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Sample records for caustic-side solvent extraction

  1. Next Generation Solvent Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Inter laboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  2. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonnesen, Peter V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duncan, Nathan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ensor, Dale [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Hill, Talon G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rajbanshi, Arbin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roach, Benjamin D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szczygiel, Patricia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stoner, Erica L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Neil J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  3. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  4. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  5. Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na + , K + , Cs + , OH - , NO 3 - , NO 2 - , Cl - , F - , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- , and CO 3 2- , and AlO 2 - ) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable for assessing wastes within relatively wide ranges of D-values (0.6-40) and

  6. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  7. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  8. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  9. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Chemical and Physical Properties Progress in FY 2000 and FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, BA

    2002-04-17

    The purpose of this work was to provide chemical- and physical-property data addressing the technical risks of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process as applied specifically to the removal of cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. As part of the overall Salt Processing Project, this effort supported decision-making in regards to selecting a preferred technology among three alternatives: (1) CSSX, (2) nonelutable ion-exchange with an inorganic silicotitanate material and (3) precipitation with tetraphenylborate. High risks, innate to CSSX, that needed specific attention included: (1) chemical stability of the solvent matrix, (2) radiolytic stability of the solvent matrix, (3) proof-of-concept performance of the proposed process flowsheet with simulated waste, and (4) performance of the CSSX flowsheet with actual SRS high-level waste. This body of work directly addressed the chemical-stability risk and additionally provided supporting information that served to plan, carry out, and evaluate experiments conducted by other CSSX investigators addressing the other high risks. Information on cesium distribution in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping served as input for flowsheet design, provided a baseline for evaluating solvent performance under numerous stresses, and contributed to a broad understanding of the effects of expected process variables. In parallel, other measurements were directed toward learning how other system components distribute in the flowsheet. Such components include the solvent components themselves, constituents of the waste, and solvent-degradation products. Upon understanding which components influence flowsheet performance, it was then possible to address in a rational fashion how to clean up the solvent and maintain its stable function.

  10. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  11. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  12. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  13. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  14. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

    2011-11-29

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

  16. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction from Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V. Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios

  17. Partitioning of Tank Waste Sludge in a 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Under Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, Jr. J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of solids on the hydraulic performance of a 5-cm centrifugal contactor under conditions present in the extraction section of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. In addition to determining if the ability to separate the aqueous and organic phases is affected by the presence of solids in a feed solution, the extent to which solids are accumulated in the contactor was also assessed. The reported task was motivated by the need to determine if removal of cesium from Savannah River Site tank waste can be performed using a contactor-based CSSX process without first removing sludge that is suspended in the feed solution. The ability to pass solids through the CSSX process could facilitate placement of CSSX upstream of a process in which alpha-decaying actinides and strontium are removed from the waste stream by precipitation with monosodium titanate (MST). This relative placement of the CSSX and MST processes is desirable because removal of cesium would greatly reduce the activity level of the feed stream to the MST process, thereby reducing the level of shielding needed and mitigating remote maintenance design features of MST equipment. Both results would significantly reduce the cost of the Salt Processing Project. Test results indicate conclusively that a large fraction of suspended sludge that enters the centrifugal contactor remains inside. It is expected that extended operation would result in continued accumulation of solids and that hydraulic performance would be adversely affected. Results also indicate that a fraction of the solids partitions to the phase boundary and could affect phase separation as contactor operations progress

  18. Thermal And Spectroscopic Analyses Of Next Generation Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Contacted With 3, 8, And 16 Molar Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2011-12-07

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. The NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU{sup a} and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. Reaction rates are much faster in 8 M and 16 M nitric acid than in 3 M nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, the nitric acid reacts with the extractant to produce initially organo-nitrate species. The reaction also releases soluble fluorinated alcohols such as tetrafluoropropanol. With longer contact time, the modifier reacts to produce a tarry substance with evolved gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO). Calorimetric analysis of the reaction product mixtures revealed that the organo-nitrates reaction products are not explosive and will not deflagrate.

  19. THERMAL AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSES OF NEXT GENERATION CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT CONTACTED WITH 3, 8, AND 16 MOLAR NITRIC ACID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-30

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, initially organo-nitrate groups are generated and attach to the modifier and that with time oxidation reactions convert the modifier into a tarry substance with gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO) evolving. Calorimetric analysis of the organonitrate revealed the reaction products are not explosive nor will they deflagrate. NGS exposure to 3 M nitric acid resulted in much slower reaction kinetics and that the generated products were not energetic. We recommended conducting Accelerated Rate calorimetry on the materials generated in the 16 M and 8 M nitric acid test. Also, we recommend continue monitoring of the samples contacting NGS with 3 M nitric acid.

  20. Results From Analysis Of The First And Second Strip Effluent Coalescer Elements From Radioactive Operations Of The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-01-01

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of ∼24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  1. Characterization of solids deposited on the modular caustic-side solvent extraction unit (MCU) coalescer media removed in May and October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    During routine maintenance, the coalescers utilized in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing of Salt Batch 6 and a portion of Salt Batch 7 were sampled and submitted to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization, for the purpose of identifying solid phase constituents that may be accumulating in these coalescers. Specifically, two samples were received and characterized: A decontaminated salt solution (DSS) coalescer sample and a strip effluent (SE) coalescer sample. Aliquots of the samples were analyzed by XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, SEM, and EDS. Other aliquots of the samples were leached in acid solution, and the leachates were analyzed by ICP-AES. In addition, modeling was performed to provide a basis for comparison of the analytical results.

  2. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, C

    2006-01-01

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science and Engineering (PS and E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIFUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Caldwell, T.; Pak, D; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.

    2011-09-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. Conclusions from this work include the following. The CSSX process is capable of reducing {sup 137}Cs in high level radioactive waste by a factor of more than 40,000 using five extraction, two scrub, and five strip stages. Tests demonstrated extraction and strip section stage efficiencies of greater than 93% for the Tank 49H waste test and greater than 88% for the simulant waste test. During a test with HLW, researchers processed 39 liters of Tank 49H solution and the waste raffinate had an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.78E+04, with a maximum of 1.08E+05. A simulant waste solution ({approx}34.5 liters) with an initial Cs concentration of 83.1 mg/L was processed and had an average DF greater than 5.9E+03, with a maximum DF of greater than 6.6E+03. The difference may be attributable to differences in contactor stage efficiencies. Test results showed the solvent can be stripped of cesium and recycled for {approx}25 solvent turnovers without the occurrence of any measurable solvent degradation or negative effects from minor components. Based on the performance of the 12-stage 2-cm apparatus with the Tank 49H HLW, the projected DF for MCU with seven extraction, two scrub, and seven strip stages operating at a nominal efficiency of 90% is {approx}388,000. At 95% stage efficiency, the DF in MCU would be {approx}3.2 million. Carryover of organic solvent in aqueous streams (and aqueous in organic

  4. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  5. Saltstone Vault Classification Samples Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit/Actinide Removal Process Waste Stream April 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B and W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B and W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B and W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most

  6. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Anti-Caking Surfactants Found to be Cause of Apparent Effect of High Nitrite Concentration on Cesium Stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-06-13

    Experiments conducted in FY01 previously indicated a potential cesium stripping problem in the CSSX process due to the presence of nitrite in the waste simulant. The stripping issue seemed all the more important as the nitrite concentration increased. Experiments presented in this work have demonstrated that the true reason for the cesium stripping problem was in fact the presence of an anti-caking agent in the,sodium nitrite. used for the preparation of the simulants. The anti-caking agent is actually a mixture of well-known surfactants, sodium mono- and di-methyl naphthalene sulfonate that can partition into the organic-phase on extraction, then retain cesium upon stripping. The effect was demonstrated by adding known amounts of the anti-caking agent to clean systems. Data suggest that rejuvenation of the solvent can be obtained by a caustic wash following the stripping stage.

  7. Characterization of Solids Deposited on the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Strip Effluent (SE) Coalescer Media Removed in April 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-13

    entrance discs of the coalescer. A solvent trim (a cocktail of solvent components with a high concentration of modifier) was added to the solvent on 2/22/2015. It is believed that the trim did not mix completely with the solvent and that it was subsequently spread around the MCU components including the coalescers, where it may have deposited. Chronologically, the modifier, the TiDG’s decomposition products and silicates deposited on the entrance discs first and after the pressure drop increased significantly, parts of the coalescer media detached itself from the central porous steel mandrel and a significant amount of steel debris, mercury, titanium, and additional aluminum and silicates deposited on the coalescer.

  8. Characterization of solids deposited on the modular caustic-side solvent extraction unit (MCU) coalescer media removed in October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a Strip Effluent (SE) coalescer (FLT-304) from MCU. That coalescer was first installed at MCU in July 2014 and removed in October 2014. While processing approximately 31,400 gallons of strip solution, the pressure drop steadily increased from 1 psi to beyond the administrative limit of 20 psi. The physical and chemical analysis was conducted on this coalescer to determine the mechanism that led to the plugging of this coalescer. Characterization of this coalescer revealed the adsorption of organic containing amines as well as MCU modifier. The amines are probably from the decomposition of the suppressor (TiDG) as well as from bacteria. This adsorption may have changed the surface energetics (characteristics) of the coalescer fibers and therefore, their wetting behavior. A very small amount of inorganic solids were found to have deposited on this coalescer (possibly an artifact of cleaning the coalescer with Boric acid. However, we believe that inorganic precipitation, as has been seen in the past, did not play a role in the high pressure drop rise of this coalescer. With regards to the current practice of reducing the radioactive content of the SE coalescer, it is recommended that future SE coalescer should be flushed with 10 mM boric acid which is currently used at MCU. Plugging of the SE coalescer was most likely due to the formation and accumulation of a water-in-oil emulsion that reduced the overall porosity of the coalescer. There is also evidence that a bimodal oil particle distribution may have entered and deposited in the coalescer and caused the initial increase in pressure drop.

  9. Combined Extraction of Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides from Alkaline Media: An Extension of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Raymond

    2004-11-03

    The wastes present at DOE long-term storage sites are usually highly alkaline, and because of this, much of the actinides in these wastes are in the sludge phase. Enough actinide materials still remain in the supernatant liquid that they require separation followed by long-term storage in a geological repository. The removal of these metals from the liquid waste stream would permit their disposal as low-level waste and dramatically reduce the volume of high-level wastes.

  10. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  11. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  12. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  13. Separation by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jr., Charles H.

    1976-04-06

    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  14. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  15. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-10-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  17. Recent solvent extraction experience at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Gray, J.H.; Hodges, M.E.; Holt, D.L.; Macafee, I.M.; Reif, D.J.; Shook, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Tributyl phosphate-based solvent extraction processes have been used at Savannah River for more than 30 years to separate and purify thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. This report summarizes the advancement of solvent extraction technology at Savannah River during the 1980's. Topics that are discussed include equipment improvements, solvent treatment, waste reduction, and an improved understanding of the various chemistries in the process streams entering, within, and leaving the solvent extraction processes

  18. Solvent extraction in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesne, A.

    1980-09-01

    The author reviews the chief aspects of solvent extraction in reprocessing, including choice of the solvent, general description of the Purex process, and extractor technology, while emphasizing the specific character of nuclear fuels

  19. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  20. Solvent extraction of Zn and metals in Zn ores by nonphosphorous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchapt, J.M.; Tostain, Jacqueline.

