010 were all ctxAB positive. The strains from different years and regions were found the closely related epidemic clone group strains of cholera; Resistance monitoring and further molecular typing analysis of Cholera strains contribute to the efficient surveillance of cholera and infectious source tracking.%目的:了解2005年-2010年湖南省霍乱疫情分离到的O139群霍乱弧菌菌株的病原学特征,研究疫情分离株之间的克隆相关性.方法:采用K-B法进行药敏试验;聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测ctxAB毒力基因;脉冲场凝胶电泳对疫情分离代表株进行PFGE分型分析.结果:33株霍乱弧菌对强力霉素、复方新诺明的耐药率较高,分别为39.39%和75.76%,对环丙沙星、诺氟沙星以及丁胺卡那100%敏感;毒力基因的PCR结果显示为所有疫情分离的O139霍乱弧菌均为产毒株,即

  6. Non-linear relationship between chemical compositions and smoking quality in flue-cured tobacco in Hunan province%湖南烤烟主要化学成分与评吸质量的非线性关系解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广才; 余玉梅; 胡建军; 周冀衡

    2012-01-01

    Relationship between chemical compositions / index and smoking quality were analyzed by applying generalized additive models using 375 samples including B2F, C3F and X2F grades of flue -cured tobacco in Hunan province Results showed that: (1) the majority others presented "(U) " or " U " shaped relationships except that a few chemical components / index showed strongly linear correlation with smoking quality,; (2 ) the appropriate value of the key factors which represented qualities of flue - cured tobacco in Hunan province, such as sugar to nicotine ratio, nicotine, total nitrogen, total sugar, reducing sugar, nitrogen to nicotine ratio, and organic potassium, were about 9% , 3% , 2. 2% , 25% , 22% , 0.8% , 1.2% , respectively; (3 ) among the nine indexes of smoking quality, chemical compositions / index made the significant impact on concentration of aroma and irritancy, while less impact on smoke aftertaste; and (4) compared three potassium indexes, the representational abilities to smoking quality is in the following order; organic potassium > potassium to sulfur ratio > potassium to chlorine ratio.%以湖南烤烟B2F、C3F和X2F等级375个样本为研究对象,运用广义可加模型较为系统地研究了烤烟主要化学成分/指标与评吸质量间的线性与非线性关系.结果表明:除部分主要化学成分/指标与烤烟评吸质量呈现较强的线性关系外,在一定含量范围内,多数主要化学成分/指标与评吸质量呈现“∩”或“∪”形抛物线关系;表征湖南烤烟评吸质量的关键化学成分/指标有糖碱比、烟碱、总氮、总糖、还原糖、氮碱比和有机钾,其适宜值分别为9、3%、2.2%、25%、22%、0.8和1.2%左右;烤烟主要化学成分/指标对香气量和刺激性的影响最大,对余味的影响最小;在钾氯比、有机钾和钾硫比这3项化学指标中,有机钾对烤烟评吸质量的总体表征效果最好,其次是钾硫比,钾氯比的总体表征

  7. Control Study of Behavior Problems and Self-concept Characteristics of Anxiety Disorders of Students in Primary School and Junior High School of Hunan Province%湖南省中小学生焦虑障碍的行为问题与自我意识特征的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫群; 罗学荣; 管冰清; 袁秀洪; 叶海森; 宁志军; 杨伟; 韦臻; 丁军

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the behavior problems and self-concept characteristics of anxiety disorders of children and adolescences in Hunan province. [Methods]Totally 242 students aged 6 — 17 years old in primary school and junior high school of Hunan province from Sept. 2005 to Dec. 2005 were investigated. Students accordance with the diagnostic standard of the diagnostic and statistical manual of American mental disorder- Ⅳ (DSM-Ⅳ) and students in normal control group completed the children's self-concept scale (CSCL) by themselves. Achenbach children behavior checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents. [Results]Scores of CBCL were compared. Social ability scores such as social scores and school scores in case group were lower than those in control group, and there was significant difference( P <0. 05). The scores of behavior problems such as recession, body chief complaint, anxiety, depression, social activity, thought, attention, disciplinary violation, aggressive behavior, sex, introversion and extraversion in case group were higher than those in control group, and there were significant differences ( P <0. 01, P <0. 05). Control study of scores of CSCS showed that the scores of case group were lower than those in control group, and there was significant difference( P <0. 01). [Conclusion]Anxiety disorder has adverse effect on the learning, behavior and self consciousness of children, so it should be intervened actively.%[目的]了解湖南省儿童青少年焦虑障碍的行为问题与自我意识特征.[方法]2005年9月至2005年12调查湖南省小学1年级至初三的242名中小学生,年龄为6~17岁.凡符合美国精神疾病诊断与统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准的学生和正常对照组学生由学生本人填写儿童自我意识量袁(Children's self-concept Scale,CSCS),由父母填写Achenbach儿童行为量表(Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist,CBCL).[结果]对CBCL各分量表及总分进行比较,在社会能力方面

  8. Speleothems and cave minerals in gypsum caves

    OpenAIRE

    Forti P.

    1996-01-01

    For many years gypsum karst was considered to contain little of interest from the point of view of chemical deposits. Relatively recently a general study of speleothems has begun within gypsum karst areas in different climatic zones around the world. So far this ongoing research has shown that gypsum karst can be very interesting in terms of its contained chemical deposits. In this chapter, all that is currently known about speleothems in gypsum caves is reported systematically, and the disti...

  9. 农村留守妇女的婚姻稳定感及其影响因素--以湖南省为例%The Sense of Married Stability for the Women Staying Alone in Rural Hometown and Its Affecting factors:An Analysis of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞强

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data from a survey of the married women staying alone hometown in the rural areas of Hunan province, this study explores the sense of marriage stability of these left-behind married women and its influencing factors. It is found that the sense of marriage stability of these women is still at a high level. The factors affecting the marriage stability includes the bullied experiences, relations with elders, family living satisfaction,communication frequency with husband working far away, the home-visiting frequency of husband, whom her husband transfer his earnings to, worries about fading of marriage commitment, and changes in marital relation with husband working away from home all affect the feeling of marriage stability.%通过对“湖南省农村留守妇女调查”数据的分析,本研究探讨了农村留守妇女的婚姻稳定感及其影响因素。研究发现,农村留守妇女的婚姻稳定感处于较高的水平;就其影响因素而言,有无被欺凌的情况、与家里长辈的相处情况、家庭生活满意度、丈夫打工期间的联系频率、探亲频率、丈夫汇钱时是否直接汇给自己、是否担心婚姻感情会发生变化、丈夫外出打工后夫妻感情的变化等变量对农村留守妇女的婚姻稳定感都有显著的影响。

  10. 多媒体在湖南省普通高校体育院系体育精品课程中运用效果研究%Study on Multimedia Application in Physical Education Course of Sports Departments in University in HunanProvince

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金根; 周次保; 李佳川

    2011-01-01

    Through using the methods of literature review and questionnaire, the selection of student appraisal of teaching, using " first -order nine factors" multimedia teaching college teaching assessment survey, this paper makes analysis on performance of multimedia application in physical education course of sports departments in university in Hunan province. The result shows that the multimedia assisted teaching acquires preliminary achievements, student, but in general good teaching enthusiasm/organization clarity, multimedia information design validity, group interaction in the three basic aspects and practice is better than the basic disciplines%采用文献法和问卷调查法,选取学生评教这一角度,利用“一阶九因素”多媒体教学大学生评教调查量表,对湖南省普通高校体育院系体育精品课程运用多媒体辅助教学效果进行分析和研究。其结果表明,多媒体辅助教学取得了初步成效,学生总体评价良好,但在教学热情(组织清晰度)、多媒体信息设计有效性、群体互动三个方面出现明显差异,基础理论学科比基础实践学科要好。

  11. 英语专业大学生就业现状及对策——基于对湖南省某高校的调查%Study on English Majors'Employment Situation and Countermeasures --Based on the investigation in a university inHunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韧

    2012-01-01

    英语专业毕业生就业已成为社会的热点,当前就业形势严峻。基于对湖南省某高校的调查为例,发现其工作亮点。第一,提高英语专业学生培养质量是提高就业率的前提;第二,树立优良的学风是提高英语专业大学生就业率的根本保证适时;第三,调整英语专业学生的知识结构是提高就业率的必要条件;第四,优化就业指导,开拓就业市场是提高其就业率的重要途径。通过不断学习借鉴来进一步提高英语专业毕业生就业率。%Now English Major students'employment has become a social problem. The situation of current employment is serious. This article is based on a university of Hunan Province . We try to discover their work highlights. Firstly, Improving the students' English training is to improve the quality of employment rate ; Secondly, Establishing good style of studying is to improve the fundamental of the employment rate;Thirdly,Improving English Major Students'knowledge structure is a necessary way;Fourthly, Developing the employ- ment market is an important way to promote the employment rate. Through these effective ways to improve English Major students' em- ployment rate is very important.

  12. How the Western Countries Fought for the Right to Missionary Work in China——A Case Study of Parishes in the Provinces of Hunan and Hubei%试析早期西方国家对中国传教权的争夺——以湖广教区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2011-01-01

    Since the sixteenth century, Portugal and Spain began to rise and increased their global dominance. Supported by their powerful kingship, Catholic then spread to all over the world. The two countries, dependent on the combination of kingship and magisterium, divided the world and controlled the religious affairs in their scope of influence respectively. However, with the rise of emerging colonial countries and Pope's increasing desire to get rid of the interference from Portuguese and Spanish kings, Patronatus Missionum was severely challenged. By examining the complicated process of parish establishment in the provinces of Hunan and Hubei, we can catch a glimpse of how the western imperialist countries then fought for their sphere of influence in China.%自十六世纪,葡西崛起后,其势横扫全球。在其强大王权的支持下,天主教随之传到世界各地。两国凭借王权与教权的勾结将全球划分,控制着各自势力范围内的教务。然而随着新兴殖民国家的兴起和教宗日益想摆脱西葡王权的干涉,“保教权”受到日益严峻的挑战。借由湖广教区建立的曲折过程,我们可以一窥当时西方帝国主义国家对中国势力范围的争夺。

  13. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of temperature variations from May to July since 1840 in Yanling county of Hunan province, China%利用树木年轮研究湖南炎陵气温变化情况——1840年以来5~7月份气温变化情况重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹受金; 曹福祥; 项文化

    2012-01-01

    采用树木年轮气候学方法,利用湖南炎陵资源冷杉的年轮宽度资料,建立了该地区1840~2010年的树标准化年表.分析表明,该地标准化年表与当年5~7月平均气温显著相关.在此基础上设计转换方程,重建该地区的5~7月平均气温.重建的温度序列有4个较为明显的冷期(1840~1866年、1879~1902年、1914~1924年1932~1940年):3个明显的暖期(1869~1877年、1905~1913年和1925~1930年).1999年之后升温明显.%By using the method of dendrochronology, a tree-ring width chronology from 1840 to 2010 has been built based on the data of Abies ziyuanemis tree-ring in Yanling county of Hunan province. The calculation results show that the data of the standardization (STD) chronology are significantly correlated with the mean air temperature from May to July in 2010. The mean temperatures of May to July at the sampling site were reconstructed by using the regression method. The reconstructed results indicate that four cold periods (1840-1866,1879-1902, 1914-1924,1932-1940) and three warm periods (1869-1877, 1905-1913,1925-1930) may be occurred. The mean temperature in the area may increased quickly after 1999.

  14. 基于产业经济学和城乡规划的湖南省小城镇产业发展规划研究%Study on Planning of the Industrial Development of Small Towns in Hunan Province Based on Industrial Economics and Urban and Rural Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹晓峰; 徐峰

    2012-01-01

    产业是一个国家和社会发展的经济基础,对于一个国家或者区域的经济社会发展有重要意义,产业发展规划对产业发展、社会进步也有着深刻的影响.该文从湖南省小城镇产业发展的实际着手,对产业经济学领域和城乡规划学领域的产业发展规划作了深入的对比研究,提出了基于产业经济学和城乡规划学的产业发展规划的概念,充分结合了政策性规划和技术性规划的优势,以应对小城镇产业发展过程所遇到的问题,从而促进小城镇产业发展和城市化进程.%Industry is the basis of a country's economic and social development, significance for the economic and social development of a country or region. Industrial development planning also has a profound impact on industrial development and social progress. This paper from a small town in Hunan province industry actually started- makes in-depth comparative study on the field of industrial economics and urban and rural planning in the field of industrial development planning, proposes the concept of industrial development planning study based on industry economics and urban and rural planning, fully combines the advantages of policy planning and technical planning to solve the problems encountered by the response to small towns process of industrial development, so as to promote industrial development and urbanization of small towns.

  15. On Influence Factors of New Generation Migrant Workers’ Will of Urban Settlement Under the Perspective of Behavior:On the Base of the Survey Data in Hunan Province%行为视角下新生代农民工定居城市意愿的影响因素分析--基于湖南省的调查数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张笑秋; 陆自荣

    2013-01-01

    文章视人口流动为“行为”,以多维视角的人类行为理论与包含迁移心理学的人口迁移理论为指导,采用“湖南省农民工流动调查”数据,使用二项Logistic回归,分析新生代农民工定居城市意愿的影响因素。结果表明:新生代农民工定居城市意愿强于上一代农民工,影响新生代农民工定居城市意愿的社会因素包括年龄、婚姻状况、受教育程度、家庭收入,同时,还包括心理因素中的经济动机与从众心理。%The population floating is viewed as behavior in the paper. Under the guidance of the multi-dimension human be-havior theory and the population migration theory,which includes the migration psychology,and on the base of the survey data of migrant workers floating in Hunan Province, the paper analyzes influence factors of new generation migrant workers ’ will of urban settlement in terms of the binary Logistic regression. The analysis outcome shows that new generation migrant workers ’ will of urban settlement is stronger than of the previous generation migrant workers,and influence factors include age,mar-riage,education,family income,economic motive and herd mentality.

  16. A new cave-dwelling Centromerus from Sardinia (Araneae: Linyphiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bosmans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Centromerus marciai sp. n. is described on both sexes on specimens collected in a karstic cave in the province of Nuoro, North-eastern Sardinia, Italy. Differences with other species of the genus Centromerus Dahl, 1886 occurring in Sardinia are pointed out.

  17. 2009-2010年湖南省哨点医院婴幼儿病毒性腹泻病原学研究%Etiological Study on Viral Diarrhea Among Infants and Young Children in Surveillance Hospitals of Hunan Province from 2009 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊华; 刘富强; 陈雨; 张红; 周帅锋; 刘运芝; 邓志红; 黄威; 李丹地; 张帆; 姚正才; 袁丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiological characteristics of common diarrhea viruses in sentinel hospitals of Hunan Province from 2009 to 2010, and to provide the scientific reference for comprehensive prevention and treatment of viral diarrhea. Methods A total of 759 stool specimens were collected from children less than 5 years old with an acute gastroenteritis admitted to surveillance hospitals of Hunan Province from 2009 to 2010. Dako- IDEIATM kits were used for detection of rota-virus, and the strain characterization of rotavirus was carried out with reverse transcription- polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). The detection of calicivirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was done by multiple RT- PCR. Part of the PCR products (DNA) which were positive for samples of calicivirus, adenovirus and astrovirus were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing, respectively. Results Rotavirus was detected in 22.79% (173/759) of all cases, calicivirus detected in 9.22% (70/759), adenovirus detected in 4.61% (35/759), and astrovirus detected in 0.79% (6/759), respectively. Mix infections were found in 2.50% (19/759) of all samples. Among 173 rotavirus positive samples, serotypes G1, G3 and P[4] were the most predominant strains. The four types of diarrhea viruses mostly attacked the children less than 2 years old, and moreover, the seasonal variations of viral diarrhea were obvious. Sequence analysis showed that the 12 positive strains were confirmed as the corresponding virus. Conclusions Rotavirus was the main pathogen for viral diarrhea in surveillance hospitals of Hunan Province from 2009 to 2010, followed by calicivirus, adenovirus and astrovirus.%目的 了解湖南省哨点医院2009-2010年常见腹泻病毒的病原学特征,为病毒性腹泻的综合防治提供科学依据. 方法 收集湖南省哨点医院2009-2010年5岁以下住院腹泻患儿的粪便标本,采用Dako公司酶免疫试剂盒检测轮状病毒,采用逆转录-聚合酶联反应(RT-PCR)进行分型鉴定

  18. 湖南省甲型H1N1流行性感冒大流行后乙型流行性感冒病毒的特征%Characterization of influenza B viruses isolated in Hunan Province after pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一伟; 李俊华; 高立冬; 李芳彩; 张恒娇; 李文超; 刘运芝; 胡世雄; 张红; 陈长

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence status and the genetic characterizations of influenza B viruses isolated in Hunan Province after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009,and to explore possible reasons for the prevalence.Methods Throat swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness in 23 sentinel hospitals of Hunan Province in 2010.Influenza viruses were isolated with Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and identified by haemagglutination inhibition test.The genomes of 10 selected influenza B viruses were sequenced and analyzed for phylogenetic and molecular characterization.Results With the reduction of isolation of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)2009 viruses,influenza B virus became the predominant isolated strain in the first half of 2010.Epidemic viruses mainly belonged to the B/Victoria lineage,and both two lineages co-circulated.Seven out of 11 influenza outbreaks caused by type B.Ten strains were filled into 2 branches of BV and BY which were classified by their lineage types in polymerase (PB2,PB1,PA),hemagglutinin (HA),neuraminidase (NA),NB,membrane protein (M1),influenza B virus membrane protein M2 (BM2),and non-structural protein (NS1,NS2) phylogenetic trees except the NP phylogenetic tree in which 10 strains were all in the BY branch.Compared with World Health Organization (WHO) vaccine strains,the amino acid identity of 11 proteins of the 10 strains was high (97.2%-100.0%).However,some amino acid point mutations were found.No mutation was found in drug resistance mutation sites.Some mutations in NA,NB,PB1,PB2 and NS2 molecules were found in 2 strains isolated from outbreaks compared with strains from sentinel surveillance.Conclusions The point mutations,insertions and genetic reassortment indicate viruses sustaining evolution,which is probably the reason for predominant influenza B viruses after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hunan Province.%目的 分析湖南省甲型H1N1流行性感冒(流感)大流行后乙型流感的流行

  19. Investigation and Analysis of Ice and Snow Disaster Suffered by Hunan Power Grid in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenliang; Zhao Donglai; Zuo Songlin; Fu Zhiyang; Qu Qiang; Yu Yongqing; Su Zhiyi; Fan Jianbin; Li Peng; Yuan Dalu; Wu Shouyuan; Song Gao; Deng Zhanfeng

    2008-01-01

    @@ In January 2008,a sudden disaster caused by icing and snowing happened in large areas of Central China and South China.The equipments of Hunan power grid were seriously damaged during the icing and snowing disaster.An expert group from China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI) was organized and went to Hunan province for field investigation.As a summary of this investigation,this paper introduces power equipment damages,such as flashover caused by icing,collapse of towers,conductor breakage and damage of substation equipments.The countermeasures adopted for this icing and snowing disaster are also summarized.The analysis shows that the rare meteorological condition is the main reason for large-area damage of Hunan power grid.In the icing disaster of Hunan power grid,the ice thickness greatly exceeds the permissible limit of design,thus it is necessary to improve the design parameters reasonably to against icing of transmission lines,and the design of external insulation and the anti-icing technology for substations are also need to be enhanced.

  20. A Talk on Block Printing in Hunan%湖南刻书概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寻霖

    2014-01-01

    In the Song Dynasty , the Yuan Dynasty , the Ming Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty block printing in Hunan was not as good as in Jiangsu and Zhejiang , and in the Song Dynasty , the Yuan Dynasty , the Ming Dynasty in Hunan was not as good as in Fujian and Jiangxi, Hubei .Since the Qing Dynasty Hunan block printing was behind Fujian, Jiangxi, Hubei, Guangdong and other provinces, but the official , the private , the mil block printing of Hunan had better progress.%湖南刻书宋元明清四代不如江苏、浙江,宋元明三代亦不如福建、江西。清代以后湖南刻书已不让闽、赣、鄂、粤及其他各省,并在官书局刻书、私人刻书、书坊刻书等方面或多或少有所超越。

  1. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  2. Population Structure and Distribution Pattern of Secondary Castanopsis eyrei Forest in Yangmingshan,Hunan Province%湖南阳明山甜槠次生林优势种群结构与分布格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜玉娟; 谢红梅; 陈星可; 曾乐媛; 王桔红

    2016-01-01

    By using the methods of typical quadrat,the structure characteristics and distribution pattern of Castanopsis eyrei populations of secondary forest through age stucture,lifetable characteristics,survival curves and 4 aggregation intensity index (distribution coefficient R,negative binomial parameter K,mean crowding index M*and accumulation index PAI)were studied in the National Forest Park of Yangmings-han,Hunan.The results showed that:1 )the age structure of the C.eyrei population of the Yangmingshan followed a spindle shape,which indicated that the population was declining;2)In general,the survival rate of C.eyrei population increased first and then decreased with the increase of age,the survivorship approxi-mated the type of the DeeveyI.3 )In the study plots,the distribution pattern of C.eyrei population showed cluster distribution which coincides with the most common pattern of population.The population structure and distribution pattern were closely related to ecological factors and biological characteristics,natural dis-turbance and human destruction also had certain effect.The research results can provide a theoretical ba-sis for natural regeneration and conservation of dominant population of Yangmingshan secondary C.eyrei forest.%运用典型样方调查法,从龄级结构、静态生命表特征、存活曲线和4种聚集强度指标(分布系数R、负二项指数K、平均拥挤度指数 M*、聚块性指数PAI)等方面研究湖南阳明山国家森林公园甜槠次生林种群结构特征和分布格局。结果表明:1)阳明山甜槠种群结构为纺锤形,属于衰退型种群;2)甜槠种群在总体上存活数随龄级增加先上升后降低,存活曲线接近Deevey I型,即曲线凸型;3)在研究样地内,甜槠种群的分布格局整体呈现为集群分布,符合最普遍的种群样式。种群结构和分布格局与生态因子、生物学特性密切相关,自然干扰和人为破坏也有一定的影响。

  3. Analysis on the Major Causes of Death Among Hospitalized Children in Hunan Province from 2002 to 2010%2002-2010年湖南省住院儿童主要死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋耀辉; 钟燕; 陈双; 丁大为; 康如彤

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析2002 - 2010年住院儿童主要死因及其变化趋势,为制定有效的干预措施、降低儿童的死亡率提供依据.方法 对湖南省儿童医院2002 - 2010年住院的227 078例中793例死亡病例进行回顾性统计分析.结果 2002 - 2010年住院儿童死亡率呈逐年下降趋势;住院男女死亡之比为2.18∶1;农村与城市之比为3.89∶1;婴儿期死亡率最高,占住院儿童死亡总人数的64.56%,其中29 d~1岁37.83%,新生儿期26.73%;主要死因位于前5位的疾病是:感染性疾病、新生儿疾病、先天异常、肿瘤、意外伤害;不同年龄组儿童死亡的主要原因不同.结论 降低儿童病死率的关键是预防感染性疾病、加强围生期保健、加强孕前指导及孕期体检,重视环境因素对儿童健康的影响、重视意外伤害的防治,尤其应加强婴幼儿期及农村地区的医疗保健工作.%Objective To analyze the leading causes of death and the change trend in hospitalized children during the period of 2002-2010, and to provide a basis for making effective intervention measures and decreasing the mortality of children. Methods A retrospective statistical analysis was performed in 793 death cases from 227,078 hospitalized children in Hunan Children's Hospital during the period of 2002-2010. Results The mortality rates of hospitalized children from 2002 to 2010 were decreased annually, the ratio of boys/girls was 2.18:1, and the ratio of countryside/city was 3.89:1. Among all the age- stages, the mortality rate of infancy was the highest, which accounted for 64.56% of total death cases in hospitalized children, among them, 37.83% were aged between 29 - day and 1 - year and 26.73% were neonates. The top five diseases of death were: infectious diseases, newborn diseases, congenital abnormalities, tumors and unintentional injuries. The leading causes of death were different in each age - stage. Conclusions The key points of decreasing the

  4. Integrative effect evaluations on vegetation restoration patterns based on soil vegetation system in watershed, northwest Hunan province%湘西北小流域植被恢复综合效应评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆良华; 张旭东

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the case of Nverzhai watershed in northwest Hunan, integrative effects of seven typical vegetation restoration patterns had been studied from the scale of soil vegetation system(SVS) in this paper, which included P. massoniana natural forest ( Ⅰ ) , C. lanceolata plantation ( Ⅱ ) , E. ulmoitks plantation ( Ⅲ ) , V. fordii plantation ( Ⅳ ) , M. pingii secondary forest ( Ⅴ ) , P. edulis-C. lanceolata mixed forest ( Ⅵ) , wasteland-shrub ( Ⅶ ) . Firstly, soil health evaluation system had been found which contained 60 indexes belonging to vegetation subsystem, soil subsystem and topographical factors. Secondly, the gray incidence ordinations of vegetation restoration effects on vegetation sub-system, soil sub-system and soil vegetation system were Ⅴ>Ⅱ>Ⅰ >Ⅳ > Ⅵ >Ⅲ > Ⅶ, Ⅴ>Ⅵ>Ⅱ>Ⅶ>Ⅳ> Ⅲ > Ⅰ and Ⅴ>Ⅱ>Ⅵ>Ⅰ>Ⅳ>Ⅲ>Ⅶ respectively, which proved that pattern V was the best and the pattern Ⅶ was the worst. Finally, through the gray incidence arrangement of evaluation indexes, Shannon-Weiner index, capillary porosity, organic matter, sucrase activity had the closest relationship with soil health respectively in vegetation characteristics , soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The contribution rate regularity of topographical factors affecting vegetation restoration was slope position, elevation slope degree, slope direction.%从土壤-植被系统(SVS)尺度研究评价了湘西北女儿寨小流域马尾松天然林(Ⅰ)、杉木人工林(Ⅱ)、杜仲人工林(Ⅲ)、油桐人工林(Ⅳ)、润楠次生林(Ⅴ)、毛竹杉木混交林(Ⅵ)及荒草灌丛(Ⅶ)等7种典型植被模式的综合恢复效应.研究表明:建立了涵盖植被、土壤及地形地貌3类因子60个指标的植被恢复综合效应评价体系;不同模式植被恢复效应总体以润楠次生林最优,荒草灌丛最差,植被子系统、土壤子系统和土壤-植被系统恢复效应灰色关联排序由大到小依次

  5. 湖南有机农业营销模式研究%Hunan Organic Agriculture Marketing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石小燕

    2013-01-01

    食品安全问题已经引起公众的广泛关注,发展有机农业是解决这一问题的重要途径。湖南是我国农业大省,本研究以湖南省为研究对象,首先对湖南省有机农业的营销模式特点进行分析,然后对湖南省现有的有机农业营销模式中存在的问题进行分析,最后提出湖南省构建有机农业营销模式的对策。%Food safety issues has caused wide public concern, the development of organic agriculture is an important way to solve this problem. Hunan is a major agricultural province in this study as the research object of Hunan, first of organic agriculture in Hunan marketing model analysis of the characteristics and organic agriculture in Hunan existing marketing model to analyze the problems, finally Hunan marketing model to build organic agriculture countermeasures.

