WorldWideScience

Sample records for cavado valley portugal

  1. Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  2. Holocene flooding history of the Lower Tagus Valley (Portugal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, G.-J.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Schneider, H.; Kasse, C.; Coenraads-Nederveen, S.; Zuurbier, K.; Rozema, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to reconstruct the Lower Tagus Valley flooding history for the last ca. 6500 a, to explore the suitability of pollen-based local vegetation development in supporting the reconstruction of flooding history, and to explain fluvial activity changes in terms of allogenic (climate,

  3. Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This short report summarizes the main lines of the energy policy of Portugal. It presents the main energy companies and utilities (EDP, CPPE, REN, Petrogal, GDP, Galp SGPS) of the country, the energy supplies (resources, electricity, petroleum, coal, natural gas), the prices and pricing policy, the global energy consumption per sector, the stakes and perspectives of the energy market (forecasts, contracts). (J.S.)

  4. Portugal; Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This short report summarizes the main lines of the energy policy of Portugal. It presents the main energy companies and utilities (EDP, CPPE, REN, Petrogal, GDP, Galp SGPS) of the country, the energy supplies (resources, electricity, petroleum, coal, natural gas), the prices and pricing policy, the global energy consumption per sector, the stakes and perspectives of the energy market (forecasts, contracts). (J.S.)

  5. The management of the Côa valley rock art (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilhão, João

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Côa valley rock art would have been completely submerged if construction of the large Foz Côa dam, began in 1992, had been allowed to continue. The dam project was halted in 1995 and a 200 km2, archaeological park was established in this area, which is now legally protected at the highest level as a National Monument. Public access to selected sites is organized through four-wheel drive tours of groups of eight people accompanied by guides appropriately trained in archaeology and rock art studies. Visitor Centers were set-up in restored traditional houses located in the villages around the periphery of the park. A museum of art and archaeology and associated research facilities is to be established at the site of the now abandoned dam. The universal importance of the valley's cultural heritage and the landmark nature of the Portuguese government's decision to preserve it in spite of the huge financial loss involved have been widely acclaimed. As a result, the prehistoric rock art of the Côa was included in the World Heritage List in December 1998.

    El arte rupestre del valle del Côa habría quedado completamente sumergido si se hubiera autorizado la continuación de la construcción de la gran presa de Foz Côa, iniciada en 1992. El proyecto de la presa fue interrumpido en 1995, estableciéndose en ese área un parque arqueológico de 200 km2, que está ahora legalmente protegido al más alto nivel como Monumento Nacional. El acceso público a sitios seleccionados está organizado mediante recorridos en vehículos cuatro por cuatro de grupos de ocho personas acompañados por guías preparados adecuadamente en arqueología y estudios de arte rupestre. Los Centros para los visitantes se establecieron en casas tradicionales restauradas situadas en pueblos en torno a la periferia del parque. Se va a crear un museo de arte y arqueología y servicios de investigación asociados en el emplazamiento de la presa ahora

  6. ANÁLISE DE POTABILIDADE BACTERIOLÓGICA DE ÁGUAS DE POÇOS CAVADOS DA ZONA PERIFÉRICA DE BARRETOS, SP, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pedroso PREGNOLATTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram analisados 30 pontos distintos de água, sendo 27 de poços cavados e 3 de nascentes superficiais, na zona periférica da cidade de Barretos- SP, distribuídos em quatro bairros. A coleta foi feita em quatro etapas, com intervalo de 90 dias, totalizando 120 amostras. Das amostras analisadas, 106 (88,3% foram positivas para coliformes totais e 48 (40,0%, para coliformes fecais. Não houve positividade para aeromonas móveis. Os dados obtidos indicam que a maioria das amostras analisadas não atende ao padrão de potabilidade, em virtude da presença de coliformes totais em 100 mL. A presença desse tipo de coliformes não parece estar relacionada com influências sazonais, enquanto a incidência de coliformes fecais apresenta correlação com os indices pluviométricos das etapas de amostragem: os meses de menor índice coincidem com menor positividade desse indicador bacteriano e os meses com índice mais alto, com maior porcentagem de positividade.

  7. "But will there be visitors?" Public outreach efforts using social media and online presence at the Côa Valley Museum and Archaeological Park (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Batarda Fernandes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an account of the online activities and strategies developed and carried out by the Côa Valley Museum and Archaeological Park with the goal of reaching different audiences. Emphasis will be given to more recent efforts on social media networks, namely Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and TripAdvisor. How can these be used to reach educational objectives within an evolving online environment? How can virtual audiences be engaged in significant learning experiences using time-limited windows of opportunity? How can dynamic and versatile synergies be created in online environments to create sustainable museums (marketing, education, entertainment, revenues and audiences? Potential answers to these questions have to be considered within wider institutional communication strategies using the opportunities social media offers as fully as possible in order to reach and engage with ever-expanding, diverse audiences.

  8. Biosystems Engineering in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Cruz, Vasco Fitas

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives the definition of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; Possible revisions of the core curriculum presented in the FEANI report; the current situation of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; The impacts of the transition to Biosystems Engineering; The need for a transition to Biosystems Engineering;Opportunities to the Biosystems Engineer in the labour market.

  9. The Intra Industry Trade between Portugal European Union, Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland, Portugal-Greece and Portugal-Netherlands - a Dynamic Panel Data Analysis (1996 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Horácio Faustino; Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2005-01-01

    PortugalÂ’s main trade partners have been Spain, Germany and France. In this paper we analyse the intra industry trade in the manufacturing industry between Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland and Portugal-Greece. We also present the results of intra industry trade (IIT) between Portugal and the European Union. The innovation, technological progress, human capital, and scale economies are some of the explicative variables of the intra industry trade phenomena. ...

  10. Medicinal Product Regulation: Portugal׳s Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Bastos, Paulo D; Teixeira-Rodrigues, António; Roque, Fátima

    2016-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most tightly regulated sectors, and it is essential to know each country׳s legal framework to understand the regulation, approval, and marketing of medicinal products for human use. This article describes the main statutes and procedures governing medicinal products for human use in Portugal and the role of the country׳s National Medicines and Health Products Authority (Autoridade Nacional do Medicamento e Produtos de Saúde, I.P.; INFARMED). From the most recently available data, an update of requests and approvals concerning marketing authorizations, variations, pricing, and reimbursements is provided. Data were sourced from the INFARMED website, Infomed (database of medicinal products for human use), and periodic reports issued by national authorities. Organic laws, acts, and law decrees published in the government gazette (Diário da República) are cited and reproduced as required. In 2015 Portugal ranked fifth in the European System of Medicines Evaluation in terms of the number of completed procedures as a reference member state. Approximately 80% of all approved drug applications in Portugal in 2015 were for generic drugs, mostly pertaining to the nervous system. In Portugal, INFARMED monitors drug quality, safety profile, and efficacy in all stages of the drug life cycle, ensuring patients' safety. The Portuguese market for medicinal products for human use has been appreciably changed by the advent of generic drugs. There is an increased trend for new request applications for biological and biotechnological substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CERN and Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In its continual tour of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) visited Lisbon, Portugal, on 21-22 April, where it met at the Instituto Superiore Tecnico, a technical university with 9,000 students. Portuguese particle physics is in a particularly healthy situation, having developed considerably following Portugal's admission to CERN in 1985. With support from Brussels, scientific infrastructure has developed rapidly, although the science base has yet to attain the levels seen in larger nations. The 45-strong population of experimentalists in Portugal, including 14 PhDs, represents a 2.5-fold increase since Portugal joined CERN ten years ago and is in line with the goal stated at the time. This successful development of experimental particle physics has benefited much from physicists returning from abroad (mainly France and the UK). The direct result of the efforts of a few individuals (notably J.M. Gago), this splendid achievement provides an excellent role model for new and potential CERN Member States. At present, particle physics represents some 3 0% of all Portuguese physics publications. This very special role (and the financial support it implies) provides a visible target, but one which can be defended as it provides a catalyst for other national scientific developments. The national hub is the Laboratory for experimental high energy physics and related R&D projects (LIP), with centres in Lisbon (Head, J.M. Gago) and Coimbra (Head, A. Policarpo). LIP, with close links to two universities in Lisbon and to the University of Coimbra, has developed into a centre of expertise and training in electronics, computing and software engineering. Present LIP funding is some 2 million Swiss francs/year (70% in Lisbon and 3 0% in Coimbra), covering most of the salaries of the nonuniversity people, the remainder being supported by grants from Portuguese and European programmes. Portugal's contribution to CERN's 1995 budget

  12. Assembling Toyota in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Tiago; Moniz, António

    2003-01-01

    A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – ...

  13. Prison Conditions in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Dores, António Pedro; Loureiro, Ricardo; Pontes, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PORTUGUESE PENITENTIARY SYSTEM Portugal has 51 prisons of different types: 15 penitentiaries (“central prisons”, normally larger ones) for inmates condemned to serve more than 6 months; 31 penitentiaries (“regional prisons”) for inmates condemned to serve less than 6 months; and five penitentiaries (“special prisons”) for inmates who need special attention, such as women, youths, policeman, and the sick (hospital). The first type of penitentiary has security...

  14. Portugal 1780-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Sá e Melo Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are highlighted some of the main paths covered by the term “people”, in Portugal in the last decades of the XVIIIth century and in the first half of the XIXth century. The most significant semantic variations that the word suffered in the backdrop of the political conflicts caused by the establishment of Liberalism are investigated, taking in consideration that the modern political uses of this word arose with the French Invasions (1807-1811 and with the resistance to those invasions by a part of the Portuguese population.

  15. Deforestation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Branco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is not a new problem although world-wide population awareness is increasing. This issue has terrible environmental, social and economic consequences due to the over-exploitation of the natural resources and to alternative land uses which are more profitable in the short term. The combat and mitigation of deforestation is one of the biggest challenges for the 21st Century in order to achieve the Millennium Goals and a global sustainable development at all levels of human activities. Therefore, this paper will address this concerns focusing on the causes and consequences of deforestation as well as on the actions carried out by the decision makers in order to provide solutions for this increasingly and alarming problem. This paper will also approach the concepts of sustainability as well as the economy and management of the natural resources aiming an insight of the past deforestation in Portugal, the present situation and a sustainable perspective regarding the future.

  16. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  17. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  18. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  19. The World of Great Wines: The Douro Valley Experience

    OpenAIRE

    A. Oliveira-Brochado; R. Silva; C. Paulino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use an experiential view of wine tourism to develop a battery of items that can potentially capture the overall Douro Valley experience from the tourist’s perspective. The Douro Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage region located in Portugal, was the target of this study. The research took a mixed approach using both qualitative and quantitative designs. Firstly, we combine the literature review on service quality scales with a content analysis of five in-depth intervie...

  20. [Demography and employment in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, O S

    1981-01-01

    The population of Portugal showed a period of slow growth between 1950-60; however, in the 1970s, the return of large numbers of former residents in African territories along with a reduction in emigration changed the trend so that the 1981 census showed a significant increase. The Portuguese economy, on the other hand, is in a state of crisis which has resulted in large numbers of unemployed. The growth of the population along with these hard times has made it more difficult to reduce the rate of unemployment. It is also more difficult for those leaving school to find jobs. The better educated generations are seeking jobs in industry and in other services that Portugal will find difficult to offer in sufficient numbers in the immediate future. At present, the Portuguese economy has a large component of agricultural labor. In any case, the means of economic and social intervention to fight unemployment have limited potential. Therefore, many of those unable to find jobs in Portugal will attempt to emigrate. Many Portuguese are already working in Germany, France, and in other Western European countries but migration today is much more difficult. In addition, these countries cannot be expected to recive many more migrant workers in the future. In fact, those better educated workers from Portugal will not be very interested in the low paying jobs which can be found more easily by foreign workers in Western Euorpe. Many will therefore attempt to find jobs in non-European countries. There has been a recent increase of migration to Canada and the US. A renewal of interest in jobs in Brazil and other South Amerian countries is also to be expected. There may also be a future increase in the number of experts, technicians, and other qualified personnel emigrating to Portuguese speaking African countries if there is adequate security and if these countries find the way to expand economic growth. (author's modified)

  1. Poverty and precarity in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Izaura

    2016-01-01

    This research assesses poverty levels in Portugal within a multidimensional approach, over a period from 2008 to 2014. Further, it aims at inferring a causal relationship between precarious jobs and the estimated multidimensional poverty level. This research adds to the existing literature by applying a discrete choice experiment in the construction of the poverty index, as well as by nding causality between poverty and precarity. Empirical results suggest that, while multidim...

  2. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  3. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  4. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Fernando J.; Oromí, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods known from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodive...

  5. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  6. Geology and religion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  7. Portugal's Petrogal eyes expansion amid continuing privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Portugal's recently privatized state oil company Petrogal is about to embark on a major expansion worldwide. That comes against the backdrop of major change in Portugal's energy sector and the rocky road to Petrogal's partial privatization. Despite the controversy, there remain opportunities for foreign companies investing in Portugal's energy sector. The most attractive opportunities are in Portugal's downstream petroleum sector and in the country's continuing campaign to develop its natural gas industry. Typical of the latter is Portugal's participation in the Trans-Maghreb gas pipeline megaproject. The paper discusses the background to privatization, its current status, Petrogal strategy, modernization of refineries, a joint partnership with Venezuela, constraints, energy policy program, gas pipeline privatization, and concerns of the gas industry

  8. Transnational citizenship: Latin Americans in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Padilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection upon the exercising of transnational citizenship as a consequence of international migration, applied to Latin Americans resident in Portugal. In order to do this we have adopted the concept of transnational citizenship, as its malleability allows us to consider the whole concept of countries of origin and destination and the influence of bilateral and international relations. We ask how transnational citizenship is exercised in the European Union, Ibero-American and, particularly, Portuguese spaces, and whether it is affected by the economic crisis in Europe and, in particular, Portugal, by analysing the cases of Argentines, Brazilians and Uruguayans living in Portugal.

  9. La contabilidad pública en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Pedrosa, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    LA CONTABILIDAD PÚBLICA EN PORTUGAL - Que se entiende por Sector Público - Arquitectura del Sector Público en Portugal. - Evolución de la Contabilidad del Sector Público en Portugal. - El Plan Oficial de Contabilidad Pública (POCP) y Planes de Contabilidad sectoriales. - Las normas de consolidación de cuentas en el Sector Público. - Y hoy, ¿cuál es el punto de la situación? Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  10. Dental radiographic exposures in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.F.; Oliveira, A.D.; Amaral, E.M.; Carreiro, J.V.; Galvao, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of dental intra-oral radiography was carried out in Portugal in 1989 and 1990 in hospitals, clinics and private offices. About 25% of the operational X ray units were checked. A total of 847 x 10 3 films were estimated as having been performed in 1989 corresponding to a frequency of 86 films per 10 3 inhabitants, which amounts to about 12% of all radiological examinations. The median entrance absorbed dose for a molar tooth was calculated to be 6.3 mGy but 85% of measured doses were out of acceptable dose range for good practice. Improvement of image quality and reduction of patient dose can be mainly achieved by improving the quality of film processing

  11. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  12. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  13. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Portugal. The author’s goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Portuguese’s pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Portuguese approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of using in Portugal definite part of VAT income for pension system financing.

  14. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  15. Climate index for Portugal - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Portugal. (J.S.)

  16. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  17. The natural gas industry in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheloufi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This article makes a synthesis of the evolution of the natural gas sector in Portugal since the end of the 1990's. The aim of the energy policy of Portugal was the creation of a liberalized energy market capable to ensure the security of the energy supplies and to encourage the energy efficiency in order to reduce the environmental impact. The success of the introduction of natural gas in Portugal perfectly fulfills these goals. Since 1997, the natural gas consumption has increased significantly. The start-up of the methane terminal of Sines allows the diversification of the supply sources and contributes to the growth of the offer. The opening of the market is under development. It will allow the main consumers to select their supplier among those present on the Portuguese market. GALP company should keep its leader position and its daughter company 'Gas du Portugal' should reach 300 MW of power generation capacities by 2005 with the development of multi-energy services. The creation of an Iberian energy market between Spain and Portugal should speed up in 2004 leading to deep modifications in the energy sector of southern Europe. (J.S.)

  18. Enoturismo em Portugal: as Rotas de Vinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Orlando

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1993, as supported by the Dyonisios program of the European Union, the wine routes have been the most visible face of the wine tourism practice in Portugal. Since these thematic routes have no specific rules, they usually depend on the initiative of the promoters, namely through the creation of adherent/promoters associations or other institutions, like the Regional Viticulture Commissions, and Tourism Regions. This article aims at analysing the basis for the development of wine tourism in Portugal and its structure around wine routes. The socioeconomics traits of both the vineyards and wine, are analysed. The existing routes in Portugal are presented and their strengths and limitations are identi-fied.

  19. Post Fire Vegetation Recovery in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Celia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2011-01-01

    Fires in Portugal, as in the Mediterranean ecosystems, have a complex effect on vegetation regeneration due to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In 2005, Portugal suffered a strong damage from forest fires that damaged an area of 300 000 ha of forest and shrub. This year are particularly interesting because it is associated the severe drought of 2005. The aim of the present study is to identify large burnt scars in Portugal during the 2005 fire seasons and monitoring vegetation behaviour throughout the pre and the post fire periods. The mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), based on monthly values of NDVI, at the 1km×1km spatial scale, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2009, was used.

  20. [Profile of tropical diseases in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, F A

    1996-01-01

    The increased incidence of Imported Tropical Diseases in Portugal is correlated to a recent higher standard of living, influence of media and a consequent expansion of tourism, and above all to the close relationship existing between Portugal and Africa. The number and pathology (parasitic diarrhoeas, protozoal and helminthic infections) of in-patients with Tropical Diseases at the Unidade de Doenças Infecciosas, Parasitárias e de Medicina Tropical (UDIP-MT) were described, with special emphasis on Malaria (155 in-patients during the period from 1989 to 1993) and on Sleeping Sickness, where Eflornitin (DFMO) was for the first time used in Portugal. Finally, the impact of HIV epidemic on incidence and different clinical presentations of parasitic and other tropical pathology was also evaluated.

  1. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  2. Primeras evidencias de arte mueble paleolítico en el sur de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Vallejo, María D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first evidence for Palaeolithic portable art in Southern Portugal. This include two plaques, dated between 20,500 and 19,500 BP from Solutrean levels from the site of Vale Boi, Western Algarve (Portugal. One of the pieces is a small engraved schist plaque (14,6 × 8,1 mm with abstract lines on one side. The other artefact is an 8 × 5 cm schist plaque. One side is an oxide natural deposit, used to produce dye; the other side has three aurochs and a probable cervid. Stilistic information and the engraving sequence indicate probably production by a single artist. The stylistic characteristics are in full agreement withi those from late Gravettian and early Solutrean art known from Valencia, Andalucia (Spain and the Côa valley (Portugal, thus confirming the absolute AMS dates from the Vale Boi Levels.

    En este trabajo presentamos la primera evidencia de arte mueble paleolítico en el sur de Portugal: dos plaquetas de pizarra procedentes de niveles solutrenses del yacimiento de Vale Boi, zona occidental del Algarve (Portugal. La primera de las piezas es una pequeña placa (14,6 × 8,1 mm que presenta sobre una de sus caras un ideomorfo grabado. La segunda (8 × 5 cm cuenta con una superficie ocupada por óxido de hierro natural de color amarillento, tiene claros indicios de extracción de mineral para producir colorantes. En la superficie opuesta han sido grabados tres uros y una posible cierva. El estilo y secuencia de los grabados apuntan a un solo artista. Las características estilísticas de los zoomorfos concuerdan bien con los rasgos comunes del arte del ciclo Gravetiense final y Solutrense antiguo del País Valenciano, Andalucía y Valle de Côa (Portugal. Esta afinidad sintoniza asimismo con las fechas AMS de los niveles solutrenses de Vale Boi, datados entre ca. 20.500 y 19.500 BP.

  3. Fronteira Portugal-Espanha e individualidade territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminda Cavaco

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available PORTUGAL-SPAIN BORDER AREA AND ITS CREATIVE TENSION - The text evokes several nuances of the concept of the Portugal-Spain border: its shades of solidarity, complicity, opposition, agitation, confrontation and abandonment. At times, the border has been the zone of tension and separation, whereas at other periods in history, the border has been very permeable and there has been free exchange and mutual cooperation. The borders will be subjected to yet another interpretation as a new area emerges with the active participation of both Iberian countries in the European Union and the cooperative efforts initiated in the programs of INTERREG I and II

  4. Neo-Lamarckism in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaça, Carlos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Darwinism was championed in Portugal by the University and progressionist political parties from the 1860's on. Neo-Darwinism was neglected in its proper time and so the acceptance of the inheritance of acquired characters continued over the first decades of the 20th century. Men of medical education who were professors of Biology at the University of Oporto supported neo-Lamarckian theories in early 20th century. The first one has been Américo Pires de Lima (1886-1966, professor of Botany, whose doctoral dissertation sustaining early Darwinism and neo-Lamarckism was presented in 1912. This thesis, as well as a few neo-Lamarckian publications with antropological significance, are commented and discussed in the present paper.



    El Darwinismo fue defendido en Portugal en la Universidad y por los partidos políticos progresistas durante la década de los años 60 del siglo XIX. El neo-darwinismo fue ignorado en su tiempo y así continuó la aceptación de la herencia de los caracteres adquiridos a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Los profesores de biolog

  5. Considerations on Radiation Protection in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simao, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    The author summarizes the main conclusions of a work group nominated by the Portuguese government in 2004 to propose measures to improve radiological protection in Portugal. The final report of this working group was presented to the Portuguese Government in 2005

  6. Lessons from wind policy in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Ivonne; Azevedo, Inês L.; Marcelino Ferreira, Luís António Fialho

    2017-01-01

    Wind capacity and generation grew rapidly in several European countries, such as Portugal. Wind power adoption in Portugal began in the early 2000s, incentivized by a continuous feed-in tariff policy mechanism, coupled with public tenders for connection licenses in 2001, 2002, and 2005. These policies led to an enormous success in terms of having a large share of renewables providing electricity services: wind alone accounts today for ~23.5% of electricity demand in Portugal. We explain the reasons wind power became a key part of Portugal’s strategy to comply with European Commission climate and energy goals, and provide a detailed review of the wind feed-in tariff mechanism. We describe the actors involved in wind power production growth. We estimate the environmental and energy dependency gains achieved through wind power generation, and highlight the correlation between wind electricity generation and electricity exports. Finally, we compare the Portuguese wind policies with others countries’ policy designs and discuss the relevance of a feed-in tariff reform for subsequent wind power additions. - Highlights: • Portugal relies on feed-in tariffs as the key mechanism for wind diffusion. • Wind generation accounts for a quarter of total electricity generation. • The current feed-in tariffs system is not economically efficiency. • A feed-in tariff reform should be considered.

  7. Social housing in Portugal and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia; Andersen, Hans Thor

    The social housing sector has become increasingly residualized and segregated in Portugal and Denmark. Whilst there is a considerable difference between the systems in these two countries, as regards issues of management and governance, dominant rent regimes (cost rent, social rent) or eligibility...

  8. Portugal's experience with public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Akintoye, A.; Beck, M.; Kumaraswamy, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraints at the

  9. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in caves of the mainland and the island of Madeira has provided new data about the distribution and diversity of millipedes. A review of millipedes from caves of Portugal is presented, listing fourteen species belonging to eight families, among which six species are considered troglobionts...

  10. Lessons from wind policy in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, Ivonne; L. Azevedo, Inês; Marcelino Ferreira, Luís António Fialho

    2017-04-01

    Wind capacity and generation grew rapidly in several European countries, such as Portugal. Wind power adoption in Portugal began in the early 2000s, incentivized by a continuous feed-in tariff policy mechanism, coupled with public tenders for connection licenses in 2001, 2002, and 2005. These policies led to an enormous success in terms of having a large share of renewables providing electricity services: wind alone accounts today for ~23.5% of electricity demand in Portugal. We explain the reasons wind power became a key part of Portugal's strategy to comply with European Commission climate and energy goals, and provide a detailed review of the wind feed-in tariff mechanism. We describe the actors involved in wind power production growth. We estimate the environmental and energy dependency gains achieved through wind power generation, and highlight the correlation between wind electricity generation and electricity exports. Finally, we compare the Portuguese wind policies with others countries' policy designs and discuss the relevance of a feed-in tariff reform for subsequent wind power additions.

  11. In Portugal, the energy revolution is underway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    As at the beginning of 2013, 70 per cent of the electricity consumed in Portugal had a renewable origin, this article outlines that this result is based on a strong-willed policy. In fact, Portugal entered the energy transition in 2001 with its '4E program' (energy efficiency and endogenous energies) which aimed at reaching 60 per cent of renewable energies in electricity consumption by 2020. This program was based on a strong development of wind and hydraulic energy. Moreover, the country developed its own capacities for the manufacturing of wind turbines. On another hand, other renewable energies (notably solar energy) seem a bit late although several projects are underway. As far as hydraulic energy, a dam project is a matter of controversy

  12. Ordens militares de cavalaria de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro da Veiga Coimbra

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Falar nas Ordens Militares de Cavalaria de Portugal, é ter presente a própria história da fundação da monarquia e de re-cuperação territorial e também dos descobrimentos de novos mundos para a civilização. Aos seus cavaleiros couberam no cenário das lutas sangrentas e constantes da dinastia afonsina, os grandes postos da vanguarda.

  13. Contractual medical liability in Portugal and Macao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Miguel Prista Patrício Cascão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liability of healthcare providers can be framed under the theory of contract in the law of Portugal and Macao, to obtain compensation for injury suffered by aggrieved patients, as a result of medical adverse events. However, shortcomings in the law, court practice and literature lead to some uncertainty in adjudication. This article aims at reducing said uncertainty, setting forward a clear-cut adjudication paradigm, while recommending legal reform.

  14. Portugal: setting new goals for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1987-11-01

    Portugal has entered a period of economic recovery spearheaded by Prime Minister Anibal Cavaco Silva. A slow but steady rise in the standard of living may finally offset the 0.9% annual growth in the country's population. Growth in the gross national product (GNP) reached 5% in 1987 and fixed capital investment increased 9.5% in 1986. Cavaco Silva's economic recovery program has included entry into the Common Market, foreign investment in industry, attention to the enormous public debt, and dismantling of the state-centered economy of the 1970s. Per capita GNP increased from US$743 in 1985 to $1970 in 1986 and unemployment had fallen to 8.5% by 1988. The prolongation of average life expectancy to 68 years for men and 75 years for women indicates a general improvement in the health and lifestyle of most Portuguese. By the year 2000, the population of Portugal is expected to reach 11.1 million, with the largest rates of growth occurring in the west and coastal areas. Half of the population falls into the 25-64-year age group, suggesting potential for economic growth and spending. A low rate of urbanization (30%) has complicated attempts to raise the level of technology in industry. Strong adherence to Catholicism is largely responsible for the exceptionally high marriage rate and low divorce rate in Portugal. The average birth rate was 14.5/1000 in 1987 and the average total fertility rate was 2.1. 34% of all births are to women 20-24 years old. The annual mortality rate is 9.6/1000, while infant mortality stands at 17.8/1000. A significant change occurring in Portugal in the current period is the rise of a new middle class.

  15. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  16. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  17. Feminismo(s e psicologia em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azambuja, Mariana Porto Ruwer de

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da longa história em comum entre Brasil e Portugal, também existem muitas diferenças e, principalmente, muito desconhecimento. A proposta deste artigo é apresentar uma contextualização do modo como as questões de gênero têm sido tartadas Portugal e, a partir disto, estimular maiores laços de cooperação entre os dois países. Iniciamos com uma retomada da história do país e das reformas instauradas após o fim do regime fascista (1974, especialmente o surgimento da psicologia como campo científico e profissional marcado pelo paradigma positivista e, por muito tempo, alheio às transformações e questionamentos presentes em outros contextos. Da mesma forma, o percurso do movimento feminista e sua inserção no contexto acadêmico da psicologia foi marcado por avanços e entraves, os quais apresentamos a seguir. Por fim, tratamos das políticas públicas para a igualdade de oportunidades para as mulheres em Portugal

  18. Health professionals moving to... and from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana Sousa; Conceição, Claudia; Pereira, Joel; Leone, Cláudia; Mendonça, Pedro; Temido, Marta; Vieira, Carlota Pacheco; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    The mobility of health professionals in the European Union is a phenomenon which policy-makers must take into account to provide the conditions to adjust for demand and supply of health services. This paper presents the case of Portugal, a country which at the same time imports and exports health workers. Since the early 1990s Portugal became a destination country receiving foreign health care professionals. This situation is now changing with the current economic situation as fewer immigrants come and more Portuguese emigrate. Foreigners coming to Portugal do so in part for similar reasons that bring Portuguese to want to emigrate, mainly the search for better work conditions and professional development opportunities. The emigration of Portuguese health professionals is also stimulated by the difficulty for recently graduated nurses, dentists and diagnostic and therapeutic technicians to find employment, low salaries in the public and private sectors, heavy workloads, remuneration not related to performance and poor career prospects. The paradoxes described in this study illustrate the consequences of the absence of a policy for the health professions. Strategies based on evidence, and on an integrated information system that captures the dynamic evolution of the workforce in health are not only necessary but also a good investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric ammonium/ammonia deposition in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelao, A.L.; Maguas, C.; Branquinho, C.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loucao, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potentiality of lichens as biomonitors of NH 4 + /NH 3 (ammonium/ammonia) and NO 3 - (nitrate) atmospheric deposition. For that, we used as a field station a rice plantation which is submitted, once a year, to air spraying fertilization with a mixture of nitrogen sources. Samples of an epiphytic lichen, Ramalina fastigiata, were collected from an ash-tree bordering the rice-plantation by the Sorraia River Valley (Central Portugal). The study started one month before fertilization and sampling was carried out for five months. The concentration of ammonium in the lichen was highly and significantly correlated with the number of days without precipitation before sampling, and had an inverse correlation with fluorescence values. Under these conditions, the amount of NH 4 + found in the lichen appears to reflect ammonium/ammonia dry deposition. (author)

  20. The Mousterian complex in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís CARDOSO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Considering the available data, the Mousterian period is the only techno-complex from the Middle Paleolithic identified and characterized in Portugal. However, some of the sites referred in this work should be simply attributed to the Middle Paleolithic due to the lack of detailed elements. The site of Vale do Forno 8 probably represents the transition between the final Upper Paleolithic and the early Middle Paleolithic.The open-air sites such as the ones in the outskirts of Lisbon and on the left margin of the Tagus estuary, where vestiges are extremely abundant and the permanence for long periods correspond to sites of residential character.None of these sites were subject to extensive excavations in order to confirm this type of settlement and further knowledge of the social organization of the inhabited spaces. Other open-air sites located in fluvial terraces present smaller areas of occupation and were probably related to game activities, maybe seasonal in nature. This was the case of Santo Antão do Tojal, were elephants and horses were eventually captured, of Foz do Enxarrique were red deer was almost exclusive and of Vilas Ruivas, were faunal remains were not preserved but remains of wind-breaks or hunting blind structures were found associated with fireplaces and post-holes. Fireplaces were also found in Gruta da Buraca Escura and on the open-air site of Santa Cita.Caves such as Gruta da Oliveira and the Gruta Nova da Columbeira show long stratigraphic sequences and prolonged settlements, of residential type, though a few other caves also show temporary settlements related to game activities or the exploitation of geological resources. In most cases, there is an alternance of the cave occupation by humans and large carnivores. Food subsistence of humans was non-specialized, capturing large, mid and also small preys such as the rabbit, an abundant endemic species. The terrestrial turtle was also captured, especially in Gruta

  1. Fascist labscapes: geneticists, wheat, and the landscapes of Fascism in Italy and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Tiago

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of scientists in the building of fascist regimes in Italy and Portugal by focusing on plant geneticists' participation in the Italian and Portuguese wheat wars for bread self-sufficiency. It looks closely at the work undertaken by Nazareno Strampelli at the National Institute of Genetics for Grain Cultivation (Italy) and by António Sousa da Câmara at the National Agronomic Experiment Station (Portugal), both of whom took wheat as their prime experimental object of genetics research. The main argument is that the production of standardized organisms—the breeder's elite seeds—in laboratory spaces is deeply entangled with their circulation through extended distribution networks that allowed for their massive presence in Italian and Portuguese landscapes such as the Po Valley and the Alentejo. The narrative pays particular attention to the historical development of fascist regimes in the two countries, advancing the argument that breeders' artifacts were key components of the institutionalization of the new political regimes.

  2. Nocturnal Reversed Flows Above Parallel Ridges in Perdigão, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Fernando, H. J.; Leo, L. S.; Vassallo, D.; Hocut, C. M.; Creegan, E.; Rodriguez, C. V.; Palma, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of topographically forced or induced wind events is extremely important for dispersion modeling and wind energy studies in complex terrain. To improve the current understanding of micro-scale processes over complex terrain, a large-scale field experiment was conducted in Perdigão, Portugal from May 1st, 2017 to June 15th, 2017. Measurements over a periodic valley were performed using 52 meteorological met-masts, 30 Doppler Lidars (scanning & vertical profilers), 2 tethered lifting systems and other remote sensing instruments (Sodar-rass, wind profilers & radiometer), and radiosondes were released every 6 hours over the period of study. The observations showed several cases of flow reversals confined to a thin layer of 70 - 100 m above the ridge under stably stratified conditions. These flow reversals were mostly observed during the lee wave formation over the periodic valley. It was observed that the flow reversal occurs predominantly under two atmospheric conditions: a) presence of large recirculation zones on the lee side of the hill causing a pressure gradient between the lee-side floor and the mountain ridge, and b) local change in the horizontal pressure gradient due to differential heating rates of the neighboring valley atmospheres. Microscale flow simulations could capture these observed flow reversals. Based on the network of tower instruments and remote sensing devices, the development, structure and occurrences of the flow reversals are being analyzed and quantified. Since these flow reversals are observed within the rotor swept area of modern wind turbines, they would drastically increase the fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. This presentation will include reversed flow observations from several synchronized scanning Doppler Lidars and meteorological towers and a theoretical framework for reverse flow over parallel valleys.

  3. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  4. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text

  6. Implementation of the NEAMTWS in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, L. M.; Annunziato, A.; Carrilho, F.; Baptista, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we present the ongoing implementation of a national tsunami warning system in Portugal. After the Sumatra event in December 2004, the UNESCO, through its International Oceanographic Commission, recognized the need for an end to end global tsunami warning system and International Coordination Groups have been established for different areas around the globe: Indian, Caribbean, Atlantic and Mediterranean ocean basins. This system is the natural response to the historical and recent instrumental events generated along the western segment of the Eurasia and Nubian plates, which eastern end corresponds to the Gulf of Cadiz. The TWS includes three main components: the seismic detection, the tsunami detection and the issue of warnings/alerts. In Portugal the automatic earthquake processing is installed at IM (Instituto de Meteorologia) which is the only national institution operating on a 24x7 basis. This makes IM the natural candidate to host the Portuguese tsunami warning system. The TWS under implementation has several key points: definition of the tsunami scenarios, tsunami detection, and tsunami protocol messages. The system will also be able to predict tsunami potential impact along the coast, wave-heights and arrival times at pre-defined locations along the coast. In this study we present the recent results on definition of tsunami scenarios, establishment of the scenario database and the tsunami analysis tool. This work is a joint effort between Instituto de Meteorologia (Portugal), the Joint Research Center, JRC- ISPRA, Italy and the coordination of the Portuguese Group for the implementation of NEAMTWS in the area. This work has been financed by different European projects as NEAREST and TRANSFER, and also by the JRC, the IM and CGUL/IDL institutions.

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources from existing plants is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Support to new RES plants can currently only be remunerated through the open energy market. For RES-H there is currently no direct support mechanism or fiscal benefit in place (as of January 2017); only indirect support. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers of bio-fuels

  8. Transnational citizenship : Latin Americans in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Beatriz; Scaglione, Alejandra Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo reflexiona sobre el ejercicio de la ciudadanía como consecuencia de la migración internacional, aplicado al caso de los latinoamericanos residentes en Portugal. Para ello adoptamos el concepto de ciudadanía transnacional por su maleabilidad, ya que permite considerar la perspectiva conjunta de los países de origen y de destino, así como también la influencia de las relaciones binacionales e internacionales. Nos preguntamos cómo se ejerce la ciudadanía transnacional en los espaci...