    1975-07-01

    This bibliography follows a first work on Zn solvent extraction by organo-phosphorous compounds. The other solvents used in Zn extraction, are studied: oxygenated nonphosphorous solvents (ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids, sulfonates), nitrogenous solvents and hydrocarbons [fr

  1. Solvent extraction: projection to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritcey, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The process of purification of metal-bearing solutions using solvent extraction has proven to be one of the major improvements to the optimization of the metallurgical flowsheet. Numerous improvements have been made throughout the solvent extraction circuit, as well as considerable research on the subject throughout the world which could, if implemented, add considerably to the overall understanding and viability of the process. This paper examines each of the areas in the solvent extraction process and discusses possibilities whereby process modifications could result in significant improvements to a typical flowsheet. Such improvements of interest and concern to the operating plant include economics, energy and environment. 33 references, 12 figures

  2. Solvents extraction of niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.R.G.; Cunha, O.C. da.

    1982-01-01

    The separation process of niobium and tantalum using solvent extraction is evaluated. The use of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) e tributyl phosphate (TBP), and the distribution of two elements between aqueous and organic phases in function of the fluoridric and sulfuric acids, solvent and diluent is analysed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  3. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  5. Using GC-FID to Quantify the Removal of 4-sec-Butylphenol from NGS Solvent by NaOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A caustic wash of the solvent used in the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process was found to remove the modifier breakdown product 4-sec-butylphenol (SBP) with varying efficiency depending on the aqueous NaOH concentration. Recent efforts at ORNL have aimed at characterizing the flowsheet chemistry and reducing the technical uncertainties of the NG-CSSX process. One technical uncertainty has been the efficacy of caustic washing of the solvent for the removal of lipophilic anions, in particular, the efficient removal of SBP, an important degradation product of the solvent modifier, Cs-7SB. In order to make this determination, it was necessary to develop a sensitive and reliable analytical technique for the detection and quantitation of SBP. This report recounts the development of a GC-FID-based (Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection) technique for analyzing SBP and the utilization of the technique to subsequently confirm the ability of the caustic wash to efficiently remove SBP from the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) used in NG-CSSX. In particular, the developed technique was used to monitor the amount of SBP removed from a simple solvent and the full NGS by contact with sodium hydroxide wash solutions over a range of concentrations. The results show that caustic washing removes SBP with effectively the same efficiency as it did in the original Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process.

  6. STUDIES ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF FREE HYDROGEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen cyanide in Kaduna River, Nigeria. ... KEY WORDS: Solvent extraction; Free hydrogen cyanide; River water ... inhibits over forty enzymes and important metallo-enzymes containing iron, copper, and molybdenum.

  7. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.; Badran, A.; El-Bassiouny, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on tracer concentrations of cadmium halides in absence and presence of sulphuric acid. Inert solvents, nitrobenzene, a long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and organophosphorus solvents (TBP and HDEHP) have been investigated. The comparative stability of cadmium chloride and bromide TBP solvates were determined. The presence of sulphuric acid was found to enhance considerably the extraction of cadmium halides by nitrobenzene, Amberlite LA-2 and TBP. The mechanism of extraction has been discussed in light of the obtained results. The systems studied involved halide ions (Cl, Br and I), sulphuric and phosphoric acids. In these systems extraction was negligible for all nonpolar solvents, considerable for nitrobenzene and very high for Amberlite LA-2 and TBP. Work has been carried out for both micro and macro scales in case of sulphuric acid system, and only for the microscale in case of phosphoric acid system, because of the limited solubility of cadmium phosphate in aqueous solutions. (T.G.)

  8. Solids recycling in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    In an extraction process for extracting values from a first stream into a substantially immiscible second stream using a multi-compartmental rotary contactor, unwanted solids formed in the contactor and discharged at least partly with the the first stream are separated and re-entered into the contactor intermediate the points at which the streams are discharged. (author)

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  10. Solvent extraction of noble metals by formazans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, M.; Hueppe, U.; Kettrup, A.

    1984-01-01

    The extraction properties of ion-pairs composed of quaternary ammonium cations and a sulphonated formazan were compared with those of an unsulphonated formazan, for various solvent media. In dichloromethane the combined system behaves as a 'coloured anion-exchanger', with displacement of the sulphonated formazan, whereas in toluene Pd(II) and Ag(I) are extracted as the metal formazan chelates from aqueous medium. The rates of extraction are remarkably higher than with the simple extractants. Because of the higher stability only the simple chelating extraction systems afford satisfactory separation of Pd(II) from excess of Pt(IV) and of Ag(I) from Cu(II). The extracted metals can be stripped and the extractant regenerated. (author)

  11. Diluent effects in solvent extraction. The Effects of Diluents in Solvent Extraction - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the choice of organic diluent is important for a solvent extraction process goes without saying. Several factors, such as e.g. price, flash point, viscosity, polarity etc. each have their place in the planning of a solvent extraction system. This high number of variables makes the lack of compilations concerning diluent effects to an interesting topic. Often the interest for the research concerning a specific extraction system focuses on the extractant used and the complexes built up during an extraction. The diluents used are often classical ones, even if it has been shown that choice of diluent can affect extraction as well as separation in an extraction system. An attempt to point out important steps in the understanding of diluent effects in solvent extraction is here presented. This large field is, of course, not summarized in this article, but an attempt is made to present important steps in the understanding of diluents effects in solvent extraction. Trying to make the information concerning diluent effects and applications more easily accessible this review offers a selected summarizing of literature concerning diluents effects in solvent extraction. (authors)

  12. Double Solvent for Extracting Rare Earth Concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bintarti, AN; Bambang EHB

    2007-01-01

    An extraction process to rare earth concentrate which contain elements were yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd) and dysprosium (Dy) which were dissolved in to nitric acid has been done. The experiment of the extraction by double solvent in batch to mix 10 ml of the feed with 10 ml solvent contained the pair of solvent was TBP and TOA, D2EHPA and TOA, TBP and D2EHPA in cyclohexane as tinner. It was selected a right pairs of solvent for doing variation such as the acidity of the feed from 2 - 6 M and the time of stirring from 5 - 25 minutes gave the good relatively extraction condition to Dy element such as using 10 % volume of TOA in D2EHPA and cyclohexane, the acidity of the feed 3 M and the time stirring 15 minutes produced coefficient distribution to dysprosium = 0.586 and separation factor Dy-Ce = ∼ (unlimited); Dy-Nd = 4.651. (author)

  13. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S. P. Jeevan; Prasad, S. Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K.; Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330?kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to...

  14. Chemical engineering aspect of solvent extraction in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dara, S.S.; Jakkikar, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Solvent extraction process, types of solvents used, types of extraction, distribution isotherm and McCabe-Thiele diagram for process design, equipment for the process, operating parameters and applications are described. (M.G.B.)

  15. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n -hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF GINGER OLEORESIN USING ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normalina Arpi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultrasound in extraction process creates novel and interesting methodologies, which are oftencomplementary to conventional extraction methods. In the present study, the use of ultrasound to extract oleoresin fromginger (Zingiber officinale R. was investigated. The extraction was performed by using ethanol as solvent in thepresence of ultrasonic irradiations operating at frequency of 42 kHz at extraction temperature of 60 oC. The oleoresinextracted was in the form of dark thick liquid with specific ginger flavor. Based on GC-MS analysis, the use ofultrasound was not give an effect on alteration of main component in ginger oleoresin. The main component inextracted ginger oleoresin was zingerone. Gingerol as one of the pungent principle of the ginger oleoresin was notdetected due to decomposition of gingerol at a temperature above 45 oC. Extraction rate of ultrasound-assistedextraction was about 1.75 times more rapid than a conventional system based on soxhlet. The scanning electronmicroscopy images provided more evidence for the mechanical effects of ultrasound, mainly appearing on cells’ wallsand shown by the destruction of cells, facilitating the release of their contents.

  17. Developing new chemical tools for solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; Baes, C.F.; Burns, J.H.; Case, G.N.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bryan, S.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; McDowell, W.J.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Prospects for innovation and for greater technological impact in the field of solvent extraction (SX) seem as bright as ever, despite the maturation of SX as an economically significant separation method and as an important technique in the laboratory. New industrial, environmental, and analytical problems provide compelling motivation for diversifying the application of SX, developing new solvent systems, and seeking improved properties. Toward this end, basic research must be dedicated to enhancing the tools of SX: physical tools for probing the basis of extraction and molecular tools for developing new SX chemistries. In this paper, the authors describe their progress in developing and applying the general tools of equilibrium analysis and of ion recognition in SX. Nearly half a century after the field of SX began in earnest, coordination chemistry continues to provide the impetus for important advancements in understanding SX systems and in controlling SX chemistry. In particular, the physical tools of equilibrium analysis, X-ray crystallography, and spectroscopy are elucidating the molecular basis of SX in unprecedented detail. Moreover, the principles of ion recognition are providing the molecular tools with which to achieve new selectivities and new applications

  18. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  19. Selection and Evaluation of Alternative Solvents for Caprolactam Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, M.L.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the strict legislation for currently applied solvents in the industrial extraction of caprolactam, being benzene, toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbons, a need exists for alternative, environmentally benign solvents. An experimental screening procedure consisting of several steps was used

  20. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-12-488, MCU-12-489, MCU-12-490, MCU-12-491, MCU-12-492 AND MCU-12-493: QUARTERLY SAMPLE FROM OCTOBER 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2013-01-16

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-12-488, MCU-12-489, MCU-12-490, MCU-12-491, MCU-12-492 and MCU-12-493 received 24 October 2012 are reported. The results show that the solvent at MCU does not require an Isopar® L addition, but it will require addition of trioctylamine. SRNL also analyzed the SHT sample for {sup 137}Cs content and determined the measured value is within tolerance but is trending upward compared to the {sup 137}Cs measurement made last year.

  1. Analytical Methods for Cs-137 and Other Radionuclides in Solvent Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennebaker, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate characterization of individual waste components is critical to ensure design and operation of effective treatment processes and compliance with waste acceptance criteria. Current elemental analysis of organic matrices consists of conversion of the organic sample to aqueous by digesting the sample, which is inadequate in many cases. Direct analysis of the organic would increase sensitivity and decrease contamination and analysis time. For this project, we evaluated an Aridus membrane-desolvation sample introduction system for the direct analysis of organic solvents by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The desolvator-ICP-MS successfully analyzed solvent from the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) process and tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) organic tank waste from F-canyon for a variety of elements. Detection limits for most elements were determined in the part per trillion (ppt) range. This technology should increase accuracy in support of SRTC activities involving CSSX and other site processes involving organic compounds

  2. Terpenes as Green Solvents for Extraction of Oil from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Dejoye Tanzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae were compared in terms of qualitative and quantitative determination. No significant difference was obtained between each extract, allowing us to conclude that the proposed method is green, clean and efficient.

  3. Terpenes as green solvents for extraction of oil from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Ginies, Christian; Elmaataoui, Mohamed; Chemat, Farid

    2012-07-09

    Herein is described a green and original alternative procedure for the extraction of oil from microalgae. Extractions were carried out using terpenes obtained from renewable feedstocks as alternative solvents instead of hazardous petroleum solvents such as n-hexane. The described method is achieved in two steps using Soxhlet extraction followed by the elimination of the solvent from the medium using Clevenger distillation in the second step. Oils extracted from microalgae were compared in terms of qualitative and quantitative determination. No significant difference was obtained between each extract, allowing us to conclude that the proposed method is green, clean and efficient.

  4. Recovery of acid-degraded tributyl phosphate by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.C.; Holladay, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    During nuclear fuel reprocessing the organic solvent becomes loaded with various acidic degradation products, which can be effectively removed through solvent extraction. Studies have been made with a small bench-scale solvent extraction system to optimize such parameters as pH of aqueous phase, phase ratio, residence time, flow rates, and temperature. The necessary decontamination factors have been obtained for various degradation products during continuous solvent extraction in one stage, with the aqueous phase being recycled. The aqueous phase contains compounds that can be degraded to gases to minimize waste disposal problems

  5. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Solvent Extracts of Tagetes erectus Linn (Asteraceae). NV Shinde*, KG Kanase, ... Soxhlet extractor and refluxed continuously for 6 h. The solvent ... of the plant extract. Most of the so-called peripheral analgesics possess anti-inflammatory properties and, in some cases, also antipyretic activity besides analgesia. For many ...