  6. Speleothems and cave minerals in gypsum caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forti P.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years gypsum karst was considered to contain little of interest from the point of view of chemical deposits. Relatively recently a general study of speleothems has begun within gypsum karst areas in different climatic zones around the world. So far this ongoing research has shown that gypsum karst can be very interesting in terms of its contained chemical deposits. In this chapter, all that is currently known about speleothems in gypsum caves is reported systematically, and the distinctive climatic control over them is emphasised.

  7. Comparative Analysis on Factors Affecting Labor Migration in Various Forest Areas:A Case Study in Hebei, Hunan and Fujian Provinces%不同林区劳动力非农转移影响因素比较分析--基于河北、湖南、福建3省的实地调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁莎莎; 朱厚强; 吴成亮

    2015-01-01

    农村劳动力非农转移是我国城乡发展过程中的普遍现象,也是实现工业化、城镇化和农业现代化协调发展的重要前提。基于河北、湖南、福建3省林区41个村、290户林农的实地调研数据,利用Logistic回归模型对影响林区劳动力外出务工的因素进行了比较分析。结果表明:研究区劳动力外出务工的农户占样本的比重超过60%,林业劳动力非农转移已成为常态。河北保定林农的流动受个人禀赋影响较大,对家庭因素不敏感;湖南邵阳、福建三明林农的流动多受家庭因素影响;农林业经营情况对3个地区林农的流动影响均较大。针对林区劳动力非农转移的现实状况,认为发展地方特色产业、用科技实现规模效应及培育社会支持体系等是实现林区农村剩余劳动力合理流动、提升人力资源使用效率的重要途径。%Rural farming labor being transferred to non-farming one is not only a common phenomenon in the development of urban and rural areas in China, but also an important prerequisite for the coordinated development of industrialization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization. The article uses the sample data of 290 households from 41 villages in Hebei, Hunan and Fujian provinces, and makes comparative analyses on the factors affecting the migration of forestry labor through the Logistic regression model. The result shows that migrant labor households account for 60% of the sample. Personal endowments have greater influence on the migration than family factors in Baoding city of Hebei, while migrations in Shaoyang city of Hunan and Sanming city of Fujian are mainly affected by family factors. Besides, the operation of agroforestry has widespread impacts on the migration of forest labor in these three cities. According to actual situations in forest regions, it is suggested that developing industries with local characteristics, using science and technology

  8. 不同林区劳动力非农转移影响因素比较分析--基于河北、湖南、福建3省的实地调查%Comparative Analysis on Factors Affecting Labor Migration in Various Forest Areas:A Case Study in Hebei, Hunan and Fujian Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁莎莎; 朱厚强; 吴成亮

    2015-01-01

    农村劳动力非农转移是我国城乡发展过程中的普遍现象,也是实现工业化、城镇化和农业现代化协调发展的重要前提。基于河北、湖南、福建3省林区41个村、290户林农的实地调研数据,利用Logistic回归模型对影响林区劳动力外出务工的因素进行了比较分析。结果表明:研究区劳动力外出务工的农户占样本的比重超过60%,林业劳动力非农转移已成为常态。河北保定林农的流动受个人禀赋影响较大,对家庭因素不敏感;湖南邵阳、福建三明林农的流动多受家庭因素影响;农林业经营情况对3个地区林农的流动影响均较大。针对林区劳动力非农转移的现实状况,认为发展地方特色产业、用科技实现规模效应及培育社会支持体系等是实现林区农村剩余劳动力合理流动、提升人力资源使用效率的重要途径。%Rural farming labor being transferred to non-farming one is not only a common phenomenon in the development of urban and rural areas in China, but also an important prerequisite for the coordinated development of industrialization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization. The article uses the sample data of 290 households from 41 villages in Hebei, Hunan and Fujian provinces, and makes comparative analyses on the factors affecting the migration of forestry labor through the Logistic regression model. The result shows that migrant labor households account for 60% of the sample. Personal endowments have greater influence on the migration than family factors in Baoding city of Hebei, while migrations in Shaoyang city of Hunan and Sanming city of Fujian are mainly affected by family factors. Besides, the operation of agroforestry has widespread impacts on the migration of forest labor in these three cities. According to actual situations in forest regions, it is suggested that developing industries with local characteristics, using science and technology

  9. The Advantages, Difficulties and Suggestions for the Development of Sports Industry in Hunan Province%弯道超车:湖南体育产业发展的优势、困境与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺培育; 郑自立

    2012-01-01

    在阐释湖南体育产业发展基本态势的基础上,指出了“十二五”时期湖南体育产业实现“弯道超车”的有利条件和现实困境,并切合实际地提出了加快经济发展,着力提升民众体育消费水平;转变政府职能,健全体育产业管理体制;提升体育产业的自主创新能力和竞争力;加强产业人才队伍建设,重点培养一批高层次复合型人才;改善产业投融资环境,拓展资金融汇渠道;加强和改进体育产业统计工作;重点扶持体育本体产业的发展等方面的对策。%Based on the interpretation of the basic situation of the sports industry in Hu- nan Province, the paper points out its favorable conditions and dilemma for further development during China' s 12th Five-year Plan, and puts forward practical countermeasures: to speed up the economic development and improve the level of public sports consumption; to transform administrative functions and improve the sports industry management system; to promote the independent innovation ability and competition ability of sports industry; to strengthen industrial talent team construction and cultivate a group of high-end talents; to improve the environment of industrial investment and expand fund-raising channel; to improve the statistics work of sports industry; to support the development of sports industry itself, etc.

  10. Countermeasures on Solving the Current Financing Difficulties of Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises-Taking Yueyang County of Hunan Province as an Example%破解中小微企业当前融资困境的对策研究--以湖南省岳阳县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛奇

    2015-01-01

    企业融资困境包括融资难和融资贵两个问题。融资难问题在各类企业都存在,只是程度不同。大型企业有较多的融资渠道和较高的信用等级,因此,融资难问题更多体现在中小微企业层面。同时,由于中小微企业不具备大型企业的议价能力,贷款的抵押担保限制较多,使得间接成本提升,造成了融资贵的问题。湖南省岳阳县是中部地区欠发达县,县内企业基本上都属于中小微企业,存在的融资困境具有较强的代表性。本文以岳阳县为例,从中小微企业融资困境的现状及原因进行分析,寻求破解中小微企业融资困境的途径。%Enterprise financing is both inaccessible and unaffordable. The problem of inaccessible financing exists in all kinds of enterprises, only to different degrees. Big firms have more financing channels and high credit ratings. Therefore, most of the financing problems are in micro, small, medium-sized enterprises. At the same time, because micro, small and medium-sized enterprises do not have the same power in bargaining as the big enterprises, so there is more limitation in loans collateral secured, which causes the indirect cost increase, resulting in financing unaffordable problem. Yueyang County of Hunan province is a less developed county in the central region of China. Enterprises of this county are basically at the micro, small, medium-level. Its financing dilemma is representative. This paper takes Yueyang County as an example, and analyzes the current situation and reasons of micro, small, medium-sized enterprises' financing difficulties, so as to find ways to solve their financing problems.

  11. 非税收入对经济增长有贡献吗?--基于湖南省非税收入结构视角的经验证据%Do Non-tax Revenue Have the Contribution to Economic Growth?---Empirical Evidence Based on the Perspective of the Structure of Non-tax Revenue of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚斌; 彭舒

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of non-tax revenue were generally based on the macro-analysis and the conlusions were al-so different.By using the panel data of ten counties of Hunan Province between 2007 and 2012,this paper starts from the internal structure of non-tax revenue,uses the fixed effect model and conducts an empirical analysis of the relationship be-tween non-tax revenue and economic growth.The results indicate that two types of non-tax revenue have a promoting effect on economic growth,including the income from use of state-owned resources (assets)and penalty receipts and revenue from government-controlled funds.Among them,the income from use of state-owned resources (assets)makes the greatest contribution to economic growth.However,the charge of administative and insitutional units has no significant effect on e-conomic growth.%以往对非税收入与经济增长关系的研究大多是基于总量分析,且结论也存在诸多分歧。本文利用湖南省2007~2012年10个县市的面板数据,从非税收入内部结构出发,运用固定效应模型对非税收入与经济增长间的关系进行实证分析。结果表明:国有资源资产类使用收入、罚没收入和政府基金类收入总体上对经济增长具有促进作用,且以国有资源类收入对经济增长的贡献程度最大,而行政事业性收入对经济增长则无显著影响。

  12. 湖南省3个主要稻瘟病区菌株的交配型分布及其生理小种测定%Distribution of Mating Type and Identification of Physiological Race in Magnaporthe grisea Collected from Three Main Diseased Areas of Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raoul Bruno NGUEKO; 沈瑛; 徐同

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-seven mono-conidial blast fungi (Magnaporthe grisea) isolated from three main diseased areas of Hunan Province in September 2001 were co-cultivated on rice flour medium with four standard testers provided by International Center for Collaboration in Agronomic Research and Development (CIRAD) in order to determine their mating types. Results showed that 30% and 12% of the tested isolates were determined as Mat1.1 and Mat1.2, respectively, while the remaining 60% were unknown mating types. A total of 24 fertile strains were obtained, only five of them were female/hermaphroditic isolates, being accounted for 9% of the total tested isolates. The cross between isolates of the opposite mating types did not show any production of perithecia even between hermaphroditic isolates. The Chinese race of each isolate was determined after pathogenicity test to the seven Chinese differential cultivars. ZA and ZB were dominant groups and the race ZB15 was predominant among the 20 races obtained. The perfect stage of M. grisea in the field was also discussed.%2001年9月在湖南省3个稻瘟病的主要发病县采集分离了57个稻瘟病菌株,与法国国际农艺研究和发展中心提供的4个标准菌株于稻谷粉琼脂培养基上对峙培养.结果表明,30% 和12% 的测试菌株分别为交配型1.1和交配型1.2,其余60% 的测试菌株与4个标准菌株中的任何一个均不能产生子囊果,即便是与田间新获得的两性菌株之间的对峙培养也不能产生子囊果.在所获24个能育菌株中只有5个为两性菌株,占9%.各菌株在中国7个鉴别品种上的测定共获5群20个小种,其中ZA 和ZB为优势群,ZB15为优势小种.还就稻瘟病菌有性世代在田间存在与否进行了讨论.

  13. The Personal Pronouns in the Minjia Dialect-A dialect spoken in the Bai Autonomous Village of Furongqiao in Sangzhi County, Hunan Province%湖南桑植县芙蓉桥白族乡“民家腔”的人称代词

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟江华

    2012-01-01

      湖南桑植县芙蓉桥白族乡“民家腔”的三身代词复数分A、B两种形式:A式“ uεn53、连=ȵiεn53、滩=tan31/t‘an31”是由其单数“我、你、他”分别与复数标记“俺ŋan”构成的一个合音词;B式“ 俺uεn53−55ŋan043、连=俺ȵiεn53−55ŋan043、滩=俺tan31−33/t‘an31−33ŋan021”是在A式后面再加复数标记“俺”而成。第三人称单、复数均有新老派两种读音:老派读不送气音,如单数“他ta31”,复数“滩=tan31、滩=俺tan31−33ŋan021”;新派读送气音,如单数“他t‘a31”,复数“滩=t‘an31、滩=俺t‘an31−33ŋan021”。%  The plural form of the three personal pronouns of the“Minjia dialect”(民家腔), a dialect of Chinese spoken by people living in the Bai Autonomous Village of Furongqiao in Sangzhi County, Hunan Province has two forms, A and B. the type of plural A is a sound-combined word which is composed of singular Wo (我), Ni (你), Ta (他) and the plural marker An (俺) respectively. The type of plural B is composed of the type of plural A and the plural marker An (俺) again. The third person pronoun has two pronunciations, new and old, the old pronunciation is unaspirated, while the new pronunciation has an aspirated sound.

  14. 乒乓球多球训练法的文献综述——以湖南省各体育院系使用的教材为例%Literature Review of Table Tennis Multi-ball Training——Taking the Textbook of College Sports in Hunan Province as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫东; 黄依慧

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese table tennis are able to keep strong for decades,the multi-ball training is one of the important method.The author,by refereeing to textbook concerned about multi-ball training of sports colleges in Hunan province,finds out that there are many research on trai-ning method academic definition,historical origin and its importance and the limitation of the qualitative aspects such as the research is more,but the practice teaching and training work in need guidance,such as multi-balls training method of the ball,way and method for teaching organization pertinently used in table tennis movement skill form the different stages of the law,especially used to control the ball size and strength training method of quantitative data,and some training remains to be experts further explained.%中国乒乓球几十年来之所以能够保持长盛不衰,其中多球训练法是重要的训练手段之一,笔者通过查阅湖南省各体育院系所使用的有关多球训练法的教材,发现这些教材中对乒乓球多球训练法的学术界定、历史渊源以及它的重要性与局限性等定性方面的研究比较多,但实践教学与训练工作中所需要指导的,诸如多球训练法的供球方法、方式与组织教法有针对性地运用于乒乓球动作技能形成规律的各个阶段,尤其是用于控制多球训练法的强度大小与量化训练的一些数据资料,还有待专家们进一步的阐述。

  15. Local Transfer of Surplus Laborers and Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Fenghuang County of West Hunan Province%湘西凤凰县农村剩余劳动力就地转移与非物质文化遗产保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玲玲; 于小体; 王晶

    2011-01-01

    从非物质文化遗产的定义、非物质文化遗产保护与传承的重要性以及农村剩余劳动力就地转移对非物质文化遗产保护及传承的作用3个方面探讨了民族地区农村剩余劳动力就地转移对非物质文化遗产保护及传承的重要意义,并以湘西凤凰县为例,具体提出了农村剩余劳动力就地转移的构想,建议从推进农业产业化、发展民族乡村旅游业、支持农民工返乡创业、吸引大学生回乡创业方面着手,并具体阐述了相关策略,以期增加农民收入,让非物质文化遗产在民族地区世世代代地延续下去,从而得到有效保护.%The significance of local transfer of surplus rural labor forces in regions of minorities for the protection of intangible cultural heritage was discussed from 3 perspectives: the definition of intangible cultural heritage, the significance of protecting and inheriting intangible cultural heritage, the role of local transfer of surplus rural laborers in protecting and inheriting intangible cultural heritage. By taking Fenghuang County (Phoenix County) in west Hunan Province for an example, local transfer of surplus rural labor forces was proposed, and it was suggested that such a transfer could be realized from the following aspects: promoting industrialization of agriculture, developing tourism industry in rural regions of minorities, supporting rural labors to start their own business, attracting university graduates to return to their hometowns for founding their own undertakings. Moreover, relevant strategies were elaborated to increase income of rural residents, guarantee the efficient inheritance and protection of intangible cultural heritage in regions of minorities.

  16. 粮食主产区农民种粮意愿的影响因素分析——基于湖南475家农户的调查数据%Factors affecting farmers' willingness to grow grain in key grain-producing areas: Based on the investigation of 475 rural households of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思羽; 曾福生; 刘辉; 许慧

    2012-01-01

    以粮食主产区湖南长沙县、岳阳县、邵阳县475个农户样本的调查数据为基础,从农民个人特征、农户家庭特征、粮食市场价格等角度选取15个变量,应用二元Logistic模型对农民种粮意愿的影响因素进行了分析。结果表明:性别、文化程度、种粮年限、种粮收益占家庭总收入比重、粮食价格、种粮目的、农业技术支持、水利设施完善程度对农民种粮意愿有显著的正向影响;农民身体健康水平、劳动力短缺程度、生产资料价格对农民种粮意愿有显著的负向影响;年龄、资金不足程度、粮食补贴占种粮投入比重、卖粮难易程度对农民种粮意愿没有显著影响。%Based on the investigation data of 475 samples of rural households in key grain-producing areas of Changsha county, Yueyang county and Shaoyang county of Hunan province, selecting 15 variable quantities from the pespective of individual characteristics of the farmers, household features of rural households, marketing price of grain and so on, this paper analyzes the factors influencing rural households' willingness to grow grain by using Binary Logistic model.The results shows that: these factors including the proportion of the gender, the level of education, the years of grain growing ,and grain profits of the farmers in total household income; the prices of grain, the purpose of grain growing, the support of agricultural technic, the status of water conservancy facilities, positively impact on farmers' willingness to grow grain; while those factors including farmers' physical health, labor shortages, the price of production, negatively impact on farmers' willingness to grow grain; and those elements ,such as the age of farmers, capital adequacy, the proportion of food subsidies in the input of grain growing, the situation of grain selling do not greatly impact on farmers' willingness to grow grain.

  17. Study on Sports Development Model of Small Towns in Hunan Province in the New Round of Countryside Reform%新一轮农村改革中湖南省小城镇体育发展模式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 王晓成; 王驰; 宋海滨

    2012-01-01

    Small towns are the hinge and bridge of connecting cities and countryside. The sports development of small towns means to keep a close attention to the physical development of countryside and Chinese people. This paper analyzes the main problems in the sports development of small towns by means of investigation and literature review. The conclusions are as follow: Firstly, the sports development of small towns is more hysteretic when com- paring with the development of small towns themselves. Secondly, the unbalance in different regions and the ma - ladjustment among involved people. Thirdly, the lack of planning and promote the process of utilitarianism. Fourthly, sports organization is weak and professional talent is shortage. At the same time, considering the key factors and the historical background, the author presents the traditional model, characteristic model and enterprise enhanced autonomy of small towns in order to promote the mass sports development in Hunan province.%小城镇是连接城市和农村的枢纽和桥梁,研究小城镇体育发展,体现了对农村体育的一种关注,对中国大众体育发展的一种关注。笔者通过调查、文献资料等方法,剖析了当前湖南省小城镇体育发展存在的几个主要问题:1、小城镇体育发展滞后于小城镇自身的发展。2、不同地域间体育发展的失衡与参与人群的失调。3、规划的缺失与推进过程的功利性。4、体育组织的乏力与专业人才的匮乏。5、资金的短缺与来源渠道的单一。同时,针对新一轮农村改革的契机与小城镇体育的历史背景提出了湖南省小城镇体育发展的传统模式、特色模式与企业自主模式,以期推动湖南省群众体育的发展。

  18. 当前领导干部社会性别意识的调查分析--基于湖南省的数据%Analysis of Gender Consciousness of Leading Cadres--Based on the Data of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞强

    2014-01-01

    领导干部的社会性别意识在很大程度上决定了他们能否真正贯彻落实“社会性别主流化”的要求。文章基于湖南省领导干部的调查资料,从性别问题的认知、性别关系的评价、性别观念与态度、性别意识的践行四个方面分析了当前领导干部社会性别意识的现状。研究发现,领导干部对男女平等基本国策、社会性别基本概念的认知还有待进一步提高;领导干部的一些性别观念还有待进一步转变;性别意识的践行还存在着诸多缺损的地方。因此,必须通过各种途径,进一步提高领导干部的社会性别意识。%Gender consciousness of leading cadres largely determines whether they can really implement“gender mainstreaming”requirements. Based on the survey data of leading cadres in Hunan province, this thesis analyses the current status of gender consciousness of leading cadres from four aspects:gender cognition, evaluation of gender relationship,gender concepts and attitudes,and practice of gender consciousness. The study shows that leading cadres need to further improve their cognition of“the basic national policy of gender equality”and some basic concepts of social gender;to change some gender consciousness;practice of gender consciousness still exists many defects. Therefore,it’s necessary to further improve the social gender consciousness of leaders through a variety of ways.

  19. 湖南省县镇卫生院人力资源存在的主要问题及其对策思考%Main Problems of Human Resources of Health Clinics in Towns in Hunan Province and Countermeasures Towards It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡青; 谭李红

    2015-01-01

    With the methods of questionnaire and field interview,this paper does a research on the human resources(3 024 people) of certain health clinics in towns in Hunan Province. Through the statis-tics and analysis of the data,it makes a conclusion as follows:the total number of health personnel is defi-cient;the quality of health personel still needs to be improved; the structures of specialities are imbal-anced;the title structures tend to be primary; the human resources management is out of standard; the distribution of resources is unreasonable. Based on the analysis of the problems,this paper also puts for-ward some specific countermeasures,such as,government should perform the dominant function to promote the development of health clinics in towns;the system of competition and incentive as well as the system of talents assessment need be improved;the structures of specialities should be adjusted;job training and further education need be strengthened;the system of human resources management should be updated. 3figs. ,1tab. ,8refs.%通过调查问卷及实地访谈的方式对湖南省部分乡镇卫生院人力资源(3024人)进行了调查,通过对调查数据进行统计和分析,得出结论:湖南省乡镇卫生院人力资源存在卫生人员总量不足,人员素质有待提高;专业结构不平衡,职称结构偏向初级;人力资源管理不规范,资源配置不合理等问题.该文在分析湖南省乡镇卫生院人力资源存在问题的原因的基础上,提出具体的对策建议:发挥政府主导作用,促进乡镇卫生院自身发展;建立竞争和激励机制,健全人才考核体系;调整卫生专业结构,加强岗位培训和继续教育;更新人力资源管理模式,健全人力资源管理体制.图3,表1,参8.

  20. Analysis on the Functions that the Government has Played in Sustainable Development of Mining-based Towns-A Case of S Town in Hunan Province%政府对矿业城镇可持续发展作用探析--以湖南S镇为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐贤衡

    2014-01-01

    This paper ifrst analyses the problems that a mining town in Hunan province faces in its effort to promote sustainable development. The main problems include the following: the resources are on the verge of depletion; the ecological environment is damaged heavily; the social burden is heavy, and the complex geological mining relations and the compensatory of the beneift results in crisis for economic development. And then this paper points out that in our efforts to promote the transformation of mining town and its sustainable development, the two aspects that we must be taken into account: on the one hand, we desperately need both strong support of national macro-policy, and the policies concerning financial support, industrial support, and environmental protection. On the other hand, we must rely more on the functions that the local government has played, reform the management models that lay emphasis on the management and ignore the service. At the same time, we should make our efforts to break with the thought of reliance on others, attach great importance to the public power, and straighten out political and business relationships.%以矿业城镇湖南S镇为例,其可持续发展面临着资源濒临枯竭、生态环境破坏严重、社会负担沉重、地矿关系复杂和利益外流致经济发展危机重重等困境。矿业城镇的转型与可持续发展一方面迫切需要国家宏观政策的大力支持,需要资金扶持、产业扶持和环境保护等方面的政策;另一方面更离不开地方政府“内化起跳”功能的爆发,需要改革“重管理、轻服务”的管理模式,破除依赖思想,重视公众力量,理顺政企关系。

  1. Structural Characteristics and Prospecting Significance of the Xitian Tin-Tungsten Polymetallic Deposit, Hunan Province, China%湖南锡田锡钨多金属矿床成矿构造特征及其找矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍式崇; 龙自强; 徐辉煌; 周云; 蒋英; 潘传楚

    2012-01-01

    The Xitian tin-tungsten deposit,an important deposit discovered recently in the Nanling ore-forming province,occurs in the contact zone of the Late Devonian dolomitic limestone and Jurassic to Cretaceous ( Yans-hanian) granitoids.The main ore types of the deposit are skan-,structural skan-,structural altered rock- and quartz-greisen vein types.There is a SN-trending extensional structure of granite dome,a series of NE-trending multiple folds and NE or NEE-trending strike-slip tectonic system developed in the Xitian deposit.The dome structure is composed of Indosian and Yanshanian granites,Paleozoic strata and Mesozoic discontinuous ring detachment faults,which controls the distribution of skarn orebodies.The complex fold is a NE-trending complicated synclines,which consists of Palaeozoic strata,and is cut by strike-slip faults in the anticlinal core.Some structural fracture zone type ore bodies are controlled by both the coaxial overprinted fold of two periods,which belong to Yantang and Xiaotian complicated syncline,and the ductile brittle shear faults.The strike-slip system consists of the first-order NE-trending right lateral strike-slip faults,secondary P-orientation shear faults,SN-trending left laterial strike-slip faults and NW-trending stretch faults.The strike-slip system controls the distribution of quartz-vein- and greisen vein type tin-tungsten polymetallic orebodies.Zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of the Xitian granites and 40A-39Ar ages of muscovites from the greisenization type tungsten-tin orebodies as well as Re-Os isochron age of molybdenites from the quartz-vein type tin-tungsten ore bodies demonstrate that the time of tectonic activity,mag-matism and metallogenesis in Xitian tin- tungsten deposit is basically consistent with those of the large-scale metal-logeny in Nanling ore-forming province ( ISO Ma ~ 160 Ma).There exist many metallogenic areas favorable for future exploration,such as contact zones of granites and limestones,NEE- or NE

  2. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coate...