  9. Establishment of heart teams in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Uva, M; Leite Moreira, A; Gavina, C; Pereira, H; Lopes, M G

    2014-01-01

    Whenever several therapeutic options exist, multidisciplinary decision-making is beneficial for the patient and for society at large. The main obstacles to the establishment of heart teams in Portugal are organizational and logistical. Implementing a heart team approach entails definition of the situations requiring multidisciplinary discussion, creation of clear lines of communication, written protocols and obtaining patient informed consent. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines define the clinical scenarios where intervention of the heart team is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Psicologia feminista em Portugal : dificuldades e conquistas

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Luísa

    2010-01-01

    Pretende-se, com este artigo, fazer um balanço do que tem sido a Psicologia Feminista em Portugal. Tendo em conta que cada ciência comporta evoluções e posições epistemológicas e metodológicas distintas, começar-se-á por traçar em linhas gerais alguns marcos da psicologia no que diz respeito à forma de abordar as questões das mulheres e homens e definindo o que se entende por psicologia feminista. Seguidamente, serão evidenciados alguns aspectos políticos e sociais que condicionaram o desenvo...

  11. Deterministic tsunami hazard assessment of Sines - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Wronna, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Ciências Geográficas, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma abordagem determinística de perigo de tsunamis considerando múltiplas fontes para a cidade costeira de Sines, Portugal. Tsunamis ou maremotos são eventos extremos, energeticamente elevados mas pouco frequentes. Normalmente são geradas por um deslocamento duma grande quantidade de água seja por erupções vulcânicas, colapso de caldeiras, desli...

  12. Current status of nucleonic gauges in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G.; Manteigas, J.; Oliveira, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Neves, J.; Cruz, C.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleonic gauges are largely used in Portugal industry, despite the fact that design and manufacturing of prototypes of nucleonic gauges is rather limited. The modernization of some industrial sectors (cement, paper and civil engineering) has enhanced applications of nucleonic gauges and has created local capability but new legislation tends to restrict further spread of them. The Institute of Nuclear Technology is the only applied research institution developing nucleonic gauges for moisture, thickness and density, and elemental analysis, as well as providing assistance in calibration, safe operation and maintenance of them. (author)

  13. Country policy profile - Portugal. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff (FiT). The support regime for electricity generated from renewable energy sources (except large hydropower plants) is still in place for existing installations and for micro and mini generation units. Support to new installations can be provided through specific power granting tenders. There is currently no direct support mechanism for RES-H. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers (PPDs). The Portuguese progress report was released by the EC in June 2014 and no further policy changes have been documented since then

  14. Country policy profile - Portugal. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff (FiT). The support regime for electricity generated from renewable energy sources (except large hydropower plants) is still in place for existing installations and for micro and mini generation units. Support to new installations can be provided through specific power granting tenders. There is currently no direct support mechanism for RES-H. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers (PPDs). The Portuguese progress report was released by the EC in June 2014

  15. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Machado Ribeiro da Silva

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88% and E. arloingi (85%, followed by E. alijevi (63% and E. caprovina(63%. The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  16. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  17. Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation on agricultural terraces of DOURO VALLEY (PORTUGAL), using physically based mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana; Bateira, Carlos; Laura, Soares; Fernandes, Joana; Gonçalves, José; Marques, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The work focuses the evaluation of landslide susceptibility in Douro Region agricultural terraces, supported by dry stone walls and earth embankments, using two physically based models. The applied models, SHALSTAB (Montgomery et al.,1994; Dietrich et al., 1995) and SINMAP (PACK et al., 2005), combine an infinite slope stability model with a steady state hydrological model, and both use the following geophysical parameters: cohesion, friction angle, specific weight and soil thickness. The definition of the contributing areas is different in both models. The D∞ methodology used by SINMAP model suggests a great influence of the terraces morphology, providing a much more diffuse flow on the internal flow modelling. The MD8 used in SHALSTAB promotes an important degree of flow concentration, representing an internal flow based on preferential paths of the runoff as the areas more susceptible to saturation processes. The model validation is made through the contingency matrix method (Fawcett, 2006; Raia et al., 2014) and implies the confrontation with the inventory of past landslides. The True Positive Rate shows that SHALSTAB classifies 77% of the landslides on the high susceptibility areas, while SINMAP reaches 90%. The SINMAP has a False Positive Rate (represents the percentage of the slipped area that is classified as unstable but without landslides) of 83% and the SHALSTAB has 67%. The reliability (analyzes the areas that were correctly classified on the total area) of SHALSTAB is better (33% against 18% of SINMAP). Relative to Precision (refers to the ratio of the slipped area correctly classified over the whole area classified as unstable) SHALSTAB has better results (0.00298 against 0.00283 of SINMAP). It was elaborate the index TPR/FPR and better results obtained by SHALSTAB (1.14 against 1.09 of SINMAP). SHALSTAB shows a better performance in the definition of susceptibility most prone areas to instability processes. One of the reasons for the difference of predictive capacity of the models is related with the construction methods of contributory areas. The SHALSTAB susceptibility map shows better discrimination of the unstable areas, which is important to the estates decision makers in order to organize the priority of the hazard mitigation process. References Dietrich, W. E.; Reiss, R.; Hsu, M-L.; Montgomery, D.(1995) - A process-based model for colluvial soil depth and shallow landsliding using digital elevation data. Hydrological Processes. ISSN 1099-1085. Vol. 9, n.° 3-4, pp.383-400. Fawcett, T.(2006) - An introduction to ROC analysis. Pattern Recognition Letters. ISSN 0167-8655. Vol. 27, n.° 8, pp.861-874. Montgomery, David R.; Dietrich, William E.- A physically based model for the topographic control on shallow landsliding. Water Resources Research. ISSN 1944-7973. Vol. 30, n.° 4 (1994), p.1153-1171. Raia, S., [et al.]- Improving predictive power of physically based rainfall-induced shallow landslide models: a probabilistic approach. Geoscientific Model Development. ISSN 1991-959X. Vol. 7, n.° 2 (2014), p.495-514.

  18. CHINESE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN PORTUGAL: TRADITIONAL ETHNIC STRATEGIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Reis Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal in recent decades, just like in other welcoming countries, immigrants have reached levels of entrepreneurial activity that are higher than those of autochthonous citizens. However, a deeper analysis of the official data shows that not all immigrant groups have the same tendency to become entrepreneurs. In this respect, the Chinese stand out as being the group with the highest ratio of entrepreneurial activity in Portugal, despite the fact that their migration is a relatively recent phenomenon. What factors can explain the Chinese community’s disproportionate rate of entrepreneurial initiative? Do they possess any particular resources that make them more enterprising than the autochthonous population, or than other groups of immigrants? Does the context of Portugal hamper certain opportunities or in some way limit their economic integration into the job market? Do we find similar business strategies among other Chinese entrepreneurs residing in welcoming societies apart from that of Portugal? Why did Chinese business initiative grow at such an exceptional rate in Portugal in the late 1990s? By seeking answers to these questions, this article attempts to examine Chinese business strategies in Portugal, as well as their exceptional success rate in comparison with other entrepreneurial immigrants. To that end, the author has analysed the data gathered in a survey carried out on 309 Chinese entrepreneurs resident in Portugal (see Oliveira, 2005.

  19. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  20. Spain and Portugal facing Euratom. Some considerations in the access of Spain and Portugal to Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corretjer, L.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1985-01-01

    The access of Spain and Portugal to the European Community of Atomic Energy (EURATOM) will give rise to significative consequences and it is a subject which must be thoroughly considered as to its implications regarding the present state of nuclear development in both countries and with regard to their reciprocal relations in nuclear energy matters. To determine such consequences and implications it is necessary, first of all, to analyze what EURATOM is and how it acts, in addition to consider the situation of each of its Member States as to the utilization of nuclear energy. As well, it is necessary to explain the evolution and the present situation of nuclear development in Spain and in Portugal and their mutual relations in this field. In pursuit of such analysis we may determine the possible consequences of their access; this is made bearing in mind each of the aspects in which EURATOM acts, according to the Treaty and the ''acquis communitaire'', and dividing them into common consequences and individual ones for both countries. The whole exposition, which was studied and carried out from an exclusively technical point of view, has a result the deduction of the joint possibilities offered to Spain and Portugal to make use of EURATOM's availabilities and of the joint actions which both countries may achieve to benefit as much as possible from their access to EURATOM. (author)

  1. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  2. Safety of radioactive sources in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro de Carvalho, A.

    2001-01-01

    The safety of radioactive sealed sources is assured in Portugal through a control system with a main goal of prevention of lost of control and inappropriate waste. The legal tools of the regulatory system are: authorization to use, keep, transfer or transport; a deposit of money as a guarantee; civil liability insurance; periodical information. The competent authority shall keep a national inventory of sealed sources. About 50% of the new sources authorized in 1999 were to be used in medical brachytherapy and industrial radiography. The radionuclide Ir-192 contributed with 99.6 % to the total amount of activity. The control system implemented in the country appears to be effective for activities over some GBq but quite ineffective for lower activities. It is supposed that the law will be revised in the near future to increase the effectiveness of the sealed source control system. (author)

  3. Population dose assessment from radiodiagnosis in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serro, R.; Carreiro, J.V.; Galvao, J.P.; Reis, R.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of radiodiagnostic installations was carried out in Portugal covering 75 premises including public hospitals, local and regional public health centres. A total of 175 X ray tubes was surveyed using the new NEXT methodology covering data on premises, tube and operator, and projection. Average value of voltage, current-time product, HVL, ratio of beam area to film area and source to film distance for the eleven most frequent projections are reported as well as the skin entrance exposure and the doses to some organs. The weighted average dose values per projection and for the different organs allowed an estimate of the whole-body dose per caput. From the gonadal doses the genetic significant dose was also estimated

  4. Financial Report on the Internet in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Raquel Pinto Alves

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the advances in communication and information technologies dramaticallychanged the information flow and our notions of time and space. The Internet has been changingthe information policy of companies world-wide. Basically in all developed countries,companies are increasingly using the Internet to provide their financial information. Thisresearch presents an empirical study aiming to analyze the organization and informationprovided on the financial report of the 250 most profitable companies in Portugal, particularlytheir financial statements published on the Internet. After the observation and in-depth analysisof the websites of the above-mentioned companies, for the year 2002, it was concluded that 119companies (48% had a webpage on the internet. In what concerns the disclosure of financialinformation, only 51 (43% out of the 119 companies had some kind of financial informationstated on their websites.

  5. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstruindo memórias: jovens refugiados em Portugal Rebuilding memories: young refugees in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Santinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio foi apresentado em setembro de 2007, no contexto do Seminário Internacional "Programa de Cooperação em Ciências Sociais para os Países da CPLP", promovido pela LIESP - Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Estudos e Pesquisas Sociais em Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. Resulta de um work in progress conducente a uma tese de doutoramento em antropologia médica. Pretende apresentar a condição dos jovens refugiados e requerentes de asilo em Portugal, em particular na vertente da saúde mental. O trabalho de campo levado a cabo com estes jovens envolveu a escuta de muitas narrativas de sofrimento provocado pela sua experiência de vida nos contextos originais de guerra, com testemunhos de violência e tortura, e também as dificuldades sentidas no longo percurso de viagem de fuga e posterior inserção em Portugal. O isolamento, as barreiras linguísticas, a ausência de redes sociais e familiares de apoio e a dificuldade de encontrar, em Portugal, referentes socioculturais e simbólicos, comprometem o seu desenvolvimento enquanto jovens, levando-nos a equacionar o valor dos referentes identitários na construção do eu e até o próprio conceito de juventude.This essay was first presented in September 2007, within the seminar "Programa de Cooperação em Ciências Sociais para os Países da CPLP", promoted by LIESP - Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. It is a work in progress, leading to a PhD thesis on medical anthropology. It aims to present refugee's youth and asylum seeker's condition in Portugal, particularly in regard to mental health. The fieldwork conducted with these youth comprised active listening of their suffer narratives, provoked not only by life experiences in their original war contexts, with testimonies of violence and torture, but also the difficulties felt during the long flee journey and subsequent insertion in Portugal. Isolation, pain

  7. España, Portugal y los falsos amigos | Spain, Portugal and the false friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel RIVERO RODRÍGUEZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available España y Portugal son dos países que comparten mucho en el terreno de la historia, la cultura y la geografía. Sin embargo, esa misma proximidad se ha convertido muchas veces en el principal obstáculo para que cooperen entre sí.Desde la perspectiva portuguesa, la proximidad española se ha visto permanentemente como una amenaza a la independencia de Portugal. Desde el punto de vista de España, la cercanía de Portugal ha debilitado su consideración como país extranjero y ha acentuado un sentido de comunidad no siempre bien recibido por los portugueses. De modo que Portugal siempre ha querido diferenciarse y España ha respondido siempre aproximándose. Esta es la raíz del malentendido.Este cruce de percepciones distintas sobre el valor de proximidad, da lugar a todo tipo de equívocos, pues el deseo de diferenciación de uno puede entenderse como enemistad por el otro y, a la inversa, el de aproximación del segundo como invasión por el primero. Ejemplo de esto es lo que ocurre con la palabra iberismo, una palabra que se escribe igual en ambas lenguas pero que puede significar cosas opuestas, esto es, que puede ser un falso amigo. Así en las dos lenguas iberismo señala el ideal de una integración de ambos países, pero en portugués esto implica la subordinación de la soberanía portuguesa a la española y puede vincularse a la idea de traición; mientras que en español tiene una carga política mucho menor y puede apuntar a la simple simpatía por Portugal.En este artículo quiero mostrar cómo la proximidad de España y Portugal ha sido un obstáculo en las relaciones exteriores entre los dos países peninsulares, cuya comunicación ha sido distorsionada por los falsos amigos hasta el punto de convertirse, ellos mismos, en falsos amigos. Esto es, en países a los que se presupone una cercanía de propósitos que casi nunca se ve realizada en los hechos. Portugal and Spain are two countries that share history, culture and

  8. Computer Tomography Scanners in Portugal (1990-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Crispim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Computed Tomography (CT has increased every year since its introduction into medicine in 1972. Technological developments have made CT one of the most important imaging modalities in modern medicine. This importance is evidenced in the increasing demand and number of CT scanners installed in Portugal and worldwide. This review compiles the most recent national statistics from official publications on the number of CT scanners installed in Portugal and compares them with data available in international publications. We conclude that the number of CT scanners installed in Portugal exceeded the EU27 average by 61.5 % and the OECD average by 78.2 %, and that in 2011 there were 203 CT scanners installed in hospitals in Portugal, which equated to 19.23 CT scanners per million inhabitants.

  9. Upper Palaeolithic lithic raw material sourcing in Central and Northern Portugal as an aid to reconstructing hunter-gatherer societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the study of lithic raw materials used in Upper Palaeolithic occupations preserved in caves, rockshelters and open-air sites from two different geological environments in Portugal. For the sites located in the Lusitanian Basin, flint or silcrete sources are easily available in close vicinity. The Côa Valley sites, located in the Iberian Massif, are within a geological environment where restricted fine-grained vein quartz and siliceous metamorphic rocks are available, but no flint or silcrete, even though both are present in the archaeological assemblages. Data from the two clusters of sites are compared with a third newly located site in the Lower Vouga valley, at the limit of the Iberian Massif with the Lusitanian Basin, where quartz vein raw material types are locally available and flint is about 40 kilometres distant. This study reveals prehistoric adaptations to these different geological contexts, with shorter networks for the Lusitanian basin sites contrasting with the long distance ones for the Côa Valley, and the Vouga site at an intermediary position. Finally, we propose that lithic raw material supply networks, defined by a GIS least-cost algorithm, could be used as a proxy not only for territoriality in the case of local and regional lithic raw material sources, but also to infer long-distance social networks between different Palaeolithic human groups, created and maintained to promote the access to asymmetrically distributed resources.

  10. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  11. A comparative analysis of tourism destination demand in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Jaime; Correia, Antónia; Rodrigues, Paulo M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has experienced different levels of development in the different regions of Portugal.To frame this development, in this paper dynamic panel data models were estimated with the objective of explaining the evolution of international overnight stays in each region.Secondary data from 2000 to 2011 was used.The analysis includes the main tourism source markets for Portugal, such as the United Kingdom, Germany,the Netherlands, Ireland, France and Spain. The tourism literature suggests that,...

  12. Contribution of long-range transport to the ozone levels recorded in the Northeast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, C.; Nunes, T.; Marques, M. C.; Ferreira, F.

    2009-04-01

    levels were calculated for each cluster and the differences between the groups were validated using the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test. The results have shown a significant influence of the transport path on ozone concentrations, which is more noticeable when the probability of occurring photochemical pollution phenomena is higher. Air masses from Europe (Spain, France, United Kingdom, etc.) generally originate higher ozone levels than the ones arriving from the Atlantic Ocean. This feature shows the role of photochemical production along long-range transport phenomena, and the input of pollutants into air masses, along their path. A more detailed analysis at local/regional scale, supported mainly by an intensive field campaign performed during spring/summer of 2006 in the vicinity of Alvão Natural Park (FOTONET Project), at different altitudes, together with pollutant measurements from rural air quality stations in the north of Portugal and one from Spain (Peñausende) was carried out in order to evaluate the extension of photochemical pollution in the Northeast of Portugal. Ozone concentrations measurements in the region showed a noticeable decrease with altitude, mainly at night. In resume back trajectories based analysis has demonstrated that other countries, mainly Spain, contribute decisively to the ozone levels registered in the station used for this study. Backed on this knowledge we point out towards the need of considering common international policies when dealing with controlling ozone levels in the environment. References: Monks, P. (2000): A review of the observations and origins of the spring ozone maximum. Atmospheric Environment 34, 3545-3561. Vingarzan, R., Taylor, B. (2003): Trend analysis of ground level ozone in the greater Vancouver / Fraser Valley area of British Columbia. Atmospheric Environment 37, 2159-2171. EMPA (2008): Air mass trajectory clustering. Retrieved 01 November 2008 from: http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/63288/—/l=1

  13. UNIDADES GEOMORFOLÓGICAS DE PORTUGAL CONTINENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantino Insua Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available São representadas cartograficamente as unidades geomorfológicas identificadas para os 89015 km2 do território de Portugal Continental. A delimitação das unidades teve por base a análise dos padrões da textura fornecida por imagens SRTM, com revisão e adaptação posterior à altimetria e à geologia, para os quais foram usadas bases cartográficas digitais. Foram considerados três níveis taxionómicos que permitem descrever e caracterizar áreas homogéneas do ponto de vista geomorfológico. As três unidades de 1º nível baseiam-se nas unidades morfostruturais clássicas consideradas para a Península Ibérica. As dez unidades de 2º nível constituem, na sua maioria, divisões clássicas do relevo de Portugal Continental, agora agrupadas de acordo com a metodologia adoptada e designadas como unidades morfosculturais. As 56 unidades de 3º nível, ou subunidades morfosculturais, foram individualizadas com base nos padrões de relevo identificados nas imagens SRTM e na observação de campo e adquiriram uma designação baseada essencialmente nas geoformas que as individualizam e na toponímia local. As unidades geomorfológicas identificadas são descritas através de características do relevo, dissecação fluvial, estruturas, tipo de drenagem e base geológica, bem como de parâmetros numéricos gerados de forma automática, como classes de altitude e de declividade. Pretende-se que o mapa elaborado possa contribuir para a gestão territorial, em especial na tomada de decisões em conservação da natureza.

  14. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  15. Cultural and Creative tourism in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo paradigma en la industria turística está cambiando el significado de la cultura y sus usos de forma a promocionar productos o experiencias y destinos otros. Las cuestiones que ponemos son las siguientes: ¿Cuál es la importancia del turismo creativo en un destino turístico y cuáles serán las consecuencias para su organización? La metodología seguida se basó en una revisión de la literatura relativa al objeto de investigación, estudio de caso, análisis de datos, análisis de contenido, toma de muestras, “bola de nieve”, encuestas y observación participante. Este artículo analiza cómo el evento Festival MED en Loulé, Algarve ha mejorado la economía local, ha resuelto problemas urbanos en el centro histórico (área del evento y ayudó a diferenciar la oferta turística en el destino turístico maduro, en el Algarve, Portugal.

  16. Mercury distribution in Douro estuary (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhosa, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: eduper@dq.ua.pt; Vale, C. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fishery Research, IPIMAR, Avenida Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Valega, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Monterroso, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Duarte, A.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    Determinations of dissolved reactive and total dissolved mercury, particulate and sedimentary mercury, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) have been made in the estuary of river Douro, in northern Portugal. The estuary was stratified by salinity along most of its length, it had low concentrations of SPM, typically <20 mg dm{sup -3}, and concentrations of DOC in the range <1.0-1.8 mg dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had a maximum dissolved concentration of reactive mercury of about 10 ng dm{sup -3}, whereas for the more saline bottom waters it was about 65 ng dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had maximum concentrations of total suspended particulate mercury of {approx}7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the bottom waters were always <1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Concentrations of mercury in sediments was low and in the range from 0.06 to 0.18 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The transport of mercury in surface waters was mainly associated with organic-rich particulate matter, while in bottom waters the dissolved phase transport of mercury is more important. Lower particulate organic matter, formation of chlorocomplexes in more saline waters and eventually the presence of colloids appear to explain the difference of mercury partitioning in Douro estuarine waters.

  17. Identity Reconfiguration of Immigrants in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The starting point is the principle that there is no immigrant culture, but rather, different ways of living, coexisting and identifying oneself within the cultural worlds that each subject crosses on his or her social path. Here we study Brazilian immigrants in Portugal, working with the first wave (starting at the end of the 1980s and the second wave (at the turn of the 20th to 21st century. We intend, firstly, to show how identity is reconstructed between two banks: the departure culture and the arrival culture. Secondly, we intend to give a voice to the most silent in the understanding of immigrants: the process of identity reconstruction of Brazilian immigrants is presented, resulting from ethno-biographic interviews. We will consider the cultural transfusion theory and observe the heterogeneous ways of living between cultures, whether by rejecting the departure culture (the Oblato‘s case, refusing the arrival one at a given moment (the mono-cultural subject according to the source culture, living in an ambivalent manner between the two (the multicultural self, or, finally, inventing a third bank, as the poets say, which corresponds to an attitude of including the cultural differences through which one crosses during his or her life history in an intercultural self (the Intercultural Transfuga.

  18. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  19. How can Portugal attract more China´S young generation tourists?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yujing

    2017-01-01

    Portugal as a tourism destination has great potential to be further developed, however it is still not well known by the Chinese outbound tourists, especially the young generation who would stay longer and spend more in Portugal. This paper describe the current situation of Portugal tourism in Chinese outbound market, after analyzing explained why Portugal should aim at the young generation, and finally gave some recommendations of how to attract them, mainly through social media platforms.

  20. CONFLITOS E TRAUMAS NO RENASCIMENTO EM PORTUGAL

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    Nair Castro Soares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Num século em que a abertura à modernidade trouxe um ardor renovado pelos ideais da Antiguidade Clássica, assimilados aos valores do Cristianismo – raízes da Civilização do Ocidental –,consuma-se a perda de Constantinopla e assiste-se ao crescente domínio turco e à defesa concertada contra o seu avanço; à grande gesta dos Descobrimentos, com as inevitáveis guerras de conquista; à Reforma protestante e às guerras de religião, qual Hidra de Lerna, no dizer de Erasmo; aos conflitos armados entre príncipes cristãos, que Camões interpela no Canto VII de Os Lusíadas.A Reforma de Lutero, Calvino, Henrique VIII fragmentaram a inconsútil túnica de Cristo e puseram fim à unidade da Respublica Christiana, que se tornou em Ocidente dos Estados. Marcantes nesta época foram o pragmatismo político de Maquiavel; o papel da ciência juridica, na definição do direito internacional e do direito dos povos.Em Portugal, muitos foram os conflitos decorrentes da política de expansão e da acção dos sucessivos monarcas, desde os inícios da Segunda Dinastia ao reinado de D. Sebastião: exílios, perseguições, sobretudo a partir da introdução da Inquisição (1536, desastres naturais e, enfim, a perda da independência, a marcar o ocaso do Século de Ouro. 

  1. Census Model Transition: Contributions to its Implementation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Carlos A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the high cost and complexity of traditional censuses, some countries have started to change the census process. Following this trend, Portugal is also evaluating a new census model as an alternative to an exhaustive collection of all statistical units. The main motivations for the implementation of this census model transition in Portugal are related to the decrease in statistical burden on citizens, improvements in the frequency of outputs, and the reduction of collection costs associated with census operations. This article seeks to systematise and critically review all alternatives to the traditional census methodologies, presenting their advantages and disadvantages and the countries that use them. As a result of the comparison, we conclude that the methods that best meet these objectives are those that use administrative data, either in whole or in part. We also present and discuss the results of an inventory and evaluation of administrative registers in Portugal with the potential to produce statistical census information.

  2. Landscape and Astronomy in Megalithic Portugal: the Carregal do Sal Nucleus and Star Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal, delimited by the Douro river to the north and the Mondego to the south, is the second densest region of megalithic monuments in the country. The Neolithic archaeological record indicates seasonal transhumance between higher pastures in the summer and lower grounds in the winter. The monuments are found in lower ground and it has been suggested that they were built during the winter occupation of their surroundings. The astronomical orientation of their entrances lends further support to this hypothesis. A recent survey of the orientation of the chambers and corridors of these dolmens, conducted by the author, found good agreement with prior surveys, but also demonstrated that other interpretations are possible. This paper presents an update on the survey, including extra sites surveyed in the spring of 2011, as well as the GIS confirmation of all horizon altitudes that couldn’t be empirically measured. The megalithic nucleus of Carregal do Sal, on the Mondego valley, is then looked at in more detail. It is found that there is a preference for the orientation of dolmens towards Star Mountain Range in-line with the topographic arguments of landscape archaeology. In addition, it was found that the topography also marks the rise of particular red stars, Betelgeuse and Aldebaran, during the period of megalithic building, at the onset of spring marking the transition from low ground to the high pastures. This hypothesis finds further support from toponymic folktales that explain the origin of the name of the mountain range.

  3. The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Portugal is situated on the western edge of the Iberian Meseta. At present, its reasonably assured reserves are about 7800 t of U (including 1000 t of U at more than 830/lb U 3 O 8 ) and 850 t of U in estimated additional reserves. This potential is divided between vein deposits and deposits located in the peribatholithic schists or enclaved in granite. Two main districts share these reserves - Beira at the centre of the country and Alto Alentejo in the east, approximately at the same latitude as Lisbon. In spite of the considerable prospecting activities authorized by Portugal in the Meseta area, the subject cannot yet be regarded as exhausted. Additional resources may still be located in the horizontal and vertical extensions of the vein mineralizations or schists from the already known deposits or outside the districts containing such deposits. Moreover, certain post-Palaeozoic sedimentary basins exhibit features favourable for the presence of uranium-bearing deposits and therefore deserve to be taken into consideration. However, there are as yet no examples of economic mineralization in such locations in Portugal. All things considered, we considered it reasonable to place Portugal in category No. 3 of the classiffication adopted by BJREP. (author)

  5. Portugal and South Africa: Close Allies or Unwilling Partners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The popular perception of the existence of a straightforward alliance between Portugal and South Africa as a result of the growing efficacy of African nationalist groups during the 1960s and early 1970s has never been seriously questioned. However, new research into recently declassified documents from the Portuguese ...

  6. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  7. Mapping the networks of cancer research in Portugal: first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, O.R.; Cointet, J.P.; Nunes, J.A.; David, L.; Cambrosio, A.

    2016-07-01

    Social studies of cancer research at the international level have contributed to a better understanding of the developmental dynamics – both organizational and epistemic – of this field (Keating & Cambrosio, 2012). In contrast, despite its robust development, oncology research in Portugal has been the subject of only few studies. Most of them have a strong focus on the first half of the 20th century (Raposo, 2004; Costa, 2010, 2012a; 2012b), while a few focus on more contemporary events (Nunes, 2001). Consequently, we do not have a clear picture of recent trends in oncology research in Portugal, and how it integrates into the international landscape. This hinders public accountability of oncology research while also limiting the analysis of how this research relates to health care delivery, health outcomes, and health policy formulations. This paper presents the first results of an ongoing research project on the organizational and epistemic development of oncology research in Portugal, covering the period from the end of the 20th century to 2015. Among other issues, we intend to explore the extent to which oncology research in Portugal mirrors the international dynamics at a smaller scale, and the extent to which it presents features of its own. The study draws upon computer-based analysis of publications using the platform CorText (http://www.cortext.net/) of IFRIS (Institut Francilien Recherche, Innovation, Société), along with interviews with Portuguese oncologists and related practitioners. (Author)

  8. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  9. Education, State, and Society in Portugal, 1926-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoer, Stephen R.; Dale, Roger

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the state and education in Portugal during periods of modernization, dictatorship, revolution, and democratization from 1926-81. Discusses the role of education, problems faced by education and other ideological systems, and the relationship between education and national development in each historical period. (SV)

  10. Imipenem Resistance in Clostridium difficile Ribotype 017, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Joana; Santos, Andrea; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Silva, Catarina; Vieira, Luís; Mendes, Aristides L.; Serrano, Mónica; Henriques, Adriano O.; Gomes, João Paulo

    2018-01-01

    We describe imipenem-resistant and imipenem-susceptible clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile ribotype 017 in Portugal. All ribotype 017 isolates carried an extra penicillin-binding protein gene, pbp5, and the imipenem-resistant isolates had additional substitutions near the transpeptidase active sites of pbp1 and pbp3. These clones could disseminate and contribute to imipenem resistance. PMID:29553322

  11. Research Management in Portugal: A Quest for Professional Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…

  12. PSYCHOSOCIAL REHABILITATION IN ASSISTED HOUSING IN BRAZIL AND PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José de Almeida Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar cómo las Casas Terapéuticas para los usuarios con trastornos mentales en los municipios de Miranda do Corvo-Portugal y Volta Redonda-Brasil contribuyen a la rehabilitación psicosocial de las personas con sufrimiento mental. Estudio de perspectiva histórica, cuyas fuentes históricas fueron leyes, resoluciones e informes oficiales y declaraciones de enfermeras, psicólogos y trabajadores sociales. Se encontró que en ambos municipios la intención es la desinstitucionalización de las personas con sufrimiento mental, en Miranda do Corvo-Portugal la gestión financiera y administrativa es responsabilidad de una fundación y, en Volta Redonda-Brasil esta gestión es auspiciada por el ejecutivo municipal, además de observar en Miranda del Corvo-Portugal la adopción de medidas disciplinarias en función de exceso de los usuarios. Se concluye que la crisis económica en Portugal ha interferido con la política de expansión de las Casas Terapéuticas en cuanto al número de usuarios que no permite la intervención más individualizada.

  13. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gama, Adelina; Elias, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana J.; Alegria, Nuno; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Silva, Filipe; Santarém, Nuno; Cardoso, Luís; Cotovio, Mário

    2014-01-01

    The first case of cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from the north of Portugal, with a 1.5 cm in diameter ulcerated nodular lesion on the left face, is reported. The skin nodule was surgically excised and assessed by histopathology, including an immunohistochemistiy method applied for the first

  15. Regional thermal patterns in Portugal using satellite images (NOAA AVHRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Lopes

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two NOAA AVHRR diurnal images (channel 4 are used to determine the required procedures aiming at a future operational analysis system in Portugal. Preprocessing and classification operations are described. Strong correlation between air and surface temperature is verified and rather detailed air temperature patterns can be inferred.

  16. Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

  17. Occupational radiation doses in Portugal from 1994 to 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.G.; Martins, M.B.; Amaral, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    This work reports on the occupational radiation doses for external radiation received in 1994-1998 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Individual monitoring for external radiation is carried out in Portugal by DPRSN since the 60s, and the workers are monitored on a monthly or quarterly bases. In 1995 DPRSN monitored approximately 8000 people and was the only laboratory carrying out this sort of activity in Portugal. In 1998 the number of monitored people increased to nearly 8500 from 860 facilities, which leads us to state that the results shown in this work are well representative of the universe of radiation workers in Portugal. Until 1996, the dose measurement procedure was based only on film dosimetry and the results reported for the 1994-1995 period were obtained with this methodology. Since 1996, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) was gradually introduced and since then an effort has been made to transfer the monitored workers from film to TLD. In 1998, both film and TLD dosimetry systems were running simultaneously, with average numbers of 4500 workers monitored with film dosimetry, while 4000 were monitored with TLD. The data presented from 1996 to 1998 were obtained with both methodologies. This work reports the annual mean effective doses received from external radiation, for the monitored and exposed workers in the different fields of activity, namely, industry, research laboratories, health and mining. The distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals is also reported. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. The collective dose estimates for the period 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that the health sector is the most representative exposed group in Portugal. (author)

  18. Portugal Democrático: An Exiles’ Newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Travancas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the newspaper Portugal Democrático (Democratic Portugal through its history, its style and format. It is a periodical publication produced in São Paulo by Portuguese exiles during the dictatorship of Antônio Salazar (1926-1974. The newspaper began to circulate in 1956 and came to an end in 1975, a year after the Carnation Revolution that occurred on April 25, 1974. Fighting the Salazar dictatorship outside Portugal was the reason for the creation of the newspaper in Brazil, where it also had the collaboration of Brazilian journalists and intellectuals. This paper analyzes the newspaper Portugal Democrático both in its political aspect and in its editorial feature and concludes that the paper played a greater role than informative. It was an important part of the international opposition movement and resistance to Salazar's dictatorial regime. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar o jornal Portugal Democrático através de sua história, de seu estilo e formato. Trata-se de uma publicação periódica produzida em São Paulo por exilados portugueses durante a ditadura de Antônio Salazar (1926-1974. O jornal começou a circular em 1956 e chegou ao fim em 1975, um ano depois da Revolução dos Cravos ocorrida em 25 de abril de 1974. Lutar contra a ditadura salazarista fora de Portugal foi o motivo da criação do jornal no Brasil, onde contou com a colaboração de jornalistas e intelectuais brasileiros. O trabalho analisa o jornal Portugal Democrático tanto em seu aspecto político quanto em sua feição editorial e conclui que o periódico teve um papel maior do que informativo. Ele foi parte importante no movimento internacional de oposição e resistência ao regime ditatorial de Salazar. El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer el periódico Portugal Democrático a través de su historia, de su estilo y formato. Se trata de una publicación periódica producida en São Paulo por los

  19. Energy taxation in Southern Europe: The case of Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modesto, L.

    1993-01-01

    It is investigated whether or not the imposition of a common EC energy tax will penalize more the poorer Southern European economies and if this will harm convergence at the EC level. The existing studies and empirical evidence are briefly surveyed. Then the results obtained when using the macroeconometric HERMES models to stimulate the introduction of an energy tax are exploited. The conclusions, however, have limited value, since the authors only have HERMES results for one Southern European economy: Portugal. Finally, the convergence in Europe and the effects of energy taxation on convergence are investigated. It is concluded that energy taxation will harm growth all over the EC, penalizing more one of the less developed countries (in this case Portugal), and having most probably adverse effects on convergence. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 22 refs

  20. [Politicized sexualities: AIDS activism and sexual orientation in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Cristina

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes how both the Portuguese state and civil society have addressed the AIDS issue, focusing on participation by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual community (LGBT) in the struggle against AIDS. The article begins by describing the situation of LGBT individuals in Portugal during the 1990s, when the Portuguese LGBT movement emerged and grew, and then characterizes the evolution of HIV/AIDS in Portugal, analyzing the relationship between civil society and sexuality in general and the situation of the epidemic in the country in particular, considering key facts, nongovernmental organizations, and state initiatives. Special attention is given to the role played by LGBT organizations in the struggle against HIV. Finally, the article reflects on the future of the struggle against both AIDS and discrimination in the 21st century, considering recent events in the country and the guidelines recommended by international policies.

