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Sample records for cave crickets rhaphidophoridae

  1. Molecular evolution of the pDo500 satellite DNA family in Dolichopoda cave crickets (Rhaphidophoridae

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    Sbordoni Valerio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding satellite DNA (satDNA usually has a high turn-over rate frequently leading to species specific patterns. However, some satDNA families evolve more slowly and can be found in several related species. Here, we analyzed the mode of evolution of the pDo500 satDNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets. In addition, we discuss the potential of slowly evolving satDNAs as phylogenetic markers. Results We sequenced 199 genomic or PCR amplified satDNA repeats of the pDo500 family from 12 Dolichopoda species. For the 38 populations under study, 39 pDo500 consensus sequences were deduced. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony, and Maximum Likelihood approaches yielded largely congruent tree topologies. The vast majority of pDo500 sequences grouped according to species designation. Scatter plots and statistical tests revealed a significant correlation between genetic distances for satDNA and mitochondrial DNA. Sliding window analyses showed species specific patterns of variable and conserved regions. The evolutionary rate of the pDo500 satDNA was estimated to be 1.63-1.78% per lineage per million years. Conclusions The pDo500 satDNA evolves gradually at a rate that is only slightly faster than previously published rates of insect mitochondrial COI sequences. The pDo500 phylogeny was basically congruent with the previously published mtDNA phylogenies. Accordingly, the slowly evolving pDo500 satDNA family is indeed informative as a phylogenetic marker.

  2. Measurements of the diet in two species of Troglophilus Krauss, 1879 cave crickets from Italian subterranean habitats (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

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    Claudio Di Russo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of two populations of cave crickets, Troglophilus cavicola from Veneto, northern Italy and Troglophilus andreinii from Apulia, southern Italy, were studied by analyzing faecal and gut contents. The results obtained document different food preferences in these two species. In the Troglophilus cavicola population arthropod remains were dominant in the diet, whereas in the T. andreinii population vegetables (green and fibres were the more abundant food category. Furthermore, study of the overlap of food resource exploitation among age and sex sub-samples seems to indicate a separation of diet among the young instars and other age classes of the populations. Differences in diet between males and females were observed only in the population of T. andreinii.

  3. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Venanzetti Federica; Johnsen Arild; Martinsen Lene; Bachmann Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH) ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Resul...

  4. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venanzetti Federica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Results We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. Conclusions The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead.

  5. The cave crickets of the genus Dolichopoda from Evvia and Skyros islands: formal description of D. octhoniai and D. saraolacosi (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae

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    Sotiris Alexiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species, D. octhoniai from Evvia and D. saraolacosi from Skyros island (Greece are morphologically described. These two species were collected for the first time at the end of the ‘70s but they were recorded only as nomina nuda without any formal taxonomic description. D. octhoniai is very similar to the other Evvian species D. makrikapa and to D. vandeli and D. petrochilosi from Viotia and Attiki respectively, differing from them only by a few morphological characters. On the other hand D. saraolacosi is very different from all the other species of Central Greece and West Aegean showing some affinity only with the Attiki species D. insignis and with the South Evvian species D. cassagnaui. Relationships among the species inhabiting caves of this area of Greece are discussed in relation to the complex geological history of the West Aegean area and the adjacent mainland.

  6. Vibratory interneurons in the non-hearing cave cricket indicate evolutionary origin of sound processing elements in Ensifera.

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    Stritih, Natasa; Stumpner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Tympanal hearing organs in the front tibiae of ensiferan insects supposedly evolved from vibration-sensitive tibial organs (TO), like those in the cave cricket Troglophilus neglectus (Rhaphidophoridae). If this is true, one expects to find interneurons in the cave cricket that are homologous to auditory neurons from hearing Ensifera. Therefore, we examined the central projections of the foreleg TO of the cave cricket, as well as morphology and response properties of interneurons responding to foreleg vibration. Sensory axons of the TO adjoined to the "tympanal nerve" terminate in the equivalent portion of the ring tract neuropile in the prothoracic ganglion as corresponding receptors of crickets and weta. We found nine putatively homologous elements to sound- and/or vibration-sensitive interneurons of Ensifera--one local neuron (unpaired median, DUM), three T-fibres (TN), three descending (DN) and two ascending neurons (AN). Presumable first-order interneurons arborising in the ring tract correspond to a local auditory DUM cell of bush crickets and to TN1, DN1 and AN2 of various Ensifera, respectively. Homologues of some prominent auditory cells, the "omega" neuron(s) and the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), however, were not found. We conclude that (a) T. neglectus interneurons are morphologically primitive with respect to those of hearing taxa, (b) significant changes in the dendritic structure/synaptic connectivity have taken place during the evolution of the most specialised first-order auditory interneurons of Ensifera, (c) the data do not contradict independent evolution of hearing in Grylloidea and Tettigonoidea. Other interneurons appear morpho-physiologically conserved across hearing and non-hearing species, possibly as a part of a multimodal "alert" system. PMID:18835145

  7. Male Armaments and Reproductive Behavior in “Nutcracker” Camel Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae, Pristoceuthophilus

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    Lauren P. Conroy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of many species possess striking weaponry used in intrasexual competition for access to females. Until recently, there were no known cases of male weaponry being used against females in sexual coercion. However, in the camel cricket, Pristoceuthophilus marmoratus, males use modified hind legs to fight with each other and also to trap females and force them to copulate. To determine whether hind leg armaments serve similar fighting and mating functions in morphologically similar congeners, we performed a comparative survey of armament use in intra- and inter-sexual interactions in four additional species of Pristoceuthophilus (P. arizonae and three undescribed species: P. ‘Huachuca summer,’ P. ‘Madera’ and P. ‘Mt. Pinos’. Intrasexual leg fighting occurred in all species for which trials were performed, and hints of sexual coercion occurred in two species (P. ‘Huachuca summer’ and P. ‘Mt. Pinos’, suggesting additional cases of a uniquely dual-purpose armament. These findings suggest an evolutionary exaptation of hind leg armaments in this genus, wherein an intrasexual fighting weapon took on a secondary function of sexual coercion.

  8. Endecous apterus: a new species of cave cricket from northeast Brazil, with comments on the use of subterranean habitats by Luzarinae crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Dias, Pedro G B; Bolfarini, Márcio P; Nihei, Silvio S; De Mello, Francisco A G

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the first apterous species of Endecous Saussure (1878), collected in two caves at Ituaçu, Bahia State, Brazil. In Brazil, Endecous is the most widespread cricket in hypogean environments and its species can colonize caves and inhabit the entrance and the aphotic zones; Endecous species can also be found in the litter, rock gullies, crevices, burrows, and any natural cavities. The use of subterranean habitat by Endecous crickets and its related genera are discussed. PMID:24872041

  9. CRICKET

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    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has played 18 matches so far this season, winning 12 and losing 6, with 12 fixtures remaining before the end of the season. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule, which includes a weekend trip to Milan at the end of September, can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prévessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting).

  10. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Jane Epps; Menninger, Holly L.; Nathan LaSala; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relativ...

  11. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

      The start of the 2012 Cricket season is only days away!  The CERN club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 19 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf), from 18:00 to around 19:30. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 22 April.  Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2012 can be found on the web at: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/.

  12. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2010-01-01

    The start of the Cricket season is upon us! Net practice takes place each Thursday evening from 15 April onwards, at the CERN Prévessin site, starting at 18:00 (http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CricketField.pdf). All newcomers will be made very welcome. The first practice match will be on Sunday, 18 April. Information about the CERN Cricket Club and the current fixture list for 2010 can be found on the web at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/  

  13. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a good start to the season, winning five and losing two matches, with one cancelled due to torrential rain in the South of France. Reports of the matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “Match reports”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place every week at 18:00 on the Prevessin site.

  14. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2013 season begins soon! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 18th until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 21st against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  15. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2016 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 14th, at 18:00!  The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html There will be an indoor game at the Bout-du-Monde on April 3rd and the season starts with a match at home on Sunday, April 24th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  16. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club has had a mixed first month of what has been the wettest and coldest start to a season ever, winning two and losing two matches, with one cancelled. Information about the club can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Reports of the matches can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” and the schedule, which includes weekend trips to the South of France, Bellingham (UK), and Milan, can be found under “Fixtures”. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 19:30 (weather permitting – several sessions have already been cancelled due to the inclement weather).

  17. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club is now midway through the season and has had mixed fortunes, winning seven and losing five matches, with one drawn last weekend against the Fleet Street Strollers. Two wins were recorded against Trafford Solicitors in Bellingham in the north of England only days after the heaviest rainfall in the North East in living memory, read the detailed match report online to see what the grounds man had to say when we insisted on playing! Reports of all matches can be found on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ under “ Matches (Fixtures, results, reports) ”. The schedule of matches can be found under “Fixtures”. Upcoming fixtures include the Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition on August 19th and away matches against Rhone CC in Lyon and against Milan and Euratom Cricket clubs in Settimo Milanese in September. Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes place on Thursday every week...

  18. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club Annual General Meeting will be held on Monday 26th November 2012 at 18:30 Restaurant No 1 (NOVAE) Draft Agenda Opening/Adoption of agenda/Apologies for absence Minutes of the 2011 AGM Captain's Report for 2012 Treasurer's Report for 2012 Groundsman's and Kit Report for 2012 Election of Officers for 2013 SCA affairs and CERN Fixtures for 2013 Any other business Close of meeting Offices up for election are: Secretary, Captain, Vice-captain, Treasurer and Groundsman. Any nominations should be sent to the Secretary in time for the Meeting. For more details on the CERN Cricket Club, see the web page http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  19. Cricket Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Gamage Harsha Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of a compilation of three research papers and a non-statistical essay.Chapter 2 considers the decision problem of when to declare during the third innings of atest cricket match. There are various factors that affect the decision of the declaring teamincluding the target score, the number of overs remaining, the relative desire to win versusdraw, and the scoring characteristics of the particular match. Decision rules are developedand these are assessed against historical ...

  20. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2015-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, with a game involving some of the ex members (but unfortunately none of the founder members) followed by dinner on Saturday, September 5th. CERN started playing cricket on various football fields in the Geneva Canton, then on the Meyrin site next to where the Kindergarten is now situated, bowling from one end only. Later, net practice took place where building 40 is now, before moving over to the Prevessin site in the early 70s. Lots of work was done to prepare a strip onto which a mat was rolled and the strip was rolled before each match using a heavy roller which required a minimum of 6 to push! This pre-match training is no longer necessary as the club invested in an artificial wicket in 2001. CERN now has one of the best grounds in the region. Last year CERN made it to the Cricket Switzerland semi-final, losing a close match in the last over, but is hoping to go one better in this year’s semi-final on September 13th, which will be...

  1. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN Cricket Club Match Reports The cricket season is well under way, despite the weather, and several matches have been played. The match reporters have, however, found it too difficult to limit their reports to ¼ of a page, hence the reports have not appeared in the bulletin. All reports can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/reports/reports.html The list of forthcoming matches can be consulted at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/fixtures.html Further information about the CERN Cricket Club can be found at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/

  2. Cricket club

    CERN Document Server

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC JOINS IN THREE DAYS OF GOODWILL FOR UK JOURNALISTS   22 24 July vs FLEET STREET STROLLERS Fleet Street Strollers Cricket Club, a 17-strong group of professional journalists and friends from the UK Home Counties, visited CERN for the first time on 22-24 July. On Friday 22 July, CERN's Visitor Centre provided their usual polished tour and information services.  Before the visit the Strollers had hoped to stroll underground to the Atlas detector.  Forewarned that this was not possible they hid any disappointment, judging by the acuteness and variety of the question-and-answer sessions.  And the cash register of the Visitor Shop was busy. On Saturday 23 July, Strollers won the toss and batted first in a 35-over game.  D'Mello and Campbell bowled tightly for CERN and Strollers were 13 for 2 after 6 overs.  CERN released the pressure with a few overs from L. Osborne and Curtis but, at the point where Strollers were looking...

  3. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC VERSUS TRAFFORD SOLICITORS CC IN BELLINGHAN ON JUNE 26th/27th 2010 The CERN cricket club traveled to the North of England for their first tour of the season, playing two games over the course of the weekend of 26-27th June against Trafford Solicitors CC (TSCC).   The sunny weather was almost unprecedented in the history of this fixture.  The first game on Saturday saw the CERN team rewarded for their accurate bowling, as they restricted TSCC to 130 all out: T. Goodyear the pick of the bowlers with 4-7, with three wickets for Stucki.  Despite losing three wickets, the runs were comfortable chased down in 26 overs, with Elvin top scoring on 34, and K. Goodyear hitting the winning runs to finish on 32 not out. The second match saw TSCC setting a challenging target of 179 from their 30 overs, Hoburn scoring 61, and Barrett taking 3-40.  Osborne very narrowly failed to take a hat-trick in the final over.   CERN CC’s reply started w...

  4. Aeromechanics of the Spider Cricket Jump: How to Jump 60+ Times Your Body Length and Still Land on Your Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emily; Deshler, Nicolas; Gorman, David; Neves, Catarina; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flapping, gliding, running, crawling and swimming have all been studied extensively in the past and have served as a source of inspiration for engineering designs. In the current project, we explore a mode of locomotion that straddles ground and air: jumping. The subject of our study is among the most proficient of long-jumpers in Nature: the spider cricket of the family Rhaphidophoridae, which can jump more than 60 times its body length. Despite jumping this immense distance, these crickets usually land on their feet, indicating an ability to control their posture during ``flight.'' We employ high-speed videogrammetry, to examine the jumps and to track the crickets' posture and appendage orientation throughout their jumps. Simple aerodynamic models are developed to predict the aerodynamic forces and moment on the crickets during `flight`. The analysis shows that these wingless insects employ carefully controlled and coordinated positioning of the limbs during flight so as to increase jump distance and to stabilize body posture during flight. The principles distilled from this study could serve as an inspiration for small jumping robots that can traverse complex terrains.

  5. Endecous peruassuensis n. sp. (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae) from caves of Eastern Brazil: evidence of isolation in the subterranean realm and discussion about troglomorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfarini, Marcio P; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Endecous Saussure (1878), recorded at the Lapa do Cipó and Olhos d'Água caves, which are located in the Itacarambi municipality, Minas Gerais state, Eastern Brazil. Another species, E. aguassay Mews, 2008 was recordedin the surroundings of the caves. The genus Endecous corresponds to the most common cricket in Brazilian hypogean environments. In general, these crickets inhabit the areas around cave entrances up to the aphotic zones of caves. The genus Endecous is the only cave cricket to present troglobiomorphosis, i.e., an apterous condition. The distribution of the new species is limited to these two caves, which suggests an endemism in this karst system similar to the distribution of other endemic animals, such as harvestmen and amblypygid arachnids. This species is the sixth troglobitic one described for Olhos d'Água cave, which sets this cave as a spot of subterranean fauna in Brazil. PMID:26624364

  6. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Epps

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung, a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap’s distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the

  7. CERN Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Cricket club

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club 2015 season begins soon, the first net practice is scheduled (weather permitting) for Thursday April 16th, at 18:00! The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ or turn up for net practice, which takes place each Thursday evening from April 16th (apart from CERN official holidays) until the end of September (starting at 18:00 to around 19:30) at the CERN Prévessin site: http://club-cricket.web.cern.ch/Club-Cricket/CERN-Ground.html The first match will be at home on Sunday, April 19th against Rhone CC from Lyon.

  8. CERN Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    CERN CRICKET CLUB   The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has been a good one so far with the team qualifying for the Swiss Cup semi-finals, with home advantage on the Prevessin ground on Sunday, August 24th. Their opponents will only be known the day before when the final game in the Eastern Division is played.  The CERN ground hasn’t quite recovered from the Bosons&More party last year, the wet weather making it impossible to roll the ground, but the new, wider strip is a big improvement. Net practice eventually started in late July, which is probably why the results at the beginning of the season weren’t so good. As match reports are too long to be included in the weekly bulletin, the full reports and the schedule can be found under “Matches (Fixtures, results, reports)” on the Cricket Club web site at http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    Anyone interested in playing cricket is welcome to join us at net practice, which takes pla...

  9. Cern Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Cricket Club

    2014-01-01

      Cern Cricket Club The CERN Cricket Club 2014 season has started earlier than usual, with a game scheduled for the first time ever on Easter Sunday.  Due to repair work for the damage done to the ground because of the “Bosons&More” party at the end of September, all games until June have had to be scheduled away. Net practice, which normally takes place on the ground from mid-April, will not start until mid-June. The club is always looking for new players and newcomers will be made very welcome. Anyone who is interested in joining the club should sign up on our web site: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/    

  10. The Aware Cricket Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Wazir Zada; Arshad, Quratul Ain

    2011-01-01

    The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it [1]. This research work is a mere effort for automated decision making during sports of most common interest leveraging ubiquitous computing. Primarily cricket has been selected for the first implementation of the idea. A positioning system is used for locating the objects moving in the field. Main objectives of the research are to help achieve the following goals. 1) Make Decisions where human eye can make error due to human limitations. 2) Simulate the Match activity during and after the game in a 3D computerized Graphics system. 3) Make various types of game and performance analysis of a certain team or a player.

  11. The Aware Cricket Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wazir Zada Khan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. This research work is a mere effort for automated decision making during sports of most common interest leveraging ubiquitous computing. Primarily cricket has been selected for the first implementation of the idea. A positioning system is used for locating the objects moving in the field. Main objectives of the research are to help achieve the following goals. 1 Make Decisions where human eye can make error due to human limitations. 2 Simulate the Match activity during and after the game in a 3D computerized Graphics system. 3 Make various types of game and performance analysis of a certain team or a player.

  12. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  13. Cricket for Politics and Peace; from 1987 to 2007 Cricket World Cup between India and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel AHMAD SHAHID

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper will discussed the effectiveness of cricket on both nations as cricket is very popular sport in this region particularly in India and Pakistan. The history of Cricket series between India and Pakistan from 1987 to 2007 cricket world cup will also be analyzed that how cricket was effective during these periods to release the tension of both countries. This study conveyed that the power of Cricket proved a peaceful solution of every circumstance between India and Pakistan can be resolved as compare to the gun diplomacy.

  14. Dynamic Visual Acuity Training in Cricket Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Edgar, B.Optom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is the ability of an observer to correctly identify details of a moving target and is considered to be important for tasks like driving. Dynamic Visual Acuity is better in athletes involved in sports such as basketball and baseball; however, no previous studies have considered the sport of cricket. We conducted a study to determine whether there was any difference in DVA between cricket and non-cricket players. Method: Dynamic visual acuity was measured by asking subjects to identify the orientation of the gap of a moving Landolt C target as a four-alternative forced-choice task. The Landolt C targets had confusion bars surrounding them. The participants in the study were tested twice with a break of seven weeks. In between the two measurements, participants underwent two training sessions (similar to the testing sessions, each three weeks apart. Results: The initial mean DVA for cricket players was 107.7 deg/sec, and the mean DVA for non-cricket players was 105.5 deg/sec, with a target size of 6/15. The subjects who participated in training (cricketers and non-cricketers improved in DVA by 41 deg/sec in contrast to the improvement in the non-training subjects of 18 deg/sec (p=0.0032. The cricketers who participated in the training improved in DVA by 44 deg/sec, whereas the cricketers who did not participate in the training improved by 19 deg/sec (p=0.0167. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in initial DVA between the cricket players and the non-cricket players. The training resulted in an extremely significant improvement in DVA performance by both the cricketers and non-cricketers.

  15. The influence of pay-to-view television on professional cricket : professional cricket player perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, James

    2014-01-01

    Professional cricket in England and Wales has undergone a significant period of transformation during the last 20 years. The aim of this study is to identify the role that pay-to-view television has played during this period of transformation from the perspective of professional cricket players. Specifically, this research seeks to identify the influence of pay-to-view television on cricket governance, economics and culture, from the perspective of professional cricket players in England and ...

  16. Cricket club looking for new players

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Cricket Club, having lost several key players, has had a very difficult season so far and is desperately in need of new players. Having qualified for the Cricket Switzerland semi-finals for the last two years (unfortunately losing both), this year we are bottom of the Western Pool, having played the last two league matches with only 10 players. If you are interested in playing cricket please join us at net practice, which takes place on the Prevessin site each Thursday evening from 18:00 to around 20:00 (weather permitting) or send me an e-mail (see below). Please have a look at the Cricket Club web site for more information: http://cern.ch/Club-Cricket/ Chris Onions, President of the CERN Cricket Club   (christopher.onions@gmail.com)

  17. Cricket: A Mapped, Persistent Object Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekita, Eugene; Zwilling, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Cricket, a new database storage system that is intended to be used as a platform for design environments and persistent programming languages. Cricket uses the memory management primitives of the Mach operating system to provide the abstraction of a shared, transactional single-level store that can be directly accessed by user applications. In this paper, we present the design and motivation for Cricket. We also present some initial performance results which show that, for its intended applications, Cricket can provide better performance than a general-purpose database storage system.

  18. LAMPENFLORA OF NOVOAFONSKAYA CAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazina S. E.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Novoafonskaya cave is located in Abkhazia. It is equipped for visits in 1975. The cave has permanently installed lighting. In caves with artificial lighting, a vegetation of cyanobacteria and algae, bryophytes and ferns can be found around lamps. The development of lampenflora is a typical problem for cave management. We have identified 69 species of phototrophs in Novoafonskaya cave: Magnoliophyta 2 species, Pteridophyta 6 species, Bryophyta 11 species, Cyanobacteria 34 species, Bacillariophyta 9 species, Ochrophyta 2 species, Chlorophyta 5 species. The article considers main habitat of lampenflora and gives their characteristics. We have also revealed predominance of cyanobacteria in the cave

  19. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of cricket teeth are always interesting. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of a cricket tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. The interior of the tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points towards the top of the tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate randomly into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp is proposed and a detailed discussion is given in this paper. (authors)

  20. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket tooth

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Xueqing; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    Cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of the cricket teeth are always interested. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of the cricket teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. While, the interior of the teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points at the top of tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate random into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp was proposed and a d...

  1. The development of the edible cricket industry in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Flore, Roberto;

    2016-01-01

    considered in this study: cricket farmers; wholesale traders and market vendors; tourism agents; international organisa tions; chefs; private companies; researchers; and governmental representatives. The farming and sale of crickets is still a small-scale activity which is relatively profitable...

  2. Clastic cave deposits in Botovskaya cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Hercman, H.; Osintsev, A.; Oberhänsli, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2008), s. 142-155. ISSN 1090-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * mineral magnetism * Botovskaya Cave Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2008 http://www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_70.htm

  3. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  4. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  5. Radon in Caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2005-01-01

    The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources,the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then,the instruments,both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into accounttheir respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the objectof regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations i...

  6. Speleothems and cave minerals in gypsum caves

    OpenAIRE

    Forti P.

    1996-01-01

    For many years gypsum karst was considered to contain little of interest from the point of view of chemical deposits. Relatively recently a general study of speleothems has begun within gypsum karst areas in different climatic zones around the world. So far this ongoing research has shown that gypsum karst can be very interesting in terms of its contained chemical deposits. In this chapter, all that is currently known about speleothems in gypsum caves is reported systematically, and the disti...

  7. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  8. Changes to injury profile (and recommended cricket injury definitions based on the increased frequency of Twenty20 cricket matches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Trefor James2, Alex Kountouris2, Marc Portus21School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 2Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: This study analyzes injuries occurring prospectively in Australian men’s cricket at the state and national levels over 11 seasons (concluding in season 2008–09. In the last four of these seasons, there was more cricket played, with most of the growth being a new form of the game – Twenty20 cricket. Since the introduction of a regular Twenty20 program, injury incidence rates in each form of cricket have been fairly steady. Because of the short match duration, Twenty20 cricket exhibits a high match injury incidence, expressed as injuries per 10,000 hours of play. Expressed as injuries per days of play, Twenty20 cricket injury rates compare more favorably to other forms of cricket. Domestic level Twenty20 cricket resulted in 145 injuries per 1000 days of play (compared to 219 injuries per 1000 days of domestic one day cricket, and 112 injuries per 1000 days of play in first class domestic cricket. It is therefore recommended that match injury incidence measures be expressed in units of injuries per 1000 days of play. Given the high numbers of injuries which are of gradual onset, seasonal injury incidence rates (which typically range from 15–20 injuries per team per defined ‘season’ are probably a superior incidence measure. Thigh and hamstring strains have become clearly the most common injury in the past two years (greater than four injuries per team per season, perhaps associated with the increased amount of Twenty20 cricket. Injury prevalence rates have risen in conjunction with an increase in the density of the cricket calendar. Annual injury prevalence rates (average proportion of players missing through injury have exceeded 10% in the last three years, with the injury prevalence rates for fast bowlers exceeding 18%. As the amount of scheduled cricket is

  9. Hydration benefits to courtship feeding in crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, T. M.; Johnson, J. C.; Sakaluk, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The spermatophore transferred by male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) at mating includes a large gelatinous spermatophylax that the female consumes after copulation. Although previous studies have shown that G. sigillatus females gain no nutritional benefits from consuming food gifts, there may be other benefits to their consumption. We examined potential hydration benefits to females by experimentally manipulating both the availability of water and the number of food gifts that fem...

  10. The aeration of clay soils in cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Simon A.

    2012-01-01

    In the game of cricket good ball-surface interactions are essential and require a hard, flat surface. To achieve this the clay loam soil comprising the pitch is compressed and compacted using a smooth wheeled roller, which when combined with the drying action of the grass plant roots, causing the clay minerals within the soil to shrink, creates a high bulk density, hard surface on which to play. High bulk density soils present difficult growing conditions for plants due to h...

  11. RAD/COMM ''Cricket'' Test Report

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, P J

    2002-01-01

    A series of tests were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate and characterize the radiological response of a ''Cricket'' radiation detection system. The ''Cricket'' is manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems Corp., which is located in Ontario, Canada. The system is designed to detect radioactive material that may be contained in scrap metal. The Cricket's detection unit is mounted to the base of a grappler and monitors material, while the grappler's tines hold the material. It can also be used to scan material in an attempt to isolate radioactive material if an alarm occurs. Testing was performed at the Environmental Effects Laboratory located at ORNL and operated by the Engineering Science and Technology Division. Tests performed included the following: (1) Background stability, (2) Energy response using sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, and sup 6 sup 0 Co, (3) Surface uniformity, (4) Angular dependence, (5) Alarm actuation, (6) Alarm threshold vs. background, (7) Shielding, (8) Re...

  12. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  13. An Introductory Application of Principal Components to Cricket Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manage, Ananda B. W.; Scariano, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis is widely used in applied multivariate data analysis, and this article shows how to motivate student interest in this topic using cricket sports data. Here, principal component analysis is successfully used to rank the cricket batsmen and bowlers who played in the 2012 Indian Premier League (IPL) competition. In…

  14. Sex, death, and genetic variation: natural and sexual selection on cricket song

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, D.A.; Cade, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Male field crickets, Gryllus integer, in Texas, USA, produce a trilled calling song that attracts female crickets, resulting in enhanced mating success. Gravid female parasitoid flies, Ormia ochracea, are also attracted to male cricket calling song, resulting in the death of the male within about seven days. Using playbacks of field-cricket calling song in the natural habitat, we show that both female crickets and female parasitoid flies prefer male calling song with average numbers of pulses...

  15. Caves; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caves form the most extensive underground area in Earth crust. They are characterised by specific natural traits such as genesis, morphology, sinter filling, underground streams and lakes, speleoclimatic pattern, cave fauna, etc. Two types of caves are discerned: primeval-caves, which were generated along with the genesis of rocks and secondary, which were formed after the genesis of rocks under the effect of exogenous processes. The karstic caves are the most spectacular and largest caves. The area of karst territory (formed normally by different classes of limestone and dolomite rocks) in Slovakia is more than 2,700 km2. The map was compiled pursuing the List of Caves in Slovakia as of 31 December 1998 issued by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. The central register and documentation is in responsibility of the Slovak Museum of Nature Conservation and Speleology in Liptovsky Mikulas. This List has been prepared in co-operation with the team of employees of the Museum, Slovak Speleological Society, volunteers and other contributors. The List does not comprise the areas of anthropogenic origin and 3,946 caves are ordered by geomorphological units in alphabet order with quoted cadaster and district, sea level altitude of the entrance, length and depth of the cave system, genetic type, class of rocks, etc. More than 120 caves occur in other than karstic rocks. Pursuing the Act of the National Council of the SR No. 287/1944 on nature and landscape protection, caves represent natural monuments under the highest, i.e. fifth level of protection, while the most important ones were designated national nature monuments by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. The presented occurrence of caves was processed according to quantitative indicators in geomorphological units. (authors)

  16. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coate...

  17. Candoluminescence of cave gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet John R.; Hess John W.; White William B.

    2010-01-01

    A selection of gypsum specimens from a variety of caves as well as CaSO4 synthesized in the laboratory emit both a green and yellow candoluminescence when excited by a hydrogen diffusion flame. The green emission is attributed to dehydration of gypsum to bassanite and the yellow emission appears upon further dehydration to anhydrite. The source of the luminescence is ascribed to minor concentrations of Mn2+ in the gypsum.

  18. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.

    2006-01-01

    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  19. Microscopic fungi isolated from cave air and sediments in the Nerja Cave - preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema, 2014, s. 239-245. ISBN 978-1-138-02694-0 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microscopic fungi * cave air * cave sediments * Nerja Cave Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  1. Exposure to radon in Cuban tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective of estimating the dose, due to Radon-222, received by tour guides and other people who work inside some of the most important tourist caves in the Republic of Cuba, measurements of radon concentrations were carried out in four of these caves: Santo Tomas Cave, Tapiada Cave, Del Indio Cave and Jose Miguel Cave. All these caves are located in the Vinales Valley (Pinar del Rio City), a very important tourist area in the country. The relationship among radon concentration, the concentration of natural radionuclides inside the caves and the geologic characteristics of the specific locations was analyzed. In order to select the most appropriates measurement places, different criteria were taken into account: representatives points of the geology of the caves, level of gamma radiation, exchange of air, places of work inside the caves (cafeterias, restaurants and shops) and places more frequently visited by tour guides. The maximum radon concentration was found in Jose Miguel Cave with a value of 220 Bq/m3. The measurement of gamma dose rate inside the caves was carried out with a scintillation detector type Scintrex BGS-3 previously calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The radon concentrations were measured with the equipment Alpha Guard PQ2000/MC50 and SARAD RM2000, both also calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The obtained results indicated that, in the studied caves, the annual dose is not greater than 1 mSv considering a work year of 2000 hours. (author)

  2. Time and timing in the acoustic recognition system of crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RalfMatthiasHennig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The songs of many insects exhibit precise timing as the result of repetitive and stereotyped subunits on several time scales. As these signals encode the identity of a species, time and timing are important for the recognition system that analyzes these signals. Crickets are a prominent example as their songs are built from sound pulses that are broadcast in a long trill or as a chirped song. This pattern appears to be analyzed on two timescales, short and long.\tRecent evidence suggests that song recognition in crickets relies on two computations with respect to time; a short Gabor function as part of a linear-nonlinear (LN model that operates as a filter for pulse rate and a longer integration time window for monitoring song energy over time. Therefore there is a twofold role for timing. A filter for pulse rate shows differentiating properties for which the specific timing of excitation and inhibition is important. For an integrator, however, the duration of the time window is more important than the precise timing of events.\tHere, we first review evidence for the role of Gabor functions and integration time windows for song recognition in crickets. We then explore the effects of duration, frequency, phase and offset of Gabor functions as these will result in differently timed patterns of excitation and inhibition. These filter properties were compared with known preference functions of crickets and katydids. In a comparative approach, the power for song discrimination by LN-models was tested with the songs of over 100 cricket species. It is demonstrated, how the acoustic signals of crickets occupy a simple 2-dimensional space for song recognition that arises from timing, the Gabor function, and time, the integration window. Finally, we discuss the evolution of recognition systems in insects based on simple sensory computations.

  3. INNOVATIVE METHOD TO PRACTICE & IMPROVE THE GAME OF CRICKET

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Tariq Murtaza; Mohd. Imran; Mohd Sharique

    2015-01-01

    The game of cricket has a magnificent past and a complex history (Bob Woolmer 2008). It relishes 400-Odd years of annals (Murtaza S. T. & et. al. 2014). Authors believe that it has been originated from the ancient sport of India i.e. Gilli Danda (Tipcat in English) which has possibly the origin over 2500 years ago (Steve Craig-2002 & John Arlott-1975). Cricket was taken by the British to their Colonies & started playing & expanding into every continent on the globe. Modern day’...

  4. The future of the CAVE

    KAUST Repository

    DeFanti, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  5. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  6. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  7. 3N Cave: Longest salt cave in the world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.; Vilhelm, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2006), s. 10-18. ISSN 0027-7010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt cave * salt karst * Iran * expedition Namak Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. The 5th Umpire: Automating Cricket's Edge Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The game of cricket and the use of technology in the sport have grown rapidly over the past decade. However, technology-based systems introduced to adjudicate decisions such as run outs, stumpings, boundary infringements and close catches are still prone to human error, and thus their acceptance has not been fully embraced by cricketing administrators. In particular, technology is not employed for bat-pad decisions. Although the snickometer may assist in adjudicating such decisions it depends heavily on human interpretation. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of Wavelets in developing an edgedetection adjudication system for the game of cricket. Artificial Intelligence (AI tools, namely Neural Networks, will be employed to automate this edge detection process. Live audio samples of ball-on-bat and ball-on-pad events from a cricket match will be recorded. DSP analysis, feature extraction and neural network classification will then be employed on these samples. Results will show the ability of the neural network to differentiate between these key events. This is crucial to developing a fully automated edge detection system.

  9. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  10. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652. ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  11. Aggressive behavior of the white-eye mutant crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakura, Midori; Watanabe, Takayuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior of white-eye mutant crickets was investigated and compared with that of wild-type crickets. In the dark, wild-type pairs performed long-lasting fights with significantly higher aggressive levels compared to those in the light. In contrast, fights between two white-eye mutants were not significantly different with those between two wild-type crickets both in duration and the aggressive levels. Ethograms of aggressive behavior showed that the mutants could show typical seque...

  12. DELINEATING KARST RECHARGE AREAS AT ONONDAGA CAVE STATE PARK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onondaga Cave State Park is located in the north central portion of the Ozarks near Leasburg, Missouri. The park is known for two extensive cave systems, Onondaga Cave and Cathedral Cave. Both of these cave systems have active streams (1-2 cfs at baseflow) which have unknown recharge areas. As a man...

  13. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  14. AN EXAMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF INDIA'S PERFORMANCE IN ONE-DAY CRICKET INTERNATIONALS ON THE INDIAN STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Mishra; Russell Smyth

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Indian cricket team's performance in one day international cricket matches on returns on the Indian stock market. The main conclusion of the study is that there exists an asymmetric relationship between the performance of the Indian cricket team and stock returns on the Indian stock market. While a win by the Indian cricket team has no statistically significant upward impact on stock market returns, a loss generates a significant downward movement in the ...

  15. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Hermosin Bernardo; Boiron Patrick; Rodriguez-Nava Veronica; Laiz Leonila; Jurado Valme; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo

    2010-01-01

    With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  16. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.; Burri Ezio

    2000-01-01

    The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the ...

  17. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the ...

  18. Utilization of Bellae Prehistory Cave Complex

    OpenAIRE

    supriadi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is located in South Sulawesi. Bellae has rich archaeological heritage that make this cave complex important as cultural resource in South Sulawesi as well as in Indonesia generally. Nowadays, the Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is threatened by the local population as the sites are close to settlement. Furthermore, its archaeological potentials as well as the uniqueness of the complex which is situated in karstic area have attracted many parties to...

  19. Cave of the Astronomers at Xochicalco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, Arnold

    The chimney built in the roof of the artificial large cave at Xochicalco, known as "Cave of the astronomers", has been interpreted as a solar zenithal observation tube. Nevertheless, different elements and especially the latitude of the site itself led the author to present a lunar hypothesis. Precise measurements of the impact of light inside the cave show the degree of precision that can be obtained in this camera obscura.

  20. Two steps to suicide in crickets harbouring hairworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, M.I.; Ponton, F.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The hairworm (Nematomorpha) Paragordius tricuspidatus has the ability to alter the behaviour of its terrestrial insect host (the cricket Nemobius sylvestris), making it jump into the water to reach its reproductive habitat. Because water is a limited and critical resource in the ecosystem, we pre...... suicidal rather than erratic behaviour. (C) 2008 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  1. Acoustic experience shapes female mate choice in field crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Nathan W.; Zuk, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Female choice can drive the evolution of extravagant male traits. In invertebrates, the influence of prior social experience on female choice has only recently been considered. To better understand the evolutionary implications of experience-mediated plasticity in female choice, we investigated the effect of acoustic experience during rearing on female responsiveness to male song in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Acoustic experience has unique biological relevance in this species: ...