  3. Candoluminescence of cave gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet John R.; Hess John W.; White William B.

    2010-01-01

    A selection of gypsum specimens from a variety of caves as well as CaSO4 synthesized in the laboratory emit both a green and yellow candoluminescence when excited by a hydrogen diffusion flame. The green emission is attributed to dehydration of gypsum to bassanite and the yellow emission appears upon further dehydration to anhydrite. The source of the luminescence is ascribed to minor concentrations of Mn2+ in the gypsum.

  4. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  5. Single zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of Weishan granite (Hunan, South China) and its petrogenetic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xing; CHEN Peirong; CHEN Weifeng; HUANG Hongye; ZHOU Xinmin

    2006-01-01

    A detailed microstructure analysis and LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating have been done for zircons of Weishan granite from Hunan Province, South China. The results indicate that the Weishan granite is a multistage batholith formed during the late Indosinian-early Yanshanian time. The intruded time of the late Indosinian granite is 211.0±1.6Ma and 215.7±1.9Ma (two samples), whereas that of the early Yanshanian granite is 187.4±3.5Ma and 184.5±5.1Ma (two samples). In combination with other geochronological data for Indosinian rocks of South China and the adjacent region, it is inferred that the late Indosinian granites of South China (especially Hunan Province) are probably formed under extension regime as a consequence of post-collision stress relaxation, which is a spontaneous response to intracontinental thickening attributed to the collision and extrusion of two Indosinian seams, namely Qinling-Dabie and Song Ma. Moreover, it is also deduced that the early Yanshanian granites of Hunan Province could not be directly related with the subduction of Paleo-Pacific plate towards Eurasian continent, and they are most likely derivation of the mid- or lower-crustal materials because of decompressional melting under the continuous extension setting.

  6. Study on Logistics Demand Forecasting of Hunan Based on ARIMA Model%基于ARIMA模型的湖南省物流需求预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振; 张为; 夏利平

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we studied the logistics demand forecasting of the Hunan province on the basis of the ARIMA model and proposed corresponding countermeasures and suggestions in view of the practical situation of the development of the logistics industry of Hunan.%基于ARIMA模型对湖南省物流需求预测进行了研究,模型的回归和拟合效果良好,预测相对误差较小,最后针对湖南省物流业的发展提出了相关对策和建议.

  7. 贵州董背洞和水江洞内动物群落结构与部分环境因子的相关性%Correlation Between the Animal Community Structure and Environmental Factors in Dongbei Cave and Shuijiang Cave of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎道洪

    2006-01-01

    Mollusks, arthropods and chordates which were visible to the naked eye were observed and collected in Dongbei and Shuijiang caves of Libo county five times between February and July from 2002 to 2005. Four hundred and forty samples from Dongbei Cave were classified into three phyla, five classes, 10 orders, 20 families and 39 species or groups of species. Four hundred and ninety-eight samples from Shuijiang Cave were classified into three phyla, six classes, 11 orders, 20 families and 25 species or groups of species. Six animal communities were identified in the light belt of the two caves according to their species types and numbers of individuals in the light belt of two cave. The communities which have the highest values of species richness community diversity, maximum diversity, evenness, dominance and community similarity are respectively: B (4.1059), H (2.4716), B (3.3322), E (0.9042), C (0.3442) and A-C (0.5251). The community diversity and correlation of environmental factors were also studied. The temperature, humidity, content of CO2 and N2, content of organic matter and some inorganic salts in soil were analyzed by Pearson correlation. The results showed that the content of organic matter in soil is positively related to species number, species richness and maximum community diversity, with correlations of 0.885, 0.909, 0.868 respectively (two-tailed significance test, P≤0.05), and significantly positively related to diversity, with the coefficient of 0.611, (two-tailed significance test, P≤ 0.1). This suggests that the content of organic matter in soil is one of the important elements influencing the community variation of cave animals. Outside the cave, temperature and humidity are important factors impacting on community diversity. As the temperature in all seasons in the cave is stable and the humidity is always high (above 90%), the temperature and humidity have weak correlation to community diversity in caves.%在2002-2005年的2月和7月共5

  8. Determining the effect of polluted mine water on the ecosystem health of a karstic cave environment in the Witwatersrand Basin / Gerhard Cornelis du Preez

    OpenAIRE

    Du Preez, Gerhard Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    The Wonderfontein Cave is located within the Witwatersrand Basin (Gauteng province, South Africa) and is associated with the river banks of the Wonderfontein Spruit. This cave system has for many years been subjected to the influx of polluted mine water. Since subterranean environments remain poorly studied, it is unknown what the effect of this might be on the associated ecosystem. Furthermore, water that enters the Wonderfontein Cave poses a severe health threat as it drains ...

  9. [Bioproductivity of Castanopsis hysrix-Cyclobalanopsis glauca-Machilus pauhoi community in Huitong, Hunan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S; Liao, L; Wang, S; Gao, H

    2000-10-01

    Based on the mean DBH measurements of sample trees, the bioproductivity of subtropical Castanopsis hysrix-Cyclobalanopsis glauca-Machilus pauhoi community in Huitong, Hunan province was studied by regression analysis (y = a(D2.H)b). The results showed that the total biomass of the forest was 451.02 t.hm-2, and the component biomass of tree, shrub, liana and litter layer was 426.76, 17.76, 1.80 and 4.70 t.hm-2, respectively. The net production and average production of tree layer were 34.46 and 13.32 t.hm-2.yr-1, respectively. PMID:11767514

  10. The Strategic Consideration for Expanding the New Technological Revolution of Agriculture in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@At the birth of the 21st century, the global technological revolution of agriculture has occured. The new breakthroughs of biological technology in agriculture are being obtained on end Information technology, nuclear technology, new-material technology and other new high technologies are being adopted in agriculture on a larger and larger scale. As a big province of agriculture, it is imperative for Hunan to develop the new agricultural high technology,promote the new technological revolution of agriculture and realize the modernization of agriculture by taking the opportunity and facing the challenges in the new century.

  11. Improvement of the Performance Evaluation Index System in State-owned Enterprises in China——Based on Empirical Analysis about State-owned Enterprises Statistics Data in 2006-2010 year in Hunan Province%我国国有企业绩效评价指标体系的改进探讨——基于湖南省2006-2010年国企统计数据的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟

    2012-01-01

    自改革开放以来,对国有企业绩效的评价一直是一个重点关注的课题。财政部等国家部委自1992年以来多次出台和更新国有资本金效绩评价体系。针对现行国有企业绩效评价指标体系的缺陷,为突出国有企业所需承担的经营责任和社会责任,运用德菲尔法和层次分析法改进了国有企业绩效评价指标体系,并以湖南省2006-2010年国企统计数据为依据,对国有企业绩效进行了实证分析,结果表明,湖南国有企业绩效总体水平处于良好水平,可挖掘的潜力很大。%Since the reform and opening up,the performance evaluation of state-owned enterprises has been a subject of focus.Ministry of Finance and other ministries have repeatedly introduced and updated the performance evaluation system of the state-owned capital since 1992 years.To solve the defects of the existing performance evaluation system in state-owned enterprise and highlight the business and social responsibility shouldered by state-owned enterprises,this paper designs a set of performance evaluation system for state-owned enterprise by using De Feier method and the analytic hierarchy process,and does an empirical analysis about state-owned enterprise performance based on the state-owned enterprises statistics data in 2006-2010 year in Hunan province.The result shoes that the overall level of state-owned enterprises Performance in Hunan is good and great potential to be tapped.

  12. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.

    2006-01-01

    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  13. 中心与边缘:汉文化的扩张与变异——以四川乐山麻浩一号崖墓画像石刻为例%Center and periphery: The expansion and metamorphosis of Han culture——A case study of stone carvings in No.1 Mahao cave tomb,Leshan,Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍巍

    2008-01-01

    四川乐山麻浩一号崖墓因其门楣上方雕刻的一尊早期佛像而著名于世,但是却很少有人注意到与其共存的其它墓内画像石刻所形成的墓内空间及其文化内涵.随着秦、汉以来巴蜀文化逐渐融入到中华文化体系,一方面,以此墓巾的画像石刻为例,可以观察到以中原汉文化为中心的主体文化的强烈影响,另一方面,也可以发现处在这一中心边缘地带的西南地区在接受主体汉文化影响的同时,也吸纳了来自更为边远地区(如中亚与南亚)的诸多史化因素,早期佛像在此墓中的出现并非偶然,而是有其更为宽广的文化背景.%The cave reliefs of Mahao in Leshan City,Sichuan Province,have been world-famous for containing an early Buddhist statue.Yet,little attention has been paid to the co-existent stone reliefs sharing the tomb cave and the cultural significance thereof.Through the Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC-220 AD),the ancient Ba and Shu civilizations in what is Sichuan today gradually merged into the Chinese civilization,of which the Han civilization is the main body,on the one hand,the Han civilization exerted a strong influence on its south-western counterparts,as is revealed by the stone reliefs in the tomb cave;on the other hand,the south-western region was apparently assimilated into the Chinese civilization while concurrently absorbing elements of even farther civilizations (e.g.,those in Central and South Asia).The early image of Buddha appeared against a wide cultural background.

  14. Surface Genes Analysis of H6 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Hunan and Hubei Provinces%湖南湖北两省H6亚型禽流感病毒表面基因的序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晴微; 邓国华; 于杨; 崔鹏飞; 齐瑛琳; 李印; 施建忠; 崔佳莹; 邱伯根; 陈化兰

    2011-01-01

    14 H6 subtype AIVs were isolated in the living birds markets in Hunan and Hubei provinces between 2008 and 2009. In order to understand the molecular characteristics and differences of the 14 virus strains, we maded gene classification by PCR and sequenced and analysised the HA and NA genes. There were 12 strains of viruses belonged to H6N2 subtype and 2 strains belong to H6N6 subtype. The HA , NA sequence analysis proved that 13 HA sequences homology were quite high which reached 94.2%~99.9% while the differences in HA of DK/HN/284/09 which reached 19.4%~20.2% compared to other 13 H6 AIVs. The NA genes homology were 91.1%~99.9% among 12 H6N2 AIVs and there were much differences in N6 NA gene whose homology was only 89.5%. All these data indicated the emergence of different strains on a kind of geographical difference. There was only DK/HN/284/09 HA gene which had relative high homology compare with other H6 subtype AIVs isolated from neighboring countries or areas. Most of viruses HA gene had different potential glycosylation sites and receptor binding sites, which showed significant heterogeneity.%2008年至2009年间,在湖南和湖北两省的活禽市场中分离到了14株H6亚型禽流感病毒,为了解这14株病毒之间的分子特征和差异,我们运用PCR和测序鉴定对这14株病毒的NA基因进行了分型,并对其表面基因HA和NA进行序列测定及序列分析.14株H6亚型病毒中,H6N2亚型12株,H6N6亚型2株.序列测定和进化分析结果显示:DK/HN/284的HA基因与其它13株的HA差异性较大,差异性达到19.4%~20.2%,其余13株毒同源性在94.2%~99.9%;N2亚型NA基因的同源性在91.1%~99.9%,差异性比较大;两株N6亚型NA基因同源性为89.5%,差异明显.这些数据表明:不同毒株呈现一定的地域性差异.与我国周边其它地区的H6亚型禽流感毒株序列进行比较发现,只有DK/HN/284的HA基因与香港早期的毒株可能有着共同的来源,其余都与

  15. 湖南省2008-2009年狂犬病病原学监测及病毒基因特征分析%Surveillance on the etiology and genetic characteristics of rabies in Hunan province, from 2008 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立冬; 唐青; 刘运芝; 蔡亮; 刘富强; 张红; 胡世雄; 陶晓燕; 李浩; 刘佳惠; 王世清

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析2008-2009年湖南省狂犬病病原学监测结果及新分离病毒的N基因分子特征.方法 采用直接免疫荧光法(DFA)、巢式PCR检测狂犬病监测标本,阳性标本应用ABI3730测序仪对N基因进行全序列测序;运用生物信息学方法分析N基因特征及序列同源性,构建系统进化树,分析新分离病毒株遗传特征并与以往分离株比较.结果 1451份监测犬脑组织标本中DFA初筛阳性31份,阳性率为2.14%;31份DFA阳性标本经巢式PCR复核,17份阳性,阳性率为1.17%;巢式PCR检测疑似狂犬病病例唾液、脑脊液、血清及尿液标本56份,3份阳性,阳性率为5.36%;新分离的阳性株与巴斯德株进行N基因序列比较,核苷酸和氨基酸同源性均在87.2%~ 87.9%之间;成功构建系统进化树,新分离的20株病毒全部属于基因Ⅰ型.新分离病毒株与湖南省内、邻省和国际株比较存在不同的亲缘关系.结论 湖南省狂犬病病例及犬携带病毒的情况较为稳定,流行株仍为基因Ⅰ型,未发生变异.%Objective To analyze the etiology of rabies in Hunan province and the genetic characteristics of rabies N gene isolated from 2008 to 2009.Methods Direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) and nested PCR were employed to detect the monitoring samples including brain tissues of dogs and saliva,serum or urine which were collected in 2008 to 2009,from the rabies patients.Positive samples were sequenced by ABI3730 gene analyzer for the full length of the N gene target.The homology and hpylogeography of the rabies virus were analyzed after the phylogenetic tree was constructed by Blast,Clustal W and Mega 4.0 software.Results Of the 1451 tissue samples from the dogs' brain,31 were positive under DFA and the positive rate was 2.14%.The DFA positive samples were redeteeted by RT-PCR and the positive rate was 1.17%.56 samples of saliva,serum and urine samples were detected by RT-PCR from the rabies patients,with 3 positives

  16. 湖南省某集团女职工2011-2014年妇科普查情况及随访结果分析%Analysis of Gynecological General Survey and Follow-up Results of Female Workers in Some Group of Hunan Province from 2011 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏小艳; 李小英; 彭桂元

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the gynecological examined results of female workers in some group of Hunan Province, study the incidence of common disease in the department of gynaecology and provide rational women’s health care sugges-tions, Methods The healthy physical examination results of 13 960 cases in total of the female workers in this group from 2011 to 2014 were counted and analyzed. Results The age of females participating in physical examination was between 31 and 50, the examination results showed that the detection rate of hyperplasia of mammary glands is the most, the second were reproductive system inflammation (cervicitis and coleitis) and fibroid, the major detected diseases in each age phase were also different, and the highest detection rate of hyperplasia of mammary glands was mainly in 31~40 age phase, the highest abnormal detection rate of myoma of uterus and TCT was mainly in 41~50 age phase, and the highest detection rate of colpitis was in the age >50 group, and the elderly colpitis was the main. Conclusion The prevention and healthcare of female workers need to be enhanced, the prevention and control key points should be emphasized according to different ages, and enhancing the screening and health education of breast disease and improving the healthcare level of female workers are the key contents of women healthcare work at present.%目的:研究湖南省某集团女职工妇科检查结果,探讨妇科常见疾病的发病情况,提出合理的妇女保健建议。方法对该集团女职工2011—2014年共计13960人的健康体检结果统计分析。结果参加体检的女性年龄主要集中在31~50岁年龄段,检查结果提示乳腺增生的检出率最高,其次为生殖系统炎症(宫颈炎、阴道炎)、子宫肌瘤。各个年龄段的主要检出疾病亦不同,乳腺增生检出率最高为31~40岁年龄段,子宫肌瘤与TCT异常检出率最高主要集中在41~50岁,阴道炎检出率最高为>50岁组

  17. 南方红壤丘陵区粮食生产的完全成本——以湖南省祁阳县为例%Full Cost of Grain Production in Hilly Red Soil Region of Southern China: A Case of Qiyang County in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张应龙; 谢永生; 江青龙; 王辉; 李晓

    2011-01-01

    针对目前我国农业生产中的资源环境问题,指出粮食生产成本核算的不完整性,粮食生产造成的资源耗减和环境降级得不到补偿。运用环境经济学原理和可持续发展理论对粮食生产的完全成本进行分析,提出粮食生产的完全成本除包括直接生产成本外,还应包括粮食生产的资源环境成本。论文以南方红壤丘陵区的湖南省祁阳县为研究对象进行案例分析,研究表明,2008年该区域粮食生产的资源环境成本相当于当年农业总产值的36.55%;早、中、晚稻的完全成本分别达到4.27、3.84和4.40元.kg-1,其中资源环境成本分别为1.38、1.65和%In view of the resources and environmental problems existing in current agricultural production,this paper claims that the main causes for the present problems are the incomplete cost accounting and no compensation for the cost due to the resources depletion and environmental degradation caused by grain production.According to this,environmental economics and sustainable development theories were used to analyze the complete cost of the grain production.The present paper proposed that the complete cost of grain production should include direct costs and resources-environmental cost of grain production.In this paper,the author investigated the full cost of grain production in Qiyang County,Hunan Province,Hilly Red Soil Region of Southern China in 2008.The results showed that resources and environmental damage due to grain production in this region was equivalent to 36.55% of the agricultural output in 2008.Full cost in this region reached 4.27 yuan/kg for early-season rice,3.84 yuan/kg for mid-season rice,and 4.40 yuan/kg for late-season rice in 2008.Among them,resources-environmental cost and direct cost were 1.38 yuan/kg and 2.89 yuan/kg for early-season rice,1.65 yuan/kg and 2.19 yuan/kg for mid-season rice,1.64 yuan/kg and 2.79 yuan/kg for late-season rice.However,unit sales were 1.76 yuan

  18. 湖南仙人岩与金矿床有关的二长岩锆石U-Pb年龄、Hf同位素及地质意义%Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Hf Isotopic Compositions of the Monzonite,Related to the Xianrenyan Gold Deposit in Hunan Province and Its Geological Significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄世民; 祝新友; 李永胜; 杜泽忠; 公凡影; 巩小栋; 齐钒宇; 贾德龙; 王璐琳

    2012-01-01

    The Xianrenyan pluton is located in the south of Shuikoushan ore field, Hunan Province. There develops Au, Cu, Mo and Zn mineralization in inner and outer contact zones of the pluton, which shows the colse relationship between the pluton and the metallic mineralization. Zircon LA - MC - ICP -MS U - Pb age of the monzonite suggests a weighted mean age of (156. 09±0. 46) Ma (MSWD= 1. 4) which implies that the pluton was ernplaced in Early Yanshanian period. The in-situ Hf isotopic analysis reveals 176Hf/177Hf ratios in the zircon range from 0. 282 243 to 0. 282 904, and εHf(t) from —15. 55 to 7. 87 (with peak value around —10) , and the two stage Hf model ages(TDM2) from 703 Ma to 2 188 Ma (with peak value around 1 800 Ma), which indicates that parental magma of the pluton was derived from the mixed sources of the lower crust and mantle. Based on the geochemistry of the rocks, it can be concluded that the monzonite was mainly resulted from remelting of the Mesoproterozoic basement rocks and formed in Middle and Late Jurassic when the crust was in an extension-thinning geodynamic setting. In addition, the authors compare and analyze the lithogeochemical characteristics of the Xianrenyan pluton and the Shuikoushan stock. The fact that the Xianrenyan pluton has a weaker differentiation than the Shuikoushan pluton gives the reason for its unfavorable gold mineralization.%仙人岩岩体位于湖南水口山矿田的南部.岩体内外接触带上均见有不同程度的金、铜、钼、锌等矿化,反映出岩体与成矿存在着内在联系.二长岩中锆石的LA-MC-ICP-MS年代学研究表明,其U-Pb加权平均年龄值为(156.09±0.46)Ma(MSWD=1.4),显示为燕山早期侵位.锆石Lu-Hf同位素原位分析结果表明,176 Hf/177 Hf值为0.282 243~0.282 904,εHf (t)值为-15.55~7.87,峰值在-10左右,Hf同位素二阶段模式年龄(TDM2)为703~2 188 Ma,峰值在1 800 Ma左右,指示岩浆为壳幔混合来源.结合岩体的地球化学特征,认

  19. 湖南省绥宁县黄桑坪自然保护区珍稀濒危植物长苞铁杉自然种群年龄结构及生态对策%The Age Structure and Ecological Strategy of the Rare and Endangered Tsuga longibracteata W. C. cheng Population in Huangsangping Nature Reserve of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 杨宁

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the population structure, time-specific life table (2012), re-production value and the relevance between distribution number and environment factors of Tsuga longi-bracteata W. C. cheng in Huangsangping Nature Reserve of Hunan Province, this paper comes to conclu-sions as follows:(1) The number of population structure has the properties of “big in middle and small at the begging and at the end a large portion in the middle and a small portion at both ends”, which means it is a declining population. Though there are some young individuals, the death rate is high. The age structure model of Tsuga longibracteata during 35 years in a period of 35 years is:Age ( a ) =0. 002765(DBH)3 -0. 128756(DBH)2 +4. 120978(DBH) +13. 439846(R=0. 991 2,F=2 654. 48);(2)The population of Tsuga longibracteata is characterized with both r strategy and K strategy. It stays in the transitory period from r strategy to K strategy;(3) The SRRV and TRV are declining while OREx va-ries with the characteristic of“n”, which shows that Tsuga longibracteata is able to reproduce and recov-er with limited capacity. 1fig. ,3tabs. ,16refs.%通过对湖南省绥宁县黄桑坪自然保护区长苞铁杉的种群结构、特定时间生命表、生殖价分析、分布数量与环境因子的关系进行分析.结果表明:(1)种群结构数量具有“中间大,两头小”的特点,为衰退型种群,虽然种群有一定的幼龄个体,但死亡率高,35 a 内长苞铁杉的年龄结构模型为:Age(a)=0.002765(DBH)3-0.128756(DBH)2+4.120978(DBH)+13.439846(R=0.9912,F=2654.48);(2)长苞铁杉种群既有r对策特征,又有K对策特征,该种群处于r对策→K对策的过渡阶段;(3)长苞铁杉的累积剩余生殖价(SRRV)和整个生活史的总生殖价( TRV)呈现出逐渐递减的趋势,而生殖投资策略( OREx)在整个生长过程中具有“n”型变化特征,说明长苞铁杉种群有实现生殖与恢复的可能,但能力有限.图1,表3,参16.