  1. Etudes sur le Portugal au Temps de l'Humanisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cruz Costa

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available BATAILLON (Marcel. — Etudes sur le Portugal au Temps de l'Humanisme.  Acta Universitatis Conimbrigencis, 1952, 309 pp. (Primeiro Parágrafo do Artigo O Prof. Marcel Bataillon, erudito dos mais inteligentes da França atual, autor de uma obra que é hoje impr:scindível para quem pretenda estudar o humanismo renascentista na Espanha ou em Portugal, diríamos melhor, talvez: para quem pretenda estudar o Humanismo e a Renascença, — acaba de publicar, na coleção Acta Universitatis Conimbrigencis, êste volume no qual reune alguns trabalhos da mais alta importância para o conhecimento de muitos aspectos da vida espiritual portuguêsa do século XVI.

  2. Participation in lifelong learning in Portugal and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Ingham; Mike Ingham; Jose Adelino Afonso

    2013-01-01

    Lifelong learning (LLL) has now been on the agenda of the European Union and other major international organizations for some considerable time, with the European institutions stressing the need that such learning should be available to all, especially hard to reach groups. This paper seeks to explore LLL participation in Portugal and the UK, two countries at opposite ends of the adult learning spectrum and having very different labour market and educational contexts. Using Labour Force Surve...

  3. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Soares, Isabel; Ferreira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries...... and presented at The 1st International Congress on Energy & Environment ranging from electricity end-use analyses, electricity production analyses to socio-economic assessment and large-scale energy scenarios....

  4. LANGUAGE SCHOOLS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDYING PROGRAMS IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hritchenko, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the description and characterizing of language schools and foreign language studying programs in Portugal. The relevance of language learning for professional, mobility, self-developing means is shown. The main courses and programs are observed and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them are given. It is stated that Portuguese courses mostly follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. A small synopsis of the abilities for each level is p...

  5. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro D. Gaspar; Rita Pinheiro; Cláudia Domingues; Celestino Almeida; Teresa Paiva; Carlos D. Pereira; Manuela Vaz-Velho

    2015-01-01

    Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1) analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2) anal...

  6. Phytochemical characterization of wild edible Boletus sp. from Northeast Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2010-01-01

    Our research has been focused on the documentation of nutritional composition and nutraceutical potential of wild mushrooms, making the information available for a better management and conservation of these species and related habitats. In the present work, the chemical composition and bioactivity of three wild edible Boletus sp. (Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus reticulatus) from Northeast Portugal were evaluated, in order to valorise these species as sources of important...

  7. Photovoltaic energy mini-generation: Future perspectives for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Duarte; Wemans, Joao; Lima, Joao; Malico, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the benefits of developing the mini-generation PV market in Portugal. It presents the legal framework and current status of the Portuguese PV electricity sector, and compares the country to other European nations: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. A model that combines PVGIS with a self-developed financial tool is used to assess the feasibility of a 150 kW mini-generation system using five different technologies: fixed mount, single-axis tracking, double-axis tracking, low concentration and medium concentration (MCPV). The profitability of the mini-generation systems in the seven countries studied is calculated and compared. According to this analysis, MCPV and, of the conventional technologies, the single-axis tracking systems are the most profitable technologies. Despite the attractiveness of the current Portuguese feed-in tariffs and of the abundant solar resource, investors are discouraged and the country's PV market is far from mature. Specific mini-generation regulations should focus on a fast and transparent licensing procedure and should promote the access to financing. This would attract new investments, which would result in the growth of the PV electricity produced, and would help Portugal to meet its European Union Renewable Energy targets. - Highlights: → This work promotes the development of a mini-generation PV market in Portugal. → The Portuguese current status and legal framework is compared to other EU countries. → The profitability of 5 different PV technologies is compared for 7 European countries. → The Portuguese growth potential for PV energy is still big. → Portugal, due to its radiation levels, presents excellent investment opportunities.

  8. Monetary Poverty, Material Deprivation and Consistent Poverty in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Farinha Rodrigues; Isabel Andrade

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the Portuguese component of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions {EU-SILC) to develop a measure of consistent poverty in Portugal. It is widely agreed that being poor does not simply mean not having enough monetary resources. It also reflects a lack of access to the resources required to enjoy a minimum standard of living and participation in the society one belor]gs to. The coexistence of material deprivation and monetary poverty leads ...

  9. Tourist Spaces and Tourism Policy in Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Garcia, Fernando; Cortes-Macias, Rafael; Balbuena Vázquez, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between the development of the tourism policy of Spain and Portugal and their effects on regional imbalances. Despite the proximity of the two countries and their specialisation in tourism, there are few comparative studies on tourism of the two Iberian countries. The study focuses on the two major phases of tourism policy: the period of mass tourism and post-Fordist stage. In the conclusions we refer the debate on the existence of a model of development b...

  10. History of Astronomy in Portugal: Theories, Institutions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In Portugal, throughout its history, astronomy was developed in the context of the mathematical sciences. During the times of Portugal's Maritime Discoveries, astronomical navigation was based on spherical trigonometry, and therefore it was the mathematicians who taught astronomy to the pilots. During the 17th century, basic notions of astronomy were taught in mathematical courses in the University and in the main Jesuit colleges. This tradition continued in the 18th century, so it is no wonder that one of the most influent Portuguese astronomers during this period was the mathematician José Monteiro da Rocha. During the 19th century the new centres of science teaching, as the Polytechnic School in Lisbon, or the Polytechnic Academy in Oporto, developed astronomy teaching and research in the context of the mathematics subjects. The inheritors of these 19th century institutions, respectively the Faculties of Sciences of Lisbon and Oporto, upheld this tradition until the final decades of 20th century and continued to consider astronomy as a subject to be taught in their mathematics departments. This Meeting aims at outlining several perspectives on the history of astronomy in Portugal, particularly analysing its ties with mathematical sciences and astronomy applications. The Meeting is organised by the Museum of Science of the University of Lisbon (MCUL) with CMAF, CMUC, CMUP and the CIUHCT, and is included in CIM events. It is integrated in the commemorations of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009).

  11. Societal costs and burden of otitis media in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speets AM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anouk Speets1, Judith Wolleswinkel1, Cristina Cardoso21Pallas health research and consultancy, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Algés, PortugalAbstract: This study aimed to estimate the resource consumption and societal impact of otitis media (OM in children younger than five years of age in Portugal. An Internet survey on generic childhood symptoms and diseases was administered to a sample of parents. This self-report survey had been previously implemented in other European countries. Medically confirmed OM was defined as symptoms of earache or “running ear” and/or a diagnosis of OM provided by a medical doctor. Direct medical, nonmedical, and indirect nonmedical costs were calculated for individual cases. Mean total costs per OM episode were estimated at €334. This corresponds to an estimated societal impact of 72 million €/year, of which 39% were indirect nonmedical costs. An epidemiological study should help to confirm the results of this study, and evaluate whether an intervention to reduce the occurrence and/or duration of OM may have an impact on societal costs and quality of life for affected families.Keywords: otitis media, costs, societal burden, Portugal

  12. Regulation of clinical research and bioethics in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fatima Lampreia

    2007-06-01

    This article presents an overview of the Portuguese transposition of the European Directive on Good Clinical Practice (2001/20/E) concerning scientific and academic debates on bioethics and clinical investigation. Since the Directive was transposed into Portuguese law by its National Assembly, the bureaucracy of clinical trials has been ever more complex. Despite demands for swift application processes by the Pharmaceutical industry, supported by the European Parliament, the Directive's transcription to the national law has not always delivered the expected outcome. However, this has led to an increased number of applications for clinical trials in Portuguese hospitals. In this article I revise bioethical publications and decree-laws enabling an informed appraisal of the anxieties and prospects for the implementation of the clinical trials Directive in Portugal. This article also places the European Directive in the field of sociology of bioethics, arguing that Portuguese bioethical institutions differ from those of the US, and also from Northern European counterparts. The main divergence is that those people in Portugal who claim expertise in 'legal' bioethics do not dominate either the bureaucratic structure of research or ethics committees for health. Even experts in the applied ethics field now claim that 'professional bioethicists do not exist'. The recent creation of a national Ethics Committee for Clinical Investigation (CEIC) in line with the European Directive on Good Clinical Practice (GCP) will not change the present imbalance between different professional jurisdictions in the national bioethical debate in Portugal.

  13. Quality of environmental impact statements in Portugal and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canelas, Leonel; Almansa, P.; Merchan, M.; Cifuentes, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    One of the key steps of the Environmental Impact Assessment Process, defined by Directive 337/85 'on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects' is the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of a Project. The quality of the EIS is of great importance to properly inform the public and the decision makers about the significant environmental effects of the project. Using the 'Guidance on EIA-EIS Review' 2001 report, produced with the support of the European Commission, this paper analyses the overall quality of 46 recently elaborated EIS from Portugal and Spain (1998-2003). It also analyses the quality of the various chapters of the EIS and the Non-Technical Summary. A comparison is made between the quality of the EIS from Portugal and from Spain. The results for Portugal are also compared with those of other European countries (Ireland and United Kingdom) in similar periods. Finally it presents overall conclusions and suggestions for improvement

  14. Migration Flow and Its Impact on Tuberculosis Notification in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana; Gaio, Rita; Sousa, Pedro; Gomes, Marta; Oliveira, Olena; Duarte, Raquel

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis notification in Portugal has decreased in the last few years. As a consequence of the economic crisis, emigration has increased and immigration has decreased. Immigrants are a risk group for tuberculosis. Most emigrants are 20-44 years old and belong to the age group most affected by tuberculosis. To describe the decrease in tuberculosis notification in Portugal over the last years from a demographical point of view. Mathematical analysis was performed to quantify the effect of the migration movements (separately and simultaneously) on tuberculosis notification in Portugal from 2008 to 2014. We calculated the estimated tuberculosis notification for each year during the period of study: 1) fixing immigration rate and tuberculosis rate in immigrants at 2008 values; 2) fixing emigration rate and tuberculosis rate in emigrants at 2008 values; 3) fixing both phenomenons at 2008 values. The differences between the observed and the estimated numbers were small (≤0.5 cases/100000 inhabitants). Impact of the migration movements on tuberculosis notification rate does not seem to be significant when analyzed for each phenomenon individually and simultaneously, by our model. This might mean that we have to concentrate our efforts in other risk factors for tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. La electricidad en las relaciones España-Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayetano Espejo Marín

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ELECTRICITY AND THE RELATIONS BETWEEN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. From the early 1960s onwards, Spain and Portugal have maintained far-reaching programs for the exchange of electric power. These contacts have afforded, on the one hand, an increase in the security of electricity supply for both countries and, on the other, a better exploitation of their particular energy resources. The likely launching of the Iberian Electricity Market in April 2004 will lead to a new phase in the relations between Portugal and Spain. The new Market is based on three essential elements: i the expansion of electric links along their shared national borders, ii the setting up of a lone Operator for the single Iberian Market and iii the coordination of the two Operators that exist nowadays, RED ELÉCTRICA DE ESPAÑA and REDE ELÉCTRICA NACIONAL. The Iberian Electricity Market will be the first to comprise countries of the European Community only and it will generate one-tenth of the electric power consumed in Europe, being the fourth largest producer.

  16. Taxation of Insolvent Companies: Empirical Evidence in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Santos Arromba Dinis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of taxation of insolvent companies in Portugal, particularly regarding the Portuguese tax on revenue of legal entities (IRC. For this purpose, first, some considerations on the legal framework of insolvent companies are woven and, second, their tax regime is analyzed. Then, a brief review of the main studies that, in the international context, analyze and debate major issues derived from the tax regime of insolvent companies is conducted, particularly in Brazil, Spain, United States, and Italy. Finally, there are the results of an empirical study conducted in Portugal, in 2013, which evaluates and compares the opinions of insolvency administrators (IA, the tax and customs authority (TA, and court magistrates (CM, in order to contribute to a better solution concerning business taxation under this regime. Respondents (IA, TA, CM demonstrate objective thinking about the fact they believe it is very important that the Portuguese Code of Insolvency and Business Recovery (CIRE and the Portuguese Code of Tax on Revenue of Legal Entities (CIRC are modified, now to make clear whether the settlement of property ownership of an insolvent estate is liable to the IRC, then to assign a chapter specifically devoted to the subject of taxation on insolvency in Portugal.

  17. Business creation in Portugal: Comparison between the World Bank data and Quadros de Pessoal

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Morais Sarmento; Alcina Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has some of the highest business entry rates when compared to other countries, according to Eurostat, Statistics Portugal and the OECD Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme. We look at business creation in Portugal, from 2000 to 2007, by approaching two other complementary data sources, the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey, based on official Portuguese business register’s and the universe of active employer enterprises, obtained by applying to the dataset Quadros de Pessoal, ...

  18. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  19. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  20. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  1. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  2. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  3. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  4. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  6. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  7. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  8. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  9. Students' Perceptions of Assessment: A Comparative Analysis between Portugal and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Niklasson, Laila; Flores, Maria Assunção

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating students' perceptions about assessment, especially the ways in which it is put into practice. Data were collected through questionnaires in different programmes in Portugal and Sweden. In total, 173 students from Portugal and 72 from Sweden participated in the study. Findings showed that students had similar ideas…

  10. Kolmas vaatus Euroopa võlakriisis - Portugal. Oht Portugali mainel / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Portugal kavatseb läbi viia riigivõlakirjade emissiooni, samas müüvad teisedki riigid lähiajal võlakirju, mille riskiaste on väiksem. Portugal eitab väidet, nagu oleks Saksamaa ja Prantsusmaa survestanud teda Euroopa kriisifondist abi küsima

  11. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no general popu...

  12. Developmental Dyslexia: Perspectives on Teacher Training and Learning Disabilities in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Lenia; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore primary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward their training experiences, instructional practices, and supports received in their schools toward working with students with dyslexia in Portugal. Primary school teachers from the centre of Portugal, working with children between the first and fourth grades,…

  13. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  14. Potential of Biomass for Energy. Market Survey Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this market survey is to provide information about the biomass sector in Portugal, relevant to mainly small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the Netherlands that are interested to strengthen their position in that sector. Much knowledge could be gathered from conversations with the partners of Sunergy, the company responsible for this survey. Sunergy is producing bio-diesel, and considering further investments in the solid biomass sector, and therefore well familiar with the developments. Other interviews were held with representatives of the Government (DGGE), association of forestry owners (AFLOPS), a biomass trading SME (Sobioen), the leading environmental NGO (Quercus), and an association representing the paper- and pulp industry (CELPA). Chapter 1 is a general introduction on biomass. Chapter 2 gives the background of the Portuguese energy sector and the relative importance of renewable and biomass energies within this market. Some prospects for future developments of the different renewable sources are given. Portugal's energy sector is dominated by a small number of players, which are introduced. Also the current policies and incentives (subsidies) are presented. In Chapter 3 the focus is on the Portuguese biomass sector, presenting the current use of biomass in each of the subsectors: transport, electricity and heat, and an overview of the policy framework specifically for biomass. Chapter 4 is a literature review of the market for existing and potential biomass resources, including demand, supply and other characteristics. Chapter 5 synthesizes the previous chapters. Also an overview of key drivers and key constraints for growth of this sector is given, leading to conclusions regarding the opportunities for Dutch companies. Finally, further information on how to proceed once the interest for Portugal's biomass sector is vested is listed at the end of Chapter 5

  15. Weather types and the regime of wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An objective classification scheme, as developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), was applied to classify the daily atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal between 1980 and 2007 into a set of 10 basic weather types (WTs). The classification scheme relies on a set of atmospheric circulation indices, namely southerly flow (SF), westerly flow (WF), total flow (F), southerly shear vorticity (ZS), westerly shear vorticity (ZW) and total vorticity (Z). The weather-typing approach, together with surfacemeteorological variables (e.g. intensity and direction of geostrophic wind, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation) were then associated to wildfire events as recorded in the official Portuguese fire database consisting of information on each fire occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal within the same period (>450.000 events). The objective of this study is to explore the dependence of wildfire activity on weather and climate and then evaluate the potential of WTs to discriminate among recorded wildfires on what respects to their occurrence and development. Results show that days characterised by surface flow with an eastern component (i.e. NE, E and SE) account for a high percentage of daily burnt area, as opposed to surface westerly flow (NW, W and SW), which represents about a quarter of the total number of days but only accounts for a very low percentage of active fires and of burnt area. Meteorological variables such as minimum and maximum temperatures, that are closely associated to surface wind intensity and direction, also present a good ability to discriminate between the different types of fire events.. Trigo R.M., DaCamara C. (2000) "Circulation Weather Types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int J of Climatology, 20, 1559-1581.

  16. Consideration on the technical service quality and the Portugal situation; Consideracoes sobre a qualidade tecnica de servico e caracterizacao da situacao em Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, J.; Afonso, Jose [Entidade Reguladora do Sector Electrico (ERSE), XX (Portugal)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents some considerations on the technical quality of power supply for the consumption and, for the specific characterization of the Portugal electric sector, a summary analysis of the energy production, transport and distribution activities.

  17. A new model for cork weight estimation in Northern Portugal with methodology for construction of confidence intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J.F. Fonseca; Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Cork, a unique biological material, is a highly valued non-timber forest product. Portugal is the leading producer of cork with 52 percent of the world production. Tree cork weight models have been developed for Southern Portugal, but there are no representative published models for Northern Portugal. Because cork trees may have a different form between Northern and...

  18. The Electoral Geography of the 2016 Presidential Election in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgian-Ionuţ GUŢOIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portugal elected a new president in January, this year. While the campaign was rather atypical, with a majority of independent candidates and a low involvement of the parties, we employ here an analysis of the election’s electoral geography, in order to identify if the geographical partisan delimitations influenced the electoral outcome. At this election a clear political geographical divide existed between the urban North and the rural South. Our findings suggest that the geographical distribution of the votes follows the candidates’ ideological identity.

  19. Ciudadanía transnacional: latinoamericanos en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Beatriz; Ortiz Scaglione, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo reflexiona sobre el ejercicio de la ciudadanía como consecuencia de la migración internacional, aplicado al caso de los latinoamericanos residentes en Portugal. Para ello adoptamos el concepto de ciudadanía transnacional por su maleabilidad, ya que permite considerar la perspectiva conjunta de los países de origen y de destino, así como también la influencia de las relaciones binacionales e internacionales. Nos preguntamos cómo se ejerce la ciudadanía transnacional en los espaci...

  20. Education and Political Participation of Women: The Case of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    David, Fátima; Morais, Joana; Abreu, Rute; Marques, Lúcia; Segura, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyses the women’s participation in Portugal politics in consequence of its educational attainment. On the one hand, the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic of April 2, 1976, gives women (and men) a right to equal opportunities for school success, to access to the higher education and to better working conditions. On the other hand, the same Constitution defends, in article 9, that fundamental task of the State is to promote equality between men and women and, in a...

  1. Plano de social media marketing para a TAP Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Andreia Cristina Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing O social media marketing adquire cada vez maior relevo para as empresas e exige, tal como noutras áreas de marketing, a delineação de um plano estratégico por forma a potenciar o seu sucesso. Tomando como objecto de estudo a companhia aérea TAP Portugal, foi elaborado um Plano de Social Media Marketing, com base no modelo conceptual de Barker et al. (2013), designado de "Social Media Planning Cycle". Para a elaboração do Plano, foram recolhidos dados primários, seguin...

  2. Medieval codes of ius commune in Portugal: status quaestionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Portugal inherited from the kingdom of León legal sources and its earliest law code. With the “rebirth” of Roman law, the Ius commune –arriving very early in the twelfth century– soon came to shape everyday life, from the middle ages until the Enlightenment of the late eighteenth century. Enormous research efforts have been made to locate chronologically and spatially medieval remnants of these legal texts. This work aims to provide a summary, including a comprehensive and updated picture, of the status quaestionis of this theme.

  3. The Bologna Process in Portugal and Poland: A comparative study

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    Eduardo Tomé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the consequences of the introduction of the EU directed Bologna Process in Portuguese and Polish Universities. Specifically, we study how the Bologna Process has impacted in the employment situations of graduates in Portugal and Poland. Concerning methodology, we use available official data on the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland and Portugal. We have found that the investment in Higher Education (HE stalled in both countries in the years since the implementation of the Bologna Process due to massive budgetary restrictions. Nevertheless, the stock of HE graduates increased massively, seemingly because the authorities thought that the free market should lead the HE market in the two countries. Employment prospects, unemployment prospects and wages of graduates continued to be much higher than those of non-graduates. But an unexpected divide appeared between graduates and Masters/PhDs, with important social consequences. While the first “saved” themselves and prospered going into high skilled jobs, the later had to endure minimum wage and underskilled occupations. The low payment for these youngsters was also justified because the supply of HE with Bologna increased but the demand by companies did not match. In fact, both Portugal and Poland have stronger needs in the demand side of the market than in the supply side. Finally, both markets continue to be essentially public and the experiences of privatization did not succeed to much. In terms of social implications, the Bologna Process faces in both countries the massive and decisive challenge of eliminating youth unemployment and emigration but this can only be done with the cooperation of companies that should create high paid and high skilled jobs. Only when this occurs the Bologna Process will achieve its ultimate goal of transforming Portugal and Poland in high skilled equibriuns. Let us hope it happens, for the good of the two countries and particularly for the

  4. O franchising como paradigma de crescimento das PME em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalhosa, José Manuel Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Controlo e Gestão dos Negócios O tecido empresarial português assenta maioritariamente em organizações com características que se enquadram na categoria denominada de pequenas e médias empresas. Consequentemente gozam de enorme relevância e influência na economia nacional. O franchising teve origem nos Estados Unidos da América e começou a dar os primeiros passos no início do século passado. A introdução em Portugal deste conceito foi mais recente, final da dé...

  5. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

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    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  6. Ciganos e políticas sociais em Portugal

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    Olga Magano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the social and political changes that took place in Portugal, from April 25, 1974, specifically provided since the democratic system was implemented, became effective an understanding that advocates universal citizenship for all Portuguese. However, not all citizens are in equal circumstances on full access to the rights of citizenship. The objective of this paper is to reflect and discuss some of the impacts of measures and social policies on Gypsies people and families, as well as the (invisible changes, although the underlying behind the plural processes of social and identity reconfiguration.

  7. Pesquisa ambiental de agentes de esporotricose em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Dançante, Ana Mafalda da Silva Grilo Carreteiro

    2017-01-01

    A esporotricose é uma das principais micoses subcutâneas reportadas mundialmente. O agente etiológico é um complexo de espécies dimórficas relacionadas conhecido como complexo Sporothrix schenckii. Considerada uma doença rara na Europa, foi recentemente identificado um caso autóctone em Portugal. Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo, desenvolver um ensaio baseado em PCR para detetar e identificar membros do complexo S. schenckii em amostras ambientais, e realizar uma pesquisa ...

  8. Tourism research in Portugal: a contribution to its characterization

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    João Albino Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to be a first contribution to the characterization of tourism research in Portugal, focusing on the researcher’s profile and the characteristics of research. To that end, and based on a national Tourism Research, it was possible to identify 166 researchers working in this area, spread over about 30 higher education institutions, who subsequently completed an online questionnaire. Data were collected during March 2013 and 111 valid responses were obtained. The results show a growing and predominantly young scientific community and also highlight a diverse, solid and stimulating disciplinary perspective.

  9. THE SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF NATURAL HAZARDS RISK: PORTUGAL AND TUVALU

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rudge Ramos Ribeiro; Celeste Oliveira Alves Coelho

    2012-01-01

    Los efectos del cambio climático y del nivel del mar deben causar graves problemas para los habitantes de algunas pequeñas islas como Tuvalu en el futuro. Como resultado de una combinación de procesos naturales y acción antropogénica, el cambio del nivel del mar genera un impacto diferente. Esta investigación aborda la percepción del riesgo natural y del cambio climático en Portugal y Tuvalu. La percepción de algunos riesgos naturales, como la subida del nivel del mar, puede ser distinta para...

  10. Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bastos; C. M. Gouveia; C. C. DaCamara; R. M. Trigo

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century...

  11. Academic publishing in Portugal: threats and major opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfim Leão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the current state of scientific publication in Portugal, with reference to the impact of the open access (OA policies of commercial and academic publishers. It then explores the relationship between academic publishing and institutional repositories, discussing the way they should complement one another, taking as reference the activities of the Portuguese Association of Higher Education Publishers (APEES. Final remarks deal more specifically with the UC Digitalis project from Coimbra University Press (CUP, and the way it is committed to the goal of fostering science produced in Portuguese-speaking countries.

  12. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  13. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  14. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  15. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Analysis of climate change indices in relation to wine production: A case study in the Douro region (Portugal

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    Blanco-Ward Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is of major relevance to wine production as most of the wine-growing regions of the world, in particular the Douro region, are located within relatively narrow latitudinal bands with average growing season temperatures limited to 13–21°C. This study focuses on the incidence of climate variables and indices that are relevant both for climate change detection and for grape production with particular emphasis on extreme events (e.g. cold waves, storms, heat waves. Dynamical downscaling of MPI-ESM-LR global data forced with RCP8.5 climatic scenario is performed with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model to a regional scale including the Douro valley of Portugal for recent-past (1986–2005 and future periods (2046–2065; 2081–2100. The number, duration and intensity of events are superimposed over critical phenological phases of the vine (dormancy, bud burst, flowering, véraison, and maturity in order to assess their positive or negative implications on wine production in the region. An assessment on the statistical significance of climatic indices, their differences between the recent-past and the future scenarios and the potential impact on wine production is performed. Preliminary results indicate increased climatic stress on the Douro region wine production and increased vulnerability of its vine varieties. These results will provide evidence for future strategies aimed to preserve the high-quality wines in the region and their typicality in a sustainable way.

  17. Blepharitis due to in a cat from northern Portugal

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    Paulo Pimenta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary We report a clinical case of blepharitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans yeasts in a 2-year-old stray cat from northern Portugal (Vila Real without concurrent naso-ocular signs. Ophthalmological examination revealed mucopurulent discharge from an open wound in the right upper and lower lids. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a normal anterior segment, and intraocular pressure was within the normal reference interval. No fundoscopic alterations were detected in either eye by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. Cytological examination of an appositional smear showed numerous polymorphic neutrophils and macrophages, together with spherical yeast cells compatible with Cryptococcus species. Molecular analysis by means of PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism identified C neoformans genotype VNI. The cat was treated with itraconazole, and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, combined with a commercial ear ointment and an imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on application for bilateral parasitic otitis caused by Otodectes cynotis . One month after treatment, the clinical signs were completely resolved. Localised cutaneous lesions, as in the present case, probably result from contamination of cat-scratch injuries with viable encapsulated yeasts. Relevance and novel information This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical report of feline blepharitis due to C neoformans without concurrent naso-ocular signs. The current findings, together with those from recent reports of the infection in domestic animals, should alert the veterinary community both in Portugal and in Europe to this underdiagnosed disease.

  18. Precipitation Thresholds for Triggering Floods in the Corgo Basin, Portugal

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    Mónica Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thresholds based on critical combinations of amount/duration of precipitation and flood events were estimated for the Corgo hydrographic basin, in northern Portugal. Thirty-one flood events in the Corgo basin were identified between 1865 and 2011 from a database of hydrometeorological disasters in Portugal. The minimum, maximum, and pre-warning thresholds that define the boundaries for flood occurrence were determined. The results show that the ratio between the total number of floods and precipitation events exceeding the minimum threshold denotes a relatively low probability of successful forecasting. This result may be due to the reduced number of flooding events in the floods database, which only include floods that caused damage as reported by the media. The estimated maximum threshold is not adequate for use in floods, since the majority of true positives are below this limit. However, and more interestingly, the retrospective verification of the estimated thresholds suggests that the minimum and pre-warning thresholds are well adjusted. Therefore, the application of these precipitation thresholds may contribute to minimize possible situations of pre-crisis or immediate crisis by reducing the flood consequences and the resources involved in emergency response to flood events.

  19. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and drought in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Martins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of precipitation and drought are investigated for Portugal using monthly precipitation from 74 stations and minimum and maximum temperature from 27 stations, covering the common period of 1941–2006. Seasonal precipitation and the corresponding percentages in the year, as well as the precipitation concentration index (PCI, was computed for all 74 stations and then used as an input matrix for an R-mode principal component analysis to identify the precipitation patterns. The standardized precipitation index at 3 and 12 month time scales were computed for all stations, whereas the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and the modified PDSI for Mediterranean conditions (MedPDSI were computed for the stations with temperature data. The spatial patterns of drought over Portugal were identified by applying the S-mode principal component analysis coupled with varimax rotation to the drought indices matrices. The result revealed two distinct sub-regions in the country relative to both precipitation regimes and drought variability. The analysis of time variability of the PC scores of all drought indices allowed verifying that there is no linear trend indicating drought aggravation or decrease. In addition, the analysis shows that results for SPI-3, SPI-12, PDSI and MedPDSI are coherent among them.

  1. Association between cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic level in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sónia; Furtado, Cláudia; Pereira, João

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and disability in Portugal. Socioeconomic level is known to influence health status but there is scant evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Portugal. To analyze the distribution of cardiovascular disease in the Portuguese population according to socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the fourth National Health Survey on a representative sample of the Portuguese population. Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease, risk factors and number of medical visits were analyzed using odds ratios according to socioeconomic status (household equivalent income) in the adult population (35-74 years). Comparisons focused on the top and bottom 50% and 10% of household income distribution. Of the 21 807 individuals included, 53.3% were female, and mean age was 54 ± 11 years. Cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity were associated with lower socioeconomic status, while smoking was associated with higher status; number of medical visits and psychological distress showed no association. When present, inequality was greater at the extremes of income distribution. The results reveal an association between morbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. They also suggest that besides improved access to effective medical intervention, there is a need for a comprehensive strategy for health promotion and disease prevention that takes account of individual, cultural and socioeconomic characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro D. Gaspar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1 analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2 analysis of the training provision and the training organizations; (3 analysis of market trends; (4 definition of a training strategy; and (5 adjustment and development of training strategies for the agro-food sector. This last activity comprised the development of training curricula, suitable for the food sector as a whole and adjusted for the specific needs of some traditional industries, in order to promote the development and competitiveness of the agro-food industry in Portugal. Such training curricula aimed to promote the uptake of innovative technologies and methodologies, increase the ability of agro-food industries to invest and take risks, and enable adoption of European Community standards for production and marketing. Gaps in training supply were identified and the training provision was updated according to the needs of the agro-food companies. It was determined that companies need and demand knowledge and innovation to increase their competitive position for internationalization purposes. It was possible to define a training strategy based on market-orientation for agro-food differentiation.

  3. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  4. High relative frequency of thyroid papillary carcinoma in northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambade, M C; Gonçalves, V S; Dias, M; Sobrinho-Simões, M A

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve papillary and 40 follicular carcinomas were found in 3002 thyroid glands examined from 1931 to 1975 in four Laboratories of Pathology that fairly cover northern Portugal. There was a striking preponderance of women both in papillary (female:male = 6.9:1) and follicular carcinoma (5.7:1). Sex-specific frequency of malignancy was significantly greater in men (13.3%) than in women (8.8%). The overall papillary/follicular ratio was 5.3:1 and did not significantly change throughout the study period. Papillary/follicular ratio was not significantly greater in litoral (5.5:1) than in regions with a low iodine intake and a relatively high prevalence of goiter (3.5:1). It is advanced that this high relative frequency of papillary carcinoma in northern Portugal, even in goiter areas, may reflect the existence of a racial factor since there is not enough evidence to support the influence of dietary iodine, previous irradiation and concurrent thyroiditis.

  5. ESSAY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COLLECTIVE PROTECTION IN PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Picoli Gagno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to examine certain aspects concerning collective judicial process by the light of some Portuguese cases, having as base the collective judicial protection understood as a fundamental right. With regard to the employed research method, the approach is the qualitative one, while the method is the deductive and the technique is the bibliographic e jurisprudential research. The theoretical framework is based on the doctrine and theory of some of the cited authors during the research. Among them are Robert Alexy, Mauro Cappelletti and Bryant Garth. In addition, this paper is divided into three sections: the first one is a brief study on access to justice clarified as a fundamental right of the citizen. In the second section a parallel is made with the first one, but the collective judicial protection is therefore seen as a fundamental right. In the third and last section we have the analysis of four cases of two superior courts of Portugal, being them the Supreme Court of Justice (STJ and the Supreme Administrative Court (STA, in order to understand the collective process in Portugal and to see which points that can offer a contribution for the brazilian collective procedural technic. As a result, it is found that collective judicial protection is inevitable and immanent for a substantial vision of the fundamental right of access to justice, understood like a orders of optimization, that may his realization in the biggest measure is possible

  6. Experiences and plans of portugal in developing energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, N.; Carvalho, M. da G. S.

    2000-01-01

    portuguese government energy strategy concentrates on market opening, correction of distorted prices and gradual increase in competition as laid down by the European Union Directives. The national electricity system is divided into two segments, the public and the independent electric systems. Independent power producers are for the time being mainly producers in special regime (co-generation and renewables) and some hydropower plants, making 15% of the installed capacity. The IPP sell the generated electricity to the public system. The transmission is separated into special legal entity, and grid is open to all competitors. Since the beginning of 1999 all consumers that buy more than 9 GWh of electricity annually, so-called eligible customers, are free to chose their electricity provider. In the process of the local electric system restructuring the government decided to privatise 49,5% of the monopolist, EdP, floating most of 30% immediately on the local and international stock exchanges in the biggest Portuguese privatisation event so far, and selling the rest to institutional investors. Later, further 19,5% were similarly privatised. The introduction of natural gas in Portugal started in 1997 by giving local distribution concession and making big consumers eligible to buy directly from the monopolist importer and pipeline owner (GdP). The paper will show the results expected from gradual demonopolisation and privatisation of electric and gas systems in Portugal. (author)

  7. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-11-04

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas.

  8. THE SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF NATURAL HAZARDS RISK: PORTUGAL AND TUVALU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rudge Ramos Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos del cambio climático y del nivel del mar deben causar graves problemas para los habitantes de algunas pequeñas islas como Tuvalu en el futuro. Como resultado de una combinación de procesos naturales y acción antropogénica, el cambio del nivel del mar genera un impacto diferente. Esta investigación aborda la percepción del riesgo natural y del cambio climático en Portugal y Tuvalu. La percepción de algunos riesgos naturales, como la subida del nivel del mar, puede ser distinta para cada sitio. La percepción de los cambios climáticos en Tuvalu es poco conocida por la comunidad académica de la Universidad de Aveiro, y creen que los impactos del aumento del nivel del mar para Portugal y Tuvalu no son los mismos. La distancia geográfica tiene una influencia en la percepción del riesgo, a mayor distancia se le da una menor atención.