  2. Biomechanical Analysis of a Filiform Mechanosensory Hair Socket of Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kanishka; Mian, Ahsan; Miller, John

    2016-08-01

    Filiform mechanosensory hairs of crickets are of great interest to engineers because of the hairs' highly sensitive response to low-velocity air-currents. In this study, we analyze the biomechanical properties of filiform hairs of the cercal sensory system of a common house cricket. The cercal sensory system consists of two antennalike appendages called cerci that are situated at the rear of the cricket's abdomen. Each cercus is covered with 500-750 flow sensitive filiform mechanosensory hairs. Each hair is embedded in a complex viscoelastic socket that acts as a spring and dashpot system and guides the movement of the hair. When a hair deflects due to the drag force induced on its length by a moving air-current, the spiking activity of the neuron that innervates the hair changes and the combined spiking activity of all hairs is extracted by the cercal sensory system. Filiform hairs have been experimentally studied by researchers, though the basis for the hairs' biomechanical characteristics is not fully understood. The socket structure has not been analyzed experimentally or theoretically from a mechanical standpoint, and the characterization that exists is mathematical in nature and only provides a very rudimentary approximation of the socket's spring nature. This study aims to understand and physically characterize the socket's behavior and interaction with the filiform hair by examining hypotheses about the hair and socket biomechanics. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was first created using confocal microscopy images of the hair and socket structure of the cricket, and then finite-element analyses (FEAs) based on the physical conditions that the insect experiences were simulated. The results show that the socket can act like a spring; however, it has two-tier rotational spring constants during pre- and postcontacts of iris and hair bulge due to its constitutive nonstandard geometric shapes. PMID:27322099

  3. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  4. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  5. A human pathogenic bacterial infection model using the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochi, Yuto; Miyashita, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Kohsuke; Mitsuyama, Masao; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-08-01

    Invertebrate animal species that can withstand temperatures as high as 37°C, the human body temperature, are limited. In the present study, we utilized the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, which lives in tropical and subtropical regions, as an animal model of human pathogenic bacterial infection. Injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus into the hemolymph killed crickets. Injected P. aeruginosa or S. aureus proliferated in the hemolymph until the cricket died. The ability of these pathogenic bacteria to kill the crickets was blocked by the administration of antibiotics. S. aureus gene-knockout mutants of virulence factors, including cvfA, agr and srtA, exhibited decreased killing ability compared with the parent strain. The dose at which 50% of crickets were killed by P. aeruginosa or S. aureus was not decreased at 37°C compared with that at 27°C. Injection of Listeria monocytogenes, which upregulates toxin expression at 37°C, killed crickets, and the dose at which 50% of crickets were killed was decreased at 37°C compared with that at 27°C. These findings suggest that the two-spotted cricket is a useful model animal for evaluating the virulence properties of various human pathogenic bacteria at variable temperature including 37°C. PMID:27377894

  6. Modeling and analysis of caves using voxelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeifert, Gábor; Szabó, Tivadar; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    Although there are many ways to create three dimensional representations of caves using modern information technology methods, modeling of caves has been challenging for researchers for a long time. One of these promising new alternative modeling methods is using voxels. We are using geodetic measurements as an input for our voxelization project. These geodetic underground surveys recorded the azimuth, altitude and distance of corner points of cave systems relative to each other. The diameter of each cave section is estimated from separate databases originating from different surveys. We have developed a simple but efficient method (it covers more than 99.9 % of the volume of the input model on the average) to convert these vector-type datasets to voxels. We have also developed software components to make visualization of the voxel and vector models easier. Since each cornerpoint position is measured relative to another cornerpoints positions, propagation of uncertainties is an important issue in case of long caves with many separate sections. We are using Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effect of the error of each geodetic instrument possibly involved in a survey. Cross-sections of the simulated three dimensional distributions show, that even tiny uncertainties of individual measurements can result in high variation of positions that could be reduced by distributing the closing errors if such data are available. Using the results of our simulations, we can estimate cave volume and the error of the calculated cave volume depending on the complexity of the cave. Acknowledgements: the authors are grateful to Ariadne Karst and Cave Exploring Association and State Department of Environmental and Nature Protection of the Hungarian Ministry of Rural Development, Department of National Parks and Landscape Protection, Section Landscape and Cave Protection and Ecotourism for providing the cave measurement data. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research

  7. Acceleration Kinematics in Cricketers: Implications for Performance in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lockie Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cricket fielding often involves maximal acceleration to retrieve the ball. There has been no analysis of acceleration specific to cricketers, or for players who field primarily in the infield (closer to the pitch or outfield (closer to the boundary. This study analyzed the first two steps of a 10-m sprint in experienced cricketers. Eighteen males (age = 24.06 ± 4.87 years; height = 1.81 ± 0.06 m; mass = 79.67 ± 10.37 kg were defined as primarily infielders (n = 10 or outfielders (n = 8. Timing lights recorded 0-5 and 0-10 m time. Motion capture measured first and second step kinematics, including: step length; step frequency; contact time; shoulder motion; lead and rear arm elbow angle; drive leg hip and knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion; swing leg hip and knee flexion, and ankle dorsi flexion. A one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05 determined between-group differences. Data was pooled for a Pearson’s correlation analysis (p < 0.05 to analyze kinematic relationships. There were no differences in sprint times, and few variables differentiated infielders and outfielders. Left shoulder range of motion related to second step length (r = 0.471. First step hip flexion correlated with both step lengths (r = 0.570-0.598, and frequencies (r = -0.504--0.606. First step knee flexion related to both step lengths (r = 0.528-0.682, and first step frequency (r = -0.669. First step ankle plantar flexion correlated with second step length (r = -0.692 and frequency (r = 0.726. Greater joint motion ranges related to longer steps. Cricketers display similar sprint kinematics regardless of fielding position, likely because players may field in the infield or outfield depending on match situation. Due to relationships with shoulder and leg motion, and the importance and trainability of step length, cricketers should target this variable to enhance acceleration.

  8. A descriptive analysis of batting backlift techniques in cricket: Does the practice of elite cricketers follow the theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbhai, M Habib; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-10-01

    One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship that is coached from a young age is to play with a straight bat. Limited studies to date have examined whether top international batsmen use this traditionally described technique. Accordingly, we performed a descriptive, observational study of the backlift technique adopted by 65 of the most successful batsmen of all time, based on their career averages, strike rate and runs scored. The batsmen were divided into two groups depending on whether they played the game before or after 1954. Surprisingly, more than 70% of these successful batsmen did not adopt the traditionally taught technique. Instead, they adopted a more looped action in which the initial movement of the bat was in the direction of the slips, and in extreme cases it was either towards the gully/point region or to have the face of the bat directed towards the off-side. This suggests that traditionally taught batting coaching techniques may hinder, rather than enhance future cricketing performance. Since the vast majority of cricketers are not coached in this technique, this finding probably indicates that this looped technique is likely a contributing factor to effective batsmanship. PMID:26956380

  9. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  10. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L

    2008-05-01

    Caves can be difficult to navigate and often require physical modification to allow easy access for visitors. Single entrance caves double the access impact of each visitor. Visitors in tourist caves have direct physical effects such as the introduction of concrete and steel structures; transport of mud, dust, and nutrients; installation of lights and the exhalation of water vapour and carbon dioxide into the air. Indirect physical effects include alteration of the microclimate, both through physical modifications that change the ventilation regime and through the presence of visitors leading to changes in temperature, humidity and CO2 within the cave environment. Anthropomorphic changes to cave physical environments to aid access or to reduce backtracking can have adverse effects on the internal microclimate of cave systems with subsequent changes to the cave environment affecting the quality of decorations and cave art and the diversity of cave fauna. Although often stated that caves operate at or near a constant temperature, closer examination indicates that cave temperatures are neither static nor constant. The degree of variation depends largely on the structure and physical characteristics of the cave. Air temperature and humidity gradients between the inside and outside cave environment can result in air density differences, which create airflow, which will in turn affect the cave microclimate. As part of the development of a management framework for King Solomons Cave, Tasmania, a study of the microclimate was carried out on behalf of Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service. Analysis of the variables showed significant differences in air temperature within each site and between sites. These differences range from 4 degrees C variation at one site to 0 degrees C at another site. The data were used to model potential airflow between the cave and the external environment. Results indicate that part of the cave is dominated by airflow between the chimney and the

  11. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km2. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  12. Speleogenesis of Selected Caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and Caves of Fenglin Karst in Qiubei, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanka (S)EBELA; Tadej SLABE; LIU Hong; Petr PRUNER

    2004-01-01

    Yunnan is famous for its attractive karst landscapes especially shilins, fengcong and fenglin. The development of caves beneath the shilins in the vicinity of Lunan is closely connected with the formation of shilins. Most of the waters percolating through shilins run through the caves beneath them and are responsible for their formation. The study of cave speleogenesis deepens knowledge about both the development of shilins and karst structure. In the vicinity of the Lunan Shilin, speleological, morphological and structural geological studies of four karst caves have been accomplished. At Puzhehei, Qiubei, which is characterised by numerous fenglin, fengcong and caves, speleological and morphological studies have been performed. Cave sediments for paleomagnetic analyses have been taken from all studied areas (samples CH 1-9). Karst caves in SE Yunnan are probably much older than the age of the cave sediments (<780,000 years B.P.). The studied areas are located in the vicinity of the Xiaojiang fault (N-S direction) and the Red River fault (NW-SE direction). The general directions of both active faults are assumed to influence the direction of the most frequent fissures as well as the cave passages near the Lunan Shilin. The Xiaojiang fault more strongly influences cave passage orientation, while the more distant Red River fault most strongly influences fissure orientation.

  13. 43 CFR 37.12 - Confidentiality of cave location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Cave Designation § 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. (a) Information disclosure... individual or organization assisting the land managing agency with cave management activities. To request... risk to cave resources of harm, theft, or destruction. (b) Requesting confidential...

  14. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CatherineLoudon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  15. Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary-Book Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tourism and Cricket Travels to the Boundary is a book that could be useful to sport tourism studies. It could be an excellent student’s handbook at universities with one condition to be added questions to the end of each chapter for personal study and homework. The cricket’s link to tourism could also be added with calls for case studies with different nations for university students. This book is a part of cricket’s route in this century.

  16. A history of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    Published claims in 1887-1903 that the mole cricket Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty) occurs in Puerto Rico all seem to be derived from a misidentification made by Agustín Stahl, a medical practitioner and collector of natural history objects, published in 1882. That species does not seem now to occur in Puerto Rico and almost certainly never did. However, the opportunity still exists for it to colonize by wind-assisted flight from islands to the southeast just as we believe did the mole cricke...

  17. Nature and incidence of upper limb injuries in professional cricket players a prospective observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and is gaining in importance in all south-east Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence, nature, and site of acute upper limb injuries sustained by professional cricketers of north India over a period of one year. Material & methods 95 cricket players (mean age 18.9 years were prospectively evaluated for nature and incidence of upper limb injuries from 1st November 2008 to 31st October 2009. For the purpose of comparison the calculated injury incidence included injuries sustained during match as well as practice. Injuries were also grouped according to the type of cricket activities such as batting or fielding. Results Out of 95 players evaluated, 24 were bowlers, 19 were batsmen, 8 were wicket keepers and the other 44 cricketers declared themselves as all rounders. There were a total of 16 upper limb injuries in 16 (16.8% players. The majority of injuries (10/16 occurred while fielding. Out of 16 injuries, 11 were seen in hand, 3 were observed in elbow, while 2 patients suffered from shoulder problem. Twelve were acute injuries while 4 were classified as repetitive stress injuries (RSI. Conclusion The incidence of upper limb injuries in cricketers at the professional and semi-professional level is significant, causing them to miss matches or practice for a significant number of days. This is the first study of Indian cricketers which documents the high incidence of upper limb injuries. The study highlights the importance of injury surveillance for Indian cricket. It is a concern which needs to be addressed by the players, coaches, teachers, administrators and medical personnel involved with cricket.

  18. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ball Andrew S.; Kirby Greg; Bourne Steven; Cao Xiangsheng; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard Ramin; Adetutu Eric M.; Shahsavari Esamaeil; Thorpe Krystal

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits) and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access). Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey ...

  19. Does the Cave Environment Reduce Functional Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Camile Sorbo; Batalha, Marco Antonio; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2016-01-01

    Caves are not colonised by all taxa present in the surface species pool, due to absence of light and the tendency to food limitation when compared to surface communities. Under strong species sorting during colonisation and later by the restrictive environmental filter, traits that are not adaptive in subterranean habitats may be filtered out. We tested whether cave communities were assembled by the restrictive regime propitiated by permanent darkness or by competitive exclusion due to resource scarcity. When compared to surface communities, the restrictive subterranean regime would lead to lower functional diversity and phenotypic clustering inside the caves, and the opposite should be expected in the case of competitive exclusion. Using isopods (Oniscidea) as model taxa, we measured several niche descriptors of taxa from surface and cave habitats, used a multivariate measure of functional diversity, and compared their widths. We found phenotypic overdispersion and higher functional diversity in cave taxa when compared to surface taxa. On the one hand, the dry climate outside of caves hampered the survival of several taxa and their ecological strategies, not viable under severe desiccation risk, culminating in the clustering of functional traits. In contrast, this restriction does not occur inside of caves, where isopods find favourable conditions under lower predation pressures and more amenable environmental parameters that allow occupation and subsequent diversification. Our results showed that, at least for some taxa, caves may not be such a harsh environment as previously thought. The high functional diversity we found inside caves adds an additional reason for the conservation of these sensitive environments. PMID:27003837

  20. Dose assessment from radon in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon measurements in tourist caves have traditionally being used in the studies of conservation of existent prehistoric artistic manifestations inside cavities. This kind of measurements can provide the grade, and partly the dynamics, of ventilation and renovation of the air of the caves. On the other hand, since 2001, Spanish law incorporated EURATOM basic standards for radiological protection, which include a request at the EC Member States to determine the working places on which exposure to natural radiation is significant. On Title VII (BOE 178/2001) radiation coming from natural sources has analogous role than radiation emitted from artificial ones used to. Because of the low ventilation rates existing at tourist caves, indoor radon concentration can be significantly high. In developed caves in which guides provide tours for the general public great care is needed for taking remedial actions concerning radon, because in some circumstances forced ventilation may alter the humidity inside the cave affecting some of the formations or paintings that attract tourists. Tourist guides can work about 1900 hours per year, so the only option to protect them and other cave workers from radon exposure is to apply an appropriate system of radiation protection mainly based on limitation of exposure by restricting the amount of time spent in the cave. From a previous radon measurement campaign carried out in caves at the region of Cantabria (Spain), those with higher concentration values were selected for a new survey. In this study more detailed radon measurements were performed in order to get more detailed information about monthly concentration variations, as well to determine the dose received by people working there. In dose assessment, specific characteristics of the cave concerning the behaviour of radon and its decay products are of main importance. Factors like unattached progeny fraction (fp), equilibrium factor (F) and particle concentration (Z) are

  1. An analysis of the efficiency of player performance at the 2011 Cricket World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Gweshe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In limited overs cricket, efficiency plays a significant role in team success. Batsmen especially are under pressure to score quickly rather than in large quantities because only 50 overs are available per innings. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA to assess the efficiency with which players at the 2011 Cricket World Cup converted inputs (balls faced or bowled into performance outputs. The effect that non-discretionary variables like the cricketing resources available to a player have on his efficiency is controlled for, allowing for a fairer assessment across players from different countries.

  2. Exploring the potential for changing gender norms among cricket coaches and athletes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored gender norms with cricket coaches and athletes in India to adapt a coach-delivered gender violence prevention program from the United States for the urban Indian context. Interviews and focus groups conducted among coaches and adolescent cricketers highlight the extent to which coaches and athletes articulate prevailing inequitable notions about gender and recognition of the power coaches wield. Adapting a violence prevention program that emphasizes gender norms change may be feasible with Indian cricket coaches but is likely to require attention to defining gender equity and challenging cultural assumptions with coaches prior to implementing the program with athletes. PMID:25540256

  3. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  4. Dating of processes in karst and caves implication for show caves prezentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel

    Liptovský Mikuláš: International Show Caves Association, 2011 - (Bella, P.; Gažík, P.), s. 34-41 ISBN 978-80-89310-59-3. [Congress International Show Caves Association /6./. Demänovská Valley (SK), 18.10.2010-23.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : karst * speleogenesis * karst sediments * dating methods * geochronology * show caves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  5. NAK WP-Cave project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WP-Cave is designed as an egg-shaped underground structure for intermediate storing and final disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Its height, when storing 1600 tonnes of spent fuel, is about 250 m and its diameter 110 m at mid-height. The waste storage has a compact layout and is surrounded by two engineered barriers. The innermost one is a 5 m-wide shield consisting of a mixture of bentonite clay and same which has a low hydraulic conductivity. This shield is surrounded by a so-called hydraulic cage, which initially drains the storage rock mass and, in the long-term diverts, the ground water flow past the storage. In this way an initial dry supervision period can be maintained. After sealing-off the storage and after water-filling, a stagnant chemical environment is established inside the bentonite-sand barrier preventing the disposed waste from being dissolved and from migrating to the geosphere. The programme, as outlined by the Project Board, has considered R and D questions with specific relation to the WP-Cave such as: properties of low-graded bentonite mixtures, function of the hydraulic cage, full-face boring of the storage, geomechanics of the storage and the bentonite-sand barrier, dry ventilation of the storage, temperature distributions and thermal stresses. An initial safety analysis has also been conducted. The hydraulic conductivity of low-grade bentonite mixtures has been measured in laboratory tests and found to be higher than expected. Tests of gas conductivity, for instance, confirm that only low gas pressures would build up inside the bentonite-sand barrier. The initial safety analysis indicates that a compact storage, such as that presented, would allow for the safe isolation of the spent nuclear fuel and would fulfull the radiation protection criterion of 0.1 mSv/year. With 27 refs. (Author)

  6. Inbreeding and courtship calling in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, J M; Milner, R N C; Hall, M D; Jennions, M D

    2011-01-01

    Male field crickets produce two acoustic signals for mating: advertisement calls and courtship calls. While the importance of advertisement calling in mate attraction is well understood, the function of courtship calling is less clear. Here, we tested if the courtship call of male crickets Teleogryllus commodus signals aspects of male quality by comparing the calls of inbred and outbred males. We examined the effect of one generation of full sibling mating on fine-scale call structure, along with several life history traits. Inbreeding reduced nymph survival but had no significant effect on weight or development time. Inbreeding resulted in a small but significant change in two of the six call parameters measured. We then tested if inbreeding affects call trait combinations that are important to females by using the results of a previous selection analysis to compare the multivariate attractiveness of the calls of inbred and outbred males. There was no difference. We conclude that the courtship call of T. commodus is not a reliable signal of aspects of male quality that are affected by inbreeding (which generally reduces fitness-enhancing traits). It might, however, signal components of male fitness that are not affected by changes in heterozygosity. PMID:21054622

  7. Dynamic Characterization of Cercal Mechanosensory Hairs of Crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Book

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous dynamic characterizations of the cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets have generally been limited to the first resonant frequency and associated deflection shape. A more complete description of the mechanical dynamics of these structures could be obtained by an experimental modal analysis. This paper describes a method by which a full experimental modal analysis, giving natural frequency, mode shape, and modal damping ratio, of these sense organs can be performed. Results of this analysis, employing an unmeasured moving-air excitation and non-contact vibration measurement with an output-only identification method are presented. Two distinct types of behaviour were observed, one of which was a good match for the behaviour expected based on the literature, and one of which was quite different. These two behaviours had distinct patterns of modal parameters. The method described in this paper has been shown to be able to estimate the modal parameters, including natural frequency, modal damping ratio, and normalized mode shape, for the first mode of cercal mechanosensory hairs of crickets. The method could practically be extended to higher modes and a wide variety of other sound and vibration sense organs with the selection of appropriate excitation and specimen supports.

  8. PERISCOPE: PERIapsis Subsurface Cave OPtical Explorer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar sub-surface exploration has been a topic of discussion since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter identified openings (cave skylights) on the surface of the moon...

  9. Is it always dark in caves?

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not use...

  10. Tree-mould caves in Slovakia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaal Ludovit

    2003-01-01

    Four tube-shaped caves are described in this work, which origined in consequence of weathering the trees. Their length ranges from 5.8 to 17 m. All of them occur in neovolcanic rocks of Middle Slovakia, in epiclastic andesite conglomerates, breccias or in the tuffs. Some other caverns are close to the entrance of this caves, however they are inaccessible for a man. Thin rim of silicates (opal or chalcedony) occurs in some of them.

  11. Guano mining in Kenyan lava tunnel caves

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Commercial mining of bat guano for agricultural fertilizer only became possible in Kenya through discovery of major deposits in the lava tunnel caves of Mt. Suswa and the North Chyulu Hills in the early 1960’s. This paper provides historical information leading up to the guano mining, describes the cave deposits, outlines the mining under-takings, and provides information on the guano producing bats and insect faunas. The results of guano analyses, details of the tonnages extracted and sold t...

  12. Martel's routes in Mammoth cave, Kentucky, 1912.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Trevor R.

    2003-01-01

    Martel’s own copy of the Hovey 1912 guidebook to Mammoth Cave has his routes marked faintly in pencil on the printed cave plans. These plans are reproduced here, with his routes indicated on them. He generally followed the four standard tourist routes which now included Kaemper’s 1908 discoveries to Violet City, but instead of visiting the Maelstrom he went to Hovey’s Cathedral and Gerta’s Grotto.

  13. Magnetic Record in Cave Sediments: A Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2011 - (Petrovský, E.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Harinarayana, T.; Ivers, D.), s. 343-360. (IAGA special Sopron book series. Volume 1). ISBN 978-94-007-0322-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk MEB090908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * cave clastic sediments * speleothems * cave depositional systems Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  14. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  15. An analysis of the efficiency of player performance at the 2011 Cricket World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    T Gweshe; I Durbach

    2013-01-01

    In limited overs cricket, efficiency plays a significant role in team success. Batsmen especially are under pressure to score quickly rather than in large quantities because only 50 overs are available per innings. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA) to assess the efficiency with which players at the 2011 Cricket World Cup converted inputs (balls faced or bowled) into performance outputs. The effect that non-discretionary ...

  16. Describing the business decision-making process for evaluating cricket sponsorship proposals / Alida Johanna Coetzee

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Alida Johanna

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing cricket unions today is getting adequate funding; on the other hand, one of the challenges facing businesses are the hundreds of unsolicited sponsorship proposals they receive annually. This study investigated the business decision-making process for selecting sponsorship proposals, specifically to contribute to the cricket unions’ understanding of the formal selection process that the sponsorship proposal goes through. The primary objectiv...

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION BETWEEN HOCKEY AND CRICKET PLAYERS OF BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mukti Singh Srinet,

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the sports achievement motivation between hockey and cricket players and also to find out the status of players in relation to sports achievement motivation. For purpose of the study forty (twenty hockey and twenty three cricket) were selected from Banaras Hindu University. Subjects’ sports achievement motivation was measured by inventory developed by M.L Kamlesh., Data was collected by administering questionnaire inter university camp. All the necessar...

  18. The Effect of Competitive Balance on the Demand for International Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Sacheti, Abhinav

    2006-01-01

    The issue of competitive balance and its effect on the attendance demand for sport has been covered extensively for many professional sports, but there is very little coverage of the effect of competitive balance on demand for international cricket, particularly in terms of long run competitive balance. This dissertation uses economic analysis to investigate the effect of long run competitive balance on attendance demand for international cricket, using attendance data for Test and one-day in...

  19. Linking Lincolnshire sport: the role of University women’s cricket in promoting women’s participation

    OpenAIRE

    Piller, Jonathan; Purdy, John; Smith, James; Cook, Kristian; Evans, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Patriarchal influences have been shown to create barriers to equity and inclusion in sports participation and governance (Rowe, D. (2004). Critical Reading: Sport, Culture and Media. Berkshire. McGraw Hill). Cricket is a sport in which patriarchal values still largely prevail. Despite the recent success of the women’s international cricket team, the Active People Survey (Sport England, 2012) shows that national participation rates have decreased in women’s cricket on a monthly basis (between ...

  20. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  1. Lights and shadows on the conservation of a rock art cave: The case of Lascaux Cave.

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian Fabiola; Alabouvette Claude

    2009-01-01

    Lascaux Cave was discovered in 1940. Twenty years after the first microbial contamination signs appeared. In the last forty years thecave suffered different fungal invasions. Here we discuss the past, present and future of the cave and the conservation of its rock artpaintings to the light of data obtained using culture-dependent and –independent methods.

  2. Time recorded in cave deposits - 10 Years of paleomagnetic research in Slovenian caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2007), s. 242-242. ISSN 0583-6050. [Time in karst. 14.03.2007-18.03.2007, Postojna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave deposits * karst * paleomagnetism * Slovenian caves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. A MATHEMATICAL MODELLING APPROACH TO ONE-DAY CRICKET BATTING ORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Ovens1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While scoring strategies and player performance in cricket have been studied, there has been little published work about the influence of batting order with respect to One-Day cricket. We apply a mathematical modelling approach to compute efficiently the expected performance (runs distribution of a cricket batting order in an innings. Among other applications, our method enables one to solve for the probability of one team beating another or to find the optimal batting order for a set of 11 players. The influence of defence and bowling ability can be taken into account in a straightforward manner. In this presentation, we outline how we develop our Markov Chain approach to studying the progress of runs for a batting order of non- identical players along the lines of work in baseball modelling by Bukiet et al., 1997. We describe the issues that arise in applying such methods to cricket, discuss ideas for addressing these difficulties and note limitations on modelling batting order for One-Day cricket. By performing our analysis on a selected subset of the possible batting orders, we apply the model to quantify the influence of batting order in a game of One Day cricket using available real-world data for current players

  4. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author)

  5. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA; El sistema de la Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km{sup 2}. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  6. The show cave of Diros vs. wild caves of Peloponnese, Greece - distribution patterns of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Lamprinou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The karst cave ‘Vlychada’of Diros, one of the oldest show caves in Peloponnese, sustains extended phototrophic biofilms on various substrata – on rocks inside the cave including speleothems, and especially near the artificial lighting installation (‘Lampenflora’. After a survey of the main abiotic parameters (Photosynthetically Active Radiation -PAR, Temperature -T, Relative Humidity -RH, Carbon Dioxide -CO2 three clusters of sampling sites were revealed according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA: i the water gallery section predominately influenced by CO2, ii the dry passages influenced by RH and PAR, and iii the area by the cave exit at the dry section influenced by temperature. The collected samples from the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave revealed a total of 43 taxa of Cyanobacteria, with the unicellular/colonial forms being the most abundant. The applied non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling Ordination (nMDS of the cumulative species composition showed a clear distinction between the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave. Further comparison with previous data from other wild caves of Peloponnese (‘Kastria’, ‘Francthi’, and ‘Selinitsa’ was conducted revealing a distinction between the show cave and the wild ones. Apart from the human impact on cave ecosystems – through aesthetic alteration (‘greening’ of cave decorations by the ‘Lampenflora’, and by the cleaning treatments and restoration projects on the speleothems – identification of the organisms constituting the ‘Lampenflora’ might provide taxonomically and ecologically significant taxa.

  7. Effect of toss and weather on County Cricket Championship outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David; Dorsey, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The principal competition in English professional cricket has become more competitive with the introduction of hierarchical divisions linked by promotion and relegation. Using regression analysis, we examine the effect on league points when teams suffer different degrees of weather disruption over the season and different amounts of luck in winning the toss for choice of first innings. The results are used to illustrate the sensitivity of championship, promotion, and relegation outcomes to such matters of chance and revised league tables are produced after applying adjustments to account for the influence of weather and toss. Policy recommendations are presented on how the influence of weather and toss might be lessened in future seasons. PMID:17852685

  8. Bactridine's effects on DUM cricket neurons under voltage clamp conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, P; Sevcik, C; Martínez, R; Castillo, C; D'Suze, G

    2012-12-01

    We describe the effects of six bactridines (150 nM) on cricket dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. The addition of bactridine 2 to DUM neurons induced a large current component with a reversal potential more negative than -30 mV, most evident at the end of the pulses. This current was completely suppressed when 1 μM amiloride was applied before adding the bactridines. Since the amiloride sensitive current is able to distort the aim of our study, i.e. the effect of bactridines on sodium channels, all experiments were done in the presence of 1 μM amiloride. Most bactridines induced voltage shifts of V(1/2) of the Boltzmann inactivation voltage dependency curves in the hyperpolarizing direction. Bactridines 1, 4 and 6 reduced Na current peak by 65, 80 and 24% of the control, respectively. The sodium conductance blockage by bactridines was voltage independent at potentials >20 mV. Bactridines effect on cricket DUM neurons does not correspond to neither α- nor β-toxins. Most bactridines shifted the inactivation curves in the hyperpolarizing direction without any effects on the activation m(∞)-like curves. Also bactridines differ from other NaScpTx in that they increased an amiloride-sensitive conductance in DUM neurons. Our result suggest that the α/β classification of sodium scorpion toxins is not all encompassing. The present work shows that bactridines target more than one site: insect voltage dependent Na channels and an amiloride-sensitive ionic pathway which is under study. PMID:23085555

  9. Habitat Management Plan for Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Logan Cave NWR Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at Logan Cave NWR, to...

  10. Stability analysis of subgrade cave roofs in karst region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 赵明华; 曹文贵

    2008-01-01

    According to the engineering features of subgrade cave roof in karst region, the clamped beam model of subgrade cave roof in karst region was set up. Based on the catastrophe theory, the cusp catastrophe model for bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof and safe thickness of subgrade cave roof in karst region was established. The necessary instability conditions of subgrade cave roof were deduced, and then the methods to determine safe thickness of cave roofs under piles and bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof were proposed. At the same time, a practical engineering project was applied to verifying this method, which has been proved successfu1ly. At last, the major factors that affect the stability on cave roof under pile in karst region were deeply discussed and some results in quality were acquired.

  11. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo–devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo–devo cave animal model syste...

  12. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  13. Final critical habitat for the Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod...

  14. Final Critical Habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of final critical habitat for Kauai cave wolf spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai cave amphipod (Spelaeorchestia...

  15. Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ratan Khuman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from five different colleges were requited for the study with purposive sampling. They were assigned into three different groups according to their types of sports, cricket n = 50, soccer n = 50, volleyball n = 50. The static and dynamic balance was assessed using flamingo balance test (FBT and star excursion balance test (SEBT in institutional based sports physiotherapy department. Results: Intra-group comparison for FBT and SEBT score shows no significance difference (P > 0.05. Multiple comparison of FBT and SEBT score between groups reveals significantly difference between cricket and soccer player (P = 0.000, between cricket and volleyball player (P = 0.000 and between soccer player and volleyball players (P = 0.000. FBT and SEBT score were significantly higher in soccer players than volleyball and cricketer were found to have the least score compared with soccer and volleyball players. Conclusion: There is significance difference in static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. The soccer players demonstrate higher balance than volleyball players and the volleyball players have a higher balance than that of cricketers both statically and dynamically.

  16. Palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments in Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    Prague : Czech Speleological Society, 2009. s. 53-54. ISBN 978-80-254-4928-8. [International Congress of Speleology /15./ : Karst Horizons. 11.07.2009-26.07.2009, Kerrville] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * caves * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  17. Age of Cave Sediments in Slovenia: Results of dating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2009), s. 171-171. ISSN 1337-6748 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * dating * palaeomagnetic method * magnetostratigraphy * cave sediments ( Slovenia ) * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. Metabolically active Crenarchaeota in Altamira Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan M; Portillo, M Carmen; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2006-01-01

    Altamira Cave contains valuable paleolithic paintings dating back to 15,000 years. The conservation of these unique paintings is attracting increasing interest, and so, understanding microbial proliferation in Altamira Cave represents a prioritary objective. Here, we show for the first time that members of the Crenarchaeota were metabolically active components of developing microbial communities. RNA was extracted directly from the studied environment, and a number of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the low-temperature Crenarchaeota were detected. Although low-temperature Crenarchaeota detected in a variety of ecosystems by using molecular techniques remain uncultured, this RNA-based study confirms an active participation of the Crenarchaeota in cave biogeochemical cycles. PMID:16292522

  19. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m-3. Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m-3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems and may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentration. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentration observed in this study and the implications for viable actions. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  20. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m-3. Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m-3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems, therefore, may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentrations. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentrations observed in this study and the implications for viable actions

  1. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa and volcanic caves in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Declan Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    This paper looks at the history of the Cave Exploration Group of East Africa with special reference to the exploration of volcanic caves. It demonstrates that the group has concentrated on two main areas, the Chyulu HiIls and Mt. Suswa, although other areas have also been studied. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa has had to cope with various problems. The most important of which are related to the socio-economic conditions of a developing country. These problems have not prevented th...

  2. Petrological Study as a Tool to Evaluate the Degradation of Speleothems in Touristic Caves, Castafiar de Ibor Cave, Caceres, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martín García, Rebeca; Martín Pérez, Andrea; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    In Castafiar cave the surface of most of the speleothems present dissolution and corrosion features. In touristic caves, this process has usually been related to the acidification of the atmospheric moisture caused by C02 from the breath of visitors. However, in Castafiar cave the process of corrosion has been also observed in rooms that are not visited by tourists. Petrological studies were carried out in the speleothems affected by surface corrosion in Castafiar cave. The res...

  3. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  4. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  5. CAVE-ohjelmiston kehitys Unity-pelimoottorille

    OpenAIRE

    Nivala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä kehitettiin ohjelmistolisäosat, joiden avulla Unity-pelimoottoria voidaan käyttää sisällön tuottamiseen Satavision-CAVE -järjestelmiin. Teoriaosassa tutkittiin kuinka CAVE-järjestelmä toimii ja miten sen vaatimat ominaisuudet olisi mahdollista toteuttaa Unity-pelimoottorilla. Käytännön osuus koostui vaadittavien lisäosien ohjelmoinnista. Lisäosien ominaisuuksina toteutettin virtuaalikameroiden perspektiivin korjaus, stereoskooppisen kuvan muodostus, käyttäjän optinen p...

  6. Is it always dark in caves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not used from underground life.

  7. Atmospheric 222Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the 222Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of 222Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively

  8. MR imaging of the Meckel's cave: anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meckel's cave is a dural recess containing trigeminal nerve and ganglion, extending from the posterior fossa into the middle cranial fossa. Using MRI, internal architecture in the Meckel's cave can be discernible, even a small nodule within it can be detected. There are a wide spectrum of disease process occurring in and or in the vicinity of the Meckel's cave. Disease can be classified into pathology of the trigeminal nerve proper, within the trigeminal cistern and outside the trigeminmal cistern. These classification depending on the location will aid in interpretation of pathology of Meckel's cave. We will demonstrate the MR anatomy and various pathologies of the Meckel's cave.=20

  9. Effects of hedgerows on bats and bush crickets at different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurélie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by the loss and fragmentation of habitats. The role of hedgerows in maintaining biodiversity is well established, but few studies have addressed the importance for biodiversity of the intrinsic characteristics of hedgerows and the quality of hedgerow networks along a spatial scale. We examined three quality indices providing information at different territorial levels: density in the landscape, structural diversity and wood production. We performed an acoustic survey in a grassland to estimate the species abundance and community composition of bats (9 taxa) and bush crickets (11 species). Using an approach based on species and traits, we assessed how hedgerow quality influenced the activity of these taxa at different spatial scales (from 50 to 1000 m) and focused on three types of traits: bush cricket mobility ability, bat foraging strategy and habitat specialization. In general, our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for bats and bush crickets, but the strength of the association between taxa and hedgerows varied substantially among the species and the spatial scales. Although it depends on the taxa, the production, density and structural diversity of hedgerows each had an overall positive effect. Our results suggested that these effects were generally more important at large scales. The scale effect of the production index is the best predictor of activity for bat and bush cricket taxa and traits. Our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for the ecology of bat and bush cricket communities and could be used to improve conservation management.

  10. Effect of a strong, DC-induced magnetic field on circadian singing activity of the house cricket (orthoptera:gryllidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, K.C.; Bitzer, R.J.; Galliart, L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effect of a strong, DC-induced electromagnetic field (EMF) on the circadian singing activity of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.). Groups of 10 crickets were exposed to strong, DC-induced EMFs under two light regimes, 12:12 (L:D) h and 0:24 (L:D) h. Exposure to the strong EMF resulted in an increase in mean time per hour during which one or more crickets were singing and in number of crickets singing per hour. Correcting for phase shift during O:24 (L:D) h, the daily pattern of singing was apparently unaffected by any treatment. The greatest percentage of singing and number of crickets singing per hour occurred during actual or expected scotophase. This is the first report of an increase in insect activity during exposure to a strong DC-induced EMF.

  11. Cave Features - MO 2006 Cave Density per 1:24,000 Quad (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This dataset contains the number of caves per 1:24,000 scale quadrangle (quad) in Missouri. Acknowledgement is made to the Missouri Speleological Society (MSS) for...

  12. Radon measurements in the caves of Zonguldak (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are ∼20 caves of limestone origin in Zonguldak (Turkey). In this study, the results of atmospheric radon measurements performed for two caves are presented. These caves, Goekgoel and Cehennemagzi, are open to tourism. Goekgoel Cave is the longer, at nearly 3200 m in length. Cehennemagzi is a pit-type cave with a total length of 85 m. The radon measurements were performed for 2 months between July 2004 and September 2004 using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations were recorded as 1918.8 Bq m-3 in Goekgoel Cave and 657 Bq m-3 in Cehennemagzi Cave. The maximum value corresponds to a site located 400 m from the entrance of Goekgoel Cave. Mean effective dose values for tourists of 0.86 μSv per visit to Cehennemagzi Cave and 3.76 μSv to Goekgoel Cave were obtained. These results show that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for visitors to these two caves. (authors)

  13. Study of cave sediments in Budimirica Cave, Macedonia FYR – Correlation to late pleistocene environmental changes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Temovski, M.; Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Hercman, H.

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts ,, 2015 - (Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Gostinčar, P.). s. 150-151 ISBN 978-961-254-808-7. [International Karstological School Classical Karst /23./. 15.06.2015-19.06.2015, Postojna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Budimirica Cave * cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * Late Pleistocene * paleoenvironment Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://iks.zrc-sazu.si/datoteke/IKS-23-Guide-book-2015.pdf

  14. Magnetic fabric and mineralogy of cave deposits in Botovskaya Cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Hercman, H.; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Oberhänsli, H.; Osintsev, A.

    Vol. 3. Prague : Česká speleologická společnost, 2013 - (Filippi, M.; Bosák, P.), s. 96-98 ISBN 978-80-87857-09-0. [International Congress of Speleology /16./. Brno (CZ), 21.07.2013-28.07.2013] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * magnetic fabric * mineralogy * cave deposits Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Food sources of selected terrestrial cave arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Nováková, Alena; Režňáková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-46. ISSN 1768-1448 Grant ostatní: Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * caves * Collembola * Diplopoda * feeding habits * Isopoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  16. Human remains from Geula Cave, Haifa

    OpenAIRE

    Arensburg, B

    2010-01-01

    Three human skeletal fragments were unearthed by Wreschner during archaeological excavations in the Mousterian cave of Geula, in Haifa, during the years 1958-1964. The remains and especially the frontal bone belong, according to their morphology, to an ancient Homo sapiens. These finds enhance the long term discussion on ancient sapiens and so-called Neanderthal relationships in the Levant.