  20. Role of socio-economy and management in sustainable transmission control of schistosomiasis in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province, China%社会经济及组织管理在湖南省桃源县血吸虫病可持续传播控制中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗志红; 李胜明; 易平; 任光辉; 赵正元; Franziska Bieri; 侯循亚; 李以义; 任茂元

    2013-01-01

    目的 阐明社会经济及组织管理在湖南省桃源县血吸虫病可持续传播控制中的作用.方法 收集湖南省桃源县血吸虫病疫区社会经济、卫生血防组织管理、环境、血吸虫病疫情变化等资料,抽样调查核实血吸虫病疫情现状,评估社会经济及组织管理在桃源县血吸虫病传播控制中的作用.结果 1998-2012年桃源县社会经济发生了巨大变化,桃源县血吸虫病疫区居民生产、生活方式改变明显.桃源县社会经济发展在血吸虫病可持续传播控制中产生了积极作用,但经济活动如劳务输出、外来流动人群以及动植物引进等引发已经达到传播控制标准的血吸虫病疫情回复的可能性仍然存在.桃源县卫生血防组织管理模式运行成本低、资源配置高效、人力资源配置科学专业、符合国家关于加强农村基层公共卫生体系建设的要求.结论 桃源县社会经济的协调发展与卫生血防组织管理的科学高效在快速阻断血吸虫病流行环节和血吸虫病可持续传播控制中发挥了关键性作用.%Objective To clarify the role of socio - economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis - control in Taoyuan County, an endemic area in hilly region, Hunan Province, China. Methods From 1996 to 2011, the data of socio-econ-omy, the management of schistosomiasis control organizations, environment, and the changes in schistosomiasis prevalence were collected in Taoyuan County where schistosomiasis transmission had been controlled since 2008. A sampling survey of schistosomiasis prevalence of human and bovine was performed in 2011 to verify the current status of schistosomiasis transmission. All the data were analyzed statistically to evaluate the role of socio-economy and management in the sustainable schistosomiasis control. Results During the period from 1998 to 2012, the socio-economy including the residents' productive mode and daily life in Taoyuan County

  1. A survey and intervention study on lab first-aid knowledge of the freshmen in a medical university in Hunan province%湖南某高校医学一年级学生实验室急救知识调查干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳强; 蒋倩倩; 张海燕; 王迎燕; 朱勇飞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To know the medical freshmen’s awareness of laboratory safety and first aid knowledge in a medical university in Hunan province, and explore effective approaches to improve it.Methods By cluster random sampling method, 245 freshmen were collected and divided experimental and matched group. A pocket guide detailing laboratory safety and first-aid knowledge was provided to experimental group and some explanations were given to them at the same time, while no intervention was conducted to the matched group. Both the groups were surveyed through a questionnaire related to laboratory safety and first aid knowledge not only before the intervention but also after it.Results In this survey, only the three questions concerning temporary treatment of fractures or suspected fractures, first-aid measures of scratches and cuts with sharp objects, and awareness of chemical injuries in the first survey were relatively answered better in both groups, covering a correction rate of more than 70%. But after the intervention, the treatment group had a better accuracy in 18 of all the 20 questions except the rest two about fractures and chemical injuries.Conclusions Knowledge of laboratory safety and first aid has to be improved greatly to the medical freshmen, and effective intervention may help the students to improve a lot in relevant knowledge.%[目的]了解湖南某高校医学院一年级学生对实验室急救知识的掌握情况,探索提高大学生实验室急救知识的有效途径。[方法]整群随机抽样法抽取245名医学院一年级学生,随机分为实验组和对照组,向实验组大学生发放实验室安全和急救知识速查手册并进行讲解,对照组则不进行任何干预,每组均于干预前和干预后发放实验室安全和急救知识问卷进行测试。[结果]第一次调查时,20个问题中两组大学生仅有“骨折或可疑骨折时简单处理”、“被玻璃等利器割伤后的急救”和“对

  2. Survey on awareness and influencing factors of hepatitis B knowledge among corporate employees in Hengyang City, Hunan Province%湖南省衡阳市企业职工乙型肝炎相关知识水平及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江春旺; 郑星; 黄娟; 谢红卫

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解湖南省衡阳市企业职工乙肝相关知识的知晓情况及影响因素,为今后有针对性地对企业职工开展乙肝健康教育提供依据.方法 采用整群抽样方法,抽取前往衡阳市疾病预防控制中心进行体检的企业职工200人进行问卷调查.结果 衡阳市企业职工对乙肝是一种传染病及乙肝的病因知晓率较高,均超过80%;乙肝知识得分为27.82±5.26分(总分为50分),及格率44.4%;58.6%的人认为乙肝对自己的工作有影响;13.6%的人对乙肝患者有歧视.单因素分析结果显示,乙肝知识得分在不同年龄组及不同文化程度之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);多因素分析结果显示文化程度对乙肝知识得分存在影响,文化程度越高得分越高(P<0.05).企业职工获取乙肝知识来源主要有报纸、电视、网络、书籍等传媒,占74.1%;来源于政府相关机构宣传者,占17.2%.结论 衡阳市企业职工对乙肝相关知识认知不足,企业及疾病预防控制中心应加强从业人员乙肝的健康教育,减少企业职工对乙肝认知的误区.%Objective To understand the awareness and influencing factors of knowledge related to hepatitis B among corporate employees in Hengyang City, Hunan Province, and to provide foundation for carrying out targeted health education on hepatitis B.Methods Cluster sampling method was adopted; 200 questionnaires were selected when the corporate employees were in Center for Disease Control and Prevention for a body check Results The awareness rate on that hepatitis B was infectious disease and its pathology were more than 80%; knowledge score on hepatitis B was 27.82 ± 5.26, pass rate was 44.4%; 58.6% thought that hepatitis B affected their work, 13.6% of people showed discrimination against hepatitis B patients.Univariate analysis showed that HBV knowledge scores in different age groups and in different education levels were statistically significant (P <0

  3. 湖南省2所高校护理本科生非技术技能的现状及影响因素研究%Status Quo of Nursing Undergraduates’ Non-technical Skills and Its Influencing Factors in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘兰; 曹建平; 倪超; 李潘; 段功香

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status quo of non-technical skills of nursing undergraduates and analyze the influencing factors so as to provide scientific basis for improving non-technical skills in higher nursing education. Methods Four hundreds and ninety-eight undergraduates of two universities in Hunan province were recruited by convenient cluster sampling and assessed with non-technical skills scale, and the data were analyzed by SPSS17.0. Results The average score of non-technical skills was 3.64±0.39, which indicated students’ non-technical skill was in moderate or above level;the score of humanistic care was the highest and that of leadership management the lowest. Influencing factors of nursing undergraduates’ non-technical skills included grade, professional interest, social practice participation and mother’s educational background. Conclusion Nursing undergraduates’ non-technical skills is in a moderate or above level and more opportunities to participate in social practice should be offered to students to cultivate their professional interest, thus further improve their non-technical skills.%目的:调查护理本科生非技术技能的现状,分析其影响因素,为提升护理本科生的非技术技能水平提供依据。方法采用整群抽样法抽取湖南省2所高校498名护理本科生采用《护理专业本科生非技术技能测评量表》进行抽样问卷调查,并应用SPSS 17.0对所有数据进行统计学处理。结果护理本科生非技术技能总均分为(3.64±0.39)分,处于中等偏上水平,其中人文关怀技能因子得分最高,领导管理技能因子得分最低;影响护生非技术技能的因素有社会实践、专业兴趣、成绩排名、年级和母亲的文化程度。结论湖南省2所高校护理本科生非技术技能处于中等偏上水平,高校教师应多给学生提供参与社会实践的机会,培养护生的专业兴趣等,从而进一步地提高护理

  4. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical characteristics of Shihama granite pluton in northeastern Hunan province%湘东北地区石蛤蟆花岗岩体SHRIMP U—Pb年龄及地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宇军; 马铁球; 周柯军; 柏道远

    2012-01-01

    分布于湖南东北部的石蛤蟆岩体侵位于新元古代地层中。由微细粒斑状黑云母花岗闪长岩和细粒斑状黑云母二长花岗岩等两期侵入体组成。通过锆石SHRIM PU--Pb法测得岩体侵位年龄为157土2Ma(2d),MSWD=0.98,成岩时代为晚侏罗世。SiO2=68.26%~68.53%,K2O/Na2O=1.37~1.59,岩石属镁质、准铝质-微过铝质、高钾钙碱性-钾玄岩系列;岩石明显富集大离子亲石元素,亏损高场强元素,Rb/Sr较低(0.40~0.56);乏REE较高(171.48~183.81),Eu为弱负异常(δEu=0.86~0.93),(La/Yb)N=27.11~45.87;具较高的eNd值(-5.11)和高T2DM(1.63Ga)。综合研究表明,石蛤蟆花岗岩为混合源高钾钙碱性花岗岩类(KCG),其花岗岩浆有大量幔源物质加入。讨论认为岩体形成于构造体制转换下的地球动力学背景,是造山晚期张弛作用下的产物。%Distributed in northeastern Hunan province and intruded in Neoproterozoic strata, Shihama granite pluton is mainly composed of micro-fine-grained porphyritic biotite granodiorites of early stage and fine- grained porphyritic biotite monzonitic granites of late stage. SHRIMP zircon dating of the granites gives an age of 157±2 Ma which belongs to Late Jurassic. The granites belong to magnesian, metaluminous-weak- ly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline-shoshonite series, with SIO2=68.26% -68.53M and K2O/Na2O= 1.37 - 1.59. The rocks show enriched large-ion lithophile elements, depleted high field-strength ele- ments, low values of Rb/Sr(0.40-0.56), high values of ∑REE (171.48-183.81), with δEu=0.86-- 0. 93, (La/Yb)N=27. 11-45.87, εNd=5.11, T2DM=1. 63 Ga. Studies indicate that the Shihama gran- ites belong to high-K calc-alkaline granites (KCG) originated form the crust-mantled mixed source ivolving large amount of mantle source materials. It is believed that the granite pluton is the result of

  5. Disease spectrum and causes of death in hospitalized children in an upper ifrst-class hospital in Hunan Province, China, from 2010 to 2014%2010~2014年湖南某三甲医院住院儿童疾病谱及死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金彪; 赵利; 张静; 周维强; 金敏

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the disease spectrum and causes of death in hospitalized children in an upper ifrst-class hospital in Hunan Province, China.MethodsThe medical records of hospitalized children between 2010 and 2014 in this hospital were collected and analyzed retrospectively.ResultsFrom 2010 to 2014, the number of hospitalized children increased from 7303 in 2010 to 10902 in 2014, and the case fatality rate declined from 0.33%to 0.20% (P<0.05). The case fatality rate was highest (0.41%) in infants and lowest (0.11%) in newborns. As for the disease spectrum for these hospitalized children, in 2010, the top three diseases were leukemia, congenital heart disease, and pneumonia; in 2011, the top three diseases were tumor chemotherapy, congenital heart disease, and pneumonia; since 2012, tumor chemotherapy, epilepsy, and pneumonia had remained the top three diseases. The top three causes of death in hospitalized children were congenital malformation (39%, 39/99), tumor (13%, 13/99), and infectious diseases/parasitic diseases (8%, 8/99).ConclusionsThe number of hospitalized children is increasing, while the case fatality rate tends to decrease in this hospital. Tumor, epilepsy, pneumonia, and congenital heart disease are major diseases in hospitalized children, and congenital malformation is the primary cause of death.%目的:了解湖南某三甲医院住院儿童的疾病构成及死因,为儿童疾病的预防、治疗等提供参考依据。方法对湖南某三甲医院2010~2014年住院儿童的病历资料进行回顾性分析。结果2010~2014年5年间,该院住院儿童人数由2010年的7303例增长至2014年的10902例,病死率则由0.33%下降至0.20%(P<0.05)。婴儿病死率最高(0.41%),新生儿病死率最低(0.11%)。住院儿童疾病构成中,2010年前3位病种为白血病、先天性心脏病和肺炎;2011年前3位为肿瘤化疗、先天性心脏病和肺炎;从2012年开始肿瘤化疗、癫癎和肺炎居前3

  6. 精神疾病与农村青年自杀:湖南、辽宁、山东省病例对照抽样调查%Mental disorder and suicide among youths in rural China: a case control study based on consecutive samples from Hunan, Liaoning and Shandong provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 李子尧; 肖水源; 周亮; 贾存显; 潘国伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of mental disorders among the Chinese youths aged 15-34 years,in rural areas and to identify risk factors related to suicide.Methods A consecutive sampling strategy was used for suicidal cases in 16 randomly selected counties in Hunan,Liaoning,and Shandong provinces.Between 2005 and 2008,a total of 392 suicide cases were recruited with 416 community controls at the same age range,selected from the same areas one family member together with one close friend of each suicidal case were interviewed,using the psychological autopsy (PA) method.The same method with structured instruments was performed on the two informants for each control in the same community.SCID was used for the diagnosis of mental disease.Results 48.0% of the suicides were diagnosed as having at least one mental disorder episode,in comparison with only 3.8% among the controls.It was found that mental disorder was the most important risk factor for the Chinese young suicide cases in the rural areas.Conclusion As seen in the Western countries,mental disorder had also been the number one correlate on suicidal cases in China,with the difference as other social and psychological factors might have played relatively more important roles in China.%目的 探讨精神疾病及其他因素对自杀的影响情况.方法 在湖南、辽宁、山东省随机抽取16个县进行自杀的序贯抽样.2005-2008年共收取并访谈392个自杀案例和416个相同年龄段与自杀案例临村的随机对照.采用心理解剖方法访谈自杀死亡者亲友,同样方法和结构性工具访谈社区对照的2名信息人.利用SCID中文版作为精神科的诊断工具.结果 392例农村青年自杀者中,仅有48.0%自杀前一个月曾患有精神疾病,而416例社区对照组中精神疾病的现患率仅为3.8%.在众多的危险因素和保护因素中,精神疾病仍是中国农村青年自杀最重要的危险因素.结论 精神疾病在中国是自杀的最

  7. Infectious diseases associated with caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igreja, Ricardo Pereira

    2011-06-01

    In recent times, caving has become increasingly popular, with almost 2 million people visiting national park caves each year in the United States. Although the 2 million tourist visits are extremely low risk, smaller numbers of sport cavers are at risk for some high risk conditions, and expedition cavers are at risk for some obscure infections. Infectious diseases like histoplasmosis, rabies, leptospirosis, and tick-borne relapsing fever may be transmitted by the underground fauna. To reduce the risk of illness or injury while caving, knowledge of potential risks before engaging in this activity is important. Caving preparation needs to be carefully planned and executed, including vaccinations, prophylactic medications, and advice regarding safe conduct and behaviors. PMID:21664559

  8. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  9. The investigating of legal consciousness status and problems of the rural elderly:for an example of the rural elderly aged over 60 in Qiyang County, Hunan Province%农村老人养老法律意识现状及问题之调查研究——以湖南省祁阳县下马渡镇水冲村为调查对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万平; 孙廷然

    2012-01-01

    提高农村老人的养老法律意识对于建设社会主义新农村具有极其重要的现实意义。对湖南省祁阳县下马渡镇水冲村老人进行了实证调查,了解了我国农村老人养老法律意识现状,总结了导致我国农村老人养老法律意识薄弱的因素,并在此基础上提出了提高农村老人养老法律意识的建议。%Full investigation and comprehension of the statue quo and existing problem of the rural elderly has extremely important practical significance for the building of new socialist countryside The author investigates and analyzes rural elderly aged over 60 in Qiyang County, Hunan Province, and concludes the legal awareness status of the rural elderly in China: for the choice of the dispute the value of the aspirations, they advocate local resources, and exclude the state law; they are short of legal resource dependence and confidence, and don' t believe the law. Then, the paper deeply analyzes many factors which lead to the weak legal consciousness of China' s rural elderly in china, and arguments the importance and urgency on how to improve legal awareness of the rural elderly, and suggests some methods to improve the legal consciousness of China' s rural elderly and to strengthen legal system of new socialist countryside.

  10. [Variation Characteristics of Cave Water Hydrogeochemistry in Naduo Cave of Guizhou and Its Implications for Environment Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Jian-li; Wang, Jia-lu; Jiang, Xian-shu; Mao, Qing-ya; Chen, Zhi-qiu; Liu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    During the period from December 2012 to December 2014, three dripping water sites (S1, S2, S3) and one pool water site (SC) have been selected for a long-term monitoring of geochemical indexes in Naduo Cave, Guanling county of Guizhou Province, China. Based on the local meteorological data, this paper analyzed the seasonal change of hydro-geochemical indicators and their feedbacks to climate events. The results indicated that the hydro-geochemical type of cave water was HCO₃⁻-Ca²⁺. Dripping water and pool water were in deposition all the year, except in the month with the maximum precipitation. There were some discrepancies of main ions' concentration among three dripping water sites due to the difference of the migration pathways and migration time. Affected by mixed water and high CO₂ concentration of cave air, the ion concentration of pool water was higher than dripping water, and there was considerable fluctuation. The geochemistry indexes of water in Naduo Cave showed extraordinary seasonal variation rules and could perfectly respond to the external climate environment. The concentration of ions was sensitive to the response of the annual precipitation change caused by extreme climate events. During the rainy season, the concentrations of Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺ and SO₄²⁻ in 2013 were relatively higher and more stable than those in 2014. The response time and susceptivity of each monitoring site were inconsistent. PMID:27011980

  11. Study on Risk Factors and Comprehensive Control and Prevention Mode of Clonorchis sinensis Infection in High- risk Areas in Hunan Province%湖南省肝吸虫病高发区流行因素及综合防治模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培厚; 段绩辉; 唐阳; 陈文华; 唐小雨; 伍艳君; 黄奇荣; 夏荣发; 王巧智

    2012-01-01

    当地肝吸虫主要的第一中间宿主;鲫鱼、鲤鱼肝吸虫囊蚴感染率分别为69.2%和5.3%.保虫宿主犬感染率高达85%. 结论 湖南省祁阳县和冷水滩区为肝吸虫病高发区,肝吸虫感染已经成为一个严重的公共卫生问题.应积极开展全民驱虫和健康教育综合性防控措施,降低人群肝吸虫感染率.%Objective To investigate the epidemic status, risk factors, and the residents knowledge, attitude and practice about Clmarchis sinensis infection in southern area of Hunan Province. To explore the effectiveness of praziquantel, health education, and comprehensive interventions in high- risk areas, and to provide the scientific evidence for making control and prevention programs and strategies of clonorchiasis. Methods Cluster random sampling was performed to survey the incidence of clonorchiasis at the boundary of Qiyang County and Lengshuitan District. The Kato- Katz method was used for etiological examination. Crashing- tabletting and manual digestion were used to test the infection status of intermediate host. The results of mammal infection were collected through dissection. The information of local production, lifestyle and custom related to infection was collected through discussion and field investigation. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the risk factors of Cumorchis sinensis infection and the surveyed residents' knowledge, attitude and practice of clonorchiasis. The database was established using Epi data 3.0 software, and then descriptive statistics, χ2 test and Logistic analysis were carried out with SPSS 13.0 software. Results Totally 2,169 residents were test - positive for Clmorchis sinensis infection among 4,472 residents selected from 16 villages of 9 towns, and the average infection rate was 48. 5%. The difference of the infection rates between male and female showed no statistical meaning (χ2=2.91, P>0.05). The study showed that the infection rate of each age group was

  12. The view from the Lincoln Cave: mid- to late Pleistocene fossil deposits from Sterkfontein hominid site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, S C; Clarke, R J; Kuman, K A

    2007-09-01

    The Lincoln-Fault cave system lies adjacent to the Sterkfontein Cave system in the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Lincoln Cave contains a mid- to late Pleistocene fossiliferous deposit which has been dated using uranium series methods to between 252,600+/-35,600 and 115,300+/-7,700 years old. Although speleologists presumed that there was no connection between the Lincoln Cave and Sterkfontein Cave systems, results of excavations conducted in 1997 suggest a link between the deposits. Detailed comparisons of artifacts, fauna, hominid material, and a statistical correspondence analysis (CA) of the macromammalian fauna in the deposits strongly support this hypothesis. The recovery of Early Acheulean-type artifacts from the Lincoln Cave suggests that older artifacts eroded out of Sterkfontein Member 5 West and were redeposited into the younger Lincoln Cave deposits. The close physical proximity of these deposits, and the nature of the material recovered from them, indicates that the material was probably redeposited via a link between the two cave systems. Although faunal mixing is present, it is possible to say that large carnivorans become more scarce at Sterkfontein during the mid- to late Pleistocene, while small canids and felids appear to become more abundant, indicating that large and small carnivorans probably varied their use of the site through time. This may also reflect an increasing presence of humans in the Sterkfontein area during the mid- to late Pleistocene. PMID:17624409

  13. Unique Biosignatures in Caves of All Lithologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Schubert, K. E.; Gomez, E.; Conrad, P. G.

    2015-10-01

    Unique maze-like microbial communities on cave surfaces on all lithologies all over the world are an excellent candidate biosignatures for life detection missions into caves and other extraterrestrial environments.

  14. Intention of Land Circulation in Reservoirs Resettlements Based on the Logistic Model:An Investigation into Sichuan, Hunan and Hubei Provinces%基于Logistic模型的水库移民安置区居民土地流转意愿分析——四川、湖南、湖北移民安置区的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昱; 陈银蓉; 马文博

    2011-01-01

    Under administrative intervention, land circulation in reservoir immigration resettlements has violated related laws. Examining factors affecting residents' willingness to transfer their land in reservoir migration resettlements is meaningful to promote the land circulation in resettlement areas from a passive mode to a relatively active way. Compared to the general land circulation in rural areas, land circulation in reservoir migration resettlements show unique characteristics in many aspects, such as circulation aim, circulation significance, and government involvement. In this study, 318 questionnaires were obtained, coveting 4 reservoir immigration resettlements within Sichuan, Hunan, and Hubei provinces. The design of the questionnaire took willingness as a dependent variable but other 13 factors as independent variables, e.g., gender, age, occupational type, distance from resettlements to provincial capital, household size, and labor force. By establishing a logistic model, the authors performed an empirical study on the willingness to land circulation of local residents in reservoir resettlements. Conclusions were drawn as follows. 1) With increasing years of farmers' education, they are more inclined to transfer its land. The possible reason is that for migrant workers, the higher level of their education, the more access to work opportunities. Once these people have relatively more stable non-agricultural income, land is no longer its primary living guarantee and thus they are more willing to transfer its land to gain certain compensation. 2) The number of household labor force can result in an opposite effect on land transfer, i.e., the more labor force, the more farmers reluctant to transfer its land. 3) The greater proportion of the agricultural income to the household income, the greater reliance on agriculture farmers, and thus more reluctant to transfer its land. 4) Household size and the number of agricultural population do not accurately reflect

  15. A Status Survey on Inpatient Disease Constitution in Jili Community Health Service Center, Liuyang City of Hunan Province, from 2008 to 2010%湖南省浏阳市集里街道社区卫生服务中心2008~2010年住院疾病构成情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萃萃; 周小军; 李胜; 阳历; 李鸿浩; 李幼平; 王应强; 杨晓妍; 王莉; 易敬林; 韩金祥; 陈小玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查湖南省浏阳市集里街道社区卫生服务中心2008 ~ 2010年住院疾病构成情况,了解当地疾病负担,为进一步研究提供基线数据.方法 采用问卷调查结合专题访谈,收集2008 ~ 2010年住院病例资料.根据国际疾病分类编码(ICD-10)标化出院记录第一诊断并系统归类.用Microsoft Excel 2003和SPSS 13.0等统计软件整理分析住院患者一般情况、出院诊断等.结果 ①集里街道社区卫生服务中心2008~2010年住院病例分别为4 804、6 011和6 552人次,男性少于女性( 37.89% vs.62.11%,37.68%vs.62.32%,41.09% vs.58.91%);②住院系统疾病共19~21类,占ICD-10标准分类的90.5% ~ 100%;③前5类疾病依次为循环、消化、妊娠分娩和产褥期、泌尿生殖及呼吸系统疾病,累计构成比78.91% ~ 83.61%;④近3年前15位单病种中相同疾病包括:冠心病、泌尿系结石、胆囊结石或伴胆囊炎、慢性胃炎、高血压、糖尿病、慢性支气管炎、肺部感染和腹股沟疝9种;⑤近3年住院人次数慢性病均多于急性病,且多集中在≥35岁;急性病集中在≤15岁.结论 ①集里街道社区卫生服务中心近3年住院病例主要系统疾病依次是循环、消化、妊娠分娩和产褥期、泌尿生殖系统及呼吸系统疾病;慢性病较多且集中于冠心病、泌尿系结石和慢性支气管炎;②近3年前15位单病种中相同疾病有9种,提示住院患者常见病种较稳定;③今后应重点关注≥35岁的慢性病患者及≤15岁的急性病患者.%Objective To investigate the inpatient disease constitution of Jili Community Health Service Center (JCHSC) in Liuyang City of Hunan Province from 2008 to 2010, so as to learn about the local burden of diseases and to provide baseline data for further study. Methods Both questionnaire and focus interviews were applied to collect inpa-tients' records in JCHSC between 2008 and 2010. Based on the

  16. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Analysis of Heavy Metals in PM10 and PM2 .5 in Typical Cities in Hunan Province%湖南省典型城市 PM10和 PM2.5及其载带重金属的污染特征和健康风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢忱; 张文杰; 杨文; 李伟; 王歆华; 赵雪艳; 白志鹏