  6. Method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloheris, A.P.; Lefever, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction is described. The phosphoric acid is contacted with a sorbent which sorbs or takes up the residual amount of organic carrier and the phosphoric acid separated from the organic carrier-laden sorbent. The method is especially suitable for removing residual organic carrier from phosphoric acid after solvent extraction uranium recovery. (author)

  7. Cleanup of 7.5% tributyl phosphate/n-paraffin solvent-extraction solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    The HM process at the Savannah River Plant uses 7.5% tributyl phosphate in n-paraffin as an extraction solvent. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials which influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. Laboratory studies to improve online solvent cleaning have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove binding ligands which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of solvent by an alumina adsorption process removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycle solvent performance. Both laboratory work defining a full-scale alumina adsorption process and the use of the process to clean HM process first cycle solvent is discussed

  8. Uranium extraction from colofanite via organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Valeria Aparecida Leitao

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the use of pure or combined extractants dissolved in organic solvents for quantitative uranium recovery from colofanite, a fluoroapatite ore, from Itataia, Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil. This ore contains the highest brazilian uranium reserve. The metal is associated to phosphate species. The ore is digested with sulfuric acid (wet process), producing phosphoric acid, which is used for manufacturing of fertilizers and animal food. >From the acid leaching, some systems for uranium recovery were tested. Among them, PC88A (2-ethyl-hexyl phosphonic acid, mono-2-ethyl-hexyl ester) 40% vol. and DEHPA (di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid) 40% vol. in kerosene presented the highest values for the distribution coefficient (D) for uranium. When synergistic systems were employed, the best results were obtained for DEHPA 40%vol. + PC88A 40%vol. and DEHPA 40% vol. + TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) 5% vol. in kerosene. 15% wt/v sodium carbonate was the best medium for uranium stripping and separation from iron, the main interfering element. Uranium was precipitated as sodium diuranate by adding sodium hydroxide (5,0 mol L -1 ). Thorium in the raffinate was extracted by TOPO (0,1% vol.) in cyclohexane. The radioactivity level of the final aqueous waste is similar to natural background, according to CNEN-NE 6.05 Norm. After neutralization, the solid can be co-processed, according to the Directory 264 from the National Brazilian Environmental Council (CONAMA), whereas the treated effluent can be discarded according to the Directory 357 from CONAMA. (author)

  9. Accelerated Solvent Extraction: An Innovative Sample Extraction Technique for Natural Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Azfar Hanif Abd Aziz; Rosniza Razali

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is one of the novel techniques that have been developed for the extraction of phytochemicals from plants in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yield and enhance the quality of extracts. This technique combines elevated temperatures and pressure with liquid solvents. This paper gives a brief overview of accelerated solvent extraction technique for sample preparation and its application to the extraction of natural products. Through practical examples, the effects of operational parameters such as temperature, volume of solvent used, extraction time and extraction yields on the performance of ASE are discussed. It is demonstrated that ASE technique allows reduced solvent consumption and shorter extraction time, while the extraction yields are even higher than those obtained with conventional methods. (author)

  10. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  11. Organic solvents in electromembrane extraction: recent insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-01-01

    the introduction. Under the influence of an electrical field, EME is based on electrokinetic migration of the analytes through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which is an organic solvent immobilized in the pores of the polymeric membrane, and into the acceptor solution. Up to date, close to 150 research...... articles with focus on EME have been published. The current review summarizes the performance of EME with different organic solvents and discusses several criteria for efficient solvents in EME. In addition, the authors highlight their personal perspective about the most promising organic solvents for EME...

  12. Recent progress in actinide and lanthanide solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Hubert, H.; Benjelloun, N.; Vitorge, P.; Bonnin, M.; Forchioni, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1983-04-01

    Work in progress on actinide solvent extraction is briefly reviewed in this paper. 1 H and 31 P NMR are used to elucidate several fundamental unsolved problems concerning organophosphorous extractants often used in actinides extraction: determination of site of dialkylthiophosphate protonation and addition of basic phosphine oxide to dibutylthiophosphoric acid dimer. Extraction of Am III and Eu from high radioactivity level wastes by tetrasubsituted methylene diamides is investigated. Trivalent actinide-lanthanide group are separated by solvent extraction using soft donor ligand complexes which are more stable. The synergism of dinonylnaphtalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) associated with several neutral donors like TBP, TOPO, amides are examined in the trivalent and tetravalent actinide extraction

  13. Compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsiao, Shin-Tien

    2008-03-01

    A novel process, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX), was developed to generate micro-sized solvent-coated air bubbles (MSAB) for metal extraction. Through pressurization of solvent with compressed air followed by releasing air-oversaturated solvent into metal-containing wastewater, MSAB were generated instantaneously. The enormous surface area of MSAB makes extraction process extremely fast and achieves very high aqueous/solvent weight ratio (A/S ratio). CASX process completely removed Cr(VI) from acidic electroplating wastewater under A/S ratio of 115 and extraction time of less than 10s. When synthetic wastewater containing Cd(II) of 50mgl(-1) was treated, A/S ratios of higher than 714 and 1190 could be achieved using solvent with extractant/diluent weight ratio of 1:1 and 5:1, respectively. Also, MSAB have very different physical properties, such as size and density, compared to the emulsified solvent droplets, making separation and recovery of solvent from treated effluent very easy.

  14. Centrifugal contractors for laboratory-scale solvent extraction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

    1995-01-01

    A 2-cm contactor (minicontactor) was developed and used at Argonne National Laboratory for laboratory-scale testing of solvent extraction flowsheets. This new contactor requires only 1 L of simulated waste feed, which is significantly less than the 10 L required for the 4-cm unit that had previously been used. In addition, the volume requirements for the other aqueous and organic feeds are reduced correspondingly. This paper (1) discusses the design of the minicontactor, (2) describes results from having applied the minicontactor to testing various solvent extraction flowsheets, and (3) compares the minicontactor with the 4-cm contactor as a device for testing solvent extraction flowsheets on a laboratory scale

  15. Leaching and solvent extraction at Mary Kathleen Uranium Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    Mary Kathleen Uranium Ltd. recommenced operations in early 1976 following a twelve year period of care and maintenance. Several sections of the plant were modified or completely changed for the second operation. The most important change was the replacement of ion exchange with solvent extraction as the means of purifying and upgrading uranium rich solutions. Most of the problems experienced in the solvent extraction system originate from the leach liquor which has a strong tendency to form stable emulsions. This has been countered by some careful control of leaching conditions and by closer observation of operations in the solvent extraction area. Most problems have now been resolved and plant recoveries are quite satisfactory

  16. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  17. Effective lipid extraction from algae cultures using switchable solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samori, Chiara; Lopez Barreiro, D.; Vet, Robin; Pezzolesi, Laura; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Galletti, Paola; Tagliavini, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    A new procedure based on switchable polarity solvents (SPS) was proposed for lipid extraction of wet algal samples or cultures, thereby circumventing the need for an energy intensive drying step and facilitating easy recovery of the lipids from the extraction liquid. Lipids were extracted by using

  18. Antioxidant activities of solvent extracts from endemic Cyclamen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves extracts of CM exhibited higher antioxidant activity than tuber extracts with all the types of solvent used. All concentrations of petroleum ether, acetone, methanol and water extracts of CM leaves showed higher antioxidant activities than that of 0.5 mg of á-tocopherol (42%) and close to BHT (99.30%) and had 96.60, ...

  19. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Verdera, S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  20. Solvent Carryover Characterization and Recovery for a 10-inch Single Stage Centrifugal Contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentsch, R.D.; Stephens, A.B.; Leung, D.T.; Baffling, K.E.; Harmon, H.D.; Suggs, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A test program has been performed to characterize the organic solvent carryover and recovery from centrifugal contactors in the Caustic-side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. CSSX is the baseline design for removing cesium from salt solutions for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility. CSSX uses a custom solvent to extract cesium from the salt solution in a series of single stage centrifugal contactors. Meeting the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Saltstone, as well as plant economics, dictate that solvent loss should be kept to a minimum. Solvent droplet size distribution in the aqueous outlet streams of the CSSX contactors is of particular importance to the design of solvent recovery equipment. Because insufficient solvent droplet size data existed to form a basis for the recovery system design, DOE funded the CSSX Solvent Carryover Characterization and Recovery Test (SCCRT). This paper presents the droplet size distribution of solvent and concentration in the contactor aqueous outlet streams as a function of rotor speed, bottom plate type, and flow rate. It also presents the performance data of a prototype coalescer. (authors)

  1. Extraction of Aromatics from Heavy Naphtha Using Different Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Bassuoni, A.A.; Esmael, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are very important to the petrochemical industry. Among these are benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), which are basic raw materials for the production of a number of important petrochemicals. There are many processes used to separate aromatic from non aromatic such as fractionation, azeotropic distillation and liquid I liquid extraction, etc. Liquid - liquid extraction is unique, efficiently used for heat sensitive, close boiling components and for separation of components not possible by other unit operations and it could be done at ambient temperature makes it more energy efficient. The choice of solvent depends on the properties and boiling range of the feedstock. Through the years, a lot of selective solvents has been proposed and selected for the physical separation of aromatics in liquid liquid extraction. Among the selection criteria are the stability,. chemical compatibility, availability, environmental hazards and price of the solvent. But the basic solvent properties that make it efficient are selectivity and capacity

  2. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Abert Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm2 for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumptio...

  3. Compound forming extractants, solvating solvents and inert solvents IUPAC chemical data series

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y; Kertes, A S

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-Liquid Distribution Reactions, Part III: Compound Forming Extractants, Solvating Solvents, and Inert Solvents focuses on the compilation of equilibrium constants of various compounds, such as acids, ions, salts, and aqueous solutions. The manuscript presents tables that show the distribution reactions of carboxylic and sulfonic acid extractants and their dimerization and other reactions in the organic phase and extraction reactions of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The book also states that the inorganic anions in these solutions are irrelevant, since they d

  4. Solvent-extraction methods applied to the chemical analysis of uranium. III. Study of the extraction with inert solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-01-01

    The extraction of uranium on the trace level is studied by using tributylphosphate as active agent under conditions aiming the attainment of quantitative extraction by means of a single step process using a number of salting-out agents and keeping inside the general lines as reported in two precedent papers. Two inert solvents were investigated, benzene and cyclohexane, which allowed to derive the corresponding empirical equations describing the extraction process and the results obtained were compared with those previously reported for solvents which, like ethyl acetate and methylisobuthylketone, favour to a more or less extend the extraction of uranium. (Author) 4 refs

  5. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  6. Solvent extraction of uranium and molybdenum in sulfuric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Neto, J.

    1980-01-01

    A Solvent extraction process for recovering the uranium and molibdenum from the sulfuric acid solution produced from Figueira ores was developed. The leach solution contains molibdenum with a mean ratio Mo/U = 35%. THe solvent used was a terciary amine-Alamine 336, modified with tridecanol in querosine. An investigation was made to evaluate the variables affecting the extraction and stripping of uranium and molibdenum. The Alamine 336 showed a significant extraction power for uranium and molibdenum. In the stripping step of uranium using acidified sodium cloride it was observed the presence of an insoluble amine-molibdenum-arsenic complex. (author) [pt

  7. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  8. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Keat Teong, Lee; JitKang, Lim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  9. Concentration of heavy metals by predispersed solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, G.H.; Rodarte, A.; Sebba, F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a new method to recover and purify solutions containing dissolved metals. The method depends upon dispersion of the solvent prior to contacting the solution to be extracted. In the past, minutely subdividing the solvent has proven impractical because of the slow rate at which minute particles rise by buoyancy. Now it has become feasible to transport small globules of solvent by a allowing them to attach to much larger gas bubbles, which rise quickly to the surface and separate cleanly. This technique makes possible the removal of metals down to the parts-per-billion range

  10. Construction of isotherms in solvent extraction of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovski Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is construction of equilibrium isotherms in solvent extraction. Technological parameters have been predicted for treatment of mine water by solvent extraction and electrowining. Two stages of extractions and one stage of stripping have been predicted for copper recovery by analyzing the equilibrium isotherms. The process was performed on mine water with 2,5 g/dm3 Cu2+, 3 g/dm Fe2+, pH 1,8, using 9 vol% LIX 984N in kerosene (organic solvent, with 95 and 98% stages efficiencies, respectively. This course produced an advanced electrolyte solution, suitable for electrowining and cathodic copper recovery, containing 51 g/dm3 Cu2+ and 160g/dm3 H2SO4 from a 30 g/dm3 Cu and 190 g/dm3 H2SO4.