  17. Data on the Limanu Cave mineralogy

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Dumitraş; Ştefan Marincea; Gabriel Diaconu

    2008-01-01

    By means of diphractometric X-rays analyses on powders, we emphasize an association of minerals in the Limanu Cave from South Dobrogea, made up of hydroxylapatite, brushite, calcite, gypsum and dolomite as the main minerals and quartz and illite as secondary minerals.

  18. The distribution of Radon concentration in caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentration in caves is known to vary within an extremely wide range. Here the distribution of the average values of radon concentration is examined and a power law describing is identified, i.e. radon concentration has a fractal dimension D=1.26. This fact means that concentrations are not grouped around a mean value, a characteristic common to many other phenomena.

  19. The antibiotic resistance in cave environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Petrásek, Jiří; Jirout, Jiří; Chroňáková, Alica; Kyselková, Martina; Volná, Lucie

    Košice : Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 2012. s. 41-42. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /21./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Košice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic resistance * cave environments Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Millipedes play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter in the subterranean environment. Despite the existence of several cave-adapted species of millipedes in adjacent geographic areas, their study has been largely ignored in Portugal. Over the last decade, intense fieldwork in ...

  1. The Crystals Cave in a test tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, C.; Romero, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    It's quite easy to understand formation of crystals in Nature by evaporation of the solutions that contain minerals, but many times we have realised that our pupils hardly understand that precipitation is a process mostly caused by changing parameters in a solution, like pH, temperature, etc. and not necessarily depending on evaporation. We propose a hands-on activity using the context of the Cave of the Crystals in Naica's mine, Mexico. The Crystals Cave is a wonderful place where giant crystals of selenite (gypsum) have grown feeding from a supersaturated anhydrite solution1. Miners discovered the cave filled with hot water, and drained it to explore the gallery. The cave is now a giant laboratory where scientists are looking for the keys to understand geological processes. Teaching sequence (for students 15 years old) is as follows: DISCOVERING A MARVELLOUS PLACE: We showed our pupils several images and a short video of the Cave of the Crystals and ask them about the process that may have caused the phenomenon. Whole-class discussion. PRESENTING A CHALLENGE TO OUR STUDENTS: "COULD WE CREATE A CRYSTALS CAVE IN A TEST TUBE?" EXPERIMENTING TO IMITATE NATURE: Students tried to grow crystals simulating the same conditions as those in Naica's mine. We have chosen KNO3, a salt more soluble than gypsum. We added 85 g of salt to 200 ml of water (solubility of KNO3 at 25°C is 36 g per 100 gr of water) and heated it until it is dissolved. Afterwards, we poured the solution into some test tubes and other recipients and let them cool at room temperature. And they got a beautiful crystals cave!! THINKING A LITTLE MORE: we asked pupils some questions to make them think about the process and to predict what would happen in different situations. For example: a) What would happen with crystals if we heated the tubes again? or b) What would happen if we took the remaining solution from the tubes and keep it in the fridge? PROVING A NEW HYPOTHESIS: Pupils collected the remaining

  2. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF THE FIELD CRICKET (GRYLLUS TESTACEUS WALKER)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DunWang; Yao-yuBai; Jiang-hongLi; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The chemical composition and the nutritional quality of protein, fatty acids and chitin of adult field cricket Gryllus testaceus Walker were investigated. The adult insect contalned: crude protein 58.3 %; fat 10.3 %, chitin 8.7 % and ash 2.96 % on dry matter basis respectively. The essential amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cysteine and methionine. The fatty acid analysis showed unsaturated acid of the field cricket to be present in high quantities, and the total percentage of oleic acid, linolic acid and linolenic acid was 77.51%. The chitin content of the insect was 8.7 % with a better quality than the commercial chitin that was prepared from shells of shrimp and crab. Therefore the chemical composition of the field cricket indicates the insect to be a good supplement to nutrition for food and feed, even a raw material for medicine.

  3. "A man's game": cricket, war and masculinity, South Africa, 1899-1902.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    As practitioners of the imperial sport of the Victorian age, cricketers rallied whenever war descended upon England and its colonies. The South African War of 1899-1902 was no different. Adding to existing work on cricket's imperial development within South Africa, this study marks a significant contribution to research on the link between masculinity, war and sport during the Victorian era. A concept emerging from the English public schools of the mid- to late nineteenth century, the masculine ethos of sport and military honour had reached colonial South Africa by the outbreak of war in 1899. In its analysis of cricket and masculinity, this essay examines the events surrounding the war in South Africa and provides an example of the distinct relationship that existed between the military and the masculinity of sport and its organisation during this era. PMID:21280409

  4. A Taxonomic Review of the Sword-tailed Cricket Subfamily Trigonidiinae (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Gryllidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Korean population of the sword-tailed cricket subfamily Trigonidiinae is reviewed for the first time. Four members of the crickets are confirmed based on the examined material, those are Metioche japonica (Ichikawa, 2001, Svistella bifasciata (Shiraki, 1911, Homoeoxipha obliterata (Caudell, 1927 and Natula matsuurai Sugimoto, 2001, each of them belonging to a different genera. Among them, the former two are reconfirmed since earlier records, and latter two are newly recognized genera and species from the far southern provinces Jeollanam-do and Jeju-do Island in Korea. The type locality of both crickets is Japan, and are also only previously referred to in Japan, but their distributional ranges include neighboring South Korea. A key to the species, descriptions, photographs, figures, and oscillograms of male’s calling sounds are provided to aid their identification.

  5. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope (δ18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  6. Temperature as tracer of the hydraulic dynamic of an anchialine cave (coastal submerged cave) of Krka Estuary (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    A series of temperature, conductivity and water level loggers were used to characterize the hydraulic dynamic of a submerged cave (anchialine cave) in Krka Estuary. Litno Cave is a sub-horizontal gallery, less than 5 m in diameter and one meter below sea level. Apart from some sections that contain occasional air pockets under the ceiling, the cave is completely flooded. Outflow discharge through the cave is continuous during the year (>30 l/s). During several months vertical temperature profiles were measured in three locations inside the cave at 20, 60 and 100 m from the cave entrance, whereas another vertical profile was set in the estuary in front of the cave. Thermometers from the estuary measured thermal gradients to characterize position and evolution of the thermocline up to a depth of 3.5 m. Tides measured in the estuary are synchronous to those recorded in the cave and their amplitudes (20 to 40 cm in the estuary) are the same or smaller depending on cave outflow discharge. Records of cave water temperature show a non-linear response to tides due to the vertical displacement of the thermocline. During neap tides the thermocline was located in the aquifer below the cave, whereas during spring tides only thermometers in the top meter of the cave were not affected by the thermocline vertical displacement. After the first significant rains of the hydrological year, the freshwater contribution increased the cave outflow discharge by one order of magnitude. Thus, conductivity decreased in response to rains from 16000 ±1000 μS/cm to Project.

  7. Audio enabled information extraction system for cricket and hockey domains

    CERN Document Server

    Saraswathi, S; B., Sai Vamsi Krishna; S, Suresh Reddy

    2010-01-01

    The proposed system aims at the retrieval of the summarized information from the documents collected from web based search engine as per the user query related to cricket and hockey domain. The system is designed in a manner that it takes the voice commands as keywords for search. The parts of speech in the query are extracted using the natural language extractor for English. Based on the keywords the search is categorized into 2 types: - 1.Concept wise - information retrieved to the query is retrieved based on the keywords and the concept words related to it. The retrieved information is summarized using the probabilistic approach and weighted means algorithm.2.Keyword search - extracts the result relevant to the query from the highly ranked document retrieved from the search by the search engine. The relevant search results are retrieved and then keywords are used for summarizing part. During summarization it follows the weighted and probabilistic approaches in order to identify the data comparable to the k...

  8. Impacts of cave air ventilation and in-cave prior calcite precipitation on Golgotha Cave dripwater chemistry, southwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, Pauline C.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Griffiths, Alan; Baker, Andy; Meredith, Karina T.; Wood, Anne; McGuire, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem trace element chemistry is an important component of multi-proxy records of environmental change but a thorough understanding of hydrochemical processes is essential for its interpretation. We present a dripwater chemistry dataset (PCO2, alkalinity, Ca, SIcc, Mg and Sr) from an eight-year monitoring study from Golgotha Cave, building on a previous study of hydrology and dripwater oxygen isotopes (Treble et al., 2013). Golgotha Cave is developed in Quaternary aeolianite and located in a forested catchment in the Mediterranean-type climate of southwest Western Australia. All dripwaters from each of the five monitored sites become supersaturated with respect to calcite during most of the year when cave ventilation lowers PCO2 in cave air. In this winter ventilation mode, prior calcite precipitation (PCP) signals of increased Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in dripwater are attributed to stalactite deposition. A fast-dripping site displays less-evolved carbonate chemistry, implying minimal stalactite growth, phenomena which are attributed to minimal degassing because of the short drip interval (30 s). We employ hydrochemical mass-balance modelling techniques to quantitatively investigate the impact of PCP and CO2 degassing on our dripwater. Initially, we reverse-modelled dripwater solutions to demonstrate that PCP is dominating the dripwater chemistry at our low-flow site and predict that PCP becomes enhanced in underlying stalagmites. Secondly, we forward-modelled the ranges of solution Mg/Ca variation that potentially can be caused by degassing and calcite precipitation to serve as a guide to interpreting the resulting stalagmite chemistry. We predict that stalagmite trace element data from our high-flow sites will reflect trends in original dripwater solutes, preserving information on biogeochemical fluxes within our system. By contrast, stalagmites from our low-flow sites will be dominated by PCP effects driven by cave ventilation. Our poorly karstified system allows us

  9. The transport of CO2 into central Texas caves (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breecker, D.; Banner, J. L.; Larson, T.

    2013-12-01

    It is well established that CO2 is flushed out of caves by seasonal or synoptic temperature- and barometric pressure-driven ventilation. The mechanism by which CO2 is transported into caves is not as well studied and must be understood in order to quantify carbon (C) cycling through caves, soils and epikarst. Transport mechanisms into caves include gas and aqueous phase (i.e. drip-water) transport. We interpret δ13C values of cave-air CO2 and O2/Ar ratios of cave-air in order to distinguish between these transport mechanisms in three central Texas caves. Gas phase transport might allow cave-air to be used as a simple proxy for otherwise largely inaccessible epikarst air. Drip-water transport might allow measurements of individual drips to be scaled up to cave-integrated assessment of water flux, calcite precipitation, and degassing-related isotope fractionation using measurements of cave-air CO2. We start by assuming gas phase transport and then evaluate the consistency of the results. We apply to cave-air CO2 the theory for steady state soil CO2 transport, which involves mixing with atmospheric air and isotope fractionation by diffusion. This allows calculation of the C isotope composition of the reduced C source for cave-air CO2 (δ13Cr). Calculated cave-air δ13Cr values are consistent with observed soil δ13Cr values. For instance, where trees are evenly distributed at the surface, cave-air δ13Cr values (-24‰) remained within 1‰ of tree-dominated soil δ13Cr values and were 3.5 to 4.5 ‰ lower than grass-dominated soil δ13Cr values, suggesting that trees are the dominant C source. This internally consistent explanation suggests that CO2 diffuses and/or advects into these caves as a gas because aqueous transport into caves would likely result in different cave-air and soil δ13Cr values, as described next. The magnitude of the CO2(g) -HCO3-(aq) carbon isotope per mil fractionation factor is -8.4 ‰ at 20.5°C, the mean Inner Space Cavern drip

  10. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  11. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m−3. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m−3. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration

  12. Baiyun Cave in Naigu Shilin, Yunnan Karst, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Baiyun cave is a 380 m long karst cave in the Naigu Shilin, situated 70 km southeast of Kunming,Yunnan Province, China. The prevailing orientations of the cave passages are N110°-120°E and N0°-10°W and those of the fissures in the cave are N30°-40°W and N20°-30°W. The cave is developed in the thick-bedded Lower Permian Qixia Formation. The cave has an active water flow and is currently at the near water-table stage. There are large amounts of different infills of cave sediments. The cave shows different stages of paragenesis. The palaeomagnetic analysis of cave sediments shows that their ages are younger than 780 ka B.P. (the Brunhes Chron). The upper part of the sampled profile belongs to the reverse Blake event (112.3-117.9 ka B.P.). The formation of the Baiyun cave is directly connected with the development of the Naigu Shilin. The formation of karst underground and surface features depends on the regional tectonic deformation and the Cenozoic extension of the study area.``

  13. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  14. Actinobacterial Diversity in Volcanic Caves and Associated Geomicrobiological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Marshall Hathaway, Jennifer J.; Enes Dapkevicius, Maria de L. N.; Miller, Ana Z.; Kooser, Ara; Northup, Diana E.; Jurado, Valme; Fernandez, Octavio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic caves are filled with colorful microbial mats on the walls and ceilings. These volcanic caves are found worldwide, and studies are finding vast bacteria diversity within these caves. One group of bacteria that can be abundant in volcanic caves, as well as other caves, is Actinobacteria. As Actinobacteria are valued for their ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, rare and novel Actinobacteria are being sought in underexplored environments. The abundance of novel Actinobacteria in volcanic caves makes this environment an excellent location to study these bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from several volcanic caves worldwide revealed diversity in the morphologies present. Spores, coccoid, and filamentous cells, many with hair-like or knobby extensions, were some of the microbial structures observed within the microbial mat samples. In addition, the SEM study pointed out that these features figure prominently in both constructive and destructive mineral processes. To further investigate this diversity, we conducted both Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of the Actinobacteria in volcanic caves from four locations, two islands in the Azores, Portugal, and Hawai'i and New Mexico, USA. This comparison represents one of the largest sequencing efforts of Actinobacteria in volcanic caves to date. The diversity was shown to be dominated by Actinomycetales, but also included several newly described orders, such as Euzebyales, and Gaiellales. Sixty-two percent of the clones from the four locations shared less than 97% similarity to known sequences, and nearly 71% of the clones were singletons, supporting the commonly held belief that volcanic caves are an untapped resource for novel and rare Actinobacteria. The amplicon libraries depicted a wider view of the microbial diversity in Azorean volcanic caves revealing three additional orders, Rubrobacterales, Solirubrobacterales, and Coriobacteriales. Studies of microbial ecology in

  15. Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forti Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps man’s first motivation to explore caves, beyond using them as shelter, was the search for substances that were not availableelsewhere: most of them were minerals. However, for a long time it was believed that the cave environment was not very interestingfrom the mineralogical point of view. This was due to the fact that most cave deposits are normally composed of a singlecompound: calcium carbonate. Therefore, the systematic study of cave mineralogy is of only recent origin. However, although onlya limited number of natural cavities have been investigated in detail, about 350 cave minerals have already been observed, someof which are new to science. The presence of such unexpected richness is a direct consequence of the variety of rocks traversedby water or other fluids before entering a cave and the sediments therein. Different cave environments allow the development ofvarious minerogenetic mechanisms, the most important of which are double exchange reactions, evaporation, oxidation, hydrationdehydration,sublimation, deposition from aerosols and vapors, and segregation. The cave temperature and pH/Eh strictly controlmost of them, although some are driven by microorganisms. The cave environment, due to its long-term stability, can sometimesallow for the development of huge euhedral crystals, such as those found in the Naica caves (Mexico, but the presence of extremelysmall yet complex aggregates of different minerals is far more common. Future development in the field of cave mineralogy will likelybe focused mainly on hydrothermal and sulfuric-acid caves and on the role played by micro-organisms in controlling some of the mostimportant minerogenetic processes in caves.

  16. Comparison of carbonate cave pearls from periglacial zones of Demänovská Ice Cave (Nízke Tatry Mts., Slovakia) and Scarisoara Ice Cave (Bihor Mts., Romania)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Orvošová, M.; Vlček, L.; Filippi, Michal; Rohovec, Jan; Onac, B. P.; Persoiu, A.

    Wien : Technische Universität Wien, 2010 - (Spötl, C.; Luetscher, M.; Rittig, P.). s. 41-42 [International Workshop on Ice Caves /4./. 05.06.2010-11.06.2010, Obertraun] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : ice cave * cave pearls * cryogenic processes * C and O stable isotopes * caves (Slovakia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Strength and Power Correlates of Throwing Velocity on Subelite Male Cricket Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan L; Carter, Thomas; Whitaker, Gary; Nicholls, Owen; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-06-01

    Freeston, JL, Carter, T, Whitaker, G, Nicholls, O, and Rooney, KB. Strength and power correlates of throwing velocity on subelite male cricket players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1646-1651, 2016-Throwing velocity is an important aspect of fielding in cricket to affect run-outs and reduce the opponent's run-scoring opportunities. Although a relationship between strength and/or power and throwing velocity has been well established in baseball, water polo, and European handball, it has not been adequately explored in cricket. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the relationship between measures of strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players. Seventeen male cricket players (mean ± SD; age, 21.1 ± 1.6 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; weight, 79.8 ± 6.4 kg) from an elite athlete program were tested for maximal throwing velocity from the stretch position and after a 3-meter shuffle. They were also assessed for strength and power using a range of different measures. Throwing velocity from the stretch position (30.5 ± 2.4 m·s) was significantly related to dominant leg lateral-to-medial jump (LMJ) distance (r = 0.71; p distance (r = 0.67; p distance (p = 0.97), nondominant shoulder IR strength (p = 0.80), 1 repetition maximum (RM) squat strength (p = 0.57), 1RM bench press strength (p = 0.90), height (p = 0.33), or weight (p = 0.29). Multiple regression analysis revealed that dominant MB Rot and MB CP explained 66% of the variance. The results were similar for velocity after a shuffle step (31.8 ± 2.1 m·s); however, VJ height reached statistical significance (r = 0.51; p ≤ 0.05). The multiple regression was also similar with MB Rot and MB CP explaining 70% of the variance. The cricketers in this study threw with greater velocity than elite junior and subelite senior cricketers but with lower velocities than elite senior cricketers and collegiate level and professional baseball players. This is the first study to demonstrate a link between

  18. Palaeolithic paintings. Evolution of prehistoric cave art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H; Clottes, J; Geneste, J M; Garcia, M A; Arnold, M; Cachier, H; Tisnérat-Laborde, N

    2001-10-01

    Sophisticated examples of European palaeolithic parietal art can be seen in the caves of Altamira, Lascaux and Niaux near the Pyrenees, which date to the Magdalenian period (12,000-17,000 years ago), but paintings of comparable skill and complexity were created much earlier, some possibly more than 30,000 years ago. We have derived new radiocarbon dates for the drawings that decorate the Chauvet cave in Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France, which confirm that even 30,000 years ago Aurignacian artists, already known as accomplished carvers, could create masterpieces comparable to the best Magdalenian art. Prehistorians, who have traditionally interpreted the evolution of prehistoric art as a steady progression from simple to more complex representations, may have to reconsider existing theories of the origins of art. PMID:11586348

  19. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and...

  20. State of the art and challenges in cave minerals studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan P. Onac; Paolo Forti

    2011-01-01

    The present note is an updated inventory of all known cave minerals as March 2011. After including the new minerals described since the last edition of the Cave Minerals of the World book (1997) and made the necessary corrections to incorporate all discreditations, redefinitions, or revalidation proposed by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclatures and Classification (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), we summed up 319 cave minerals, many of these only known from...

  1. Lava caves of the Republic of Mauritius, Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Middleton

    1998-01-01

    In their Underground Atlas, MIDDLETON & WALTHAM (1986) dismissed Mauritius as: “very old volcanic islands with no speleological interest”. Recent investigations indicate this judgement is inaccurate; there are over 50 significant caves, including lava tube caves up to 687 m long (one 665 m long was surveyed as early as 1769) and 35 m wide. Plaine des Roches contains the most extensive system of lava tube caves with underground drainage rising at the seashore. Notable fauna includes an insecti...

  2. Magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments: experience from Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr

    Aguadilla : Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Aguadilla, 2007. s. 96-96. [Descubriendo el mundo subterráno de América Latin a y el Caribe : Congreso FEPUR /1./ ; Congreso FEALC /5./. 29.07.2007-04.08.2007, Aguadilla] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * karst sediments * caves * dating * Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  3. Cave speleothems as repositories of microbial biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ana Z.; Jurado, Valme; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Fernández, Octavio; Calaforra, José M.; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-04-01

    The need to better understand the biodiversity, origins of life on Earth and on other planets, and the wide applications of the microbe-mineral interactions have led to a rapid expansion of interest in subsurface environments. Recently reported results indicated signs of an early wet Mars and rather recent volcanic activity which suggest that Mars's subsurface can house organic molecules or traces of microbial life, making the search for microbial life on Earth's subsurface even more compelling. Caves on Earth are windows into the subsurface that harbor a wide variety of mineral-utilizing microorganisms, which may contribute to the formation of biominerals and unusual microstructures recognized as biosignatures. These environments contain a wide variety of redox interfaces and stable physicochemical conditions, which enhance secondary mineral precipitation and microbial growth under limited organic nutrient inputs. Enigmatic microorganisms and unusual mineral features have been found associated with secondary mineral deposits or speleothems in limestone caves and lava tubes. In this study, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were conducted on cave speleothem samples to assess microbe-mineral interactions, evaluate biogenicity, as well as to describe unusual mineral formations and microbial features. Microbial mats, extracellular polymeric substances, tubular empty sheaths, mineralized cells, filamentous fabrics, as well as "cell-sized" etch pits or microborings produced by bacterial cells were observed on minerals. These features evidence microbe-mineral interactions and may represent mineralogical signatures of life. We can thus consider that caves on Earth are plausible repositories of terrestrial biosignatures where we can look for microbial signatures. Acknowledgments: AZM acknowledges the support from the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework

  4. Jumping mechanisms and performance of pygmy mole crickets (Orthoptera, Tridactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M; Picker, M D

    2010-07-15

    Pygmy mole crickets live in burrows at the edge of water and jump powerfully to avoid predators such as the larvae and adults of tiger beetles that inhabit the same microhabitat. Adults are 5-6 mm long and weigh 8 mg. The hind legs are dominated by enormous femora containing the jumping muscles and are 131% longer than the body. The ratio of leg lengths is: 1:2.1:4.5 (front:middle:hind, respectively). The hind tarsi are reduced and their role is supplanted by two pairs of tibial spurs that can rotate through 180 deg. During horizontal walking the hind legs are normally held off the ground. Jumps are propelled by extension of the hind tibiae about the femora at angular velocities of 68,000 deg s(-1) in 2.2 ms, as revealed by images captured at rates of 5000 s(-1). The two hind legs usually move together but can move asynchronously, and many jumps are propelled by just one hind leg. The take-off angle is steep and once airborne the body rotates backwards about its transverse axis (pitch) at rates of 100 Hz or higher. The take-off velocity, used to define the best jumps, can reach 5.4 m s(-1), propelling the insect to heights of 700 mm and distances of 1420 mm with an acceleration of 306 g. The head and pronotum are jerked rapidly as the body is accelerated. Jumping on average uses 116 microJ of energy, requires a power output of 50 mW and exerts a force of 20 mN. In jumps powered by one hind leg the figures are about 40% less. PMID:20581268

  5. Sickness behaviour in the cricket Gryllus texensis: Comparison with animals across phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ken; Fairn, Evan; Adamo, Shelley A

    2016-07-01

    Immune activation alters behaviour (i.e. sickness behaviour) in animals across phyla and is thought to aid recovery from infection. Hypotheses regarding the adaptive function of different sickness behaviours (e.g. decreased movement and appetite) include the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. These hypotheses were originally developed for mammals (e.g. Hart, 1988), however similar sickness behaviours are also observed in insects (e.g., crickets). We predicted that immune-challenged crickets (Gryllus texensis) would reduce feeding, grooming, and locomotion as well as increase shelter use, consistent with the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. We found evidence of illness-induced anorexia in adult and juvenile crickets, consistent with previous research (Adamo et al., 2010), but contrary to expectations, we found an increase in grooming, and no evidence that crickets decreased locomotion or increased shelter use in response to immune challenge. Therefore, our results do not support the energy conservation or predator avoidance hypotheses. The difference in sickness behaviour between insects and mammals is probably due, in part, to the lack of physiological fever in insects. We hypothesize that the lack of physiological fever reduces the need for energy conservation, decreasing the benefits of some sickness behaviours such as increased shelter use. These results, taken together with others in the literature, suggest that ectotherms and endotherms may differ significantly in the selective forces leading to the evolution of most sickness behaviours. PMID:27189926

  6. Immune Challenge and Pre- and Post-copulatory Female Choice in the Cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayton, Jean M.; Boeke, J. E. Kobus; Jennions, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade off between the expression of male sexual traits and the immune system. To test for this trade off, male crickets Teleogryllus commodus were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce an immune response and their subsequent pre- and post-copulato

  7. Evaluating individual performance in team sports : A network analysis of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying individual performance in team activity is critical in team selection in international sports. We explore the application of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to rate individuals in an team activity. We choose the game of Cricket as an example. The number runs scored by batsmen and wickets taken by bowlers serves as a natural way of quantifying the performance of a cricketer. Traditionally the batsmen and bowlers are rated on their batting or bowling average respectively. However in a game like cricket it is always important the manner in which one scores the runs or takes a wicket. Scoring runs against a strong bowling line-up or delivering a brilliant performance against a team with strong batting line-up deserves more credit. A player's average is not able to capture this aspect of the game. In this paper we present a refined method to quantify the `quality' of runs scored by a batsman or wickets taken by a bowler. We apply tools of Social Network Analysis (SNA) to judge a cricketer's performance. ...

  8. Ontogenetic changes in immunity and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects have innate immunity that may be weakened by resource allocation to growth. I measured enzymatic immunity, encapsulation response, and susceptibility to fungal infection in Mormon crickets of known age. Although the concentrations of circulating spontaneous and total phenoloxidase (PO) incr...

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION BETWEEN HOCKEY AND CRICKET PLAYERS OF BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Singh Srinet,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the sports achievement motivation between hockey and cricket players and also to find out the status of players in relation to sports achievement motivation. For purpose of the study forty (twenty hockey and twenty three cricket were selected from Banaras Hindu University. Subjects’ sports achievement motivation was measured by inventory developed by M.L Kamlesh., Data was collected by administering questionnaire inter university camp. All the necessary instructions were given to students and were convinced to answer the entire question honestly. To find out the difference independent t-test was used at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that there is no significant difference between hockey and cricket players in relation to sports achievement motivation as calculated t (1.95 was less than tabulated t value (2.02 at 0.05 level of significance. Age and similar environmental factor might have brought no significant difference between hockey and cricket players in relation to sports achievement motivation.

  10. Age- and density-dependent prophylaxis in the migratory Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of the increased potential for disease transmission, insects are predicted to show an increased constitutive immunity when crowded. Nymphal Mormon crickets were collected in Montana and reared in the laboratory either solitarily or at densities similar to that experienced by Mormon cric...

  11. Mating changes the female dietary preference in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTsukamoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most insect species exhibit characteristic behavioral changes after mating. Typical post-mating behaviors in female insects include noticeable increases in food intake, elevated oviposition rates, lowered receptivity to courting males, and enhanced immune response. Although it has been reported that mated females of several insect species including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster increase the amount of food intake and change their dietary preferences, the limited number of comparative studies prevent the formulation of generalities regarding post-mating behaviors in other insects in particular amongst orthopteran species. Here, we investigated whether females of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, alter their feeding behavior after mating. Although significant differences in the amount of food intake after mating were not observed, all experimental data indicated a clear trend among crickets towards the ingestion of larger quantities of food. Geometric framework analyses revealed that the mated female crickets preferred food with higher protein content compared to virgin female crickets. This implies that this species required different nutritional demands after mating. These findings further expand our understanding of the behavioral and biological changes that are triggered in female insects post-mating, and highlight the potential for this species in investigating the molecular-based nutritional dependent activities that are linked to post-mating behaviors.

  12. "In Loco Parentis"? Public-School Authority, Cricket and Manly Character, 1855-62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the responsibility for schoolboys' behaviour and character when in liminal spaces between home and school, in an historical account of the annual cricket matches in London between Eton, Harrow and Winchester in the late 1850s. The episode is situated in the context of the Clarendon Commission's discussions on school sports,…

  13. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically 0.9 m, and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 µS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a pre-existing layer of higher salinity.

  14. TESTATE AMOEBAE COMMUNITIES FROM CAVES OF SOME TERRITORIES IN EUROPEAN RUSSIA AND NORTH-EASTERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Mazei, Yuri; Belyakova, Olga; Trulova, Alisa; Guidolin, Laura; Coppellotti, Olimpia

    2012-01-01

    The species composition of testate amoebae in caves from European Russia and North-East Italy was studied. Twenty-seven species were identified from various habitats inside caves (moist substratum on floor, guano, sediments of cave streams and pools, water droplets and bacterial mats on rocky surfaces). In caves of simple structure (without differing types of habitats), the species richness of testate amoebae was far lower than in that from habitats outside the caves. In heterogeneous caves, ...

  15. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2015-11-01

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to (222)Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors. PMID:25948834

  16. Measuring radon concentrations and estimating dose in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caves and mines are considered to be places of especial risk of exposure to 222Rn. This is particularly important for guides and workers, but also for visitors. In the Extremadura region (Spain), there are two cave systems in which there are workers carrying out their normal everyday tasks. In one, visits have been reduced to maintain the conditions of temperature and humidity. The other comprises several caves frequently visited by school groups. The caves were radiologically characterised in order to estimate the dose received by workers or possible hazards for visitors. (authors)

  17. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  18. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    The investigation of 3 caves explored more than 1000 meters in depth in the Dinaric karst area in Croatia, has been in progress for a considerable period of time. These are complex speleological features situated in the longest mountain range of the Dinaric karst, i.e. at the Northern Velebit mountain range. In fact, these caves have been studied for over two decades now. The first one is a cave system of Lukina jama (Luke's Cave) - Trojama cave, which has been investigated until the depth of 1421 meters (Jalžić, 2007; Šmida, 1993). Its total length is 3731 meters and a new expedition will soon continue to investigate this pit through speleodiving in siphons. The second greatest cave by depth is Slovačka jama (Slovak Cave), 1320 meters in depth, with cave chanals measuring 5677 meters in total length. The third greatest cave by depth is the Cave system of Velebita, reaching down to 1026 m in depth, with the chanal length of 3176 meters (Bakšić, 2006a; 2006b). However, another 3 speleological sites, which can rightly be added to those deeper than 1000 m, have recently been discovered. These are three caverns that were discovered during construction of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel that passes through Mt. Biokovo, in the Dinaric karst area. These caverns undoubtedly point to the link with the ground surface, while the rock overburden above the tunnel in the zone where the caverns were discovered ranges from 1250 and 1350 meters. Bats from the ground surface were found in the caverns and, according to measurements, they are situated in the depth from 200 and 300 meters below the tunnel level. This would mean that the depth of these newly found caves ranges from 1450 and 1650 m, when observed from the ground surface. There are several hundreds of known caves in Biokovo, and the deepest ones discovered so far are Jama Mokre noge (Wet Feet Cave) 831 m in depth, and Jama Amfora (Amphora Cave) 788 m in depth (Bockovac, 1999; Bakšić & all, 2002; Lacković & all, 2001

  19. Conservation of prehistoric caves and stability of their inner climate: lessons from Chauvet and other French caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, F; Genthon, P; Genty, D; Lorblanchet, M; Mauduit, E; D'Hulst, D

    2014-09-15

    In the last 150 years, some prehistoric painted caves suffered irreversible degradations due to misperception of conservation issues and subsequent mismanagement. These sites presented naturally an exceptional stability of their internal climate allowing conservation in situ of outstanding fragile remains, some for nearly 40,000 years. This is for a large part due to exchanges of air, CO2, heat and water with the karstic system in which these caves are included. We introduce the concept of underground confinement, based on the stability of the inner cave climate parameters, especially its temperature. Confined caves present the best conservative properties. It is emphasized that this confined state implies slow exchanges with the surrounding karst and that a stable cave cannot be viewed as a closed system. This is illustrated on four case studies of French caves of various confinement states evidenced by long term continuous monitoring and on strategies to improve their conservation properties. The Chauvet cave presents optimal conservation properties. It is wholly confined as shown by the stability of its internal parameters since its discovery in 1994. In Marsoulas cave, archeological works removed the entrance scree and let a strong opening situation of the decorated zone. Remediation is expected by adding a buffer structure at the entrance. In Pech Merle tourist cave, recurrent painting fading was related to natural seasonal drying of walls. Improvement of the cave closure system restored a confined state insuring optimal visibility of the paintings. In Gargas tourist cave, optimization of closures, lighting system and number of visitors, allowed it to gradually reach a semi-confined state that improved the conservation properties. Conclusions are drawn on the characterization of confinement state of caves and on the ways to improve their conservation properties by restoring their initial regulation mechanisms and to avoid threats to their stability. PMID

  20. Shallow caves and blowholes on the Nullarbor Plain, Australia — Flank margin caves on a low gradient limestone platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Shannon; Webb, John A.; White, Susan

    2013-11-01

    The Nullarbor Plain of southern Australia is a very extensive limestone platform with relatively few large caves for its size, but contains thousands of blowholes, sub-circular vertical shafts up to 1-2 m in diameter, which often connect to similar-sized sub-horizontal passages. Recent detailed systematic surveys of large areas of the Nullarbor Plain have provided new distribution data showing that blowholes and associated shallow caves are concentrated in a 25-30 km-wide band located > 75 km inland. The known density of these features (up to 43/25 km2) underestimates the cave porosity because the strong draughts blowing from many of the blowholes indicate that they connect to extensive cave systems of small passages. These shallow caves are relict phreatic features; their entrances (blowholes) were opened as the land surface was lowered by denudation. The band of blowholes and caves is located along the Late Miocene (~ 6 Ma) shoreline across the Nullarbor, when there was a eustatic stillstand. The caves formed in the zone of enhanced dissolution at the seaward margin of the freshwater lens along the carbonate coastline, and can therefore be regarded as flank margin caves on a low gradient limestone platform; a flank margin setting relatively unknown prior to this study. The width of the band of flank margin caves, which is substantially greater than previously documented for this cave type, reflects the very low gradient of both the ground surface and water table, together with the influence of tidal fluctuations and regression of the shoreline. Flank margin cave development stopped when the sea retreated rapidly in the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene due to a period of tilting and uplift. The band of flank margin caves has high permeability and substantial porosity, and would therefore form an excellent, largely overlooked, type of palaeokarst petroleum reservoir.

  1. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650

  2. House crickets can accumulate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly from polyurethane foam common in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Michael O; Harvey, Ellen; Hale, Robert C

    2012-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are added at percent levels to many polymers and textiles abundant in human spaces and vehicles, wherein they have been long assumed to be tightly sequestered. However, the mgkg(-1) burdens recently detected in indoor dust testify to substantial releases. The bulk of released PBDEs remain in the terrestrial environment, yet comparatively little research focuses on this compartment. There, insects/arthropods, such as crickets, are the most abundant invertebrate organisms and facilitate the trophic transfer of contaminants by breaking down complex organic matter (including discarded polymers) and serving as food for other organisms. Our experiments revealed that house crickets (Acheta domesticus) provided uncontaminated food and free access to PUF containing Penta-BDE (8.7%drywt) for 28 d accumulated substantial PBDE body burdens. Crickets allowed to depurate gut contents exhibited whole body burdens of up to 13.4 mg kg(-1) lipid ΣPenta-BDE, 1000-fold higher than typically reported in humans. Non-depurated crickets and molted exoskeletons incurred even higher ΣPenta-BDE, up to 80.6 and 63.3 mg kg(-1) lipid, respectively. Congener patterns of whole crickets and molts resembled those of PUF and the commercial Penta-BDE formulation, DE-71, indicative of minimal discrimination or biotransformation. Accumulation factor (AF) calculations were hampered by uncertainties in determining actual PUF ingestion. However, estimated AFs were low, in the range of 10(-4)-10(-3), suggesting that polymer-PBDE interactions limited uptake. Nonetheless, results indicate that substantial PBDE burdens may be incurred by insects in contact with current-use and derelict treated polymers within human spaces and solid waste disposal sites (e.g. landfills, automotive dumps, etc.). Once ingested, even burdens not absorbed across the gut wall may be dispersed within proximate terrestrial food webs via the insect's movements and/or predation

  3. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  4. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets. PMID:27144650

  5. Monitoring of Radon in Tourist Part of Skocjan Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja; Jovanovic, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the yearly dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data, beside the most convenient measuring technique. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. The survey will be described along with education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection. An overview of Slovene legislation with practical example on implementation will be demonstrated in the case of Škocjan Caves where the managing

  6. The anatomical pathways for antennal sensory information in the central nervous system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yoritsune, Atsushi; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Antennae are one of the major organs to detect chemo- and mechanosensory cue in crickets. Little is known how crickets process and integrate different modality of information in the brain. We thus used a number of different anatomical techniques to gain an understanding of the neural pathways extending from the antennal sensory neurons up to centers in the brain. We identified seven antennal sensory tracts (assigned as T1–7) utilizing anterograde dye filling from the antennal nerve. Tracts T1...

  7. "Aye, but It Were Wasted on Thee": Cricket, British Asians, Ethnic Identities, and the 'Magical Recovery of Community'

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    People in sport tend to possess rather jaded perceptions of its colour-blindness and thus, they are reluctant to confront the fact that, quite often racism is endemic. Yorkshire cricket in particular, has faced frequent accusations from minority ethnic communities of inveterate and institutionalised racism and territorial defensiveness. Drawing upon semi-structured interviews conducted with amateur white and British Asian cricketers, this paper examines the construction of regional identities...