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pollution characteristics and health risks of heavy metals in particulate matter in Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan (CTZ) area in Hunan Province, PM10 and PM2.5 filter samples were collected in Changsha, Xiangtan and background site of Hengshan Mountain in August 2014.The concentrations of ten heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.In order to assess the carcinogenic risk of Cr(Ⅵ) on human, Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations were calculated based on the reference ratio of 0.13 for Cr(Ⅵ) to total Cr.The health risk of heavy metals inhaled by respiratory system was assessed by the model recommended by US EPA, coupled by the exposure factors in China.Results showed that the mass concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were respectively 42-155 and 18-119 μg/m3 in Changsha, and were 17-127 and 5-109 μg/m3 in Xiangtan.The concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) in Changsha and Xiangtan was 0.81 and 0.65 ng/m3 in PM10 samples, while that of As was 9.3 and 6.3 ng/m3 , much higher than the relevant Chinese air quality standards.The total non-carcinogenic risk of the each heavy metal was less than 1, within the acceptable level.The carcinogenic risks for Cr(Ⅵ) and As were in the range of 10-6-10-4 , belonging to the range of potential carcinogenic risks.The carcinogenic risks for Cd, Ni and Co were below 10-6 , indicating that the carcinogenic risks of the three metals are acceptable.%为研究湖南省长株潭区域典型城市颗粒物及其载带重金属元素的污染特征和健康风险,于2014年8月在长沙市、湘潭市和区域背景点衡山采集了PM10和PM2.5样品。应用ICP-MS分析样品载带的10种重金属元素浓度,按Cr(Ⅵ)和总Cr比值为0.13估算Cr(Ⅵ)浓度。应用US EPA风险评价技术结合国内人群暴露参数对人体通过呼吸途径暴露的健康风险进行评价。结果表明:采样期间,长沙市PM10和PM2.5的日均浓度分别为42~155和18~119μg/m3,湘潭市为17~127

  17. Geochronological Constraints on the Neoproterozoic Collision along the Jiangnan Uplift: Evidence from Studies on the Neoproterozoic Basal Conglomerates at the Cangshuipu Area, Hunan Province%江南隆起带新元古代碰撞结束时间:沧水铺砾岩上下层位的U-Pb年代学证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉芝; 王岳军; 范蔚茗; 张爱梅; 张菲菲

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the field investigation and zircon U-Pb geochronological data for the Neoproterozoic basal conglomerates and the associated rocky at the Cangshuipu area (Yiyang), Hunan Province. The results show that the Neoproterozoic sequences in this area are composed of the Lengjiaxi, Cangshuipu and Banxi Groups with the Hengluchong conglomerates at the basal part. The Cangshuipu Group consists of the Lingjiawan (the red basal conglomerate) and Yinzhuba (terrestrial volcanic rock) Formations. Geochronological studies of the detrital zircons from the sandstone samples from the upper part of the Lengjiaxi Group, which is overlain by the red basal conglomerates of the Linjiawan Formation, exhibit the youngest age-peak of 864Ma. The zircons separated from sandstone sample from the Madiyi Formation of the Banxi Group yield the youngest age-peak of 764Ma. The age-peaks of 864Ma and 764Ma limit the maximum depositional age of the Lengjiaxi and Banxi Groups, respectively. The SIMS zircon U-Pb dating of the volcanic sample from the Yinzhuba Formation that underlain the Linjiawan conglomerates yields a weighted mean 206 Pb/238 U age of (835 ± 12)Ma, representing the eruption age of the Yinzhuba volcanic sequences. Integrating with the other geological data, it is inferred that the Lengjiaxi Group might be deposited in Neoproterozoic rather than the previously proposed Meoproterozoic.. The conglomerates of the Linjiawan Formation were most likely deposited in the interval of 864 ~ 835 Ma. This age probably represents the final amalgamation between the Yangtze and Cathaysian Blocks along the Jiangnan Mountains.%本文通过对江南雪峰沧水铺地区元古代砾岩及其上下层位的详细野外地质调查及相关样品的锆石U-Pb激光和SIMS年代学研究表明,江南雪峰地区新元古代地层自下到上包括冷家溪群、由林家湾组紫红色砾岩、银珠坝组陆相火山岩(或宝林冲组下部火山岩)构成的沧水铺群、及以横

  18. 湘南王仙岭花岗岩体的锆石U-Pb年代学、地球化学、锆石Hf同位素特征及其地质意义%Geochronology, geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes of the Wangxianling granitic intrusion in South Hunan Province and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳浩; 郭春丽

    2012-01-01

    湘南王仙岭岩体由主体电气石黑云母花岗岩和侵入其内部的黑云母二长花岗岩组成,LA-MC-ICP MS锆石U-Pb 定年显示电气石黑云母花岗岩形成于印支期(235.0±1.3Ma),黑云母二长花岗岩形成于燕山期(155.9±1.0Ma),表明该岩体是两期岩浆活动的产物.这两期岩石均为高钾钙碱性系列,A/CNK值为1.07 ~1.66,属过铝-强过铝质花岗岩类.稀土元素显示LREE富集,HREE亏损,Eu负异常明显(0.01 ~0.38)的特征.早期电气石黑云母花岗岩和晚期黑云母二长花岗岩的εHf(t)值分别为-7.92~+4.61和-10.66~ -5.35;两阶段Hf模式年龄(tDM2)分别为1758 ~ 967Ma和1875 ~1538Ma.两期花岗岩均来自于古中元古代地壳物质重熔,其中早期电气石黑云母花岗岩在侵位上升过程中捕获了部分幔源老锆石,成岩过程中有少量地幔物质参与,且其源区具有高εHf(t)值的特点.综合前人研究成果,本文认为华南中生代印支期和燕山期均有钨锡矿化作用,印支期花岗质岩浆形成于碰撞挤压作用间隙伸展环境,而燕山期花岗质岩浆可能形成于大陆边缘弧后伸展环境.%The Wangxianling intrusion in South Hunan Province consists of two granitoids, the main tourmaline biotite granites and the biotite monzonite granites invading into the former. LA-MC-ICP MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that tourmaline biotite granites formed in Indosinian (235.0 ± 1.3Ma) while the biotite monzonite granites formed in Yanshanian (155.9 ± l.Oma), indicating that Wangxianling intrusion is the product of two-time magmatic activities. The compositions of these two period granites fall into the calc-alkaline category, with an A/CNK ratio of 1. 07 ~ 1. 66, which are peraluminous to strongly peraluminous granites. Their whole rock rare earth elements demonstrate total LREE enrichment and HREE deficit with significant negative Eu anomalies (0. 01 - 0. 38 ). The sm(t) values and two-staged Hf model ages of tourmaline

  19. 湖南凤凰茶田汞矿区土壤-水稻系统中汞的传输及其健康风险%Transmission and health risks of mercury in soil-paddy system in Chatian mercury mining area, Fenghuang County, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永华; 孙宏飞; 杨林生; 李海蓉

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in paddy soils and rice as well as its translocation and accumula- tion in Chatian Hg mining area of Fenghuang County, Hunan Province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis. The results showed that Hg concen- trations in the paddy soils and rice were significantly enriched, which were primarily due to the high natural geologic background levels and anthropogenic mining activities. The average concentration of Hg in paddy soils, rice root, rice shoots and rice grain in mercury deposit area were, in average, 276.6, 8. 6, 5.8 and 2.3 folds of the corresponding parts in the control area, respectively. The concentration of Hg in paddy soils in organic-sulfide form was significant positively correlated with Hg contents in rice roots, rice shoots and rice grain. However, the transfer coefficients of Hg of paddy soils-rice roots and rice roots-rice grain were quite low. The content of Hg in rice grain in Chatian mercury mining area was 0.09±0.04μg/g, 4. 5 times of the limited value (0. 02 μg/g) of the National Food Sanitary Standard (GB2762--2005). Average daily intake dose (ADD) of Hg of local population ranged from 0. 408 to 1. 225 μg/(kg · d), mean 0. 75 μg/kg body weight per day, exceeding 0. 71 μg/(kg· d) of provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) recommen- ded by WHO. The local inhabitants faced huge health risk due to high Hg exposure via rice consumption. In addition, Se and Pb were also found to be co-enriched in the rice grain in Chatian mining area, indicating that co-contamination of Hg and Pb may result in great risks to human health in this area.%通过野外系统采样和室内分析,研究了湖南凤凰县茶田汞矿区耕层土壤及水稻中Hg的含量分布以及土壤-水稻系统中Hg的传输和分配。结果表明:由于地质成因和人为采选矿活动导致矿区土壤及作物中Hg大量富集,与对照区相比,矿区耕作土壤、稻根、稻秆

  20. CH4 and N2O emissions from double-rice field under different intensified cultivation patterns in Hunan Province%湖南地区不同集约化栽培模式下双季稻稻田CH4和N2O的排放规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔宪旺; 刘英烈; 熊正琴; 马煜春; 张啸林; 秦建权; 唐启源

    2013-01-01

    采用静态暗箱-气相色谱法研究了湖南双季稻稻田不施氮(NN)、当地常规(FP)、高产高效(YE)、再高产(HY)、再高效(HE)5种不同栽培模式下温室气体(CH4、N2O)的排放规律.结果表明:水稻生长季CH4累积排放量变化为(206.5±37.5) kg· hm-2(FP,早稻)~(490.5±65.7) kg·hm-2(HE,晚稻),N2O-N累积排放量变化为(0.08±0.05) kg·hm-2(NN,早稻)~(0.326±0.15) kg·hm-2(HY,晚稻).不同栽培模式对CH4和N2O的排放都有显著影响(p<0.05).HE模式CH4排放显著高于其他模式62%~ 87%(p<0.05),尤其是晚稻季节;除NN模式外,其他4种模式间N2O排放差异不显著.冬季休闲期也是CH4和N2O排放的重要时期,分别占全年排放量的9.7%~19.7%和42%~ 62%.CH4主导了稻田不同栽培模式下的综合温室效应,在各模式中均占95%以上.施氮肥提高了作物产量,降低了温室气体强度(GHGI).在5种模式中,YE和HY模式温室气体强度较小,HY模式下仅为(0.97±0.16) kg·kg-1(以每kg产量排放的CO2当量计).因此,与FP模式相比,YE和HY模式既能提高产量和氮肥利用率,也能减缓温室效应;但HE模式排放的温室气体较高,在实际应用前尚需进一步研究.%Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from rice field in the double rice ecosystem in Hunan province were studied using static-chamber/gas chromatography.Five cultivation patterns or treatments were established including NN (no N as control),FP (farmers' practice),YE (10% ~ 15%higher in yield and 15% ~20% higher in N use efficiency),HY (30% ~40% higher in yield),and HE (20% ~30% higher in yield and 30% ~50%higher in N use efficiency).The results showed that cumulative seasonal C H4 emissions ranged between (206.5 ± 37.5) kg· hm-2(FP,early rice) and (490.5 ± 65.7) kg· hm-2 (HE,late rice) while cumulative seasonal N2O emissions ranged between (0.08 ± 0.05) kg· hm-2 (NN,early rice) and (0.326 ± 0.15) kg· hm-2 (HY

  1. The future of the CAVE

    KAUST Repository

    DeFanti, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  2. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  3. Analysis of International Barriers Faced by Hunan Private Enterprises%湖南省民营企业国际化的障碍因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马巾英; 张玉梅; 颜蓓; 王瑶华

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, private enterprises in Hunan province have not only achieved great progress both in size and speed of development but also meet with varied harriers in their internationalization. This paper analyses the present situation of the internationalization of Hunan province private enterprise and presents some factors affecting internationalization of private enterprise of Hunan province by using questionaire method and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures .%近年来,湖南省民营企业不管是在规模还是在发展速度上都获得了长足的进步,但是在国际化的道路上依然障碍重重。通过分析湖南省民营企业国际化的现状,然后以调查问卷的方法找出影响湖南民营企业国际化的重要障碍因素,并对此提出相应的对策。

  4. 贵州屯上洞内动物群落结构与部分环境因子的相关性研究%Study on the correlation of animal community diversity and partial environmental factors in Tunshang cave of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶子郯; 黎道洪

    2011-01-01

    2009年7月对施秉屯上洞内的动物进行了调查,共获动物标本454号,隶属3门9纲16目19科20种(或类群)。该洞内的动物群由3个动物群落组成。经数理统计分析,群落多样性、均匀性、优势度和群落间相似性指数最高的分别是黑暗带群落(1.5545)、有光带群落(0.7790)、弱光带群落(0.5057)以及有光带群落和黑暗带群落(0.6249)。通过对群落多样性与部分环境因子的相关性分析,结果显示物种数(S)与湿度(H)和温度(AT)分别呈极显著的正相关和极显著的负相关(双尾显著性检验≤0.01);群落优势度(%In July 2009, this paper studied on animals in Tunshang cave of Shibing County, Guizhou Province. The collected samples were 454, belonging to 3 phyla, 9 classes, 16 orders, 19 families and 20 groups. There are 3 animal communities in this cave. According to mathematical and statistical analysis, the communities containing the highest indexes of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity were the dark belt community ( 1. 554 5 ) , the light belt community (0. 779 0) , the reflection light belt community (0. 505 7) and the light belt community and dark belt community (0. 624 9 ) respec- tively. The results of correlation analysis between community diversity and environmental factors showed that the humidity (H)had the significantly positive correlation with number of species (S), and the air temperature (AT) had the significantly negative correlation with number of species (S), whose 2-tailed significant test is at the ≤0. 01 level. Moreover, the content of Mg in soil had the significantly positive correlation with the richness of species( C), whose 2-tailed significant test is wat the ≤0. 05 level. So these results indicated that humidity (H), air temperature (AT) and Mg were the important factors influencing change of animal community diversity in

  5. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bussotti

    Full Text Available Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger. Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves, and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves. Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km. Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures, the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning.

  6. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  7. 湖南电网暂态电压稳定性问题%Study on Transient Voltage Stability of Hunan Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国栋; 谢欣涛; 侯益灵; 廖菁; 禹海峰

    2012-01-01

    The transient stability of Hunan power grid possesses obvious inter-area feature, for example, the three-phase short-circuit fault occurred in 500kV outgoing line of Heling substation located in the center of Hunan province leads to severe voltage drop occurred in South Hunan power system that is several hundred kilometers away from the fault point, however, there is not voltage stability due to the fault occurred in 500kV transmission line of South Hunan power system. In allusion to above-mentioned voltage stability problem occurred in Hunan power grid, by means of analyzing the voltage drop range within power grid caused by short-circuit fault and recovery ability of grid voltage, the mechanism of transient voltage instability in Hunan power gird is systemically demonstrated in terms of power grid structure, and a thinking of enhancing transient voltage stability of Hunan power grid by decreasing short-circuit current is proposed. Calculation results show that using the proposed thinking transient voltage stability of Hunan power grid can be effectively improved.%湖南电网暂态电压稳定性问题具有明显跨区域特点:位于湖南中心地区的鹤岭变500 kV出口三相短路故障将引起数百公里外的湘南电网电压严重低落,而湘南电网500 kV线路故障反而未有电压失稳问题.针对上述湖南电网电压稳定性问题特点,通过分析短路故障引起电网电压的跌落幅度以及电网电压恢复能力,从电网结构角度系统地论证了湖南电网暂态电压失稳的机制,并提出一种通过减小短路电流提高湖南电网暂态电压稳定性的思路.计算结果表明该思路可以有效地提高湖南电网电压稳定性.分析结果可为其他电网研究暂态电压稳定性问题提供参考.

  8. Treatment default and death among tuberculosis patients in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuaku, Benjamin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Li, Xingli; Chen, Mengshi; Huang, Xin

    2010-04-01

    We used the 2005 and 2006 national surveillance data to elucidate some of the risk factors for treatment default and death among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Hunan, China. Risk of default was higher in males (odds ratio (OR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.44); lowest in patients aged 15-24 y (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.49, 0.75), and generally increased with increasing age; lower in patients living in cities with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of less than 1000 US$ (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49, 0.72), and increased with increasing per capita GDP of city of residence; and higher in patients with previously treated smear-positive pulmonary TB (diagnostic category II according to the World Health Organization definition; OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.22, 3.23). Risk of death was lowest in patients aged 15-24 y (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.05, 0.10), and increased with increasing age; lower in new cases (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.33, 0.76); and highest in patients who treated themselves (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.27, 9.46). We conclude that male TB patients, elderly TB patients, patients resident in cities with higher per capita GDP, and patients receiving category II treatment need special attention to reduce TB treatment default in the province. Furthermore, elderly TB patients and patients with a long history of TB need special attention to reduce mortality. Self-treatment also needs to be discouraged to reduce mortality.

  9. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  10. 湖南省怀化市中小学生近视现况调查及影响因素分析%Prevalence and associated factors of myopia in primary and secondary school students in Huaihua City, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李定梅; 于兰; 吴文洁; 谌绍林; 税永刚; 李妮; 段宣初

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查湖南省怀化市中小学生近视患病现状并分析其相关因素.设计横断面研究.研究对象湖南省怀化市鹤城区3~12年级学生2103名.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,2014年9~12月对怀化市鹤城区6所学校中小学生进行视力检查非睫状肌麻痹下自动验光和问卷调查.近视定义为等效球镜度(SE)≤-0.50 D.应用非条件Logistic回归模型对可能与近视发生相关的33项因素进行多因素分析.主要指标近视患病率.结果 在入选的2103名学生中,2064名(98.1%)(平均年龄12.5±2.8岁,范围7~18岁)参与了调查.近视患病率为46.3% (95%CI:44.1%~48.5%),小学生为22.1% (95%CI:19.3%~24.9%),初中生为53.8%(95%CI:50.0%~57.6%),高中生为74.4% (95%CI:70.8%~78.1%).近视患病率随着年级增高呈增长趋势(x2=425.626.P--0.000).女生近视患病率50.4%(95%可信区间:47.2%~53.6%)高于男生42.8%(95%可信区间:39.9%~45.7%)(x2=12.043,P=0.001).乡村小学和城区小学的近视患病率无显著性差异(x2=0.140,P=0.708).近视学生中69.2%(660/954)配戴眼镜.Logistic回归分析显示,近视的危险因素为父母近视、更长的近距离用眼时间、更短的近距离用眼距离、更少的睡眠时间、照明过暗.课桌高度合适、户外活动、几乎不看电视或玩电脑、无不良用眼行为和习惯是近视的保护因素.结论 怀化市中小学生近视患病率较高,乡村学校的近视防治工作亦刻不容缓,视力保护的关键年龄在9岁以前.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of myopia and to analyze associated factors in primary and secondary school students in Huaihua City,Hunan Province.Design Cross-sectional survey.Participants 2103 students from Grade 3 to 12 in Hecheng district of Huaihua City.Methods Stratified cluster random sampling approach was conducted to selected 2103 students from September to December in 2014.The students

  11. On the Contemporary Value and Significance of Initiating and Promote the Construction of Peace Culture in Hunan%启动与推进湖南和平文化建设的当代价值与意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克兵

    2016-01-01

    Starting and promoting the construction of peace culture in Hunan is of great momentous contemporary value and significance . It can not only comply with the China's peaceful development strategy to enhance the support of China's peaceful foreign policy of social needs but also promote the cultural soft power in Hunan Province and the nation inherit and carry forward the spirit of Hunan .%启动与推进湖南省和平文化建设,具有重要的当代价值与意义。它不仅是顺应我国和平发展战略、提升我国和平外交政策社会支持力的需要,而且是提升湖南省乃至全国文化软实力、传承与弘扬湖南精神的需要。

  12. DELINEATING KARST RECHARGE AREAS AT ONONDAGA CAVE STATE PARK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onondaga Cave State Park is located in the north central portion of the Ozarks near Leasburg, Missouri. The park is known for two extensive cave systems, Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave. Both of these cave systems have active streams (1-2 cfs at baseflow) which have unknown recharge areas. As a man...

  13. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  14. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  15. 湖南省浏阳市集里街道社区卫生务中心住院病例前15位单病种费用分析%Analysis on Expenses of Top 15 Single Diseases among Inpatients in Jili Community Health Service Center in Liuyang City of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王应强; 陈小玲; 周小军; 李胜; 阳历; 王莉; 李幼平; 李鸿浩; 李萃萃; 杨晓妍; 钟大可; 易敬林; 韩金祥

    2012-01-01

    却呈上升趋势.⑤平均住院日慢性病比急性病长,外科疾病比内科疾病长.%Object To investigate the constitution and expense of inpatient diseases in Jili Community Health Service Center (JCHSC) in Liuyang City of Hunan Province from 2008 to 2010, so as to provide baseline data for further study. Methods The questionnaire was applied and inpatient records in JCHSC between 2008 and 2010 were collected. The diseases were classified and standardized according to the International Classification of Disease, 10th Edition (ICD-10) based on the first diagnosis extracted from discharge records. Such information as general condition, discharge diagnosis and medical expenses etc. were analyzed by using statistic software of Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 13.0. Results a) There were 9 chronic diseases and 6 acute ones among the top 15 single diseases, and both the average hospital stay and per-average hospitalization expense of chronic diseases were higher than those of acute ones (7.8 days vs. 5.6 days; ¥2 733 vs. ¥1551); b) Per-average expense of drugs as for both acute and chronic diseases accounted for nearly 50% of the total/ general expense; c) There were 3 types of treatment models in JCHSC. Model A was only the internal medicine therapy, Model B was internal medicine assisted with surgery, and Model C was surgery assisted with internal medicine therapy; d) In detail, the total per-average expenses in JCHSC between 2008 to 2010 as for each single disease were as follows: coronary heart diseases (CHD, ¥2 374 to ¥2 680), urinary calculi (¥3 268 to ¥3 337), chronic bronchitis (¥2 452 to ¥2 488); 'e) Per-average hospitalization expenses in internal departments were ¥1 719 to ¥1 942 for acute diseases and ¥2 386 and ¥2 523 for chronic ones. Among surgical departments, the per-average hospitalization expenses as for acute diseases and chronic diseases were ¥1 438 to ¥1 579 and ¥3 044 to ¥3 607, respectively; and f) The

  16. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo

    2010-01-01

    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  17. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.; Burri Ezio

    2000-01-01

    The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the ...

  18. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the ...

  19. Utilization of Bellae Prehistory Cave Complex

    OpenAIRE

    supriadi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is located in South Sulawesi. Bellae has rich archaeological heritage that make this cave complex important as cultural resource in South Sulawesi as well as in Indonesia generally. Nowadays, the Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is threatened by the local population as the sites are close to settlement. Furthermore, its archaeological potentials as well as the uniqueness of the complex which is situated in karstic area have attracted many parties to...

  20. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  1. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  2. Caves and Karsts of Northeast Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday William R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available At least potentially karstifiable rocks cover much of the surface of Egypt and northern Libya. Study of caves and other karstic features of this region has been hampered by lack of roads, rapid disintegration of the surface of friable, poorly consolidated limestone, wind-blown sand and other factors. Interbedding with marly aquicludes hampers speleogenesis locally. Calcareous and evaporite karsts are present, however, and their waters are important albeit generally limited resources. Large quantities of fresh water are lost through submarine springs downslope from Libya’s Gebel al Akhdar range; the caves and karst of that range may be among the world’s greatest. A recent attempted compendium of caves and karsts of Egypt and Libya contains several important errors; the supposed 5+ km Ain Zayanah Cave does not exist and the Zayanah System includes several smaller caves. The Bir al Ghanam gypsum karst of northwest Libya, however, has caves up to 3.5 km long. In Egypt, the Mokattam, South Galala, Ma’aza, Siwa and Western Desert karsts and the “White Desert” chalk karst of Farafra Depression are especially important. Qattara and nearby depressions may be karstic rather than structural in origin. Unique Wadi Sannur Cave is the world’s largest gour and a potential World Heritage site. Little knownsandstone karsts or pseudokarsts in southwestern Egypt may contain analogues of features recently identified on Mars. The well-publicised Uweinat caves of northwestern Sudan are talus caves.

  3. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  4. THE APPLICATION OF GPR TO THE EXPLORATION OF KARST CAVES IN THE FOUNDATION OF BRIDGE TOWER AND ITS SIGNAL ANALYSIS%探地雷达在桥塔塔基岩溶勘查中的应用及信号分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天春; 冯建新; 王战军

    2011-01-01

    以湖南省张家界—花垣县高速公路岩溶勘查为例,探讨探地雷达在竖直型岩溶勘查中的应用和效果;同时,说明复信号分析方法在探地雷达数据处理中的有效性.竖向岩溶的横向规模小,在雷达图像中相应的异常范围比较窄,异常不易分辨.首先对原始采集信号进行二维空间域滤波,再对信号进行Hilbert变换,提取雷达信号的瞬时振幅、瞬时相位和瞬时频率,然后对这些处理后的信号进行综合分析.研究结果表明,二维空间域滤波可大大消除高频噪声的干扰,提高信号的信噪比,多参数综合分析可提高探地雷达解释的精度,最终的钻探成果也验证了反演解释结果的正确性.%Horizontal karst caves were frequently studied for geohazards prospecting in the past. In this paper, the application of GPR to vertical karst caves was introduced in Zhangjiajie-Huayuan Expressway of Hunan Province, and the effectiveness of the complex signal analysis was illuminated in GPR data processing. A vertical karst cave characterized by a small horizontal scale would arose an unintelligible anomaly in the GPR image, which could not be recognized easily. The authors first processed the GPR data by two-dimensional spatial filter, and then applied Hilbert transform to the data, thus obtaining the transient amplitude, transient phase and transient frequency. Finally, the authors analyzed the processed data synthetically. The results show that the spatial filter can remarkably eliminate high frequency noise and improve SNR of the signal. In addition, the accuracy of the GPR interpretation can be improved by the multi-parameter analytical method. Drilling results prove the correctness of the inversion interpretation.