  11. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products 99 Tc, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995's successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium

  12. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  13. Deacidification of Soybean Oil Combining Solvent Extraction and Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Fornasero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the removal of free fatty acids (FFAs from soybean oil, combining solvent extraction (liquid-liquid for the separation of FFAs from the oil and membrane technology to recover the solvent through nanofiltration (NF. Degummed soybean oil containing 1.05 ± 0.10% w/w FFAs was deacidified by extraction with ethanol. Results obtained in the experiences of FFAs extraction from oil show that the optimal operating conditions are the following: 1.8 : 1 w : w ethanol/oil ratio, 30 minutes extraction time and high speed of agitation and 30 minutes repose time after extraction at ambient temperature. As a result of these operations two phases are obtained: deacidified oil phase and ethanol phase (containing the FFAs. The oil from the first extraction is subjected to a second extraction under the same conditions, reducing the FFA concentration in oil to 0.09%. Solvent recovery from the ethanol phase is performed using nanofiltration technology with a commercially available polymeric NF membrane (NF-99-HF, Alfa Laval. From the analysis of the results we can conclude that the optimal operating conditions are pressure of 20 bar and temperature of 35°C, allowing better separation performance: permeate flux of 28.3 L/m2·h and FFA retention of 70%.

  14. THE ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF XINYU COKING COAL AND ITS EXTRACTION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Qi, Shi-Chao; Norinaga, Koyo

    2015-01-01

    Coking coal from Xinyu of Shanxi Province is extracted under elevated temperature and pressure via Accelerated Solvent and Soxhlet Extraction. Analyzing their GC/MS results, we explore the two extraction methods’ impact on the dissolution behavior of small molecules in coal and investigate the mechanism of the extraction.

  15. Solvent Extraction of Thorium(IV by Didodecylphoric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawwaz I. Khalili

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction of Thorium (VI ion from perchlorate solution using didodecylphosphoric acid, DDPA, in chloroform diluent was studied. The effects of stripping hydrochloric acid concentration, stripping time, extraction time, DDPA concentration, pH, ionic strength, supporting electrolyte and temperature on the extraction processes have been studied. From the distribution coefficient values at different temperatures,the enthalpy, the free energy and the entropy changes associated with the extraction processes were determined. The composition of the complex formed was established to be Th(ClO44-nRn(HR5-n where, n=1 or 2 and (HR2 represents the dimer of DDPA.

  16. Solvent Extraction of Uranium (VI by Didodecylphosphoric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mousa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction of uranium(Vl ion from perchlorate solution using didodecylphosphorie acid, DDPA, in toluene diluent was studied. The effects of stripping nitric acid concentration, stripping time, extraction time, DDPA concentration, pH, ionic strength, supporting electrolyte and temperature on the extraction processes have been studied. From the distribution coefficient values at different temperatures, the enthalpy, the free energy and the entropy changes associated with the extraction processes were determined. The composition of the complex formed was established to be UO2(CLO4(HR2(HR2 where, (HR2 represents the dimer of DDPA.

  17. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  18. Technology of extraction by solvent in pulsed columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, P.

    1992-01-01

    Since its creation, the CEA (Commissariat a l'energie atomique) has produced several separation processes for natural or enriched uranium treatment and the treatment of spent fuels coming from nuclear reactors. Among these technologies, extraction by solvent is broadly used for separation and purification of nuclear matters. This technology can be used for other applications as hydrometallurgy, chemistry, pharmaceutics, depollution, agro-industry

  19. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants.

  20. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

  1. Antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... This research work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples of Linum usitatissimum against seven bacterial and one fungal pathogen. Three concentrations (0.66, 1.00 and 1.33 mg dics-1) each of ethyl acetate, n-hexane, butanol and distilled.

  2. Understanding wash efficiency and chloride transfer in copper solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, D. J.

    2003-07-01

    Carryover of entrained aqueous from primary leaching operations into copper electrowinning electrolytes introduces impurities that can affect cathode quality and cause corrosion. As a result, more operations are introducing wash stages in their solvent extraction circuits in an attempt to dilute these entrainments with high-quality water.

  3. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of methanol extract (ME) and solvent fractions of Avrainvillea erecta as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The antioxidant activities of ME as well as its chloroform, butanol, and aqueous fractions (CF, BF and WF, respectively) of A. erecta were ...

  4. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation: Demonstration Bulletin: Organic Extraction Utilizing Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technology utilizes liquified gases as the extracting solvent to remove organics, such as hydrocarbons, oil and grease, from wastewater or contaminated sludges and soils. Carbon dioxide is generally used for aqueous solutions, and propane is used for sediment, sludges and ...

  5. Influence of Extraction Solvent on Antioxidant Properties of Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. [*Corresponding ... extraction solvents viz acetone, chloroform, ethanol, methanol (each at 50% and 75% concentrations) and water on the ..... Agricultural and Food Engineering, 7(5): 152–. 157. Baig, H.

  6. Chemical constituents of the solvent extracted and hydrodistilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were conducted on the effect of solvents of extraction (n–hexane, chloroform and toluene) on the chemical constituents of the essential oils of two popular spices in Nigeria, namely; African nutmeg (Monodora myristica) and Turmeric (Curcuma domestica). Comparisons were made on the chemical constituents ...

  7. Antifeedant Activty Of Different Organic Solvent Crude Extracts Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifeedant activity of different organic solvents (acetone, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol) crude extracts of latex of Euphorbia hirta (family Euphobiaceae) against Limicolaria aurora was investigated, and compared with a control, using pawpaw, (Carica papaya) as bait, at a concentration ...

  8. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  9. Simulation of equilibrium distribution data in a solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, S.; Giriyalkar, A.B.; Singh, A.K.; Singh, D.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    In hydrometallurgy, solvent extraction has been proved to be the purification method to recover metal in high-pure form from impure solution. Any solvent extraction process is complex and based on some operating parameters which always lure the scientists to model them. Operating parameters like aqueous to organic volume ratio and concentration of feed are related to required number of stages for a product with specific recovery. So to determine final feed concentration or aqueous to organic volume ratio for a specific extractant concentration, one needs to carry out a number of extraction experiments tediously supported by analysis. Here an attempt is being made to model the distribution of solute between organic and aqueous phases with minimum analytical and experimental support for any system. The model can predict the effect on solvent extraction for a change in the aqueous to organic volume ratio i.e. slope of operating line, percentage loading of solvent, feed concentration, solvent concentration, number of stages and in the process it can help in optimizing conditions for the best result from a solvent extraction system. Uranium-7% TBP in dodecane system was taken up to validate the model. The predicted values of the model was tallied against uranium distribution between aqueous and organic phases in a running mixer settler. The equation for operating line i.e. straight line is derived from O/A=1.5 and considering barren organic contains 2 ppm uranium: y 1 = 0.667x 0 - .002. The extraction isotherm i.e. parabola equation came as : x 1 = 0.003y 0 2 + 0.723y 0 considering three points i.e. (0,0), (13,16.7) (uranium analysis for first stage of mixer-settler) and (25, 30.69) (feed concentration, loading capacity of solvent). Using these two equations the results that were obtained, predicted the solute distribution across different stages exactly as it is in the running mixer settler. Individual isotherms could also be drawn with the predicted results from the

  10. Development of carbon-carbon composites from solvent extracted pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-24

    There are several methods used to fabricate carbon-carbon composites. One used extensively in the fabrication of aerospace components such as rocket nozzles and reentry vehicle nosetips, as well as commercial components for furnace fixturing and glass manufacturing, is the densification of a woven preform with molten pitch, and the subsequent conversion of the pitch to graphite through heat treatment. Two types of pitch are used in this process; coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch. The objective of this program was to determine if a pitch produced by the direct extraction of coal could be used as a substitute for these pitches in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. The program involved comparing solvent extracted pitch with currently accepted pitches and rigidizing a carbon-carbon preform with solvent extracted pitch for comparison with carbon-carbon fabricated with currently available pitch.

  11. Development of Solvent Extraction Approach to Recycle Enriched Molybdenum Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brown, M. Alex [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Sen, Sujat [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Bowers, Delbert L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Wardle, Kent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Pupek, Krzysztof Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Dzwiniel, Trevor L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, is developing a recycling process for a solution containing valuable Mo-100 or Mo-98 enriched material. Previously, Argonne had developed a recycle process using a precipitation technique. However, this process is labor intensive and can lead to production of large volumes of highly corrosive waste. This report discusses an alternative process to recover enriched Mo in the form of ammonium heptamolybdate by using solvent extraction. Small-scale experiments determined the optimal conditions for effective extraction of high Mo concentrations. Methods were developed for removal of ammonium chloride from the molybdenum product of the solvent extraction process. In large-scale experiments, very good purification from potassium and other elements was observed with very high recovery yields (~98%).

  12. Chemistry of rare earth solvent extraction by methyltrialkyl ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, S.I.; Tulina, L.V.; Stratonov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Solvent extaction of nitrates of lanthanum, gadolinium, dysprosium and erbium by methyltrialkyl ammonium nitrate is studied. Usng the methods of saturation and physicochemical analysis of extraction systems it is shown that along with di-and trisolvates, solvates containing 6,4,21/2 and 11/2 molecules of extractant per a molecule of lanthanide nitrate, are formed, depending on the lanthanide atomic number. The thermodynamic constants of extraction for every determined solvate are calculated and tabulated. 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Mass transfer study in the solvent extraction of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Tiejun; Yang Guilin

    1982-03-01

    The mass transfer study in the solvent extraction of Xundian lignite was performed in a flask with a stirrer. From experimental data, it can be seen that the mass transfer depends mainly on the particle size, extraction temperature, and time. For feed with smaller size, the extraction rate can be calculated by an external mass-transfer model and for larger size, it can be expressed by a diffusion model. A simple method of choice between the two methods is proposed. (13 refs.) (In Chinese)

  14. Calculations in solvent extraction of rare earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadanandam, R.; Sharma, A.K.; Fonseca, M.F.; Hubli, R.C.; Suri, A.K.; Singh, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with calculation of number of countercurrent stages in solvent extraction of rare earths both under total reflux and partial reflux conditions to achieve a given degree of purification and recovery. The use of Fenske's equation normally used for separation by distillation is proposed to calculate the number of stages required under total reflux, replacing relative volatility by separation factor. Kremser's equations for extraction and scrubbing are used to calculate the number of stages in extraction and scrubbing modules under partial reflux conditions. McCabe-Thiele's approach is also adopted to arrive at the number of scrubbing stages. (author)

  15. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF ARSENICALS IN SEAWEED VIA ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND ICP-MS DETECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. Objective was to investigate effect of experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time and solvent composition) on extr...