  8. An Experimental Study into the Effects of Anxiety Reduction Techniques on State and Trait Anxiety in Cricket Batters.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Esme

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of state and trait anxiety and personality in an anxiety reducing intervention program. The anxiety reduction program consisted of effective goal setting, relaxation techniques and a gratitude diary was designed specifically to help those cricket players who suffered from anxiety. The subjects were male and female current members of the Edinburgh University Cricket Club who were separated into control and intervention groups using the results of the ...

  9. Speleogenesis of selected caves in the Lunan shilins and caves of the Fenglin Karst in Qiubei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Slabe, T.; Liu, H.; Pruner, Petr

    Postojna : Inštitut za raziskovanjekrasa, ZRC SAZU=Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2011 - (Knez, M.; Liu, H.; Slabe, T.), s. 139-152 ISBN 978-961-254-241-2. - (Carsologica. 12) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : speleogenesis * paleomagnetic analyses * caves * Lunan shilins and Fenglin Karst in Qiube (China) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Environmental record in detrital cave sediments in the Botovskaya and Dolganskaya Jama caves (Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisá, Lenka; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Hercman, H.; Oberhansli, H.; Osincev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), A10273-A10273. ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave * sediments * micromorphology * magnetic properties * provenance Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/10273/EGU06-J-10273-2.pdf

  11. 3N Cave, new world’s longest cave in salt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filippi, Michal; Bruthans, J.; Vilhelm, Z.; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.

    Beirut : American University of Beirut, 2006. s. 15-15. [Middle-Eeast Speleology Symposium (MESS2) /2./. 21.04.2006-23.04.2006, Beirut] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt karst * salt cave * diapir * Iran Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Radon Exposures in the Caves of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are more than a hundred volcanic caves and pits of various lengths on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The results are presented of atmospheric radon measurements performed in three of these caves and in three pits. One of the caves selected, El Viento Cave, is nearly 20 km in length and is the longest volcanic tube in the Canarian archipelago and the second longest in the world. The measurements were performed over two distinct periods during the year using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations range between 0.3 and 8 kBq.m-3, the maximum value corresponds to a site located at 1850 m from the mouth of El Viento Cave. Possible touristic development of these caves has been taken into account in estimating the effective doses for visitors and guides (considered separately). The values obtained range from 0.3 to 100 μSv per visit for visitors. The largest effective dose would correspond to that for guides at 41 mSv.y-1 in the Viento Cave. This result would make protection against radiological hazards obligatory if the cave were to be developed as a site for tourism. (author)

  13. Tectonic caves of Solai in the Kenyan Rift Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Tectonic caves al Solai, Kenya, were explored in 1970. These lie in a complex geological area of the Great Rift Valley in columnar-faulted ignimbrite. Fissures are presumed to have been widened by later tectonic activity -e.g. the major earthquake of January, 1928. The caves and exploration are briefly described. Questions of formation, drainage and possibilities of steam reservoirs are discussed.

  14. The cave biota of Slovakia - introduction of a new monograph

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, L.; Elhottová, Dana; Mock, A.; Nováková, Alena; Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Lukešová, Alena; Mulec, J.; Košel, V.; Papáč, V.; Luptáčik, P.; Uhrin, M.; Višňovská, Z.; Hudec, I.; Gaál, Ľ.; Bella, P.

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2014. s. 34. [22 nd International Karstological School "Classical Karst". Karst and Microorganisms . 16.06.2014-20.06.2014, Postojna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cave habitat * cave organisms * conservation * monitoring * zoogeography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. PROCESSES INFLUENCING VARIABILITY IN CAVE DRIP WATER TEMPERATURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have investigated five months of epikarst storage drip water temperatures along with surface air temperature and rainfall at a small waterfall in Cave Spring Caverns, Kentucky. Falling from about 4 m, water temperatures are measured within seconds of entering the cave passage with two minute, and...

  16. Occupational and patient doses in the therapeutic cave, Tapolca (Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon concentration has been measured for three years in a hospital cave used for medical treatment of respiratory diseases. A mean value of the actual equilibrium factor measured in the cave in different seasons was used, different from the commonly used 0.4. The dose contribution to the patients and the staff was calculated using these data. The results of the dose assessment show that the staff in the hospital cave can receive doses up to the dose limit for occupational exposure (20 mSv y-1) when working 4 h per day in the cave. Patients receive 0.18-4.22 mSv committed effective dose during the treatment period depending on the exposure periods. The only solution to reduce the dose to the staff seems to be decreasing the time they spend underground, because intensive ventilation would disturb the special microclimate of the cave. (author)

  17. Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Salomon, Rasmus; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh;

    Cave crawling in zebra finch skulls: what is the functional interaural canal? Ole Næsbye Larsen, Rasmus Salomon, Kenneth Kragh Jensen, and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark The middle ears of birds are...... gains and delays in the IAC can produce very different directionalities of the ears but it is still uncertain how interaural transmission gain and delay can be shaped by evolution by anatomical adaptations. A closer inspection of the zebra finch cranium using micro-CT scanning reveals that not only is...

  18. Reliability analysis of the velocity matching of coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗善明; 缪协兴

    2002-01-01

    The matching relationship between coal cutting and caving in fully mechanized top-coal caving face is analyzed in detail from the angle of reliability. The coupling equation of reliability is established correspondingly, and the mathematical equation of the coefficient of velocity matching of coal cutting and caving is obtained, which meets a certain reliability demand for making the working procedure of coal caving not influence coal cutting of coal-cutter. The results show that the relationship between the coefficient of the velocity matching and the reliability of coal cutting and caving system is linear on the whole when R<0.9. It is pointed out that different numerical value should be selected for different coal face according to different demand for reliability.

  19. Clavicular stress fracture in a cricket fast bowler: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Jeremy AF

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Whilst rare, stress fractures of the clavicle have been described in other sports. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a stress fracture of the clavicle occurring in a cricket fast bowler. Case presentation A 23-year-old professional cricket fast bowler presented with activity related shoulder pain. Imaging demonstrated a stress fracture of the lateral third of the clavicle. This healed with rest and rehabilitation allowing a full return to professional sport. Conclusion This injury is treated with activity modification and technique adaptation. In a professional sportsman, this needs to be recognised early so that return to play can be as quick as possible.

  20. A FACTOR ANALYSIS APPROACH IN PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF T - 20 CRICKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Reliability and Statistical Studies; ISSN (Print: 0974-8024, (Online:2229-5666Vol.6, Issue 1 (2013: 69-76A FACTOR ANALYSIS APPROACH IN PERFORMANCEANALYSIS OF T-20 CRICKETSujeet Kumar SharmaDepartment of Operations Management and Business Statistics, CEPS,Sultan Qaboos University, OmanEmail:drsujeet@squ.edu.om(Received October 03, 2012AbstractThis paper investigates the systematic covariation among various dimensions pertainingtobatting and bowling capabilities of T20 cricket usingtheadvancedstatistical technique offactor analysis.Thereal dataset of 85 batsmen and 85 bowlershas been consideredfrom IndianPremier League (IPL 2012for analysis purpose.The findings of this study show that battingcapability dominates over bowling capability.This conclusion coincides with the general opinionof several cricketing enthusiasts and experts; however till date, there is no research study, to thebest of the author’s knowledge that provides statistical evidence to support this notion.

  1. What’s in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wielsch, Natalie; Wilkinson, Paul A.; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Svatoš, Aleš; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Hunt, John; David G Heckel

    2015-01-01

    Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and sta...

  2. Two matched filters and the evolution of mating signals in four species of cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Matthias R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male field crickets produce pure-tone calling songs to attract females. Receivers are expected to have evolved a "matched filter" in the form of a tuned sensitivity for this frequency. In addition, the peripheral directionality of field crickets is sharply tuned as a result of a pressure difference receiver. We studied both forms of tuning in the same individuals of four species of cricket, where Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris are largely allopatric, whereas Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus occur also sympatrically. Results The sharpness of the sensitivity filter is highest for T. commodus, which also exhibits low interindividual variability. Individual receivers may also vary strongly in the best frequency for directional hearing. In G. campestris, such best frequencies occur even at frequencies outside the range of carrier frequencies of males. Contrary to the predictions from the "matched filter hypothesis", in three of the four species the frequency optima of the two involved filters are not matched to each other, and the mismatch can amount to 1.2 kHz. The mean carrier frequency of the male population is between the frequency optima of both filters in three species. Only in T. commodus we found a match between both filters and the male carrier frequency. Conclusion Our results show that a mismatch between the sensitivity and directionality tuning is not uncommon in crickets, and an observed match (T. commodus appears to be the exception rather than the rule. The data suggests that independent variation of both filters is possible. During evolution each sensory task may have been driven by independent constraints, and may have evolved towards its own respective optimum.

  3. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiene Maria Jesus

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i freshly processed (control; preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii 15 and (iii 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv 15 and (v 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi 15 and (vii 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%, C(% and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls. We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  4. WICKET FALL CONCEPT MINING FROM CRICKET VIDEO USING A-PRIORI ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Goyani; Shreyash Dutta; Gunvatsinh Gohil; Sapan Naik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm to detect semantic concepts from cricket video. In our previous work, we have proposed key frame detection based approach for semantic event detection and classification. The proposed scheme works in two parts. In first part a top-down event detection and classification is performed using hierarchical tree. In second part, higher level concept is identified by applying A-Priori algorithm. In part 1, key frames are identified based on Hue Histogram differ...

  5. The benefits and limitations of using cricket as a sport for development tool in Samoa

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Khoo; Nico Schulenkorf; Daryl Adair

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid ag...

  6. Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players

    OpenAIRE

    P Ratan Khuman; Thongam Kamlesh; Lourembam Surbala

    2014-01-01

    Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from fiv...

  7. STOCHASTIC DOMINANCE AND ANALYSIS OF ODI BATTING PERFORMANCE: THE INDIAN CRICKET TEAM, 1989-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Damodaran

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other team games, the contribution of individual team members to the overall team performance is more easily quantifiable in cricket. Viewing players as securities and the team as a portfolio, cricket thus lends itself better to the use of analytical methods usually employed in the analysis of securities and portfolios. This paper demonstrates the use of stochastic dominance rules, normally used in investment management, to analyze the One Day International (ODI batting performance of Indian cricketers. The data used span the years 1989 to 2005. In dealing with cricketing data the existence of 'not out' scores poses a problem while processing the data. In this paper, using a Bayesian approach, the 'not-out' scores are first replaced with a conditional average. The conditional average that is used represents an estimate of the score that the player would have gone on to score, if the 'not out' innings had been completed. The data thus treated are then used in the stochastic dominance analysis. To use stochastic dominance rules we need to characterize the 'utility' of a batsman. The first derivative of the utility function, with respect to runs scored, of an ODI batsman can safely be assumed to be positive (more runs scored are preferred to less. However, the second derivative needs not be negative (no diminishing marginal utility for runs scored. This means that we cannot clearly specify whether the value attached to an additional run scored is lesser at higher levels of scores. Because of this, only first-order stochastic dominance is used to analyze the performance of the players under consideration. While this has its limitation (specifically, we cannot arrive at a complete utility value for each batsman, the approach does well in describing player performance. Moreover, the results have intuitive appeal

  8. Sexual Signaling and Immune Function in the Black Field Cricket Teleogryllus commodus

    OpenAIRE

    Drayton, Jean M.; Matthew D Hall; John Hunt; Jennions, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis predicts that male sexual trait expression should be positively correlated with immunocompetence. Here we investigate if immune function in the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus, is related to specific individual components of male sexual signals, as well as to certain multivariate combinations of these components that females most strongly prefer. Male T. commodus produce both advertisement and courtship calls prior to mating. We measured fine-scale stru...

  9. Reestablishment of ion homeostasis during chill-coma recovery in the cricket Gryllus pennsylvanicus

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Heath A.; Williams, Caroline M.; Staples, James F.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    The time required to recover from cold-induced paralysis (chill-coma) is a common measure of insect cold tolerance used to test central questions in thermal biology and predict the effects of climate change on insect populations. The onset of chill-coma in the fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus, Orthoptera: Gryllidae) is accompanied by a progressive drift of Na+ and water from the hemolymph to the gut, but the physiological mechanisms underlying recovery from chill-coma are not unders...

  10. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets. PMID:26390400

  11. The decision to fight or flee - insights into underlying mechanism in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony eStevenson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ritualized fighting between conspecifics is an inherently dangerous behavioral strategy, optimized to secure limited resources at minimal cost and risk. To be adaptive, potential rewards and costs of aggression must be assessed to decide when it would be more opportune to fight or flee. We summarize insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in field crickets. As in other animals, cricket aggression is enhanced dramatically by motor activity, winning and the possession of resources. Pharmacological manipulations provide evidence that these cases of experience-dependent enhancement of aggression are each mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart to adrenaline/noradrenaline. The data suggest that both physical exertion and rewarding aspects of experiences can activate the octopaminergic system, which increases the propensity to fight. Octopamine thus represents the motivational component of aggression in insects. For the decision to flee, animals are thought to assess information from agonistic signals exchanged during fighting. Cricket fights conform to the cumulative assessment model, in that they persist in fighting until the sum of their opponent’s actions accumulates to some threshold at which they withdraw. We discuss evidence that serotonin, nitric oxide and some neuropeptides may promote an insect’s tendency to flee. We propose that the decision to fight or flee in crickets is controlled simply by relative behavioral thresholds. Rewarding experiences increase the propensity to fight to a level determined by the modulatory action of octopamine. The animal will then flee only when the accumulated sum of the opponent’s actions surpasses this level; serotonin and nitric oxide may be involved in this process. This concept is in line with the roles proposed for noradrenaline, serotonin and nitric oxide in mammals and suggests that basic mechanisms of aggressive modulation may be conserved in

  12. Behavioral response to antennal tactile stimulation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Jiro; Akamine, Seiryo

    2012-01-01

    We examined behavioral responses of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to tactile stimuli to the antennae. Three stimulants of similar shape and size but different textures were used: a tibia from the hunting spider Heteropoda venatoria (potential predator), a tibia from the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi (less likely predator), and a glass rod. Each stimulus session comprised a first gentle contact and a second strong contact. The evoked behavioral responses were classified into four c...

  13. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France—both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  14. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  15. 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This characterization plan provides instructions for obtaining and analyzing samples for waste designation and disposal. The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave is located in the 100-C Area about 328 ft (100 m) southeast of the 105-C Reactor (Figure 1). The 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave (Figure 2) is a reinforced concrete bunker approximately 70- ft (21.3-m) long, 7-ft (2.1-m) high, and 12-ft (3.6-m) wide, with triangular-shaped concrete ends 3-ft (0.9-m) high. The rod cave was used to store radiologically contaminated control-rod tips. If control rod tips are present, release of control rod activation products will not change expectations with respect to principal contaminants. The north portion of the cave is empty and the south portion contains two aluminum tubes that may contain rod tips (Figure 3). The caves are contaminated with activation and fission products (e.g., 60Co and 137Cs) common to the 100 Areas (see Appendix for data). Dose rates up to 0.7 mR/hr were measured in the south cave and 0.5 mR/hr in the north cave during an inspection of the facility in December 1996

  16. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  17. Accounting for kinetic isotope effects in Soreq Cave (Israel) speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affek, Hagit P.; Matthews, Alan; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Burstyn, Yuval; Zaarur, Shikma; Zilberman, Tami

    2014-10-01

    There is growing evidence that speleothem calcite grows out of isotopic equilibrium with cave drip water, with clumped isotope analysis providing a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium. This disequilibrium is primarily the result of CO2 degassing from a thin film of water, leading to irreversible 13C enrichment and reversible 18O enrichment and Δ47 depletion. Here we examine isotopic disequilibrium in Soreq Cave (Israel) using multiple modern-day and late Holocene speleothems. The variability observed in Δ47 is small, within the analytical uncertainty, but the Δ47-derived temperature is offset from the modern cave temperature by ∼4 °C, reflecting degassing related disequilibrium that is fairly constant spatially. δ18O is more heterogeneous, reflecting short-term variability in drip water δ18Ow combined with variability in the speleothem growth rates and related fractionation between dissolved carbonate species and the growing calcite mineral. This complexity, however, is markedly reduced by spatial or temporal averaging, enabling an interpretation of the cave paleoclimate record. We examine the Soreq Cave speleothems through a comparison with 2 types of thermometers: one is based on CaCO3 precipitation from a bulk solution and is typically used for calibration of the Δ47 and δ18O thermometers; a second that is based on CaCO3 precipitating at the surface of the solution thus focusing and amplifying the thin film characteristics of speleothem formation. Soreq Cave speleothems are intermediate between these thermometers, providing a cave-specific thermometer calibration.

  18. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Price

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  19. Microscopic fungi isolated from the Domica Cave system (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia). A review

    OpenAIRE

    Novakova Alena

    2009-01-01

    A broad spectrum, total of 195 microfungal taxa, were isolated from various cave substrates (cave air, cave sediments, bat droppingsand/or guano, earthworm casts, isopods and diplopods faeces, mammalian dung, cadavers, vermiculations, insect bodies, plantmaterial, etc.) from the cave system of the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia) using dilution, direct and gravitysettling culture plate methods and several isolation media. Penicillium glandicola, Trichoderma polysporum, Oidio...

  20. Species Diversity and Food-web Complexity in the Caves of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Liz Price

    2014-01-01

    Besides microbes a wide variety of cave animals inhabit various caves of Malaysia, ranging from tiny invertebrates through to small mammals, reptiles, amphibians and bats. Evidence even supports the visitation of elephants to some caves. In the present report the food web complexity and the species diversity that exist in Malaysian caves is described on the basis of direct sightings. Furthermore, the major threats to the present status of such caves are also discussed.

  1. Diversity of cultured bacteria from the perennial ice block of Scarisoara Ice Cave, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Iţcuş; Mădălina-Denisa Pascu; Traian Brad; Aurel Perşoiu; Cristina Purcarea

    2016-01-01

    Cave ice ecosystems represent a poorly investigated glacial environment. Diversity of cave ice bacteria and their distribution in perennial ice deposits of this underground glacial habitat could constitute a proxy for microbial response to climatic and environmental changes. Scarisoara Ice Cave (Romania) hosts one of the oldest and largest cave ice blocks worldwide. Here we report on cultured microbial diversity of recent, 400, and 900 years-old perennial ice from this cave, representing the ...

  2. Lumbar spinal loading during bowling in cricket: a kinetic analysis using a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxin; Ma, Ye; Liu, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate two types of cricket bowling techniques by comparing the lumbar spinal loading using a musculoskeletal modelling approach. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under two cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds while simultaneously forcing their navel down towards their thighs starting just prior to ball release (max-trunk condition). A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model comprised of the pelvis, sacrum, lumbar vertebrae and torso segments, which enabled the motion of the individual lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal, frontal and coronal planes to be actuated by 210 muscle-tendon units, was used to simulate spinal loading based on the recorded kinematic data. The maximal lumbar spine compressive force is 4.89 ± 0.88BW for the max condition and 4.58 ± 0.54BW for the max-trunk condition. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two techniques in trunk moments and lumbar spine forces. This indicates that the max-trunk technique may not increase lower back injury risks. The method proposed in this study could be served as a tool to evaluate lower back injury risks for cricket bowling as well as other throwing activities. PMID:26343905

  3. Characterization of a new iridovirus isolated from crickets and investigations on the host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleespies; Tidona; Darai

    1999-01-01

    Typical signs of an iridovirus infection were observed in two species of fatally diseased crickets, Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). The infection was manifested by hypertrophy and bluish iridescence of the affected fat body cells. Electron microscope investigations led to the identification of a new iridovirus, which was termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV). In negatively stained preparations the size of the icosahedral virus particles ranged from 151 nm (side-side) to 167 nm (apex-apex). Assembly of virions occurred in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied fat body cells, where they often accumulated in paracrystalline arrays. Genetic analyses of purified viral DNA using a variety of restriction enzymes revealed that CrIV is distinct from all other known iridoviruses that have been isolated from insects and reported so far. In host range studies it was shown that CrIV can be transmitted perorally to other orthopteran species, causing characteristic symptoms and fatal disease. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae), which represents one of the most important pest insects in developing countries, as well as the cockroaches Blattella germanica L. and Blatta orientalis L. (both Orthoptera, Blattidae). Consequently, the isolation and characterization of this new cricket iridovirus is of particular interest in view of its possible use in biological or integrated control. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9878293

  4. Effects of Serotonergic and Opioidergic Drugs on Escape Behaviors and Social Status of Male Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonova, V. E.; Schürmann, F.-W.; Sakharov, D. A.

    We examined the effects of selective serotonin depletion and opioid ligands on social rank and related escape behavior of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Establishment of social rank in a pair of males affected their escape reactions. Losers showed a lower and dominants a higher percentage of jumps in response to tactile cercal stimulation than before a fight. The serotonin-depleting drug α-methyltryptophan (AMTP) caused an activation of the escape reactivity in socially naive crickets. AMTP-treated animals also showed a lower ability to become dominants. With an initial 51.6+/-3.6% of wins in the AMTP group, the percentage decreased to 26+/-1.6% on day 5 after injection. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone affected fight and escape similarly as AMTP. In contrast to naloxone, the opioid agonist [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin decreased escape responsiveness to cercal stimulation in naive and subordinate crickets. We suggest that serotonergic and opioid systems are involved in the dominance induced depression of escape behavior.

  5. The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bazazi

    Full Text Available Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level.

  6. Winning fights induces hyperaggression via the action of the biogenic amine octopamine in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rillich

    Full Text Available Winning an agonistic interaction against a conspecific is known to heighten aggressiveness, but the underlying events and mechanism are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of experiencing successive wins on aggression in adult male crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus by staging knockout tournaments and investigated its dependence on biogenic amines by treatment with amine receptor antagonists. For an inter-fight interval of 5 min, fights between winners escalated to higher levels of aggression and lasted significantly longer than the preceding round. This winner effect is transient, and no longer evident for an inter-fight interval of 20 min, indicating that it does not result from selecting individuals that were hyper-aggressive from the outset. A winner effect was also evident in crickets that experienced wins without physical exertion, or that engaged in fights that were interrupted before a win was experienced. Finally, the winner effect was abolished by prior treatment with epinastine, a highly selective octopamine receptor blocker, but not by propranolol, a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist, nor by yohimbine, an insect tyramine receptor blocker nor by fluphenazine an insect dopamine-receptor blocker. Taken together our study in the cricket indicates that the physical exertion of fighting, together with some rewarding aspect of the actual winning experience, leads to a transient increase in aggressive motivation via activation of the octopaminergic system, the invertebrate equivalent to the adrenergic system of vertebrates.

  7. Calling song and phonotactic selectivity in the field cricket Teleogryllus emma (Orthoptera: Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Jang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Males of the field cricket Teleogryllus emma produce calling songs that are attractive to receptive females. The callingsongs of T. emma consist of two components, the long chirp that is composed of up to 12 single pulses, followed by avariable number of short chirps. Based on the analysis of coefficient of variation (CV, temporal characters of the longchirp were less variable than those of the short chirps in male calling songs. To test for phonotactic selectivity of females,we conducted a single-stimulus playback experiment in which five stimuli (standard, long chirp only, long chirp augmented,short chirps only, and short chirps augmented were used. The standard stimulus included both long and shortchirps whose characteristics were derived from the calling songs of field populations. Results of the playback experimentshowed that female crickets oriented more frequently toward the stimuli that included the long chirp (standard, longchirp only, and long chirp augmented stimuli than toward the stimuli lacking the long chirp (short chirps only and shortchirps augmented stimuli, indicating that the long chirp in the calling songs was required to elicit positive phonotaxis inthe female crickets. The result of CV analysis of the male calling songs and the findings of the female phonotaxis experimentsuggested that the long chirp of calling songs may play a role in species recognition in T. emma.

  8. Pas de Vallgornera Cave, Majorca (Spain): one the largest littoral caves in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pas de Vallgornera cave is the longest cave in the Balearic Islands and one of the largest in Europe (more than 73 km long). It is found on the Miocene reef of Llucmajor Platform and its genesis is related to the development of normal faults and associated fracture systems with N 180° S and N 60° E orientation that took place during the Neogene. It is noteworthy for the abundance, variety and beauty of the speleothems, paleontological richness and to present evidence of hypogene basal recharge. Due to its singularity, it has served as the basis of several scientific studies on groundwater level fluctuations during the quaternary period and others related to the existence of one of most important paleontological sites in Mallorca as far as vertebrates are concerned. (Author)

  9. Reading the past from cave bat guano: Domica Cave palaeoecological research (NP Slovak Karst)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, J.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Novák, J.; Křováková, Kateřina; Šantrůček, J.; Elhottová, Dana; Kováč, L.; Krištůfek, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2009), s. 170. ISSN 1335-213X. [Vedecká konferencia Výskum, využívanie a ochrana jaskýň /7./. 10.11.2009-13.11.2009, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : bat guano * Domica Cave * palaeoecological research Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Fossil remains of a cave tube worm (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in an ancient cave in Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihevc, A.; Sket, B.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    Brasilia : Federatia Espeleological de America Latin a, 2001, s. -. [International Congress of Speleology /13./, Speleological Congress of Latin America and the Caribbean /4./, Brazilian Congress of Speleology /26./. Brasilia (BR), 15.07.2001-22.07.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3046108; GA MŠk ME 251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeomagnetism * Slovenia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. Fossil population structure and mortality analysis of the cave bears from Urşilor Cave, north-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Robu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in cave bear palaeobiology focusing on population structure and mortality analysis may improve our understanding regarding the ecology of this species which vanished at the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, prior to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, if assessed populations are large enough. Such population is available in Urşilor Cave, from north-western Romania, known as one of the most rich and complex European MIS3 cave bear sites. From the palaeontological excavation, situated at the lower level of the cave (= Scientific Reserve, more than 210 cave bear isolated lower molars, 160 mandibles and almost 180 canines were extracted and analyzed. The results obtained on the wear stages of the studied molars and mandibles indicated an “L”-shaped curve and suggest a non-attritional death pattern and a bone assemblage juvenile dominated. Moreover, the sex-ratio of upper and lower canines indicates a net dominance of females (5.4 females: 1 male. Although a “catastrophic” death pattern was obtained for cave bears, the animals seem to have died diachronically (non-simultaneously, over a time span of more than 6000 years. The triangular graph of age distribution is not appropriate for death assemblages from traps such as karst caves, where taphonomic processes like predation or scavenging would have played a less important role.

  12. Spatial organization and connectivity of caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Guglielmi, Yves; Camus, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The main particularity of karst systems is their hierarchical organization as three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drain. They are recognized as having a major influence on fluid flow at reservoir scale. However, a karstic network is generally hardly continuously observable and their great intrinsic heterogeneity makes their characterization very complex. This media can be only observed by speleological investigation, conditioned to human possibilities. As a result, only few parts can be observed and therefore it is required to model the non-observable parts for reservoir characterizations. To provide realistic 3D models, non-observable karstic features will be generated using parameters extracted from observed ones. Morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional karstic network provides quantitative measures that can (i) give information on speleogenesis processes, (ii) be used to compare different karst systems, (iii) be correlated with hydrogeological behavior and (iii) control the simulation of realistic karst networks. Recent work done on the subject characterize the karstic network as a whole, without genetic a-priori. However, most of observable caves appears to have a polygenic history due to modifications in boundary conditions and some different karst features can be observed in a same cavity. To study the geometrical organization of caves, we propose to analyze 3D speleological topographies for which speleogenetic context is known. This way, it is possible to characterize karst features according to speleogenetic processes. Several morphometric descriptors have been calculated on three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological works. Some parameters describe the existence of preferential direction of karstification and preferential flow paths, other parameters describe the complexity, geometry and connectivity of the three-dimensional karstic networks. Through the study of fifteen different caves, 150km of 3D data have been analyzed

  13. The behavioural effects of predator-induced stress responses in the cricket (Gryllus texensis): the upside of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Mosher, Brianna

    2013-12-15

    Predator-induced stress responses are thought to reduce an animal's risk of being eaten. Therefore, these stress responses should enhance anti-predator behaviour. We found that individual insects (the cricket Gryllus texensis) show reliable behavioural responses (i.e. behavioural types) in a plus-shaped maze. An individual's behaviour in the plus maze remained consistent for at least 1/2 of its adult life. However, after exposure to a model predator, both male and female crickets showed a reduced period of immobility and an increased amount of time spent under shelter compared with controls. These changes could be mimicked by injections of the insect stress neurohormone octopamine. These behavioural changes probably aid crickets in evading predators. Exposure to a model predator increased the ability of crickets to escape a live predator (a bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps). An injection of octopamine had the same effect, showing that stress hormones can reduce predation. Using crickets to study the fitness consequences of predator-induced stress responses will help integrate ecological and biomedical concepts of 'stress'. PMID:24307711

  14. Magnetostratigraphy of Cave Sediments: Application and Limits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2003), s. 301-330. ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1042603; GA AV ČR KSK3046108; GA AV ČR IAA3013201; GA MŠk ME 251; GA ČR GA206/93/0276; GA ČR GA205/95/0841; GA MŠk OU95051; GA AV ČR EAR-9705718 Grant ostatní: Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)(HU) T 035004; National Science Foundation(US) INT-950737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * cave deposits Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2003

  15. Evidence of NAO control on subsurface ice accumulation in a 1200 yr old cave-ice sequence, St. Livres ice cave, Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Markus; Luetscher, Marc; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Schlatter, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Mid-latitude ice caves are assumed to be highly sensitive to climatic changes and thus represent a potentially interesting environmental archive. Establishing a precise chronology is, however, a prerequisite for the understanding of processes driving the cave-ice mass balance and thus allows a paleoenvironmental interpretation. At St. Livres ice cave (Jura Mountains, Switzerland), subfossil trees and organic material are abundant in the cave-ice deposit, therefore allowing the dating of indiv...

  16. Loss of safety in numbers and a novel driver of mass migration: radiotelemetry reveals heavy wasp predation on a band of Mormon crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B; Lorch, Patrick D

    2016-05-01

    Coordinated movement of animals is a spectacular phenomenon that has received much attention. Experimental studies of Mormon crickets and locust nymphs have demonstrated that collective motion can arise from cannibalism that compensates for nutritional deficiencies arising from group living. Grouping into migratory bands confers protection from predators. By radiotracking migrating, Mormon crickets released over 3 days, we found that specialized, parasitoid digger wasps (Sphecidae) respond numerically and prey heavily on aggregated Mormon crickets leading to loss of safety in numbers. Palmodes laeviventris paralysed and buried 42% of tagged females and 8% of the males on the final day of tracking. Risk of wasps and Mormon crickets hatching on the same site is high and may drive nymphal emigration. A preference to provision offspring with adult female Mormon crickets can be explained by their greater fat content and larger size compared with males, improving survival of wasps during diapause. PMID:27293791

  17. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  18. What can molecular microbiology tell us about Lascaux cave?

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Valme; Bastian, Fabiola; ALABOUVETTE, Claude; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo

    2009-01-01

    5 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, 25 references. Pertenece al capítulo Symposium 5: Geomicrobiology of cave and karst environments.-- Simposio celebrado del 19 al 26 de julio, 2009, en Kerrville, Texas, U.S.A.

  19. Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Logan Cave NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  20. Contaminant concentrations in water and sediments from Shelta Cave

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shelta Cave is a cavern system which lies under the northwestern portion of the City of Huntsville, Alabama. The National Speleological Society owns property which...

  1. Center for Advanced Energy Studies: Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The laboratory contains a four-walled 3D computer assisted virtual environment - or CAVE TM — that allows scientists and engineers to literally walk into their data...

  2. The structure of the cave, stratigraphy, and depositional context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří

    Wien : Springer, 2006 - (Teschler-Nicola, M.), s. 27-40 ISBN 3-211-23588-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Mladeč caves * modern humans * Aurignacian Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-01

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the "cave factor" 1.5. The value of "cave factor" which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  4. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  5. Microbial communities and associated mineral fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cuezva Soledad; Sanchez-Moral Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez Cesareo; Canaveras Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, both on walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. The colonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes. Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of ...

  6. Karst geology and cave fauna of Austria: a concise review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard Christian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The state of cave research in Austria is outlined from the geological and zoological perspective. Geologic sections include the setting of karst regions, tectonic and palaeoclimatic control on karst, modern cave environments, and karst hydrology. A chapter on the development of Austrian biospeleology in the 20th century is followed by a survey of terrestrial underground habitats, biogeographic remarks, and an annotated selection of subterranean invertebrates.

  7. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyp...

  8. Virtual Reality Visualization by CAVE with VFIVE and VTK

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, N; Kusano, K; Ohno, Nobuaki; Kageyama, Akira; Kusano, Kanya

    2005-01-01

    The CAVE-type virtual reality (VR) system was introduced for scientific visualization of large scale data in the plasma simulation community about a decade ago. Since then, we have been developing a VR visualization software, VFIVE, for general CAVE systems. Recently, we have integrated an open source visualization library, the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), into VFIVE. Various visualization methods of VTK can be incorporated and used interactively in VFIVE.

  9. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  10. Karst geology and cave fauna of Austria: a concise review

    OpenAIRE

    Erhard Christian; Christoph Spötl

    2010-01-01

    The state of cave research in Austria is outlined from the geological and zoological perspective. Geologic sections include the setting of karst regions, tectonic and palaeoclimatic control on karst, modern cave environments, and karst hydrology. A chapter on the development of Austrian biospeleology in the 20th century is followed by a survey of terrestrial underground habitats, biogeographic remarks, and an annotated selection of subterranean invertebrates.

  11. Acoustic signalling for mate attraction in crickets: Abdominal ganglia control the timing of the calling song pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Pedro F; Hedwig, Berthold

    2016-08-01

    Decoding the neural basis of behaviour requires analysing how the nervous system is organised and how the temporal structure of motor patterns emerges from its activity. The stereotypical patterns of the calling song behaviour of male crickets, which consists of chirps and pulses, is an ideal model to study this question. We applied selective lesions to the abdominal nervous system of field crickets and performed long-term acoustic recordings of the songs. Specific lesions to connectives or ganglia abolish singing or reliably alter the temporal features of the chirps and pulses. Singing motor control appears to be organised in a modular and hierarchically fashion, where more posterior ganglia control the timing of the chirp pattern and structure and anterior ganglia the timing of the pulses. This modular organisation may provide the substrate for song variants underlying calling, courtship and rivalry behaviour and for the species-specific song patterns in extant crickets. PMID:27109338

  12. Human modifications on cave bear bones from the Gargas Cave (Hautes-Pyrénées, France).

    OpenAIRE

    Vercoutère, Carole; San Juan-Foucher, Cristina; Foucher, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we are going to examine seven cave bear remains modified by prehistoric men. These remains come from the Aurignacian and Gravettian levels of the Gargas Cave (Hautes-Pyrénées, France). They were discovered during the excavations carried out by H. Breuil and E. Cartailhac from 1911 to 1913. One Aurignacian artefact and three Gravettian objects were unpublished and other pieces were only briefly described in the 1958 publication (Breuil & Cheynier, 1958). These osseous artefacts ...

  13. New distribution record for the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes inermis inermis cope, from the Patoka River drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two specimens of the Indiana cave crayfish, Orconectes (Orconectes) inermis inermis Cope, were collected from a cave referred to as Audrey’s Cave on May 21, 2001...

  14. Eogenetic caves in conglomerate: an example from Udin Boršt, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Lipar Matej; Ferk Mateja

    2011-01-01

    Udin Boršt is a karstified terrace of carbonate rock, which is of fluvioglacial origin, and is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. There are 15 registered caves, which have been interpreted as caves in conglomerate, while karst of Udin Boršt itself was interpreted as conglomerate karst, shallow karst or isolated karst. In this article, caves in Udin Boršt have been interpreted as eogenetic caves. Based on porosity and bedding material, different types of caves and cave passages ha...

  15. Game of Organizing International Cricket: Co-Existence of Country-Line and Club-Line Games

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Satya Prasanna

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an economic model of interaction between cricket boards, players and international club-line games sponsors like ICL or IPL. It attempts to capture the inherent conflict between such games and country-line games traditionally organized by cricket boards. It identifies the nature of various trade offs facing these ?players? in the game and examines the effects of market-size changes on the composition of players, the scale of country-line and club-line games and the welfare ...

  16. Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheeptham N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic caves have been little studied for their potential as sources of novel microbial species and bioactive compounds with new scaffolds. We present the f irst study of volcanic cave microbiology from Canada and suggest that this habitat has great potential for the isolation of novel bioactive substances. Sample locat ions were plot ted on a contour map that was compiled in ArcView 3.2. Over 400 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Helmcken Falls cave in Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia. From our preliminary screen, of 400 isolates tested, 1% showed activity against extended spectrum ß-lactamase E. coli, 1.75% against Escherichia coli, 2.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii, and 26.50% against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, 10.25% showed activity against Micrococcus luteus, 2% against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 9.25% against Mycobacterium smegmatis, 6.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 7.5% against Candida albicans. Chemical and physical characteristics of three rock wall samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy and f lame atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, and aluminum (Al were the most abundant components while magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and barium (Ba were second most abundant with cadmium (Cd and potassium (K were the least abundant in our samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of microscopic life forms in all three rock wall samples. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 82 isolates revealed that 65 (79.3% of the strains belong to the Streptomyces genus and 5 (6.1% were members of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia and Erwinia genera. Interestingly, twelve (14.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences showed similarity to unidentif ied ribosomal RNA sequences in the library databases, the sequences of these isolates need to be further investigated using the EzTaxon-e database (http://eztaxon-e. ezbiocloud.net/ to determine whether

  17. Feeding sources of invertebrates in the Ardovská Cave and Domica Cave systems - preliminary results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Lukešová, Alena; Hill, P.; Kováč, L.; Mock, A.; Luptáčik, P.