  5. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  6. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  7. Research on the subject relationship and effect of the land transferring in the process of urban-rural integration--Based on the research of the Guanshan model of Ningxiang County in Hunan Province%城乡一体化进程中土地流转之主体与流转效益的调查研究--基于湖南省宁乡县关山模式的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓林; 胡柳

    2014-01-01

    土地的合理流转,是盘活农村土地和劳动力资源、推进城乡一体化的核心问题。湖南省宁乡县金洲镇以土地流转为龙头,形成城乡一体化“内源性”发展的“关山模式”。他们区别对待两种用地类型:对农用地实施统一整理、集体入社,流出经营;对建设用地实施节约指标、有偿转让,置换集居。保证农民获得“租金”“股金”“薪金”和“保障金”等稳定收入,通过土地专业合作社和居委会协调土地流转并经营土地,保证了农民的主体地位;政府的土地规划以及政策引导和服务、企业投资保证了土地增值和经济发展。土地流转推动了城乡一体化的规划对接、基础设施升级、经济效益持续增长等“三重效果”。但是,土地流转过程中仍然面临“部分农民抵触、企业投资成本上涨、流转风险潜存”等障碍。总体而言,推动土地流转应当立足现实,保证农民收益、进行城乡资本的联结。%The rational circulation of land is a core issue of activating the resources of land and labor in rural areas and promoting urban and rural development. In Jinzhou town of Ningxiang County, Hunan Province, circulation of land is served as the flagship, a “Guanshan model”, which takes inner power to promote the urban and rural development was built .Two kinds of land there in Guanshan are treated differently: the farmland is being integrated consistently, united collectively and operated freely, accordingly, saved budgets; paid transfers and trans-positional settlements are also being practiced on the construction land. Through coordinating the land circulation and management by professional cooperatives and residents’ committees, the farmers can take the stable income like “rents”, “capital”, “salary” and“security”. Therefore, the farmer’s main body status is guaranteed. As to the local government, integrated

  8. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L

    2008-05-01

    Caves can be difficult to navigate and often require physical modification to allow easy access for visitors. Single entrance caves double the access impact of each visitor. Visitors in tourist caves have direct physical effects such as the introduction of concrete and steel structures; transport of mud, dust, and nutrients; installation of lights and the exhalation of water vapour and carbon dioxide into the air. Indirect physical effects include alteration of the microclimate, both through physical modifications that change the ventilation regime and through the presence of visitors leading to changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 within the cave environment. Anthropomorphic changes to cave physical environments to aid access or to reduce backtracking can have adverse effects on the internal microclimate of cave systems with subsequent changes to the cave environment affecting the quality of decorations and cave art and the diversity of cave fauna. Although often stated that caves operate at or near a constant temperature, closer examination indicates that cave temperatures are neither static nor constant. The degree of variation depends largely on the structure and physical characteristics of the cave. Air temperature and humidity gradients between the inside and outside cave environment can result in air density differences, which create airflow, which will in turn affect the cave microclimate. As part of the development of a management framework for King Solomons Cave, Tasmania, a study of the microclimate was carried out on behalf of Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Analysis of the variables showed significant differences in air temperature within each site and between sites. These differences range from 4 degrees C variation at one site to 0 degrees C at another site. The data were used to model potential airflow between the cave and the external environment. Results indicate that part of the cave is dominated by airflow between the chimney and the

  9. 湖南省乡镇卫生院精神疾病防治人员精神卫生知识知晓情况调查%Mental health knowledge among the mental disorders prevention and control doctors in township hospitals of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付文彬; 罗邦安; 刘学军; 谌良民

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查湖南省乡镇卫生院精神疾病防治人员的精神卫生知识知晓情况,为采取措施进一步提高其精神卫生服务能力提供科学参考依据。方法以参加培训班的乡镇卫生院精神疾病防治人员为研究对象,共发放问卷1700份,得到有效问卷1447份。采用卫生部推荐的精神卫生与心理保健知识问卷进行评估。结果湖南省乡镇卫生院精神疾病防治人员精神卫生知识总体知晓率为81.9%,平均得分为(16.40±2.13)分;错误率排在前3位的条目分别为“精神疾病就是思想上出了问题”(32.6%)、“有些人的性格不好,比较容易出现心理问题”(30.0%)、“绝大多数精神疾病是治不好的”(24.0%);4个国际节日中,世界预防自杀日和世界睡眠日的知晓率分别为30.1%、42.2%;不同性别、文化程度、职称、工作年限组之间的得分差异无统计学意义。结论湖南省乡镇卫生院精神疾病防治人员的精神卫生知识总体知晓率较高,但对部分条目的知晓率还需要进一步提高。%Objective To investigate mental health knowledge among the mental disorders preven‐tion and control doctors in township hospitals in Hunan ,and provide evidence for taking measures to im‐prove the mental health service ability .Methods The Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MH‐KQ) was used to measure mental health knowledge among the mental disorders prevention doctors in township hospitals . A total of 1 447 doctors who participated training classes were assessed . Results The correct rate of mental health knowledge was 81 .9% ,the average score was (16 .40 ± 2 .13);er‐ror rate about items in the top three were“Is mental health a problem on the thought”(32 .6% );“Bad-tempered people are more likely to experience mental disorders (30 .0% )” ;“Most of mental disorders cannot be cured(24 .0% )” .The correct rate about

  10. The Research of Development of New-type Urbanization Based on Ecological Civilization---Taking Hunan Province as an Example%基于生态文明的新型城镇化发展研究--以湖南省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳子

    2015-01-01

    After years of development,Urbanization has made remarkable achievements,and entering the stage of accelerated development. However,influenced by the mode of economic development and the inertia of economic development,Urbanization has some problems, such as urbanization quality is not high,resource consumption is bigger,ecological environment situation is serious,and development is unsustainable,etc.Therefore,in order to realize sustainable economic development,we must promote the construction of new-type urbanization based on the guidance of ecological civilization.In this paper,on the base of analyzing the basic situation and the problems of urbanization in Hunan,it put forward the main path of the development model of new-type urbanization followed by the construction of ecological civilization concept.%城镇化经过多年的发展,已经取得了显著成绩,进入加速发展阶段,但是,受经济发展方式、经济发展惯性等因素影响,存在城镇化质量不高、资源消耗较大、生态环境形势严峻、发展不可持续等问题,因此,为实现经济可持续发展,必须以生态文明为指导,推进新型城镇化建设。在对湖南城镇化的基本情况和问题进行分析的基础上,遵循生态文明建设的理念,提出新型城镇化发展的主要路径。

  11. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km2. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  12. Speleogenesis of Selected Caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and Caves of Fenglin Karst in Qiubei, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanka (S)EBELA; Tadej SLABE; LIU Hong; Petr PRUNER

    2004-01-01

    Yunnan is famous for its attractive karst landscapes especially shilins, fengcong and fenglin. The development of caves beneath the shilins in the vicinity of Lunan is closely connected with the formation of shilins. Most of the waters percolating through shilins run through the caves beneath them and are responsible for their formation. The study of cave speleogenesis deepens knowledge about both the development of shilins and karst structure. In the vicinity of the Lunan Shilin, speleological, morphological and structural geological studies of four karst caves have been accomplished. At Puzhehei, Qiubei, which is characterised by numerous fenglin, fengcong and caves, speleological and morphological studies have been performed. Cave sediments for paleomagnetic analyses have been taken from all studied areas (samples CH 1-9). Karst caves in SE Yunnan are probably much older than the age of the cave sediments (<780,000 years B.P.). The studied areas are located in the vicinity of the Xiaojiang fault (N-S direction) and the Red River fault (NW-SE direction). The general directions of both active faults are assumed to influence the direction of the most frequent fissures as well as the cave passages near the Lunan Shilin. The Xiaojiang fault more strongly influences cave passage orientation, while the more distant Red River fault most strongly influences fissure orientation.

  13. Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Leonardo; De Waele, Jo; Galli, Ermanno; Polyak, Victor J.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Asmerom, Yemane

    2015-01-01

    Montecchio cave (Grosseto province, Tuscany, Italy) opens at 320 m asl, in a small outcrop of Jurassic limestone (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), close to the Albegna river. This area is characterised by the presence of several thermal springs and the outcropping of travertine deposits at different altitudes. The Montecchio cave, with passage length development of over 1700 m, is characterised by the presence of several sub-horizontal passages and many medium- and small-scale morphologies indicative of sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS). The thermal aquifer is intercepted at a depth of about 100 m below the entrance: the water temperature exceeds 30 °C and sulphate content is over 1300 mg l- 1. The cave hosts large gypsum deposits from 40 to 100 m below the entrance that are by-products of the reaction between sulphuric acid and the carbonate host rock. The lower part of the cave hosts over 1 m thick calcite cave raft deposits, which are evidence of long-standing, probably thermal, water in an evaporative environment related to significant air currents. Sulphur isotopes of gypsum have negative δ34S values (from - 28.3 to - 24.2‰), typical of SAS. Calcite cave rafts and speleogenetic gypsum both yield young U/Th ages varying from 68.5 ka to 2 ka BP, indicating a rapid phase of dewatering followed by gypsum precipitation in aerate environment. This fast water table lowering is related to a rapid incision of the nearby Albegna river, and was followed by a 20-30 m fluctuation of the thermal water table, as recorded in the calcite raft deposits and gypsum crusts.

  14. 当代湖南地区民间信仰调查报告--以南岳民间信仰考察为例%Investigation Report of Folk Beliefs in Hunan Province--- A Case Study of of Nanyue Folk Beliefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2014-01-01

    南岳民间信仰以圣帝祝融信仰为代表,是一种集祖先崇拜与文化英雄崇拜于一体的民间信仰。南岳民间信仰是湖南地区具有地域特色的重要民俗事项,当代南岳民间信仰的生存环境发生了重大变化,变迁是其必然趋势。具体表现在信仰对象趋向复杂化,信仰方式趋向多样化,信仰群体趋向扩大化、松散化。当代南岳民间信仰的生存策略:采用“双名制”,依附法定宗教,以寻求政府认可;利用宗教文化搭台、旅游经济唱戏,实现大小传统的契合;利用以乡村干部、宗教人士、富人为代表的乡土权威的影响力,使民众重拾延续了几千年的信仰,营造了自己的精神家园。%Nanyue folk beliefs represented by Shengdi Zhurong faith are folk religions of the collection which integrate ancestor worship and culture hero worship . Nanyue folk beliefs are important folk customs of Hunan area ,with the regional characteristic . Contemporary Nanyue folk beliefs of significant changes have taken place in the environment and change is the inevitable trend .They are embodied in the faith object , which tends to complicate . Ways of faith turn towards diversified , faith groups tend to spread and loosen . Contemporary survival strategies of Nanyue folk beliefs are :the “dual system” ,which depends on the legal religion , to seek government approval ; use of religious culture plays and act in an opera in tourist economy ,realizing the traditional culture conjunction in the official and the folk ; using the influence of the local authority which is represented by rural cadres , religious people ,the rich ,the people regain the faith which lasted for thousands of years ,building their own spiritual home .

  15. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  16. Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenya is one of the few countries in which karst cavities are scarce with respect to volcanic ones, which are widespread throughout the whole country. The great variability in lava composition allowed the evolution of very different cavities, some of which are amongst the largest lava tubes of the world. As normal for such a kind of cave, the hosted speleothems and cave minerals are scarce but important from the minerogenetic point of view. Anyway up to present no specific mineralogical research have been carried out therein. During the 8th International Symposium on Volcanospeleology, held in Nairobi in February 1998, some of the most important volcanic caves of Kenya have been visited and their speleothems and/or chemical deposits sampled: most of them were related to thick guano deposits once present inside these cavities. Speleothems mainly consisted of opal or gypsum, while the deposits related to guano often resulted in a mixture of sulphates and phosphates. The analyses confirmed the great variability in the minerogenetic mechanisms active inside the volcanic caves, which consequently allow the evolution of several different minerals even if the total amount of chemical deposit is scarce. Among the observed minerals kogarkoite, phillipsite and hydroxyapophyllite, must be cited because they are new cave minerals not only for the lava tubes of Kenya, but also for the world cave environment. The achieved results are compared with the available random data from previous literature in order to allow an updated overview on the secondary cave minerals of Kenya.

  17. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ball Andrew S.; Kirby Greg; Bourne Steven; Cao Xiangsheng; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard Ramin; Adetutu Eric M.; Shahsavari Esamaeil; Thorpe Krystal

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits) and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access). Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey ...

  18. Developmental Strategies of Betel Nut Industry in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the mino amount of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry fruit to sell to Hunan Province to reprocess. The problems exist in the development of betel nut industry in Hainan Province are analyzed, covering blind cultivation, extensive management, backward processing, lagged new product development and the single and concentrated consumer market. The strategic choice of developing the betel nut industry of Hainan Province is analyzed as well. Hainan Province should carry out the green, sustainable, diversified, cooperative and export-oriented industrial developmental strategy.

  19. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  20. 湖南考古的世纪回眸%A Review of Hunan Archaeology at the Turn of the Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何介钧

    2001-01-01

    Hunan is a province with abundant cultural relics and splendid ancient culture in South China. Since the founding of New China, archaeological work has vigorously grown across this region and has continuously obtained new fruits through its three major developmental stages. Spectacular achievements have been acquired in the understanding of Palaeolithic cultural groups, the study of cultural remains at the transitional stage between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic Age, the establishment of the pedigree of Neolithic archaeological cultures and research on early Neolithic cultures, the investigation of the origin of rice agriculture and prehistoric city-sites, the revelation of remains of archaeological cultures in Shang and Zhou times and the grouping of bronzes, the discovery and study of numerous tombs from the Chu and Han periods, and the archaeology of kiln-sites and the study of ceramics. At present, archaeological work in Hunan has reached the new stage when excavations and synthetic studies are carried out mainly around important archaeological problems. With the application of new techniques and the deepening of researches, it will certainly achieve more glorious success in the new century.

  1. 湖南省社会林业工程区域评价指标体系研究%Study on the Regional Evaluation Indexes for Hunan Provincial Social Forestry Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷正菊

    2005-01-01

    Centred around 37l indexes including natural environment, human activities, condition of society, economic situation,forest resources, forestry organizations, technology, management and administration, we have investigated 105 counties(cities,districts) in Hunan Province. Eighty three counties out of them were designated for our research objects. For each county,we selected 28 indexes which had directly bearing on our social forestry project such as natural environment, social economy, forest resources. Then through Cluster Analysis and Factor Analysis, we used a social science statistical analysis software(SPSS) to analyze the impact of natural, environmental, social, economical and forest resources' factors on community forestry activities. Based on such work, we have established a set of indexes system for Hunan provincial social forestry project' s regionaleval uation. According to the cluster analysis results and the current situation of the project implementation, Hunan provincial social forestry project could be divided into five types, the results will provide a scientific basis for Hunan provincial social forestry project' s implementation.

  2. PERISCOPE: PERIapsis Subsurface Cave OPtical Explorer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar sub-surface exploration has been a topic of discussion since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter identified openings (cave skylights) on the surface of the moon...

  3. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Millipedes play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter in the subterranean environment. Despite the existence of several cave-adapted species of millipedes in adjacent geographic areas, their study has been largely ignored in Portugal. Over the last decade, intense fieldwork...... in caves of the mainland and the island of Madeira has provided new data about the distribution and diversity of millipedes. A review of millipedes from caves of Portugal is presented, listing fourteen species belonging to eight families, among which six species are considered troglobionts....... The distribution of millipedes in caves of Portugal is discussed and compared with the troglobiont biodiversity in the overall Iberian Peninsula and the Macaronesian archipelagos....

  4. Tree-mould caves in Slovakia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaal Ludovit

    2003-01-01

    Four tube-shaped caves are described in this work, which origined in consequence of weathering the trees. Their length ranges from 5.8 to 17 m. All of them occur in neovolcanic rocks of Middle Slovakia, in epiclastic andesite conglomerates, breccias or in the tuffs. Some other caverns are close to the entrance of this caves, however they are inaccessible for a man. Thin rim of silicates (opal or chalcedony) occurs in some of them.

  5. Guano mining in Kenyan lava tunnel caves

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Commercial mining of bat guano for agricultural fertilizer only became possible in Kenya through discovery of major deposits in the lava tunnel caves of Mt. Suswa and the North Chyulu Hills in the early 1960’s. This paper provides historical information leading up to the guano mining, describes the cave deposits, outlines the mining under-takings, and provides information on the guano producing bats and insect faunas. The results of guano analyses, details of the tonnages extracted and sold t...

  6. Martel's routes in Mammoth cave, Kentucky, 1912.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Trevor R.

    2003-01-01

    Martel’s own copy of the Hovey 1912 guidebook to Mammoth Cave has his routes marked faintly in pencil on the printed cave plans. These plans are reproduced here, with his routes indicated on them. He generally followed the four standard tourist routes which now included Kaemper’s 1908 discoveries to Violet City, but instead of visiting the Maelstrom he went to Hovey’s Cathedral and Gerta’s Grotto.

  7. Tree-mould caves in Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaal Ludovit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tube-shaped caves are described in this work, which origined in consequence of weathering the trees. Their length ranges from 5.8 to 17 m. All of them occur in neovolcanic rocks of Middle Slovakia, in epiclastic andesite conglomerates, breccias or in the tuffs. Some other caverns are close to the entrance of this caves, however they are inaccessible for a man. Thin rim of silicates (opal or chalcedony occurs in some of them.

  8. Is it always dark in caves?

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not use...

  9. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  10. Cambrian Fossil Embryos from Western Hunan,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiping

    2009-01-01

    The exquisitely preserved fossil embryos of Markuelia recovered from the limestones of the Middle Cambrian Haoqiao Formation and Upper Cambrian Bitiao formation in western Hunan,South China are described and illustrated in detail for the first time.A new species Markuelia elegans sp.nov.is established based mainly on embryos from the Upper Cambrian.A few of animal's resting eggs,which are comparable with those of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation,have been also found in the Upper Cambrian of western Hunan.The membrane of oue egg from the uppermost Cambrian has been replaced by pyrite and the overgrowth of the pyrite crystals exhibits a unique inorganic reducing conditions promoted the excellent preservation for the Markuelia specimens.The study of Markuelia provides not only constraint on the anatomy,affinity,embryonic development and phylogenetic significance of this wormlike animal and but also opens a new window onto the evolution and development of the earliest animals.

  11. Lights and shadows on the conservation of a rock art cave: The case of Lascaux Cave.

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian Fabiola; Alabouvette Claude

    2009-01-01

    Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940. Twenty years after the first microbial contamination signs appeared. In the last forty years thecave suffered different fungal invasions. Here we discuss the past, present and future of the cave and the conservation of its rock artpaintings to the light of data obtained using culture-dependent and –independent methods.

  12. Hunan Shuikoushan Gold & Copper Project Entered Substantive Construction Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Hunan Shuikoushan Gold&Copper Integrated Recycling Project for industry upgrading&technology transformation entered substantive construction stage;In April,two of its early stage sub-projects,namely the concentrate storage bin project and auxiliary material plant house&temporary road project,formally kicked off.The Project’s core engineering construction will kick off in July this year.The already started concentrate storage bin and

  13. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA; El sistema de la Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km{sup 2}. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  14. Stability analysis of subgrade cave roofs in karst region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 赵明华; 曹文贵

    2008-01-01

    According to the engineering features of subgrade cave roof in karst region, the clamped beam model of subgrade cave roof in karst region was set up. Based on the catastrophe theory, the cusp catastrophe model for bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof and safe thickness of subgrade cave roof in karst region was established. The necessary instability conditions of subgrade cave roof were deduced, and then the methods to determine safe thickness of cave roofs under piles and bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof were proposed. At the same time, a practical engineering project was applied to verifying this method, which has been proved successfu1ly. At last, the major factors that affect the stability on cave roof under pile in karst region were deeply discussed and some results in quality were acquired.

  15. Habitat Management Plan for Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Logan Cave NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Logan Cave NWR, to...

  16. Preservation of Microbial-Mineral Biosignatures in Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Alexander, C.

    2016-05-01

    Earth caves are wonderful preservation environments for distinctive in situ biopatterns and biominerals. Several thousand volcanic caves have been detected on Mars and may contain biosignatures or extant life and are valuable future mission targets.

  17. On the Graduates’ Employment Issues of Colleges and Universities in Hunan%湖南省高校毕业生就业问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方勤敏; 刘海凤

    2012-01-01

    Based on the enrollment and graduates dates of Hunan province for ten years,the paper analyzed and predicted the number of the university graduates during "the Twelfth Five-Year Plan" of Hunan province by the EVEWS method.With the talent development planning,industrial structure adjustment line and the opportunities of future development,the paper proposed advices in terms of universities,enterprises and government to promote college students finding jobs.%在收集和整理湖南省高校近10年招生与毕业生数据的基础上,采用EVIEWS数量分析方法对"十二五"期间湖南省的高校毕业生数量进行预测,并结合湖南省人才发展规划、产业结构调整思路和未来发展提供的机遇,从高校、企业和政府三个方面提出促进高校毕业生就业的建议。

  18. Credit Influence Factors of Small and Medium-sized Enterprise in Hunan Province:an empirical research based on the structural equation model%湖南省中小企业信用影响因素分析--基于结构方程模型的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海斌; 杨帆

    2013-01-01

    中小企业信用影响因素是企业信用评价体系建设的关键所在。从企业财务能力、企业家管理能力、企业发展能力三个方面构建了企业信用能力评价模型。通过对调查问卷的分析,验证了企业家管理能力、企业发展能力对企业财务能力的正面影响作用。实证结果给出了各因素之间的定量关系,为构建我省中小企业信用评价体系提供了理论依据。%The Credit influence factors of Small and medium-sized enterprise is the key to the enterprise credit evaluation system. This paper analyzes the factors influencing the SMEs’ credit from financial ability, entrepreneurial management ability and enterprise development ability. The empirical data is collected through the face to face interviews and surveys. The empirical results suggest that entrepreneurial management ability and enterprise development ability improve financial ability. Based on the result the empirical study this paper can be expected to enrich the enterprise credit evaluation system of our province.

  19. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  20. Final Critical Habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia...

  1. [Estimation of Hunan forest carbon density based on spectral mixture analysis of MODIS data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-ping; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-xiong

    2015-11-01

    With the fast development of remote sensing technology, combining forest inventory sample plot data and remotely sensed images has become a widely used method to map forest carbon density. However, the existence of mixed pixels often impedes the improvement of forest carbon density mapping, especially when low spatial resolution images such as MODIS are used. In this study, MODIS images and national forest inventory sample plot data were used to conduct the study of estimation for forest carbon density. Linear spectral mixture analysis with and without constraint, and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis were compared to derive the fractions of different land use and land cover (LULC) types. Then sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm with and without the fraction images from spectral mixture analyses were employed to estimate forest carbon density of Hunan Province. Results showed that 1) Linear spectral mixture analysis with constraint, leading to a mean RMSE of 0.002, more accurately estimated the fractions of LULC types than linear spectral and nonlinear spectral mixture analyses; 2) Integrating spectral mixture analysis model and sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm increased the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density to 81.5% from 74.1%, and decreased the RMSE to 5.18 from 7.26; and 3) The mean value of forest carbon density for the province was 30.06 t · hm(-2), ranging from 0.00 to 67.35 t · hm(-2). This implied that the spectral mixture analysis provided a great potential to increase the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density on regional and global level. PMID:26915200

  2. [Estimation of Hunan forest carbon density based on spectral mixture analysis of MODIS data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-ping; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-xiong

    2015-11-01

    With the fast development of remote sensing technology, combining forest inventory sample plot data and remotely sensed images has become a widely used method to map forest carbon density. However, the existence of mixed pixels often impedes the improvement of forest carbon density mapping, especially when low spatial resolution images such as MODIS are used. In this study, MODIS images and national forest inventory sample plot data were used to conduct the study of estimation for forest carbon density. Linear spectral mixture analysis with and without constraint, and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis were compared to derive the fractions of different land use and land cover (LULC) types. Then sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm with and without the fraction images from spectral mixture analyses were employed to estimate forest carbon density of Hunan Province. Results showed that 1) Linear spectral mixture analysis with constraint, leading to a mean RMSE of 0.002, more accurately estimated the fractions of LULC types than linear spectral and nonlinear spectral mixture analyses; 2) Integrating spectral mixture analysis model and sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm increased the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density to 81.5% from 74.1%, and decreased the RMSE to 5.18 from 7.26; and 3) The mean value of forest carbon density for the province was 30.06 t · hm(-2), ranging from 0.00 to 67.35 t · hm(-2). This implied that the spectral mixture analysis provided a great potential to increase the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density on regional and global level.

  3. Metabolically active Crenarchaeota in Altamira Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan M; Portillo, M Carmen; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2006-01-01

    Altamira Cave contains valuable paleolithic paintings dating back to 15,000 years. The conservation of these unique paintings is attracting increasing interest, and so, understanding microbial proliferation in Altamira Cave represents a prioritary objective. Here, we show for the first time that members of the Crenarchaeota were metabolically active components of developing microbial communities. RNA was extracted directly from the studied environment, and a number of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the low-temperature Crenarchaeota were detected. Although low-temperature Crenarchaeota detected in a variety of ecosystems by using molecular techniques remain uncultured, this RNA-based study confirms an active participation of the Crenarchaeota in cave biogeochemical cycles. PMID:16292522

  4. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa and volcanic caves in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Declan Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    This paper looks at the history of the Cave Exploration Group of East Africa with special reference to the exploration of volcanic caves. It demonstrates that the group has concentrated on two main areas, the Chyulu HiIls and Mt. Suswa, although other areas have also been studied. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa has had to cope with various problems. The most important of which are related to the socio-economic conditions of a developing country. These problems have not prevented th...