  9. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  10. O uso das redes sociais por jornalistas em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Veloso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende mostrar como as redes sociais são utilizadas pelosjornalistas, nomeadamente os que trabalham em Portugal. É ainda intuito deste trabalho perceber se o uso destas ferramentas por estes profissionais pode constituir uma nova prática rotineira.Para o efeito, levou-se a cabo um estudo de carácter exploratório baseado nos resultados de um inquérito por questionário – realizado de raiz – dirigido à classe jornalística em Portugal. O artigo divide-se em quatro partes. Tendo em conta que, em pouco mais de uma década, as redes sociais se tornaram a atividade online mais popular a nível global, começa-se por realizar um enquadramento de apoio ao surgimento destas ferramentas na sociedade atual, dando conta de algumas estatísticas de uso e de novos processos de socialização subsequentes. Num segundo momento, é feito refereência à relação do jornalismo com as redes sociais e algumas novas práticas jornalísticas neste âmbito, apresentando conclusões de estudos internacionais sobre a utilização que jornalistas de diversos países fazem das redes sociais. Aborda-se ainda as orientações existentes sobre o uso ético que os jornalistas devem dar a estas ferramentas segundo várias entidades ligadas ao universo do jornalismo. A terceira parte foca-se no inquérito, designadamente a metodologia usada e a estrutura do mesmo; realiza-se um breve retrato sociográfico da classe jornalística em Portugal e faz-se uma caracterização socioprofissional da amostra obtida através do inquérito; apresentam-se os resultados conseguidos e analisam-se e discutem-se os mesmos, nomeadamente através de comparações com as estatísticas e as conclusões dos estudos nacionais e internacionais já mencionadas. Na quarta secção, tendo por base a discussão realizada e o balanço do tratamento do inquérito, menciona-se alguns desafios que se colocam aos jornalistas na era da Web 2.0. E conclui-se com a confirmação de que a

  11. Using cellular automata to simulate forest fire propagation in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Joana; daCamara, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires in the Mediterranean region have severe damaging effects mainly due to large fire events [1, 2]. When restricting to Portugal, wildfires have burned over 1:4 million ha in the last decade. Considering the increasing tendency in the extent and severity of wildfires [1, 2], the availability of modeling tools of fire episodes is of crucial importance. Two main types of mathematical models are generally available, namely deterministic and stochastic models. Deterministic models attempt a description of fires, fuel and atmosphere as multiphase continua prescribing mass, momentum and energy conservation, which typically leads to systems of coupled PDEs to be solved numerically on a grid. Simpler descriptions, such as FARSITE, neglect the interaction with atmosphere and propagate the fire front using wave techniques. One of the most important stochastic models are Cellular Automata (CA), in which space is discretized into cells, and physical quantities take on a finite set of values at each cell. The cells evolve in discrete time according to a set of transition rules, and the states of the neighboring cells. In the present work, we implement and then improve a simple and fast CA model designed to operationally simulate wildfires in Portugal. The reference CA model chosen [3] has the advantage of having been applied successfully in other Mediterranean ecosystems, namely to historical fires in Greece. The model is defined on a square grid with propagation to 8 nearest and next-nearest neighbors, where each cell is characterized by 4 possible discrete states, corresponding to burning, not-yet burned, fuel-free and completely burned cells, with 4 possible rules of evolution which take into account fuel properties, meteorological conditions, and topography. As a CA model, it offers the possibility to run a very high number of simulations in order to verify and apply the model, and is easily modified by implementing additional variables and different rules for the

  12. Occupational exposure in Portugal in the 1999 - 2003 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.B.; Abrantes, J.N.; Alves, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    The annual effective doses evaluated by the Individual Monitoring Service of the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) in Portugal, in the 5-year period from 1999 - 2003, are analysed and presented in this paper. In this period, the I.M.S. at I.T.N.-D.P.R.S.N. monitored nearly 91% of all the monitored population in Portugal. In 2003, approximately 9,000 professionally exposed workers from 970 facilities spread from all over the country were monitored. The workers are organized in four fields of activity, namely conventional industry, research, medicine and mining. In the period from 1999 to 2003, the workers from the medical sector represented 80-85% of the monitored population. In Portugal there are no nuclear power plants but there is a nuclear research reactor at I.T.N. premises. People working at the reactor were included in the research field. In this period, the number of workers involved in the mining field decreased as the exploration of natural Uranium ore was gradually discontinued. During this period there were two monitoring systems operating at the I.M.S. of I.T.N.-D.P.R.S.N., one based on film and the other one based on thermoluminescence detectors (TLD). An effort was made to transfer people monitored by film to TLD and in 2003 nearly 6,500 workers (approx.) were monitored with this methodology. Workers shifted from film to TLD monitoring method were taken into account and considered only once. In this work, the annual whole body doses evaluated in the period 1999 to 2003 were considered. The distribution of workers in each field of activity was determined and the distribution of workers by dose intervals in each field is presented. The annual average doses were computed for the total monitored population and for the exposed workers in each field of activity. The annual collective doses in each field of activity and the total collective doses were also determined and

  13. Portugal: Lisbon seeks to juggle power sell-off, oil deregulation and advent of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, K.

    1994-01-01

    A profile of Portugal's energy sector is presented and the energy balance (1993) in terms of oil, gas, coal, electricity and other sources is located. Topics discussed include the import of natural gas supplies from Algeria by 1996; the construction of a 400km natural gas pipeline; the breakup of the Electricidada de Portugal into separate units, and the impact of liberation and privatisation on the power sector. The first large-scale private power generation, and deregulation and competition in Portugal's oil industry are also examined in this article. (UK)

  14. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  15. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  16. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  17. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  18. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  19. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  20. The Counter-Reformation, Diplomacy, and Art Patronage in Portugal under Cardinal-Infant D. Henrique of Portugal: A Legacy to Serve Church and Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Pedro Dias Pacheco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly known as the Cardinal-King, Don Henrique of Portugal was a Portuguese royal-blood infant who was destined to become a prince of the Church. He was a preeminent figure of the sixteenth century: the period of the political, economic, religious, and cultural expansion of the Portuguese Empire, and of the Counter-Reformation. During his service to the Roman Catholic Church, D. Henrique occupied the seats of the three Portuguese archdioceses, was chosen to govern some of the wealthiest religious orders, and represented the Holy Office in Portugal. He was also nominated cardinal and legate a latere to Portugal. The Cardinal-Infant was responsible for an unprecedented architectural innovation in Portugal and beyond, reforming, expanding, and erecting several buildings. This study focuses on the institutional projects and material reforms in Portugal initiated by Cardinal-King D. Henrique through complex diplomatic relations between the Portuguese Crown and the Holy See during the sixteenth century. Its main objective is to create a basis for further research into his architectural patronage while occupying his several positions of ecclesiastical and lay authority.

  1. Spatio-temporal evolution of forest fires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mário G.; Parente, Joana

    2017-04-01

    A key issue in fire management is the ability to explore and try to predict where and when fires are more likely to occur. This information can be useful to understand the triggering factors of ignitions and for planning strategies to reduce forest fires, to manage the sources of ignition and to identify areas and frame period at risk. Therefore, producing maps displaying forest fires location and their occurrence in time can be of great help for accurately forecasting these hazardous events. In a fire prone country as Portugal, where thousands of events occurs each year, it is involved to drive information about fires over densities and recurrences just by looking at the original arrangement of the mapped ignition points or burnt areas. In this respect, statistical methods originally developed for spatio-temporal stochastic point processes can be employed to find a structure within these large datasets. In the present study, the authors propose an approach to analyze and visualize the evolution in space and in time of forest fires occurred in Portugal during a long frame period (1990 - 2013). Data came from the Portuguese mapped burnt areas official geodatabase (by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests), which is the result of interpreted satellite measurements. The following statistical analyses were performed: the geographically-weighted summary statistics, to analyze the local variability of the average burned area; the space-time Kernel density, to elaborate smoothed density surfaces representing over densities of fires classed by size and on North vs South region. Finally, we emploied the volume rendering thecnique to visualize the spatio-temporal evolution of these events into a unique map: this representation allows visually inspecting areas and time-step more affected from a high aggregation of forest fires. It results that during the whole investigated period over densities are mainly located in the northern regions, while in the

  2. Labour Human Rights in Portugal: Challenges to Their Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pessoa Henriques

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between Portugal and the International Labour Organization (ILO, considering the extent to which the ILO’s system of international labour standards is recognised at the national level in the context of labour law and labour relations, and observes the ILO’s special procedures (complaints and representations in the field of international labour human rights. The use of the ILO’s system of complaints and representations by national social actors is relevant for the configuration of the Portuguese labour relations system, considering that the changes and tensions emerging from labour relations gain expression and voice within these mechanisms. In order to assess the effectiveness of national laws and regulations, we analyse the effects of ILO’s special control mechanisms on the state, law and labour relations system. Indeed, the use of the ILO’s complaints and representations system seems to reveal the ineffectiveness of labour human rights in Portugal. The ILO’s special procedures are analysed according to three functions: a political function as a result of the mediation state/labour civil society; an instrumental/procedural function referring to the regulation of conflicts; and a symbolic function related to the setting/expression of social expectations. The soft law characteristics associated with this mechanism as well as its results are also considered. En este artículo se analiza la relación entre Portugal y la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT, teniendo en cuenta el grado en que el sistema de normas laborales internacionales de la OIT es reconocido a nivel nacional en el contexto del derecho laboral y las relaciones laborales, y observa los procedimientos especiales (quejas y reclamaciones de la OIT en el ámbito de los derechos humanos laborales internacionales. Para la configuración del sistema de relaciones laborales portugués, es relevante el uso que actores sociales

  3. Democratising intersectionality? participatory structures and equality policies in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Alonso Alvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly work on intersectionality has shown some concern on whether this policy strategy is implemented in a participatory manner. The case of Portugal has been of particular interest since the country features a long tradition of involving civil society in the making of equality policies. This article revisits the Portuguese case in order to analyse recent developments. First, the participatory and coordinated approach adopted so far to deal with inequalities is described. Second, the analysis focuses on gender-based violence policies to help capturing new advancements. These policies have been recently enlarged to tackle the situation of women at the intersections and civil society actors have been actively involved in the policy-making process. In particular, the case of policies to combat female genital mutilation illustrates how participatory structures contribute to bring an intersectional perspective. The analysis of the Portuguese case allows thus reflecting on the potential benefits of democratising intersectionality as well as its limits.

  4. Public Attitudes towards Parties in Portugal: A Longitudinal Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Pequito Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the case of the often claimed “crisis of parties” in Portugal, and argues that such controversy rests at least in part on “ambiguous” evidence. We will try to answer two fundamental research questions: 1 What motivates popular support for political parties (or lack thereof? 2 Why does antiparty rhetoric resonate with some citizens, but not with others? The empirical data and statistical regression models used allow the following conclusion: in the eyes of Portuguese citizens, parties have become a kind of “necessary evil”, being criticized for “what they actually do” and supported for “what they are supposed to do”.

  5. Between Germanic and Latin eugenics: Portugal, 1930-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mark Cleminson

    Full Text Available Abstract This article assesses critically the participation of Portuguese eugenicists in “Latin eugenics” and traces the continuities and discontinuities with respect to this model. In particular, it focuses on a number of examples of more “Germanic” eugenics in contrast and in comparison to Latin versions of eugenics. In the former category, Eusébio Tamagnini, José Ayres de Azevedo and Leopoldina Ferreira de Paulo are considered; in the latter category, especially the work of Almerindo Lessa on “racial mixing” is considered. The conclusions suggest that we should seek diversity in both Latin and northern European eugenic models while at the same time placing Portugal within the array of possible versions of eugenics during the first half of the twentieth century.

  6. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  7. Prefigurative politics and emergent communitarian spaces: The case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Catarina-Soares

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prefiguration has become in the last years an important and powerful conceptualisation to understand the place–based constructions developed by different actors while attempting to create in their own interactions and in the way they organise their lives the kind of society they envision more respectful of inclusion, diversity and non-oppression. Concretely, this paper is focused on how the establishment of communitarian relations is of paramount importance to prefigurative politics. To this end, we will explore the concrete case of Portugal wherein an ever-growing number of communitarian projects (namely social centres, ecovillages and economic solidary networks have been developed both in urban and country sides of the country in the last years. Implications for contemporary ideas on everyday struggle are discussed in the end.

  8. El voto religioso en España y Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero, Jóse Ramón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between religiosity and voting decisions in Spain and Portugal. We study whether religion (measured as church attendance and opinions about moral issues influences voting for the two main political parties. Results show a different relationship between religion and voting in both countries: only in Spain religious beliefs play an important role in electoral behaviour. We claim that to account for this finding several factors need to be considered, namely the different configuration of the party systems and religious maps, the distinctive mechanisms linking religious identities with voting and, above all, the important role played by political leaders in activating religiosity within the electoral competition.

    Este artículo explora la relación entre la religiosidad y las preferencias electorales en España y Portugal. Estudiamos si la religión (medida como asistencia a oficios religiosos y opiniones sobre asuntos morales tiene influencia sobre el voto a los dos principales partidos nacionales. Los resultados del análisis apuntan a una relación diferente entre religión y voto en ambos países: sólo en España las creencias religiosas desempeñan un papel destacado en el comportamiento electoral. Defendemos que la explicación a este hallazgo se encuentra en un conjunto de factores entre los que cabe destacar la diferente configuración del sistema de partidos y de los mapas religiosos, los distintos mecanismos que canalizan las identidades religiosas hacia el voto y, fundamentalmente, el importante papel desempeñado por las elites políticas en la activación de la religiosidad dentro de la competición electoral.

  9. A survey of entomopathogenic nematode species in continental Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, V; Laranjo, M; Mota, M; Oliveira, S

    2014-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are lethal parasites of insects, used as biocontrol agents. The objectives of this work were to survey the presence of EPN in continental Portugal and to characterize the different species. Of the 791 soil samples collected throughout continental Portugal, 53 were positive for EPN. Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were the two most abundant species. Analysis of EPN geographical distribution revealed an association between nematode species and vegetation type. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was mostly found in the Alentejo region while S. feltiae was present in land occupied by agriculture with natural vegetation, broadleaved forest, mixed forest and transitional woodland-shrub, agro-forestry areas, complex cultivated patterns and non-irrigated arable land. Although no clear association was found between species and soil type, S. feltiae was typically recovered from cambisols and H. bacteriophora was more abundant in lithosols. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that S. feltiae was the most abundant species, followed by H. bacteriophora. Steinernema intermedium and S. kraussei were each isolated from one site and Steinernema sp. from two sites. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS, D2D3 expansion region of the 28S rRNA gene, as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes, was performed to evaluate the genetic diversity of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. No significant genetic diversity was found among H. bacteriophora isolates. However, COXI seems to be the best marker to study genetic diversity of S. feltiae. This survey contributes to the understanding of EPN distribution in Europe.

  10. Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

  11. The Electronic Control of the Employer in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Coelho Moreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The way the work is made has been suffering in the last years countless changes related with the huge increase and development of the use of new information and communication technologies in the work relationship. The theme of privacy and surveillance of the employer have been turning in a matter of considerable interest and surrounded of great controversy in the last years all around the world and Portugal is no exception.The technological innovation allows, through several instruments as the use of video surveillance, GPS, RFID, control of electronic communications, control of online social networks or the internet, the continuous surveillance and monitoring of the workers and new questions arise in the horizon. These new forms of control constitute powerful means of surveillance and of memorization, but also of analysis and of interference in the people’ privacy, and one of the major challenges put today is the regulation of this new forms of control in the workplace because the advancement of modern technology has made it possible to collect and store information on a seemingly limitless scale, while also facilitating access to it. The question that arises before the use of this technology is to know what limits should be established. And the answer is related, it seems, with the principles of data protection, mainly, in Portugal, articles 20, 21 and 22 of Portuguese Labour Code and also the Portuguese Data Protection Act, Law number 67/98, from 26th October, and, most of all, the legitimate principle, the proportionality principle and the transparency principle.This as led to a new form of control much more intrusive and that controls almost everything even the way the worker thinks.

  12. [Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Núñez, A; Fonte, M; Faustino, E V S

    2015-03-01

    Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P=.01), jugular vein central catheter (P<.001), cancer (P=.03), and sepsis (P<.001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P<.001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P=.02), femoral vein catheter (P<.001), cancer (P=.02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P=.006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P<.001). Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Salud y Seguridad del Trabajo en Portugal: apuntes diversos Some annotations about Occupational Health and Safety in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António de Sousa Uva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El autor aborda algunos aspectos relativos a la Salud y Seguridad del Trabajo (SST en Portugal llamando la atención para, esencialmente, intentar sostener la tesis de que, desde mediados de la década de los 90, se observaron importantes avances en la mejoría de las condiciones del trabajo en la perspectiva de la SST, aunque se mantuvieron algunos problemas en la práctica concreta de las normativas legales. Incluso con estas mejoras, las tasas de frecuencia de accidentes de trabajo y de enfermedades profesionales en Portugal todavía se mantienen muy elevadas necesitando, por tanto, estrategias más "agresivas" para concienciar la sociedad portuguesa en torno a las políticas públicas de SST efectivamente promotoras de prevención de riesgos profesionales y de la promoción de la salud de quien trabaja. Es por tanto indispensable que la protección de la salud y de la seguridad de los trabajadores en los puestos de trabajo sea encarada como un conjunto de actividades de indiscutible utilidad para todos los representantes del mundo del trabajo e que la agenda política pase a valorizar, aún más, la promoción de espacios de trabajo saludables y seguros, con la consecuente valorización de las variables individuales en la estrategia nacional de salud y seguridad.In the present work, the author analyzes several aspects of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS in Portugal. He provides evidence sustaining the assumption of an important progress, since the mid-nineties, in the improvement of the working conditions from an OHS perspective. Nevertheless, several problems still remain in the practical application of legal regulations. In addition, despite of these improvements, the frequency rates of working accidents and occupational diseases remain very high. Hence, more "aggressive" strategies are required to increase the awareness of the Portuguese society relative to the OHS public policies, whose effectiveness has been demonstrated either in

  14. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  15. Consumption Patterns of Energy Drinks in Portuguese Adolescents from A City in Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Martins

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of energy drinks consumption among adolescents from a city in Northern Portugal, with self-reported symptoms after consumption and common concomitant use of alcohol.

  16. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental

  17. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M.; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental

  18. The Guarda structure (Portugal): Impact structure or not? Microstructural studies of Quartz, Zircon and Monazite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalinge, M.E. van; Hamers, M.F.; Drury, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    The Guarda Structure in north-eastern Portugal has been proposed as a potential impact structure. We have studied the structure in detail, but no field or microscopic evidence has been found to support the impact hypothesis

  19. FAMILY HEALTH MANAGEMENT AND POVERTY IN AN ECONOMIC RECESSION PERIOD IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Ana Branca; Oliveira, Ivo; Nogueira, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article, in the management and health, was to assess the contribution of family health and its role in local development in the context of economic recession and worsening poverty in Portugal. Material and Methods. Data were collected through the questionnaire, 1021 individuals were inquired in Portugal, with statistical treatment through inferential analysis, factorial and regression. They were asked to participate voluntarily in writing through email pa...

  20. How the Gold Standard Functioned in Portugal: An Analysis of Some Macroeconomic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    António Portugal Duarte; João Sousa Andrade

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of the gold standard period in Portugal through comparison with other monetary systems that were operated afterwards. Portugal was the first country in Europe to join Great Britain in the gold standard, in 1854, and it adhered to it for quite a long time. The principle of free gold convertibility of the Portuguese currency at a fixed price was abandoned in 1891, even though the classical gold standard as an international monetary system ...

  1. [Cerebrovascular mortality in Portugal: are we overemphasizing hypertension and neglecting atrial fibrillation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providência, Rui; Gonçalves, Lino; Ferreira, Maria João

    2013-11-01

    Cerebrovascular disease has long been the leading cause of death in Portugal. Despite improvements in the treatment of hypertension and the resulting decrease in associated mortality, the progressive aging of the population and increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation have prevented the incidence of stroke from falling as much as desired. The authors review the evidence on the situation in Portugal and propose an intervention plan. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Competitiveness in the Southern Euro Area; France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Lissovolik; Julio Escolano; Stefania Fabrizio; Werner Schule; Herman Z Bennett; Stephen Tokarick; Yuan Xiao; Marialuz Moreno Badia; Eva Gutierrez; Iryna V. Ivaschenko

    2008-01-01

    This collection of studies analyzes developments in nonprice external competitiveness of France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. While France, Italy, and Portugal have experienced substantial export market share losses, Greece and Spain performed relatively well. Export market share losses appear associated with rigidities in resource allocation (sectoral, geographical, technological) relative to peers and lower productivity gains in high value-added sectors. Disaggregated analysis of goo...

  3. The demand factors for cesareans in Portugal – some preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Aida Isabel; Rocha, Tania

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the demand factors for cesareans in Portugal. This work is exploratory and preliminary. Data is aggregated in NUTSII , for the period 2002-10. The number of cesareans performed is count data which requires the estimation of this panel data by a negative binomial with fixed effects. The main result is the evidence that there may be induced demand for cesareans in Portugal. Further research is needed.

  4. Finance and economic and social reproduction: prospects for financialised futures in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, João; Santos, Ana C.; Teles, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Portugal is a semi-peripheral country within the EU that has partially followed similar processes as those of most financialised core countries, and that has been particularly hard-hit by the GFC. This paper reflects on the factors that have shaped economic and social reproduction in Portugal, drawing on previous research examining the involvement of households with finance and the systems of provision for housing, pensions and water conducted for WP5 and WP8 of FESSUD. Based on the Portugues...

  5. Population mobility and the changing epidemics of HIV-2 in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A C; Valadas, E; França, L

    2012-01-01

    Portugal is the European country with the highest frequency of HIV-2 infection, which is mainly concentrated in West Africa. The cumulative number of notified HIV-2 infections in Portugal was 1813 by the end of December 2008. To better characterize the dynamics of HIV-2 infection in the country a...... and to obtain data that may be of use in the prevention of the spread of HIV-2, we evaluated a large pooled sample of patients....

  6. Portugal; Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    Portugal's economy faced severe crisis during the global economic and financial crisis. In this context, Portugal's authorities have put forward an economically well-balanced program that will focus on structural reforms to boost growth and employment, ensure balanced fiscal sustainability, safeguard financial stability, and prevent a credit crunch. The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund welcomed this step, and approved a three-year arrangement under the Extended Fund Facility...

  7. Introducción de las artes marciales asiáticas en Portugal = The introduction of asian martial arts in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutiérrez García

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza la introducción del jujutsu en Portugal, sucedida a principios del siglo XX. Para su realización se ha consultado fundamentalmente prensa histórica portuguesa, tanto general como específica del ámbito deportivo. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la introducción del jujutsu en Portugal se produjo fundamentalmente a través del mundo del espectáculo, mediante actuaciones de expertos japoneses. Las notables diferencias técnicas y corporales entre estos luchadores japoneses y los luchadores profesionales de lucha libre y grecorromana de la época, a los que habitualmente solían derrotar, contribuyeron a generar un potente imaginario de las artes de combate orientales como sistemas superiores de cultura física y defensa personal. No obstante, a pesar del éxito del jujutsu este no logró afianzarse sólidamente en Portugal, desapareciendo progresivamente de la escena pública desde principios de la segunda década del siglo XX.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------The present study analyzes the introduction of jujutsu in Portugal at the beginning of the 20th century. Mainly, historical Portuguese newspapers were reviewed, both general and specific from sports field. Results show that the introduction of jujutsu in Portugal was principally conduced via the show business through exhibitions performed by Japanese experts. Significant technical and physical differences between the Japanese fighters and the professional Freestyle and Greco-roman fighters, who were usually defeated by the former, contributed to create a powerful imaginary of the eastern fighting arts as superior systems of physical culture and self-defence. However, in spite of jujutsu’s success, it did not come to be strongly established in Portugal, vanishing progressively off the public scene since the beginning of the 1910s.

  8. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  9. Introducción de las artes marciales asiáticas en Portugal = The introduction of asian martial arts in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Gutiérrez García; Vitor Alberto Rosa; Mikel Pérez Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza la introducción del jujutsu en Portugal, sucedida a principios del siglo XX. Para su realización se ha consultado fundamentalmente prensa histórica portuguesa, tanto general como específica del ámbito deportivo. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la introducción del jujutsu en Portugal se produjo fundamentalmente a través del mundo del espectáculo, mediante actuaciones de expertos japoneses. Las notables diferencias técnicas y corporales entre estos luchadores j...

  10. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  11. Padrões de casamento dos imigrantes brasileiros residentes em Portugal Patrones de matrimonio de los inmigrantes brasileños residentes en Portugal Marriage patterns of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo das últimas décadas, o número de estrangeiros residentes em Portugal aumentou de forma expressiva. Neste contexto, a comunidade brasileira assumiu uma importância cada vez maior, sendo em 2009 a nacionalidade mais representada, com uma participação de 25% no total de residentes estrangeiros em Portugal. Esta evolução tem, como seria de se esperar, reflexos a outros níveis, em particular no contexto do casamento. Contrariando a tendência decrescente observada para o total de casamentos ocorridos entre 2001 e 2009, aqueles em que pelo menos um dos cônjuges nasceu no Brasil quase quadruplicaram nesse período. Para muitos autores, os casamentos mistos são um bom indicador da integração das comunidades imigrantes na sociedade de acolhimento. Assim, dada a importância da comunidade brasileira residente em Portugal, é relevante observar qual o peso dos casamentos mistos nesta comunidade e analisar seus padrões de matrimônio. A análise estatística dos microdados dos casamentos disponibilizados pelo Instituto Nacional de Estatística possibilitou estudar e caraterizar a evolução dos casamentos registrados em Portugal, entre 2001 e 2009, envolvendo brasileiros residentes em Portugal. Ficou patente a existência de um elevado nível de casamentos mistos, em especial com portugueses, neste período, o que indicia sua integração na comunidade de acolhimento. Verificaram-se igualmente algumas diferenças nos padrões de matrimônio entre os sexos, bem como uma tendência para a diminuição da importância dos casamentos mistos, em especial entre os homens.A lo largo de las últimas décadas, el número de extranjeros residentes en Portugal aumentó de forma expresiva. En este contexto, la comunidad brasileña asumió una importancia cada vez mayor, siendo en 2009 la nacionalidad más representativa, con una cuota de residentes del 25% en el total de población extranjera en Portugal. Esta evolución tiene, como cabr

  12. Analysis of sarcoidosis in the Oporto region (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Cardoso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Epidemiological studies of different populations are essential because clinical presentation, organ involvement, disease severity, and prognosis vary significantly according to region and population. The aim of this study was to assess epidemiological and clinical characteristics, staging factors, and clinical course in patients with sarcoidosis from a tertiary hospital in Oporto, Portugal. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with sarcoidosis and at least 2 years of follow-up evaluated at the Centro Hospitalar de São João between 2000 and 2014. Results: We identified 409 patients with sarcoidosis (females, 58.9%; mean age at diagnosis, 38.9 ± 13.4 years; smokers, 14.4%]. All the patients were diagnosed according to the ERS/ATS/WASOG consensus statement and 64.1% had evidence of noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas in biopsy specimens. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed as part of the diagnostic work-up in 289 patients and 90.2% had lymphocytosis (CD4/CD8 ratio ≥ 3.5 in 60.9% of cases. Exertion dyspnea, cough, and constitutional symptoms were the most common presenting symptoms; 10.1% of patients were asymptomatic, 22.8% had Löfgren syndrome, and 50.5% had extrathoracic involvement. Radiographic stages of disease according to the Scadding criteria were as follows: stage 0 (5.2%, stage I (33.7%, stage II (47.0%, stage III (8.4%, and stage IV (5.7%. Impaired respiratory function was observed in 45.6% patients and was mostly mild. Systemic treatment was administered in 58.6% of cases. Overall, 45.3% of patients experienced disease resolution. Conclusion: The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this cohort of patients with sarcoidosis from the Oporto region in northern Portugal revealed epidemiological and clinical characteristics that were generally similar to those described in other Western Europe populations and

  13. Frequency of rheumatic diseases in Portugal: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjardino, Teresa; Lucas, Raquel; Barros, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    To describe the frequency of rheuma­tic diseases in Portugal through a systematic review of published literature, critically appraising available information and identifying data collection gaps. We systematically reviewed the literature to retrieve data on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases in Portugal through MEDLINE and Índex das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas searches, PhD theses, and national health surveys reports. Original articles in English or Portuguese published between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 were included. We retrieved information for the prevalence of rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis, back pain, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs), osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and other systemic rheumatic diseases and for the incidence of back pain, osteoporotic fracture and other systemic rheumatic diseases. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases ranged from 16.0% to 24.0% and the prevalence of osteoarthritis was 11.1% (95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 9.4-13.1) in the knee and 5.5% (95%CI: 4.3-7.0) in the hip. Regarding back pain, period prevalence ranged from 8.0% (95%CI: 6.1-10.1) to 29.5% (95%CI: 23.4-36.2) in children and from 12.3% (95%CI: 10.5-14.3) to 51.3% (95%CI: 48.6-53.9) in adults. The prevalence of WRMDs ranged from 5.9% to 84.2% (95%CI: 80.8-87.3). The yearly incidence of osteoporotic fracture (per 100 000) ranged from 93.3 to 481 (95%CI: 407-564) in women and from 31.9 to 154 (95%CI: 106-218) in men. The prevalence of osteoporosis in women ranged from 11.0% to 15.4% (95%CI: 13.4-17.6) and in men from 1.1% to 16.8% (95%CI: 12.2-22.3). The prevalence of fibromyalgia ranged from 3.6% (95%CI: 2.0-5.2) to 3.7% (95%CI: 2.0-5.4). The prevalence estimates of ankylosing spondylitis and of spondyloarthritis were 0.6% and 1.6% (95%CI: 0.8-2.7), respectively. The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus was estimated in 0.2% (95%CI: 0.1-0.8). There is a broad spectrum of information available

  14. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  15. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  16. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  17. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  18. Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Portugal = A Educacao Pre-Escolar e os Cuidados para a Infancia em Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    Based on the view that the rapid expansion and development of preschool education requires careful scrutiny of both educational policy and practices, this book presents information on current early childhood education and care policy in Portugal. Section 1 of the book provides a historical framework for the development of early childhood education…

  19. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  20. Delta Cafés (Portugal: Sustainable Business Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Swiatkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the case study of Delta Cafés we discuss the sustainable development of the Portuguese company and brand over the 55 years of their existence. Delta Cafés has already been analyzed in terms of marketing activity, social responsibility, management control systems, etc. In this paper, we refer to these studies, and we reach the sources, i.e. the information provided by the Delta Cafés itself. Due to the nature of the coffee market and the use of case study methodology, we start the presentation of this case from a broader context, describing the coffee market in the world and characterizing the coffee market in Portugal as well. Then we present the history of the development of the company and the brand Delta Cafés. The paper ends with concluding remarks in which we discuss the issues of social and environmental responsibility in the light of the development of Delta Cafés business and brand strategies. 

  1. Treatment planning systems dosimetry auditing project in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M C; Cavaco, A; Jacob, K; Madureira, L; Germano, S; Faustino, S; Lencart, J; Trindade, M; Vale, J; Batel, V; Sousa, M; Bernardo, A; Brás, S; Macedo, S; Pimparel, D; Ponte, F; Diaz, E; Martins, A; Pinheiro, A; Marques, F; Batista, C; Silva, L; Rodrigues, M; Carita, L; Gershkevitsh, E; Izewska, J

    2014-02-01

    The Medical Physics Division of the Portuguese Physics Society (DFM_SPF) in collaboration with the IAEA, carried out a national auditing project in radiotherapy, between September 2011 and April 2012. The objective of this audit was to ensure the optimal usage of treatment planning systems. The national results are presented in this paper. The audit methodology simulated all steps of external beam radiotherapy workflow, from image acquisition to treatment planning and dose delivery. A thorax CIRS phantom lend by IAEA was used in 8 planning test-cases for photon beams corresponding to 15 measuring points (33 point dose results, including individual fields in multi-field test cases and 5 sum results) in different phantom materials covering a set of typical clinical delivery techniques in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy. All 24 radiotherapy centers in Portugal have participated. 50 photon beams with energies 4-18 MV have been audited using 25 linear accelerators and 32 calculation algorithms. In general a very good consistency was observed for the same type of algorithm in all centres and for each beam quality. The overall results confirmed that the national status of TPS calculations and dose delivery for 3D conformal radiotherapy is generally acceptable with no major causes for concern. This project contributed to the strengthening of the cooperation between the centres and professionals, paving the way to further national collaborations. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  4. Radionuclides from past uranium mining in rivers of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Lopes, Irene; Batista, Aleluia

    2007-01-01

    During several decades and until a few years ago, uranium mines were exploited in the Centre of Portugal and wastewaters from uranium ore milling facilities were discharged into river basins. To investigate enhancement of radioactivity in freshwater ecosystems, radionuclides of uranium and thorium series were measured in water, sediments, suspended matter, and fish samples from the rivers Vouga, Dão, Távora and Mondego. The results show that these rivers carry sediments with relatively high naturally occurring radioactivity, and display relatively high concentrations of radon dissolved in water, which is typical of a uranium rich region. Riverbed sediments show enhanced concentrations of radionuclides in the mid-section of the Mondego River, a sign of past wastewater discharges from mining and milling works at Urgeiriça confirmed by the enhanced values of (238)U/(232)Th radionuclide ratios in sediments. Radionuclide concentrations in water, suspended matter and freshwater fish from that section of Mondego are also enhanced in comparison with concentrations measured in other rivers. Based on current radionuclide concentrations in fish, regular consumption of freshwater species by local populations would add 0.032 mSv a(-1) of dose equivalent (1%) to the average background radiation dose. Therefore, it is concluded that current levels of enhanced radioactivity do not pose a significant radiological risk either to aquatic fauna or to freshwater fish consumers.

  5. New Middle Pleistocene hominin cranium from Gruta da Aroeira (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daura, Joan; Sanz, Montserrat; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Hoffmann, Dirk L; Quam, Rolf M; Ortega, María Cruz; Santos, Elena; Gómez, Sandra; Rubio, Angel; Villaescusa, Lucía; Souto, Pedro; Mauricio, João; Rodrigues, Filipa; Ferreira, Artur; Godinho, Paulo; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2017-03-28

    The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheulean toolkit remain scarce. The earliest European hominin crania associated with Acheulean handaxes are at the sites of Arago, Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH), and Swanscombe, dating to 400-500 ka (Marine Isotope Stage 11-12). The Atapuerca (SH) fossils and the Swanscombe cranium belong to the Neandertal clade, whereas the Arago hominins have been attributed to an incipient stage of Neandertal evolution, to Homo heidelbergensis , or to a subspecies of Homo erectus A recently discovered cranium (Aroeira 3) from the Gruta da Aroeira (Almonda karst system, Portugal) dating to 390-436 ka provides important evidence on the earliest European Acheulean-bearing hominins. This cranium is represented by most of the right half of a calvarium (with the exception of the missing occipital bone) and a fragmentary right maxilla preserving part of the nasal floor and two fragmentary molars. The combination of traits in the Aroeira 3 cranium augments the previously documented diversity in the European Middle Pleistocene fossil record.

  6. Chromosomic studies on some Pteridophyta from Portugal. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queirós, Magarida

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of ten taxa of Pteridophyta from Portugal are reported. Earlier counts on six of these taxa have been carried out on material from other portuguese places. Selaginella denticulata (L. Spring, Polypodium cambricum L. subsp. Cambricum, Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. var. adiantum-nigrum and Cystopteris fragilis (L. Bernh. subsp. fragilisare now first studied under the caryological point of view.

    Se ha estudiado el número cromosómico de algunos taxones de Pteridaphyta portugueses de los cuales se dan a conocer per primera vez los siguientes: Selaginella denticulata (L. Spring, Polypodium cambricum L. subsp. Cambricum, Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. var. adiantum-nigrum y Cystopteris fragilis (L. Bernh. subsp. fragilis. Los restantes coinciden con los datos dados anteriormente.

  7. Sexualidad juvenil y cambio social: el caso de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado-Pais José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar si, dentro de un marco de profundos cambios sociales, las nuevas generaciones estarán creando nuevos valores sociales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Aplicando el método de las generaciones, se utilizaron datos de una encuesta sobre valores y generaciones, hecho en 1996 a 2 012 individuos residentes en Portugal continental y representativos de la población portuguesa. Recurriendo al programa SPAD (Estadística para análisis de datos, se procedió a un análisis factorial de correspondencias múltiples en conjugación con un análisis de tipo cluster. RESULTADOS: Constatamos que las principales discontinuidades intergeneracionales se presentan en el área de las actitudes y prácticas sexuales. Comprobamos que los grupos y agregados resultantes del análisis tienen índices de sobrerrepresentación de generaciones específicas. Por ejemplo, los encuestados hedonistas se caracterizan por un elevado índice de sobrerrepresentación de jóvenes, en contraste con los inhibidos o los moralistas. CONCLUSIONES: Los jóvenes portugueses aparecen como una generación portadora de valores hedonistas y de carácter experimental en el plano de la vida sexual y amorosa. Sin embargo, se caracterizan al mismo tiempo por su vulnerabilidad a conductas de riesgo.

  8. Integrating water quality responses to best management practices in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, André; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2018-01-01

    Nutrient nonpoint pollution has a significant impact on water resources worldwide. The main challenge of this work was to assess the application of best management practices in agricultural land to comply with water quality legislation for surface waters. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN was used to evaluate water quality of Ave River in Portugal. Best management practices (infiltration basin) (BMP) were applied to agricultural land (for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% area) with removal efficiencies of 50% for fecal coliforms and 30% for nitrogen, phosphorus, and biochemical oxygen demand. The inflow of water quality constituents was reduced for all scenarios, with fecal coliforms achieving the highest reduction between 5.8 and 28.9% and nutrients and biochemical oxygen demand between 2 and 13%. Biochemical oxygen demand and orthophosphates concentrations achieved a good water quality status according to the European Legislation for scenarios of BMP applied to 3 and 12% agricultural area, respectively. Fecal coliform levels in Ave River basin require further treatment to fall below the established value in the abovementioned legislation. This study shows that agricultural watersheds such as Ave basins demand special attention in regard to nonpoint pollution sources effects on water quality and nutrient loads.