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005, s. 107-112. ISBN 80-86525-04-X. [Contributions to soil Zoology in Central Europe I. Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /7./. České Budějovice (CZ), 14.04.2003-16.04.2003] Grant ostatní: Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 1/0441/03; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 1/9202/02; Science and Technology Assistance Agency(SK) APVT-20-035802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : caves * actinomycetes * algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  19. Carbon dioxide seasonality in dynamically ventilated caves: the role of advective fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marek; Faimon, Jiří; Godissart, Jean; Ek, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The seasonality in cave CO2 levels was studied based on (1) a new data set from the dynamically ventilated Comblain-au-Pont Cave (Dinant Karst Basin, Belgium), (2) archive data from Moravian Karst caves, and (3) published data from caves worldwide. A simplified dynamic model was proposed for testing the effect of all conceivable CO2 fluxes on cave CO2 levels. Considering generally accepted fluxes, i.e., the direct diffusive flux from soils/epikarst, the indirect flux derived from dripwater degassing, and the input/output fluxes linked to cave ventilation, gives the cave CO2 level maxima of 1.9 × 10-2 mol m-3 (i.e., ˜ 440 ppmv), which only slightly exceed external values. This indicates that an additional input CO2 flux is necessary for reaching usual cave CO2 level maxima. The modeling indicates that the additional flux could be a convective advective CO2 flux from soil/epikarst driven by airflow (cave ventilation) and enhanced soil/epikarstic CO2 concentrations. Such flux reaching up to 170 mol s-1 is capable of providing the cave CO2 level maxima up to 3 × 10-2 mol m-3 (70,000 ppmv). This value corresponds to the maxima known from caves worldwide. Based on cave geometry, three types of dynamic caves were distinguished: (1) the caves with the advective CO2 flux from soil/epikarst at downward airflow ventilation mode, (2) the caves with the advective soil/epikarstic flux at upward airflow ventilation mode, and (3) the caves without any soil/epikarstic advective flux. In addition to CO2 seasonality, the model explains both the short-term and seasonal variations in δ13C in cave air CO2.

  20. Analysis of the Condition and Development Opportunities of Cave Tourism in Primorsko-Goranska County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Knežević

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines caves as morphological factors of tourism development in Primorsko-Goranska County. The primary aim is to promote cave heritage parallel with the development of cave tourism. The methodological framework is based on analyzing material in the archives of tourist boards, taking an inventory of cave resources (case study, conducting interviews, and making a SWOT analysis of cave tourism development. Research results show that caves represent a complex resource in the tourist trade of Primorsko-Goranska County, to which little importance has been attached up to date (priority being given to mass tourism. In the context of tourism development, caves fall into four groups. The first group comprises caves that have a long tradition, but show signs of aging as a tourism product. The second group includes caves that were once open to the public, but were later closed for some reason. The third group consists of caves on the seaside or seabed visited by speleologists-divers. The fourth group is made up of potential cave sites that have been evaluated as being attractive, but is located in hard-to-access areas, making their valorisation in tourism purpose more difficult. Only Lokvarka Cave has a substantial influence on the development of special interest tourism in Lokve, while in all other cases, the role of caves in the tourism offering needs to be revalorised.

  1. WP-Cave - assessment of feasibility, safety and development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to SKB R and D-programme 1986, alternative disposal methods will be investigated to provide a basis for selecting a site and a repository system for the Swedish spent nuclear fuel. The present report is a comparison between the WP-Cave and the reference concept KBS-3. The comparison has resulted in the following conclusions: - Both concepts are judged to be able to provide adequate safety. - A utilization of the potential of the WP-Cave requires, however, extensive development in areas where the current state of knowledge and available data are incomplete. - The higher temperatures in the WP-Cave lead to greater uncertainty as to long-term performance. Reducing this uncertainty would require many yaers of research and substantial resources. - Both repositories, including the barriers they incorporate, could be built with a normal adaption of available technology. -It is not possible to say today whether it would be simpler to find suitable sites for one design or the other. - The WP-Cave is considerably more expensive. A future research direction based on a concentrated emplacement of spent fuel along the lines of the WP-Cave is therefore judged to entail greater uncertainty as regards the possibilities of achieving acceptable safety and to require greater resources for research and development, at the same time as the costs of building the repository would be higher. The studies of the WP-Cave as an integral system should therfore be discontinued. Certain barrier designs in the WP-Cave could also be utulized in repository designs with lower temperature, for example the reduction potential of the steel canisters and the hydraulic cage's diversion of groundwater. Studies within these areas are being conducted within SKB and should continue

  2. Flow Classification and Cave Discharge Characteristics in Unsaturated Karst Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, G.; Mahmud, K.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we utilize the spatial array of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of the Golgotha Cave, SW Australia, developed in Quaternary aeolianite (dune limestone), with the aim of understanding infiltration water movement via the relationships between infiltration, stalactite morphology and groundwater recharge. Mahmud et al. (2015) used the Terrestrial LiDAR measurements to analyze stalactite morphology and to characterize possible flow locations in this cave. Here we identify the stalactites feeding the drip loggers and classify each as matrix (soda straw or icicle), fracture or combined-flow. These morphology-based classifications are compared with flow characteristics from the drip logger time series and the discharge from each stalactite is calculated. The total estimated discharge from each area is compared with infiltration estimates to better understand flow from the surface to the cave ceilings of the studied areas. The drip discharge data agrees with the morphology-based flow classification in terms of flow and geometrical characteristics of cave ceiling stalactites. No significant relationships were observed between the drip logger discharge, skewness and coefficient of variation with overburden thickness, due to the possibility of potential vadose-zone storage volume and increasing complexity of the karst architecture. However, these properties can be used to characterize different flow categories. A correlation matrix demonstrates that similar flow categories are positively correlated, implying significant influence of spatial distribution. The infiltration water comes from a larger surface area, suggesting that infiltration is being focused to the studied ceiling areas of each chamber. Most of the ceiling in the cave site is dry, suggesting the possibility of capillary effects with water moving around the cave rather than passing through it. Reference:Mahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to

  3. Sex-specific effect of juvenile diet on adult disease resistance in a field cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint D Kelly

    Full Text Available Food limitation is expected to reduce an individual's body condition (body mass scaled to body size and cause a trade-off between growth and other fitness-related traits, such as immunity. We tested the condition-dependence of growth and disease resistance in male and female Gryllus texensis field crickets by manipulating diet quality via nutrient content for their entire life and then subjecting individuals to a host resistance test using the live bacterium Serratia marcescens. As predicted, crickets on a high-quality diet eclosed more quickly, and at a larger body size and mass. Crickets on a high-quality diet were not in better condition at the time of eclosion, but they were in better condition 7-11 days after eclosion, with females also being in better condition than males. Despite being in better condition, however, females provided with a high-quality diet had significantly poorer disease resistance than females on a low-quality diet and in poor condition. Similarly, males on low- and high-quality diets did not differ in their disease resistance, despite differing in their body condition. A sex difference in disease resistance under diet-restriction suggests that females might allocate resources toward immunity during development if they expect harsh environmental conditions as an adult or it might suggest that females allocate resources toward other life history activities (i.e. reproduction when food availability increases. We do not know what immune effectors were altered under diet-restriction to increase disease resistance, but our findings suggest that increased immune function might provide an explanation for the sexually-dimorphic increase in longevity generally observed in diet-restricted animals.

  4. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John

    2016-05-01

    The steeply-dipping-dolostone-hosted caves of the Sierra de Arnero (N Spain) contain low-gradient relict canyons with up to ten mapped levels of ferromanganese stromatolites and associated wall notches over a vertical range of 85 m, the highest occurring ~ 460 m above base level. Despite a plausible speleogenetic contribution by pyrite oxidation, and the irregular cave-wall mesomorphologies suggestive of hypogenic speleogenesis, the Arnero relict caves are dominantly epigenic, as indicated by the conduit pattern and the abundant allogenic sediments. Allogenic input declined over time due to a piracy-related decrease in the drainage area of allogenic streams, explaining the large size of the relict Arnero caves relative to the limited present-day outcrop area of the karstified carbonates. Allogenic-sediment input also explains the observed change from watertable canyons to phreatic conduits in the paleo-downstream direction. Stromatolites and notches arguably formed in cave-stream passages at the watertable. The best-defined paleo-watertables show an overall slope of 1.7°, consistent with the present-day relief of the watertable, with higher-slope segments caused by barriers related to sulfide mineralization. The formation of watertable stromatolites favored wall notching by the combined effect of enhanced acidity by Mn-Fe oxidation and shielding of cave floors against erosion. Abrasive bedload further contributed to notch formation by promoting lateral mechanical erosion and protecting passage floors. The irregular wallrock erosional forms of Arnero caves are related partly to paragenesis and partly to the porous nature of the host dolostones, which favored irregular dissolution near passage walls, generating friable halos. Subsequent mechanical erosion contributed to generate spongework patterns. The dolostone porosity also contributes to explain the paradox that virtually all Arnero caves are developed in dolostone despite being less soluble than adjacent

  5. The Relationship Between Morphological Symmetry and Immune Response in Wild-Caught Adult Bush-Crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Berggren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite interest in the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry (FA, immune response and ecological factors in insects, little data are available from wild populations. In this study we measured FA and immune response in 370 wild-caught male bush-crickets, Metrioptera roeseli, from 20 experimentally introduced populations in southern-central Sweden. Individuals with more-symmetric wings had a higher immune response as measured by the cellular encapsulation of a surgically-implanted nylon monofilament. However, we found no relationship between measures of FA in other organs (i.e. tibia and maxillary palp and immune response, suggesting that this pattern may reflect differing selection pressures.

  6. ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States)]. E-mail: anne.r.skinner@williams.edu; Blackwell, B.A.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Martin, Sara [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Ortega, A. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Golovanova, L.V. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Doronichev, V.B. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Mezmaiskaya Cave has yielded more than 10,000 artifacts, thousands of very well preserved faunal remains, and hominin remains, found in seven Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) and three Upper Paleolithic levels. A complete Neanderthal infant skeleton was preserved in anatomical juxtaposition lying on a large limestone block, overlain by the earliest Mousterian layer, Layer 3. Twenty-four skull fragments from a 1-2 year-old Neanderthal infant, showing post-mortem deformation, occurred in a pit originating in the Mousterian Layer 2 and penetrating into underlying layers 2A and 2B(1). Bone from Layer 2A was dated by AMS {sup 14}C at 35.8-36.3{+-}0.5 kyr BP. Direct dating of Neanderthal bone from Layer 3 gave an age of 29 kyr, but that is now considered to be due to contamination by modern carbon. Fourteen large mammal teeth from Layers 2 through 3 have been dated by standard electron spin resonance (ESR). Low U concentrations in both the enamel and dentine ensure that ESR ages do not depend significantly on the U uptake model, but do depend strongly on the sedimentary dose rates. Assuming a sedimentary water concentration equal to 20 wt%, ESR ages for the Mousterian layers range from 36.2 to 73.0{+-}5.0 ka.

  7. Building 887: An Aladdin's Cave for Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Building 887 on the Prévessin site is home to numerous experiments bringing together physicists and engineers from around the world. Its diversity makes the huge building a replica of CERN in miniature. The Installation unit of the SL EA group in front of the support structure for the ATLAS muon chambers. From left to right, seated: Pierre Gimenez, Yves Bonnet, Yves Naveau, Alain Pinget, Christian Becquet, Camille Adenot; standing: Philippe Guillot, Thierry Reynes, Monserrat Zurita-Perez, Claude Ferrari et Denis Gacon. The big wheel to be used for the ATLAS muon chambers (see below) is much the most spectacular installation currently occupying Building 887. But it is far from being the only attraction. Push open the heavy doors of this immense hall and it is a bit like entering a physicists' Aladdin's cave. The building, 55 metres wide and 300 metres long, is a treasure trove of engineering and technology, a CERN in miniature, housing dozens of collaborations from all over the world. With its 150...

  8. The Association Between Internal and External Measures of Training Load in Batsmen and Medium-Fast Bowlers During Net-Based Cricket Training.

    OpenAIRE

    Vickery, Will; Dascombe, Ben; Duffield, Rob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To examine the relationship between session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) and measures of internal and external training load (TL) within cricket batsmen and medium-fast bowlers during net-based training sessions. METHODS The internal (heart rate), external (movement demands, Player Load™) and technical (cricket-specific skills) loads of thirty, male cricket players (age: 21.2 ± 3.8 y, height: 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 79.0 ± 8.7 kg) were determined from net-based cr...

  9. Volcanic caves: priorities for conserving the Azorean endemic troglobiont species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Cañete Enrique P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics and drivers of ventilation in caves are of growing interest for different f ields of science. Accumulated CO2 in caves can be exchanged with the atmosphere, modifying the internal CO2 content, affecting stalagmite growth rates, deteriorating rupestrian paintings, or creating new minerals. Current estimates of cave ventilation neglect the role of high CO2 concentrations in determining air density – approximated via the virtual temperature (Tv –, affecting buoyancy and therefore the release or storage of CO2. Here we try to improve knowledge and understanding of cave ventilation through the use of Tv in CO2-rich air to explain buoyancy for different values of temperature (T and CO2 content. Also, we show differences between T and Tv for 14 different experimental sites in the vadose zone, demonstrating the importance of using the correct def inition of Tv to determine air buoyancy in caves. The calculation of Tv (including CO2 effects is currently available via internet using an excel template, requiring the input of CO2 (%, air temperature (oC and relative humidity (%.

  10. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Gregor, M.; Schlögl, J.; Šmída, B.; Liščák, P.; Brewer-Carías, Ch.; Vlček, L.

    2011-09-01

    Venezuelan table mountains (tepuis) host the largest arenite caves in the world. The most frequently used explanation of their origin so far was the "arenization" theory, involving dissolution of quartz cement around the sand grains and subsequent removing of the released grains by water. New research in the two largest arenite cave systems - Churi-Tepui System in Chimanta Massif and Ojos de Cristal System in Roraima Tepui showed that quartz dissolution plays only a minor role in their speleogenesis. Arenites forming the tepuis are not only quartzites but they display a wide range of lithification and breakdown, including also loose sands and sandstones. Speleogenetic processes are mostly concentrated on the beds of unlithified sands which escaped from diagenesis by being sealed by the surrounding perfectly lithified quartzites. Only the so-called "finger-flow" pillars testify to confined diagenetic fluids which flowed in narrow channels, leaving the surrounding arenite uncemented. Another factor which influenced the cave-forming processes by about 30% was lateritization. It affects beds formed of arkosic sandstones and greywackes which show strong dissolution of micas, feldspars and clay minerals, turning then to laterite ("Barro Rojo"). The main prerequisite to rank caves among karst phenomena is dissolution. As the dissolution of silicate minerals other than quartz appears to play not only a volumetrically important role but even a trigger role, these arenitic caves may be ranked as karst.

  11. Ice caves on Earth - analogues for (sub) surface conditions on Mars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Persoiu, A.; Onac, B. P.; Wynn, J. G.; Žák, Karel

    Houston : Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011. s. 8016-8016. [International Planetary Cave Research Workshop /1./. 25.10.2011-28.10.2011, Carlsbad] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : caves * ice caves * geology * astrophysics Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/caves2011/pdf/8016.pdf

  12. Immediate Protein Dietary Effects on Movement and the Generalised Immunocompetence of Migrating Mormon Crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Mormon crickets form large migratory bands that march over rangeland in the western United States seeking salt and protein. Immune defense is particularly relevant to survival in migratory bands, but little is known about the role of nutrition in insect immunocompetence. We hypothesized that imm...

  13. Participation of segmentary octopaminergic neurons in modulation of processes of sensomotor integration in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitin, SO; Lapitskii, VP

    2000-01-01

    The impulse responses of dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUMN) of the prothoracic ganglion of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to acoustic and tactile sensory stimuli were studied. It has been established that among these cells there are mono- and bimodal neurons, some of them with the background imp

  14. Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchers, W R; Brooks, R; Jennions, M D; Tregenza, T; Dworkin, I; Hunt, J

    2013-05-01

    Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders' equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent study, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) stability are sparse, and largely focused on morphological traits. Here, we compared P for the structure of the complex sexual advertisement call of six divergent allopatric populations of the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We measured a subset of calls from wild-caught crickets from each of the populations and then a second subset after rearing crickets under common-garden conditions for three generations. In a second experiment, crickets from each population were reared in the laboratory on high- and low-nutrient diets and their calls recorded. In both experiments, we estimated P for call traits and used multiple methods to compare them statistically (Flury hierarchy, geometric subspace comparisons and random skewers). Despite considerable variation in means and variances of individual call traits, the structure of P was largely conserved among populations, across generations and between our rearing diets. Our finding that P remains largely stable, among populations and between environmental conditions, suggests that selection has preserved the structure of call traits in order that they can function as an integrated unit. PMID:23530814

  15. Hominid exploitation of the environment and cave bear populations. The case of Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth in Amutxate cave (Aralar, Navarra-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Trinidad; Ortiz, José E; Cobo, Rafael; de Hoz, Pedro; García-Redondo, Ana; Grün, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Cave bears (Ursus deningeri and U. spelaeus) and hominids (Homo heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens) were potential competitors for environmental resources (subterranean and open air). Here, we examined the age at death of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller-Heinroth) specimens from Amutxate cave in order to shed light on the effect of resource sharing between cave bears and hominids. After studying dental wear of the deciduous and permanent dentitions, the ontogenetic development of mandibles, and incremental layers of cement (annuli), we defined five age groups differentiated by marked development and size gaps. Our findings indicate that after hibernating, bears abandoned the den, thereby leaving the subterranean environment (caves) free for temporary hominid occupation-this would explain the subtle traces of hominid presence in many dens. However, a simple calculation based on age at death of subadult and adult cave bear specimens in Amutxate cave, extrapolated to the whole cave area, showed that the area surrounding this cave hosted bears for at least 9,000 years. This length of habitation, quite similar to the time-span derived from amino acid racemization and electron spin resonance, indicates that bear populations in the Amutxate cave constituted a serious constraint for hominid exploitation of the environment. PMID:16996576

  16. Cave sediments in Slovenia: Results of 10 Years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2010), s. 173-186. ISSN 0560-3137 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * karst and cave evolution * karst * karst (Slovenia) * cave evolution Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  17. Fossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments - a study of four cave sites from Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, O. T.; Constantin, S.; Panaiotu, C.; Roban, R. D.; Frenzel, P.; Miko, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fossil invertebrates from cave sediments have been recently described as a potential new proxy for paleoenvironment and used in cross-correlations with alternate proxy records from cave deposits. Here we present the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves from two climatically different regions of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. Some of the identified taxa are new to science, and most of them are indicative for either warm and/or cold stages or dry and/or wetter oscillations. In two caves the fossil invertebrates records indicate rapid climate oscillations during times known for a relatively stable climate. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures and hydraulic regimes could be gathered. This paper analyzes the potential of fossil invertebrate records as a paleoenvironmental proxy, potential problems and pitfalls.

  18. Quantifying elbow extension and elbow hyperextension in cricket bowling: a case study of Jenny Gunn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2012-05-01

    In this study a method for determining elbow extension and elbow abduction for a cricket bowling delivery was developed and assessed for Jenny Gunn who has hypermobility in both elbows and whose bowling action has been repeatedly queried by umpires. Bowling is a dynamic activity which is assessed visually in real time in a cricket match by an umpire. When the legality of a bowler's action is questioned by an umpire a quantitative analysis is undertaken using a marker based motion analysis system. This method of quantifying elbow extension should agree with a visual assessment of when the arm is "straight" and should minimise the effects of marker movement. A set of six markers on the bowling arm were used to calculate elbow angles. Differences of up to 1° for elbow extension and up to 2° for elbow abduction were found when angles calculated from the marker set for static straight arm trials were compared with measurements taken by a chartered sports physiotherapist. In addition comparison of elbow extension angles at ball release calculated from the markers during bowling trials with those measured from high speed video also showed good agreement with mean differences of 0°±2°. PMID:22548307

  19. The effect of a flexed elbow on bowling speed in cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Robert; Ferdinands, René

    2003-01-01

    The laws of bowling in cricket state 'a ball is fairly delivered in respect of the arm if, once the bowler's arm has reached the level of the shoulder in the delivery swing, the elbow joint is not straightened partially or completely from that point until the ball has left the hand'. Recently two prominent bowlers, under suspicion for transgressing this law, suggested that they are not 'throwing' but due to an elbow deformity are forced to bowl with a bent bowling arm. This study examined whether such bowlers can produce an additional contribution to wrist/ball release speed by internal rotation of the upper arm. The kinematics of a bowling arm were calculated using a simple two-link model (upper arm and forearm). Using reported internal rotation speeds of the upper arm from baseball and waterpolo, and bowling arm kinematics from cricket, the change in wrist speed was calculated as a function of effective arm length, and wrist distance from the internal rotation axis. A significant increase in wrist speed was noted. This suggests that bowlers who can maintain a fixed elbow flexion during delivery can produce distinctly greater wrist/ball speeds by using upper arm internal rotation. PMID:14658246

  20. [Ultrastructural organization of the auditory nerves of Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris crickets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlogorskaia, I D

    1980-01-01

    Electron microscopic observations have been made on transverse sections of the auditory (tympanal) nerve of the crickets at various levels from the tympanal ganglion (close to the ganglion, 150, 250, 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 mu from the latter). In the vicinity of the ganglion, axons of the auditory receptors are separated from each other by the processes of Schwann cells. Beginning from the level of 150-250 mu, the axons are subdivided and form, with the help of collaterals, a subreceptor plexus which is similar to that found in the auditory system of the locust. Collaterals of an axon pass to the adjacent axons and deeply penetrate into the latter loosing their Schwann sheath, so that axonal membranes form a direct contact. At the site of these contacts, intracellular cleft is equal to 50-80 A. No synaptic vesicles were found in the region of the plexus. At the level of 3,000 mu, the auditory axons again attain a roundlike form and become completely isolated from each other by the processes of Schwann cells. It is suggested that in the region of the subreceptor plexus, electrotonic interaction between the receptors of the crickets takes place, as it is common in the auditory sistem of insects. PMID:7405445

  1. The benefits and limitations of using cricket as a sport for development tool in Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Khoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates benefits and challenges associated with the use of sport – in this case cricket – as a community development tool in Samoa. This Pacific Island nation, like others in the region, has been the focus of various development programs in the post-colonial era, with developed economy neighbours like Australia and New Zealand providing aid funding. Some of that has involved sport as a development tool, underpinned either by funding from the national government, foreign aid agencies, or a combination of both. The present paper, by focusing on a cricket for development (CFD program in Samoa, aims to explore outcomes and limitations associated with the use of sport as a community engagement tool. The paper pursues that goal by examining the activities of relevant sport and government organisations, and – most crucially – it interviews key stakeholders involved in the CFD process in Samoa. In short, the prime purpose of this paper is to identify and interpret – from the perspective of locals – whether the CFD program has brought benefits to Samoan communities, and the challenges and limitations they see thus far. This is important because, to date, there has been an absence of qualitative inquiry into the efficacy of sport for development (SFD programs in Samoa, and very limited research in a Pacific Islands context.

  2. Future climate change spells catastrophe for Blanchard’s cricket frog, Acris blanchardi (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. McCallum

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may be one of the greatest environmental catastrophes encountered by modern human civilization. The potential influence of this global disaster on wildlife populations is subject to question. I interpolated how seasonal variation in weather patterns influences growth and reproduction in the Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris blanchardi. Then I extrapolated the influence of future climate conditions on these life history characteristics using fuzzy regression. Fuzzy regression was an accurate predictor of growth and reproduction based on the climate conditions present from 1900–2007. It predicted that the climate projections expected for Arkansas by 2100 could reduce total reproductive investment in the Blanchard’s cricket frog by 33–94%. If these results reflect responses by other poikilotherms, climate change could induce major population declines in many species. Because poikilotherms represent the vast majority of vertebrates and significant ecosystem components, it is imperative that we implement strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and circumvent this possible catastrophe.

  3. Social Network Analysis as a tool to analyze interaction of Batsmen and Bowlers in Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the far reaching applications of network methods for understanding interaction within members of sport teams. Although a popular sport in the erstwhile English colonies, cricket has not received much attention from scientific community even though there is no dearth of statistics. This paper presents a network based approach to analyze the interaction of batsmen and bowlers in International cricket matches. First we consider the network of interaction between bowlers and batsmen. If two batsmen faced the same bowler they are connected by an unweighted link. Similarly if two bowlers bowled to the same batsman, they are connected. In this way a network of batsmen and bowlers is generated. We determine the exact values of clustering coefficient, average degree, average shortest path length of the networks and compare them with the Erd\\text{\\"{o}}s-R\\text{\\'{e}}nyi model and the configuration model. We also study an alternate version of the network in which two batsmen are connected if they a...

  4. Behavioral response to antennal tactile stimulation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Jiro; Akamine, Seiryo

    2012-07-01

    We examined behavioral responses of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to tactile stimuli to the antennae. Three stimulants of similar shape and size but different textures were used: a tibia from the hunting spider Heteropoda venatoria (potential predator), a tibia from the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi (less likely predator), and a glass rod. Each stimulus session comprised a first gentle contact and a second strong contact. The evoked behavioral responses were classified into four categories: aversion, aggression, antennal search, and no response. Regardless of the stimulants, the crickets exhibited antennal search and aversion most frequently in response to the first and second stimuli, respectively. The frequency of aversion was significantly higher to the tibia of H. venatoria than to other stimulants. The most striking observation was that aggressive responses were exclusive to the H. venatoria tibia. To specify the hair type that induced aggression, we manipulated two types of common hairs (bristle and fine) on the tibia of the predatory spider. When bristle hairs were removed from the H. venatoria tibia, aggression was significantly reduced. These results suggest that antennae can discriminate the tactile texture of external objects and elicit adaptive behavioral responses. PMID:22534774

  5. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects. PMID:26013128

  6. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold G

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song. PMID:26941647

  7. Microbial Communities and Associated Mineral Fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuezva Soledad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, bothon walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. Thecolonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes.Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of rhombohedral calcite crystals, andspheroid to hemispheroid CaCO3 elements. Colonies distribution seems to be controlled by microenvironmental conditions inside thecavity. The areas of the cave showing higher temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration fluctuations presented a minorbiomineralization capability.

  8. Acoustic evolution in crickets: need for phylogenetic study and a reappraisal of signal effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Desutter-Grandcolas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cricket stridulums and calls are highly stereotyped, except those with greatly modified tegmina and/or vena-tion, or ''unusual'' frequency, duration and/or intensity. This acoustic diversity remained unsuspected until recently, and current models of acoustic evolution in crickets erroneously consider this clade homogeneous for acoustic features. The few phylogenetic studies analyzing acoustic evolution in crickets demonstrated that acoustic behavior could be particularly labile in some clades. The ensuing pattern for cricket evolution is consequently extremely complex. We argue that: (1 phylogeny should always be considered when analyzing acoustic evolution, whatever characters are considered (signals, stridulums or behaviors. Consequently, future studies should be devoted to entire clades, and not consider isolated taxa; character and character state definitions should allow significant reconstructions of character evolutionary transformations; and homologies should be carefully defined for all characters, including behavior. (2 The factors responsible for song effectiveness should be reconsidered and hypotheses on their potential influence on signal evolution tested jointly by phylogenies (for example, to assess correlated transformations of acoustic and ecological features, and population studies (for example, to correlate call range and population structure, or test the predation risk associated with a signal structure. Better understanding these points should help clarifying acoustic evolution in crickets.Os aparelhos estridulatórios e os chamados dos grilos são altamente estereotipados, exceto aqueles com áreas e/ou venação tegminais fortemente modificadas ou com freqüência, duração e/ou intensidade fora do ''normal''. Esta diversidade acústica ficou insuspeita até recentemente, e os modelos correntes de evolução acústica em grilos consideram erroneamente este clado como homogêneo para as características acústicas. Os

  9. Insights into Neandertals and Denisovans from Denisova Cave

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Denisova Cave is located in the Altai mountains of Russia. Excavations from this cave have yielded two large hominin molars and three hominin phalanxes from the Pleistocene. One of the phalanxes (Denisova 3) had extraordinary DNA preservation allowing the sequencing of high quality nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes and has been shown to belong to a young girl from hereto unknown sister group of Neandertals, called Denisovans. The mtDNA of Denisova 3 surprisingly split from the mtD...

  10. Luminescence of Speleothems in Italian Gypsum Caves: Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Shopov, Yavor Y; Forti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence of 3 speleothem samples from the Acquafredda karst system and 1 from the Novella Cave (Gessi Bolognesi Natural Park, Italy) has been recorded using excitation by impulse Xe- lamp. All these carbonate speleothems are believed to be formed only from active CO2 from the air, because the bedrock of the cave consist of gypsum and does not contain carbonates. The obtained photos of luminescence record the climate changes during the speleothem growth. U/Th and 14C dating proved that studied speleothems started to grow since about 5,000 years ago. The detailed analyses of the luminescence records is still in progress.

  11. Loss of safety in numbers and a novel driver of mass migration: Radiotelemetry reveals heavy predation on a band of Mormon crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated movement of animals is a spectacular phenomenon that has received much attention. Experimental studies of Mormon crickets and locust nymphs have demonstrated that collective motion can arise from cannibalism that compensates for nutritional deficiencies arising from group living. Groupin...

  12. Seasonal variations of 14C and δ13C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Masayo; Kato, Tomomi; Horikawa, Keiji; Nakamura, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem 14C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric 14C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of 14C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem 14C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO2. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in 14C and δ13C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the 14C and δ13C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different 14C concentrations and δ13C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO2, and flow paths. Further, the 14C and δ13C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The 14C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: 14C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in 14C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using 14C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  13. Diet Drives the Collective Migrations and Affects the Immunity of Mormon Crickets and Locusts: A Comparison of These Potential Superspreaders of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B

    2016-08-01

    Differential transmission of disease among individuals within a population or among species in a community can result in superspreaders, relatively rare individuals responsible for a large proportion of transmission events. Migrating Mormon crickets and nymphal locusts readily engage in cannibalistic attacks and necrophagy. Typically multiple individuals consume a cadaver, which fosters the spread of disease. Cannibalistic attacks result in aligned, coordinated movement of individuals in massive bands that march daily for weeks at a time. Coordinated movement reduces contact frequency, which not only reduces cannibalism but the risk of disease transmission. When crowded, Mormon crickets and locusts elevate their constitutive immunity, which further reduces the risk of disease transmission. Bands of Mormon crickets show a variety of macronutrient dietary deficiencies that determine whether they will be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria or fungi. In some migratory bands, Mormon crickets seek carbohydrates and have less anti-bacterial activity. A lipid transport protein that functions in both fuelling migration and anti-bacterial activity may cause a trade-off between the two activities when carbohydrates are limited. In other migratory bands, Mormon crickets prefer protein over carbohydrates, indicating protein-deficiency. In these bands, the generalized immunity of Mormon crickets, measured as phenoloxidase, is compromised, and the insects are more susceptible to Beauveria bassiana fungal infection. In locusts, a high protein diet resulted in greater susceptibility to another entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum, whereas in Mormon crickets, both phenoloxidase titers and immunity to M acridum increased with adult age. Color changes associated with death by either of these fungi diminishes cannibalism, but bands may cull infected or encounter cadavers too quickly to effectively reduce fungal transmission. As long as the insects show no signs of infection

  14. Crickets Are Not a Free Lunch: Protein Capture from Scalable Organic Side-Streams via High-Density Populations of Acheta domesticus

    OpenAIRE

    Mark E Lundy; Parrella, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and...

  15. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  16. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro-Sato Matsumoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

  17. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are common members of bacterial communities in Altamira Cave (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, M Carmen; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2009-01-15

    The conservation of paleolithic paintings such as those in Altamira Cave (Spain) is a primary objective. Recent molecular studies have shown the existence of unknown microbial communities in this cave including anaerobic microorganisms on cave walls. Herein, we analyzed an anaerobic microbial group, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), from Altamira Cave with potential negative effects on painting conservation. In the present work, the communities of bacteria and SRB were studied through PCR-DGGE analysis. Data suggest that SRB communities represent a significant, highly diverse bacterial group in Altamira Cave. These findings represent a first report on this physiological group on caves with paleolithic paintings and their potential biodegradation consequences. Expanding our knowledge on microbial communities in Altamira Cave is a priority to design appropriate conservation strategies. PMID:19027143

  18. Assessment of the dose from radon and its decay products in the Bozkov dolomite cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose from radon and its progeny remains a frequently discussed problem. ICRP 65 provides a commonly used methodology to calculate the dose from radon. Our work focuses on a cave environment and on assessing the doses in public open caves. The differences in conditions (aerosol size distribution, humidity, radon and its progeny ratio, etc.) are described by the so-called cave factor j. The cave factor is used to correct the dose for workers which is calculated using the ICRP 65 recommendation. In this work, the authors have brought together measured data of aerosol size distribution, unattached and attached fraction activity, and have calculated the so-called cave factor for the Bozkov dolomite cave environment. The dose conversion factors based on measured data and used for evaluating the cave factor were calculated by LUDEP software, which implements HRTM ICRP66. (authors)

  19. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  20. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Hercman, H.; Orvošová, M.; Jačková, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2009), s. 139-152. ISSN 0392-6672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cryogenic cave carbonate * U-series dating * carbon and oxygen stable isotopes * Western Carpathians * Nízké Tatry Mts. Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.900, year: 2009 http://www.ijs.speleo.it/pdf/71.589.38(2)_Zak.et.al.pdf

  1. Blow Hole Cave: An unroofed cave on San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, and its importance for detection of paleokarst caves on fossil carbonate platforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Mylroie, J. E.; Hladil, Jindřich; Carew, J. L.; Slavík, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2002), s. 51-74. ISSN 0583-6050. [Karstological School - Classical Karst: Types of Karst /10./. Pstojna, 26.06.2002-28.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013809; GA AV ČR IAA3013209 Keywords : carbonate platforms * unroofed caves * gamma-ray spectrometry and wellogging Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://carsologica.zrc-sazu.si/downloads/313/slavik.pdf

  2. Inside the neutrino cave, close to the target complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows on the left the shielding of the target complex, T9 and T11 for the wide and narrow beams. The direction of the primary proton beam faces the camera. Between the shielding and the cave wall are housed the magnets cooling pipes. The pulley block allows displacements inside the shielding.

  3. Evaluation of the Bozkov Dolomite Cave Guides Potential Dose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thinová, L.; Berka, Z.; Brandejsová, E.; Milka, D.; Froňka, A.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    Prague, 2003. s. 495. [International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States /6./. 01.09.2003-04.09.2003, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : radon concentration * cave * effective dose Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp

    OpenAIRE

    Sridevi Ankisetty; Marc Slattery

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  5. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  6. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not be larger than one-quarter inch. (3) Live bait. (i) Worms are the only form of live bait which may... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  7. Modelling cave flow hydraulics in the Notranjski Kras, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Gabrovsek, Franci

    2015-04-01

    The Notranjski Kras region is a karst region in western Slovenia, developed in Cretaceous limestone. The region is characterised by hilly relief, with peaks reaching 1300 m elevation. Several well-developed cave systems drain the karst aquifer, providing preferential flow pathes along two sections: The Pivka River, which sinks into Postojnska Jama and reappears in Planinska Jama, and the Stržen and Cerkniščica rivers, which sink into Karlovica Jama, flow through Zelške Jama and Tkalca Jama and also reappear in Planinska Jama. Both sub-surface flow pathes merge in Planinska Jama, providing water for the Unica river. The Unica river leaves Planinska Jama via a large karst srping and passes through Planinsko Polje, disappearing again through two groups of ponors, finally emerging in the Ljubljanka Springs at around 300 m asl. The sub-surface flow path through the Postojnska Jama cave system has been monitored with 7 stations distributed along the flow path, monitoring stage and temperature. We have used the stage data to model flow through the cave system with the program package SWMM, simulating the active parts of Postojnska Jama with simplified geometry. From the comparison of stage observations and predictions, we identified key sections in the cave, which control the sub-surface flow, such as passage constrictions, sumps and by-passes. Using a formal inverse procedure, we determined the geometry of this key sections by fitting predicted to observed stages, and we achieved a very high degree of correlation.

  8. Microbiome of diverse sediments in Slovakian wild caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Petrásek, Jiří; Jirout, Jiří; Volná, Lucie; Elhottová, Dana

    Košice: Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 2012. s. 33-34. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /21./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Košice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microbiota * sediments * Slovakian wild caves Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. New localities of coarsely crystalline cryogenic cave carbonates in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvošová, M.; Vlček, L.; Žák, Karel

    Vol. 3. Prague : Česká speleologická společnost, 2013 - (Filippi, M.; Bosák, P.), s. 490-495 ISBN 978-80-87857-09-0. [International Congress of Speleology /16./. Brno (CZ), 21.07.2013-28.07.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * carbonates * cryogenic carbonates Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineral ogy

  10. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  11. Diving investigations of Bermuda’s deep water caves

    OpenAIRE

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed gas rebreathers allowed divers to explore the shelf edge of the Bermuda sea mount at depths from 60 to 136 m to search for potential refugia of anchialine taxa during Pleistocene periods of sea level regression. Divers discovered karst and sea level features including a remnant natural bridge cave, drowned coral reefs, wave-cut notches and high relief escarpments.

  12. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RADOLOVIĆ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian coastal karst abounds in submerged caves that host a variety of environmental conditions depending on the geomorphology, depth and submarine groundwater discharge. One example is the Y-Cave, a shallow, mostly submerged, horizontal cave on Dugi Otok Island, on the eastern Adriatic coast. This study was aimed at examining the temporal and spatial variability of the marine cave environment, including temperature, salinity, light intensity, cave morphology and hydrodynamism, along with the dissolutional effect caused by the mixing of sea and freshwater. The general distribution of organisms in the Y-Cave was positively correlated to the light gradient and reduced water circulation, thus the highest species diversity and abundance were recorded in the front part of the cave. The phylum Porifera was the most dominant group, and the poriferan species diversity in the cave ranks among the ten highest in the Mediterranean. The middle part of the cave, although completely dark, hosts an abundant population of the gastropod Homalopoma sanguineum and clusters of the gregarious brachiopod Novocrania anomala, whose presence could be connected to tidal hydrodynamics. The absence/scarcity of sessile marine organisms and pronounced corrosion marks at shallow depths inside the cave suggest a freshwater impact in the upper layers of the water column. A year long experiment with carbonate tablets revealed three different, independent ongoing processes affected by the position in the cave: bioaccumulation, dissolution and mechanical erosion. The results of long-term temperature readings also revealed water column stratification within the cave, which was not disturbed by either tidal or wave action. The shallow, partly submerged and relatively small Y-Cave is characterised by a suite of complex environmental conditions, which, together with the resulting distribution of organisms, are unique to this cave.