  16. Solvents extraction: results obtained from cycle operation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, A.A.; Falcon, M.F.; Gauna, A.C.; Maymo, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of this work were described the results of the experimental program of one extraction cycle, scale 1:1, which represents that installed in the Laboratory of Radiochemical Processes (LPR), using the system uranyl nitrate (natural uranium)-HNO3-H2O/TBP 30% in Molex. In the second part the following experiments were performed: a) increase of uranium losses in the depleted solvent by introducing a high acidity current in the middle of the de-extraction contactor, in order to prevent the possible Pu(IV) polymerization; b) increase of uranium losses in the depleted solvent when the de-extraction contactor is operated at room temperature instead of the design nominal value (60 deg C); c) behaviour of cycle when it is operated with a higher solvent saturation than the design value; d) determination of the limit decontamination factor of hardly extractable components, using Mg(NO3)2 as chemical tracer; e) experimental evaluation of contamination of pulse generation systems and possible implications in the operation of LPR plant; f) Transient related to the 'flushing' of uranium inventory that is contained in the cycle when the experimental program is finished. (Author)

  17. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs

  19. A prototype study with solvent extraction on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The need for uranium purification has generated the study of different methods in order for purification to be achieved, having had excellent results in the laboratory with ionic exchange methods, extraction by means of solvents and chromatography. Pilot experiments of the ionic exchange method have been performed, using as experimentation equipment the columns of ionic exchange, attaining some results without concreting the objectives. Likewise several experiments in mixer-settlers have been performed for the purification of uranium by the solvent extraction method, where there were serious problems with the formation of a third incontrollable phase, and also, due to the later, low purification of the uranium when distributing from one phase to the other. Knowing these problems brought on by the performed experiments in mixer-setters by groups of researchers interested in this part of the nuclear fuel, the task of designing a prototype of extraction with solvents of the mixer-settler type was undertaken in the project 'Models and simulation of equipment and processes of the refinement and conversion department'. The purification of uranium as uranyl nitrate [UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] was developed, establishing the conditions for the equipment operation, concluding that, with some relatively simple adjustements, it is possible to apply in different areas, taking note of the specific needs of mining, cosmetics, perfume and pharmaceutical areas. (Author)

  20. CALmsu contactor for solvent extraction with integrated flowrate meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, I.A.; Shah, B.V.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Mixer-settlers are widely used as contactors in solvent extraction processes. In the nuclear industry, solvent extraction techniques are used for the separation and purification of a range of materials. A major difficulty is faced in the nuclear industry due to the constraints on the design of the equipment and its operation by the presence of radioactive materials in process solutions. The development of CALmsu contactor was necessitated by the requirements of the operating environment in radiochemical plants. This contactor is a mixer-settler designed to use a CALMIX (combined air lifting and mixing device) static mixer. The CALMIX comprises two air lifts which raise the liquid phases to a highly turbulent mixing zone situated above the lifts. Its principle and construction are simple, and it is compact in size. It is a passive device and needs no maintenance. It has proved to be efficient during extensive testing. The simple and efficient CALmsu contactor internals are specially engineered for use of CALMIX mixer. It has been extensively tested in pilot plant for extraction and stripping of uranium, recovery of uranium from thorium by THOREX process and for treatment of degraded solvents. A model for the design of CALmsu contactors has been evolved and based on this model a software for engineering design of CALMIX and CALmsu contactors of throughput between 50 and 3000 lph has been developed. (author)

  1. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs.

  2. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A.; Moyer, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process for the removal of the fission products Tc-99, Sr-90, and Cs-137 from alkaline tank wastes, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands upon FY 1995's successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from at sign e tank-waste solutions. This process has in fact already been extended to include the capability of removing both Tc and Sr simultaneously. In this form, the process has been given the name SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing Tc, Sr, and Cs together. Such a system could potentially simplify and improve fission-product removal from tank waste. In addition, it would possess the advantages already inherent in our Tc solvent-extraction process: No required feed adjustment, economical water stripping, low consumption of materials, and low waste volume

  3. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India); Ramkumar, Jayshree, E-mail: jrk@barc.gov.in [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India); Basu, M. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India)

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}and Fe{sup 3+} ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. - Graphical abstract: Spectrophotometric studies indicate a possibility of cation-cation inner sphere complex formation between the ions (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) in aqueous phase to a great extent but it is reduced in the organic phase due to the solvation of ions by TBP molecules. These results are corroborated by those of thermophysical studies. Solvent extraction procedure suitably modified to ensure selective and complete removal of iron from uranium matrix prior to its analysis by ICP-OES. The developed methodology was applied to analysis of uranium samples. - Highlights: • The presence of cation – cation inner sphere complexes between UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} established. • A decreased tendency in organic layer due to TBP solvation.

  5. SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLE RESULTS FOR MCU-13-189, MCU-13-190, AND MCU-13-191: QUARTERLY SAMPLE FROM SEPTEMBER 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2013-10-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-13-189, MCU-13-190, and MCU-13-191 received on September 4, 2013 are reported. The results show that the solvent (remaining heel in the SHT tank) at MCU contains excess Isopar L and a deficit concentration of modifier and trioctylamine when compared to the standard MCU solvent. As with the previous solvent sample results, these analyses indicate that the solvent does not require Isopar L trimming at this time. Since MCU is switching to NGS, there is no need to add TOA nor modifier. SRNL also analyzed the SHT sample for {{sup 137}Cs content and determined the measured value is within tolerance and the value has returned to levels observed in 2011.

  6. The applicability of Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) to extract lipid biomarkers from soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Kotte, M.C.; de Voogt, P.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the ability of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) to extract selected lipid biomarkers (C-19=C-34 n-alkanes, n-alcohols and n-fatty acids as well as dehydroabietic acid and P-sitosterol) from a sandy soil profile under Corsican pine. Two organic layers (moss and F1) as well as two

  7. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) - a fast and automated technique with low solvent consumption for the extraction of solid samples (T12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is a modern extraction technique that significantly streamlines sample preparation. A common organic solvent as well as water is used as extraction solvent at elevated temperature and pressure to increase extraction speed and efficiency. The entire extraction process is fully automated and performed within 15 minutes with a solvent consumption of 18 ml for a 10 g sample. For many matrices and for a variety of solutes, ASE has proven to be equivalent or superior to sonication, Soxhlet, and reflux extraction techniques while requiring less time, solvent and labor. First ASE has been applied for the extraction of environmental hazards from solid matrices. Within a very short time ASE was approved by the U.S. EPA for the extraction of BNAs, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, herbicides, TPH, and dioxins from solid samples in method 3545. Especially for the extraction of dioxins the extraction time with ASE is reduced to 20 minutes in comparison to 18 h using Soxhlet. In food analysis ASE is used for the extraction of pesticide and mycotoxin residues from fruits and vegetables, the fat determination and extraction of vitamins. Time consuming and solvent intensive methods for the extraction of additives from polymers as well as for the extraction of marker compounds from herbal supplements can be performed with higher efficiencies using ASE. For the analysis of chemical weapons the extraction process and sample clean-up including derivatization can be automated and combined with GC-MS using an online ASE-APEC-GC system. (author)

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) recovery from spiked organic matrix using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrha, Y; Raghavan, D

    2000-12-30

    The recovery of five PCB congeners from PCB spiked organic matrices was studied using Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE). The chromatogram of ASE extract was found to be relatively clean and similar to that of SE extract. ASE extraction efficiency was dependent on the operation temperature and sample size loading. ASE showed extraction efficiency comparable or slightly higher to that of SE for the PCB spiked organic matrix. PCB recovery from spiked matrix was dependent on the type and molecular weight of congener, and nature of matrix. For some selected PCB congeners, ortho-substitution did influence the PCB recovery from graphite matrix.

  9. Recovery of nitrotoluenes in wastewater by solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Lai, Chong-Chien

    2007-06-25

    Toluene extraction was utilized to recover 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,6-DNT, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from wastewater of toluene nitration process. The batch-wise experiments were performed to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the extracting behavior, including extracting temperature, volume ratios of solvent versus wastewater, agitation time, acidity of wastewater, and extraction stages. It was found that recovery of total organic compounds (TOC) was significantly elevated with increasing extraction temperature. Besides, high volume ratio of toluene/wastewater (2.0) and wastewater acidified to lower pH value enhanced the recovery percentage of TOC, in which extractable tendency was as follows: 2,6-DNT>2,4-DNT>2,4,6-TNT. It is worth noting that the nitrotoluenes in wastewater would be almost completely recovered using three sequential stages toluene extraction at the agitation time of 12min and pH 3.0. It is apparent that this established method is promising for the treatment of wastewater from toluene nitration processed industrially.

  10. Comparison Pore Aggregate Levels After Extraction With Solvents Pertamax Plus And Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Muthia

    2017-12-01

    Loss of asphalt content extraction results become problems in Field Work For implementing parties. The use of solvents with high octane (pertamax plus) for the extraction, dissolving the asphalt more than gasoline. By comparing the levels of aggregate pores after using solvent extraction pertamax plus compared to gasoline could answer that pertamax plus more solvent dissolves the bitumen compared to gasoline. This study aims to obtain comparative levels of porous aggregate mix AC-WC after using solvent extraction pertamax plus compared to gasoline. This study uses the aggregate that has been extracted from the production of asphalt mixtures, when finisher and after compaction field. The method used is the assay of coarse and fine aggregate pores, extraction of bitumen content to separate the aggregate with bitumen. Results of testing the total absorption after extraction using a solvent preta max plus in the production of asphalt mixtures 0.80%, while gasoline solvent 0.67% deviation occurs 0.13%. In the finisher after the solvent extraction preta max plus 0.77%, while 0.67% gasoline solvent occurs deviation of 0.1%. At the core after extraction and solvent pertamax plus 0.71%, while gasoline solvent 0.60% 0.11% deviation occurs. The total water absorption after extraction using a solvent pertamax plus greater than gasoline. This proves that the solvent dissolves pertamax plus more asphalt than gasoline.

  11. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  12. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U 3 O 8 and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U 3 O 8 using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U 3 O 8 content. (author)

  14. Impact of solvent extraction organics on bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hualong; Liu, Xiaorong; Shen, Junhui; Chi, Daojie

    2017-03-01

    Solvent extraction organics (SX organics) entrained and dissoluted in the raffinate during copper SX operation, can impact bioleaching in case of raffinate recycling. The influence of SX organics on bioleaching process by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans) has been investigated. The results showed that, cells of At. ferrooxidans grew slower with contaminated low-grade chalcopyrite ores in shaken flasks bioleaching, the copper bioleaching efficiency reached 15%, lower than that of 24% for uncontaminated minerals. Obviously, the SX organics could adsorb on mineral surface and hinder its contact with bacterials, finanlly lead to the low bioleaching efficiency.

  15. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  16. Solvent extraction studies using tetracycline as complexing agent Pt. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Lima, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of scandium from zinc is acomplished by solvent extraction technique using benzyl alcohol-tetracycline solution as organic phase. The radioisotopes Sc-46 and Zn-65 were obtained by irradiation of powdered metallic zinc and of Sc 2 O 3 . Extraction took place at 25 +- 0.5 deg C and the separatory funnels were mechanically shaken for 30 min at that temperature. Concentration of NaClO 4 in the aqueous phase was equal to 0.10 M and of tetracycline in the organic phase, 0.01 M. Activities of Sc-46 and Zn-65 were measured in a well type NaI(Tl) detector coupled to a single channel analyser. (T.I.)

  17. Metal complexes and solvent extraction properties of isonitrosoacetophenone 2-aminobenzoylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gup, Ramazan; Giziroğlu, Emrah

    2006-11-01

    Three types of copper complexes as well as an oximate-bridged nickel complex with isonitrosoacetophenone 2-aminobenzoylhydrazone (H(2)L) have been prepared in ethanolic solution and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-vis and magnetic susceptibility measurement. IR spectra show the ligand coordinates as a neutral, monoanionic and dianionic O,N,N-tridentate acylhydrazoneoxime ligand depending reaction conditions and metal salts employed. The elemental analyses results, spectroscopic and magnetic data are consistent with the formation of mononuclear copper complexes and binuclear complexes with both copper and nickel. The effects of varying pH and solvent on the absorption behavior of both ligand and complexes have been investigated. The extraction ability of acylhydrazoneoxime ligand has been examined by the liquid-liquid extraction of selected transition metal [Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Cr(3+), Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+)] cations. The ligand shows strong binding ability toward copper(II) ion.

  18. Identification And Characterization Of The Solids Found In Extraction Contactor SEP-401 In June 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-10

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) recently conducted an outage that included maintenance on the centrifugal contactors. Operations personnel observed solids or deposits in two contactors and attempted to collect samples for analyses by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The residues found in Extraction Contactor SEP-401 are a mixture of amorphous silica, aluminosilicate, titanium, and debris from low alloy steel. The solids contain low concentrations of plutonium and strontium. These isotopes are associated with the titanium that came from the monosodium titanate (MST) added in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) most likely as leached Ti from the MST that precipitated subsequently in MCU. An attempt was also made to obtain samples from the contents of Wash Contactor SEP-702. However, sampling provide ineffective.

  19. Studies of extraction solvent technique. Application in a practice case; Estudios de tratabilidad de la tecnologia de extraccion por solvente. Aplicacion a un caso practico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susaeta, I.; Salas, O.; Gorostiza, I.; Bargos, Tx.