  9. Salt fluxes in a complex river mouth system of Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Vaz

    Full Text Available Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey, currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%. An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months.

  10. Assessment of shipping emissions on four ports of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2017-12-01

    In the last few years, ship emissions have attracted growing attention in the scientific community. The main reason is the constant increase of marine emissions over the last twenty years due to the intensification of port traffic. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate ship emissions (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO x , SO 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 O CH 4 , NMVOC, and HC) through the activity-based methodology in four of the main ports of Portugal (Leixões, Setúbal, Sines and Viana do Castelo) during 2013 and 2014. The analysis was performed according to ship types (bulk carrier, container, general cargo, passenger, Ro-Ro cargo, tanker and others) and operational modes (manoeuvring, hotelling and during cruising). Results indicated that tankers were the largest emitters in two of the four analysed ports. Regarding cruising emissions, container ships were the largest emitters. . CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 estimated emissions represented more than 95% of the cruising and in-port emissions. Results were also compared with the total national emissions reported by the Portuguese Environment Agency, and if the in-port emissions estimated in the present study would have been taken into account to these totals, emissions of NO x and SO 2 would increase 15% and 24% in 2013 and 16% and 28% in 2014. Summing up ships seem to be an important source of air pollution, mainly regarding NO x and SO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations.

  12. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joao F.P. Gomes [Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oeiras (Portugal). Centro de Tecnologias Ambientais

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025. The author analyzed a set of 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. He evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources. 7 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Remote Sensing for Mineral Exploration in Central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Manuel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal is well known for the existence of Sn-W and Au-Ag mineral occurrences primarily associated with hydrothermal processes. Despite the economic and strategic importance of such occurrences, the detailed geology of this particular region is poorly known and there is an obvious absence of geological mapping at an adequate scale. Remote sensing techniques were used in order to increase current geological knowledge of the Góis–Castanheira de Pêra area (600 km2 and to guide future exploration stages by targeting and prioritising potential locations. Digital image processing algorithms, such as Red, Green, Blue (RGB colour composites, digital spatial filters, band ratios and Principal Components Analysis, were applied to Landsat 8 imagery and elevation data. Lineaments were extracted relying on geological photointerpretation criteria, allowing the identification of new geological–structural elements. Fieldwork was carried out in order to validate the remote sensing interpretations. Integration of remote sensing data with other information sources led to the definition of locations possibly suitable for hosting Sn-W and Au-Ag mineral occurrences. These areas were ranked according to their mineral potential. Targeting the most promising locations resulted in a reduction to less than 10% of the original study area (50.5 km2.

  14. Use of medicines by homeless people in Porto, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe patterns of medication use among homeless adults from the city of Porto, Portugal. We recruited 146 homeless participants in four social services institutions. Data on the use of medicines in the previous week were collected using face-to-face interviews. We described the prevalence and main correlates of use of medicines from different Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (ATC groups. A total of 56.8% of the homeless reported to have used at least one medicine in the previous week. The most frequently reported were benzodiazepines (21.9% and antipsychotics (15.1%; socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables and use of health care were not found to be significantly associated with their use. The prevalence was 1.4% for anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, and 6.2% for antihypertensives, diuretics and beta-blocking agents. Medicines pertaining to the nervous system ATC group were by far the most frequently used, while those for the treatment of other common chronic and acute conditions seem to be underused.

  15. Dimensions of Causal Attributions of Tax Evasion in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Tavares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio realizado en España (Salgado, 1998 sugirió que las atribuciones de la evasión fiscal tienen dos dimensiones independientes: (a control de la evasión fiscal, y (b las creencias sobre el sistema fiscal. A fin de comprobar si la percepción de las causas de la evasión fiscal son generalizables transculturalmente, este artículo presenta una investigación realizada en Portugal utilizando las mismas atribuciones causales usadas en la investigación española. A una muestra de 497 hombres y mujeres portugueses, de diferentes puestos de trabajo, se les preguntó acerca de sus percepciones causales de la evasión fiscal. Se llevó a cabo un análisis factorial y los resultados mostraron una estructura factorial que reproduce la estructura factorial española. Los coeficientes de congruencia confirmaron la similitud de las dos estructuras. Estos resultados confirmaron que las dos dimensiones pueden explicar la estructura de la percepción de las causas de la evasión fiscal. Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados y se sugieren investigaciones futuras.

  16. Vulnerability assessments as a political creation: tsunami management in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Maartje; Maat, Harro; Crane, Todd A

    2017-10-01

    Vulnerability assessments are a cornerstone of contemporary disaster research. This paper shows how research procedures and the presentation of results of vulnerability assessments are politically filtered. Using data from a study of tsunami risk assessment in Portugal, the paper demonstrates that approaches, measurement instruments, and research procedures for evaluating vulnerability are influenced by institutional preferences, lines of communication, or lack thereof, between stakeholder groups, and available technical expertise. The institutional setting and the pattern of stakeholder interactions form a filter, resulting in a particular conceptualisation of vulnerability, affecting its operationalisation via existing methods and technologies and its institutional embedding. The Portuguese case reveals a conceptualisation that is aligned with perceptions prevalent in national government bureaucracies and the exclusion of local stakeholders owing to selected methodologies and assessment procedures. The decisions taken by actors involved in these areas affect how vulnerability is assessed, and ultimately which vulnerability reduction policies will be recommended in the appraisal. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  17. A strategic approach for Water Safety Plans implementation in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jose M P

    2011-03-01

    Effective risk assessment and risk management approaches in public drinking water systems can benefit from a systematic process for hazards identification and effective management control based on the Water Safety Plan (WSP) concept. Good results from WSP development and implementation in a small number of Portuguese water utilities have shown that a more ambitious nationwide strategic approach to disseminate this methodology is needed. However, the establishment of strategic frameworks for systematic and organic scaling-up of WSP implementation at a national level requires major constraints to be overcome: lack of legislation and policies and the need for appropriate monitoring tools. This study presents a framework to inform future policy making by understanding the key constraints and needs related to institutional, organizational and research issues for WSP development and implementation in Portugal. This methodological contribution for WSP implementation can be replicated at a global scale. National health authorities and the Regulator may promote changes in legislation and policies. Independent global monitoring and benchmarking are adequate tools for measuring the progress over time and for comparing the performance of water utilities. Water utilities self-assessment must include performance improvement, operational monitoring and verification. Research and education and resources dissemination ensure knowledge acquisition and transfer.

  18. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João F P

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025, I analyzed a set of approximately 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. I evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources.

  19. Sexualidad juvenil y cambio social: el caso de Portugal Youth sexuality and social change: the case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado-Pais

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar si, dentro de un marco de profundos cambios sociales, las nuevas generaciones estarán creando nuevos valores sociales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Aplicando el método de las generaciones, se utilizaron datos de una encuesta sobre valores y generaciones, hecho en 1996 a 2 012 individuos residentes en Portugal continental y representativos de la población portuguesa. Recurriendo al programa SPAD (Estadística para análisis de datos, se procedió a un análisis factorial de correspondencias múltiples en conjugación con un análisis de tipo cluster. RESULTADOS: Constatamos que las principales discontinuidades intergeneracionales se presentan en el área de las actitudes y prácticas sexuales. Comprobamos que los grupos y agregados resultantes del análisis tienen índices de sobrerrepresentación de generaciones específicas. Por ejemplo, los encuestados hedonistas se caracterizan por un elevado índice de sobrerrepresentación de jóvenes, en contraste con los inhibidos o los moralistas. CONCLUSIONES: Los jóvenes portugueses aparecen como una generación portadora de valores hedonistas y de carácter experimental en el plano de la vida sexual y amorosa. Sin embargo, se caracterizan al mismo tiempo por su vulnerabilidad a conductas de riesgo.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the new generations are creating new social values in the current setting of deep social change. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the generations method (Mannheim, a survey was conducted in 1996, among 2 012 residents of Portugal, to collect data on values and generations of the Portuguese population. The SPAD statistical analysis program was used to perform a multiple correspondence factorial analysis, in addition to a cluster-type analysis. RESULTS: The main generational gaps were found in sexual attitudes and practices. Findings showed that groups and aggregates have overrepresentation indices for specific generations, e.g., hedonistic interviewees are

  20. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge

  1. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  2. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  3. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  4. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  5. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  6. Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Inês; Sousa Silva, Luís; Garcia, João Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries) Inês Amorim CITCEM, Department of History, Political and International Studies, U. of Porto, Portugal. Luís Sousa Silva CITCEM, PhD Fellowship - FCT. João Carlos Garcia CIUHCT, Geography Department, U. of Porto, Portugal. The first major national project on Historical Climatology in Portugal, called "KLIMHIST: Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources (17th-19th centuries)", ended in September 2015, coordinated by Maria João Alcoforado. This project began in March 2012 and counted on an interdisciplinary team of researchers from four Portuguese institutions (Centre of Geographical Studies, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, University of Porto, and University of Évora), from different fields of knowledge (Geography, History, Biology, Climatology and Meteorology). The team networked and collaborated with other international research groups on Climate Change and Historical Climatology, resulting in several publications. This project aimed to reconstruct thermal and rainfall patterns in Portugal between the 17th and 19th centuries, as well as identify the main hydrometeorological extremes that occurred over that period. The basic methodology consisted in combining information from different types of anthropogenic sources (descriptive and instrumental) and natural sources (tree rings and geothermal holes), so as to develop climate change models of the past. The data collected were stored in a digital database, which can be searched by source, date, location and type of event. This database, which will be made publically available soon, contains about 3500 weather/climate-related records, which have begun to be studied, processed and published. Following this seminal project, other initiatives have taken place in Portugal in the area of Historical Climatology, namely a Ph

  7. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  8. An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014) have been best explained by the geometry .... flows through narrow valley confined by the steep valley slopes. ... valley (figure 3b) which opens up around Srina- ... Method. 4.1 Drainage basin and stream network. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) helps in extracting ... was processed to fill the pits or sinks, and to obtain.

  9. Understanding differences in cervical cancer incidence in Western Europe: comparing Portugal and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Diana; Mesher, David; Pista, Angela; Baguelin, Marc; Jit, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer incidence has decreased over time in England particularly after the introduction of organized screening. In Portugal, where opportunistic screening has been widely available with only slightly lower coverage than that of the organized programme in England, rates of cervical cancer have been higher than in England. We compared the burden of cervical cancer, risk factors and preventive interventions over time in both countries, to identify elements hindering the further decline in incidence and mortality in Portugal. We used joinpoint regression to identify significant changes in rate time-trends. We also analyzed individual-level Portuguese data on sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus prevalence, and recent aggregate data on organized and opportunistic screening coverage. We compared published estimates of survival, risk factors and historical screening coverage for both countries. Despite stable incidence, cervical cancer mortality has declined in both countries in the last decade. The burden has been 4 cases and 1 death per 100 000 women annually higher in Portugal than in England. Differences in human papillomavirus prevalence and risk factors for infection and disease progression do not explain the difference found in cervical cancer incidence. Significant mortality declines in both countries followed the introduction of different screening policies, although England showed a greater decline than Portugal over nearly 2 decades after centralizing organized screening. The higher rates of cervical cancer in Portugal compared to England can be explained by differences in screening quality and coverage.

  10. A comparative study on music teacher preparation in Portugal and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Mota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of music teachers in Portugal and Brazil is the focus of this text, which aims at presenting preliminary aspects of a study in progress in the context of higher education in both countries. Inspired by comparative education methodology, the present study is investigating official documents and academic curricula offered in Portugal and Brazil for the music teachers’ preparation to promote, in different ways, the comparative reflection with an emphasis on school education. The music teachers’ education in both countries was analyzed taking into account the following elements: educational context in Portugal and Brazil; music preparation prior to higher education, and the entrance criteria in the courses that are offered for music teachers; curricular elements of the courses; teaching practice and professional perspectives. The preliminary results of this comparative analysis demonstrate similarities and differences in the two contexts: 1 in both countries, music teachers for regular schools receive their degrees in higher education institutions, and in Portugal, beyond the Licenciatura in Music, a Music Education Master degree is demanded; 2 in both countries specific entrance tests are accomplished in the universities, demanding previous musical knowledge; 3 the balance among the musical and pedagogical preparation is one of the curricular objectives; 4 the teaching practice is an emphasized component in the teachers’ preparation; 5 in Portugal, student’s motivation for the work in the regular school appears to be larger than in Brazil.

  11. Biogas in Portugal: Status and public policies in a European context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Miguel; Marques, Isabel Paula; Malico, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The current status and legal framework of biogas production in Portugal are analyzed and compared to that of five other European countries, characterized by wide-ranging diversity of substrates and biogas applications. With this comparison, and with the calculation of the biogas energy potential in Portugal, the authors want to assess the significance of developing the Portuguese biogas sector. This study illustrates that the highest biogas feed-in tariffs are applied in the countries with a more developed sector. In Portugal, despite the fact that the organic effluents are a relevant energy source (873 Mm 3 biogas per year; 4889 GW h yr −1 ) and that new feed-in tariffs were established, biogas valorisation is still at an early stage. The importance of anaerobic digestion was only recognized in 2007 and the present installed power is about 10% of the potential electrical power (229 MW). Therefore, it is desirable to strengthen the national and regional biogas market. - Highlights: ► This work is a contribution to promote the development of national biogas sector. ► Current state of biogas production in EU is presented: five countries are considered. ► Portuguese legal framework on biogas is compared to other European countries. ► Organic effluents produced in Portugal are by themselves a relevant source of energy. ► The biogas sector in Portugal is still at an early stage of growth.

  12. Sustainable agriculture in Ilha da Madeira - Portugal | Agricultura sustentável na Ilha da Madeira - Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Miller de Souza Caldas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ilha da Madeira is an autonomous region of Portugal located in Atlantic Ocean, in center coordinates 32º43'N 17º43'O, is considered the largest island of archipelago of  the same name. The island covers an area of 740 km². The island has many climate peculiarities mainly influenced by altitude and barriers formed by sharp reliefs, and that they provide North / South axis. Climate variability existing of the island is defined in two types temperate in north and subtropical climate in south. The part of North is cooler and wetter than the south, due to winds from North and end up having a barrier relief inherent to region. Since the year of 1419, the island was subject to various economic and agricultural cycles. Actually, the agricultural occupation of the territory is predominantly winery, horticultural and fruit production. The study was conducted from January to May 2016. Data in census institutes and scientific articles were compared for discussion. The data of production, area of cultivation were intertwined with sustainable agriculture like organic farming and possibilities was available for openings boundaries according to adjustment of the culture temperature, photoperiod and precipitation, and may contribute to increase economy and quality of life in island. The agriculture of the island is formed basically by agriculture family subsistence, involving more than 45,000 people, representing 20% of Madeira population resulting only 3% of the region's economy.

  13. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  14. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  15. SADF EARLYIRON AGE EXCAVATIONS IN THETUGELA VALLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the high flanking ridges of the Tugela. Valley. The high ... fire. Police intervention and the Bhengu superior- ity in numbers brought an end to the fights just prior to the ..... The tail and three legs of the reptile are miss- ing . . ~C£.'.':.-:".

  16. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  17. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  18. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  19. Ecological Researches in the Yagnob Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A.; Yunusov, M.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.; Murtazaev, Kh.; Fajzullaev, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    The article dwells on the resents of the estimation of the ecology surroundings of the Yagnob Valley. The researches included appraisal of radiation background, determination of the amount of heavy and radioactive elements in soil, bottom sedimentations, ashes in plants, water in rivers and wells. Designing on the premise of the researches implemented the ecology surrounding are estimated as propitious man's habitation. (Authors)

  20. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin Valley...-Salem, N.C.; VA; Tenn. (1953, Limited Revision 1962), and, (2) Charlotte, North Carolina; South Carolina... North Carolina within Wilkes, Surry, Yadkin and portions of Stokes, Forsyth, Davidson, and Davie...

  1. 27 CFR 9.41 - Lancaster Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lancaster Valley. 9.41 Section 9.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... through the town of Gap and along Mine Ridge to the 76°07′30″ west longitude line in Paradise Township. (9...

  2. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  3. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  4. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Smith, E. P.

    Temperature profiles were obtained in the nine drilled wells as part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utha. Thermal conductivities were also measured on 10 samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole. The temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with preliminary interpretive remarks and suggestions for additional work.

  5. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  6. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  7. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    a flow reduction in the order of 20 % in a natural spring, whereas no effect could be measured in neither short nor deep piezometers in the river valley 50 m from the spring. Problems of measuring effects of pumping are partly caused by disturbances from natural water level fluctuations. In this aspect...

  8. Forest fires caused by lightning activity in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Benali, Akli; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires in southern Europe have been causing in the last decades extensive economic and ecological losses and, even human casualties (e.g. Pereira et al., 2011). According to statistics provided by the EC-JRC European Forest Fires Information System (EFFIS) for Europe, the years of 2003 and 2007 represent the most dramatic fire seasons since the beginning of the millennium, followed by the years 2005 and 2012. These extreme years registered total annual burned areas for Europe of over 600.000 ha, reaching 800.000 ha in 2003. Over Iberia and France, the exceptional fire seasons registered in 2003 and 2005 were coincident respectively with one of the most severe heatwaves (Bastos et al., 2014) and droughts of the 20th century (Gouveia et al., 2009). On the other hand, the year 2007 was very peculiar as the area of the Peloponnese was struck by a severe winter drought followed by a subsequent wet spring, being also stricken by three heat heaves during summer and played a major role increasing the susceptibility of the region to wildfires (Gouveia et al., 2016). Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by natural factors such as lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia. In contrast, Mediterranean countries such as Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant uncertainties remain for the triggering mechanism for the majority of fires registered in the catalog, since they were cataloged without a likely cause. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2002-2009, with the original data provided by the National forestry Authority; 2) lightning discharges location which were extracted from the Portuguese Lightning Location System that has been in service since June of 2002 and is operated by the national weather service - Portuguese Institute for Sea

  9. The composition of zircon in Variscan granites from Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins, H. C.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of slightly peraluminous Variscan plutons in Northern Portugal were selected from the study of zircon composition. The selected plutons are: the Vila Pouca de Aguiar and the Lavadores-Madalena plutons with I-type affinities and the Vieira do Minho pluton, an l-S transitional type. Zircon occurs as euhedral to subhedral crystals and exhibit finely concentric oscillatory magmatic zoning mainly related to variations of Hf, Y, U and Th concentrations. Most zircon crystals show the dominant “xenotime” substitution. The zircon crystals have Zr/Hf ratio in the range of 21 to 52, with no significant differences between the different granites. These values are in the same range of other peraluminous granites and are in accordance with a crustal signature of zircon. Moreover, the range of Zr/Hf values in zircon crystals overlaps with that of crustal sources and consequently to the potential protoliths proposed in the genesis of the Vieira do Minho and the Vila Pouca de Aguiar plutons, namely meta-igneous crustal sources at different levels. Although zircon from the Lavadores-Madalena pluton has a compositional range similar to the other plutons, an origin by hibridisation has been proposed. However, similar zircon chemistry between this pluton and Vila Pouca de Aguiar and Vieira do Minho plutons could also suggest a similar crustal source.Se han seleccionado tres plutones graniticos variscos en el norte de Portugal para el estudio de la composición del circón. Los plutones son: Vila Pouca de Aguiar y Lavadores-Madalena con afinidad de tipo-I y el plutón de Vieira do Minho de tipo transicional I-S. Los circones se presentan en cristales euhédricos a subhédricos y tienen zonados magmáticos, concéntricos oscilatorios finos ligados principalmente a variaciones de las concentraciones del Hf, Y, U y Th. La mayoría de los cristales de circón muestran la sustitución dominante “xenotima”. Los zircones tienen relaciones Zr/Hf que var

  10. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  11. Social housing in Portugal and in the municipality of São Paulo : Comparison of space standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Boueri, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the space standards for social housing in Portugal and in São Paulo, and seeks explanations for differences in the socio-economic context of both territories. The Controlled Cost Housing (CCH) in Portugal and the housing built within the program My Home My Life (MHML) in São

  12. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  13. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives on access to in vitro fertilization in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze users' reasons for choosing in vitro fertilization treatment in public or private services and to identify their suggestions for improving fertility treatment. METHODS: A qualitative study using an interpretative approach was conducted. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment (nine women, one man and five couples at home or at their workplace in the districts of Viana do Castelo, Braga, Porto and Lisbon, Portugal, between July 2005 and February 2006. RESULTS: Users evaluated access to in vitro fertilization treatment in public and private services based mainly on their individual experiences and called for more access to less costly, faster and friendlier care with suitable facilities, appropriate time management and caring medical providers. These perceptions were also associated with views on the need for fighting stigmatization of infertility, protecting children's rights and guaranteeing sustainability of health care system. Interviewees sought to balance reduced waiting time and more attentive care with costs involved. The choice of services depended on the users' purchase power and place of residence and availability of attentive care. CONCLUSIONS: Current national policies on in vitro fertilization treatment meet user's demands of promoting access to, and quality, availability and affordability of in vitro fertilization treatment. However, their focus on legal regulation and technical-scientific aspects contrasts with the users' emphasis on reimbursement, insurance coverage and focus on emotional aspects of the treatment. The study showed these policies should ensure insurance coverage, participation of user representatives in the National Council for Assisted Reproductive Technology, promotion of infertility research and certification of fertility laboratories.

  15. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  16. The integrated management for renal replacement therapy in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Anabela P; Sá, Helena O; Diniz, José A; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first European country to introduce an integrated management of end-stage renal disease (IM ESRD). This new program integrates various dialysis services and products, which are reimbursed at a fixed rate/patient/week called "comprehensive price payment." This initiative restructured the delivery of dialysis services, the monitoring of outcomes, and the funding of renal replacement therapy. This article described the implementation of a new model of comprehensive provision of hemodialysis (HD) services and aimed to assess its impact on dialysis care. Quality assessments and reports of patient satisfaction, produced by the Ministry of Health since 2008, as well as national registries and reports, provided the data for this review. Indicators of HD services in all continental facilities show positive results that have successively improved along the period of 2009-2011, in spite of an average annual growth of 3% of the population under HD treatment. Mortality rates for HD patients were 12.7%, 12%, and 11%, respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011; annual hospitalization rates were 4.9%, 3.8%, and 4.4% for the same years; key performance indicators showed averages above the reference values such as hemoglobin, serum phosphorus, eKt/V, water quality, number of days of hospitalization per patient per year, and number of weekly dialysis sessions. The financing analysis of IM ESRD demonstrates a sustained control of global costs, without compromising quality. The IM ERSD program is an innovative and quality-driven approach that benefits both dialysis patients and providers, contributing toward the rationalization of service provision and the efficient use of resources. © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  17. A Biographical Approach to the Ethnogeology of Late Prehistoric Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillios, Katina T.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I explore the relationship between an artifact's biography and the raw material from which it was made. Specifically, I discuss the biographies of groundstone tools from five Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic (3500-2000 BC sites in lowland Portugal. An analysis of the formal and material characteristics of tools (totalling over 1300 from these sites indicates that the raw material from which a tool was made not only constrained the form and function of that tool, but also determined, to a large extent, whether that tool would be recycled and the context (settlement V5. burial in which that tool would be ultimately deposited. I suggest that both the material properties and the socio-symbolic associations of different raw materials might explain the biographies of the artifacts from which they were made.

    En este trabajo, exploro las relaciones entre la biografía del artefacto y la materia prima a partir de la cual se hizo. Específicamente discuto las biografías de los útiles de piedra pulimentada de cinco sitios del Neolítico Final y Calcolítico (3500-2000 AC de las tierras bajas portuguesas. El análisis de las características formales y materiales de los útiles (unos 1300 en total de estos sitios indica que la materia prima a partir de la cual se hizo un utensilio no sólo limitó su forma y función, sino que también determinó, en gran medida, si sería reciclado y el contexto (poblado vs enterramiento en el que sería finalmente depositado. Sugiero que tanto las propiedades materiales como las asociaciones socio-simbólicas de las diferentes materias primas a partir de las cuales se hicieron los artefactos pueden explicar sus biografías.

  18. Transitions to Adulthood and Generational Change in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Ramos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research on contemporary youth in Western societies has shown that transitions to adulthood are being postponed, protracted, and becoming more complex (i.e., less likely to follow a predictable and “orderly” sequence as in earlier generations. Extended schooling periods, changes in the labor market and challenges to obtaining autonomous housing are some of the top drivers for such change. Demographers interpret such developments as a sign of a second demographic transition, whereas sociologists stress that they are a consequence of the broader process of social individualization, by which individuals are assuming an increasingly central role in the organization of their lives. While in younger cohorts the evidence base is strong concerning transitions to adulthood, in some national contexts comparisons with the past rely on impressionistic accounts or to easily assume that some social, economic, and cultural factors were present. Drawing on data from the “Family Trajectories and Social Networks: The life course in an intergenerational perspective” research project, this paper re-examines the transitions to adulthood of three Portuguese cohorts (born in 1935–1940, 1950–1955 and 1970–1975, namely in what concerns their timing, duration, and sequence. This is achieved by looking at their life-calendars across different domains (namely family and intimate relations, school, and work. Analysis of the results allows us to discuss critically to what extent current transitions to adulthood are different and to assess cohort heterogeneity according to class and gender. Additionally, it enables us to frame discussions on generational and structural change more adequately in Portugal.

  19. Regional innovation systems in Portugal: a critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La innovación ha pasado a primer plano en la política regional en las tres últimas décadas. Las políticas públicas han sido diseñadas por los «modelos de mejores prácticas» derivadas de las zonas urbano-metropolitanas de alta tecnología y regiones exitosas. Sin embargo, las lecciones aprendidas de estos ejemplos son raramente transferibles a otras partes. Los sistemas regionales de innovación en las regiones periféricas, y la posibilidad de su actuación como instrumentos de competitividad territorial, rara vez han sido objeto de discusión. El objetivo principal del artículo es, precisamente, tener a Portugal como un ejemplo para enriquecer este análisis. En la primera parte de este artículo se examina el concepto de sistemas de innovación regional en el contexto de las modernas teorías de la innovación y de las políticas regionales. Se argumenta que el papel del aprendizaje localizado es de importancia estratégica en la promoción del desarrollo regional endógeno. Luego, los autores discuten las barreras estructurales y oportunidades para promover estrategias regionales de innovación en el contexto político, económico y social portugués, y, por último, se señalan algunas especificidades que deben ser abordadas en el rediseño de las intervenciones públicas con el fin de mejorar la competitividad regional y la sostenibilidad.

  20. Sun, Sand, Sea & Bikini. Arquitectura e turismo: Portugal anos 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lobo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available “Anos de Ruptura”, a década de 1960 marca, em Portugal, um importante ponto de viragem na transição para a democracia. A “derrota” de Humberto Delgado nas eleições presidenciais de 1958, o deflagrar da Guerra Colonial, o crescente êxodo rural e a emigração económica e política, as lutas estudantis, o Marcelismo e a abertura ao investimento exterior, assim como a generalização de importantes benefícios sociais, como o direito a férias pagas, testemunham profundas transformações na sociedade portuguesa, com inevitáveis repercussões na organização do território. A par da suburbanização dos principais centros populacionais do país, o advento de um turismo de massas será o principal motor dessa nova ordem espacial, assistindo‑se ao ensaio de novos modelos urbanísticos e arquitectónicos que iriam revolucionar o panorama disciplinar nacional. É sobre o impacto do fenómeno turístico na actividade dos arquitectos portugueses e, consequentemente, na sua relação com a sociedade e os mecanismos de produção capitalista dos anos sessenta que o presente artigo se propõe reflectir, na perspectiva de relançar o debate, então adiado, acerca das implicações físicas e culturais do lazer na colonização da paisagem.

  1. Information Management in Portugal: education and employment conditions and some prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Vieira de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Professors Cristina Freitas and Maria da Graça Simões answer questions prepared by teachers from the Faculdade de Informação e Comunicação (Gestão da Informação Undergraduate Degree da Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG. The questions are related to the educational structure dedicated to the issues of information management in Portugal, the influence of the "Big Data" phenomenon on education and training in the area - including discussions on data governance, the fundation areas of Information Management and the main approaches to information research in the Country. Besides, they discuss the employment conditions (threats and opportunities for professionals in Information Management in Portugal and in Europe [Available Language: Portuguese/Portugal].

  2. Depression and unemployment incidence rate evolution in Portugal, 1995-2013: General Practitioner Sentinel Network data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Sousa-Uva, Mafalda; Fonseca, Rita; Marques, Sara; Pina, Nuno; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2017-11-17

    Quantify, for both genders, the correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal between 1995 and 2013. An ecological study was developed to correlate the evolution of the depression incidence rates estimated by the General Practitioner Sentinel Network and the annual unemployment rates provided by the National Statistical Institute in official publications. There was a positive correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal, which was significant only for males (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.04). For this gender, an increase of 37 new cases of depression per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated for each 1% increase in the unemployment rate between 1995 and 2013. Although the study design does not allow the establishment of a causal association between unemployment and depression, the results suggest that the evolution of unemployment in Portugal may have had a significant impact on the level of mental health of the Portuguese, especially among men.

  3. The teaching about the care of the elderly in nursing training: the situation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Sidney Costa Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look at the teaching situation of the nursing undergraduate degree’s courses about eldercare in Portugal. A documentary research on the teaching programs in 39 nursing schools, 26 schools presented syllabus units related to the topic ‘eldercare’ and in eight of these schools the contents of the units were identified. Using textual analysis and from the categories we concluded that the teaching regarding eldercare for the nurse training in Portugal is focused on hospital care; it is directed to the adult/elderly/family; it explores the definitions related to the aging process; it explores community issues, legislation and research. People responsible for the design/monitoring of teaching programs should include teaching regarding eldercare in the nurse training, considering that the elder population is increasing in Portugal.

  4. The Policy Gap. Global Mental Health in a Semi-Peripheral Country (Portugal, 1998-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pires Marques

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of the hegemonic paradigm of global mental health (GMH on Portugal. We specifically argue that GMH in Portugal has effected a change of priorities in health policies, favoring the prevention and treatment of common mental disorders to the detriment of the deinstitutionalizing process. Diffused through the media, this model has negative effects, such as the medicalization of social suffering, the reorganization of mental health policy areas according to utilitarian criteria, and the risk of greater invisibility of users with serious psychiatric diagnoses. However, the GMH approach, bringing to the frontline the impact of all social policies on mental health, represents a new opportunity to politically address social suffering. Characterized as a semi-peripheral country, Portugal may be representative of observable trends in similar countries.

  5. Does Trade Help to Explain Tourism Demand? The Case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry has expanded in recent years due to internal and external environmental forces. These forces, income, trade, consumer price, and geographical distance are interconnected. Accounting for imperfect competition and increasing returns to scale, the new trade theory offers the explanation of dynamic gains from international trade. A large number of studies attempt to test the hypothesis that there is a link between trade and tourism. Most of the studies show that trade and tourism are positively correlated. This paper specifies static and dynamic panel demand models for tourism in Portugal and estimates demand equations using tourist inflow data for the period 1995-2006. We find that bilateral trade, immigration, border, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of tourism to Portugal. The dynamic panel data approach indicates that trade, population, and income are more important determinants than relative price.

  6. Predictors of loneliness among students and nuns in Angola and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Félix; Barros, José

    2003-07-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies to examine the relationship between loneliness and psychosocial variables among people from Angola and Portugal. In the 1st study, the participants were 129 college students from Angola and 122 from Portugal, and in the 2nd study participants were 105 nuns from Angola and 74 from Portugal. The following instruments were administered to all participants in both studies: the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. Peplau, & C. Cutrona, 1980), the Neuroticism Scale (J. Barros, 1999), the Optimism Scale (J. Barros, 1998), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985). Ethnic differences were found in loneliness. The Angolan participants recorded higher scores for loneliness than did the Portuguese participants. For both samples the most prominent predictors of loneliness were neuroticism and dissatisfaction with life.

  7. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  8. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  9. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. -- Highlights: ► We model the relationship between daily hospitalizations due to myocardial infarctions and cold weather in Portugal. ► We use Physiological Equivalent temperature (PET) as main explanatory variable. ► We adjust the models to confounding factors such as influenza and air pollution. ► Daily hospitalizations increased up to 2.2% per degree fall of PET during winter. ► Exposure to cold weather has a negative impact on human health in Portugal. -- There is an increase of up to 2.2% in daily hospitalizations due to acute myocardial infarctions per degree fall of thermal index during the winter months in Portugal

  10. Mapping extreme rainfall in the Northwest Portugal region: statistical analysis and spatial modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Monica; Fragoso, Marcelo

    2010-05-01

    Extreme precipitation events are one of the causes of natural hazards, such as floods and landslides, making its investigation so important, and this research aims to contribute to the study of the extreme rainfall patterns in a Portuguese mountainous area. The study area is centred on the Arcos de Valdevez county, located in the northwest region of Portugal, the rainiest of the country, with more than 3000 mm of annual rainfall at the Peneda-Gerês mountain system. This work focus on two main subjects related with the precipitation variability on the study area. First, a statistical analysis of several precipitation parameters is carried out, using daily data from 17 rain-gauges with a complete record for the 1960-1995 period. This approach aims to evaluate the main spatial contrasts regarding different aspects of the rainfall regime, described by ten parameters and indices of precipitation extremes (e.g. mean annual precipitation, the annual frequency of precipitation days, wet spells durations, maximum daily precipitation, maximum of precipitation in 30 days, number of days with rainfall exceeding 100 mm and estimated maximum daily rainfall for a return period of 100 years). The results show that the highest precipitation amounts (from annual to daily scales) and the higher frequency of very abundant rainfall events occur in the Serra da Peneda and Gerês mountains, opposing to the valleys of the Lima, Minho and Vez rivers, with lower precipitation amounts and less frequent heavy storms. The second purpose of this work is to find a method of mapping extreme rainfall in this mountainous region, investigating the complex influence of the relief (e.g. elevation, topography) on the precipitation patterns, as well others geographical variables (e.g. distance from coast, latitude), applying tested geo-statistical techniques (Goovaerts, 2000; Diodato, 2005). Models of linear regression were applied to evaluate the influence of different geographical variables (altitude

  11. A hybrid PSO-ANFIS approach for short-term wind power prediction in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pousinho, H.M.I.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased integration of wind power into the electric grid, as nowadays occurs in Portugal, poses new challenges due to its intermittency and volatility. Wind power prediction plays a key role in tackling these challenges. The contribution of this paper is to propose a new hybrid approach, combining particle swarm optimization and adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system, for short-term wind power prediction in Portugal. Significant improvements regarding forecasting accuracy are attainable using the proposed approach, in comparison with the results obtained with five other approaches.

  12. A hybrid PSO-ANFIS approach for short-term wind power prediction in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal); Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    The increased integration of wind power into the electric grid, as nowadays occurs in Portugal, poses new challenges due to its intermittency and volatility. Wind power prediction plays a key role in tackling these challenges. The contribution of this paper is to propose a new hybrid approach, combining particle swarm optimization and adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system, for short-term wind power prediction in Portugal. Significant improvements regarding forecasting accuracy are attainable using the proposed approach, in comparison with the results obtained with five other approaches. (author)

  13. Short-term wind power forecasting in Portugal by neural networks and wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-04-15

    This paper proposes artificial neural networks in combination with wavelet transform for short-term wind power forecasting in Portugal. The increased integration of wind power into the electric grid, as nowadays occurs in Portugal, poses new challenges due to its intermittency and volatility. Hence, good forecasting tools play a key role in tackling these challenges. Results from a real-world case study are presented. A comparison is carried out, taking into account the results obtained with other approaches. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  14. Diferenças entre marcas nos serviços multiple-play em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro; Moreira, António; Moutinho, Victor

    2014-01-01

    A concorrência entre operadores do mercado das telecomunicações em Portugal tem sido intensa.Os serviços multiple-play têm vindo a conquistar a preferência dos portugueses e a oferta tem vindo a aumentar ao longo dos anos. Face ao aumento da competitividade dos principais concorrentes, seria de esperar que os desempenhos das suas marcas fossem muito equilibrados. O objetivo deste artigo é o de analisar as diferenças entre as três principais marcas multiple-play em Portugal. Para tal, foi efet...