  13. Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genty Dominique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl that has provided several speleothempalaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring theVillars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and inthe hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explainsthe sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from thelower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring.A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations and thedrip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between twonearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a dailyscale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave airtemperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence ofthe outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoringover a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minorelements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, whichimplies a different seepage pathway

  14. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  15. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M.; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species. PMID:27280416

  16. [Variation Characteristics of Cave Water Hydrogeochemistry in Naduo Cave of Guizhou and Its Implications for Environment Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Jian-li; Wang, Jia-lu; Jiang, Xian-shu; Mao, Qing-ya; Chen, Zhi-qiu; Liu, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    During the period from December 2012 to December 2014, three dripping water sites (S1, S2, S3) and one pool water site (SC) have been selected for a long-term monitoring of geochemical indexes in Naduo Cave, Guanling county of Guizhou Province, China. Based on the local meteorological data, this paper analyzed the seasonal change of hydro-geochemical indicators and their feedbacks to climate events. The results indicated that the hydro-geochemical type of cave water was HCO₃⁻-Ca²⁺. Dripping water and pool water were in deposition all the year, except in the month with the maximum precipitation. There were some discrepancies of main ions' concentration among three dripping water sites due to the difference of the migration pathways and migration time. Affected by mixed water and high CO₂ concentration of cave air, the ion concentration of pool water was higher than dripping water, and there was considerable fluctuation. The geochemistry indexes of water in Naduo Cave showed extraordinary seasonal variation rules and could perfectly respond to the external climate environment. The concentration of ions was sensitive to the response of the annual precipitation change caused by extreme climate events. During the rainy season, the concentrations of Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺ and SO₄²⁻ in 2013 were relatively higher and more stable than those in 2014. The response time and susceptivity of each monitoring site were inconsistent. PMID:27011980

  17. Cryogenic carbonate precipitation in caves: Jaskyňa Studného Vetra Cave (Low Tatras, Slovakia) case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvošová, M.; Žák, Karel

    Wroclaw : Sosnowiec, 2007 - ( Socha, P.; Stefaniak, K.; Tyc, A.). s. 104-105 ISBN 978-83-87431-84-6. [Karst and Cryokarst, Speleological School /25./ and GLACKIPR Symposium /8./. 19.03.2007-26.03.2007, Sosnowiec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cryogenic carbonate * cave * Low Tatra Mts. Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Newly identified allatostatin Bs and their receptor in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-06-01

    A cDNA encoding allatostatin Bs (ASTBs) containing the W(X)6W motif was identified using a database generated by a next generation sequencer (NGS) in the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. The contig sequence revealed the presence of five novel putative ASTBs (GbASTBs) in addition to GbASTBs previously identified in G. bimaculatus. MALDI-TOF MS analyses revealed the presence of these novel and previously identified GbASTBs with three missing GbASTBs. We also identified a cDNA encoding G. bimaculatus GbASTB receptor (GbASTBR) in the NGS data. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this receptor was highly conserved with other insect ASTBRs, including the sex peptide receptor of Drosophila melanogaster. Calcium imaging analyses indicated that the GbASTBR heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells exhibited responses to all identified GbASTBs at a concentration range of 10(-10)-10(-5)M. PMID:27018343

  19. Anomalous Diffusion and Long-range Correlations in the Score Evolution of the Game of Cricket

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, H V; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the scores of the second most popular sport in world: the game of cricket. By analyzing the scores event-by-event of more than two thousand matches, we point out that the score dynamics is an anomalous diffusive process. Our analysis reveals that the variance of the process is described by a power-law dependence with a super-diffusive exponent, that the scores are statistically self-similar following a universal Gaussian distribution, and that there are long-range correlations in the score evolution. We employ a generalized Langevin equation with a power-law correlated noise that describe all the empirical findings very well. These observations suggest that competition among agents may be a mechanism leading to anomalous diffusion and long-range correlation.

  20. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  1. The effect of central contracts on the stability and performance of the England Test cricket team. [El efecto de contratos centrales sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bullough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB decided to implement central contracts for elite player management to give them control over a group of players to represent the England national team in Test cricket. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact that this change in policy has had on the stability and performance of the England Test team, and discuss implications thereof. Using a sample of 13 seasons pre-central contracts (1987-1999 and 13 seasons post-central contracts (2000-2012, the results, from secondary analysis of England’s Test match scorecards from both sample periods, allowed investigation of team performance and stability. To gain a greater understanding of how central contracts impacted on the England Test side, eight interviews were also organised with key stakeholders in English cricket. The results showed that both the stability and performance of the England Test side improved considerably in the sample period post-central contracts (2000-2012 with a much greater consistency of selection (fewer changes per match alongside an improvement in England’s on-field performance (better win ratio and points per match. The paper identifies two key challenges facing the current player management system in England from domestic and external sources. Resumen En 1999 El Consejo de Cricket en Inglaterra y Gales (ECB – England and Wales Cricket Board decidió implementar contratos centrales para la dirección de jugadores de élite, con el fin de darle control sobre el grupo de jugadores que representan el equipo nacional de Inglaterra de Test cricket. El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el impacto que este cambio ha tenido sobre la estabilidad y el desempeño del equipo inglés de Test cricket y considerar sus implicaciones. Tras emplear una muestra de 13 temporadas antes de la firma de los contratos centrales (entre 1987 y 1999 y otras 13 temporadas después de su implementación (entre 2000 y 2012, los

  2. Terminal investment in the gustatory appeal of nuptial food gifts in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, K R; Hunt, J; Rapkin, J; Sadd, B M; Sakaluk, S K

    2015-10-01

    Investment in current versus future reproduction represents a prominent trade-off in life-history theory and is likely dependent on an individual's life expectancy. The terminal investment hypothesis posits that a reduction in residual reproductive value (i.e. potential for future offspring) will result in increased investment in current reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus), when cued to their impending mortality, should increase their reproductive effort by altering the composition of their nuptial food gifts (i.e. spermatophylaxes) to increase their gustatory appeal to females. Using a repeated-measures design, we analysed the amino acid composition of spermatophylaxes derived from males both before and after injection of either a saline control or a solution of heat-killed bacteria. The latter, although nonpathogenic, represents an immune challenge that may signal an impending survival threat. One principal component explaining amino acid variation in spermatophylaxes, characterized by a high loading to histidine, was significantly lower in immune-challenged versus control males. The relevance of this difference for the gustatory appeal of gifts to females was assessed by mapping spermatophylax composition onto a fitness surface derived in an earlier study identifying the amino acid composition of spermatophylaxes preferred by females. We found that immune-challenged males maintained the level of attractiveness of their gifts post-treatment, whereas control males produced significantly less attractive gifts post-injection. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that cues of a survival-threatening infection stimulate terminal investment in male decorated crickets with respect to the gustatory appeal of their nuptial food gifts. PMID:26201649

  3. Releasing stimuli and aggression in crickets: octopamine promotes escalation and maintenance but not initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eRillich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines have widespread effects on numerous behaviors, but their natural functions are often unclear. We investigated the role of octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline, on initiation and maintenance of aggression in male crickets of different social status. The key-releasing stimulus for aggression is antennal fencing between males, a behavior occurring naturally on initial contact. We show that mechanical antennal stimulation (AS alone is sufficient to initiate an aggressive response (mandible threat display. The efficacy of AS was augmented in winners of a previous fight, but unaffected in losers. The efficacy of AS was not, however, influenced by OA receptor (OAR agonists or antagonists, regardless of social status. Additional experiments indicate that the efficacy of AS is also not influenced by dopamine (DA or serotonin (5HT. In addition to initiating an aggressive response, prior AS enhanced aggression exhibited in subsequent fights, whereby AS with a male antenna was now necessary, indicating a role for male contact pheromones. This priming effect of male-AS on subsequent aggression was dependent on OA since it was blocked by OAR-antagonists, and enhanced by OAR-agonists. Together our data reveal that neither OA, DA nor 5HT are required for initiating aggression in crickets, nor do these amines influence the efficacy of the natural releasing stimulus to initiate aggression. OA’s natural function is restricted to promoting escalation and maintenance of aggression once initiated, and this can be invoked by numerous experiences, including prior contact with a male antenna as shown here.

  4. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system. PMID:20533362

  5. Roles of aminergic neurons in formation and recall of associative memory in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the study of roles of octopaminergic (OA-ergic and dopaminergic (DA-ergic signaling in insect classical conditioning, focusing on our studies on crickets. Studies on olfactory learning in honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that OA-ergic and DA-ergic neurons convey reinforcing signals of appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US and aversive US, respectively. Our work suggested that this is applicable to olfactory, visual pattern and color learning in crickets, indicating that this feature is ubiquitous in learning of various sensory stimuli. We also showed that aversive memory decayed much faster than did appetitive memory, and we proposed that this feature is common in insects and humans. Our study also suggested that activation of OA- or DA-ergic neurons is needed for appetitive or aversive memory recall, respectively. To account for this finding, we proposed a model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are strengthened by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus (CS to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing CS to OA- or DA-ergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive US, respectively. The former is called stimulus-response (S-R connection and the latter is called stimulus-stimulus (S-S connection by theorists studying classical conditioning in vertebrates. Results of our studies using a second-order conditioning procedure supported our model. We propose that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of S-S connection and its activation for memory recall, which are often called cognitive processes.

  6. Quantitative characterization of the filiform mechanosensory hair array on the cricket cercus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is approximately 1 cm long, and is covered with 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement vectors, have been characterized semi-quantitatively in studies over the last 40 years, and have been shown to be very stereotypical across different animals in this species. Although the cercal sensory system has been the focus of many studies in the areas of neuroethology, development, biomechanics, sensory function and neural coding, there has not yet been a quantitative study of the functional morphology of the receptor array of this important model system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a quantitative characterization of the structural characteristics and functional morphology of the cercal filiform hair array. We demonstrate that the excitatory direction along each hair's movement plane can be identified by features of its socket that are visible at the light-microscopic level, and that the length of the hair associated with each socket can also be estimated accurately from a structural parameter of the socket. We characterize the length and directionality of all hairs on the basal half of a sample of three cerci, and present statistical analyses of the distributions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The inter-animal variation of several global organizational features is low, consistent with constraints imposed by functional effectiveness and/or developmental processes. Contrary to previous reports, however, we show that the filiform hairs are not re-identifiable in the strict sense.

  7. Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowberry, Matt D; Martí, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco J; Briestenský, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Cave radon concentration measurements reflect the outcome of a perpetual competition which pitches flux against ventilation and radioactive decay. The mass balance equations used to model changes in radon concentration through time routinely treat flux as a constant. This mathematical simplification is acceptable as a first order approximation despite the fact that it sidesteps an intrinsic geological problem: the majority of radon entering a cavity is exhaled as a result of advection along crustal discontinuities whose motions are inhomogeneous in both time and space. In this paper the dynamic nature of flux is investigated and the results are used to predict cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The first part of our numerical modelling procedure focuses on calculating cave air flow velocity while the second part isolates flux in a mass balance equation to simulate real time dependence among the variables. It is then possible to use this information to deliver an expression for computing cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The dynamic variables in the numerical model are represented by the outer temperature, the inner temperature, and the radon concentration while the static variables are represented by the radioactive decay constant and a range of parameters related to geometry of the cavity. Input data were recorded at Driny Cave in the Little Carpathians Mountains of western Slovakia. Here the cave passages have developed along splays of the NE-SW striking Smolenice Fault and a series of transverse faults striking NW-SE. Independent experimental observations of fault slip are provided by three permanently installed mechanical extensometers. Our numerical modelling has revealed four important flux anomalies between January 2010 and August 2011. Each of these flux anomalies was preceded by conspicuous fault slip anomalies. The mathematical procedure outlined in this paper will help to improve our understanding of radon migration

  8. Future climate change spells catastrophe for Blanchard’s cricket frog, Acris blanchardi (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm L. McCallum

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may be one of the greatest environmental catastrophes encountered by modern human civilization. The potential influence of this global disaster on wildlife populations is subject to question. I interpolated how seasonal variation in weather patterns influences growth and reproduction in the Blanchard’s cricket frog (Acris blanchardi). Then I extrapolated the influence of future climate conditions on these life history characteristics using fuzzy regression. Fuzzy regressi...

  9. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet. PMID:26886132

  10. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Choi, Man-Yeon; Oi, David H

    2013-07-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, cricket paste, and soybean oil adsorbed to defatted corn grit) effectively transmitted SINV-3 infections to S. invicta colonies. Correspondingly, viral infection was shown to be detrimental to colony health and productivity. By day 32, all ant colonies exposed to a single 24h pulse treatment of SINV-3 became infected with the virus regardless of the bait formulation. However, the SINV-3 sugar and cricket bait-treated colonies became infected more rapidly than the oil-treated colonies. Sugar and cricket-treated colonies exhibited significant declines in their brood ratings compared with the untreated control and oil bait-treated colonies. Measures of colony health and productivity evaluated at the end of the study (day 47) showed a number of differences among the bait treatments and the control group. Statistically significant and similar patterns were exhibited among treatments for the quantity of live workers (lower), live brood (lower), total colony weight (lower), worker mortality (higher), proportion larvae (lower), and queen weight (lower). Significant changes were also observed in the number of eggs laid by queens (lower) and the corresponding ovary rating in SINV-3-treated colonies. The study provides the first successful demonstration of SINV-3 as a potential biopesticide against fire ants. PMID:23602901

  11. A multi-method approach for speleogenetic research on alpine karst caves. Torca La Texa shaft, Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Giralt, Santiago; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica

    2015-10-01

    Speleogenetic research on alpine caves has advanced significantly during the last decades. These investigations require techniques from different geoscience disciplines that must be adapted to the methodological constraints of working in deep caves. The Picos de Europa mountains are one of the most important alpine karsts, including 14% of the World's Deepest Caves (caves with more than 1 km depth). A speleogenetic research is currently being developed in selected caves in these mountains; one of them, named Torca La Texa shaft, is the main goal of this article. For this purpose, we have proposed both an optimized multi-method approach for speleogenetic research in alpine caves, and a speleogenetic model of the Torca La Texa shaft. The methodology includes: cave surveying, dye-tracing, cave geometry analyses, cave geomorphological mapping, Uranium series dating (234U/230Th) and geomorphological, structural and stratigraphical studies of the cave surroundings. The SpeleoDisc method was employed to establish the structural control of the cavity. Torca La Texa (2653 m length, 215 m depth) is an alpine cave formed by two cave levels, vadose canyons and shafts, soutirage conduits, and gravity-modified passages. The cave was formed prior to the Middle Pleistocene and its development was controlled by the drop of the base level, producing the development of the two cave levels. Coevally to the cave levels formation, soutirage conduits originated connecting phreatic and epiphreatic conduits and vadose canyons and shafts were formed. Most of the shafts were created before the local glacial maximum (43-45 ka) and only two cave passages are related to dolines developed in recent times. The cave development is strongly related to the structure, locating the cave in the core of a gentle fold with the conduits' geometry and orientation controlled by the bedding and five families of joints.

  12. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    The origin of anchialine and marine cave fauna is still a highly debated topic in Evolutionary Biology. Restricted and disjunct distribution and uncertain affinities of some marine cave endemic lineages have favored their interpretation as living fossils, surviving the extinction of their coastal...... relatives in cave subterranean ecological refugia. Active colonization and ecological speciation to particular cave niches has been alternatively suggested, but the evaluation of that scenario is obscured by the dominance of crustaceans in anchialine habitats, ecologically similar out and inside caves. The...... main goal of this thesis is to explore the evolutionary processes behind colonization and adaptation to submarine cave ecosystems in the Atlantic Ocean using annelids as a model, mainly when they involved ancestrally interstitial forms. In order to do that, we studied selected lineages of annelids with...

  13. Cave dwelling Onychophora from a Lava Tube in the Galapagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new population of velvet worms (Onychophora inhabiting a lava tube cave in the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos, is reported here. The population size is large, suggesting that they may be troglophilic. Its members are darkly pigmented, with no obvious troglomorphic features. Their 16S rRNA sequence showed no differences when compared to an unidentified species of surface velvet worm from the same island, thus supporting cave and surface populations belong to the same species. Based on the 16S rRNA data, the Galapagos velvet worms derived from an Ecuadorian/Colombian clade, as would be expected of ease of dispersal from the nearest mainland to the Galapagos Islands.

  14. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyperthermic inner room beneath an adjoining tumulus with no connection evident on the surface. Two lengthy, sinuous hollow tumuli also are present in this part of the caldera. These findings support Walkers conclusions that hollow tumuli provide valuable insights into tumulus-forming mechanisms, and provide information about the processes of emplacement of pahoehoe sheet flows.

  15. Designing a Virtual Reality Game for the CAVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    remains uncommon and expensive. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of VR games, and in particular games for the CAVE, now that affordable solutions are close to reach as more powerful hardware is available at low price. The focus is also on the methodology to be pursued while designing a VR game......Virtual Reality has for many years been a technology which has stagnated in application and software development for games. What was possible and created ten years ago for games in VR environments is still being developed. The applications available for VR environments have increased...... but they mostly remain related to scientific purposes while computer games in VR only show a part of their actual potential. The game industry has begun to see the possibilities of VR games in a near future with the implementation of some popular games to a CAVE system. However, a full immersion VR solution still...

  16. Hydrodynamic view of wave-packet interference: quantum caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E

    2009-06-26

    Wave-packet interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism using a hydrodynamic description. Quantum interference leads to the formation of the topological structure of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. These caves consist of the vortical and stagnation tubes originating from the isosurfaces of the amplitude of the wave function and its first derivative. Complex quantum trajectories display counterclockwise helical wrapping around the stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near the vortical tubes. The string of alternating stagnation and vortical tubes is sufficient to generate divergent trajectories. Moreover, the average wrapping time for trajectories and the rotational rate of the nodal line in the complex plane can be used to define the lifetime for interference features. PMID:19659057

  17. The CAVES Project - Exploring Virtual Data Concepts for Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bourilkov, D

    2004-01-01

    The Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System (CAVES) project concentrates on the interactions between users performing data and/or computing intensive analyses on large data sets, as encountered in many contemporary scientific disciplines. In modern science increasingly larger groups of researchers collaborate on a given topic over extended periods of time. The logging and sharing of knowledge about how analyses are performed or how results are obtained is important throughout the lifetime of a project. Here is where virtual data concepts play a major role. The ability to seamlessly log, exchange and reproduce results and the methods, algorithms and computer programs used in obtaining them enhances in a qualitative way the level of collaboration in a group or between groups in larger organizations. The CAVES project takes a pragmatic approach in assessing the needs of a community of scientists by building series of prototypes with increasing sophistication. In extending the functionality of existi...

  18. Mineralogical data on bat guano deposits from three Romanian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Giurgiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical studies performed on crusts, nodules and earthy masses from the Romanian caves Gaura cu Muscă, Gaura Haiducească and Peștera Zidită have revealed the presence of three different phosphate associations. The minerals have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Five phosphates have been identified in the samples, with hydroxylapatite the only common mineral in all the three caves. Brushite, taranakite, leucophosphite and variscite are the other phosphates identified. Associated minerals include gypsum, calcite, quartz and illite-group minerals. Aside from differences in the lithology, the occurrences of the different phosphate minerals indicate variable pH and humidity conditions near or within the guano accumulations.

  19. Thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling in winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. [Department of Building Engineering and Surveying, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Liu, Y. [Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2002-07-01

    The presence of the courtyard transfers an extreme winter environment outside cave dwellings into a better outdoor community space. This study examines the interaction amongst the cave rooms, the courtyard and the ambient, via two approaches applied in a typical such type of dwelling: site measurement and computer modelling. The site measurement was undertaken to investigate the dynamic feature of such dwelling by monitoring hourly changes of air temperatures over the building complex with some of the key weather data. The computer modelling, based on two specifically developed theoretical models and validated by the data of the site measurement, was to analyse the mean effects of a number of key design parameters on thermal environment in such type of dwellings. Conclusions drawn from this study are to help modern architects design for a better thermal environment in these typical North China dwellings, traditional yet popular. (author)

  20. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC in the 20/20 Tournament at the Bout-du-Monde on 11th/12th September CERN played Nestlé in the first semi-final on Saturday. Nestlé were bowled out for 82 in the 20th over, thanks to excellent bowling by Campbell (4 overs, 3 for 9), D’Mello (4 overs, 2 for 14, including a beautiful C&B), Onions (4 overs, 2 for 20), Elvin (4 overs, 1 for 29) and Ahmed (4 overs, 1 for 16). Campbell (44 no) and Osborne (25no) made short work of the total, ably assisted by any number of wides, reaching the target in the 9th over. On Sunday, CERN played GICC in the final. This time batting first, CERN made 196 for 7 thanks mainly to a partnership of 124 runs between D’Mello and McNaught (whose two previous scores were ducks) that ran into the 16th over. D’Mello hit a superb and quick-fire 69 in 47 balls, including 8 fours and 3 sixes. It included sumptuous straight sixes from both ends. (Anything which ends up in the adjoining football fields or tennis courts...

  1. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    Rhone CC v CERN CC at Parc de Parilly, Lyon on Sunday 11th September 2011 CERN travelled to Lyon to play our old friends Rhone at their new ground in the pretty and busy Parilly Parc. With no traffic problems CERN were at the ground in good time and even had time for a pre game kick around before skipper Elvin won the toss and decided to bowl. Onions and Chaudhuri opened the bowling and were penalized by some strict wide calling from the Rhone umpires. Onions finally made the breakthrough with the help of a brilliant running catch from the athletic Price. Chaudhuri then picked up 2 more Rhone wickets in a fiery opening spell as CERN took control. Rhone then rallied and Shiva made 50 before S. Ahmed had him trapped LBW. Skipper Elvin then turned to McFayden and the evergreen I. Ahmed to try and wrestle control back and McFayden was unlucky not to have Bala caught behind when the only person who did not think he had edged it was the umpire! Price again took another stunning catch in the deep to give I. Ahmed ...

  2. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2012-01-01

    Bern CC V CERN CC in Bern on Sunday 6th May 2012 The storm clouds gathered over Switzerland this weekend as a CERN XI travelled more in hope than expectation to Bern for our first league game of the season. Despite the gloomy weather forecast the sun shone and Captain Elvin won the toss and put Bern into bat on a damp, soft and tricky wicket. Early success came as D'Mello had the Bern captain caught by D. Ahmed in his second over. This was to prove the only success in the first 20 overs as BERN made light of the pitch and the CERN attack to go into the drinks break on 108-1. CERN came storming out after the break with Elvin making the breakthrough to dismiss the Bern number 2 for 74. D'Mello then came back into the attack and ended up with 4-34 as CERN held their catches and fielded well. Chauduri was in fine form and stormed in to take 3-27. Elvin was tight and economical until he went for 23 in his final over but D. Ahmed mopped up the tail with 2-16 in a fine 4 over spell. CERN...

  3. Not cricket?

    OpenAIRE

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jo Lucassen; Remco van den Dool; Janine van Kalmthout

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Weinig over de schreef. For many Dutch people, sport is an enjoyable way of spending their leisure time. Many people are themselves active participants in sport or attend matches. Top-level matches attract a great deal of media attention. A smaller but no less enthusiastic group of people are active as volunteers for sports clubs. In most cases, being involved in sport is a pleasurable experience, but there are also less palatable sides. The television images of football viole...

  4. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    GICC v CERN CC at Bout-du-Monde on August 1st, 2010 On a beautiful summer’s day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Osborne and Chatoo opened the innings. Batting on a new GICC turf was made to look simple by Osborne and Chatoo hitting quick boundaries and sixes. Just when they looked like they were getting into a rhythm, Osborne mis-hit and was caught, bringing McNaught at the crease. The steady partnership for 30 runs was broken when Chatoo was caught by the wicket keeper for a quick fire 20. Captain Bolton was next. Bolton and McNaught then steadied the ship displaying good batting skills. After drinks McNaught reached his half century which included 6 fours and 2 sixes. Some good bowling by Suri got McNaught frustrated and eventually out for a good 57 runs. Bolton was next to go after a watchful 44 runs and a sore rib cage. Bolton’s departure gave way to the famous known-to-all CERN middle order collapse. The next 6 batsmen managed a mere 60 runs. CERN was all out in th...

  5. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Geneva XI Stars CC (Friendly) at CERN on July 25th, 2010 On a very sunny and pleasant day, Captain Bolton won the toss and elected to bat. Ahmed and Keigwin opened the innings, Keigwin departing early after offering a dolly catch. Wickets kept falling till Anand joined Ahmed. Both started building the CERN innings with brilliant hitting by Ahmed all around the ground. After the drinks break, Anand and Ahmed both got out with Ahmed on 74 runs (6 sixes and 7 fours) being the top scorer of CERN’s innings. Onions kept CERN’s innings ticking over until the end, scoring 35. CERN CC was eventually all out for 204 runs in the last over. A healthy lunch break with tables full of fruit, Aloo Parathas and sandwiches was served to both the teams. The response from XI Stars was explosive, with 60 runs on the board in just 6 overs. Bolton had to retire injured and stand-in captain Onions kept trying different options, changing bowlers to try to control the game but nothing succeeded and ...

  6. CRICKET CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CRICKET CLUB

    2010-01-01

    CERN CC v Cossonay CC at CERN on Sunday, August 22nd, 2010   On a hot sunny August afternoon, CERN entertained Cossonay in a friendly match at CERN. Skipper Elvin won the toss and elected to bat, thus ignoring groundsman Osborne’s suggestion to bat second due to residual dew dampening the outfield. CERN started and were fortunate not to lose a wicket in the opening couple of overs, however this luck would soon run out as Osborne, going for a typical lofted drive was well caught at mid-on. CERN soon found themselves in trouble at 30-4 after 9 overs, but the introduction of Ahmed would demonstrate that boundary scoring was possible as he powered his way to 54, ably helped by Elvin (25), before informing his partner he was tired, and a shot that looked to be bound for another 6 was caught at wide long on from the last ball of the over. Crook (14) would then face the next delivery, and in typical fashion, he told his new partner S. Kumar that there was plenty of time and that the big shots ...

  7. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC vs SWISS COLTS on Sunday 31st July 2011 Swiss Colts were the visitors for CERN’s final league outing of the season. On a fine summer’s day, visiting captain George won the toss and elected to bat. Opening bowlers Campbell and D’Mello took an early wicket apiece as the Colts slumped to 3-2. George and Greenhalgh led a recovery with some aggressive shots before Paul snared them both, Crook holding onto a fine catch on the boundary. Ahmed then shed the wicketkeeping gloves and destroyed the remainder of the batting order with a fine spell, taking 5 wickets at a personal cost of only 4 runs. Swiss Colts finished on 103 all out. CERN openers Bolton and Osborne then reached 54 without loss when Bolton was run out, D’Mello and Phillips soon following as CERN reached 61 for 3. After Osborne was dismissed by Gaillet, Campbell saw CERN safely home to a 6 wicket victory. Special mention should be made of the wicket keeping prowess of Heggie. Rarely can a visiting kee...

  8. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    The Eifion Jones Single Wicket Competition at Prevessin on 28.8.2011 Fourteen players turned out for this knock-out competition, which first took place 20 years ago. In each game, 2 overs are bowled by each player. Players under 18, and those over 50, benefit from one extra run per year of age difference up to a maximum of 10 runs. Two previous winners, Elvin and Ahmed, had the luck of the draw and had byes in the first round, with Ahmed sure to bat second in each round. The first round saw a shock result, young Irsalan Ahmed, 8 years old and benefitting from 10 extra runs, beating Muzaffar, dismissing him twice in consecutive balls (each dismissal costs 6 runs). In the second round, new boy Chaudhuri beat Elvin and Ahmed beat Onions (with 10 extra runs). Other games went as expected. Chaudhuri and Ahmed both won their semi-finals to meet in the 3 over final. Chaudhuri started well but then a drive to mid-on was brilliantly caught one-handed by Muzaffar to turn the match in Ahmed’s favour, especia...

  9. Cricket club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket club

    2011-01-01

    CERN CC – Bellingham Tour 2011 – 2nd / 3rd July vs Trafford Solicitors CC The annual pilgrimage to Bellingham was met with unusually fine weather and a strong assembly of pilgrims to compete with the Mancunian legal team and co-defendants. On day 1 CERN won the toss and put the opposition in. The Trafford left-handed opener Horsford was missed off a sharp return catch and he went on to make 82 on his tour debut for Trafford, who eventually reached a total of 200. Elvin (95) and John Osborne (52) in a third wicket stand of 120 put CERN in control but when Elvin’s innings ended, shortly followed by Osborne, CERN rapidly collapsed and were all out for 195, thus losing by 5 runs. On day 2 Trafford won the toss and elected to bat first. The story of the Trafford innings was once more written with the bat of Horsford, who had scored 70 not out by the end of the innings out of a total of 152. The CERN reply after lunch never really got started. No batsman until Wall at No.5 got ...

  10. Studies of condensation/evaporation processes in the Glowworm Cave, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas Chris R.; Schmekal Antje Anna

    2006-01-01

    The condensation/evaporation process is important in caves, especially in tourist caves where there is carbon dioxide enriched air caused by visitors. The cycle of condensation and evaporation of condensate is believed to enhance condensation corrosion. The problem is condensation is difficult to measure. This study addresses the problem and reports on a method for measuring and modelling condensation rates in a limestone cave. Electronic sensors for measuring condensation and evaporation of ...

  11. Cave ventilation is influenced by variations in the CO2-dependent virtual temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Domingo, Francisco; Kowalski, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics and drivers of ventilation in caves are of growing interest for different fields of science. Accumulated CO2 in caves can be exchanged with the atmosphere, modifying the internal CO2 content, affecting stalagmite growth rates, deteriorating rupestrian paintings or creating new minerals. Current estimates of cave ventilation neglect the role of high CO2 concentrations in determining air density ??? approximated via the virtual temperature (Tv) ???, affecting buoyancy and therefore the...

  12. Hydrological and tectonic strain forces measured from a karstic cave using extensometers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ping; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Quinif, Yves; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Meus, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor the hydrological strain forces of the karst micro fissure networks and local fault activities, six capacitive extensometers were installed inside a karstic cave near the midi-fault in Belgium. From 2004 to 2008, the nearby Lomme River experienced several heavy rains, leading to flooding inside the Rochefort cave. The highest water level rose more than thirteen meters, the karstic fissure networks were filled with water, which altered the pore pressure of the cave. The stra...

  13. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  14. Structural and functional organization of the visual system in the microphthalmic cave beetle Ptomaphagus hirtus

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Friedrich; Elke K Buschbeck

    2013-01-01

    Strongly cave adapted animal species are invariably characterized by strong eye reduction (microphthalmy) to the complete loss of eyes (anophthalmy). Recent studies of cave adaptation have focused on the causes and mechanisms underlying the regressive evolution of the visual system but little attention has been paid to aspects of vision, which can remain conserved in the low-light level ecologies of caves. The small carrion beetle genus Ptomaphagus (Staphyliniformia: Leiodidae) includes both ...

  15. The engineering classification of karst with respect to the role and influence of caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Waltham Tony

    2002-01-01

    The engineering classification of karst defines various complexities of ground conditions, in terms of the hazards that they provide to potential construction. Karst is divided into five classes (from immature to extreme). The three key parameters within the classification are caves (size and extent), sinkholes (abundance and collapse frequency) and rockhead (profile and relief). As one component of karst, caves are a hazard to foundation integrity, though natural surface collapses over caves...

  16. Environmental Monitoring in the Mechara caves, Southeastern Ethiopia: Implications for Speleothem Palaeoclimate Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Asrat Asfawossen; Baker Andy; Leng Melanie J.; Gunn John; Umer Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The interpretation of palaeoclimate records in speleothems depends on the understanding of the modern climate of the region, the geology, the hydrology above the caves, and the within-cave climate. Monitoring within-cave climate variability, geochemistry of speleothem-forming drip waters, and associated surface and groundwater, provides a modern baseline for interpretation of speleothem palaeohydrological and palaeoclimate records. Here, we present results of such monitoring of th...

  17. Direct measurement of present-day tectonic movement and associated radon flux in Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Vaupotič, J.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 21-34. ISSN 1090-6924 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk MEB091005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fault displacements * radon flux * Postojna Cave Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2010 www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_72.htm

  18. Comparative microbial sampling from eutrophic caves in Slovenia and Slovakia using RIDA®COUNT test kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulec Janez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RIDA®COUNT test plates were used as an easy-to-handle and rapid indicator of microbial counts in karst ecosystems of several caves in Slovakia and Slovenia. All of the caves had a high organic input from water streams, tourists, roosting bat colonies or terrestrial surroundings. We sampled swabs, water and air samples to test robustness and universality of the RIDA®COUNT test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany, http://www.r-biopharm.com/ for quantification of total bacteria, coliforms, yeast and mold. Using data from swabs (colony-forming units CFU per cm2 we proposed a scale for description of biocontamination level or superficial microbial load of cave niches. Based on this scale, surfaces of Ardovská Cave, Drienovská Cave and Stará Brzotínská Cave (Slovakia were moderately colonized by microbes, with total microbial counts (sum of total bacterial count and total yeast and molds count in the range of 1,001-10,000 CFU/100 cm2, while some surfaces from the show cave Postojna Cave (Slovenia can be considered highly colonized by microbes (total microbial counts ≥ 10,001 CFU/100 cm2. Ardovská Cave also had a high concentration of airborne microbes, which can be explained by restricted air circulation and regular bat activity. The ratio of coliform to total counts of bacteria in the 9 km of underground Pivka River flow in Postojna Cave dropped approximately 4-fold from the entrance, indicating the high anthropogenic pollution in the most exposed site in the show cave. The RIDA®COUNT test kit was proven to be applicable for regular monitoring of eutrophication and human influence in eutrophic karst caves.

  19. Cave sediments in Slovenia: results of 10 years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2009), s. 162-162. ISSN 1335-213X. [Vedecká konferencia Výskum, využívanie a ochrana jaskýň /7./. 10.11.2009-13.11.2009, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : caves * palaeomannetic research * cave sediments * caves ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  20. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Nipam H.; Protas, Meredith E.; Trontelj, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established...

  1. Reconstruction of bomb 14C time history recorded in the stalagmite from Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The karstic caves provide valuable resources for reconstruction of environmental conditions on the continent in the past. This is possible due to the great stability of climatic conditions within a cave. Secondary minerals deposited in caves, known as speleothems, preserve records of long-term climatic and environmental changes at the site of their deposition and in the vicinity. The purity of speleothems and their chemical and physical stability make them exceptionally well suited for detailed geochemical and isotopic analysis

  2. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    F. Obleitner; C. Spötl

    2011-01-01

    Meteorological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria) during a full annual cycle. The data show the basic features of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the cave ice is largely determined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes withdraw energy from the surface. This is more pronounced...

  3. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  4. Anchialine Cave Environments: a novel chemosynthetic ecosystem and its ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Pakes, Michal Joey

    2013-01-01

    It was long thought that dark, nutrient depleted environments, such as the deep sea and subterranean caves, were largely devoid of life and supported low-density assemblages of endemic fauna. The discovery of hydrothermal vents in the 1970s and their subsequent study have revolutionized ecological thinking about lightless, low oxygen ecosystems. Symbiosis between chemosynthetic microbes and their eukaryote hosts has since been demonstrated to fuel a variety of marine foodwebs in extreme envir...

  5. Searching for Chambers and Caves in Teotihuacan's Sun Pyramid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a status report of a search for caves in the Sun pyramid in Teotihuacan, Mexico is presented. From an archeological perspective the main goal is to gather evidence to determine whether the pyramid was a state or a funerary temple. The general layout of the detector that is being built is an updated version of the one originally proposed by Alvarez et al.

  6. The CAVES Project - Exploring Virtual Data Concepts for Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bourilkov, Dimitri

    2004-01-01

    The Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System (CAVES) project concentrates on the interactions between users performing data and/or computing intensive analyses on large data sets, as encountered in many contemporary scientific disciplines. In modern science increasingly larger groups of researchers collaborate on a given topic over extended periods of time. The logging and sharing of knowledge about how analyses are performed or how results are obtained is important throughout the...

  7. Recent micro-tectonic movement from three karst caves, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    Thessaloniki : Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2010 - (Christofides, G.; Kantiranis, N.; Kostopoulos, D.; Chatzipetros, A.), s. 513-518 ISBN 978-960-9502-01-6. [Congress of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association /19./. Thessaloniki (GR), 23.09.2010-26.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : activ tectonics * cave * Slovenia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. Searching for Chambers and Caves in Teotihuacan's Sun Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Arrieta, E.; Barba P., L.; Becerril, A. D.; Belmont, E.; Carrillo, I.; Cabrera M., J. I.; Esquivel, O.; Grabski, V.; López R., J. M.; Manzanilla N., L.; Martínez D., A.; Menchaca R., A.; Moreno, M.; Núñez C., R.; Plascencia, J. C.; Rangel, M.; Villoro, M.

    2003-06-01

    In this work a status report of a search for caves in the Sun pyramid in Teotihuacan, México is presented. From an archeological perspective the main goal is to gather evidence to determine whether the pyramid was a state or a funerary temple. The general layout of the detector that is being built is an updated version of the one originally proposed by Alvarez et al..

  9. Measuring the Willingness to Pay for Fresh Water Cave Diving

    OpenAIRE

    William L. Huth; O. Ashton Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Fresh water springs are unique natural resources that are contained within public lands across the United States. Natural resource management on public lands generates many interesting policy issues as the competing goals of conservation, recreational opportunity provision, and revenue generation often clash. As demand for recreational cave diving sites increases, the paper provides natural resource site managers with the first statistical estimate of divers’ willingness to pay to dive fresh ...