  5. Petrological Study as a Tool to Evaluate the Degradation of Speleothems in Touristic Caves, Castafiar de Ibor Cave, Caceres, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Rebeca; Martín Pérez, Andrea; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    In Castafiar cave the surface of most of the speleothems present dissolution and corrosion features. In touristic caves, this process has usually been related to the acidification of the atmospheric moisture caused by C02 from the breath of visitors. However, in Castafiar cave the process of corrosion has been also observed in rooms that are not visited by tourists. Petrological studies were carried out in the speleothems affected by surface corrosion in Castafiar cave. The res...

  6. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  7. CAVE-ohjelmiston kehitys Unity-pelimoottorille

    OpenAIRE

    Nivala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä kehitettiin ohjelmistolisäosat, joiden avulla Unity-pelimoottoria voidaan käyttää sisällön tuottamiseen Satavision-CAVE -järjestelmiin. Teoriaosassa tutkittiin kuinka CAVE-järjestelmä toimii ja miten sen vaatimat ominaisuudet olisi mahdollista toteuttaa Unity-pelimoottorilla. Käytännön osuus koostui vaadittavien lisäosien ohjelmoinnista. Lisäosien ominaisuuksina toteutettin virtuaalikameroiden perspektiivin korjaus, stereoskooppisen kuvan muodostus, käyttäjän optinen p...

  8. Is it always dark in caves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not used from underground life.

  9. MR imaging of the Meckel's cave: anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meckel's cave is a dural recess containing trigeminal nerve and ganglion, extending from the posterior fossa into the middle cranial fossa. Using MRI, internal architecture in the Meckel's cave can be discernible, even a small nodule within it can be detected. There are a wide spectrum of disease process occurring in and or in the vicinity of the Meckel's cave. Disease can be classified into pathology of the trigeminal nerve proper, within the trigeminal cistern and outside the trigeminmal cistern. These classification depending on the location will aid in interpretation of pathology of Meckel's cave. We will demonstrate the MR anatomy and various pathologies of the Meckel's cave.=20

  10. Cave Features - MO 2006 Cave Density per 1:24,000 Quad (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This dataset contains the number of caves per 1:24,000 scale quadrangle (quad) in Missouri. Acknowledgement is made to the Missouri Speleological Society (MSS) for...

  11. Occurrence and Distribution of Cave Dwelling Frogs of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The life in subterranean caves always needs a high degree of biological adaptability, due to its unusual ecosystem. The cave dwelling species usually get selected from preadapted biological traits for cave life. The cave dwelling tendencies in frog are very uncommon. Majority of reported cave frogs usually prefer cave for temporary shelter. In India, the biospeleological inventory is still in its primary stage. Till date no serious attempt has been taken to understand the cave dwelling habitat for any frog in India. Inspite of it, in India time to time various reports on natural histories of anurans reveal its cave dwelling tendencies. On the basis of personal observations and available literature in this report I have documented the occurrences and distributions of five cave dwelling frogs of India. Common biological traits from all the established cave frogs, which could be referred as preadapted for cave life, have been discussed. Further, the possible threats and IUCN status of each discussed species has been highlighted.

  12. The distribution of Radon concentration in caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentration in caves is known to vary within an extremely wide range. Here the distribution of the average values of radon concentration is examined and a power law describing is identified, i.e. radon concentration has a fractal dimension D=1.26. This fact means that concentrations are not grouped around a mean value, a characteristic common to many other phenomena.

  13. Data on the Limanu Cave mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Dumitraş

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of diphractometric X-rays analyses on powders, we emphasize an association of minerals in the Limanu Cave from South Dobrogea, made up of hydroxylapatite, brushite, calcite, gypsum and dolomite as the main minerals and quartz and illite as secondary minerals.

  14. Human remains from Geula Cave, Haifa

    OpenAIRE

    Arensburg, B

    2010-01-01

    Three human skeletal fragments were unearthed by Wreschner during archaeological excavations in the Mousterian cave of Geula, in Haifa, during the years 1958-1964. The remains and especially the frontal bone belong, according to their morphology, to an ancient Homo sapiens. These finds enhance the long term discussion on ancient sapiens and so-called Neanderthal relationships in the Levant.

  15. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  16. The Crystals Cave in a test tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, C.; Romero, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    It's quite easy to understand formation of crystals in Nature by evaporation of the solutions that contain minerals, but many times we have realised that our pupils hardly understand that precipitation is a process mostly caused by changing parameters in a solution, like pH, temperature, etc. and not necessarily depending on evaporation. We propose a hands-on activity using the context of the Cave of the Crystals in Naica's mine, Mexico. The Crystals Cave is a wonderful place where giant crystals of selenite (gypsum) have grown feeding from a supersaturated anhydrite solution1. Miners discovered the cave filled with hot water, and drained it to explore the gallery. The cave is now a giant laboratory where scientists are looking for the keys to understand geological processes. Teaching sequence (for students 15 years old) is as follows: DISCOVERING A MARVELLOUS PLACE: We showed our pupils several images and a short video of the Cave of the Crystals and ask them about the process that may have caused the phenomenon. Whole-class discussion. PRESENTING A CHALLENGE TO OUR STUDENTS: "COULD WE CREATE A CRYSTALS CAVE IN A TEST TUBE?" EXPERIMENTING TO IMITATE NATURE: Students tried to grow crystals simulating the same conditions as those in Naica's mine. We have chosen KNO3, a salt more soluble than gypsum. We added 85 g of salt to 200 ml of water (solubility of KNO3 at 25°C is 36 g per 100 gr of water) and heated it until it is dissolved. Afterwards, we poured the solution into some test tubes and other recipients and let them cool at room temperature. And they got a beautiful crystals cave!! THINKING A LITTLE MORE: we asked pupils some questions to make them think about the process and to predict what would happen in different situations. For example: a) What would happen with crystals if we heated the tubes again? or b) What would happen if we took the remaining solution from the tubes and keep it in the fridge? PROVING A NEW HYPOTHESIS: Pupils collected the remaining

  17. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope (δ18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  18. Temperature as tracer of the hydraulic dynamic of an anchialine cave (coastal submerged cave) of Krka Estuary (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    A series of temperature, conductivity and water level loggers were used to characterize the hydraulic dynamic of a submerged cave (anchialine cave) in Krka Estuary. Litno Cave is a sub-horizontal gallery, less than 5 m in diameter and one meter below sea level. Apart from some sections that contain occasional air pockets under the ceiling, the cave is completely flooded. Outflow discharge through the cave is continuous during the year (>30 l/s). During several months vertical temperature profiles were measured in three locations inside the cave at 20, 60 and 100 m from the cave entrance, whereas another vertical profile was set in the estuary in front of the cave. Thermometers from the estuary measured thermal gradients to characterize position and evolution of the thermocline up to a depth of 3.5 m. Tides measured in the estuary are synchronous to those recorded in the cave and their amplitudes (20 to 40 cm in the estuary) are the same or smaller depending on cave outflow discharge. Records of cave water temperature show a non-linear response to tides due to the vertical displacement of the thermocline. During neap tides the thermocline was located in the aquifer below the cave, whereas during spring tides only thermometers in the top meter of the cave were not affected by the thermocline vertical displacement. After the first significant rains of the hydrological year, the freshwater contribution increased the cave outflow discharge by one order of magnitude. Thus, conductivity decreased in response to rains from 16000 ±1000 μS/cm to Project.

  19. 湖南农业云物联网建设对策分析%The countermeasure analysis of Hunan cloud agriculture IOT construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 郭平; 沈岳; 丁毅

    2013-01-01

      To meet the demand that Hunan is taken as the pilot province of national rural information, base on the research analysis in the grassroots during the implementation process of the Hunan agriculture IOT program, and learn from the implementation result of Yixing of Jiangsu agriculture IOT program, some specific countermeasures is provided. It is proposed that to build Hunan agriculture IOT should first break the mature industries of pig, aquaculture and greenhouse cultivation, and take the university technical supports and corporate operation as mainly model, focus on the resource integration, demonstrate first, and then popularize, so that accelerates the IOT research achievement transformation.%  针对湖南作为国家农村信息化试点省份的需求导向,以湖南农业物联网项目实施过程中多次下基层调研分析为基础,同时借鉴江苏省宜兴市农业物联网的实施成果,针对湖南省农业物联网的实际情况,结合湖南农业云平台的应用,提出湖南农业物联网建设必须优先突破当前比较成熟的生猪、水产、大棚栽培等物联网建设,以高校技术支持、企业运作为主轴,以资源整合为重点,先示范后推广,加快湖南省农业物联网研究成果转化的具体对策。

  20. The transport of CO2 into central Texas caves (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breecker, D.; Banner, J. L.; Larson, T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well established that CO2 is flushed out of caves by seasonal or synoptic temperature- and barometric pressure-driven ventilation. The mechanism by which CO2 is transported into caves is not as well studied and must be understood in order to quantify carbon (C) cycling through caves, soils and epikarst. Transport mechanisms into caves include gas and aqueous phase (i.e. drip-water) transport. We interpret δ13C values of cave-air CO2 and O2/Ar ratios of cave-air in order to distinguish between these transport mechanisms in three central Texas caves. Gas phase transport might allow cave-air to be used as a simple proxy for otherwise largely inaccessible epikarst air. Drip-water transport might allow measurements of individual drips to be scaled up to cave-integrated assessment of water flux, calcite precipitation, and degassing-related isotope fractionation using measurements of cave-air CO2. We start by assuming gas phase transport and then evaluate the consistency of the results. We apply to cave-air CO2 the theory for steady state soil CO2 transport, which involves mixing with atmospheric air and isotope fractionation by diffusion. This allows calculation of the C isotope composition of the reduced C source for cave-air CO2 (δ13Cr). Calculated cave-air δ13Cr values are consistent with observed soil δ13Cr values. For instance, where trees are evenly distributed at the surface, cave-air δ13Cr values (-24‰) remained within 1‰ of tree-dominated soil δ13Cr values and were 3.5 to 4.5 ‰ lower than grass-dominated soil δ13Cr values, suggesting that trees are the dominant C source. This internally consistent explanation suggests that CO2 diffuses and/or advects into these caves as a gas because aqueous transport into caves would likely result in different cave-air and soil δ13Cr values, as described next. The magnitude of the CO2(g) -HCO3-(aq) carbon isotope per mil fractionation factor is -8.4 ‰ at 20.5°C, the mean Inner Space Cavern drip

  1. Suitable Strategies for the Development of Sahoolan Watery Cave Geotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2013-01-01

    University, pp. 59-91. Bayati, M., etl. (2010, Geotourism and new approaches in utilizing of geomorphological attractions, a case study: Carafto cave in Kurdistan province, Journal of Geographic Space, No. 29, pp. 27-50.Beigi, h., Pakzad p. (2010, Investigating geotourism capabilities of the Gavkhoni Wetland according to the SWOT model. Journal of Sustainable Tourism IV, pp. 169-179.C. Frechtling, D. (2001, Forecasting tourism demand: Methods and strategies. Butterworth- Heinemann, Oxford.Dowling, R. K. (2011. Geotourism’s global growth. Geoheritage, 3(1, 1-13.Dowling, R., Newsome, D. (2006, Geotourism; Sustainability, impacts and management. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.Fazelniya, G., Hedayat, S. (2010, Suitable strategies for tourism development of Zarivar lake, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 19, pp. 145-170.Goeldner, C., Brent Ritchie, J.R. (2006, Tourism principles practices philosophies. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.Holden, A. (2008, Environment and tourism. New York: Routledge.Karami, F. (2005, Potentials of geotourism in Kandovan development, Journal of Geographic Space, No. 20, pp. 115-129.Khodaverdizadeh, M., etl. (2011, estimation of ecotourism values by using Contingent valuation method, A case study: Sahoolan cave, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 23, pp. 203-216. Kim, S., etl. (2008, Cave tourism:Tourists’ characteristics, Motivations to visit. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 299-318.Liang Lee, K., Chih Huang, W., Yuan Teng, J. (2009, Locating the competitive relation of global logistics hub using quantitative SWOT analytical method. Quant, pp. 87–107. McDonald, M. H. B. (1993, Marketing plans. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Newsome, D. (2006, Geotourism sustainability, impacts and management. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.Novelli, M. (2005, Niche tourism: Contemporary issues, trends and cases. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.Polovitz, N., etl. (2011, Measuring geotourism

  2. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m−3. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m−3. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration

  3. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  4. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  5. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J.; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L. N.; Miller, Ana Z.; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E.; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  6. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L N; Miller, Ana Z; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  7. Evaluation System of Sustainable Development of Foreign Trade in Hunan%对外贸易可持续发展评价指标体系的构建及运用——以湖南省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳强; 谢兮晨

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research achievements from home and abroad, the en- tropy method is used as the evaluation method of sustainable development of provincial foreign trade and a evaluation system of sustainable development of provincial foreign trade is established, which consists of 2 system layers, 7 target layers, and 22 indicators. On these bases, comprehensive analysis of the general trend and the development efficiency and condition of the sustainable development of foreign trade of Hunan Province are made, with the empirical study of the condition of the sustainable development of foreign trade in Hunan Province of the year 2006 to 2010. It naturally reaches conclusions that the ability of sustainable development of foreign trade of Hunan Province shows ascendant trend as a whole and it' s in a recovery stage after the affection of global economic crisis in 2008.%本文采用熵值法作为省域对外贸易可持续发展的评价方法,构建了2大系统层、7大目标层,以及22个指标共同组成的省域对外贸易可持续发展评价体系,通过对湖南省2006—2010年的对外贸易发展情况进行实证研究,分析湖南省对外贸易可持续发展的总体趋势及其发展绩效和状况,得出湖南省的对外贸易可持续发展能力整体呈上升趋势,在2008年受全球经济危机影响后正处于恢复性增长阶段的结论。

  8. Comparison Test of Introduced Oil Sunflower varieties (or Lines) in Hunan%湖南油葵品种(系)引种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何录秋; 杨文淼; 罗琼

    2016-01-01

    对搜集和引进的9个油葵新品种(系)进行了品种比较试验,通过对其适应性、丰产性、抗性和农艺性状等观测比较。结果表明:美葵DL667、矮大头1023、黑矮人油葵和S606适应性强,丰产性好,适合湖南推广种植;矮大头567DW和矮大头HQ1167产量表现不佳,需继续观察示范;韩国CS、新葵5号和美葵562产量偏低,不是很适合湖南省的气候条件。%Using 9 collected or introduced oil sunlfower varieties (or lines) as test materiales, their adaptability, high yield, resistance and agronomic traits were compared. The results showed that Meikui DL667, Aidatou 1023, Heairen oil sunlfower and S606 possessed characteristics of strong adaptability and good quality, which should be suitable for planting in Hunan; Aidatou 567DW and Aidutou HQ1167 possessed mid yield; South Korea CS, Xinkui 5 and Meikui 562 possessed low yield, maybe they aren’t suitable for climate conditions of Hunan Province.

  9. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  10. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE...... and learning than the Panorama. The results also suggest that knowledge gained in physical contexts is more readily transferred to its virtual simulation, while that gained in virtual experience is not reliably transferred to its equivalent physical context. The paper discusses implications for spatial ability...

  11. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

    2001-10-01

    Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art. PMID:11586348

  12. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence. PMID:27367989

  13. Toxicity and Geochemistry of Missouri Cave Stream Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, C. A.; Besser, J.; Wicks, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Water and sediment quality are among the most important variables affecting the survival of stygobites. In Tumbling Creek Cave, Taney County Missouri the population of the endangered cave snail, Antrobia culveri, has declined significantly over the past decade. The cause of the population decline is unknown but could be related to the quality of streambed sediment in which the cave snail lives. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity and concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment of Tumbling Creek Cave and five other caves in Missouri. These sediments were analyzed to assess possible point sources from within the recharge areas of the caves and to provide baseline geochemical data to which Tumbling Creek Cave sediments could be compared. Standard sediment toxicity tests and ICP-MS analysis for heavy metals were conducted. Survival and reproduction of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, did not differ significantly between cave sediments and a control sediment. However the growth of amphipods differed significantly among sites and was significantly reduced in sediments from Tumbling Creek Cave relative to controls. Concentrations of several metals in sediments differed substantially among locations, with elevated levels of zinc and copper occurring in Tumbling Creek Cave. However, none of the measured metal concentrations exceeded sediment quality guidelines derived to predict probable effects on benthic organisms and correlations between sediment metal concentrations and toxicity endpoints were generally weak. While elevated metal levels may play a part in the cave snail's decline, other factors may be of equal or greater importance. Ongoing analyses of persistent organic contaminants and total organic carbon in cave sediments, along with continued water quality monitoring, may provide data that will allow us to better understand this complicated problem.

  14. Lava caves of the Republic of Mauritius, Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Middleton

    1998-01-01

    In their Underground Atlas, MIDDLETON & WALTHAM (1986) dismissed Mauritius as: “very old volcanic islands with no speleological interest”. Recent investigations indicate this judgement is inaccurate; there are over 50 significant caves, including lava tube caves up to 687 m long (one 665 m long was surveyed as early as 1769) and 35 m wide. Plaine des Roches contains the most extensive system of lava tube caves with underground drainage rising at the seashore. Notable fauna includes an insecti...

  15. Cave speleothems as repositories of microbial biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; Jurado, Valme; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Fernández, Octavio; Calaforra, José M.; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-04-01

    The need to better understand the biodiversity, origins of life on Earth and on other planets, and the wide applications of the microbe-mineral interactions have led to a rapid expansion of interest in subsurface environments. Recently reported results indicated signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity which suggest that Mars's subsurface can house organic molecules or traces of microbial life, making the search for microbial life on Earth's subsurface even more compelling. Caves on Earth are windows into the subsurface that harbor a wide variety of mineral-utilizing microorganisms, which may contribute to the formation of biominerals and unusual microstructures recognized as biosignatures. These environments contain a wide variety of redox interfaces and stable physicochemical conditions, which enhance secondary mineral precipitation and microbial growth under limited organic nutrient inputs. Enigmatic microorganisms and unusual mineral features have been found associated with secondary mineral deposits or speleothems in limestone caves and lava tubes. In this study, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were conducted on cave speleothem samples to assess microbe-mineral interactions, evaluate biogenicity, as well as to describe unusual mineral formations and microbial features. Microbial mats, extracellular polymeric substances, tubular empty sheaths, mineralized cells, filamentous fabrics, as well as "cell-sized" etch pits or microborings produced by bacterial cells were observed on minerals. These features evidence microbe-mineral interactions and may represent mineralogical signatures of life. We can thus consider that caves on Earth are plausible repositories of terrestrial biosignatures where we can look for microbial signatures. Acknowledgments: AZM acknowledges the support from the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework

  16. Caves and Karsts of Northeast Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday William R.

    2003-01-01

    At least potentially karstifiable rocks cover much of the surface of Egypt and northern Libya. Study of caves and other karstic features of this region has been hampered by lack of roads, rapid disintegration of the surface of friable, poorly consolidated limestone, wind-blown sand and other factors. Interbedding with marly aquicludes hampers speleogenesis locally. Calcareous and evaporite karsts are present, however, and their waters are important albeit generally limited resources. Large qu...

  17. Pre-excavation studies of prehistoric cave sites by magnetic prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkis., Sonia; Matskevich, Zinovii; Meshveliani, Tengiz

    2014-05-01

    Detailed magnetic survey was performed for caves study in Israel (1995-1996) within the framework of the Beit Shemesh Regional Project (Judean Shephelah). The experience accumulated in Israel we applied later (2010) in two Georgian prehistoric cave sites: Cherula and Kotias-Klde. The magnetic method is based on the contrast in magnetic properties between a target object (e.g., buried archaeological feature) and the host medium (i.e, the surrounding bedrock and soil). The feasibility of the magnetic method for cave revealing was evaluated by magnetic susceptibility (κ) measurements of surrounding soil and rocks, and archaeological features: stones making up the walls, ceramic fragments and cave fill. According to data obtained, the κ of soil within caves (cave fill) is higher than that of surrounding soil. The enhancement of cave fill κ occurs because processes associated with human habitation: repeated heating and accumulation of organic debris. Both these processes provide good conditions for the conversion of the iron oxide found within the soil to a strongly ferromagnetic form (Mullins, 1977; Maher, 1986; Dalan and Banerjee, 1998, Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1999; Itkis, 2003) The presence of highly magnetic ceramics in caves also enhances magnetic contrast between practically non-magnetic bed rock (chalk in Ramat Beit Shemesh Site (Israel) and limestone (Georgian sites) and the cave fill, increasing the potential of the magnetic method to reveal caves (Itkis, 2011). Based on magnetic survey results, an excavation revealed a cave with a large amount of well preserved pottery and finds typical of the Early Bronze Age. Both studied cave sites in Georgia were located in Chiatura region of Imeretia province. Cherula site is a karstic rockshelter with a single chamber, ca 100 sq. m. The site was briefly tested in 1970s'. The area excavated in 2010 went to the depth of 60 cm below the present day surface; the limestone bedrock was not reached. The excavation revealed

  18. Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onac Bogdan P.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cioclovina Cave in Romania’s Southern Carpathians is a world-renowned cave site for its paleontological, anthropological, andmineralogical (type locality of ardealite finds. To date, over 25 mineral species have been documented, some unusual for a caveenvironment. This paper presents details on the occurrence of collinsite [Ca2(Mg,Fe2+(PO42·2H2O], atacamite [Cu22+Cl(OH3], andkröhnkite [Na2Cu2+(SO42·2H2O] based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, stable isotope analyses, and scanningelectron microscope imaging. This is the first reported occurrence of kröhnkite in a cave environment. Atacamite representsthe weathering product (in the presence of Lower-Cretaceous limestone-derived chlorine of copper minerals washed into the cavefrom nearby ore bodies. Atacamite and kröhnkite have similar sources for copper and chlorine, whereas sodium probably originatesfrom weathered Precambrian and Permian detrital rocks. Collinsite is believed to have precipitated from bat guano in a damp, nearneutralpH environment. The results show the following sequence of precipitation: ardealite-brushite-(gypsum-atacamite-kröhnkite.This suggests that the observed mineral paragenesis is controlled by the neutralization potential of the host-rock mineralogy and theconcentrations of Ca, Cl, Cu, and Na.

  19. Protection of karst cave animals in Shilin area%石林地区喀斯特洞穴动物的保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎道洪

    2003-01-01

    The paper reports the significance of the research and protection of karst cave animals. It introducesthe general situation of environment and the present condition of the cave animals in Shilin area, Yunnan prov-ince, China. We make a suggestion of protecting cave animals in this region. In addition, we suggest protectingsome caves according to the species richness and abundance of cave animals and the distributive condition of spe-cial species and rare species.%本文对研究和保护喀斯特洞穴动物的意义进行了探讨,对云南省石林地区的环境及喀斯特洞穴动物的现状作了简单的介绍.我们对石林地区的喀斯特洞穴动物提出了保护建议,根据洞穴动物的丰富度和丰度及稀有种的分布状况,提出了必须进行保护的喀斯特洞穴的建议.

  20. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically 0.9 m, and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 µS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a pre-existing layer of higher salinity.

  1. TESTATE AMOEBAE COMMUNITIES FROM CAVES OF SOME TERRITORIES IN EUROPEAN RUSSIA AND NORTH-EASTERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Mazei, Yuri; Belyakova, Olga; Trulova, Alisa; Guidolin, Laura; Coppellotti, Olimpia

    2012-01-01

    The species composition of testate amoebae in caves from European Russia and North-East Italy was studied. Twenty-seven species were identified from various habitats inside caves (moist substratum on floor, guano, sediments of cave streams and pools, water droplets and bacterial mats on rocky surfaces). In caves of simple structure (without differing types of habitats), the species richness of testate amoebae was far lower than in that from habitats outside the caves. In heterogeneous caves, ...

  2. Energy Consumption by Rural Households in Northern Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; ZHOU Jin; ZHANG Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    TKs study was conducted to investigate the household energy consumption in rural districts in northern Hunan and to help explore the sustainable and ecological energy policy.Questionnaires were used to ac-quire the details of energy consumption,and the electricity equivalent calculation was used in the energy statis-tics in four villages.The energy consumption in these four villages is influenced by the economic condition,geo-graphic position and landform and the local custom.The traditional biomass energy and coal briquette are the primary energy source for cooking and heating,but they are used in a very low efficiency and result in poorIAQ.For sustainability,further measures should be taken to optimize the energy consumption with the efficient use of biomass energy,coal and electricity.