    1999-11-01

    The extraction for solvent is a technique that consists in an use a solvent in order to separate organic dangerous pollutants of floors, silts and residuals. The extraction for solvent dons`t destroy the pollutants but rather concentrates them so that it is easier and economically more attractive their hind destruction. A process of extraction for solvent would undertake the following steps: Preparation of the material to extract. Extraction properly happiness. Separation of the concentrated pollutants of the solvent. Recovery of the residual solvent. Treatment of the separate pollutants. (Author) 12 refs.

  20. Extraction of bitter acids from hops and hop products using pressurized solvent extraction (PSE)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čulík, J.; Jurková, M.; Horák, T.; Čejka, P.; Kellner, V.; Dvořák, J.; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2009), s. 220-225 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : hops * bitter acids * pressurized solvent extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  1. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Choice of solvent in the extraction of Angelica archangelica roots with reference to calcium blocking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmälä, P; Vuorela, H; Törnquist, K; Hiltunen, R

    1992-04-01

    Twenty solvents were tested in the extraction of compounds from the roots of Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae), and the calcium-antagonistic activity of the extracts was investigated. Special attention was paid to the physical and chemical properties of the solvents and their extraction abilities. The calcium antagonistic effect of the extracts was investigated by measuring the inhibition of depolarization-induced Ca2+ uptake in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. The criteria used in determining the best solvents for the extraction were the yield and the biological activity of the extract, as well as the amount of nonpolar compounds in the extract. The final criterion used in selecting the solvent was its usability with reference to boiling point, chemical interactions (e.g. methylation), etc. Chloroform was found to be the best solvent for the extraction of nonpolar, biologically active compounds from the roots of A. archangelica.

  3. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in...

  4. Effect of Organic Solvents on Microalgae Growth, Metabolism and Industrial Bioproduct Extraction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Kratky, Lukas; Sulc, Radek; Jirout, Tomas; Aguedo, Mario; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-07-04

    In this review, the effect of organic solvents on microalgae cultures from molecular to industrial scale is presented. Traditional organic solvents and solvents of new generation-ionic liquids (ILs), are considered. Alterations in microalgal cell metabolism and synthesis of target products (pigments, proteins, lipids), as a result of exposure to organic solvents, are summarized. Applications of organic solvents as a carbon source for microalgal growth and production of target molecules are discussed. Possible implementation of various industrial effluents containing organic solvents into microalgal cultivation media, is evaluated. The effect of organic solvents on extraction of target compounds from microalgae is also considered. Techniques for lipid and carotenoid extraction from viable microalgal biomass (milking methods) and dead microalgal biomass (classical methods) are depicted. Moreover, the economic survey of lipid and carotenoid extraction from microalgae biomass, by means of different techniques and solvents, is conducted.

  5. Prednisolone multicomponent nanoparticle preparation by aerosol solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Fukino, Mika; Tozuka, Yuichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2009-10-01

    Prednisolone nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer and a surfactant by the aerosol solvent extraction system (ASES). A ternary mixture of prednisolone, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in methanol was sprayed through a nozzle into the reaction vessel filled with supercritical carbon dioxide. After the ASES process was repeated, precipitates of the ternary components were obtained by depressurizing the reaction vessel. When a methanolic solution of prednisolone/PEG 4000/SDS at a weight ratio of 1:6:2 was sprayed under the optimized ASES conditions, the mean particle size of prednisolone obtained after dispersing the precipitates in water was observed to be ca. 230 nm. Prednisolone nanoparticles were not obtained by the binary ASES process for prednisolone, in the presence of either PEG or SDS. Furthermore, ternary cryogenic cogrinding, as well as solvent evaporation, was not effective for the preparation of prednisolone nanoparticles. As the ASES process can be conducted under moderate temperature conditions, the ASES process that was applied to the ternary system appeared to be one of the most promising methods for the preparation of drug nanoparticles using the multicomponent system.

  6. Crud in the solvent extraction process for spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing

    2004-01-01

    The crud occurred in Purex process is caused by the degradations of extractant and solvent and the existence of insoluble solid particle in the nuclear fuel reprocessing. The crud seriously affects the operation of the extraction column. The present paper reviews the study status on the crud in the Purex process. It is generally accepted that in the Purex process, particularly in the first cycle, the crud occurrence is related to the capillary chemistry phenomena resulting from the deposits of Zr with TBP degradation products HDBP, H 2 MBP, H 3 PO 4 and the insoluble particle RuO 2 and Pd. The occurrence of deposits and the type of crud are tightly related to the molar ratio of HDBP and Zr, and the aqueous pH. In addition, the effect of degradation products from the diluent, such as kerosene, is an unnegligible factor to cause the crud. The crud can be discharged from the extraction equipment with Na 2 CO 3 or oxalic acid. In the study on simulating the crud, the effects of the deposits of Zr with TBP degradation products HDBP, H 2 MBP and H 2 PO 4 , and the insoluble particle RuO 2 and Pd should be considered at the same time. (authors)

  7. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contractors II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.

    1987-11-01

    The effectiveness of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting in reprocessing facilities can be limited by inventory variations in the separations contactors. Investigations are described in three areas: (i) Improvements in the model that the authors have described previously for the steady state inventory estimation in mixer-settler contactors, (ii) extension for the model for steady state inventory estimation to transient inventory estimation for non-steady state conditions, and (iii) the development of a computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) for simulating the concentration profiles and nuclear material inventories in pulsed column contactors. Improvements in the steady state model that are described in this report are the simplification of the methods for evaluating model parameters and development of methods for reducing the equation which estimates the total inventory of the set of contactors directly. The pulsed column computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) was developed. Concentration profiles and inventories calculated from CUSEP are compared with measured data from pilot scale contactors containing uranium. Excellent agreement between measured and simulated data for both the concentration profile and inventories is obtained, demonstrating that the program correctly predicts the concentration dispersion caused by pulsing and the dispersed phase holdup within the contactor. Further research to investigate (i) correction of the MUF (Material Unaccounted For) and CUMUF (Cumulative Material Unaccounted For) tests for mixer-settler contactor inventory using the simplified model developed in this work, (ii) development of a simple inventory estimation model for pulsed column contactors similar to that developed for mixer-settler contactors using CUSEP to provide necessary database, and (iii) sources of bias appearing in the MUF and CUMUF tests using computer simulation techniques are planned. Refs

  8. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glimm, James; Almeida, Valmor de; Jiao, Xiangmin; Sims, Brett

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  9. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, James [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Almeida, Valmor de [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiao, Xiangmin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Sims, Brett [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States). Borough of Manhattan Community College; Li, Xaiolin [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2013-01-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent extraction processes of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The primary outcomes of this project include the capability to resolve drops and bubbles micro-hydrodynamics in solvent extraction contactors, determining from first principles continuum fluid mechanics how micro-drops and bubbles interact with each other and the surrounding shearing fluid for realistic flows. In the near term, this effort will play a central role in providing parameters and insight into the flow dynamics of models that average over coarser scales, say at the millimeter unit length. In the longer term, it will prove to be the platform to conduct full-device, detailed simulations as parallel computing power reaches the exaflop level. The team will develop an accurate simulation tool for flows containing interacting droplets and bubbles with sharp interfaces under conditions that mimic those found in realistic contactor operations. The main objective is to create an off-line simulation capability to model drop and bubble interactions in a domain representative of the averaged length scale. The technical approach is to combine robust interface tracking software, subgrid modeling, validation quality experiments, powerful computational hardware, and a team with simulation modeling, physical modeling and technology integration experience. Simulations will then fully resolve the microflow of drops and bubbles at the microsecond time scale. This approach is computationally intensive but very accurate in treating important coupled physical phenomena in the vicinity of interfaces. The method makes it possible to resolve spatial scales smaller than the typical distance between bubbles and to model some non-equilibrium thermodynamic features such as finite

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

  11. Determining an efficient solvent extraction parameters for re-refining of waste lubricating oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Panhwar, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK ((Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone), 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio) and extraction temperatures. (author)

  12. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  13. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates). Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and...

  14. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and... SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates). Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and...

  15. Fluorescence analysis of cadmium by solvent extraction of thiooxine chelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagaki, Kyozo; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    1976-01-01

    The fluorescence analysis of cadmium by the solvent extraction using O-phen anthroine (O-phen) concurrently was studied, aiming at extending the limit of analysis. The effects of pyridine on the analysis was also examined. Further, the composition of their complexes was studied. 3 ml of 5% ascorbic acid, 0.3 ml of 0.2% thiooxine solution and 3 ml of 0.1% O-phen solution or 3 ml of 50% pyridine solution were added to the sample solution containing not more than 20 microgram of cadmium. The volume was made up to 50 ml. The solution was shaken with 10 ml of chloroform at pH 4.5 for 2 minutes. The specific fluorescent intensity of the extracted organic phase was measured with reference to the uranine solution was the concentration of 0.2 microgram per ml, using the wave length of 365 nm and 515 nm. The experiment revealed that the limit of analysis can be extended by concurrently using O-phen, and that pyridine composed of ternary complexes can be used in the analysis similarly to O-phen. The comparison between pyridine and O-phen showed that benzene can be used besides chloroform. From the view-point of handling, O-phen is better than pyridine. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.; Geldard, J.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes the development of simple nuclear material (uranium and plutonium) inventory relations for mixer-settler solvent extraction contactors used in reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The relations are developed for light water reactor fuels where the organic phase is 30% tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) by volume. For reprocessing plants using mixer-settler contactors as much as 50% of the nuclear material within the contactors is contained in A type (aqueous to organic extraction) contactors. Another very significant portion of the contactor inventory is in the partitioning contactors. The stripping contactors contain a substantial uranium inventory but contain a very small plutonium inventory (about 5 to 10% of the total contactor inventory). The simplified inventory relations developed in this work for mixer-settler contactors reproduce the PUBG databases within about a 5% standard deviation. They can be formulated to explicitly show the dependence of the inventory on nuclear material concentrations in the aqueous feed streams. The dependence of the inventory on contactor volumes, phase volume ratios, and acid and TBP concentrations are implicitly contained in parameters that can be calculated for a particular reprocessing plant from nominal flow sheet data. The terms in the inventory relations that represent the larger portion of the inventory in A type and partitioning contactors can be extended to pulsed columns virtually without change

  17. Computer simulation of rare earth solvent extraction circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    A BASIC language program has been written that simulates the performance of an integrated solvent extraction circuit consisting of an extractor, a reflux fed scrubber, and a stripper. The program is designed to simulate the performance of a circuit having an aqueous feed containing each of the lanthanide as well as yttrium. The Kremser equation is used to determine the separation occurring in each section of the circuit. The required input variables are the feed composition, the separation factors, the light key extraction factors and extractor feed zone distribution coefficient, the number of stages, and the reflux ratios. The program calculates the composition of the streams at each mode in the circuit, the total loading, and the remaining distribution coefficients. User interaction with the program is essential. The program has no capability to determine if the calculated values are consistent with various real restraints. Knowledge of the physical, chemical, and equilibrium behavior is essential to successfully utilize the program. The number of iterations required to achieve steady-state provides insight to the circuit response times

  18. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  19. A short review of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction for honey volatiles fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Marijanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey volatiles exhibit a potential role in distinguishing honeys as a function of botanical origin, but heating of honey generates artefacts such as compounds of Strecker degradation and Maillard reaction products. This short review is focused on the most recently applied methods for honey volatiles fingerprinting (without generation of thermal artefacts: headspace extraction (dynamic headspace extraction (DHE, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE. These methods display a varying degree of selectivity and effectiveness depending upon the compounds involved and the extraction conditions. Recent developments of these methods are discussed, with application examples drawn from the literature as well from our own research. Flavour qualities of the honey are very much dependent on the volatile and semivolatile organic compounds present in both the sample matrix and the headspace aroma. Therefore the use of one single technique is not adequate for reliable honey volatiles profiling, but combined use of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction could be a useful tool for the characterization of the honey and identification of its botanical source through typical volatile marker compounds.