  10. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  11. Cave levels, safe yield and turnover time in karst aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The presence of cave levels where ground water flow is organized is a typical feature of karstic carbonate aquifers. These cave levels are high conductive paths within a capacitive matrix that differentiates flow velocities, transit times and therefore, the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. These two extreme transmissive end points allowed the application of double porosity models to solve flow and transport equations although actually karst aquifers are multiple-porosity systems where flow is rigorously hierarchised. The application of environmental stable and radioactive isotopic models to several Cuban karstic aquifers have shown a well defined stratification of flow varying from three months to 100 years. These so large transit times for 3H suggest that - isotopically - the system is far from steady state conditions and, therefore, the exploitation of the aquifers horizons is strongly restricted by these low renewable resources. While associated with well defined cave systems, transit time of groundwater in karst aquifers is a variable to be considered in the estimation of safe yield and in the engineering measures, as artificial recharge, designed for improve the sustainability of water resources. Depletion of water resources in karst aquifers of the humid tropics could be associated to the exploitation of isotopic 'old' waters not linked with the present hydrologic cycle. (author)

  12. The Caves of Naica: a decade of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)

  13. MRI diagnosis of primary tumors in Molkick cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the MRI characteristics of primary tumors in Meckel cave (MC), and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the changes of MC and adjacent structures. Methods: 14 pathologically confirmed primary tumors in Meckel cave were studied. Pre-contrast MRI scan was performed in 4 cases, post-contrast MRI scan in 2 cases, both pre- and post-contrast MRI scan in 8 cases. Results: (1) Schwannoma was the most common tumor, and followed by meningeoma, fibroneuroma, and cholesteatoma. (2) The meningeoma and cholesteatoma had characteristic signal in MRI, some Schwannoma and fibroneuroma had similar MRI demonstrations. (3) The change of MC included cave enlargement, bulging dural walls, trigeminal cistern narrowing or obliteration, loss of fibers-background contrast. (4) The changes of adjacent structures included compression of temporal lobe, pons, basilar artery, cerebellar hemisphere, and the forth ventricle, cavernous sinus narrowing, and petrous pyramid hone absorption. Conclusions: The signals of tumors were helpful to establish the diagnosis, and can be used to estimate the tumor pathological components, the changes of MC and adjacent structure can be used in localizing the tumors. (authors)

  14. Modern systematics and environmental significance of stable isotopic variations in Wanxiang Cave, Wudu, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pingzhong; LONG Lude; Kathleen R. Johnson; CHEN Yimeng; CHEN Fahu; Lynn Ingram; ZHANG Xinli; ZHANG Chengjun; WANG Sumin; PANG Fushun

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the stable isotopic compositions from the cave dripwater and actively forming soda straw stalactites collected from Wanxiang Cave, Wudu,Gansu, located on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Loess Plateau transition zone, China. The δ18Odw and δDdw of dripwater samples in the cave plot directly on the local MWL,constructed by using GNIP data from 3 sites surrounding the cave regions (Lanzhou, Xi'an, and Chengdu), the nearest site to the cave, suggesting that there is a close relationship between the δ18Odw of the cave water and the δ18O of the pre cipitations. Using the measured δ18Odw and δ18Omc values from the mid-farthest parts from the cave entrance and the carbonate paleotemperature equation, the calculated temperatures range from 8.9 to 12.4℃, with the mean value of 10.7℃ and the temperature calculated at 8 locations in the farthest part of the cave is in the range of 10.1-12.4℃, with the mean value of 11.5℃, being consistent with the survey value(10.99℃)in the cave, slightly lower than the mean annual temperature (14.4℃) in Wudu. This suggests that modern speleothems are forming under isotopic equilibrium and their isotopic composition accurately reflects the mean annual temperature at the surface, indicating that the isotopic composition of the modern speleothems records local temperature change with credibility.

  15. Response of ice caves to weather extremes in the southeastern Alps, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Fontana, D.; Forte, E.; Potleca, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-05-01

    High altitude karstic environments often preserve permanent ice deposits within caves, representing the lesser-known portion of the cryosphere. Despite being not so widespread and easily reachable as mountain glaciers and ice caps, ice caves preserve much information about past environmental changes and climatic evolution. We selected 1111 ice caves from the existing cave inventory, predominantly but not exclusively located in the periglacial domain where permafrost is not dominant (i.e., with mean annual air temperature fact be crucial in the future mass balance evolution of such permanent ice deposits.

  16. Sediment flushing in Mystic Cave, West Virginia, USA, in response to the 1985 Potomac Valley flood

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gundy J. J.; White W.B.

    2009-01-01

    The great November 5, 1985 Potomac Valley flood was responsible for the release of 1800 m3 of alluvial and colluvial sediment from the walls of the entrance doline of Mystic Cave. Flood waters were sufficiently powerful to flush the entire mass of sediment not only into the cave but through the cave. Remnants of the sediment mass in the form of sand bars and a few cobbles wedged in speleothems were the only evidence in the cave that the huge mass of sediment had moved through. The sediment mo...

  17. The Genetic Types of Baiyun Cave in Lincheng County of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping; SUN; Jian; WANG; Xiaoman; ZHANG; Qianhua; ZHENG; Huafang; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Baiyun Karst Caverns in Lincheng County,Hebei Province,is a rare karst caverns in subhumid climate region of the north.It was developed in carbonatite strata,particularly in Zhangxia formation of the Middle Cambrain series.Erosion-corrosion landscape and chemical deposition landscape are abundant,They are various shapes,curtain drapery,cave flag,cave shield,stalactite,stalagmite,cave flowers,botryoid,soda straw are developed,especially heligmite,soda straw,cave flowers are the most characteristic.

  18. Analysis of the dialectical relation between top coal caving and coal-gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-zheng; XIA Yong-jun; TANG Bing; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2009-01-01

    According to the different engineering mechanical states of top coal caving and normal stoping of gaseous loose thick coal seams, the dialectical relation between this caving method and dynamic disasters was analyzed by simulating the change of stress states in the process of top coal initial caving with different mining and caving ratios based on the ANSYS10.0. The variation of elastic energy and methane expansion energy during first top coal caving was analyzed by first weighting and periodic weighting and combining with coal stress and deformation distribution of top coal normal stoping as well as positive and negative examples in top coal caving of outburst coal seam. The research shows that the outburst risk increases along with the increase of the caving ratio in the initial mining stage. In the period of normal stoping, when the mining and caving ratio is smaller than 1:3 and hard and massive overlying strata do not exist (periodic weighting is not obvious), it is beneficial to control ground stress leading type outburst. Thus, it is unreasonable to prohibit top coal caving in dangerous and outburst prone areas.

  19. Generation and dispersal of carbon dioxide in the caves and karst of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, T.; Mattey, D.; Latin, J.-P.; Ainsworth, M.; Durell, R.

    2012-04-01

    The gases in the soil, in caves and in the smaller voids of the vadose zone in karstic limestones are all generally enriched in CO2 relative to open atmosphere. The concentrations and fluxes of CO2 in cave air have a close relationship with the deposition of speleothem calcite but there are still very few detailed studies that trace the generation and dispersal of CO2 in whole karst systems, i.e. as a gas and in dissolved form within a linked system comprising soil, caves and the vadose zone. The Rock of Gibraltar forms a N-S trending ridge 2.5 km long within which solution caves are present at altitudes extending from below sea level to over 300m asl. Cave monitoring has been carried out since 2004 and focuses on two cave systems: St Michaels Cave (SMC) located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. Monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Advective flow is upwards during winter months, resulting in low pCO2 at sea level and high pCO2 in caves near the top of the rock and the flow reverses in summer, ventilating high-level caves and raising cave air pCO2 at lower altitudes. In this talk we focus on geochemical tracing of CO2 generation and dispersal using the abundance and carbon isotopic compositions of gaseous CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The results of a four-year study at SMC are not consistent with the generally accepted view that CO2in cave air originates by degassing of dripwater that has acquired CO2primarily from the soil zone. We demonstrate the importance of deep vadose zone air as a source of CO2 in karst systems and show that in St. Michaels Cave the abundance and isotopic composition of CO2 of the cave atmosphere is primarily controlled by mixing

  20. Data on the Environmental Conditions and Diversity of the Animal Ecological Groups in Gargina Dupka Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Air and water temperature, air humidity and water oxygen levels were studied in Gargina Dupka Cave (Rhodopes Mts., Bulgaria. These environmental factors were considered for three zones of the cave: 1 – cave entrance, 2 – typical cave in the central gallery, and 3 – an area occupied by bat guano. During two visits all animals were collected from these areas. In the laboratory, after identification they were classified according to their ecological features as: relation to light, way of moving, diet, and substrates on which they were collected.

  1. The function of radon in curing respiratory diseases in the therapeutic cave of Tapolca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to spend some time in a cave for curing respiratory diseases. Some ascribe the healing effect partly to radon. In Hungary in the Hospital Cave of Tapolca the mean radon concentration shows 17 times difference in the winter and in the summer period. The change of the forced exhaled volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was examined measured by 1824 patients in this cave. By 70% of the patients the FEV1 value improved, by 30% it became worse but these were independent from the radon concentration of the cave. Therefore, radon concentration has no positive effect during the treatments performed in Tapolca. (author)

  2. A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Ramos Donato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation Index’ (CCI were established. We also used a rapid assessment protocol to measure cave vulnerability for prioritization of conservation/restoration actions (RAP-cr comparing natural cavities with the same lithology, due to “strictu sensu” peculiarities. Based on the protocols applied in caves of the municipality of Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, we concluded that the present method attended to the needs for the classification of the caves into categories of conservation/restoration status, using little time and financial effort, through rapid diagnostics that facilitate the comparisons. In this perspective, the CCI can be used to indicate areas that should be protected and caves that should be prioritized to have initiated activities of conservation and restoration.

  3. Hydrologic and microclimate characterizations of Thornton’s Cave, West-Central Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien K. McGee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cave’s environment is controlled by a suite of factors unique to the environments in which they formed, including, but not limited to, regional geologic and climate settings. These factors collectively owe to wide variations in cave biology, geomorphology and overall speleogenesis. This report combines local climate, hydrologic, and CO2 data collected over the course of a two-year study at Thornton’s Cave, a partially-flooded cave in the West-Central Florida karst belt, to characterize its current environment and yield insight regarding how changes in regional climate and hydrology impact its past and future speleogenesis. Data loggers continuously monitoring cave and surface air temperatures, water levels and surface rainfall documented immediate responses in the cave to long- and short-term fluctuations in these parameters at the surface. Atmospheric CO2 in the cave and at the surface demonstrate seasonal trends, though the cave maintains higher concentrations and lower δ13C of CO2 than the surface, suggesting decomposition of organic matter, and to a lesser degree macroorganisms are contributing proportionally more CO2 to the cave. Collectively, these interpretations provide insight on the impact of surface processes on cave formation here, and suggest that a biotic model of speleogenesis using bacterially-sourced CO2 as a component of dissolution may be possible. Further, they can be used to further the understanding of the karstification in West-Central Florida and analogous karst regions.

  4. The significance of the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus P. Kritzinger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi Monachi Captivi should, in view of the similarities with the first cave episode and the high incidence of literary devices employed in it, be recognised for its value in the interpretation of this vita. The book was intended as a defence of, and an exhortation to a life of celibacy and this dual purpose is clearly demonstrated in both episodes in which a cave is used as the setting. The second cave episode has been neglected in the scholarly debate about the purpose of the book and this article attempts to set the record straight.

  5. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  6. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, E; Bona, F; Falasco, E; La Morgia, V; Badino, G; Isaia, M

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. PMID:26112916

  7. History of caves in the Ledové sluje (Ice Caves) locality, Podyjí National Park, Czechia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuda, František; Divíšek, Jan

    Vol. 13. Ostrava: Katedra fyzické geografie a geoekologie Přírodovědecké fakulty Ostravské univerzity, 2015 - (Lenart, J.). s. 50-50 ISBN 978-80-7464-765-9. [International Symposium on Pseudokarst /13./. 16.09.2015-19.09.2015, Kunčice pod Ondřejníkem] Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : speleology * Podyjí National Park * Pseudokarst caves Ledové sluje Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  8. Stop No. 1/C: Tvarožné díry Caves (Dwarf Caves, Quarglöcher), underground excursion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouhrabka, V.; Bosák, Pavel

    Kraków: Sekcja Speleologiczna Polskiego Towarzystwa Przyrodników im. Kopernika, 2014 - (Stefaniak, K.; Ratajczak, U.; Wróblewski, W.), s. 32-36 ISBN 978-83-933874-1-0. [Sympozjum Speleologiczne /40./. Kraków (PL), 20.10.2006-22.10.2006] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karst * caves * cave sediments * light minerals * heavy minerals * Tvarožné díry Caves * Kralický Sněžník Mt., * northern Moravia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  10. Origin of caves and notches observed on the Antalya Tufa Cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipova, Nihat; Emine Sukran, Okudan; Uzunsakal, Levent

    2010-05-01

    This study aims the investigation of caves and notches observed on the Antalya tufa cliffs from the geological, biological and morphological points of view. Through observations, sampling and measurements on the 13 km long Antalya cliffs, geological and biological definitions have been made. Through topographical surveys morphology of caves have been determined. The caves on Antalya tufa cliffs are of three origin; 1) The sea caves occurred due to wave action on weak parts of the tufa, 2) The flank margin caves occurred due to mixing corrosion, 3) The caves occurred as blind holes behind tufa curtains which deposited on tufa cascade environment of deposition. In this study more attention has been paid on porosity development and related cave formation due to mixing corrosion. The mixing corrosion is a process in which mixed water dissolves calcium carbonate rock where groundwater and sea water interfere. Cavities which occur in this process can join together and form big chambers. When rock load on this chambers exceeds rocks strength, the roof may collapse and fall into the chamber. This fallen block is also subject to further dissolution resulting in enlargement of the cave. The idea that the flank margin caves have been formed on Antalya cliffs due to mixing corrosion have been proven making in-situ water chemistry tests. Entrances of the caves on the cliffs are concentrated between present sea level and 5 m below this level. Similarly, on the sea level caves depth of the caves is around 5 m. Starting from a time of constant sea level, and following sea level rise, mixing corrosion and flank margin cave development should have been continued. Formation of notches on the Antalya tufa cliffs should have been affected by wave direction, wave force, rock strength and bioerosion-bioconstruction. From the biological point of view, rocks on the notches and caves serve as substrate for various organisms. Especially notches are the places where covering organisms live

  11. Hypogene speleogenesis in dolomite host rock by CO2-rich fluids, Kozak Cave (southern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph; Desch, Angelika; Dublyansky, Yuri; Plan, Lukas; Mangini, Augusto

    2016-02-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that cave formation by deep-seated groundwater (hypogene) is a more common process of subsurface water-rock interaction than previously thought. Fossil hypogene caves are identified by a characteristic suite of morphological features on different spatial scales. In addition, mineral deposits (speleothems) may provide clues about the chemical composition of the paleowater, which range from CO2-rich to sulfuric acid-bearing waters. This is one of the first studies to examine hypogene cave formation in dolomite. Kozak Cave is a fossil cave near the Periadriatic Lineament, an area known for its abundance of CO2-rich springs. The cave displays a number of macro-, meso- and micromorphological elements found also in other hypogene caves hosted in limestone, marble or gypsum, including cupolas, cusps, Laughöhle-type chambers and notches. The existance of cupolas and cusps suggests a thermal gradient capable of sustaining free convection during a first phase of speleogenesis, while triangular cross sections (Laughöhle morphology) indicate subsequent density-driven convection close to the paleowater table. Notches mark the final emergence of the cave due to continued rock uplift and valley incision. Very narrow shafts near the end of the cave may be part of the initial feeder system, but an epigene (vadose) overprint cannot be ruled out. Vadose speleothems indicate that the phreatic phase ended at least about half a million years ago. Drill cores show no evidence of carbon or oxygen isotope alteration of the wall rock. This is in contrast to similar studies in limestone caves, and highlights the need for further wall-rock studies of caves hosted in limestone and dolomite.

  12. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  13. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  14. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  15. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  16. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Mark E; Parrella, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (pacid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and the crude fat (CF) content (y=N/ADF+CF) explaining most of the variability between feed treatments (p = 0.02; R2 = 0.96). In addition, for populations of crickets that were able to survive to a harvestable size, the feed conversion ratios measured were higher (less efficient) than those reported from studies conducted at smaller scales and lower population densities. Compared to the industrial-scale production of chickens, crickets fed a poultry feed diet showed little improvement in protein conversion efficiency, a key metric in determining the ecological footprint of grain-based livestock protein. Crickets fed the solid filtrate from food waste processed at an industrial scale via enzymatic digestion were able to reach a harvestable size and achieve feed and protein efficiencies similar to that of chickens. However, crickets fed minimally-processed, municipal-scale food waste and diets composed largely of straw experienced >99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production. PMID:25875026

  17. Ion and water balance in Gryllus crickets during the first twelve hours of cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marteaux, Lauren E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-06-01

    Insects lose ion and water balance during chilling, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are based on patterns of ion and water balance observed in the later stages of cold exposure (12 or more hours). Here we quantified the distribution of ions and water in the hemolymph, muscle, and gut in adult Gryllus field crickets during the first 12h of cold exposure to test mechanistic hypotheses about why homeostasis is lost in the cold, and how chill-tolerant insects might maintain homeostasis to lower temperatures. Unlike in later chill coma, hemolymph [Na(+)] and Na(+) content in the first few hours of chilling actually increased. Patterns of Na(+) balance suggest that Na(+) migrates from the tissues to the gut lumen via the hemolymph. Imbalance of [K(+)] progressed gradually over 12h and could not explain chill coma onset (a finding consistent with recent studies), nor did it predict survival or injury following 48h of chilling. Gryllus veletis avoided shifts in muscle and hemolymph ion content better than Gryllus pennsylvanicus (which is less chill-tolerant), however neither species defended water, [Na(+)], or [K(+)] balance during the first 12h of chilling. Gryllus veletis better maintained balance of Na(+) content and may therefore have greater tissue resistance to ion leak during cold exposure, which could partially explain faster chill coma recovery for that species. PMID:27039031

  18. Acoustic experience shapes alternative mating tactics and reproductive investment in male field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W; Gray, Brian; Zuk, Marlene

    2010-05-11

    Developmental plasticity allows juvenile animals to assess environmental cues and adaptively shape behavioral and morphological traits to maximize fitness in their adult environment. Sexual signals are particularly conspicuous cues, making them likely candidates for mediating such responses. Plasticity in male reproductive traits is a common phenomenon, but empirical evidence for signal-mediated plasticity in males is lacking. We tested whether experience of acoustic sexual signals during juvenile stages influences the development of three adult traits in the continuously breeding field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: male mating tactics, reproductive investment, and condition. All three traits were affected by juvenile acoustic experience. Males of this species produce a long-range calling song to attract receptive females, but they can also behave as satellites by parasitizing other males' calls. Males reared in an environment mimicking a population with many calling males were less likely to exhibit satellite behavior, invested more in reproductive tissues, and attained higher condition than males reared in a silent environment. These results contrast with other studies and demonstrate how the effects of juvenile social experience on adult male morphology, reproductive investment, and behavior may subsequently influence sexual selection and phenotypic evolution. PMID:20417103

  19. The effect of marker placement around the elbow on calculated elbow extension during bowling in cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The elbow extension angle during bowling in cricket may be calculated from the positions of markers attached around the shoulder, elbow and wrist using an automated laboratory-based motion analysis system. The effects of two elbow-marker sets were compared. In the first, a pair of markers was placed medially and laterally close to the condyles while in the second a triad of markers was placed on the back of the upper arm close to the elbow. The root mean square (RMS) difference in elbow extension angle between the two methods at four key instants was 8° for 12 fast bowlers and 4° for 12 spin bowlers. When evaluated against video estimates of the elbow extension angle for the fast bowlers, the elbow extension angle calculated using the pair method had an RMS error of 2° while the triad method had an RMS error of 8°. The corresponding errors for the spin bowlers were 3° and 5°, respectively. It is thought that the greater errors associated with the triad is a consequence of soft tissue movement in this dynamic activity. This is consistent with the finding of greater error for the fast bowlers compared with the spin bowlers. PMID:25682835

  20. Comparing pre- and post-copulatory mate competition using social network analysis in wild crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David N.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection results from variation in success at multiple stages in the mating process, including competition before and after mating. The relationship between these forms of competition, such as whether they trade-off or reinforce one another, influences the role of sexual selection in evolution. However, the relationship between these 2 forms of competition is rarely quantified in the wild. We used video cameras to observe competition among male field crickets and their matings in the wild. We characterized pre- and post-copulatory competition as 2 networks of competing individuals. Social network analysis then allowed us to determine 1) the effectiveness of precopulatory competition for avoiding postcopulatory competition, 2) the potential for divergent mating strategies, and 3) whether increased postcopulatory competition reduces the apparent reproductive benefits of male promiscuity. We found 1) limited effectiveness of precopulatory competition for avoiding postcopulatory competition; 2) males do not specifically engage in only 1 type of competition; and 3) promiscuous individuals tend to mate with each other, which will tend to reduce variance in reproductive success in the population and highlights the trade-off inherent in mate guarding. Our results provide novel insights into the works of sexual competition in the wild. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the utility of using network analyses to study competitive interactions, even in species lacking obvious social structure. PMID:27174599

  1. Wicket Fall Concept Mining From Cricket Video Using A-Priori Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Goyani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an algorithm to detect semantic concepts from cricket video. In our previous work, we have proposed key frame detection based approach for semantic event detection andclassification. The proposed scheme works in two parts. In first part a top-down event detection and classification is performed using hierarchical tree. In second part, higher level concept is identified by applying A-Priori algorithm. In part 1, key frames are identified based on Hue Histogram difference at level 1. At level 2, logo transitions classify the frames as real-time or replay. At level 3, we classify the real time frames as field view, pitch view or non field view based on thresholds like Dominant Soli PixelRation (DSPR and Dominant Grass Pixel Ration (DGPR. At level 4, we detect close up and crowd frames based upon edge detection. At level 5a, we classify the close up frames into player of team A,player of team B and umpire based upon skin colour and corresponding jersey colour. At level 5b, we classify the crowd frames into spectators, player’s gathering of team A or player’s gathering of team B. In part two, labels are associated with each frame event, which is used as input to A-Priori algorithm for concept mining. Results at the end of paper show the robustness of our approach.

  2. Juvenile pathogen exposure affects the presence of personality in adult field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eDiRienzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ever increasing interest in animal personalities, i.e. among-individual variation in behavior, there are still several gaps in our understanding of how experiences during ontogeny influence the expression of behavior in adulthood. Immune challenges during ontogeny have been proposed to drive feedback loops between investment in immune function and personality type. In this study we investigate the effects of an early immune challenge, in the form of an introduced bacterial pathogen, on the development of personality in field crickets. Our results indicate that early pathogen exposure does not influence life history characteristics, immune response, or mean level of boldness behavior. Instead, early immune challenge affects the presence of personality later in the adult stage. Specifically, immune challenged individuals lack repeatability in some aspects of boldness behavior, indicating that among-individual variation is not present, while non-immune challenged individuals remain repeatable in their boldness behavior. This study joins a slowly growing body of literature indicating that experiences during ontogeny can have large influences on the among-individual differences in behaviors, thus affecting the presence of personality as adults.

  3. Divergence in male cricket song and female preference functions in three allopatric sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences. PMID:27026021

  4. Sexual signaling and immune function in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Drayton

    Full Text Available The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis predicts that male sexual trait expression should be positively correlated with immunocompetence. Here we investigate if immune function in the cricket, Teleogryllus commodus, is related to specific individual components of male sexual signals, as well as to certain multivariate combinations of these components that females most strongly prefer. Male T. commodus produce both advertisement and courtship calls prior to mating. We measured fine-scale structural parameters of both call types and also recorded nightly advertisement calling effort. We then measured two standard indices of immune function: lysozyme-like activity of the haemolymph and haemocyte counts. We found a weak, positive relationship between advertisement calling effort and lysozyme-like activity. There was, however, little evidence that individual structural call components or the net multivariate attractiveness of either call type signalled immune function. The relationships between immunity and sexual signaling did not differ between inbred and outbred males. Our data suggest that it is unlikely that females assess overall male immune function using male calls.

  5. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL. Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk.

  6. A new species of ant-loving cricket from Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalling, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of ant-loving cricket, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on individuals collected on the Balearic island of Mallorca, Spain. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 was the host ant species. The habitat was evergreen oak forest. The holotype specimen was deposited in the collection of the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève. The species is closely related to Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] and belongs to the subgenus Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de grillo mirmecófilo, Myrmecophilus fuscus sp. n., procedente de la isla de Mallorca (islas Baleares, España. Lasius lasioides (Emery, 1869 es la especie hospedadora y su hábitat es el bosque perenne de roble. El holotipo se ha depositado en la colección del Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Ginebra. La nueva especie está estrechamente relacionada con Myrmecophilus acervorum (Panzer, [1799] y pertenece al subgénero Myrmecophilus Berthold, 1827.

  7. Signal diversification in Oecanthus tree crickets is shaped by energetic, morphometric, and acoustic trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, L B; Ayres, M P; Cowdery, C P; Costello, R A

    2015-06-01

    Physiology, physics, and ecological interactions can generate trade-offs within species, but may also shape divergence among species. We tested whether signal divergence in Oecanthus tree crickets is shaped by acoustic, energetic, and behavioral trade-offs. We found that species with faster pulse rates, produced by opening and closing wings up to twice as many times per second, did not have higher metabolic costs of calling. The relatively constant energetic cost across species is explained by trade-offs between the duration and repetition rate of acoustic signals-species with fewer stridulatory teeth closed their wings more frequently such that the number of teeth struck per second of calling and the resulting duty cycle were relatively constant across species. Further trade-offs were evident in relationships between signals and body size. Calling was relatively inexpensive for small males, permitting them to call for much of the night, but at low amplitude. Large males produced much louder calls, reaching up to four times more area, but the energetic costs increased substantially with increasing size and the time spent calling dropped to only 20% of the night. These trade-offs indicate that the trait combinations that arise in these species represent a limited subset of conceivable trait combinations. PMID:25903317

  8. Sounds, behaviour, and auditory receptors of the armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kerstin; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The auditory sensory system of the taxon Hetrodinae has not been studied previously. Males of the African armoured ground cricket, Acanthoplus longipes (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Hetrodinae) produce a calling song that lasts for minutes and consists of verses with two pulses. About three impulses are in the first pulse and about five impulses are in the second pulse. In contrast, the disturbance stridulation consists of verses with about 14 impulses that are not separated in pulses. Furthermore, the inter-impulse intervals of both types of sounds are different, whereas verses have similar durations. This indicates that the neuronal networks for sound generation are not identical. The frequency spectrum peaks at about 15 kHz in both types of sounds, whereas the hearing threshold has the greatest sensitivity between 4 and 10 kHz. The auditory afferents project into the prothoracic ganglion. The foreleg contains about 27 sensory neurons in the crista acustica; the midleg has 18 sensory neurons, and the hindleg has 14. The auditory system is similar to those of other Tettigoniidae. PMID:20569136

  9. Prior mating success can affect allocation towards future sexual signaling in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Chiswell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fitness is often correlated with the expression level of a sexually selected trait. However, sexually selected traits are costly to express such that investment in their expression should be optimised to maximize their overall fitness gains. Social interactions, in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings, may offer males one type of feedback allowing them to gauge how to allocate their resources towards sexual signaling. Here we tested whether adult male black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus modify the extent of their calling effort (the sexually selected trait in response to successful and unsuccessful matings with females. To examine the effect that mating interactions with females have on investment into sexual signaling, we monitored male calling effort after maturation and then provided males with a female at two points within their life, manipulating whether or not males were able to successfully mate each time. Our results demonstrate that males alter their investment towards sexual signaling in response to successful matings, but only if the experience occurs early in their life. Males that mated early decreased their calling effort sooner than males that were denied a mating. Our results demonstrate that social feedback in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings has the potential to alter the effort a male places towards sexual signaling.

  10. Temporal Regulation of Distinct Internal Ribosome Entry Sites of the Dicistroviridae Cricket Paralysis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Anthony; Bonderoff, Jennifer M; Spriggs, Ruth V; Tammpere, Erik; Kerr, Craig H; Jackson, Thomas J; Willis, Anne E; Jan, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry is a key mechanism for viral protein synthesis in a subset of RNA viruses. Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), a member of Dicistroviridae, has a positive-sense single strand RNA genome that contains two internal ribosome entry sites (IRES), a 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) and intergenic region (IGR) IRES, that direct translation of open reading frames (ORF) encoding the viral non-structural and structural proteins, respectively. The regulation of and the significance of the CrPV IRESs during infection are not fully understood. In this study, using a series of biochemical assays including radioactive-pulse labelling, reporter RNA assays and ribosome profiling, we demonstrate that while 5'UTR IRES translational activity is constant throughout infection, IGR IRES translation is delayed and then stimulated two to three hours post infection. The delay in IGR IRES translation is not affected by inhibiting global translation prematurely via treatment with Pateamine A. Using a CrPV replicon that uncouples viral translation and replication, we show that the increase in IGR IRES translation is dependent on expression of non-structural proteins and is greatly stimulated when replication is active. Temporal regulation by distinct IRESs within the CrPV genome is an effective viral strategy to ensure optimal timing and expression of viral proteins to facilitate infection. PMID:26797630

  11. Sediments of Biśnik Cave (Poland): Lithology and stratigraphy of the Middle Palaeolithic site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajcarz, M. T.; Bosák, Pavel; Šlechta, Stanislav; Pruner, Petr; Komar, M.; Dresler, J.; Madeyska, T.

    326/327, April (2014), s. 6-19. ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karsology * caves * Biśnik Cave (Poland) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2014

  12. Aerosol particle size distribution in building and caves: impact to the radon-related dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of evaluation of the aerosol particle size spectra observed in the Bozkov cave are presented and compared with the spectra observed in residential areas. The radon-to-dose conversion factor is discussed, as is the correction factor referred to as the cave factor. (P.A.)

  13. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences. PMID:21642344

  14. A world review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlpine Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds that have been found in natural solution caves and mines worldwide. Such habitats provide frequent roost sites for bats, and in eastern North America the environmental conditions that support white-nose syndrome, a lethal fungal disease currently devastating bat populations. A list of 1029 species of fungi, slime moulds, and yeasts in 518 genera have been documented from caves and mines worldwide in 225 articles. Ascomycota dominate the cave environment. Most research has been conducted in temperate climates, especially in Europe. A mean of 17.9±24.4SD fungal species are reported per study. Questions remain about the origin and ecological roles of fungi in caves, and which, if any, are cave-specialists. In the northern hemisphere, caves are generally characterized by relatively stable, low temperatures and a lack of organic substrates. This environment favors communities of oligotrophic, psychrotolerant fungi. Data that may help explain how cave environmental features and faunas inf luence the introduction and transmission of cave fungi remains scant.

  15. Sa Cova d'es Carritx: a new p rehistoric cult cave on Menorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth D. Whitehouse

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 a previously unknown cave was discovered on the island of Menorca in the western Mediterranean. It was found to contain h uman skeletal remains and an extraordinary collection of artefacts made of wood and horn, some of which contained human hair. The cave appears to have been used during the first millennium BC for ritual purposes.

  16. Cross-formational flow, diffluence and transfluence observed in St. Beatus Cave and Sieben Hengste (Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Hauselmann Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Observations in St. Beatus Cave and neighbouring caves revealed complex water flowpaths that can be used for explaining thebehaviour of tracing experiments. The observations prove that even in vadose conditions, cross-formational flow, diffluences andtransfluences are a quite common feature. Therefore, also the vadose karst has a very complex organisation.

  17. Principles of palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic methods applied to the cave sediment dating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr

    Postojna: Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU, 2004 - (Mihevc, A.; Zupan Hajna, N.). s. 60-61 [International Karstological School "Classical karst". Dating of cave sediments /12./. 21.06.2004-24.06.2004, Postojna] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013201 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetostratigraphy * cave sediments Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Cave sediments in Slovenia: Results of 10 years of palaeomagnetic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel; Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2009), s. 173-186. ISSN 0560-3137 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * karst and cave evolution * karst ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  19. Cross-formational flow, diffluence and transfluence observed in St. Beatus Cave and Sieben Hengste (Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauselmann Philipp

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations in St. Beatus Cave and neighbouring caves revealed complex water flowpaths that can be used for explaining thebehaviour of tracing experiments. The observations prove that even in vadose conditions, cross-formational flow, diffluences andtransfluences are a quite common feature. Therefore, also the vadose karst has a very complex organisation.

  20. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  1. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Lundberg, Johannes; Ivarsson, Magnus; Campos, Paula; Nylander, Johan A A; Sallstedt, Therese; Dalen, Love

    2016-01-01

    Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i) an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii) functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii) taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching. PMID:26985997

  2. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza

    Full Text Available Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching.

  3. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: A new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moldovan, O.T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 1825-1837. ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil invertebrates * Oribatida * Pliocene/Pleistocene * caves * caves (Slovenia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  4. Recognition of microclimate zones through radon mapping, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations range from less than 185 to 3,515 Bq m-3 throughout Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Concentrations in the entrance passages and areas immediately adjacent to these passages are controlled by outside air temperature and barometric pressure, similar to other Type 2 caves. Most of the cave is developed in three geographic branches beneath the entrance passages; these areas maintain Rn levels independent of surface effects, an indication that Rn levels in deep, complex caves or mines cannot be simply estimated by outside atmospheric parameters. These deeper, more isolated areas are subject to convective ventilation driven by temperature differences along the 477-m vertical extent of the cave. Radon concentrations are used to delineate six microclimate zones (air circulation cells) throughout the cave in conjunction with observed airflow data. Suspected surface connections contribute fresh air to remote cave areas demonstrated by anomalous Rn lows surrounded by higher values, the presence of mammalian skeletal remains, CO2 concentrations and temperatures lower than the cave mean, and associated surficial karst features

  5. Roncus hajnehaj n. sp. (Neobisiidae, Pseudoscorpiones, a new endemic cave pseudoscorpion from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić B.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of cave-dwelling pseudoscorpions pertaining to the genus Roncus L. Koch, 1873 from Montenegro is erected. Its relations with close congeners are briefly discussed. The new species, Roncus hajnehaj n. sp., is an endemic form presently known only from its type locality (Haj Nehaj Pećina Cave, nr. Sutomore, Montenegro.

  6. Geological conditions of origin of the Potočka zijalka cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Potočka zijalka cave on Mt. Ol{eva in Southern Karavanke during excavation of cave sediments of Würm age that contain cultural remains of the Cromagnon Man also large amounts of gravel were before the Badenian transgression, from the Central Alps during Miocene.

  7. New results of paleomagnetic research in the Ochtinská Aragonite Cave, Slovakia and their speleogenetic interpretation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Pruner, Petr; Bella, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2015), s. 56-56. ISSN 1335-213X. [ Scientific Conference Research, Use and Protection of Caves /10./. 22.09.2015-25.09.2015, Rožňava - Bódvaszilas] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * Ochtinská Aragonite Cave * palaeomagnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  8. Making a living while starving in the dark: metagenomic insights into the energy dynamics of a carbonate cave

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Marianyoly; Legatzki, Antje; Neilson, Julia W; Fryslie, Brandon; Nelson, William M; Wing, Rod A; Soderlund, Carol A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate caves represent subterranean ecosystems that are largely devoid of phototrophic primary production. In semiarid and arid regions, allochthonous organic carbon inputs entering caves with vadose-zone drip water are minimal, creating highly oligotrophic conditions; however, past research indicates that carbonate speleothem surfaces in these caves support diverse, predominantly heterotrophic prokaryotic communities. The current study applied a metagenomic approach to elucidate the commu...

  9. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  10. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, A W G; Hoffmann, D L; García-Diez, M; Pettitt, P B; Alcolea, J; De Balbín, R; González-Sainz, C; de las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A; Montes, R; Zilhão, J

    2012-06-15

    Paleolithic cave art is an exceptional archive of early human symbolic behavior, but because obtaining reliable dates has been difficult, its chronology is still poorly understood after more than a century of study. We present uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying or underlying art found in 11 caves, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo, Spain. The results demonstrate that the tradition of decorating caves extends back at least to the Early Aurignacian period, with minimum ages of 40.8 thousand years for a red disk, 37.3 thousand years for a hand stencil, and 35.6 thousand years for a claviform-like symbol. These minimum ages reveal either that cave art was a part of the cultural repertoire of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or that perhaps Neandertals also engaged in painting caves. PMID:22700921

  11. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; SONG Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite's system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite.

  12. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulecal-Pektas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces. PMID:27281996

  14. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m-3. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  15. How old are cave deposits abundant in Pleistocene fauna preserved in the Bone Passage in the Sloupsko-šošůvská Cave (Moravian Karst)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Šroubek, P.; Diehl, J. F.; Hercman, H.; Nowicki, T.; Pruner, Petr; Venhodová, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2007), s. 37-41. ISBN 80-210-4097-1. ISSN 1211-281X. [International Cave Bear Symposium /13./. Brno, 20.09.2007-24.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/95/0841 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave deposits * Pleistocene fauna * Moravian Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Large-scale and high-resolution 3-D cave mapping by terrestrial laser scanning: a case study of the Domica Cave, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Gallay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and modelling the complicated geometry of caves is a challenging task that has traditionally been undertaken by tacheometric surveying methods. These methods are excellent for capturing the general shape of a cave system but they are not suitable for high-speed, high-resolution mapping of complex surfaces found in this environment. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS technologies can acquire millions of points represented by 3-D coordinates, at very high spatial densities on complex multifaceted surfaces within minutes. In the last few years, advances in measurement speed, reduction in size / cost and increased portability of this technology has revolutionised the collection of 3-D data. This paper discusses the methodological framework and the advantages / disadvantages of adopting terrestrial laser scanning to rapidly map a complex cave system on the example of the Domica Cave in Slovakia. This cave originated in the largest karst region in the West Carpathians. The collected data set or ‘point cloud’ contains over 11.9 billion measured points, captured in 5 days from 327 individual scanning positions. The dataset represents almost 1600 m of the cave passages. Semi-automatic registration of these scans was carried out using reference spheres placed in each scene and this method archived an overall registration error of 2.24 mm (RMSE. Transformation of the final registered point cloud from its local coordinate system to the national cartographic system was achieved with total accuracy of 21 mm (RMSE. This very detailed data set was used to create a 3-D cave surface model needed for volumetric analyses. In the future, it will be used for spatial analyses or simulating the interaction of surface and subsurface processes contributing to the development of the cave system on the basis of a 3-D GIS platform.