  15. Una historia de diseño del cartel en Portugal del siglo XVII al XIX

    OpenAIRE

    María Helena Ferreira Braga Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    To write an history of the design of the poster about three centuries in Portugal allows to understand how this artefact has changed over time. Usually, the result does not configure the reasons that gave rise of the poster, because they are not always visible and so, they don’t illustrate the reality in which they emerged. This article reveals a series of factors associated not only with the historical events, as well the adjacent constraints to design a poster. Portugal has in some cases...

  16. Construction and modification of the autonomy of school mathematical knowledge in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Matos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel puts it. This article discusses how the school discipline of mathematics in secondary education in Portugal was set. This process is inseparable from teacher training and so we will observe professional legitimation processes paying special attention to ways in which autonomy has been building and modifying over time.

  17. Maculinea alcon exploits Myrmica aloba in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaldo, P.S.; Wynhoff, I.; Soares, P.

    2011-01-01

    Larvae of the obligate myrmecophilous social parasite Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found exclusively using Myrmica aloba (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ant hosts in NE-Portugal. This is the first record of the host ant usage of any Maculinea species in Portugal, and of any Maculinea ...... using M. aloba nests. These results on such peripheral European populations confirm that knowledge of the local host ant species is crucial for the successful protection of these endangered butterflies, and vital for examining the evolution of such interactions...

  18. Parasites of marine, freshwater and farmed fishes of Portugal: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge da Costa Eiras

    Full Text Available Abstract An extensive literature review is made of the parasites in marine and freshwater fish in mainland Portugal, the Portuguese archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, as well as in farmed fish. The host(s of each parasite species, its location in the host, site of capture of the host, whenever possible, and all the available bibliographic references are described. The economic importance of some parasites and the zoonotic relevance of some parasitic forms are discussed. A general overview of the data is provided, and some research lines are suggested in order to increase and complement the current body of knowledge about the parasites of fish from Portugal.

  19. Monitores de diagnóstico em Mamografia : (Os 5MP em Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Timóteo, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    O carcinoma da mama é o mais comum nas mulheres, em Portugal morrem cerca de 1500 mulheres por ano devido a esta patologia. Serviu o presente estudo para investigar se os Hospitais da Região de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo estão equipados, com monitores de diagnóstico em mamografia, que correspondam com as guidelines europeias. O serviço de Mamografia, em Portugal rege-se por estas guidelines, em que é referenciado que para um correcto diagnóstico, com toda a sensibilidade e especific...

  20. Crise econômica e retorno dos imigrantes brasileiros em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Nunan

    Full Text Available A crise econômica internacional desencadeada em 2008 produziu enormes efeitos sobre as migrações mundiais. Alguns estudos têm sido dedicados a esta temática. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir e discutir sobre a existência de um possível fluxo de retorno dos imigrantes brasileiros em Portugal ao país de origem. Os resultados desta investigação apontam para uma desaceleração do fluxo de entrada em Portugal, uma propensão significativa ao retorno, mas um volume efetivo de retorno inferior ao que seria teoricamente de esperar.

  1. Prevalencia del Sobrepeso y de la Obesidad Infantil en Portugal.Programa MUNSI de Base Municipal

    OpenAIRE

    Rito, Ana; Silva, Ana Lúcia; Carvalho, Maria Ana; Ramos, Carlos; Breda, João

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCIÓN: Hoy en día la prevalencia de obesidad infantil constituye uno de los problemas más serios de salud pública en Portugal. Estudios recientes demuestran que Portugal tiene una de las peores cifras de los paises de la Comunidad Europea. Hábitos alimentarios poco saludables relacionados con el consumo de alimentos de elevada densidad energética, principalmente en grasas saturadas y azúcares rápidos, asociados a bajos niveles de actividad física, surgen como los principales facto...

  2. Cuidadoras informais de Portugal: vivências do cuidar de idosos Informal caregivers in Portugal: experiences of caring for elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Fernandes Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O cuidador informal surge da necessidade de se cuidar dos doentes e idosos no domicílio, com a função de auxiliar nas medicações, higiene e alimentação sem remuneração. Esse tipo de auxílio suscita sobrecarga física, psicológica e financeira. No âmbito da qualidade do cuidar, salienta-se a necessidade de se olhar e ajudar os cuidadores informais no árduo apoio aos seus doentes, que, na maioria, são idosos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar as percepções vivenciadas pelas cuidadoras informais, bem como o reconhecimento, por elas próprias, das sobrecargas que as afetam holisticamente - emocionais, físicas, financeiras -, e a importância de desenvolver estratégias de coping na formação sobre como melhor cuidar. As entrevistadas residem nas regiões Norte e Centro de Portugal e responderam ao inquérito adaptado do The Zarit Burden Interview. As entrevistas foram analisadas com o apoio do software NVivo 8. Os dados obtidos indicam que as cuidadoras informais enfrentam mais sobrecargas físicas e emocionais do que financeiras. No entanto, salientaram que, apesar das dificuldades, gostam de cuidar dos seus familiares. Quanto a serem convidadas para participarem de formações sobre como melhor cuidar, algumas confirmaram o interesse. Verificase que as cuidadoras informais são carentes de uma formação que as capacite a melhor cuidar prevenindo consequências danosas.The informal caregiver arises from the need to care for sick and elderly in their homes with the task of assisting with medications, hygiene and food without payment. This kind of aid raises overhead in physical, psychological and financial. From the quality of care emphasizes the need to look at and assist caregivers in helping hard their patients, which most are elderly. The aim is to present the perceptions experienced by informal caregivers, as well as recognition of the same burdens that affect them holistically: emotional, physical, financial and the

  3. Tuberculose ativa entre profissionais de saúde em Portugal Active tuberculosis among health care workers in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Castela Torres da Costa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a incidência de tuberculose (TB ativa em uma coorte de profissionais de saúde (PS. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo dos casos de TB ativa identificados entre 2005 e 2010 no rastreio de medicina do trabalho efetuado em 6.112 PS. Casos de TB ativa foram definidos como aqueles com identificação de Mycobacterium tuberculosis por microscopia direta ou cultura; aqueles com sintomas ou sinais clínicos de TB e granuloma necrotizante, detectado por histologia; e aqueles com achados radiológicos consistentes com TB ativa. RESULTADOS: Dos 6.112 PS avaliados, houve 62 casos de TB ativa (TB pulmonar, em 43; TB pleural, em 15; TB ganglionar, em 2; TB do pericárdio, em 1; TB cutânea, em 1. Sete PS estavam assintomáticos no momento do diagnóstico. Dos 62 casos de TB ativa, a doença ocorreu nos primeiros 10 anos de exposição ocupacional em 48 e nos primeiros 5 anos em 36. A maioria dos casos verificou-se em médicos e enfermeiros (22 e 21, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: O impacto da TB em PS em Portugal é elevado. Os médicos e enfermeiros são os PS com o maior risco de desenvolver TB ativa. Tal como relatado em estudos prévios, parece haver um risco mais elevado de desenvolver essa doença nos primeiros anos de exposição. Em países de elevada incidência, o rastreio de TB nos PS é importante no controle da transmissão dessa doença.OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of active tuberculosis (TB in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs. METHODS: Descriptive study of active TB cases identified in an occupational health screening of 6,112 HCWs between 2005 and 2010. Cases of active TB were defined as those in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified by direct microscopy or culture; those in which there were symptoms or clinical signs of TB and necrotizing granuloma, as detected by histology; and those in which the radiological findings were consistent with active TB. RESULTS: Among the 6,112 HCWs evaluated, we identified

  4. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  5. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  6. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  7. Hydro-geomorphologic events in Portugal and its association with Circulation weather types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Rebelo, Luís; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Zêzere, José L.

    2017-04-01

    Floods and landslides correspond to the most hazardous weather driven natural disasters in Portugal. A recent improvement on their characterization has been achieved with the gathering of basic information on past floods and landslides that caused social consequences in Portugal for the period 1865-2015 through the DISASTER database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database was built under the assumption that strong social impacts of floods and landslides are sufficient relevant to be reported consistently by national and regional newspapers. The DISASTER database contains detailed information on the location, date of occurrence and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of each individual hydro-geomorphologic case (1677 flood cases and 292 landslide cases). These hydro-geomorphologic disaster cases are grouped in a restrict number of DISASTER events that were selected according to the following criteria: a set of at least 3 DISASTER cases sharing the same trigger in time (with no more than 3 days without cases), which have a widespread spatial extension related to the triggering mechanism and a certain magnitude. In total, the DISASTER database includes 134 events (3.7 average days of duration) that generated high social impacts in Portugal (962 fatalities and 40878 homeless people). Each DISASTER event was characterized with the following attributes: hydro-geomorphologic event type (e.g landslides, floods, flash floods, urban floods); date of occurrence (year, month and days); duration in days; spatial location in GIS; number of fatalities, injured, evacuated and homeless people; and weather type responsible for triggering the event. The atmospheric forcing at different time scales is the main trigger for the hydro-meteorological DISASTER events occurred in Portugal. In this regard there is an urge for a more systematic assessment of the weather types associated to flood and landslide damaging events to correctly

  8. Tendências comportamentais frente à saúde de imigrantes brasileiros em Portugal Behavioral health trends of Brazilian immigrants in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Penha de Lima Coutinho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo principal obter um conhecimento das condições e configurações das formações de imigrantes brasileiros no contexto português. De modo mais específico, procurou-se determinar quais fatores influenciam a busca, pelos imigrantes, dos serviços de saúde existentes no país acolhedor. A amostra foi composta por 75 brasileiros que vivem em Portugal, sendo 35 homens e 40 mulheres. Os dados foram coletados através de um questionário sociodemográfico e analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Os resultados mostraram um perfil atualmente crescente do imigrante brasileiro em Portugal e a sua inserção em um grupo de risco social, refletido nas suas precárias condições psicológicas, sociais e, mais especificamente, no campo da saúde.This study aimed to understand the main conditions and setting of the Brazilian immigrants formations in the Portuguese context. Specifically, the aim was to clarify which factors contribute to determine the searching for Health services in the host country. The sample was consisted by 75 Brazilians who live in Portugal, from which 35 were men and 40 were women. The data were collected by a socio-demographic questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed an increasing of a Brazilian Immigrants' profile in Portugal, and the insertion of such into a group of social risk, reflected in their psychological and social conditions, and more specifically in the Health field.

  9. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  10. Implementation of a Seismic Early Warning System in Portugal Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Guilherme; Carrilho, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Portugal mainland is located near the border between the Eurasian and Nubian plates, whose interaction is the main responsible for a significant seismic activity in the area, with historical occurrence of several catastrophic events (e.g. Lisbon 1755 earthquake [Mag 8.7]), most of which haviguilhng epicenter rise in submerged area, located in the Cadiz Gulf and Southwest of San Vincent Cape. Early Warning Systems (EEWS) is presently a very effective concept to be applied in the mitigation of the effects caused by large earthquakes. For the mentioned area a feasibility study of a EEWS was made in the ALERT-ES project. It was found that the system could be effective to protect cities and infrastructures located at larger distances (ex: Lisbon) from the areas, located south and southwest of PT mainland, where the larger earthquakes are expected to be originated. Considering the use of a new strong-motion network recently implemented in the south of PT mainland, we concluded that the lead-times could be improved. We opted by the implementation of the well known computational platform PRESTO. In the adaptation of the mentioned platform to the local reality one of the challenges was the computation of fast moment magnitude estimates, because regional attenuation must be properly considered, and a specific study was made on this issue. The several simulations that were performed showed a reasonably good performance of the system, both on magnitude evaluation and epicentre location. However we also noted that the problems in the acquisition instruments are a very important source of disturbance in the performance of the EEWS, pointing to a need of a very accurate quality control of the strong-motion network. Considering end-users, we are also developing specific software for intensity estimation at the target places and to trigger visual and audio alerts in accordance to the expected level of shaking. This work is supported by the EU project TSUMAPS-NEAM, Agreement Number

  11. Assessment of post forest fire reclamation in Algarve, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rita; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos; Martins, Fernando; Zdruli, Pandi; Ladisa, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes and it plays a crucial role in its transformations, making the determination of its impact on the ecosystem essential for land management. During summer of 2012, a wildfire took place in Algarve, Portugal, on an area mainly covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (39.44%, 10080ha), broad-leaved forest (20.80%, 5300ha), agriculture land with significant areas of natural vegetation (17.40%, 4400ha) and transitional woodlands-shrubs (16.17%, 4100ha). The objective of the study was to determine fire severity in order to plan post-fire treatments and to aid vegetation recovery and land reclamation. Satellite imagery was used to estimate burn severity by detecting physical and ecological changes in the landscape caused by fire. Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (DNBR) was used to measure burn severity with pre and post fire data of four Landsat images acquired in October 2011, February and August 2012 and April 2013. The initial and extended differenced normalized burn ratio (DiNBR and DeNBR) were calculated. The calculated burned area of 24291 ha was 552ha lower than the map data determined with field reports. The 19.5% of that area was burned with high severity, 45% with moderate severity and 28.3% with low severity. Comparing fire severity and regrowth with land use, it is shown in DiNBR that the most severely burned areas were predominantly sclerophyllous vegetation (37.6%) and broad-leaved forests (31.1%). From the DeNRB it was found that the reestablishment of vegetation was slower in mixed forests and higher in sclerophyllous vegetation and in land with significant areas of natural vegetation. Faster recovery was calculated for the land uses of sclerophyllous vegetation (46.7%) and significant regrowth in areas of natural vegetation and lands occupied by agriculture (25.4%). Next steps of the study are field validation and crossing with erosion risk maps before to take land reclamation decisions.

  12. Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion.

    The main goals of the present work are (i to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively.

    The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 years (1998–2009, at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to

  13. Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion. The main goals of the present work are (i) to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii) to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii) to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively. The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 years (1998-2009), at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to recover slower than transitional woodland

  14. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  15. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required

  16. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required.

  17. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. New finds of stegosaur tracks from the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã formation, Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateus, Octavio; Milàn, Jesper; Romano, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Eleven new tracks from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal are described and attributed to the stegosaurian ichnogenus Deltapodus. One track exhibits exceptionally well−preserved impressions of skin on the plantar surface, showing the stegosaur foot to be covered by closely spaced skin tubercles of ca...

  19. Med H.C. Andersen i Portugal år 1866

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skousbøll, Karin

    2004-01-01

    ankomst med diligence fra Spanien ind over fastlandet til Lissabon, men også rundt i byen, i omegnen og til havnebyen Setubal. Det indsamlede billedstof som underbygger teksten er dels historisk stof indhentet fra Det kg. Bibliotek o.a. kilder og dels fremskaffet fra Portugals arkiver og de respektive...

  20. THE TOURISM POTENTIAL OF NORTHERN PORTUGAL AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR A REGIONAL BRANDING STRATEGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i) is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to

  1. [Scientific Research Policy for Health in Portugal: II - Facts and Suggestions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Cátia Sá; Hartz, Zulmira; Sambo, Luís; Conceição, Cláudia; Dussault, Gilles; Russo, Giuliano; Viveiros, Miguel; Silveira, Henrique; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2017-03-31

    After more than 40 years of democracy and 30 years of European integration, Portugal has bridged the research gap it had previously. However, when compared to global and European research policies, Portugal still has a long way go regarding investment in research and development. Health Research in Portugal has been managed by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and the National Health Institute Doctor Ricardo Jorge, and it has not been a political priority, emphasized by the absence of a national scientific research plan for health, resulting in a weak coordination of actors in the field. The strategic guidelines of the 2004 - 2010 National Health Plan are what comes closest to a health research policy, but these were not implemented by the institutions responsible for scientific research for the health sector. Trusting that adopting a strategy of incentives to stimulate health research is an added-value for the Portuguese health system, the authors present five strategic proposals for research in health in Portugal.

  2. Well sediments: a medium for geochemical prospecting, an example from the Nisa region, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, S.P.; Dekkers, M.J.; Janssen, M.A.; Commandeur, J.

    1991-01-01

    Vriend, S.P., Dekkers, M.J.. Janssen, M.A. and Commandeur, J., 1991. Well sediments: a medium for geochemical prospecting, an example from the Nisa region. Portugal. In: A.W. Rose and P.M. Taufen I Editors). Geochemical Exploration ! 989. J. Geochem. Expior., 4 ! : ! 5 I- 167. Tile potential of

  3. 'Greenfields' and 'Brownfields': automotive industrial development in the UK and in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Vale

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial policy in the UK and in Portugal, as in most EU countries, seeks to attract new investment capacity, to create jobs and to promote the impact of the so-called "demonstration efect" of "greenfield" development strategies pursued in the new plants of inward investors on existing or "brownfield" plants. This industrial policy focus is particularly evident in the automobile industry.This paper compares the industrial policy oriented towards the automobile industry in the UK and in Portugal. Two recent "greenfield" investments are analised: Nissan in the North-East region (UK and Ford/VW in the Setúbal Peninsula (Portugal, as well as three "brownfield" plants: Ford Halewood and GM Vauxhall Ellesmere Port in the North-West region (UK and Renault in Setúbal (Portugal. The first part starts with a discussion of industrial policy in the automobile sector, the role of "greenfield" development strategies and the "demonstration effect" on "brownfield" plants. Then, the limits of new inward investment are pointed out, basically their problems and restrictions. Afterwards, the structural barriers to the "demonstration effect" within "brownfield" plants are outlined and some possabilities for alternative "brownfield" development strategies are presented.

  4. Assessment for Learning in Norway and Portugal: The Case of Primary School Mathematics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortvedt, Guri A.; Santos, Leonor; Pinto, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to understand the forces driving assessment for learning (AfL) in primary school teaching. By applying a case study design, including the two cases of Norway and Portugal and using mathematics teaching as an example, available policy documents and research reports are analysed to identify the differences and similarities that…

  5. O ambiente nas políticas públicas em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Queirós

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC POLICIES IN PORTUGAL – Despite almost thirty years of environmental activities with the first ‘environmental’ steps taken in Portugal in the early 1970s, it was only in the mid 1980s with Portugal’s joining the European Community that policy guidelines for environmental action were drawn up and established and later consolidated in the 1990s. In accordance with the general European trend, the Portuguese environmental policy was aimed atpreventive measures, at least in some areas. Portugal reflected on the issues over a period of time and defined environmental priorities in practically all areas of economic and social life. In terms of the state’s financial projects (central and local administration, strategy for environmental policies put the emphasis on undertakings that required heavy investment in infrastructures. This article describes the development of the government’s environmental policy in Portugal as reflected in the financial support given to environmental projects, according to industrial or geographical criteria, from the state budget. This process is addressed along with the development of the central administration and respective organisation of public services that handle environmental problems and such like. In this aspect, examination of the development of the environmental services structure and its concomitant duties demonstrates the importance given to environmental issues in public policies.

  6. A Comparison of Parent and Professional Perceptions of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Helena; Pereira, Ana; Almeida, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Improving early intervention in Portugal for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires parents and professionals to collaborate in assessing and planning intervention programmes. This article analyses parental and professional assessments of children with ASD, in the dimensions of social communication, repetitive behaviours and…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Institutional and Professional Autonomy: A Comparative Study between Portugal and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa; Diogo, Sara

    2018-01-01

    By comparing two distinct settings--Portugal and Finland--and based on previous studies revealing similar trends in both countries, this article analyses the relationship between institutional and academic autonomy in the higher education sector. Based on crosschecking of the literature review and 47 interviews with key actors in both the…

  8. Master's in Autonomous Systems: An Overview of the Robotics Curriculum and Outcomes at ISEP, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E.; Almeida, J.; Martins, A.; Baptista, J. P.; Campos Neves, B.

    2013-01-01

    Robotics research in Portugal is increasing every year, but few students embrace it as one of their first choices for study. Until recently, job offers for engineers were plentiful, and those looking for a degree in science and technology would avoid areas considered to be demanding, like robotics. At the undergraduate level, robotics programs are…

  9. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  10. Teaching Writing to Middle School Students in Portugal and in Brazil: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida; Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Frison, Lourdes Maria Bragagnolo; Marques, André

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to write is a challenging process, typically developed in schools. Teachers' practices in teaching writing, however, have been under researched. The aim of this study was to survey a sample of teachers from Portugal (n = 96) and Brazil (n = 99) about their practices for and perceptions about writing instruction. Teachers reported on…

  11. Relational Capabilities to Leverage New Knowledge: Managing Directors' Perceptions in UK and Portugal Old Industrial Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jorge Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Focusing on the specific context of two European old industrial regions--South Yorkshire (UK) and North Region of Portugal--this paper aims to identify and conceptualise a set of relational capabilities that business leaders perceive to play a key role in industrial rejuvenation. Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research design…

  12. Notes on Bolboschoenus glaucus, a new species to the flora of Portugal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hroudová, Zdenka; Zákravský, Petr; Jarolímová, Vlasta

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1-4 (2007), s. 211-220 ISSN 0874-9035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : taxonomy * flora of Portugal * weed s Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. The Tourism Potential of Northern Portugal and Its Relevance for a Regional Branding Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo OLIVEIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to integrate a branding strategy at the regional level? ii is a regional branding strategy an engine by which to enable economic and social transformation in the region, thus responding to the contemporary challenges such as weak economic confidence and unemployment? To answer these questions, a content analysis on the policy documents: i Northern Portugal Strategic Guidelines 2014-2020 and ii National Strategic Plan for Tourism 2013-2015 has been performed. In addition, the article details the results of in-depth interviews conducted with two regional entities: i Tourism of Porto and the North of Portugal (TPNP, in charge of national tourism planning and promotion and ii North Regional Coordination and Development Commission (CCDRN, involved in regional planning and development. The findings reinforce the importance of tourism as a strategic domain to boost the economy and create momentum in Northern Portugal. Moreover, tourism is seen by the respondents as a key objective in a regional branding strategy.

  14. Public Management Reform in Napoleonic states: france, greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ongaro

    2008-01-01

    The special issue fills a gap in literature by providing systematic and comparative analysis of public management reform in five under-investigated countries in the Napoleonic administrative tradition: France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain. It thus provides an important contribution to the widening of the comparative research agenda in public management

  15. First records of crocodyle and pterosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateus, Octavio; Milàn, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Jurassic of Portugal has a rich vertebrate fauna well documented from both body and trace fossils. Although the occurrence of crocodyles and pterosaurs is well documented from body fossils, trace fossils from both groups were unknown until now. Here we describe an isolated crocodyle-lik...

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  17. Teacher Education in Portugal: Analysing Changes using the ATEE-RDC19 Scenario Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jesus Maria

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the development of teacher education in Portugal since the 1974 revolution, which brought the country to democracy. Using the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model, the paper describes the hidden philosophies underlying changes that are occurring and shows how teacher education has evolved from a romantic, idealistic…

  18. Järgmine Iirimaa on Portugal / Soe-Surén, Katri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe-Surén, Katri

    2010-01-01

    Ekspertide hinnangul on Portugal järgmine riik, mis vajab finantsabi. Portugali jooksevkonto defitsiit on sel aastal üle 10% SKT-st, Iirimaal 0,3%. Portugali majandustoodang langeb 2011. a., Iirimaal aga peaks majandus kasvama 1,5%

  19. A History and Historiography of Foreign Languages Teaching and Learning in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Clara

    2018-01-01

    This "state of the art" review on the history of language teaching in Portugal provides an opportunity for a historiographical analysis, highlighting the relationships between languages, the links between languages and educational policy and implementation, and the cultural implications resulting from this. Researching language teaching…

  20. Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of Covilhã's county, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inácio

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentration measurements were performed on thirty three samples collected from water wells at different depths and types of aquifers, at Covilhã's County, Portugal with the radon gas analyser DURRIDGE RAD7. Twenty three, of the total of water samples collected, gave, values over 100 Bq/L, being that 1690 Bq/L was the highest measured value.

  1. Experiments in Popular Education in Portugal, 1974-1976. Education Studies and Documents, No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Alberto; Benavente, Ana

    The first in a series of studies of lifelong learning, this paper discusses educational activities undertaken in Portugal after the fall of the dictatorship in 1974 and through 1976. Intended for educational planners and for those working in popular education, the study emphasizes original strategies and experiments, particulary those encouraging…

  2. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  3. Regulation, circulation and distribution of penicillin in Portugal (1944-1954).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Rui Pita, João; Pereira, Ana Leonor

    Portugal did not participate in World War II but was one of the first countries in the world to receive penicillin for civilian use. The Portuguese Red Cross began to import the antibiotic from the United States of America in 1944 and appointed a controlling committee to oversee its distribution, due to the small amount available. In 1945, as world production increased, penicillin began to be distributed through the normal channels. An important role in its regulation was played by the official department responsible for controlling pharmaceutical and chemical products in Portugal, the Comissão Reguladora dos Produtos Químicos e Farmacêuticos (Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products). Penicillin was imported as a raw material from 1947 and the first medicaments containing penicillin, prepared in Portugal, were released into the commercial circuit in 1948. A laboratory had been established in 1942 by the Comissão Reguladora for the analytical verification of medicaments and medicinal products with the aim of certifying their quality and minimizing the number of products with no attested therapeutic efficacy. The number of medicaments analysed by this laboratory increased substantially from 72 in the year of its foundation (1942) to 2478 in 1954, including, after 1948, medicaments containing penicillin. The aim of the present paper was to elucidate the role of the Comissão Reguladora dos Produtos Químicos e Farmacêuticos in regulating and controlling the distribution of penicillin in Portugal during the 1940s and 1950s.

  4. JPRS Report, West Europe, Reference Aid, Acronyms and Abbreviations of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-02

    Bank of Portugal Portuguese Bank of the Atlantic Banco Portugues de Investimentos Portuguese Investment Bank BPSM Banco Pinto & Sotto Mayor BRI...Pinto & Sotto Mayor Bank Boletim de Registo de Importacao Import Register Bulletin BSB Batalhao de Sapadores Bombeiros fire-fighting battalion...3. Congresso Nacional Africano CNAEBA Conselho Nacional de ^ Alfabetizacao e Educacao de Base de Adultos CNASPEL Comissao Nacional de Apoio e

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sousa, Susana; Dubey, Jp; Ribeiro, Ana J.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cotovio, Mário; Schallig, Henk Dfh; Cardoso, Luís; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (4.0%) horses were

  6. Patterns of glucose lowering drugs utilization in Portugal and in the Netherlands. Trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Carla; Guerreiro, José; de Oliveira Martins, Sofia; Raposo, João Filipe; Martins, Ana Paula; Leufkens, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    To compare the temporal trends in the consumption patterns of glucose lowering drugs (GLD) between Portugal and the Netherlands from 2004 to 2013 and to examine possible reasons behind the cross-national variation found. All GLD (ATC pharmacological subgroup A10B) were selected for analysis. Consumption data were obtained for the 10-year period. Portuguese and Dutch drug estimates were obtained from nationwide databases. The consumption of GLD increased in Portugal from 52.9 defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DHD) in 2004 to 70.0 DHD in 2013 and in the Netherlands from 44.9 DHD in 2004 to 50.7 DHD in 2013. In Portugal, the use of fixed-dose combinations, especially with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4) increased remarkably and in 2013 represented almost a quarter of total GLD consumption. In the Netherlands, the use of combinations was residual. The consumption of GLD rose over the 10-year period in both countries. However, Portuguese overall consumption and costs of GLD were higher. The differentially rapid uptake of DPP-4 inhibitors in Portugal was the main driver of the cost difference. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Importance of Housing in Portugal in the Age of Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia; Veludo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    -specific political factors bearing upon it. By using statistical data and a literature review, this paper will provide an overview of the key factors shaping the housing system in Portugal in recent decades. We demonstrate the critical importance of housing in the Portuguese economy and society in regard to its...

  8. Education and Child Poverty in Times of Austerity in Portugal: Implications for Teachers and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Maria Assunção; Ferreira, Fernando Ilídio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years Portugal has experienced a severe financial and economic crisis, with implications for all sectors of society, particularly education. Salary cuts, high rates of unemployment, high taxation and worsening career progression are just some ways in which the teaching profession has been affected. Recent policy changes have also…

  9. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  10. Re-investigating the electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chor Foon; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Arouri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In the previous decades, a number of studies have been conducted to analyse the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in the Portuguese economy. However, the evidence remains controversial because the previous studies do not provide clear causality evidence. This might be attributed to the omitted variables bias because most previous studies only focus on the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in a bi-variate model. This paper attempts to re-investigate the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Portugal using a multivariate model. Based on the bounds testing approach to cointegration and the Granger causality test within the vector error-correction model (VECM), our empirical results confirm the presence of cointegration among the variables. Moreover, there is evidence of bi-directional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in the short- and long-run. This suggests that energy is an important source of economic growth in Portugal. Therefore, energy conservation policies should not be implemented because it would deteriorate the process of economic growth and development of the Portuguese economy. - Highlights: • Electricity consumption and economic growth series in Portugal are cointegrated. • There is evidence of feedback effects between the two variables. • Energy is an important source of economic growth in Portugal

  11. Low seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in cats from northern Portugal based on DAT and ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, Luís; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sherry, Kate; Schallig, Henk; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2010-01-01

    Cats have been considered playing a role in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum, an endemic zoonosis in countries of the Mediterranean basin. The present study assessed the prevalence of antibodies to L. infantum in 316 domestic cats from northern Portugal, by means of

  12. Learning for Older Adults in Portugal: Universities of the Third Age in a State of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Veloso, Esmeraldina

    2017-01-01

    U3As have their origin in 1973 in Toulouse, France, with Professor Pierre Vellas. This French influence was also felt in Portugal and the first Portuguese U3A opened its doors also in the 1970's. However, from inception the Portuguese reality was very different from the French model, especially in regards to its promoters. However, both in France…

  13. Education and Gender Wage Differentials in Portugal: What Can We Learn from an Age Cohort Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Santos, Luis Delfim; Santos, Maria Clementina

    2009-01-01

    Important changes characterize the recent evolution of the schooling of workers in Portugal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of those changes in the gender wage gap. In particular, we analyze and compare the way that this process has evolved in the groups of young workers and older workers. Our findings suggest that…

  14. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  15. Southern-European Signposts for Critical Popular Adult Education: Italy, Portugal and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Paula; Lucio-Villegas, Emilio; Mayo, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on three Southern European countries, Italy, Portugal and Spain, to explore examples of projects that provide signposts for a critical popular education that contributes to an ongoing democratic process--one whereby citizens are developed as social actors and members of a collectivity rather than simply passive…

  16. Portugal's war in Angola 1961-1974 | Van Dar Waals | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 4 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Portugal's war in Angola 1961- ...

  17. Geothermal modeling along a two-dimensional crustal profile in Southern Portugal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Correia, A.; Šafanda, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2002), s. 47-61 ISSN 0264-3707. [Geothermics at the turn of the century. Evora, 03.04.2000-07.04.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : geothermal modeling * Southern Portugal * surface heat flow * crustal profile Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.058, year: 2002

  18. The dynamics of cork oak systems in Portugal: the role of ecological and land use factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetation degradation and desertification occur in many semiarid ecosystems worldwide, particularly in the Western Mediterranean Basin. A peculiar semiarid Mediterranean land use system dominates the landscape of southern Portugal where cork oak (Quercus suber) is the main tree species. This system

  19. Subjective social status and intergroup attitudes among ethnic majority and minority children in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, A.R.; Monteiro, M.B.; Justo, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their ingroup over the Black and Roma out-groups on the

  20. Stratigraphie et structure de Trás-os-Montes oriental (Portugal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, Antonio; Almeida Rebelo, Jose

    1967-01-01

    Rocks in the eastern part of the province of Trás-os-Montes, N. Portugal belong to five units: 1: a complex of pre-Ordovician schists and greywackes; 2: Ordovician and Silurian sediments; 3: a low-grade metamorphic scries of Silurian age; 4: two complexes of probably Precambrian, predominantly meso-

  1. Construction and Modification of the Autonomy of School Mathematical Knowledge in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel…

  2. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  3. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal.

  4. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based ewline on spot/vegetation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gouveia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI, with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation

  5. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  6. Heart failure in numbers: Estimates for the 21st century in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cândida; Brás, Daniel; Araújo, Inês; Ceia, Fátima

    2018-02-01

    Heart failure is a major public health problem that affects a large number of individuals and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. This study aims to estimate the probable scenario for HF prevalence and its consequences in the short-, medium- and long-term in Portugal. This assessment is based on the EPICA (Epidemiology of Heart Failure and Learning) project, which was designed to estimate the prevalence of chronic heart failure in mainland Portugal in 1998. Estimates of heart failure prevalence were performed for individuals aged over 25 years, distributed by age group and gender, based on data from the 2011 Census by Statistics Portugal. The expected demographic changes, particularly the marked aging of the population, mean that a large number of Portuguese will likely be affected by this syndrome. Assuming that current clinical practices are maintained, the prevalence of heart failure in mainland Portugal will increase by 30% by 2035 and by 33% by 2060, compared to 2011, resulting in 479 921 and 494 191 affected individuals, respectively. In addition to the large number of heart failure patients expected, it is estimated that the hospitalizations and mortality associated with this syndrome will significantly increase its economic impact. Therefore, it is extremely important to raise awareness of this syndrome, as this will favor diagnosis and early referral of patients, facilitating better management of heart failure and helping to decrease the burden it imposes on Portugal. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The Atlantic divide in coronary heart disease: Epidemiology and patient care in the US and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Mariana F; Azzone, Vanessa; Resnic, Frederic S; Melica, Bruno; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Freitas, Alberto; Nisa, Cláudia; Bacelar-Nicolau, Leonor; Rocha-Gonçalves, Francisco Nuno; Pereira-Miguel, José; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Normand, Sharon-Lise

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare access to new health technologies to treat coronary heart disease (CHD) in the health systems of Portugal and the US, characterizing the needs of the populations and the resources available. We reviewed data for 2000 and 2010 on epidemiologic profiles of CHD and on health care available to patients. Thirty health technologies (16 medical devices and 14 drugs) introduced during the period 1980-2015 were identified by interventional cardiologists. Approval and marketing dates were compared between countries. Relative to the US, Portugal has lower risk profiles and less than half the hospitalizations per capita, but fewer centers per capita provide catheterization and cardiothoracic surgery services. More than 70% of drugs were available sooner in the US, whereas 12 out of 16 medical devices were approved earlier in Portugal. Nevertheless, at least five of these devices were adopted first or diffused faster in the US. Mortality due to CHD and myocardial infarction (MI) was lower in Portugal (CHD: 72.8 vs. 168 and MI: 48.7 vs. 54.1 in Portugal and the US, respectively; age- and gender-adjusted deaths per 100000 population, 2010); but only CHD deaths exhibited a statistically significant difference between the countries. Differences in regulatory mechanisms and price regulations have a significant impact on the types of health technologies available in the two countries. However, other factors may influence their adoption and diffusion, and this appears to have a greater impact on mortality, due to acute conditions. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Portugal using cointegration and causality approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Tang, Chor Foon; Shahbaz Shabbir, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to re-examine the relationship between electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in Portugal using the cointegration and Granger causality frameworks. This study covers the sample period from 1971 to 2009. We examine the presence of a long-run equilibrium relationship using the bounds testing approach to cointegration within the Unrestricted Error-Correction Model (UECM). Moreover, we examine the direction of causality between electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in Portugal using the Granger causality test within the Vector Error-Correction Model (VECM). As a summary of the empirical findings, we find that electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in Portugal are cointegrated and there is bi-directional Granger causality between the three variables in the long-run. With the exception of the Granger causality between electricity consumption and economic growth, the rest of the variables are also bi-directional Granger causality in the short-run. Furthermore, we find that there is unidirectional Granger causality running from economic growth to electricity consumption, but no evidence of reversal causality. - Highlights: → We re-examine the relationship between electricity consumption, economic growth, and employment in Portugal. → The electricity consumption and economic growth is causing each other in the long-run. → In the short-run, economic growth Granger-cause electricity consumption, but no evidence of reversal causality. → Energy conservation policy will deteriorate the process of economic growth in the long-run. → Portugal should increase investment on R and D to design new energy savings technology.