  20. Extraction and stripping of neodymium (III) and dysprosium (III) by TRUEX solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    McCabe-Thiele diagram for the extraction and stripping of Nd (III) and Dy (III) by TRUEX solvent has been constructed to determine the number of stages required for complete extraction and stripping. (author)

  1. Standardization of solvent extraction procedure for determination of uranium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukanta Maity; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Solvent extraction procedure using ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate complexing agent in methyl isobutyl ketone organic phase and acid exchange back-extraction is described for the simultaneous quantitative pre-concentration of uranium in seawater followed by its determination by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Solvent extraction time is optimized for extraction of uranium from seawater. Solvent extraction efficiency for uranium in seawater at different pH was carried out. The method gives a recovery of 98 ± 2 % for 400 mL sample at pH 3.0 ± 0.02, facilitating the rapid and interference free analysis of seawater samples. (author)

  2. Solvent effect on the extraction and transport of lithium ions by polyethylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D; Sharma, U

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of lithium picrate, 2,4-dinitrophenolate and 2-nitrophenolate and their transport through membranes by di-, tri- and tetraethylene glycols as carriers are studied. Organic solvents considered as extractants and liquid membranes in terms of lithium ions extraction and transfer are arranged in the following series: methylene chloride ≥ dichloroethane ≥ chloroform ≥ carbon tetrachloride. Diethylene glycol proved the most effective solvent for lithium ions extraction and transport [ru

  3. Operation of a full cycle of solvent extraction under IMPUREX process conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaur, C.; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Granatelli, Fernado; Russo Analia; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Gauna, Alberto C.

    1999-01-01

    This work describes a series of experiences performed at the Solvent Extraction Laboratory of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Unity in Ezeiza Atomic Center. The experiences were mainly focused on the setup and operation of a full cycle of uranium solvent extraction, using IMPUREX process. (author)

  4. Secondary amines as switchable solvents for lipid extraction from non-broken microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Samori, C.; Tagliavini, E.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Lipids from algal biomass may provide renewable fuel and chemical feedstock in large quantities. The energy intensity of drying and milling of algae prior to extraction and of solvent recovery afterwards is a major obstacle. The objective is to use switchable solvents to extract oil directly from

  5. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  6. Comparison of extraction techniques and modeling of accelerated solvent extraction for the authentication of natural vanilla flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Chaintreau, Alain

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of vanilla beans has been optimized using ethanol as a solvent. A theoretical model is proposed to account for this multistep extraction. This allows the determination, for the first time, of the total amount of analytes initially present in the beans and thus the calculation of recoveries using ASE or any other extraction technique. As a result, ASE and Soxhlet extractions have been determined to be efficient methods, whereas recoveries are modest for maceration techniques and depend on the solvent used. Because industrial extracts are obtained by many different procedures, including maceration in various solvents, authenticating vanilla extracts using quantitative ratios between the amounts of vanilla flavor constituents appears to be unreliable. When authentication techniques based on isotopic ratios are used, ASE is a valid sample preparation technique because it does not induce isotopic fractionation.

  7. A comparison of accelerated solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinchao; Shao, Xueguang

    2005-11-01

    The performance of accelerated solvent extraction in the analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco samples was investigated and compared with those of Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonically assisted extraction with respect to yield, extraction time, reproducibility and solvent consumption. The results indicate that although the highest yield was achieved by Soxhlet extraction, ASE appears to be a promising alternative to classical methods since it is faster and uses less solvent, especially when applied to the investigation of large batch tobacco samples. However, Soxhlet extraction is still the preferred method for analyzing sterols since it gives a higher extraction efficiency than other methods.

  8. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies

  9. Purity Evaluation of Curcuminoids in the Turmeric Extract Obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh K; Sharma, Khushbu; Dutta, Anirban; Kundu, Aditi; Awasthi, Akanksha; Goon, Arnab; Banerjee, Kaushik; Saha, Supradip

    2017-05-01

    Curcuminoids, the active principle of Curcuma longa L, is one of the most researched subjects worldwide for its broad-spectrum biological activities. Being traditionally known for their anticancer properties and issues related to bioavailability, the curcuminoids, including diferuloylmethane (curcumin), have gained special attention. Thus, the current study focused on the purity profiling of curcuminoids when extracted by accelerated solvent extraction, which was run with turmeric rhizome powder (20 g) at 1500 psi and at 50°C, with a static time of 10 min and with three cycles. The performance of ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone as extraction solvents was comparatively evaluated. Once extracted, the individual curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were purified by column chromatography, followed by preparative TLC, and the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. The HPLC method was standardized by using a gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. The LODs were calculated as 0.27, 0.33, and 0.42 μg/mL for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, respectively. Accuracy (relative percentage error) and precision RSD values of the developed HPLC method were below 5%. The intraday accuracy ranged between -0.9 and -3.63%. The physical yield was the highest in ethanol (8.4%) extraction, followed by ethyl acetate (7.4%) and acetone (6.6%). Maximum purity was recorded in acetone (46.2%), followed by ethanol (43.4%) and ethyl acetate (38.8%), with no significant differences across the individual curcuminoids. This research will be useful for future applications related to the extraction of curcuminoids at a commercial level and to their profiling in food matrixes.

  10. Design and screening of extractants for Zr4+-Hf4+ separation: synergistic approach using molecular modelling and solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sk. Musharaf; Boda, A.; Pandey, G.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.; Singh, R.; Paramanik, M.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    The preferential selectivity of Zr 4+ over Hf 4+ ion towards mixed alkyl organophosphorus extractants is predicted using molecular modelling and solvent extraction studies. Density Functional theory successfully captures the higher complexation stability of mixed alkyl phosphine oxide (MAPO) over mixed alkyl substituted phosphine oxide (MSAPO) for both Zr 4+ and Hf 4+ ions as observed in the solvent extraction experiment. Further, the extraction energy for Zr 4+ ion is higher than Hf 4+ ion with MAPO over MSAPO. The calculated extraction energy follows the same order of distribution constant as predicted by the solvent extraction which shows that MAPO is the best extractant in terms of higher distribution constant and selectivity over MSAPO. (author)

  11. Metal ion extractant in microemulsions: where solvent extraction and surfactant science meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The presented work describes the supramolecular structure of mixtures of a hydrophilic surfactant n-octyl-beta-glucoside (C8G1), and the hydrophobic metal ion extractant tributylphosphate (TBP) in n-dodecane/water as well as in the presence of salts. In the first part, basic solvent extraction system, composed of water, oil and extractant, will be introduced. The focus, however, lies on the extraction of multivalent metal ions from the aqueous phase. During this extraction process and in the following thermodynamic equilibrium, aggregation and phase transition in supramolecular assemblies occur, which are already described in literature. Notably, these reports rest on individual studies and specific conclusions, while a general concept is still missing. We therefore suggest the use of generalized phase diagrams to present the physico-chemical behaviour of (amphiphilic) extractant systems. These phase diagrams facilitated the development of a thermodynamic model based on molecular geometry and packing of the extractant molecules in the oil phase. As a result, we are now in the position to predict size and water content of extractant aggregates and, thus, verify the experimental results by calculation.Consequently, the second part presents a systematic study of the aqueous and organic phase of water/C8G1 and water/oil/TBP mixtures. The focus lies on understanding the interaction between metal ions and both amphiphilic molecules by means of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. We confirmed the assumption that extraction of metal ions is driven by TBP, while C8G1 remains passive. In the third and last part, microemulsions of C8G1, TBP, water (and salt) and n-dodecane are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and chemical analytics (Karl Fischer, total organic carbon, ICP-OES,...). The co-surfactant behaviour of TBP was highlighted by comparison to the classical n-alcohol (4≤n≤8) co

  12. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn M. Huber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v methanol in 1:50 (w:v solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact.

  13. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  14. Ionic liquid solutions as extractive solvents for value-added compounds from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of studies regarding the application of ionic liquids (ILs) as alternative solvents to extract value-added compounds from biomass has been growing. Based on an extended compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, the main objective of this review is to provide an overview on the use of ILs and their mixtures with molecular solvents for the extraction of value-added compounds present in natural sources. The ILs (or IL solutions) investigated as solvents for the extraction of natural compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, among others, are outlined. The extraction techniques employed, namely solid–liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, are emphasized and discussed in terms of extraction yields and purification factors. Furthermore, the evaluation of the IL chemical structure and the optimization of the process conditions (IL concentration, temperature, biomass–solvent ratio, etc.) are critically addressed. Major conclusions on the role of the ILs towards the extraction mechanisms and improved extraction yields are additionally provided. The isolation and recovery procedures of the value-added compounds are ascertained as well as some scattered strategies already reported for the IL solvent recovery and reusability. Finally, a critical analysis on the economic impact versus the extraction performance of IL-based methodologies was also carried out and is here presented and discussed. PMID:25516718

  15. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  16. The effect of dominant ions on solvent extraction of lithium ion from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvianto, Gregorius Rionugroho; Jeong, Sang-Gu; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Solvent extraction of lithium ion using kerosene as solvent is proposed. The extraction of lithium ion using various mixed extractants of β-diketone and neutral ligand in kerosene was performed to find the optimum extractant combination. Considering the extraction efficiency, the optimum extractant combination was 0.02 M TTA and 0.04M TOPO. For the development of lithium extraction from seawater, the effects of dominant ions in seawater were examined in various extraction conditions. The extraction efficiencies generally decreased with the concentration of dominant metallic ions and increased with pH of the aqueous solutions, but Cl - ion showed only minor effect on the efficiency, even up to its concentration in seawater. Except for Mg 2+ ion, more than 70% of lithium ions could be extracted at pH 10.6 from aqueous solutions with a dominant ion at its concentration in seawater

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  18. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  19. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been

  20. Precision of a plutonium analytical method using solvent extraction and spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, P.G.; Jackson, D.D.; Niemczyk, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The plutonium assay method was investigated that uses the plutonyl trinitrate tetrapropyl-ammonium ion-pair solvent extraction with spectrophotometry of the extract as a candidate method capable of providing robustness and precision. To identify and asses the effect of factors on the precision, we looked at sampling techniques, silver oxide oxidation conditions extraction time, extract stability, and temperature dependence of the extract analytical peak height and position. A precision of 0.12% was obtained. (author) 18 refs.; 2 figs

  1. Extraction of Illegal Dyes from Red Chili Peppers with Cholinium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep eutectic solvents (DESs as a new kind of green solvents have been used to extract bioactive compounds but there are few applications in extracting chrysoidine dyes. In this study, we developed an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with choline chloride/hydrogen bond donor (ChCl/HBD DES for the extraction of chrysoidine G (COG, astrazon orange G (AOG, and astrazon orange R (AOR in food samples. Some experimental parameters, such as extraction time, raw material/solvent ratio, and temperature, were evaluated and optimized as follows: the ratio of ChCl/HBD, 1 : 2 (v/v; the ratio of sample/DES, 1 : 10 (g/mL; extraction time, 20 min; extraction temperature, 50°C. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (μg/mL were 0.10 for COG and 0.06 for AOG and AOR. The relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.2–2.1%. The recoveries of the three dyes were in the range of 80.2–105.0%. By comparing with other commonly used solvents for extracting chrysoidine dyes, the advantages of DESs proved them to be potential extraction solvents for chrysoidine G, astrazon orange G, and astrazon orange R in foods.