  17. Spontaneous Meckel's cave hematoma: A rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafaci, Concetta; Grasso, Giovanni; Granata, Francesca; Marino, Daniele; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Tomasello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is vascular compression. However, other causes must be considered. Among these, spontaneous hematoma of the Meckel's cave (MC) causing symptomatic TN is very rare. Case Description: We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-month history of left TN and diplopia. Neuroradiological examinations revealed a well-defined hematoma in the left MC. The patient underwent surgical decompression with a progressive neurological improvement. Conclusion: Despite the number of lesions potentially affecting the MC, spontaneous hemorrhage is rare but should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26539319

  18. The Paleoindian Bison Assemblage from Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan C. Driver; Vallieres, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    A small assemblage of bison bones from the Palaeoindian (10,700 to 9500 BP) components at Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia is dominated by elements from the middle and lower limbs. The skeletal element frequencies are not typical of a kill site. The lithic assemblage, the lack of evidence for burning, and the ratio of long bone shaft fragments to epiphyses suggest that the assemblage was not produced at a residential site nor at a specialized processing area. We propose that the assemblage...

  19. Agraphorura calvoi n. sp. from Venezuelan caves (Collembola: Onychiuridae).

    OpenAIRE

    Arbea Javier I.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Agraphorura (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) from caves in the Nort-West of Venezuela is described. A.calvoi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: antennal organ III with four papillae, 32/133/33343 dorsal pseudocellar formula, 3/000/0112 ventral pseudocellar, subcoxae each with two pseudocelli, postantennalorgan with 7-9 vesicles, unguiculus with a basal lamella, tibiotarsi I-III with 19,19,18 setae (distal whorl o...

  20. Age of Dinaric karst cave sediments in SW Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zupan Hajna, N.; Mihevc, A.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    Sarajevo : Fakultet drušstvenih znanosti dr. Milenko Brkic Sveučiílišta Hercegovina, 2012 - (Lučic, I.; Mulaomerovič, J.), s. 13-28 ISBN 978-9958-0910-0-1. [Man and Karst 2011. Bijakovici- Medugorje (SI), 13.10.2011-16.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : age of the karst * cave sediments * paleomagnetic dating * Dinaric karst * karst ( Slovenia ) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  1. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m-3 were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m-3. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 μSv in summer and 2.5 μSv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv

  2. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtijari, M. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Vaupotic, J.; Gregoric, A.; Stegnar, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobal, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kobal@ijs.si

    2008-02-15

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m{sup -3} were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m{sup -3}. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 {mu}Sv in summer and 2.5 {mu}Sv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv.

  3. 7500 years of prehistoric footwear from arnold research cave, missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff; DeHart; O'Brien

    1998-07-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometer dating of an assemblage of fibrous and leather footwear from Arnold Research Cave in central Missouri documents a long sequence of shoe construction by prehistoric Midwestern peoples, beginning perhaps as early as 8300 calendar years before the present (cal years B.P.). An earlier fibrous sandal form dates from 8325 to 7675 cal years B.P., and later fibrous or leather slip-ons span the period from 5575 to 1070 cal years B.P. The assemblage adds to a growing picture of the highly varied nature of prehistoric footwear production in the United States throughout the Holocene. PMID:9651246

  4. Quantification of dendritic and axonal growth after injury to the auditory system of the adult cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HadleyWilsonHorch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite and axon growth and branching during development are regulated by a complex set of intracellular and external signals. However, the cues that maintain or influence adult neuronal morphology are less well understood. Injury and deafferentation tend to have negative effects on adult nervous systems. An interesting example of injury-induced compensatory growth is seen in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. After unilateral loss of an ear in the adult cricket, auditory neurons within the central nervous system sprout to compensate for the injury. Specifically, after being deafferented, ascending neurons (AN-1 and AN-2 send dendrites across the midline of the prothoracic ganglion where they receive input from auditory afferents that project through the contralateral auditory nerve (N5. Deafferentation also triggers contralateral N5 axonal growth. In this study, we quantified AN dendritic and N5 axonal growth at 30 hours, as well as at 3, 5, 7, 14 and 20 days after deafferentation in adult crickets. Significant differences in the rates of dendritic growth between males and females were noted. In females, dendritic growth rates were non-linear; a rapid burst of dendritic extension in the first few days was followed by a plateau reached at 3 days after deafferentation. In males, however, dendritic growth rates were linear, with dendrites growing steadily over time and reaching lengths, on average, twice as long as in females. On the other hand, rates of N5 axonal growth showed no significant sexual dimorphism and were linear. Within each animal, the growth rates of dendrites and axons were not correlated, indicating that independent factors likely influence dendritic and axonal growth in response to injury in this system. Our findings provide a basis for future study of the cellular features that allow differing dendrite and axon growth patterns as well as sexually dimorphic dendritic growth in response to deafferentation.

  5. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaokoYoshinaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs, first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata, fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution can not be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a

  6. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  7. Changes in the inhabitation of the Biśnik Cave during the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrek, Krzysztof; Sudoł, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The Biśnik Cave lies on the left western slope of the Wodąca Valley, which is part of the Niegownice-Smoleń hills, situated in the central part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. The cave consists of several chambers joined by corridors, and a number of entrances. Interdisciplinary research (archaeology, sedimentology, geomorphology and paleozoology) carried out since 1992 has dealt with the exploration of the following elements of the cave system: the main chamber, side shelter, side chamber and the area underneath the overhang. The Biśnik Cave is currently the oldest cave site in Poland with a well-preserved cross-section of sediments formed in separate stages of climatic changes, starting with the period preceding the Odra Glaciation to the Holocene. The oldest traces of settlement of Palaeolithic man go as far back as over 400,000 years ago. The most interesting mid-Palaeolithic sequence of the cave inhabitation comprises 17 cultural levels preserved in the form of stone and bone artefacts' concentrations, hearth remains and fragments of animal bones of post-consumption character. The attempts to date separate levels using the uranium-thorium dating method, electronic paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence method are very relevant. Scientific value of the Biśnik Cave turns it into a sample mid-Palaeolithic site in this part of Europe. A three-dimensional localisation of all finds made it possible to prepare a detailed map of the artefacts' distribution in the consecutive sedimentary layers. This, in turn, enabled the reconstruction of changes of the cave inhabitation by man. The correlation of those changes with the description of climatic conditions in the period of formation of sedimentary layers helped link the cave inhabitation methods with natural conditions dominating the area of the Biśnik Cave at that time.

  8. Karst show caves – how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection – experiment in Postojna cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gabrovšek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave Early Warning and Measuring System. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an Early Warning System (EWS. One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organisation allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is a regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  9. Karst show caves - how DTN technology as used in space assists automatic environmental monitoring and tourist protection - experiment in Postojna Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovšek, F.; Grašič, B.; Božnar, M. Z.; Mlakar, P.; Udén, M.; Davies, E.

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an experiment demonstrating a novel and successful application of delay- and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) technology for automatic data transfer in a karst cave early warning and measuring system. The experiment took place inside the Postojna Cave in Slovenia, which is open to tourists. Several automatic meteorological measuring stations are set up inside the cave, as an adjunct to the surveillance infrastructure; the regular data transfer provided by the DTN technology allows the surveillance system to take on the role of an early warning system (EWS). One of the stations is set up alongside the railway tracks, which allows the tourist to travel inside the cave by train. The experiment was carried out by placing a DTN "data mule" (a DTN-enabled computer with WiFi connection) on the train and by upgrading the meteorological station with a DTN-enabled WiFi transmission system. When the data mule is in the wireless drive-by mode, it collects measurement data from the station over a period of several seconds as the train without stopping passes the stationary equipment, and delivers data at the final train station by the cave entrance. This paper describes an overview of the experimental equipment and organization allowing the use of a DTN system for data collection and an EWS inside karst caves where there is regular traffic of tourists and researchers.

  10. Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Anthropometric Variables among Four International Cricket Teams Competed in ACC Premier League Malaysia 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Mondam, Rahul Shaik, Jalaj Jalaja Prakash, Jeffrey Low Fook, Sirisha Nekkanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Chronic musculoskeletal injuries are more common in cricket players. Acute problems may be due to trauma or injuries during sporting. The musculoskeletal system includes muscles, joints, bones, cartilage, ligaments, fascia, nerves and other associated soft tissues. Whatever the mode of injury, it causes pain, movement restriction, muscle weakness, and ultimately loss of functions. Anthropometric variables of each player in cricket will also influence the occurrence of problems. The current study focused on identifying the most common site involved in musculoskeletal problems and to explore possible variations in anthropometric characteristics. Methodology: This study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where Asian Cricket Council Premier League 2014 was conducted. Permission to approach the players was taken from the council members and all the players were assured that the information collected from them will be kept confidential and all were explained about the objective study. Modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was distributed to the players and instructions were given about how to fill the questionnaire. Their anthropometric characteristics, experience and time of training sessions were collected by a blinded assessor. Results: Player's height (p = 0.003, weight (p = 0.050, experience (p = 0.001 and practicing hours per week (0.002 were analyzed. There is a statistically significant difference in these characteristics was observed. Occurrence of acute troubles (within 7 days of upper back and elbow region were found different in four teams with a P value of 0.007 and 0.022 respectively. Persistence of neck, shoulder and lower back troubles in the last one year has a significant difference between the groups with a P value of 0.014, 0.003 and 0.021 respectively. Conclusion: This study can conclude that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries is more in cricket. Especially shoulder, neck, lower

  11. Unidad didáctica para el laboratorio de Cinemática apoyada en Handy Cricket

    OpenAIRE

    González Jáuregui, Abel Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Se muestra el diseño y desarrollo de una unidad didáctica basada en Handy Cricket, aplicada a las prácticas de laboratoriode cinemática. Se estructuró un conjunto de guías de laboratorio coherente con ejercicios clásicos de movimiento rectilíneo de uno y dos objetos móviles. Se evidenció, a partir de pruebas pre y post intervención pedagógica, el afianzamiento de los conceptos:sistema de referencia, posición, desplazamiento, dirección de movimiento, rapidez, velocidad y acel...

  12. Multiple differences in calling songs and other traits between solitary and gregarious Mormon crickets from allopatric mtDNA clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey William V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In acoustic species, traits such as male calling song are likely to diverge quickly between allopatric populations due to sexual selection, and divergence in parameters such as carrier frequency, chirp structure, and other important song characters can influence sexual isolation. Here we make use of two forms of Mormon crickets to examine differences in a broad suite of traits that have the potential to influence speciation via sexual isolation. Mormon crickets in "gregarious" populations aggregate into dense migratory bands, and females are the sexually competitive sex (sex-role reversal. There is also a non-outbreak "solitary" form. These two forms are largely but not perfectly correlated with a significant mtDNA subdivision within the species that is thought to have arisen in allopatry. Combined information about multiple, independently evolving traits, such as morphology and structural and behavioural differences in calling song, provides greater resolution of the overall differences between these allopatric populations, and allows us to assess their stage of divergence. We test two predictions, first that the forms differ in song and second that gregarious males are more reluctant to sing than solitary males due to sex role reversal. We also tested for a difference in the relationship between the size of the forewing resonator, the mirror, and carrier frequency, as most models of sound production in crickets indicate that mirror size should predict carrier frequency. Results Multivariate analyses showed that solitary and gregarious individuals from different populations representing the two mtDNA clades had almost non-overlapping distributions based on multiple song and morphological measurements. Carrier frequency differed between the two, and gregarious males were more reluctant to sing overall. Mirror size predicted carrier frequency; however, the relationship between mirror size and surface area varied between

  13. Detrital cave sediments record Late Quaternary hydrologic and climatic variability in northwestern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Tyler S.; van Hengstum, Peter J.; Horgan, Meghan C.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

    2016-04-01

    Detrital sediment in Florida's (USA) submerged cave systems may preserve records of regional climate and hydrologic variability. However, the basic sedimentology, mineralogy, stratigraphic variability, and emplacement history of the successions in Florida's submerged caves remains poorly understood. Here we present stratigraphic, mineralogical, and elemental data on sediment cores from two phreatic cave systems in northwestern Florida (USA), on the Dougherty Karst Plain: Hole in the Wall Cave (HITW) and Twin Cave. Water flowing through these caves is subsurface flow in the Apalachicola River drainage basin, and the caves are located just downstream from Jackson Blue (1st magnitude spring, > 2.8 m3 s- 1 discharge). Sedimentation in these caves is dominated by three primary sedimentary styles: (i) ferromanganese deposits dominate the basal recovered stratigraphy, which pass upsection into (ii) poorly sorted carbonate sediment, and finally into (iii) fine-grained organic matter (gyttja) deposits. Resolving the emplacement history of the lower stratigraphic units was hampered by a lack of suitable material for radiocarbon dating, but the upper organic-rich deposits have a punctuated depositional history beginning in the earliest Holocene. For example, gyttja primarily accumulated in HITW and Twin Caves from ~ 5500 to 3500 cal yr. BP, which coincides with regional evidence for water-table rise of the Upper Floridian Aquifer associated with relative sea-level rise in the Gulf of Mexico, and evidence for invigorated drainage through the Apalachicola River drainage basin. Gyttja sediments were also deposited in one of the caves during the Bølling/Allerød climate oscillation. Biologically, these results indicate that some Floridian aquatic cave (stygobitic) ecosystems presently receive minimal organic matter supply in comparison to prehistoric intervals. The pre-Holocene poorly sorted carbonate sediment contains abundant invertebrate fossils, and likely documents a period

  14. The biogeochemical role of Actinobacteria in Altamira Cave, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuezva, Soledad; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Porca, Estefania; Pašić, Lejla; Jurado, Valme; Hernandez-Marine, Mariona; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Hermosin, Bernardo; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    The walls and ceiling of Altamira Cave, northern Spain, are coated with different coloured spots (yellow, white and grey). Electron microscopy revealed that the grey spots are composed of bacteria and bioinduced CaCO(3) crystals. The morphology of the spots revealed a dense network of microorganisms organized in well-defined radial and dendritic divergent branches from the central area towards the exterior of the spot, which is coated with overlying spheroidal elements of CaCO(3) and CaCO(3) nest-like aggregates. Molecular analysis indicated that the grey spots were mainly formed by an unrecognized species of the genus Actinobacteria. CO(2) efflux measurements in rocks heavily covered by grey spots confirmed that bacteria-forming spots promoted uptake of the gas, which is abundant in the cave. The bacteria can use the captured CO(2) to dissolve the rock and subsequently generate crystals of CaCO(3) in periods of lower humidity and/or CO(2). A tentative model for the formation of these grey spots, supported by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy data, is proposed. PMID:22500975

  15. Step back! Niche dynamics in cave-dwelling predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Isaia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The geometry of the Hutchinson's hypervolume derives from multiple selective pressures defined, on one hand, by the physiological tolerance of the species, and on the other, by intra- and interspecific competition. The quantification of these evolutionary forces is essential for the understanding of the coexistence of predators in light of competitive exclusion dynamics. We address this topic by investigating the ecological niche of two medium-sized troglophile spiders (Meta menardi and Pimoa graphitica). Over one year, we surveyed several populations in four subterranean sites in the Western Italian Alps, monitoring monthly their spatial and temporal dynamics and the associated physical and ecological variables. We assessed competition between the two species by means of multi regression techniques and by evaluating the intersection between their multidimensional hypervolumes. We detected a remarkable overlap between the microclimatic and trophic niche of M. menardi and P. graphitica, however, the former -being larger in size- resulted the best competitor in proximity of the cave entrance, causing the latter to readjust its spatial niche towards the inner part, where prey availability is scarcer ("step back effect"). In parallel to the slight variations in the subterranean microclimatic condition, the niche of the two species was also found to be seasonal dependent, varying over the year. With this work, we aim at providing new insights about the relationships among predators, demonstrating that energy-poor environments such as caves maintain the potential for diversification of predators via niche differentiation and serve as useful models for theoretical ecological studies.

  16. Classification of Thermal Patterns at Karst Springs and Cave Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, A.J.; Covington, M.D.; Peters, Albert J.; Alexander, S.C.; Anger, C.T.; Green, J.A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Alexander, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  17. Features of deep cave sediments: their influence on fossil preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo, R.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse how physical and chemical deep-cave sediment features preserve the morphological and geochemical characteristics of paleontological materials. Detrital sediment chemistry and clast size are fundamental because they provide a soft, impervious and plastic environment in which fossil remains are transported with minimal erosion. Sediment mineralogy provides a carbonate- and phosphate-buffered environment in which molecules of biological origin hydrolyze slower than in open-air environments or even at cave entrance sites. Because permafrost did not develop in the Iberian Peninsula (at least at the altitudes of inhabited caves, sediment desiccation never took place. In addition, sediment -pores were not aerated, which protected fossil remains from air (oxygen-linked weathering. The annual-temperature variation inside sediment was negligible, which contributed to amino acid racemization dating. Collagen amino acid and amino acid racemization analysis of cave bear and man samples from cave sediments dated from different Oxygen Isotope Stages (4": Sidrón, Amutxate, Troskaeta, El Toll, Coro Tracito, Ekain, Lezetxiki, La Pasada, Eirós; 5": Reguerillo and Arrikrutz; 6"-7": Sima de los Huesos demonstrate that important amounts of almost intact collagen still remain in teeth dentine. Fossil DNA search seems to be very promising.En este trabajo se analiza el papel que juegan las características físicas y químicas de los sedimentos de galerías profundas de cuevas en la preservación de los caracteres morfológicos y paleobiomoleculares del material paleontológico incluido en dichos sedimentos. Los aspectos geoquímicos y de tamaño de grano del sedimento son críticos: las características generan un medio blando, plástico e impermeable que permite el transporte -mecánico sin grave deterioro del material (en coladas de barro; las características químicas mineralogía del sediment* proporcionan un ambiente con tampón fosfatado

  18. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  19. What's in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Pauchet

    Full Text Available Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and starts to eat it while sperm from the ampulla are evacuated into the female reproductive tract. When the female has finished consuming the spermatophylax, she detaches the ampulla and terminates sperm transfer. Hence, one simple function of the spermatophylax is to ensure complete sperm transfer by distracting the female from prematurely removing the ampulla. However, the majority of orally active components of the spermatophylax itself and their subsequent effects on female behavior have not been identified. Here, we report the first analysis of the proteome of the G. sigillatus spermatophylax and the transcriptome of the male accessory glands that make these proteins. The accessory gland transcriptome was assembled into 17,691 transcripts whilst about 30 proteins were detected within the mature spermatophylax itself. Of these 30 proteins, 18 were encoded by accessory gland encoded messages. Most spermatophylax proteins show no similarity to proteins with known biological functions and are therefore largely novel. A spermatophylax protein shows similarity to protease inhibitors suggesting that it may protect the biologically active components from digestion within the gut of the female recipient. Another protein shares similarity with previously characterized insect polypeptide growth factors suggesting that it may play a role in altering female reproductive physiology concurrent with fertilization. Characterization of the spermatophylax proteome provides the

  20. What's in the Gift? Towards a Molecular Dissection of Nuptial Feeding in a Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wielsch, Natalie; Wilkinson, Paul A; Sakaluk, Scott K; Svatoš, Aleš; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Hunt, John; Heckel, David G

    2015-01-01

    Nuptial gifts produced by males and transferred to females during copulation are common in insects. Yet, their precise composition and subsequent physiological effects on the female recipient remain unresolved. Male decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus transfer a spermatophore to the female during copulation that is composed of an edible gift, the spermatophylax, and the ampulla that contains the ejaculate. After transfer of the spermatophore, the female detaches the spermatophylax and starts to eat it while sperm from the ampulla are evacuated into the female reproductive tract. When the female has finished consuming the spermatophylax, she detaches the ampulla and terminates sperm transfer. Hence, one simple function of the spermatophylax is to ensure complete sperm transfer by distracting the female from prematurely removing the ampulla. However, the majority of orally active components of the spermatophylax itself and their subsequent effects on female behavior have not been identified. Here, we report the first analysis of the proteome of the G. sigillatus spermatophylax and the transcriptome of the male accessory glands that make these proteins. The accessory gland transcriptome was assembled into 17,691 transcripts whilst about 30 proteins were detected within the mature spermatophylax itself. Of these 30 proteins, 18 were encoded by accessory gland encoded messages. Most spermatophylax proteins show no similarity to proteins with known biological functions and are therefore largely novel. A spermatophylax protein shows similarity to protease inhibitors suggesting that it may protect the biologically active components from digestion within the gut of the female recipient. Another protein shares similarity with previously characterized insect polypeptide growth factors suggesting that it may play a role in altering female reproductive physiology concurrent with fertilization. Characterization of the spermatophylax proteome provides the first step in

  1. Risk Factors of Tendo-Achilles Injury in Football, Cricket and Badminton Players at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M J; Giasuddin, A S M; Khalil, M I

    2015-04-01

    Achilles tendon is the tendon connecting the heel with the calf muscles. Tendo-achilles injury (TAI) in players is common in games. The frequency of TAI is unknown and aetiology is controversial: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was done to determine the prevalence of TAI and associated factors contributing to it in football, cricket and badminton. From January to June 2012, male players (n = 131), age -17-35 years, were selected by purposive sampling technique from renowned sporting clubs at Dhaka, Bangladesh. TAI was diagnosed through structured questionnaire and interviewing the respondents. The analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme revealed that 11.5% players suffered from TAI, i.e. prevalence was 115 per 1000 respondents. Most injuries (70/131; 53.4%) occurred in the playground and (59/131; 45.3%) happened in practice field. Injuries among the players of third division were higher, i.e. about 36% (p = 0.000). TAI was significantly dependent on occupation (p = 0.046), BMI (p = 0.008), divisional status (p = 0.023), game type (p = 0.043), ground condition (p = 0.05) and injury severity (p = 0.000). The injured players referred for treatment to the physiotherapist was highest (9/15, i.e. 60%) followed by the physicians (5/15, i.e. 33%) (p = 0.000). The associations of TAI with various factors were discussed suggesting effective measures be taken and treatment, particularly physiotherapy, be given to injured players. However, there is a need of team work with sports medicine specialist also to enable the injured players to continue their professional games. PMID:27089630

  2. Costs of an induced immune response on sexual display and longevity in field crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, Alain; Scheuber, Hannes; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2004-10-01

    Immune system activation may benefit hosts by generating resistance to parasites. However, natural resources are usually limited, causing a trade-off between the investment in immunity and that in other life-history or sexually selected traits. Despite its importance for the evolution of host defense, state-dependent fitness costs of immunity received little attention under natural conditions. In a field experiment we manipulated the nutritional condition of male field crickets Gryllus campestris and subsequently investigated the effect of an induced immune response through inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Immune system activation caused a condition-dependent reduction in body condition, which was proportional to the condition-gain during the preceding food-supplementation period. Independent of nutritional condition, the immune insult induced an enduring reduction in daily calling rate, whereas control-injected males fully regained their baseline level of sexual signaling following a temporary decline. Since daily calling rate affects female mate choice under natural conditions, this suggests a decline in male mating success as a cost of induced immunity. Food supplementation enhanced male life span, whereas the immune insult reduced longevity, independent of nutritional status. Thus, immune system activation ultimately curtails male fitness due to a combined decline in sexual display and life span. Our field study thus indicates a key role for fitness costs of induced immunity in the evolution of host defense. In particular, costs expressed in sexually selected traits might warrant the honest advertisement of male health status, thus representing an important mechanism in parasite-mediated sexual selection. PMID:15562690

  3. Influence of the male ejaculate on post-mating prezygotic barriers in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Larson

    Full Text Available Post-copulatory interactions between males and females involve highly coordinated, complex traits that are often rapidly evolving and divergent between species. Failure to produce and deposit eggs may be a common post-mating prezygotic barrier, yet little is known about what prevents the induction of egg-laying between species. The field crickets, Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus are isolated by a one-way reproductive incompatibility; G. pennsylvanicus males fail to fertilize G. firmus eggs or to induce normal egg-laying in G. firmus females. We use experimental crosses to elucidate the role of accessory gland-derived vs. testis-derived components of the G. firmus male ejaculate on egg-laying in conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Using surgical castrations to create 'spermless' males that transfer only seminal fluid proteins (SFPs we test whether G. firmus male SFPs can induce egg-laying in conspecific crosses and rescue egg-laying in crosses between G. pennsylvanicus males and G. firmus females. We find G. firmus SFPs induce only a small short-term egg-laying response and that SFPs alone cannot explain the normal induction of egg-laying. Gryllus firmus SFPs also do not rescue the heterospecific cross. Testis-derived components, such as sperm or prostaglandins, most likely stimulate egg-laying or act as transporters for SFPs to targets in the female reproductive tract. These results highlight the utility of experimental approaches for investigating the phenotypes that act as barriers between species and suggest that future work on the molecular basis of the one-way incompatibility between G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus should focus on divergent testis-derived compounds or proteins in addition to SFPs.

  4. MORPHOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF SWIFTLET’S NEST NATURAL HABITATS (CAVE IN GUNONG PUNGKI TADU RAYA THE DISTRICT NAGAN RAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nazaruddin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by survey method with 2 stages of research. Data was collected through observation and recording. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis. Observations showed that the outside surface of the cave there are many species of plants totaling 131 trees of 21 species and 39 animals of 11 species that live on the surface of the cave swiftlet habitat. The inner surface is generally smooth and watery caves and has temperature and humidity are very cool compared to the outside surface of the cave. On walls and ceilings inside the cave there are small bumps that are used to create a nest swiftlet. The surface of the cave has a light intensity of 001 foot candles. The conclusion obtained is the outer surface of bird's nest cave has a surface is not flat and overgrown with various species of trees, while the inside has a surface with small protrusions with holes not too deep.

  5. Rapid evolution and gene expression: a rapidly evolving Mendelian trait that silences field crickets has widespread effects on mRNA and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, S; Liu, X; Ly, T; Fang, Y; Rockliffe, N; Paterson, S; Shirran, S L; Botting, C H; Bailey, N W

    2016-06-01

    A major advance in modern evolutionary biology is the ability to start linking phenotypic evolution in the wild with genomic changes that underlie that evolution. We capitalized on a rapidly evolving Hawaiian population of crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to test hypotheses about the genomic consequences of a recent Mendelian mutation of large effect which disrupts the development of sound-producing structures on male forewings. The resulting silent phenotype, flatwing, persists because of natural selection imposed by an acoustically orienting parasitoid, but it interferes with mate attraction. We examined gene expression differences in developing wing buds of wild-type and flatwing male crickets using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics. Most differentially expressed (DE) transcripts were down-regulated in flatwing males (625 up vs. 1716 down), whereas up- and down-regulated proteins were equally represented (30 up and 34 down). Differences between morphs were clearly not restricted to a single pathway, and we recovered annotations associated with a broad array of functions that would not be predicted a priori. Using a candidate gene detection test based on homology, we identified 30% of putative Drosophila wing development genes in the cricket transcriptome, but only 10% were DE. In addition to wing-related annotations, endocrine pathways and several biological processes such as reproduction, immunity and locomotion were DE in the mutant crickets at both biological levels. Our results illuminate the breadth of genetic pathways that are potentially affected in the early stages of adaptation. PMID:26999731

  6. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC2, EC5, and EC95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  7. Identification of flood events inside karst cavities: Fria Cave (Asturias - NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Lemos, Saul; Stoll, Heather

    2013-04-01

    Fluvial records may be well preserved in subterranean karst drainage networks and fluvial deposits cemented in speleothems may provide good chronology of past flood events. In several karst systems in Asturias (NW. Spain), moments of extreme precipitation events produce deposits from flood events in the bed and walls of caves which we propose are also recorded in the calcium carbonate stalagmites growing in the cave. The final stretch of the studied cave (Fria Cave), with a development of 360 m in length, intersects a small perennial stream which in our observation has maintained a minimum discharge of about 0.022 m3/s but periodically overflows into the vadose cave passage. Immediately after a flood overflow event, water marks and foam detritus are visible at various levels on the cave walls and corresponding to heights of bottlenecks in overflow drainage through the cave passage. Flood events deposit sand on terraces on the cave wall and move large volumes of sand in the cave bed. These extreme events leave a long-term record in i) wall coloration or water marks on the cave walls; and ii) detrital particles preserved as inclusions inside the stalagmites. Throughout this cave, it is possible to recognize chromatic changes in the walls, such as manganese oxide stains, which coincide with one of the water marks left during a recent flood event. The most salient manganese oxide on the walls rises up to 1.5 m measured from the thalweg and we interpreted it as the result of a frequent process of wetting - drying related to frequent flooding of the cave. Since 3-4 ka, drapery flowstone has been deposited over this oxide coating in some parts of the cave and the drapery remains free of oxide coating. We interpret this as indicating a reduction in the frequency and/or duration of flooding to this height, coincident with a regional drying trend in late Holocene. Stalagmites growing in the bed of the cave appear to trap fluvial sediments like sand or silts particles, which

  8. In situ acetylene reduction activity of Scytonema julianum in Vapor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asencio Antonia Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation was measured in situ for the first time by acetylene reduction for a greyish mat composed of Scytonema julianum in cave- like environments. Mat-specific rates (129.9-215.7 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for daytime fixation and 65.1-120.6 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for nighttime fixation recorded in the Vapor cave differed considerably due to the energy reserves stored during photosynthesis being exhausted and used in the dark phase. The most influential environmental parameter for nitrogen fixation in the Vapor cave is temperature in the daytime and nighttime fixations. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria may contribute considerably to the overall nitrogen cycle in harsh environments such as caves. Nitrogenase activity in Scytonema julianum was roughly 30 times higher than that of Scytonema mirabile, which also grew in cave environments, which is due to the characteristics of each site. The entrance of Vapour cave (Spain faces SE, measures 0.75 x 0.6 m and opens to shafts of a total depth of 80 m. Its dimensions and environmental conditions (relative humidity up to 100%; maximum temperature, 43oC imply that it is isolated from external influences, and that the microclimate differs substantially from that experienced externally. Nitrogen fixation, photon flux density, relative humidity and temperature in the Vapor cave were taken hourly over a 24-hour period in winter.

  9. The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system in the western Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system (SMI) is located within the Khipstinsky karstic massif, in the Western Caucasus. The cave is a branched, arborescent system of cave channels through which underground water streams flow and change in an upwards direction in sub-vertical shafts. Now 3 such shafts, which have a connection with the cave river, are being studied: the Snezhnaya (1970 m a.s.l.), the Mezhennogo (2 015 m a.s.l.) and the Illyuziya (2 389 m a.s.l.). The SMI cave system has been investigated since 1971 and the currently known depth of the system is 1 760 m, the extent of the galleries ≥32 km, the volume ≥2.7 million m3, the specific volume - 84 m3/m. The size of the biggest cave chamber the Thronnyj - is 309x109x40 m. The average discharge of the underground river is about 500 l/s. The temperature in the cavity changes from 0 to 6.5 degree centigrade. Research on the SMI cave system continues. (Author)

  10. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  11. Microbial Diversity in a Venezuelan Orthoquartzite Cave is Dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel A Barton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave, an orthoquartzite (SiO4 cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrate the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82-84% by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%, which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in Roraima Sur Cave is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems.

  12. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu; WU XianZhu; LI YiYin; DENG ChengLong; WU XiuJie; PEI ShuWen

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004, three excavations have been carried out at a late Pleistocene human fossil site of Huan-glong Cave in Yunxi County, Hubei Province of China, which unearthed seven human teeth, dozens of stone tools, mammal fossils and other evidence indicating human activities. During the third excava-tion in 2006, in the same layer as the human teeth, we found some patches of black materials embed-ded in the deposit. We doubted that this black deposit layer is the remains of burning or even human use of fire at the cave. To further explore the possibility of human fire use at the Huanglong Cave, we examined samples directly taken from the black deposit layer and compared them with samples taken from several places in the cave using three methods: micromorphology, element content determination and deposit temperature analysis. Our results indicate that the contents of carbon element in the black deposit reach 64.59%-73.29%. In contrast, contents of carbon element of the comparative samples from other parts in the cave are only 5.82%-9.49%. The micromorphology analysis of the black de-posit samples reveals a plant structure like axial parenchyma, fibrocyte, uniseriate ray and vessel.High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that the stratum possibly underwent a high temperature in the nature. Based on these lab analyses, we are sure that the black layer in the Huanglong Cave is the remains of fire and combustion did occur in the cave 100000 years ago. Taking other evidence of human activities found in the Huanglong Cave into consideration, we believe that the evidence of fire from the Huanglong Cave was caused by the human activities of controlled use of fire.

  13. Is global warming affecting cave temperatures? Experimental and model data from a paradigmatic case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Lojen, Sonja; Krklec, Kristina; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian J.

    2015-08-01

    This research focuses on the mechanisms that transfer the variations in surface atmospheric temperature into caves to evaluate whether they record the warming trend of recent decades. As a study case, we use the data from a hall in Postojna Cave (Slovenia), which was monitored from 2009 to 2013. The low-frequency thermal variability of this cave chamber is dominated by the conduction of heat from the surface through the bedrock. We implemented a thermal conduction model that reproduces low-frequency thermal gradients similar to those measured in the cave. At the 37 m depth of this chamber, the model confirms that the bedrock is already recording the local expression of global warming with a delay of 20-25 years, and predicts a cave warming during the coming decades with a mean rate of 0.015 ± 0.004 C year-1. However, because of the transfer of surface atmosphere thermal variability depends on the duration of the oscillations, the thermal anomalies with periods 7-15 years in duration have delay times <10 years at the studied hall. The inter-annual variability of the surface atmospheric temperature is recorded in this cave hall, although due to the different delay and amplitude attenuation that depends on the duration of the anomalies, the cave temperature signal differs significantly from that at the surface. As the depth of the cave is a major factor in thermal conduction, this is a principal control on whether or not a cave has already recorded the onset of global warming.

  14. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  15. New rock and portable art finds in La Cullalvera cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda DÍAZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological activities carried out in the vestibule of La Cullalvera cave during the conditioning of the site for touristic use have lead to the discovery of a new cave painting, a figure of a horse in red traits. Some pieces of portable art have been also found, including a fragment of a small bone plaquette with a series of engraved “claviform” signs that show a clear parallel with the signs of the same type painted in red in the inner gallery of the cave. The formal and stylistic characteristics of the findings point to a Magdalenian chronology.

  16. Microbial activity in the subterranean environment of Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Carpa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Six cave material samples from Dârninii Cave, Bihor Mountains, were microbiologically andenzymologically analyzed. The microbiological analyses consisted in determining the presence ofoligotrophs, aerobic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, nitrate and nitrite bacteria, denitrifiers and determining thepresence of micromycetes. In order to form a complete image on the microbial processes from this habitat,the bacteriological analyses were completed with quantitative and qualitative enzymological analyses. At allthe six samples of cave material the next quantitative enzymatic activities were performed: actual andpotential dehydrogenase, catalase and phosphatase. Only regarding the intensity of the processesdifferences were noticed. The qualitative enzymatic activities: amylase, dextranase, saccharase, maltaseand levanase, were not present at studied samples.

  17. Interpretation of Simulations in Interactive VR Environments: Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    of architectural concepts. Architects need to heed the dynamics set in motion by these technologies and especially of how laypersons interpret building forms and their simulations in interactive VR environments. The article presents a study which compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical...... environment, CAVE and Panorama. In a report, statistical analysis and discussion of the results, the paper addresses three hypothetical assertions - that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE and Panorama are quantifiably different, that differences are attributable to...... asserted that perception of shape and distance display here fundamental conditions of the CAVE and Panorama....

  18. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern

  19. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  20. Isotopic variability of cave bears (δ15N, δ13C) across Europe during MIS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcarz, Magdalena; Pacher, Martina; Krajcarz, Maciej T.; Laughlan, Lana; Rabeder, Gernot; Sabol, Martin; Wojtal, Piotr; Bocherens, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Collagen, the organic fraction of bone, records the isotopic parameters of consumed food for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). This relationship of isotopic signature between diet and tissue is an important tool for the study of dietary preferences of modern and fossil animal species. Since the first information on the isotopic signature of cave bear was reported, numerous data from Europe have become available. The goal of this work is to track the geographical variation of cave bear collagen isotopic values in Europe during Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (about 60,000-25,000 yr BP). In this study the results of new δ13C and δ15N isotopic analyses of cave bear collagen from four Central-Eastern European sites are presented, as well as a review of all published isotopic data for cave bears of the same period. The main conclusion is a lack of geographical East-West pattern in the variations of δ13C and δ15N values of cave bear collagen. Moreover, no relationship was found between cave bear taxonomy and isotopic composition. The cave bears from Central-Eastern Europe exhibit δ13C and δ15N values near the average of the range of Central, Western and Southern European cave bears. Despite the fact that most cave bear sites follow an altitudinal gradient, separate groups of sites exhibit shift in absolute values of δ13C, what disturbs an altitude-related isotopic pattern. The most distinct groups are: high Alpine sites situated over 1500 m a.s.l. - in terms of δ13C; and two Romanian sites Peştera cu Oase and Urşilor - in case of δ15N. Although the cave bear isotopic signature is driven by altitude, the altitudinal adjustment of isotopic data is not enough to explain the isotopic dissimilarity of these cave bears. The unusually high δ15N signature of mentioned Romanian sites is an isolated case in Europe. Cave bears from relatively closely situated Central-Eastern European sites and other Romanian sites are more similar to Western European than to Romanian