  9. Migration, Quality of Life And Health of Brazilian Immigrants in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Nazaré Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants face many challenges when settling in a foreign country, numerous factors influence this immigrant experience including the resources they bring with them and those they find in the host society. The literature has indicated that a significant number of individuals migrate in search of a better quality of life. In this context, the objective of the study was to analyze the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal, using the "Medical Outcomes Study: 36-Item Short Form Survey" (SF-36. Methods and Results: A cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach developed under the project titled: Health status and quality of life of Brazilian immigrants in Portugal conducted in the first half of 2016, with 682 Brazilian immigrant women over 18 living in Portugal. This study adopted as reference SF-36, a generic instrument for the evaluation of Quality of Life. It can be affirmed that the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal is good, since all dimensions presented values above 50%. It was evidenced that Brazilian immigrants who live alone have lower levels of quality of life and health than those who live with someone and, that Brazilian immigrants who are unemployed, have low levels of quality of life and health compared to those who are in another employment situation, and Brazilian immigrants entering the labor market with a workload of more than 40 hours per week present similar levels of quality of life and health compared to those who work fewer hours. Conclusion: In general, one can affirm that the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal is good, but due to the particularities of the migration process in the current political and international context, a systematic monitoring of living conditions and health of this population is necessary. Keywords: Emigrants and Immigrants; Quality of life; Women, Mental health

  10. High ozone levels in the northeast of Portugal: Analysis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A.; Monteiro, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Tchepel, O.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Saavedra, S.; Souto, J. A.; Casares, J. J.

    2010-03-01

    Each summer period extremely high ozone levels are registered at the rural background station of Lamas d'Olo, located in the Northeast of Portugal. In average, 30% of the total alert threshold registered in Portugal is detected at this site. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the atmospheric conditions that lead to the ozone-rich episodes at this site. Synoptic patterns anomalies and back trajectories cluster analysis were performed, for the period between 2004 and 2007, considering 76 days when ozone maximum hourly concentrations were above 200 μg m -3. The obtained atmospheric anomaly fields suggested that a positive temperature anomaly is visible above the Iberian Peninsula. A strong wind flow pattern from NE is observable in the North of Portugal and Galicia, in Spain. These two features may lead to an enhancement of the photochemical production and to the transport of pollutants from Spain to Portugal. In addition, the 3D mean back trajectories associated to the ozone episode days were analysed. A clustering method has been applied to the obtained back trajectories. Four main clusters of ozone-rich episodes were identified, with different frequencies of occurrence: north-westerly flows (11%); north-easterly flows (45%), southern flow (4%) and westerly flows (40%). Both analyses highlight the NE flow as a dominant pattern over the North of Portugal during summer. The analysis of the ozone concentrations for each selected cluster indicates that this northeast circulation pattern, together with the southern flow, are responsible for the highest ozone peak episodes. This also suggests that long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants is the main contributor to the ozone levels registered at Lamas d'Olo. This is also highlighted by the correlation of the ozone time-series with the meteorological parameters analysed in the frequency domain.

  11. ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE-RICH EPISODES IN NORTHEAST PORTUGAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A.; Monteiro, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Tchepel, O.; Miranda, A.; Borrego, C.; Saavedra, S.; Souto, J. A.; Casares, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Each summer period extremely high ozone levels are registered at the rural background station of Lamas d’Olo, located in the Northeast of Portugal. In average, 30% of the total alert threshold registered in Portugal is detected at this site. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the atmospheric conditions that lead to the ozone-rich episodes. Synoptic patterns anomalies and back trajectories cluster analysis were performed for a period of 76 days where ozone maximum concentrations were above 200 µg.m-3. This analysis was performed for the period between 2004 and 2007. The obtained anomaly fields suggested that a positive temperature anomaly is visible above the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, a strong wind flow pattern from NE is visible in the North of Portugal and Galicia, in Spain. These two features may lead to an enhancement of the photochemical production and to the transport of pollutants from Spain to Portugal. In addition, the 3D mean back trajectories associated to the ozone episode days were analysed. A clustering method has been applied to the obtained back trajectories. Four main clusters of ozone-rich episodes were identified, with different frequencies of occurrence: north-westerly flows (11%); north-easterly flows (45%), southern flow (4%) and westerly flows (40%). Both analyses highlight the NE flow as a dominant pattern over the North of Portugal. The analysis of the ozone concentrations for each selected cluster indicates that this northeast circulation pattern, together with the southern flow, is responsible for the highest ozone peak episodes. This also suggests that long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants may be the main contributor to the ozone levels registered at Lamas d’Olo. This is also highlighted by the correlation of the ozone time series with the meteorological parameters analysed in the frequency domain.

  12. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene

  13. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  14. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  15. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-24

    Cheyenne, Wyoming. DMAHTC reduces the data to Simple Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix Al.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center...Desert Valley, Utah ......... 2 2 Topographic Setting - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah . 3 LIST OF DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anomaly...gravity stations were distributed throughout the valley at an approxi- mate interval of 1.4 miles (2.3 km). Drawing 1 is a Complete Bouguer Anomaly

  16. The use of sperm whale ivory in Chalcolithic Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuhmacher, Thomas X.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific analysis were undertaken within a research project concerning ivory objects from the Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age of the Iberian Peninsula. In several of the analyses of objects from Portuguese Estremadura, especially V-perforated buttons, we could detect for the first time the presence of sperm whale ivory. This highlights the advantage and necessity of scientific analysis of ivory. It also clearly demonstrates that not all ivory used was ivory from African or Asian elephants, but we also did find ivory from the extinct Elephas antiquus, the hippopotamus and in this case sperm-whale. Thus, already in the Chalcolithic the raw material provenience was highly diverse, which in the absence of scientific analysis might lead to an erroneous interpretation of prehistoric exchange networks. Different methods, including optical microscopy, measurement of hardness and specific gravity, Micro-Raman Spectroscopy, elemental analysis and Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry have been applied. In this paper we present these methods and the results, and we discuss about the implications of these results for the reconstruction of prehistoric economy and life in this region. Finally, taking into account the natural conditions as well as prehistoric and historic data of whale hunting and scavenging of beached animals, we conclude that the most plausible explanation for the presence of sperm whale ivory in Chalcolithic Portugal is the use of the teeth obtained from stranded animals. This interpretation is possible because of the human populations using this ivory are those living close to the sea and exploiting – among others– marine resources.En el marco de un proyecto de investigación sobre objetos de marfil del Calcolítico al Bronce Antiguo en la Península Ibérica efectuamos análisis científicos. En varios de los objetos de la Estremadura portuguesa, en especial en los botones con perforación en V, detectamos por primera vez la presencia

  17. The return of the Iberian lynx to Portugal: local voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Fernandes, Margarida; Espírito-Santo, Clara; Frazão-Moreira, Amélia

    2018-01-11

    Ethnographic research can help to establish dialog between conservationists and local people in reintroduction areas. Considering that predator reintroductions may cause local resistance, we assessed attitudes of different key actor profiles to the return of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to Portugal before reintroduction started in 2015. We aimed to characterize a social context from an ethnoecological perspective, including factors such as local knowledge, perceptions, emotions, and opinions. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 131) in three different protected areas and observed practices and public meetings in order to describe reintroduction contestation, emotional involvement with the species, and local perceptions about conservation. Detailed content data analysis was undertaken and an open-ended codification of citations was performed with the support of ATLAS.ti. Besides the qualitative analyses, we further explored statistic associations between knowledge and opinions and compared different geographical areas and hunters with non-hunters among key actors. Local ecological knowledge encompassed the lynx but was not shared by the whole community. Both similarities and differences between local and scientific knowledge about the lynx were found. The discrepancies with scientific findings were not necessarily a predictor of negative attitudes towards reintroduction. Contestation issues around reintroduction differ between geographical areas but did not hinder an emotional attachment to the species and its identification as a territory emblem. Among local voices, financial compensation was significantly associated to hunters and nature tourism was cited the most frequent advantage of lynx presence. Materialistic discourses existed in parallel with non-economic factors and the existence of moral agreement with its protection. The considerable criticism and reference to restrictions by local actors concerning protected areas and conservation

  18. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  19. The (serra da) Estrela Aspiring Geopark (Portugal): preserving geoheritage, while promoting science and its links to local communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Hugo; Fernandes, Magda; Castro, Emanuel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2017-04-01

    The serra da Estrela (1,993 m asl) is the highest mountain range in mainland Portugal. Bounded by two main fault scarps, a granite massif occupies the central area forming a summit plateau between ci. 1,500 and 2,000 m. To the north and south, schists and greywackes dominate the landscape, also with granite presence. During the Last Glacial a plateau ice-field and five radiating valley glaciers occupied the highest parts of the mountain with an estimated equilibrium line altitude at 1,650 m asl. The plateau style of the glaciation and the Equilibrium Line Altitude just below the plateau edge made the Estrela very sensitive to climate fluctuations, having resulted in several terminal moraine complexes that reveal several glacial stages. The central plateau area shows widespread glacial erosion features and an almost complete stripping of the Cenozoic weathering mantle. The non-glaciated plateaus show a rich landscape dominated by granite weathering landforms. The remarkable glacial landscape of the serra da Estrela when considering its setting in SW Europe, together with other significant geoheritage such as periglacial, weathering and mass wasting phenomena, tectonic, petrological and hydrogeological features, are at the core of Estrela's application to become a UNESCO Global Geopark. But the framework of the application encompasses both the natural and the human landscape, involving nine municipalities in the wider Estrela range, whose population bears an Estrelean signature in its roots, traditions, culture and economy. The Estrela Aspiring Geopark builds on a high value geoheritage closely bonded with biodiversity and the local communities, and its strategy aims at conservation and promoting regional development in an interdisciplinary approach committed UNESCO's principles. This presentation is a brief overview of the Estrela geoheritage, with a focus on the strategy for the implementation and management of the Geopark, emphasising on the science-support plan

  20. The Afrotropical Miomantis caffra Saussure 1871 and M. paykullii Stal 1871: first records of alien mantid species in Portugal and Europe, with an updated checklist of Mantodea in Portugal (Insecta: Mantodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marabuto

    2014-11-01

    In the absence of recent revisionary work on the Mantodea of Portugal and given the need to provide an accessible identification tool, both a checklist and a key to species are provided for all species in the country.

  1. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.; Amos, C. B.; Zielke, Olaf; Jayko, A. S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  2. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  5. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  6. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  7. Interpretation of SO2 dry deposition measurements made in Portugal and Spain within the framework of SREMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; LLO

    1996-01-01

    Het RIVM heeft deelgenomen aan het internationale project SREMP (Surface Resistance Emergency Measurement Program), tezamen met de Universiteit van Aveiro, Portugal ; de Universiteit Politecnica uit Madrid, Spanje ; de Universiteit Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, Frankrijk ; Joint Research Center,

  8. Fairness reactions to personnel selection methods: An international comparison between the Netherlands, the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, N.; Witvliet, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports reactions to employee selection methods in the Netherlands and compares these findings internationally against six other previously published samples covering the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore. A sample of 167 participants rated 10 popular assessment

  9. Bacterial diversity and their adaptations in the shallow water hydrothermal vent at D. Joao de Castro Seamount (DJCS), Azores, Portugal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Ravindran, C.; Colaco, A.; Santos, R.S.; Meena, R.M.

    Bacterial diversity investigations were made from the shallow vent of D joao de castro, Azores, Portugal and their adaptations to a nutrient rich environment was investigated from 2004 and 2005 cruise samples. Assesment of the qualitative...

  10. Determinant Factors of the Implementation of the Balanced Scorecard in Portugal: empirical evidence in public and private organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodrigues Quesado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we aim to identify and analyze a set of variables that can potentially influence the adoption of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC in Portugal. Hypotheses were tested using data obtained from a questionnaire sent to 591 publicly-owned organizations (local governments, municipal corporations and hospitals and 549 privately-owned organizations (large companies and small and medium enterprises in Portugal, with an overall response rate of 31.3%. The results allow us to conclude that although the majority of respondents claimed to know the BSC, its use in Portugal is still limited and very recent, particularly in the public sector organizations. However, it should be noted that its use has increased in Portugal in recent years. Using as theoretical framework the contingency and institutional theories, we found that decentralization, vertical differentiation and the degree of higher education are associated with the implementation of the BSC.

  11. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  12. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  13. Testing continuous earthquake detection and location in Alentejo (South Portugal) by waveform coherency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Catarina; Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Custódio, Susana

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered Portugal. This extraordinary network coverage enables now the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which in turn will shed light on the seismotectonics of Portugal. The large data volumes available cannot be analyzed by traditional time-consuming manual location procedures. In this presentation we show first results on the automatic detection and location of earthquakes occurred in a selected region in the south of Portugal Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e., lowering the detection threshold). We present a modified version of the automatic seismic event location by waveform coherency analysis developed by Grigoli et al. (2013, 2014), designed to perform earthquake detections and locations in continuous data. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace, while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event detection and location is obtained by performing waveform coherence analysis scanning different hypocentral coordinates. We apply this technique to earthquakes in the Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage from a small aperture seismic network installed in the south of Portugal for two years (2010 - 2011) during the DOCTAR experiment. In addition to the good network coverage, the Alentejo region was chosen for its simple tectonic setting and also because the relationship between seismicity, tectonics and local lithospheric structure is intriguing and still poorly understood. Inside

  14. Portugal unido y separado. Propaganda y discurso identitario entre Austrias y Braganzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el tratado Portugal unido y separado…, escrito por Pedro de Valenzuela y publicado en Madrid en 1659. El prelado Pedro Valenzuela defiende la restauración de la soberanía habsbúrgica en Portugal (la corona portuguesa se había separado de la Monarquía de España en 1640 a través de una imagen profundamente influenciada por su lealtad política. La primera parte de este trabajo está, por lo tanto, dedicada al análisis del tratado de Valenzuela. En la segunda y última parte las ideas de Valenzuela son integradas en un contexto para demostrar que muchos de los asuntos que aparecen en su obra venían discutiéndose desde por lo menos finales del siglo XVI no solamente en Portugal, sino en varias partes de la Península Ibérica. Esta circunstancia evidencia que para captar el significado completo de los planteamientos de Valenzuela es indispensable tener en cuenta el marco ibérico.This article analyses the treatise Portugal unido y separado…, written by Pedro de Valenzuela and printed in Madrid in 1659. The clergyman Pedro Valenzuela supported the restoration of the Habsburg sovereignty in Portugal (the Portuguese crown had split from the Spanish Monarchy in 1640, and the picture he conveys is largely influenced by his political allegiance. The first part of this study is therefore dedicated to an analysis of Valenzuela’s treatise. In the second and final part of this article the ideas expressed by Valenzuela are set in context. It is then demonstrated that many of the issues raised in this book were being discussed since, at least, the late 16th century, not only in Portugal but also in various parts of the Iberian Peninsula. It is thus argued that, in order to capture the full meaning of the questions raised by Valenzuela, it is indispensable to take into account their Iberian context.

  15. Las relaciones financieras entre España y Portugal, 1563-1580

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar LUCAS VILLANUEVA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las economías de Castilla y Portugal durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI estaban estrechamente ligadas por vínculos financieros. Un espacio económico en desarrollo, el del Atlántico septentrional, comprendía ambos territorios y se organizaba a partir de los grandes centros feriales de Amberes, Lyon y Medina. El gran tráfico mercantil transoceánico se hacía presente en este escenario europeo gracias a la intervención de España y Portugal, pero con papeles bien distintos: España, incontinente, drenando el oro y la plata americanos hacia Europa, Portugal suministrando las apreciadas mercancías orientales. Las ferias de Medina del Campo y los mercaderes castellanos como Simón Ruiz se convierten en colaboradores necesarios de los mercaderes portugueses, pues a través de éstos negociaban los reembolsos o inversiones financieras en las plazas europeas; sin embargo, para ello era preciso un buen conocimiento de los negocios cambiarlos y su oportunidad, atendiendo a la cotización de las distintas monedas y a demanda de dinero en las ferias europeas. De la mano del mercader medinense entran los lisboetas en las grandes finanzas y la concertación de asientos con la Corona, aunque tal vez sin la pujanza que Felipe II hubiese deseado.ABSTRACT: The correspondence studied shows the importance that had, for this period of time (1563-1580, the relationship between Castille and Portugal. The vigorous economic space of the Northern Atlantic, the space in which were inscribed both territories, was organised from the three great market centres of Amberes, Lyon and Medina del Campo. The big transoceanic commercial trade was present in this European scenery thanks to the supervision of Spain an Portugal, but playing a very different role: Spain, draining gold and silver to Europe; and Portugal, supplying the appreciated oriental goods. The fairs of Medina and the Castilian merchants, like Simon Ruiz, were converted in necessary

  16. Report on the progress of work in Portugal [Processing of Low-Grade Uranium Ores]; Rapport sur l'etat d'avancement des travaux au Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira Pich, H [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Fisica e Engenharia Nucleares, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1967-06-15

    The purpose of the principal studies until now in Portugal were the development of two types of treatment of the uranium minerals: - Traditional leaching by agitation of the ore milled in a finely sulphuric acid solution; - Leaching of the type 'heap leaching' in which the ore is hard crushed, and then sprinkles is crammed with sulphuric acid solution. Leaching tests were performed traditionally with samples of available Portuguese minerals. In most cases, the dissolution of uranium is easy and low consumption of acid. Efforts were oriented in the direction of a leaching type 'heap leaching'.

  17. High speed in Portugal - metamorphosis from planning construction measures to a national railway concept; Hochgeschwindigkeit in Portugal - von der Bauplanung zu einem nationalen Eisenbahnkonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohler, Werner [Beratungfirma SMA und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Portugal is planning the construction of two high-speed railway lines (using the UIC gauge of 1435 mm) between Lisbon and Madrid and between Lisbon and Porto. Integration with the country's existing Iberian-gauge network will be achieved in some places by laying three-rail tracks and in other places by running trains with adjustable wheel gauges. The adaptations to the legacy network triggered by the plants for the high-speed lines include, inter alia, a rearrangement of the networks of the regional-express services in and around Lisbon and Porto. (orig.)

  18. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  19. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  20. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  1. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  2. Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.

  3. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  4. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis plant, supplement 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Supplement 18 contains the following additions to Appendix II--5.0 Geology and Seismology: Section 12 ''Seismic Investigations for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility at West Valley, New York,'' October 20, 1975, and Section 13 ''Earthquake Return Period Analysis at West Valley, New York, for Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.'' November 5, 1975

  5. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  6. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  7. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  8. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago; Martins, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  9. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  10. Air quality management in Portugal: example of needs and available tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C; Miranda, A I; Coutinho, M; Ferreira, J; Carvalho, A C

    2002-01-01

    The Framework Directive (FWD) and the proposed Daughter Directives are the newest legislative instruments concerning a new political strategy and air quality management approach for Europe. Additionally, the member countries of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe have included the concepts of critical load and level for planning air pollution abatement strategies and as a base of international agreements concerning limitation of the emissions of air pollutants. These concepts imply an accurate knowledge about pollutants deposition fluxes. The paper describes the main needs and the tools available to define a strategy of air quality management in Portugal. Two study cases are presented: (1) extensive monitoring plan to assess the impact of an urban incinerator plant; and (2) contribution to a methodology to estimate critical levels for a coastal region in Portugal. These different approaches allowed illustrating the complexity of the implementation of an air pollution management strategy.

  11. Legislation for higher education disabled students in Brazil and Portugal: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ricardo Lins Vieira de Melo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make a critical analysis of legislation regulating the inclusion of disabled students in higher education in Brazil and Portugal. Based on a documentary study, conducted between September and November 2015, the legal standards in recent decades have been analyzed. The results point out different stages of construction of the inclusion policy in the researched countries. It is emphasized that there is a significant variety of norms in the Brazilian context to ensure that these students have equal opportunities, and a scarcity of regulations in Portugal. The legislation has been referred to as an important factor for the development of inclusive education; however it is noteworthy that the existence of legislation does not necessarily imply it is actually complied. Besides legislation, removing barriers for the full participation and learning of disabled students involves awareness, investment in resources, public policy makers and managers’ scientific knowledge to ensure a quality education throughout life for all people.

  12. Exploring the Personality Traits of Portugal as a Tourist Destination: Perspective of the Czech Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Guerreiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The personality of a destination is vital to build a coherent destination brand and strengthen the place identity. Furthermore, brand personality appears in literature as a strategic axis that can be explored by tourist destinations in order to differentiate themselves from competitors. Since a brand encompasses not only functional but also symbolic elements, its image, as perceived by consumers, can be assessed with respect to both its functional and psychological components. Hence, this exploratory study investigates the brand personality of Portugal as a tourist destination, from the perspective of the Czech market, through a destination image approach. The online survey instrument included open-ended items to depict functional and psychological destination features and additional questions to characterize the profile of a sample of Czech university students. The main findings of this research highlight positive personality traits that are related to the brand of Portugal, which suggest its potential as a vacation destination for the Czech market under study.

  13. For the greater credibility: Jesuit science and education in modern Portugal (1858-1910).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta Romeiras, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    Upon the restoration of the Society of Jesus in Portugal in 1858, the Jesuits founded two important colleges that made significant efforts in the promotion of hands-on experimental teaching of the natural sciences. At the Colégio de Campolide (Lisbon, 1858-1910) and the Colégio de São Fiel (Louriçal do Campo, 1863-1910) the Jesuits created modern chemistry and physics laboratories, organized significant botanical, zoological and geological collections, promoted scientific expeditions with their students to observe eclipses and to collect novel species of animals and plants, and engaged in original research work in physics, botany, and zoology. The successful implementation of modern scientific practices gained these colleges public recognition as the most prominent secondary institutions in nineteenth-century Portugal, and this made a major contribution to countering the widespread and commonly accepted anti-Jesuit accusations of obscurantism and scientific backwardness.

  14. Fugitives in transit. The Spanish Republican exile through Portugal (1936-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Velázquez Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite scant attention from historiography, Portugal played an important role as a way station on the road to exile for many Republicans during and after the Spanish Civil War. The situation in the neighbouring country was not easy for these people, as Antonio Oliveira de Salazar’s regime —officially allied with Franco’s Spain— did not recognize them as political refugees, but as illegal immigrants to be returned to Spain, which would have catastrophic consequences for many of them. Through the analysis of abundant primary sources in archives from Spain, Portugal, Mexico and the United States, we seek to understand the details of this Portuguese stage of the exile. We discover how, despite the official position of the Portuguese authorities, there were certain margins of ambiguity that allowed the departure of several thousand Spaniards to Mexico and other countries. Finally we study the fundamental intervention of international aid agencies like the Unitarian Service Committee.

  15. Particulate Matter and Health Risk under a Changing Climate: Assessment for Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impacts of climate-induced changes in air pollution levels and its impacts on population health were investigated. The IPCC scenario (SRES A2 was used to analyse the effects of climate on future PM10 concentrations over Portugal and their impact on short-term population exposure and mortality. The air quality modelling system has been applied with high spatial resolution looking on climate changes at regional scale. To quantify health impacts related to air pollution changes, the WHO methodology for health impact assessment was implemented. The results point to 8% increase of premature mortality attributed to future PM10 levels in Portugal. The pollution episodes with daily average PM10 concentration above the current legislated value (50 μg·m−3 would be responsible for 81% of attributable cases. The absolute number of deaths attributable to PM10 under future climate emphasizes the importance of indirect effects of climate change on human health.

  16. Using Choice Experiments to Assess Environmental Impacts of Dams in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Botelho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known benefits in electricity production, dams are also responsible for some adverse environmental impacts affecting particularly the wellbeing of residents of the local communities. These environmental damages have not been included in the cost-benefit analysis of hydropower developments mainly because of the difficulty to determine their value. The prime objective of this paper is to measure the economic values of several environmental impacts due to the dams' activity in Portugal, using a discrete choice experiments approach. With the results of this research paper, we expect to contribute to a more efficient and thorough cost-benefit analysis within the complex process of deciding the optimal location of future dams to be built not only in Portugal, but elsewhere. The addition of this stage to the decision-making process allows the integration of economic, social and environmental dimensions, promoting a richer and more informed decision process.

  17. Portugal y su imperio frente a la descolonización 1945-62

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Cueto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal logró construir un imperio colonial en África tan notable como desajustado a las aparentes capacidades del país, y eso fue gracias a una difícil combinación de factores endógenos y exógenos, un éxito que llevó a que los dirigentes lusos confiriesen al Ultramar un papel ideológico capital. Sin embargo, tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial los factores externos que habían favorecido la materialización del Imperio desaparecen, y en este nuevo contexto marcado por la Guerra Fría y la ola descolonizadora, Portugal es incapaz de contemporizar sus relaciones con las colonias. El temor a que la pérdida de los territorios extraeuropeos acabase también con el Régimen, además de otros factores, determinó la imposibilidad de que el Gobierno aceptase revisar sustancialmente su política inmovilista, obligándose a sostenerla en circunstancias internacionales y nacionales extremadamente difíciles, especialmente a partir de 1961. A pesar de la evidente imposibilidad de mantener la soberanía en Ultramar por la fuerza en ese contexto, para buena parte de la cúpula del Estado Novo cualquier alternativa que pusiese en cuestión la «unidad pluricontinental de Portugal y sus provincias ultramarinas» era inaceptable, al ser la piedra angular que sostenía el mito del «caso único» del colonialismo portugués y por consiguiente la justificación de su continuidad, siendo además el dogma que impedía una discusión interior abierta y perniciosa sobre el futuro de las colonias — obviamente junto a la propia naturaleza antidemocrática del Régimen. Por esa razón, el único camino posible era el de la guerra, complementada con algunas reformas administrativas, económicas y sociales que ejecutaría Adriano Moreira, y que no pudieron ser otra cosa que una certificación de los estrechos límites en los que el Portugal de Salazar podía moverse.Portugal managed to build a colonial empire in Africa which was as remarkable as out of proportion

  18. DIVERSIDADE E INTERNACIONALIZAÇÃO DA EDUCAÇÃO: OS ESTUDANTES BRASILEIROS EM PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bazzarella Merçon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resulta de um trabalho de mestrado em Ciências da Educação e pretendemos apresentar, brevemente, os conceitos e opiniões de diferentes autores sobre a integração, internacionalização da educação e ideais de interculturalidade estabelecidos, entre Portugal e Brasil no ensino superior. Examinamos alguns Acordos e Leis celebrados entre os países com a finalidade de compreendermos o papel social dos mesmos. Buscamos esclarecer como os programas de internacionalização e cooperação para mobilidade estudantil facilitam e estimulam a integração na vida estudantil e o desenvolvimento pessoal e social dos alunos brasileiros, em Portugal, bem como as questões da interculturalidade no sistema educativo universitário português, com base na realidade da Universidade de Aveiro.

  19. As viagens ferroviárias em Portugal (1845-1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Silveira Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1852 and 1893 more than two thousand kilometres of railway were built in Portugal, changing the way people travelled across the Kingdom. Before that, travel only took place by river, by sea along the coast or by land where the lack of obstacles allowed it. This new form of transportation shortened distances and thus gave Portuguese travellers more time. Based on contemporary parliamentary debates, the technical opinions of Portuguese engineering (both manuscript in the records of the Ministry of Public Works and published in technical journals and contemporary fictional literature, this study aims to describe and explain some of the changes to travelling habits in Portugal. We shall see that new habits were brought on by the railway, as well as new concerns and new opportunities, and it quickly became a widely-used public service.

  20. Analysis of genuine saving and potential green net national income. Portugal, 1990-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Rui Pedro; Domingos, Tiago [Environment and Energy Section, DEM, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Martins, Victor [Department of Economics, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao (Portugal)

    2010-08-15

    The context of this paper is the measurement of welfare and weak sustainability (defined as non-declining utility) in dynamic economies, i.e., comprehensive or green accounting. We estimate green net national income (GNNI) and genuine saving (GS) for Portugal, for the years 1990 to 2005, accounting for the disamenity of air pollution emissions, the depreciation of commercial forests and the value of time, discussing the implications of the assumptions underlying the inclusion of these terms in the green accounting model. The influence of short-run cycles is analyzed by estimating GNNI excluding business cycles. Our results suggest that business cycles affect the sustainability message of GNNI. We find that potential GNNI is growing and GS is positive in the analyzed period, thereby not indicating a weak sustainability problem in Portugal, although both depict a trend towards unsustainability. Excluding technological progress there is a contradiction in the sustainability message of GNNI and GS. (author)

  1. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  2. The quasi-steady state of the valley wind system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg eSchmidli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-steady-state limit of the diurnal valley wind system is investigated overidealized three-dimensional topography. Although this limit is rarely attained inreality due to ever-changing forcings, the investigation of this limit canprovide valuable insight, in particular on the mass and heat fluxes associatedwith the along-valley wind. We derive a scaling relation for the quasi-steady-state along-valleymass flux as a function of valley geometry, valley size, atmospheric stratification,and surface sensible heat flux forcing. The scaling relation is tested by comparisonwith the mass flux diagnosed from numerical simulations of the valleywind system. Good agreement is found. The results also provide insight into the relationbetween surface friction and the strength of the along-valley pressure gradient.

  3. Safety conditions and native microbial flora of three processing units in Alentejo , Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjo, Marta; Potes, M.E; Elias, M.

    2014-01-01

    Portugal as other Mediterranean countries has a great diversity of dry fermented sausages. This traditional sausage production is highly diverse and products possess very particular organoleptic characteristics, which please consumers. These sensory characteristics are related not only to the manufacturing process, but also to the house microbial flora. On the other hand, the safety of fermented products is always difficult to achieve due to their processing technology and final characteristi...

  4. Infeção por staphylococcus aureus meticilina-resistente da comunidade em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nazareth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Recentemente assistiu-se à emergência de infeções na comunidade por Staphylococcus aureus meticilina-resistente (MRSA em indivíduos sem fatores de risco. O MRSA associado à comunidade (CA-MRSA parece ser mais virulento, causando desde infeções superficiais da pele e tecidos moles até fasceíte necrosante e, raramente, pneumonia.O CA-MRSA foi inicialmente identificado na Austrália no início da década de 80 e, após cerca de duas décadas, surgiu nos EUA e em vários países da Europa, Ásia e América do Sul. Não existe informação disponível acerca da prevalência em Portugal.Os autores reportam o primeiro caso de infeção por CA-MRSA em Portugal, num adulto jovem com pneumonia necrotizante grave complicada por empiema bilateral e insuficiência respiratória. Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has recently emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections among individuals without risk factors. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA appears to be more virulent, causing superficial mild skin and soft tissue infections to severe necrotizing fasciitis, and in rare cases, pneumonia.Community-associated MRSA was first reported in Australia in the early 80s, after almost two decades in the USA, and then in several countries in Europe, Asia and South America. No data exists in Portugal.We report the first case of CA-MRSA infection in Portugal, in a young adult with severe necrotizing pneumonia, complicated with bilateral empyema and respiratory failure. Palavras-chave: comunidade associada, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, pneumonia necrosante, empiema, Keywords: Community-associated, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Necrotizing pneumonia, Empyema

  5. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nazareth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has recently emerged as a cause of community-acquired infections among individuals without risk factors. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA appears to be more virulent, causing superficial mild skin and soft tissue infections to severe necrotizing fasciitis, and in rare cases, pneumonia.Community-associated MRSA was first reported in Australia in the early 80s, after almost two decades in the USA, and then in several countries in Europe, Asia and South America. No data exists in Portugal.We report the first case of CA-MRSA infection in Portugal, in a young adult with severe necrotizing pneumonia, complicated with bilateral empyema and respiratory failure. Resumo: Recentemente assistiu-se à emergência de infeções na comunidade por Staphylococcus aureus meticilina-resistente (MRSA em indivíduos sem fatores de risco. O MRSA associado à comunidade (CA-MRSA parece ser mais virulento, causando desde infeções superficiais da pele e tecidos moles até fasceíte necrosante e, raramente, pneumonia.O CA-MRSA foi inicialmente identificado na Austrália no início da década de 80 e, após cerca de duas décadas, surgiu nos EUA e em vários países da Europa, Ásia e América do Sul. Não existe informação disponível acerca da prevalência em Portugal.Os autores reportam o primeiro caso de infeção por CA-MRSA em Portugal, num adulto jovem com pneumonia necrotizante grave complicada por empiema bilateral e insuficiência respiratória. Keywords: Community-associated, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Necrotizing pneumonia, Empyema, Palavras-chave: comunidade associada, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, pneumonia necrosante, empiema

  6. Hydrological Modeling in temporary streams: A case study in Pardiela basin, Southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO, A.; MORAIS, M.; ROSADO, J.; SILVA, H.; SERAFIM, A.; NEVES, R.; BRITO, D.; POTES, M.; SALGADO, R.; LILLEBØ, I.; CHAMBEL, A.

    2011-01-01

    The project “Conservation and rehabilitation strategies for temporary Mediterranean river corridors: a case study on Pardiela basin, southern Portugal (Guadiana basin)", is being carried out,with the collaboration of researchers from diverse scientific areas, in order to increase the knowledge on temporary streams. The project includes different approaches at reach and basin scales, regarding the study of temporal interactions among different ecological components such as climate, morph...

  7. Level of commitment of the fans of the Thermas of Centre of Portugal in Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Torres

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social networks like Facebook have revolutionized communication strategies of the brands and its effects are clear and deep, and have transformed the way in which society is communicated to changed perceptions and social norms and, therefore, have transformed the dynamics of communication. In this sense, it is pertinent to analyze the presence of Termas of Centre of Portugal in social networks is essential, once that allows them to transmit information about their services and products.  The aim of this study is to measure, through digital indicators, the level of interaction of the Termas of Centre of Portugal (in the official pages of Facebook with his audience, in order to compare and measure the participation and interaction of each one of the pages with their users, and thus help managers to develop content strategies that make possible increasing the level of participation of the fans to the brand. The choice of Termas which are establishments where health care is provided, in which it is performed harnessing the therapeutic properties of a medicinal mineral water for prevention of ailments, therapeutic, etc., it is based on the importance today is acquiring health tourism in Portugal, being Termas its main representative. The working methodology is based on quantitative analysis using the analysis of digital metrics PageMarch and Kaushik together with an analysis of the content of the official website of Termas on Facebook. The sampling process was non-probabilistic intentional and collection was carried out between June and October 2015.It is observed that the amount of information available on the pages, just for them, is not responsible for the increased level of commitment. It was verified that most of the pages of the Termas of Centre of Portugal on Facebook, do not take this tool, which Facebook has become, in order to communicate through Electronic Word-of-mouse with your audience.

  8. Portugal and Spain entering the Common Market: Their industrial competitiveness revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Donges, Jürgen B.; Schatz, Klaus-Werner

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the overall position as well as the relative strength and weakness of the Iberian manufacturing industries within an enlarged Community. Earlier studies of the authors (Donges, Schatzf 1980; Donges et al., 1982) are up-dated and extended to cover the bilateral trade relations between Portugal and Spain. Following a recapitulation of the major trade patterns of the Iberian countries, we examine the nature of their specialization, both with regard to the E...

  9. Arrendamento privado em Portugal: uma leitura a partir da regulação das rendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia; Azevedo, Alda; Moura Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Este artigo contribui para o debate do papel do Estado na regulação do sector de arrendamento privado em Portugal num momento em que é implementado um Novo Regime de Arrendamento Urbano. A informação estatística disponível, nomeadamente sobre a duração dos contratos e os valores das rendas, alerta...

  10. Pilot monitoring study of ibuprofen in surface waters of north of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Paíga, Paula; Santos, Lúcia; Amorim, Célia G.; Araújo, Alberto N.; Montenegro, M. Conceição B. S. M.; Pena, Angelina; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Ibuprofen is amongst the most worldwide consumed pharmaceuticals. The present work presents the first data in the occurrence of ibuprofen in Portuguese surface waters, focusing in the north area of the country, which is one of the most densely populated areas of Portugal. Analysis of ibuprofen is based on pre-concentration of the analyte with solid phase extraction and subsequent determination with liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection. A total of 42 ...

  11. Higher education biology students’ conceptions on botany teaching : a Brazil – Portugal case study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, João Rodrigo Santos da; Guimarães, Fernando; Sano, Paulo Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Generally, the teaching of botany is seen as mainly based on the transmission of knowledge and on empirical-logical thinking, in a context of scientific knowledge and with the purpose of affirming truth about the world. From this perspective, both in Brazil and in Portugal botany is usually seen as a list of scientific names remote from the daily life of students, which might make classes demotivating. This project was designed with the aim of understanding the prior conceptions of higher ...