  3. Geochemical characteristics of modern hot springs from northwest Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 张景荣; 胡桂兴; 杨帆; 许祖鸣

    1995-01-01

    The studies of chemical compositions of modern hot spring water and gases,isotopiccompositions of H2O,He,Ar,CH4,CO2 in northwest Hunan show that the chemical characteristics of springwater are markedly different,which indicates the difference of background value of country rocks and the dif-ference of the effect of water-rock reaction.The geothermal systems in the studied regions are middle-hightemperature geothermal systems.The distributions of springs are controlled by the press and press-shearfaults that do not dissect deeply to the mantle.The hot spring water is of meteoric water.The origin of ma-terials in the hot springs is correlated with the sedimentary rocks.

  4. Survey of radon and thoron concentration in two coal mines in Hengyang city of Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey on the concentrations and distribution of radon and thoron as well as their decay products in two coal mines of Hengyang is given in this paper. The concentrations were measured by using passive integral monitors SSNTD in four periods from Dec. 2002 to Aug. 2004. Both of the coal mines adopted mechanical ventilation and its effect was good. The seasonal variation of radon and thoron concentrations in the mines was not significant, the average radon and thoron concentration in two coal mines ranged from 86 to 138 Bq/m3 and 41 to 147 Bq/m3, respectively. The total annual effective doseresulted from radon, thoron and their decay products to the workers ranged from 0.23 to 1.25 mSv, of which the concentration of thoron and its decay product to the dose accounts for 15%-20%, thus the dose contribution of thoron cannot be neglected. (authors)

  5. Magnetotelluric study of the Xuefeng mountain area, Hu'nan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Musen; Xue, Lingxiang; Wang, Yousheng; Zhu, Shengjun

    2016-04-01

    A magnetotelluric study was carried out in the Xuefeng mountain uplift belt and its western margins. A detailed investigation was made of the resistivity of the formations, and reliable data were obtained. The sedimentary cover and basement structure of the Xuefeng mountain area and the deep geological structure were analyzed in detail using magnetotelluric data from the two-dimensional inversion of the resistivity profile data in combination with regional gravity and magnetic data. It was concluded that the tectonic movements were characterized by basement detachment, and north-south ramp. The study area can be divided into a southern uplift zone, a southern thrust-faulted zone, a central uplift zone, and a northern depression zone. This work has provided geophysical evidence that can be used in future studies of the tectonics and petroleum geology of this region.

  6. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing

  7. The South-East Karst Province of South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic—involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology—in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient.

  8. Research of Hunan provincial LUCF greenhouse gases emission inventory prepare in 2010%湖南省2010年 LUCF 温室气体排放清单编制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧西成; 管远保; 冯湘兰

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of national forestry inventory data of Hunan province,by using biomass method,Hunan provincial LUCF greenhouse gases emission inventory was prepared from forest and other woody biomass carbon stock changes and transformation of forest carbon emissions.The results showed that:In 2010,the Hunan province LUCF absorbed green-house gases was 17 205 400 t of CO2 equivalent,including the forest and other woody biomass carbon stock changes ab-sorbed greenhouse gases was 17 645 400 t of CO2 equivalent,and the greenhouse gases emission of the forest transforma-tion was 440 000 t CO2 equivalent.By increasing arbor carbon storage,41 956 400 t of carbon dioxide could be ab-sorbed.As a result of particularly large ice disaster occurred in Hunan province in 2008,the LUCF activities absorption of greenhouse gases quantity in 2010 reduces 30.93% compared to 2005.%利用湖南省森林资源清查数据,运用生物量法,从森林和其它木质生物质生物量碳储量变化及森林转化碳排放两方面对省级 LUCF 温室气体排放清单编制进行研究。结果表明:湖南省2010年 LUCF 净吸收温室气体1720.54万 t CO2当量,其中森林和其它木质生物质生物量碳储量变化净吸收温室气体1764.54万 t CO2当量,森林转化净排放温室气体44.0万 t CO2当量;通过增加乔木林碳储量,相当于吸收 CO24195.64万 t 。湖南省2008年的特大冰灾导致2010年 LUCF 活动吸收温室气体量比2005年减少了30.93%。

  9. 湖南省2010年 LUCF 温室气体排放清单编制研究%Research of Hunan provincial LUCF greenhouse gases emission inventory prepare in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧西成; 管远保; 冯湘兰

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of national forestry inventory data of Hunan province,by using biomass method,Hunan provincial LUCF greenhouse gases emission inventory was prepared from forest and other woody biomass carbon stock changes and transformation of forest carbon emissions.The results showed that:In 2010,the Hunan province LUCF absorbed green-house gases was 17 205 400 t of CO2 equivalent,including the forest and other woody biomass carbon stock changes ab-sorbed greenhouse gases was 17 645 400 t of CO2 equivalent,and the greenhouse gases emission of the forest transforma-tion was 440 000 t CO2 equivalent.By increasing arbor carbon storage,41 956 400 t of carbon dioxide could be ab-sorbed.As a result of particularly large ice disaster occurred in Hunan province in 2008,the LUCF activities absorption of greenhouse gases quantity in 2010 reduces 30.93% compared to 2005.%利用湖南省森林资源清查数据,运用生物量法,从森林和其它木质生物质生物量碳储量变化及森林转化碳排放两方面对省级 LUCF 温室气体排放清单编制进行研究。结果表明:湖南省2010年 LUCF 净吸收温室气体1720.54万 t CO2当量,其中森林和其它木质生物质生物量碳储量变化净吸收温室气体1764.54万 t CO2当量,森林转化净排放温室气体44.0万 t CO2当量;通过增加乔木林碳储量,相当于吸收 CO24195.64万 t 。湖南省2008年的特大冰灾导致2010年 LUCF 活动吸收温室气体量比2005年减少了30.93%。

  10. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS: a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant information remains fragmented in isolated publications and databases. This fragmentation makes assessing the conservation status of marine cave species especially problematic, and this issue should be addressed urgently given the stresses resulting from planned and rampant development in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS initiative is to create a comprehensive taxonomic and ecological database of known species from marine caves and anchialine systems worldwide and to present this as a Thematic Species Database (TSD of the World Register of marine Species (WoRMS. WoRCS will incorporate ecological data (e.g., type of environment, salinity regimes, and cave zone as well as geographical information on the distribution of species in cave and anchialine environments. Biodiversity data will be progressively assembled from individual database sources at regional, national or local levels, as well as from literature sources (estimate: >20,000 existing records of cave-dwelling species scattered in several databases. Information will be organized in the WoRCS database following a standard glossary based on existing terminology. Cave-related information will be managed by the WoRCS thematic editors with all data dynamically linked to WoRMS and its team of taxonomic editors. In order to mobilize data into global biogeographic databases, a Gazetteer of the Marine and Anchialine Caves of the World will be established. The presence records of species could be eventually georeferenced for submission to the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and constitute an important dataset for biogeographical and

  11. Radon Exposures in the Caves of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are more than a hundred volcanic caves and pits of various lengths on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The results are presented of atmospheric radon measurements performed in three of these caves and in three pits. One of the caves selected, El Viento Cave, is nearly 20 km in length and is the longest volcanic tube in the Canarian archipelago and the second longest in the world. The measurements were performed over two distinct periods during the year using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations range between 0.3 and 8 kBq.m-3, the maximum value corresponds to a site located at 1850 m from the mouth of El Viento Cave. Possible touristic development of these caves has been taken into account in estimating the effective doses for visitors and guides (considered separately). The values obtained range from 0.3 to 100 μSv per visit for visitors. The largest effective dose would correspond to that for guides at 41 mSv.y-1 in the Viento Cave. This result would make protection against radiological hazards obligatory if the cave were to be developed as a site for tourism. (author)

  12. Tectonic caves of Solai in the Kenyan Rift Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonic caves al Solai, Kenya, were explored in 1970. These lie in a complex geological area of the Great Rift Valley in columnar-faulted ignimbrite. Fissures are presumed to have been widened by later tectonic activity -e.g. the major earthquake of January, 1928. The caves and exploration are briefly described. Questions of formation, drainage and possibilities of steam reservoirs are discussed.

  13. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7.36 Section 7.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a)...

  14. Geologic history of the Black Hills caves, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.; Palmer, Margaret; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Cave development in the Madison aquifer of the Black Hills has taken place in several stages. Mississippian carbonates first underwent eogenetic (early diagenetic) reactions with interbedded sulfates to form breccias and solution voids. Later subaerial exposure allowed oxygenated meteoric water to replace sulfates with calcite and to form karst and small caves. All were later buried by ~2 km of Pennsylvanian–Cretaceous strata.

  15. Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Fadi H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon. The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes. The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show δ18OV-PDB values of about -5.0‰ and δ13C V-PDB values of -11.8‰, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in δ18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2‰, and δ13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1‰. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals ‘invading’ the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes, and the slight depletion in δ18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated δ18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2‰ matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

  16. Terrestrial cave invertebrates of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETAR BERON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biospeleological research in Bulgaria started in 1921 in the Ledenika Cave. From 65 caves of “Vrachanski Balkan” Nature Park and its surroundings have been recorded a total of 218 species of terrestrial invertebrates, including 32 species of troglobionts, most of them endemic to Vrachanska Planina Mts. (including the caves near Lakatnik: Isopoda Oniscoidea – 4, Chilopoda – 1, Diplopoda – 5, Opiliones – 2, Pseudoscorpiones – 3, Araneae – 3, Collembola – 2, Diplura – 2, Coleoptera, Carabidae – 7, Coleoptera, Leiodidae – 3. Troglobites are known from 51 caves, the richest being the caves near Lakatnik (Temnata dupka - 10, Zidanka - 7, Razhishkata dupka - 5, Svinskata dupka - 6, Kozarskata peshtera - 5, near Vratsa (Ledenika - 11, Barkite 8 - 5, Belyar - 6, Toshova dupka near Glavatsi - 6 and others.

  17. Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh;

    Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds are...... gains and delays in the IAC can produce very different directionalities of the ears but it is still uncertain how interaural transmission gain and delay can be shaped by evolution by anatomical adaptations. A closer inspection of the zebra finch cranium using micro-CT scanning reveals that not only is...

  18. Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Diestrammena from Longjing Cave and Bailong Cave of Guizhou,China%贵州龙井洞和白龙洞裸灶螽对重金属的富集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 黎道洪; 杜典松

    2012-01-01

    调查贵州省龙井洞和白龙洞裸灶螽部分环境因子,对2个洞穴的裸灶螽、土壤和水中重金属(Cu、Cr、Ni、Zn、Hg和As)含量进行测定,研究两洞穴裸灶螽的富集系数,对两洞穴土壤中重金属的污染指数及生态风险进行评价,结果表明:两洞穴有光带、弱光带和黑暗带土壤中重金属Cu、Cr、Ni、Zn、Hg及As的平均含量超过我国土壤背景值;两洞穴裸灶螽对Cu和Zn明显富集;龙井洞土壤中6种重金属潜在生态风险处于较高生态危害水平,且潜在生态风险系数大小排列为Hg>As>Cu>Ni>Zn>Cr;白龙洞土壤中6种重金属潜在生态风险处于高生态危害水平,且潜在生态风险系数大小排列为Hg>As>Cu>Ni>Zn>Cr,其中Hg是两洞穴最主要的生态风险因子.%Diestrammena and part of environmental factors from Longjing cave and Bailong cave in Guizhou province,were investigated. The contents of heavy metals (Cu、Cr、Ni、Zn、Hg and As) in Diestrammena ,in soil and water from two caves were measured,and the enriched coefficient of Diestrammena from two caves was studied,and the pollution index and the ecological risk of heavy metals in soil from two caves were assessed. The results showed that the average content of Cu、Cr、NU、Zn、Hg and As in two caves soil with light belt,reflection light belt and dark belt exceeds the background value of soil in China. The heavy metals Cu and Zn are significantly enriched in Diestrammena from two caves. The potential ecological risk of six heavy metals reachs a higher level in soil from Longjing cave,and the order of potential ecological risk indexes of six heavy metals is Hg>As>Cu>Ni>Zn>Cr. The potential ecological risk of six heavy metals reachs the highest level in soil from Bailong cave,and the order of potential ecological risk indexes of six heavy metals is Hg>As>Cu>Ni>Zn>Cr,in which Hg is the most important ecological risk factor in two caves.

  19. The Valuation Relationship of Hunan Inter-Regional Economy and the Development Strategy of Regional Economy%湖南省地缘经济关系评价及区域经济发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 李树丞; 叶文忠

    2001-01-01

    运用多元统计中的距离分析法对湖南省与全国各地区的地缘经济关系进行分析,找出了与湖南具有强互补、弱互补、强竞争、弱竞争关系的各地区,在此基础上研究了“西部大开发”战略实施后,湖南省与全国各地,尤其是西部地区的区际经济发展策略.%The paper analyzes the inter-regional economic relationship between Hunan Province and other places by means of distance analysis method of statistics, which provides the basis for the study (research) of regional economic development strategy between Hunan province and other places in China, especially the western areas after the West Development” strategy puts into effect.

  20. 湖南省政府英文网站建设的生态现状及优化策略%Present Ecological Situation of Hunan Official English Website Construction And its Improvement Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋学军; 刘明东

    2012-01-01

      基于当前湖南省政府门户英文网站的生态现状,重点剖析湖南省人民政府和长沙市、衡阳市政府英文网站的栏目设计情况,探讨政府英文网站翻译的归化和异化策略,分析湖南省各级政府英文网站建设所存在的问题,并提出湖南省政府英文网站建设生态的优化策略。%  This paper introduces the general construction situation of English websites of the governments in Hu-nan Province, mainly analyzes the column setting of the government’s official English websites of Hunan Province, Changsha City and Hengyang City, probes into the domestication and foreignization translation strategies for the gov-ernment’s official English websites, points out the problems existing in the construction of the government’s official English websites at different levels, and puts forward the improvement strategies for the construction ecology of the government’s official English website.

  1. Reliability analysis of the velocity matching of coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗善明; 缪协兴

    2002-01-01

    The matching relationship between coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face is analyzed in detail from the angle of reliability. The coupling equation of reliability is established correspondingly, and the mathematical equation of the coefficient of velocity matching of coal cutting and caving is obtained, which meets a certain reliability demand for making the working procedure of coal caving not influence coal cutting of coal-cutter. The results show that the relationship between the coefficient of the velocity matching and the reliability of coal cutting and caving system is linear on the whole when R<0.9. It is pointed out that different numerical value should be selected for different coal face according to different demand for reliability.

  2. Changes in the Production, Supply, and Demand for Grain and Local Society and Economy in the Qing Dynasty: The Example of Southern Hunan%粮食生产供求变动与清代地方的社会经济——以湘南为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小珍

    2012-01-01

    Hubei and Hunan Provinces were sparsely populated at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, however, most of southern Hunan had occurred because of the land development all overpopulation problem. This directly affected the local traditional agricultural economy and caused hardship and impinged upon the people's food supply. Southern Hunan was the first region to introduce maize, sweet potatoes and other high-yield upland grain crops. In Hubei and Hunan Provinces, such man-land relationships had objectively stimulated diversified economic development in the region. The two crops were widely planted after the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the hardship of food scarcity in southern Hunan was effectively alleviated. Southern Hunan also experienced rapid population growth. The introduction of new crops and the demographic expansion were powerful factors promoting the further development of the local community's economy. What needs to be pointed out is that population pressure and labor substitution forced economic development, but there was no general improvement in the living standards of the people. These economic developments had the obvious historical limitations.%清初两湖地区尚属地广人稀,但湘南大部却因为田土开发殆尽而出现了人口过剩问题,这直接影响到地方的传统农业经济和造成了民食之困,湘南因此成为两湖最早引种玉米、甘薯等高产旱地粮食作物的地区,但这种人地紧张关系也在客观上刺激了该地区的多元化经济发展。清中期以后,上述两种作物的广泛种植,使湘南的民食之困得到有效缓解,人口亦出现了高速增长,这些都有力促进了地方社会经济的再发展。需要指出的是,这种受人口压力所迫而以“使用劳力”方式为主的经济发展,并没有普遍提高民众的生活水平,因此具有明显的历史局限性。

  3. 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This characterization plan provides instructions for obtaining and analyzing samples for waste designation and disposal. The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave is located in the 100-C Area about 328 ft (100 m) southeast of the 105-C Reactor (Figure 1). The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave (Figure 2) is a reinforced concrete bunker approximately 70- ft (21.3-m) long, 7-ft (2.1-m) high, and 12-ft (3.6-m) wide, with triangular-shaped concrete ends 3-ft (0.9-m) high. The rod cave was used to store radiologically contaminated control-rod tips. If control rod tips are present, release of control rod activation products will not change expectations with respect to principal contaminants. The north portion of the cave is empty and the south portion contains two aluminum tubes that may contain rod tips (Figure 3). The caves are contaminated with activation and fission products (e.g., 60Co and 137Cs) common to the 100 Areas (see Appendix for data). Dose rates up to 0.7 mR/hr were measured in the south cave and 0.5 mR/hr in the north cave during an inspection of the facility in December 1996

  4. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France—both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  5. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  6. Microscopic fungi isolated from the Domica Cave system (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia). A review

    OpenAIRE

    Novakova Alena

    2009-01-01

    A broad spectrum, total of 195 microfungal taxa, were isolated from various cave substrates (cave air, cave sediments, bat droppingsand/or guano, earthworm casts, isopods and diplopods faeces, mammalian dung, cadavers, vermiculations, insect bodies, plantmaterial, etc.) from the cave system of the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia) using dilution, direct and gravitysettling culture plate methods and several isolation media. Penicillium glandicola, Trichoderma polysporum, Oidio...

  7. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Price

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  8. Diversity of cultured bacteria from the perennial ice block of Scarisoara Ice Cave, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Iţcuş; Mădălina-Denisa Pascu; Traian Brad; Aurel Perşoiu; Cristina Purcarea

    2016-01-01

    Cave ice ecosystems represent a poorly investigated glacial environment. Diversity of cave ice bacteria and their distribution in perennial ice deposits of this underground glacial habitat could constitute a proxy for microbial response to climatic and environmental changes. Scarisoara Ice Cave (Romania) hosts one of the oldest and largest cave ice blocks worldwide. Here we report on cultured microbial diversity of recent, 400, and 900 years-old perennial ice from this cave, representing the ...

  9. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Price

    2014-01-01

    Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  10. Pas de Vallgornera Cave, Majorca (Spain): one the largest littoral caves in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pas de Vallgornera cave is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands and one of the largest in Europe (more than 73 km long). It is found on the Miocene reef of Llucmajor Platform and its genesis is related to the development of normal faults and associated fracture systems with N 180° S and N 60° E orientation that took place during the Neogene. It is noteworthy for the abundance, variety and beauty of the speleothems, paleontological richness and to present evidence of hypogene basal recharge. Due to its singularity, it has served as the basis of several scientific studies on groundwater level fluctuations during the quaternary period and others related to the existence of one of most important paleontological sites in Mallorca as far as vertebrates are concerned. (Author)

  11. Calcite Farming at Hollow Ridge Cave: Calibrating Net Rainfall and Cave Microclimate to Dripwater and Calcite Chemical Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremaine, D. M.; Kilgore, B. P.; Froelich, P. N.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) and trace element records in cave speleothems are often interpreted as climate changes in rainfall amount or source, cave air temperature, overlying vegetation and atmospheric pCO2. However, these records are difficult to verify without in situ calibration of changes in cave microclimate (e.g., net rainfall, interior ventilation changes) to contemporaneous variations in dripwater and speleothem chemistry. In this study at Hollow Ridge Cave (HRC) in Marianna, Florida (USA), cave dripwater, bedrock, and modern calcite (farmed in situ) were collected in conjunction with continuous cave air pCO2, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, radon-222 activity, airflow velocity and direction, rainfall amount, and drip rate data [1]. We analyzed rain and dripwater δD and δ18O, dripwater Ca2+, pH, δ13C and TCO2, cave air pCO2 and δ13C, and farmed calcite δ18O and δ13C to examine the relationships among rainwater isotopic composition, cave air ventilation, cave air temperature, calcite growth rate and seasonal timing, and calcite isotopic composition. Farmed calcite δ13C decreases linearly with distance from the front entrance to the interior of the cave during all seasons, with a maximum entrance-to-interior gradient of Δδ13C = -7‰ . A whole-cave "Hendy test" at distributed contemporaneous farming sites reveals that ventilation induces a +1.9 ± 0.96‰ δ13C offset between calcite precipitated in a ventilation flow path and out of flow paths. Farmed calcite δ18O exhibits a +0.82 ± 0.24‰ offset from values predicted by both theoretical calcite-water calculations and by laboratory-grown calcite [2]. Unlike calcite δ13C, oxygen isotopes show no ventilation effects and are a function only of temperature. Combining our data with other speleothem studies, we find a new empirical relationship for cave-specific water-calcite oxygen isotope fractionation across a range of temperatures and cave environments: 1000 ln α = 16

  12. Fossil population structure and mortality analysis of the cave bears from Urşilor Cave, north-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Robu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in cave bear palaeobiology focusing on population structure and mortality analysis may improve our understanding regarding the ecology of this species which vanished at the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, prior to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, if assessed populations are large enough. Such population is available in Urşilor Cave, from north-western Romania, known as one of the most rich and complex European MIS3 cave bear sites. From the palaeontological excavation, situated at the lower level of the cave (= Scientific Reserve, more than 210 cave bear isolated lower molars, 160 mandibles and almost 180 canines were extracted and analyzed. The results obtained on the wear stages of the studied molars and mandibles indicated an “L”-shaped curve and suggest a non-attritional death pattern and a bone assemblage juvenile dominated. Moreover, the sex-ratio of upper and lower canines indicates a net dominance of females (5.4 females: 1 male. Although a “catastrophic” death pattern was obtained for cave bears, the animals seem to have died diachronically (non-simultaneously, over a time span of more than 6000 years. The triangular graph of age distribution is not appropriate for death assemblages from traps such as karst caves, where taphonomic processes like predation or scavenging would have played a less important role.

  13. Spatial organization and connectivity of caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Guglielmi, Yves; Camus, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The main particularity of karst systems is their hierarchical organization as three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drain. They are recognized as having a major influence on fluid flow at reservoir scale. However, a karstic network is generally hardly continuously observable and their great intrinsic heterogeneity makes their characterization very complex. This media can be only observed by speleological investigation, conditioned to human possibilities. As a result, only few parts can be observed and therefore it is required to model the non-observable parts for reservoir characterizations. To provide realistic 3D models, non-observable karstic features will be generated using parameters extracted from observed ones. Morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional karstic network provides quantitative measures that can (i) give information on speleogenesis processes, (ii) be used to compare different karst systems, (iii) be correlated with hydrogeological behavior and (iii) control the simulation of realistic karst networks. Recent work done on the subject characterize the karstic network as a whole, without genetic a-priori. However, most of observable caves appears to have a polygenic history due to modifications in boundary conditions and some different karst features can be observed in a same cavity. To study the geometrical organization of caves, we propose to analyze 3D speleological topographies for which speleogenetic context is known. This way, it is possible to characterize karst features according to speleogenetic processes. Several morphometric descriptors have been calculated on three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological works. Some parameters describe the existence of preferential direction of karstification and preferential flow paths, other parameters describe the complexity, geometry and connectivity of the three-dimensional karstic networks. Through the study of fifteen different caves, 150km of 3D data have been analyzed

  14. Deposition of calcium carbonate in karst caves: role of bacteria in Stiffe's cave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercole Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria make a significant contribution to the accumulation of carbonate in several natural habitats where large amounts of carbonates are deposited. However, the role played by microbial communities in speleothem formation (stalactites, stalagmites etc. in caves is still unclear. In bacteria carbonate is formed by autotrophic pathways, which deplete CO2 from the environment, and by heterotrophic pathways, leading to active or passive precipitation. We isolated cultivable heterotrophic microbial strains, able to induce CaCO3 precipitation in vitro, from samples taken from speleothems in the galleries of Stiffe’s cave, L’Aquila, Italy. We found a large number of bacteria in the calcite formations (1 x 104 to 5 x 109 cells g-1. Microscopic examination, in laboratory conditions at different temperatures, showed that most of the isolates were able to form calcium carbonate microcrystals. The most crystalline precipitates were observed at 32°C. No precipitation was detected in un-inoculated controls media or in media that had been inoculated with autoclaved bacterial cells. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that most of the carbonate crystals produced were calcite. Bacillus strains were the most common calcifying isolates collected from Stiffe’s Cave. Analysis of carbonate-solubilization capability revealed that the non-calcifying bacteria were carbonate solubilizers.

  15. ComputerApplications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama began to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models were used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup was to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability providedgeneral visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  16. Evidence of NAO control on subsurface ice accumulation in a 1200 yr old cave-ice sequence, St. Livres ice cave, Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Markus; Luetscher, Marc; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Schlatter, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Mid-latitude ice caves are assumed to be highly sensitive to climatic changes and thus represent a potentially interesting environmental archive. Establishing a precise chronology is, however, a prerequisite for the understanding of processes driving the cave-ice mass balance and thus allows a paleoenvironmental interpretation. At St. Livres ice cave (Jura Mountains, Switzerland), subfossil trees and organic material are abundant in the cave-ice deposit, therefore allowing the dating of indiv...