  12. Introdução à História Medieval de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Mendonça

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on prétend discuter la question qui motive plusieurs débats académiciens, autrement dit s´ilya eu ou non féodalisme au Portugal et quelles implications qui sont découlant de l´analyse du féodalisme à peine comme une réalité sociale et economique.

  13. La expulsión de los jesuitas de Portugal en la “era pombalina”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivanco Díaz, Borja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Jesuits were expelled from Portugal in 1759 as a consequence of Regalian policy of enlightened despotism, which had been wholeheartedly accepted by Marquis of Pombal, prime-minister under the King Joseph I. Accusations of inciting the Guarani people to rise up against “The Treaty of the borders”, on the one hand, and of conspiring in the assassination attempt against King Joseph I, on the other, supported the decision to force the Jesuits into exile. However, neither allegation has been ever proven, rather they were the result of Pombal’s campaign against Saint Ignatius of Loyola’s order. The ultimate outcome of the expulsion of the Jesuits was the diminished influence of Catholic Church, thus encourating the introduction of new Enlightenment ideas in Portugal.Los jesuitas fueron expulsados de Portugal en 1759 como consecuencia de la política “regalista” del “despotismo ilustrado” y a la que se había adherido sin reservas el Marqués de Pombal, primer ministro del rey José I. Las acusaciones de instigar a los guaraníes a rebelarse contra el Tratado de los Límites, por un lado, y de conspirar en la organización del atentado frustrado contra la vida de José I, por otro, sirvieron de argumentos para provocar el exilio de la Compañía de Jesús. Sin embargo, ninguna de las dos acusaciones ha podido ser nunca probada y respondieron más bien a la campaña “pombalina” contra la orden de Ignacio de Loyola. Como resultado final, la expulsión de los jesuitas aminoró la influencia de la Iglesia Católica y favoreció la introducción en Portugal de las nuevas ideas de la Ilustración.

  14. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This...

  15. Scenario based approach for multiple source Tsunami Hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Wronna; R. Omira; M. A. Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines – Portugal, one of the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seis...

  16. Mancozeb is an optimum example of diversity of toxicological classification of pesticides in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) classifies the fungicide MANCOZEB as Harmful (Xn) or Irritant (Xi), ignoring that: in UE, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) classify, beyond Xi, as R63 – Possible risk of harm to the unborn child; and, in the USA, the Environmental Protection Agence (EPA) classify as Carcinogenic (Probable human carcinogen). These reality justify that mancozeb is a optimum example, in Portugal, of the strange and frequen...

  17. Austerity on the loose in Portugal: European judicial restraint in times of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho Francisco Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international bailout granted to Portugal between 2011 and 2014 was conditional on the adoption by the Portuguese State of austerity measures included in a memorandum of understanding (MoU signed by the European Commission on behalf of the European Union (EU and the Member States. The MoU was never published in an official journal or even translated into the Portuguese language. Its implementation caused a significant decrease in the level of protection of social rights.

  18. Eco-efficiency assessment in apple production and storage in the northeast of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Feliciano, Manuel; Maia, Filipe; Rodrigues, Filipe; Gonçalves, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Cost reduction, product quality, and customer demands have been pressing the agro-industrial sector to adopt more sustainable practices. Assessing the environmental performance of the food sector worldwide is crucial to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural and industrial practices. This study focus on the assessment of the eco-efficiency of the apple production and storage in the northeastern region of Portugal, one of the largest production regions, using a set of environmental in...

  19. Life cycle analysis and environmental effect of electric vehicles market evolution in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    João P. Ribau, Ana F. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuel dependency in Portugal is represented in around 76% of the total primary energy use, from which almost half is associated to the road transport sector. The reduction of imported fossil energy, pollutants and CO2 emissions is seen as a solution to a more sustainable energy system. This paper analyzes the market penetration of battery electric vehicles in the road transport sector as an alternative and more efficient technology, considering its maximum share in the transport sector ...

  20. Acid mine drainage from the Panasqueira mine and its influence on Zêzere river (Central Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula Freire; Silva, Eduardo Ferreira da; Ferreira, Adelaide; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Available online 25 October 2013 The Panasqueira hydrothermal mineralization, located in central Portugal, is the biggest Sn–W deposit of the Western Europe. The main evidences of the mining exploitation and ore treatment operations are testified with huge tailings, mainly, in the Rio and Barroca Grande areas. The mining and beneficiation processes, at the site, produces metal rich mine wastes. Oxidation of sulfides tailings and flow from open impoundments are responsible for the m...

  1. Evaluation and quality libraries performance : a view from Portugal and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Sampaio, Maria Imaculada

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this poster is to give a view of some projects, on evaluation and quality in libraries performances, which have been developed in Portugal and Brazil during the last ten years. Library services quality is a concept that librarians around of the world has been adopted, that is a way for assessing user needs, satisfaction, and better performance at the libraries. The two academic librarians present a brief description of some methods to obtain performance and quality measure...

  2. Participation et construction de barrage à Alqueva (Portugal. Quelles méthodes, quels moyens ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Wateau

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce n’est pas la participation qui est en cause, mais les façons inadaptées ou faussement démocratiques et légitimatrices de la présenter. Quelques-unes de ces situations, dans le contexte de la construction d’un grand barrage au Portugal, sont explicitées dans cet article.

  3. Medicines out of use and waste of medicines in a northern city of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Isabel C.; Nascimento, Luís; Guilherme, M.; Magalhães, A.; Santos, E.; Vasques, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, it’s important to understand waste of medicines, destination of medicines out of use and knowledge that people have about it, since the lack of information can lead to serious consequences for public health and environment. This study aims to determine the proportion of waste of medicines in population of a northern city of Portugal and related factors and verify the knowledge and behavior about the destination of medicines out of use, like the Valormed. This cross-sectional a...

  4. Biotic and abiotic interactions in temporary summer pools of southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, Joana; Morais, Manuela; Guilherme, Pedro; Ilheu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In the south of Portugal, the summer season is characterized by reduced precipitation and high air temperatures, which causes the disruption of surface flow and subsequent formation of disconnect pools that may dry out entirely. During this dry period, there is a natural decrease of water quality standards due to the lack of water, leaving temporary rivers very vulnerable. Nevertheless, the remaining pools and surroundings become important in the survival of biological communities. Aquatic...

  5. The eastward enlargement of the eurozone: social and policy aspects in Portugal, Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Aurora; Caétano, José; Costa, Sofia; Liiv, Reilika

    2003-01-01

    This report explores some features of the social dimension of enlargement regarding the Southern EU-Member countries, namely Portugal, Spain and Italy. Economic theory suggests that integration may affect wages, employment and income distribution through changes on trade, FDI and migration flows. By removing all barriers to the free movement of goods and services, capital and labour, Eastward Enlargement will affect the location of economic activities, innovation, and technology. Subsequently...

  6. Ongoing outbreak of dengue type 1 in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C A; Clairouin, M; Seixas, G; Viveiros, B; Novo, M T; Silva, A C; Escoval, M T; Economopoulou, A

    2012-12-06

    Following the identification of two autochthonous cases of dengue type 1 on 3 October 2012, an outbreak of dengue fever has been reported in Madeira, Portugal. As of 25 November, 1,891 cases have been detected on the island where the vector Aedes aegypti had been established in some areas since 2005. This event represents the first epidemic of dengue fever in Europe since 1928 and concerted control measures have been initiated by local health authorities.

  7. How did the AD 1755 tsunami impact on sand barriers across the southern coast of Portugal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Pedro J. M.; Costas, Susana; Gonzalez-Villanueva, R.

    2016-01-01

    1755 tsunami flood on a coastal segment located within the southern coast of Portugal. In particular, the work focuses on deciphering the impact of the tsunami waves over a coastal sand barrier enclosing two lowlands largely inundated by the tsunami flood. Erosional features documented by geophysical...... above mean sea level). Our work highlights the usefulness of erosional imprints preserved in the sediment record to interpret the impact of the extreme events on sand barriers....

  8. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  9. Beneath the surface of the heritage enterprise. Governmentality and cultural representation of rural architecture in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luís

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the construction of heritage in rural Portugal. Drawing on anthropological fieldwork in the village of Castelo Rodrigo, it analyses the extensive protection and exhibition of domestic architecture in the framework of a State-led local development programme. By bringing in the messiness of daily practices, the article goes beyond neat theoretical formulations in the study of heritage such as Foucault’s theory of “governmentality” and Kirshenblatt-Gimblett’s notion of “s...

  10. Imprensa, escola e a forma da leitura em Portugal no século 19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Boto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Este trabalho procura abordar a situação da educação e particularmente da escola primária em Portugal na primeira metade do século 19, à luz do olhar que a imprensa tinha da mesma escolarização. Parte-se da interpretação do discurso educacional que à época seria assumido particularmente por um setor específico da imprensa, constituído por revistas e periódicos que tinham intenção de esclarecimento e instrução das populações. Tais revistas propunham, portanto, o investimento social na escola primária como uma maneira de reconstituir uma dada vocação perdida da nacionalidade portuguesa. De alguma maneira, tratava-se de inserir Portugal na desejada modernidade, mediante a criação do rito escolar, ou daquilo que já se caracterizou por forma escolar de socialização.  Abstract This paper looks for approaching the education situation and, in particular, of the primary school in Portugal during the first half of the 19th century, coming to light the way of thinking that the press had about the same act of schooling. Starting from the interpretation of the educational discourse that, in that epoch, would be assumed, in particular, by a specific sector of the press, constituted by magazines and periodicals wich had the intention of clearness and instruction of the populations. Such magazines were proposing, consequently, the social investiment in the primary school as a manner to rebuild the inborn lost vocation of the portuguese nationality. In any way, the objective was to introduce Portugal in the desired modernity, by means of the schooling rite, or of what that had already be characterized through socialization schoolinhg forme. 

  11. Five new hypogean Occidenchthonius (Pseudoscorpiones: Chthoniidae) from Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza, Juan A.; Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2018-01-01

    Five new species of the recently created genus Occidenchthonius Zaragoza, 2017 are described from caves of Portugal: Occidenchthonius alandroalensis sp. nov., O. algharbicus sp. nov., O. duecensis sp. nov., O. goncalvesi sp. nov. and O. vachoni sp. nov. The species Occidenchthonius cardosoi (Zara...

  12. Ground surface temperature history at a single site in southern Portugal reconstructed from borehole temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Correia, A.; Šafanda, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 29, 3/4 (2001), s. 155-165 ISSN 0921-8181 Grant - others:NATO(XX) CP(CZ)4/D/96/PO; UNESCO(XX) IGCP No.428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : recent climate * global warming * borehole temperatures * Portugal Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.381, year: 2001

  13. Analysis of fatal accidents with tractors in the Centre of Portugal: Ten years analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Soraia M; Cordeiro, Cristina; Teixeira, Helena M

    2018-06-01

    Tractors have been described as one of the deadliest farming implements concerning agricultural activity. In Portugal, the scientific investigations about this problem are practically non-existent, with only statistical studies performed by entities related to road traffic safety, not in accordance to the study now performed, pinpointing the possibility of an underreporting of these accidents. This work aims to characterize the fatal tractor accidents in Portugal, autopsied at the Forensic Pathology Department of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal, analysing several variables: gender, age, occupation, survival time, the victim position in the tractor, cause of death, toxicological and histological exams, year/month/day of the week, type of agricultural machine, existence of rollover protective structures (ROPS), type of accident, ground conditions, circumstantial information and geographic distribution of the accidents. All the autopsies between 2005 and 2014 were analysed. The victim profile corresponded to a man (89.5%), between 61 and 70 years old (33.3%), retired (43.9%), being the tractor driver (45.6%). In most of the cases, death occurred in less than 24h after the accident. These fatalities arose mainly in May and October. Rollover in sloping land was the most common type of accident, and cranioencephalic, thoracic and abdominal traumatic injuries were the main cause of death. In 16.2% of the cases, blood alcohol concentration was above the lower limit established in our road traffic law (accidents, and the corresponding circumstances that contributed to the death. Many barriers remain about this matter, but the Portuguese government begin to design several laws to prevent this type of accidents. Future investigations should be performed to understand the real dimension of tractor accidents in Portugal, and to comprehend the efficiency of laws implemented by the government. Copyright © 2018

  14. Residential electricity consumption in Portugal: Findings from top-down and bottom-up models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmann, Daniel; Lima Azevedo, Ines; Ferrao, Paulo; Fernandez, John E.

    2011-01-01

    An econometric study of the Portuguese residential electricity consumption is presented, with a focus on the influence of dwelling characteristics on consumption. The relationship between the dwelling and household characteristics on per capita residential electricity consumption is estimated at two different scales, involving two distinct databases: the first includes data at the municipality level for 2001, the second is the most recent Portuguese consumer expenditure survey that was collected in 2005 and 2006. The results of the analysis at both scales are consistent and indicate that household and dwelling characteristics have a significant influence on residential electricity consumption. Our results show that in Portugal the direct effect of income on electricity consumption is low and becomes smaller when more relevant control variables are included in the analysis. Future demand of electricity in Portugal will be significantly influenced by trends in socioeconomic factors as well as changes in the building stock. These trends should be taken in consideration in the formulation of policy measures to reduce electricity consumption. - Research highlights: → Econometric study of per capita residential electricity consumption in Portugal. → Comparing models at two levels of aggregation: by municipality and by household. → Using proxies for the dwelling characteristics on the municipality level. → Results from both scales are consistent. → Income elasticity is low and the influence of dwelling characteristics is significant.

  15. Characterization of the medical department of pharmaceutical companies operating in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acílio Gala

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In a context of strong regulatory demands and high economic pressures and constraints, medical departments within pharmaceutical companies, have demonstrated its strategic relevance even though the functions to embrace are not globally consensual. In this context, a study that intended to analyse the management of medical activities, in pharmaceutical companies operating in Portugal, including allocated human resources and investment trends, was implemented. Quantitative information was collected through an electronic survey, in pharmaceutical companies with activity in Portugal. The analysis of the results supported the conclusion that the majority of the companies are affiliates of international companies and that 79% of them have formalized medical departments. The human resources of the medical departments of the participant companies include several professional classes, with predominance of pharmacists. Globally, the number of employees of the medical area has registered a systematic growth in the last years. It was also possible to conclude that the majority of the companies are increasing the investment in medical affairs activities. This study enables the understanding of these activities in pharmaceutical companies operating in Portugal, within the international panorama of pharmaceutical industry. It contributes to improve the knowledge about the relevance of medical departments while enabling the definition of novel pathways to increase the competiveness and sustainability of the companies.

  16. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  17. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Lisete

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Thelazia callipaeda eyeworms are transmitted by the non-biting insect vector Phortica variegata in Europe and infest the conjunctiva(s of several mammalians, including dogs and humans. Infested hosts might remain asymptomatic or display clinical manifestations characterized by variable degrees of severity. Methods From July to November 2011, nine dogs were detected with eyeworms at two veterinary clinics in Chaves and Bragança (North of Portugal. Nematodes collected from dogs were morphologically and molecularly characterized at species level. Results Nematodes were identified as T. callipaeda. The number of worms collected from each dog ranged from three to 76 (average = 17.9 ± 26.8 and was not associated with the severity of clinical signs. Ocular discharge and conjunctivitis were observed in all dogs and ocular pruritus occurred in six of them. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of a portion of target cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene further identified all nematodes as haplotype 1. Conclusions This is the first report of T. callipaeda and associated ocular disease in dogs from Portugal, suggesting that thelaziosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of canine ocular affections. The risk of the infestation spreading from Spain and France to Portugal, through domestic dogs or wild mammals, is realistic.

  18. Education and Equality in Portugal: The Role of Priority Education Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses priority education policies developed in Portugal and focuses on the latest intervention trends in this regard. Firstly, the contexts in which these policies emerged are described with respect to the country’s specificity concerning the universalization of basic education and compulsory schooling, as well as social and educational equity. Secondly, the main current governmental initiative in the field, Priority Intervention Education Territories (TEIP2, is analyzed. It aims to reduce school failure and school dropout in deprived areas and attempts to fulfill the goals set for Europe in terms of education and training. We analyze TEIP2 program’s impact on students’ school achievement, dropout and on the possibilities of innovating pedagogical practices. We argue that significant changes have occurred in the conceptions and goals of priority education in Portugal, especially in what concerns the need for schools to acknowledge the sociological and cultural diversity of their students and families. However, it cannot be neglected that current policies show an important vulnerability in what concerns their ambitious goals, as they simultaneously try to achieve system modernization, social cohesion and reduction of social inequalities. In our opinion, the question of knowing if these principles and logics of action are compatible or can coexist is remaining, especially in the context of a deep economic and financial crisis that is nowadays prevailing in Portugal.

  19. Is kenaf an effective land-use alternative for the energy and industrial sectors in Portugal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, A.; Morais, J.; Mendes, B.; Oliveira, J.F.S. [Grupo de Disciplinas de Ecologia da Hidrosfera, Unidate de Biotecnologia Ambiental, Faculdade de Ciencis e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate kenaf as a non-food crop through an integrated approach for alternative land use in Portugal that will provide diversified opportunities for farmers and biological materials for the bio-based industries of the future. Results show that kenaf appears to represent an efficient land-use alternative in Portugal. At the pedoclimatic conditions of South Portugal, high yields can be achieved (28 t dry matter.ha-1.year-1), depending on the applied cultivation techniques. The time of sowing and the level of irrigation are the main crop management factors that affect biomass yields. Benefits of this crop relies not only on the possibility of its use as a renewable raw material for energy and industrial purposes but also on the possibility to make good use of set aside land or even derelict land, limiting erosion risks. Detailed consideration of the energy balances suggests that the use of kenaf-fibres for the production of thermal insulation boards are favored over its use as an energy feedstock, where energy balances may be poor.

  20. Nocturnal surface ozone enhancement over Portugal during winter: Influence of different atmospheric conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.

    2016-09-24

    Four distinct nocturnal surface ozone (NSO) enhancement events were observed, with NSO concentration exceeding 80μg/m3, at multiple ozone (O3) monitoring stations (32 sites) in January, November and December between year 2000–2010, in Portugal. The reasonable explanation for the observed bimodal pattern of surface ozone with enhanced NSO concentration during nighttime has to be transport processes, as the surface ozone production ceases at nighttime. Simultaneous measurements of O3 at multiple stations during the study period in Portugal suggest that horizontal advection alone cannot explain the observed NSO enhancement. Thus, detailed analysis of the atmospheric conditions, simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, were performed to evaluate the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for NSO enhancement in the region. Simulations revealed that each event occurred as a result of one or the combination of different atmospheric processes such as, passage of a cold front followed by a subsidence zone; passage of a moving surface trough, with associated strong horizontal wind speed and vertical shear; combination of vertical and horizontal transport at the synoptic scale; formation of a low level jet with associated vertical mixing below the jet stream. The study confirmed that large-scale flow pattern resulting in enhanced vertical mixing in the nocturnal boundary layer, plays a key role in the NSO enhancement events, which frequently occur over Portugal during winter months. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Una historia de diseño del cartel en Portugal del siglo XVII al XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Helena Ferreira Braga Barbosa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To write an history of the design of the poster about three centuries in Portugal allows to understand how this artefact has changed over time. Usually, the result does not configure the reasons that gave rise of the poster, because they are not always visible and so, they don’t illustrate the reality in which they emerged. This article reveals a series of factors associated not only with the historical events, as well the adjacent constraints to design a poster. Portugal has in some cases a particular path with regard to the design history of the poster. To reveal this history the adopted methodology to explain this narrative will refer the technology (paper production and selection, printing techniques, use of different materials, programme (categories of posters – political, cultural and commercial – in parallel with the historical events and authorship (anonymous and identified posters, styles and references. The article is divided in four sections, where each section is related to one century. The set of examples collected contribute to the knowledge of the history of design of the poster in Portugal.

  2. A new carbon tax in Portugal: A missed opportunity to achieve the triple dividend?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Alfredo M.; Pereira, Rui M.; Rodrigues, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Portuguese government appointed a Commission for Environmental Tax Reform that formulated a carbon-tax proposal designed to achieve three dividends: to help Portugal meet the European Union's target for emissions reductions by 2030, to boost long-term employment and GDP above their pre-carbon-tax levels, and to strengthen public finances by lowering public indebtedness. A key feature of this proposal was a judicious set of mixed strategies to recycle all carbon-tax revenues back into the economy. In this note, we show how the carbon tax that the Portuguese Parliament eventually approved deviated from such guidelines, and ultimately failed to achieve the triple dividend. We argue that authorities need to quickly amend the existing legislation to avoid this misguided attempt turning into a missed opportunity to improve environmental, macroeconomic, and fiscal outcomes. - Highlights: •In a general-equilibrium model, we simulate the effects of a carbon tax in Portugal. •A carbon tax is needed for Portugal to meet its 2030 target in emissions reductions. •In the long run, it's possible to design a carbon tax to achieve the triple dividend. •The Portuguese parliament ultimately approved an unsatisfactory carbon-tax package. •Carbon-tax revenues must be recycled into lower taxes and promote energy efficiency.

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Portugal. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Portugal estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range 20,000 to 80,000 tonnes uranium. The majority of this potential is expected to be located in intergranitic vein deposits and in pre-Ordovician schists, but other favourable geological environments include episyenites and Meso-Cainozoic continental sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$25 million be spent on exploration in Portugal over the next 10 years. The majority of this ($18 million) would be spent on drilling, with a further $7 million on surface surveys and airborne radiometric surveys. It is the opinion of the IUREP Orientation Phase Mission that the considerable funding required for the outlined programme would most suitably be realized by inviting national or foreign commercial organisations to participate in the exploration effort under a partnership or shared production arrangements. (author)

  4. Prospective application of municipal solid wastes for energy production in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Sandra; Monteiro, Eliseu; Silva, Valter; Rouboa, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and disposal is a major urban environment issue in the world today. MSW management solutions have to be technologically feasible, legally and socially acceptable and environmentally and financially sustainable. European policy is pushing for a rational management of natural resources; a promising technological perspective today is waste valorisation, a process that involves sorting at the source, combined with material recycling and waste-to-energy conversion. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of the Portuguese MSW management system, criticize the environmental policy issues for MSW management in Portugal and identify weak points in the criteria used for the technologies selection. Portugal is facing multiple problems with MSW management and is attempting to tackle them by passing legislation in order to improve the performance of waste management systems. At the technological level, gasification increasingly presents as an efficient and viable alternative to incineration. Gasification is a waste-to-energy conversion scheme that offers an attractive solution to both waste disposal and energy problems. Waste gasification by plasma has been validated but the economic viability of this technology must be proven before to be accepted by the industry. - Highlights: • MSW collection and disposal are a major problem of urban environment. • Portugal is facing multiple problems and improving the MSW management system. • Gasification offers the most attractive solution to both waste disposal and energy problems. • Plasma gasification seems to be validated but the economic viability must be proven

  5. Forest Owners’ Organizations in North and Central Portugal – Assessment of Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Feliciano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The emergence of forest owners’ organizations (FOOs in Portugal occurred in the 1990s. Fifteen years later there were 173 FOOs providing services to the private forest owners and also to the whole of society. This study aims to evaluate the success of FOOs in increasing their membership and the quantity of services provided. Material and Methods: Eight FOOs from the North and Central Portugal were chosen as case studies. Quantitative data on membership numbers and number of services provided by the eight case studies were collected from the archives of FORESTIS or directly at the FOOs headquarters. Qualitative data from newsletters, annual reports, local newspapers and letters were also collected to be further analysed. Secondary data collected cover a period of ten years (1994-2005. In addition, eight interviews to members of staff or FOOs directors were conducted in 2005. It was hypothesised that the number of members and the quantity of services provided may be interrelated and that the turnover of staff and their productivity influence the success of FOOs in increasing their membership and providing technical advice services. Results and Conclusion: The study showed that although most FOOs were successful in making their membership grow, there were big differences in the number of members, in the forest area covered by them and in the quantity of services provided. It was concluded that human capital, financial capital and path dependence were the factors that most constrained the success FOOs in North and Central Portugal.

  6. The historical and recent distribution and status of mammals in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Santos-Reis

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historical and recent data on Portuguese mammals are presented in this paper, occurring on the mainland and/or in the Azores and Madeira Atlantic islands. Nowadays, 95 species of mammals are known in Portugal, of which only one (Nyctalus azoreum is an endemic species and three others (Pipistrellus maderensis, Microtus cabrerae and Lynx pardina are exclusive for Portugal and Spain. Moreover, two other species, Mustela vison and Sciurus vulgaris are recent records for the Portuguese fauna, the first due to an accidental introduction and the second resulting from a recolonization by Spanish populations. Of the remaining species, around 50% (46 species are threatened in different degrees, 34.8% (16 species being considered endangered or vulnerable. Mammals extinct in Portugal are the Gerês goat (Capra pyrenaica lusitanica and the bear (Ursus arctos.

  7. The market features of imported non-indigenous polychaetes in Portugal and consequent ecological concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fidalgo e Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the market for polychaetes dramatically increased after the discovery of their potential as food in aquaculture. In Portugal, the gathering of polychaetes solely from natural populations is not sufficient to meet market demand, both as bait for sea anglers and as a food item in aquaculture. The requests for worms to polychaete dealers by Portuguese and Spanish seafarms have increased during recent years. Due to the lack of intensive culture of these worms in Portugal and the proximity of southern Spanish farms, a large component of imported polychaetes that arrive in Portugal at Lisbon Airport go directly to Spain by road. In 2002 and 2003 a total of 12,728,379 and 16,866,839 polychaetes respectively were imported to Europe via Lisbon Airport from China and the USA. In 2003 the imports from China and the USA realised 716,180 and 291,845 US dollars respectively. Two species were reported to have been imported in these years, namely the Korean blue ragworm Perinereis aibuhitensis and the American bloodworm Glycera dibranchiata. Imports of non-indigenous species, which are traded and sold alive, may increase the risk of accidental introduction into the wild. This is of special concern as Perinereis aibuhitensis has been successfully reared in captivity within the range of environmental conditions existing in the Ria Formosa coastal lagoon. Other risks associated with introduced species are the transport of foreign pathogens and other associated non-native organisms, which may act as carriers of disease.

  8. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project's website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora.

  9. Detection of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Hugo Costa; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Neto, Maria; Silva, Sílvia; Marques, Fátima; Silva, Ana Sofia; Alves, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito originating from the Asia-Pacific region. This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. In Portugal, a National Vector Surveillance Network (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—REVIVE) is responsible for the surveillance of autochthonous, but also invasive, mosquito species at points of entry, such as airports, ports, storage areas, and specific border regions with Spain. At these locations, networks of mosquito traps are set and maintained under surveillance throughout the year. In September 2017, Ae. albopictus was detected for the first time in a tyre company located in the North of Portugal. Molecular typing was performed, and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis indicated a high similarity with sequences of Ae. albopictus collected in Europe. A prompt surveillance response was locally implemented to determine its dispersal and abundance, and adult mosquitoes were screened for the presence of arboviral RNA. A total of 103 specimens, 52 immatures and 51 adults, were collected. No pathogenic viruses were detected. Despite the obtained results suggest low abundance of the population locally introduced, the risk of dispersal and potential establishment of Ae. albopictus in Portugal has raised concern for autochthonous mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:29690531

  10. Nocturnal surface ozone enhancement over Portugal during winter: Influence of different atmospheric conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Sharma, Ashish; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, Rui; Silva, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Four distinct nocturnal surface ozone (NSO) enhancement events were observed, with NSO concentration exceeding 80μg/m3, at multiple ozone (O3) monitoring stations (32 sites) in January, November and December between year 2000–2010, in Portugal. The reasonable explanation for the observed bimodal pattern of surface ozone with enhanced NSO concentration during nighttime has to be transport processes, as the surface ozone production ceases at nighttime. Simultaneous measurements of O3 at multiple stations during the study period in Portugal suggest that horizontal advection alone cannot explain the observed NSO enhancement. Thus, detailed analysis of the atmospheric conditions, simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, were performed to evaluate the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for NSO enhancement in the region. Simulations revealed that each event occurred as a result of one or the combination of different atmospheric processes such as, passage of a cold front followed by a subsidence zone; passage of a moving surface trough, with associated strong horizontal wind speed and vertical shear; combination of vertical and horizontal transport at the synoptic scale; formation of a low level jet with associated vertical mixing below the jet stream. The study confirmed that large-scale flow pattern resulting in enhanced vertical mixing in the nocturnal boundary layer, plays a key role in the NSO enhancement events, which frequently occur over Portugal during winter months. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. HLA genes in Madeira Island (Portugal) inferred from sequence-based typing: footprints from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Mora, Marian Gantes; Middleton, Derek; Brehm, António

    2006-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms were examined in Madeira Island populations. The data was obtained at high-resolution level, using sequence-based typing (SBT). The most frequent alleles at each loci were: A*020101 (24.6%), B*5101 (9.7%), B*440201 (9.2%), and DRB1*070101 (15.7%). The predominant three-loci haplotypes in Madeira were A*020101-B*510101-DRB1*130101 (2.7%) and A*010101-B*0801-DRB1*030101 (2.4%), previously found in north and central Portugal. The present study corroborates historical sources and other genetic studies that say Madeira were populated not only by Europeans, mostly Portuguese, but also sub-Saharan Africans due to slave trade. Comparison with other populations shows that Madeira experienced a stronger African influence due to slave trade than Portugal mainland and even the Azores archipelago. Despite this African genetic input, haplotype and allele frequencies were predominantly from European origin, mostly common to mainland Portugal.

  12. Residential electricity consumption in Portugal: Findings from top-down and bottom-up models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.wiesmann@ist.utl.p [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Lima Azevedo, Ines [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Ferrao, Paulo [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Fernandez, John E. [Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    An econometric study of the Portuguese residential electricity consumption is presented, with a focus on the influence of dwelling characteristics on consumption. The relationship between the dwelling and household characteristics on per capita residential electricity consumption is estimated at two different scales, involving two distinct databases: the first includes data at the municipality level for 2001, the second is the most recent Portuguese consumer expenditure survey that was collected in 2005 and 2006. The results of the analysis at both scales are consistent and indicate that household and dwelling characteristics have a significant influence on residential electricity consumption. Our results show that in Portugal the direct effect of income on electricity consumption is low and becomes smaller when more relevant control variables are included in the analysis. Future demand of electricity in Portugal will be significantly influenced by trends in socioeconomic factors as well as changes in the building stock. These trends should be taken in consideration in the formulation of policy measures to reduce electricity consumption. - Research highlights: {yields} Econometric study of per capita residential electricity consumption in Portugal. {yields} Comparing models at two levels of aggregation: by municipality and by household. {yields} Using proxies for the dwelling characteristics on the municipality level. {yields} Results from both scales are consistent. {yields} Income elasticity is low and the influence of dwelling characteristics is significant.

  13. Detection of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Costa Osório

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito originating from the Asia-Pacific region. This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. In Portugal, a National Vector Surveillance Network (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—REVIVE is responsible for the surveillance of autochthonous, but also invasive, mosquito species at points of entry, such as airports, ports, storage areas, and specific border regions with Spain. At these locations, networks of mosquito traps are set and maintained under surveillance throughout the year. In September 2017, Ae. albopictus was detected for the first time in a tyre company located in the North of Portugal. Molecular typing was performed, and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis indicated a high similarity with sequences of Ae. albopictus collected in Europe. A prompt surveillance response was locally implemented to determine its dispersal and abundance, and adult mosquitoes were screened for the presence of arboviral RNA. A total of 103 specimens, 52 immatures and 51 adults, were collected. No pathogenic viruses were detected. Despite the obtained results suggest low abundance of the population locally introduced, the risk of dispersal and potential establishment of Ae. albopictus in Portugal has raised concern for autochthonous mosquito-borne disease outbreaks.

  14. Psychosocial concomitants of loneliness among students of Cape Verde and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F; Barros, J

    2000-09-01

    This research is an examination of the relationship between loneliness and a number of psychosocial variables (e.g., affective state, cultural issues, gender, age) among adolescents and young adults from Cape Verde and Portugal. Two studies are presented. The participants in the first study were 285 adolescents from Cape Verde and 202 from Portugal, and in the second study there were 134 college students from Cape Verde and 112 from Portugal. The following instruments were administered to all the participants in both studies: The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. Peplau, & C. Cutrona, 1980), the Neuroticism Scale (J. Barros, 1999), the Optimism Scale (J. Barros, 1998), the Social Anxiety subscale (A. Fenigstein, M. Scheier, & A. Buss, 1975), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985). No ethnic or gender differences were found for loneliness between the two groups. For both groups, the most prominent predictors of loneliness were neuroticism and dissatisfaction with life. However, as expected, the adolescent group recorded higher scores for loneliness than did the college students.

  15. Performance indicators for clinical practice management in primary care in Portugal: consensus from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Furtado, Sara Isabel Félix; Silva, Ricardo Jorge Pereira; Fachado González, Francisco; Vara Fernandes, Tito Manuel; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Yaphe, John

    2015-03-01

    Performance indicators assessing the quality of medical care and linked to pay for performance may cause disagreement. Portuguese indicators included in recent health care reform are controversial. To obtain consensus from opinion leaders in family medicine regarding the performance indicators for practice management used in the evaluation of Family Health Units in Portugal. Eighty-nine specialists in primary care were invited to answer the following question in an online Delphi study: 'Which performance indicators should be assessed regarding the organization and management of clinical practice in primary care in Portugal?' A Likert scale was used to evaluate validity, reliability, feasibility and sensitivity to change. Twenty-seven experts participated in the second round and achieved a high degree of consensus. Eight categories were created for analysis. The experts suggested the use of existing indicators as well as new indicators. Thirty-nine indicators suggested by the experts are currently in use in Portugal. The assessment of the number of clinical acts performed, the number of administrative acts, and evaluation of the clinical demographic profile achieved a high degree of consensus. The expert panel suggested fifty new indicators. Five categories of these new indicators had a high degree of consensus, and three categories had a low degree of consensus. The expert panel recommended that performance indicators of practice management should first assess the quantity of clinical and administrative activities undertaken. These indicators must take into account the human and financial resources available to the clinic and its demographic context.

  16. Le crayon bleu de la censure : oeuvres d’auteurs français interdites au Portugal entre 1933 et 1974

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Luís Carlos Pimenta

    2017-01-01

    The Censor’s Blue Pen: Works by French Authors Banned in Portugal between 1933 and 1974. The dictatorial regime imposed by the Estado Novo regime in force in Portugal between 1933 and 1974 imposed a severe censorship of publications in general and more specifically to books published in Portugal and abroad. Because of the influence that French culture had, many authors, ancient and contemporary, from Flaubert to Sartre going through Sagan, had their works banned. The reasons for the ban were ...

  17. El comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval : rutas y papel económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Soyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen muy pocos estudios acerca de la esclavitud musulmana en Portugal. Cuando se trata el comercio de los esclavos en la historia portuguesa, generalmente los trabajos se refieren al comercio de los esclavos africanos que los navegantes portugueses comenzaron traer de vuelta a Europa desde el año 1441 en adelante, a pesar de que desde el siglo XI existía una pobulación de esclavos musulmanes —los llamados mouros cativos—. En este artículo propongo estudiar, de la forma la más detallada posible, las características y dinámicas del comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el reino cristiano de Portugal durante la Edad Media, tratando de responder a preguntas relevantes, como las de cuál era el origen y el papel económico de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval, qué sabemos del comercio de los esclavos en aquel reino, o a la cuestión de si Portugal fue un país exportador o importador de esclavos.Whilst the presence of Muslim slaves in medieval Spain has attracted considerable scholarly attention from historians both inside and outside of the Iberian Peninsula, the same cannot be said of the history of Muslim slaves in the medieval Christian kingdom of Portugal. Most studies of slavery in Portugal focus on captives from sub-Saharan Africa brought back by Portuguese slavers to Europe from 1441 onwards even though Muslim slaves were present in Portugal from the eleventh century at the very least. We know next-to-nothing about these Muslim slaves. This article proposes to examine in as much detail as possible the characteristics and dynamics of the commerce of Muslim slaves in medieval Portugal. It addresses problematic questions regarding the origins and economic role of Muslim slaves in premodern Portugal, the nature of slave trading and whether Portugal was an importer or exporter of slaves.

  18. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  19. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E.K.; Amos, C.B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, Angela S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ∼1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ∼0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ∼6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7–11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ∼7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ∼0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  20. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these