  2. Pilot-scale subcritical solvent extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma long L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Lim; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-10-15

    Curcuminoids consisted curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were extracted from turmeric using subcritical solvent by varying conditions of temperature (110-150 °C), time (1-10 min), pressure (5-100 atm), solid-to-solvent ratio, and mixing ratio of solvent. Preliminary lab-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum extraction temperature and mixing ratio of water and ethanol for the pilot-scale extraction. The maximum yield of curcuminoids in the pilot-scale system was 13.58% (curcumin 4.94%, demethoxycurcumin 4.73%, and bisdemethoxycurcumin 3.91% in dried extracts) at 135 °C/5 min with water/ethanol mixture (50:50, v/v) as a solvent. On the other hand, the extraction yields of curcuminoids were obtained as 10.49%, 13.71% and 13.96% using the 50%, 95% and 100% ethanol, respectively, at the atmospheric condition (60 °C/120 min). Overall results showed that the subcritical solvent extraction is much faster and efficient extraction method considering extracted curcuminoids contents and has a potential to develop a commercial process for the extraction of curcuminoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Monitoring system for the Copper Solvent Extraction-Electrowinning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Suontaka, Ville; Saloheimo, Kari; Marttila, Tom; Jämsä-Jounela, Sirkka-Liisa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the current status of the modeling, simulation and control of the copper-leaching, solvent-extraction and electrowinning process (LX/SX/EW) is investigated. No implementations of advanced process control in the copper LX/SX/EW process have so far been reported. However, model-based control has been successfully applied to solvent extraction processes in the chemical industry, as well as to some other electrowinning processes. A prototype of a process monitoring application based...

  4. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  5. A new hydrometallurgical process for extracting rare earths from apatite using solvent extraction with P35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongfei; Guo Fuqiang; Zhang Zhifeng; Li Deqian; Wang Zhonghuai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new process is proposed to recover rare earths from nitric acid leaching of apatite without interfering with the normal route for fertilizer production using solvent extraction with dimethyl heptyl methyl phosphonate CH 3 P(O)(OC 8 H 17 ) 2 (P 35 , B). In the present work, the leaching conditions are studied. In selected condition, apatite was dissolved in 20% (v/v) nitric acid solution at 60-70 deg. C while agitating. The most suitable acidity for extraction is 0.4 M HNO 3 . More than 98% of rare earths in apatite can be recovered using countercurrent extraction process with six stages when phase ratio = 0.5, and defluorination is unnecessary. The influences of phase ratio, stage number, acidity and salting-out agent on extractabilities of P 35 are studied. The results show that rare earths can be separated with P 35 from Ca, P, Fe and other impurities. Mixed rare earth oxides (REO) of which purity is more than 95% with yield over 98% can be obtained

  6. Response surface modeling and optimization of accelerated solvent extraction of four lignans from fructus schisandrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Chun; He, Ying; Deng, Xin; Yang, Geng-Liang; Li, Wei; Liang, Jian; Tang, Qian-Li

    2012-03-23

    A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) modeling and optimization has been developed for the extraction of four lignans in Fructus Schisandrae (the fruits of Schisandra chinensis Baill). The RSM method, based on a three level and three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), was employed to obtain the optimal combination of extraction condition. In brief, the lignans schizandrin, schisandrol B, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were optimally extracted with 87% ethanol as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 160 ° C, static extraction time of 10 min, extraction pressure of 1,500 psi, flush volume of 60% and one extraction cycle. The 3D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. Under the above conditions, the experimental value of four lignans was 14.72 mg/g, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by the model.

  7. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjaneyulu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  8. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical Co2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Satyannarayana, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Siddaiah, V.; Prasanna Rani, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (Co2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1). The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1) extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1). Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1) was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1). The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil. [es

  9. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  10. Effect of ultrasound and green solvents addition on the oil extraction efficiency from rapeseed flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, A; Delsart, C; Boussetta, N; Grimi, N; Citeau, M; Vorobiev, E

    2017-11-01

    The current procedure of rapeseed oil extraction is based on a first extraction step by pressing followed by a second extraction step with hexane. This solvent being toxic for the users, the consumers and the environment, its use could be forbidden within the coming years. Stimulated by a stringent regulation, the research activity for the replacement of toxic solvents shows a significant development. The aim of this study was to select alternative solvent to hexane such as ethanol or isopropanol, and, to adjust the oil extraction process by developing an ultrasound assisted method. The objective was to reach a comparable efficiency but also to enhance the oil quality. When applied to isopropanol, the ultrasound assisted extraction method has shown promising results, and comparable to those obtained with hexane (oil yield of 80% for hexane and 79% for isopropanol at optimum extraction conditions (20min of ultrasound pretreatment followed by 2h of additional solid/liquid extraction)). Conversely, in studied conditions, ethanol did not seem to be an appropriate alternative solvent to hexane as the extraction yields obtained by using this solvent were quite low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides from soils: a comparison between Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Meng, Bingjun; Lu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu

    2007-10-29

    The methods of simultaneous extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from soils using Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were established, and the extraction efficiencies using the three methods were systemically compared from procedural blank, limits of detection and quantification, method recovery and reproducibility, method chromatogram and other factors. In addition, soils with different total organic carbon contents were used to test the extraction efficiencies of the three methods. The results showed that the values obtained in this study were comparable with the values reported by other studies. In some respects such as method recovery and reproducibility, there were no significant differences among the three methods for the extraction of PAHs and OCPs. In some respects such as procedural blank and limits of detection and quantification, there were significant differences among the three methods. Overall, ASE had the best extraction efficiency compared to MAE and Soxhlet extraction, and the extraction efficiencies of MAE and Soxhlet extraction were comparable to each other depending on the property such as TOC content of the studied soil. Considering other factors such as solvent consumption and extraction time, ASE and MAE are preferable to Soxhlet extraction.

  12. Influence of solvent and soil type on the pressurised fluid extraction of PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, O; Fitzpatrick, L J; Etxebarria, N; Dean, J R

    2000-12-01

    Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a certified reference material (CRM) 524 has been firstly optimised following a central composite design. The instrumental parameters of the PFE (pressure, temperature, extraction time and number of solvent cycles) were studied in order to obtain maximum extraction yields. Neither pressure nor extraction time or temperature seemed to have any significant effect on the extraction yield, therefore one extraction cycle was enough to exhaustively extract all the PAHs from CRM 524. Once the instrumental conditions were established, the extraction yields obtained with eight different solvents or solvent mixtures [acetone, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, acetone-dichloromethane (1 + 1 v/v), acetone-isohexane (1 + 1 v/v), isohexane, methanol and toluene] from the CRM 524 were compared and showed that the best recoveries were obtained with acetone-isohexane (1 + 1 v/v). Finally, the effect of sand, silt, clay and the organic matter content of soil was investigated with respect to recovery of PAHs by PFE with different solvents or solvent mixtures for aged soil samples. In this case, eight soils with different sand, silt, clay and organic matter contents were slurry spiked with PAHs and aged for 19 days. Three aliquots of each slurry spiked soil were extracted with the previously mentioned solvents and the results were studied by means of principal component analysis (PCA) of the whole data set (soil composition, solubility parameter of the solvent and recoveries of all PAHs) and partial least squares (PLS). Clay and organic matter content and the squared solubility parameter have the highest correlation with the recovery of PAHs from soil samples.

  13. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly ( P essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  14. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ismanto Aviarina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendra L. oil is one of potential commodity that provides an important role for the country’s foreign exchange but the extraction of these essential oil is still using conventional method such as hydrodistillation which takes a long time to produce essential oil with good quality. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the extraction process using a more effective and efficient method. So in this study the extraction is done using solvent-free microwave extraction method that are considered more effective and efficient than conventional methods. The optimum yield in the extraction of cajuput oil using solvent-free microwave extraction method is 1.0674%. The optimum yield is obtained on the feed to distiller (F/D ratio of 0.12 g/mL with microwave power of 400 W. In the extraction of cajuput oil using solvent-free microwave extraction method is performed first-order and second-order kinetics modelling. Based on kinetics modelling that has been done, it can be said that the second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9901 can be better represent experimental results of extraction of cajuput oil that using solvent-free microwave extraction method when compared with the first-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9854.

  15. Solvent extraction of indium (III) with alizarin into 1-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, S.D.; Turel, Z.R.

    1995-01-01

    The reagent alizarin has been used for the extraction of indium (III) into 1-octanol. The effect of various parameters on the extraction coefficient value of indium (III) has been evaluated. The stoichiometry of metal to reagent, determined by the method of substoichiometric extraction and slope ratio was found to be in the ratio of 1:3. Separation factor for a number of elements in the extraction of indium (III) has been evaluated. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. In vitro antimicrobial potential of organic solvent extracts of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    lyophilized water extract of strain ERI-3 inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes,. Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Scropulariopsis sp at 10 mg/ml. Overall significant antibacterial and antifungal activities were noted in the ethyl acetate extract of ERI-1 and. ERI-3. Methanol extract of ERI-26 ...

  17. Extraction of Betulin, Trimyristin, Eugenol and Carnosic Acid Using Water-Organic Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius N. Lugemwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water, in the volume ratio of 4.5:4.5:1, was developed and used to extract, at room temperature, betulin from white birch bark and antioxidants from spices (rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano and white oak chips. In addition, under reflux conditions, trimyristin was extracted from nutmeg using the same solvent system, and eugenol from olives was extracted using a mixture of salt water and ethyl acetate. The protocol demonstrates the use of water in organic solvents to extract natural products from plants. Measurement of the free-radical scavenging activity using by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH indicated that the extraction of plant material using ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water (4.5:4.5:1, v/v/v was exhaustive when carried out at room temperature for 96 h.

  18. A survey of extraction solvents in the forensic analysis of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Christopher S; Palenik, Skip

    2016-11-01

    The characterization and identification of dyes in fibers can be used to provide investigative leads and strengthen associations between known and questioned items of evidence. The isolation of a dye from its matrix (e.g., a textile fiber) permits detailed characterization, comparison and, in some cases, identification using methods such as thin layer chromatography in conjunction with infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A survey of dye extraction publications reveals that pyridine:water (4:3) is among the most commonly cited extraction solvent across a range of fiber and dye chemistries. Here, the efficacy of this solvent system has been evaluated for the extraction of dyes from 172 commercially prevalent North American textile dyes. The evaluated population represents seven dye application classes, 18 chemical classes, and spans nine types of commercial textile fibers. The results of this survey indicate that ∼82% of the dyestuffs studied are extractable using this solvent system. The results presented here summarize the extraction efficacy by class and fiber type and illustrate that this solvent system is applicable to a wider variety of classes and fibers than previously indicated in the literature. While there is no universal solvent for fiber extraction, these results demonstrate that pyridine:water represents an excellent first step for extracting unknown dyes from questioned fibers in forensic casework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The solvent extraction of alkali metal ions with β-diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Megumu; Niina, Syozo; Shimoji, Noboru

    1974-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate effects of solvent and chelating-agent on the solvent extraction of alkali metal ions by seven β-diketones, acetylacetone (Acac), benzoylacetone (BzA), dipivaloylmethane (DPM), dibenzoylmethane (DBM), thenoyltrifluoloacetone (TTA), benzoyltrifluoroacetone (BFA) and hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA), and to separate lithium from alkali metals. The extraction of alkali metals increase with increasing donor power of the solvent: i.e., benzene Na>K>Rb>Cs, which is also the order in which the adduct formation of these β-diketone chelates with donor solvents increase. The adduct formations between β-diketone chelates of alkali metals and donor solvents markedly enhance the solubilities of the chelates in solvents and, consequently, the extractabilities of alkali metals with β-diketones. Lithium was extracted with TTA in ether at such a low base concentration that sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium were hardly extracted, and this enabled to separate lithium from other metals by the use of rubidium hydroxide (0.02 M). An attempt has been made to isolate alkali metal β-diketone chelates and some chelates have been obtained as crystals. The infrared absorption bands arising from C=O and C.=C of TTA shift to lower frequencies in the alkali metal chelates with TTA, and consequently, β-diketones is suggested to coordinate to alkali metal as a bidentate ligand. (JPN)

  20. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Widya Ismanto Aviarina; Septya Kusuma Heri; Mahfud Mahfud

    2018-01-01

    Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendra L.) oil is one of potential commodity that provides an important role for the country’s foreign exchange but the extraction of these essential oil is still using conventional method such as hydrodistillation which takes a long time to produce essential oil with good quality. Therefore it is necessary to optimize the extraction process using a more effective and efficient method. So in this study the extraction is done using solvent-free microwave extraction meth...

  1. Effect of Different Solvents on the Measurement of Phenolics and the Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) with Accelerated Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiufang; Ou, XiaoQun; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhou, ZiYing; Ma, LiYan

    2017-03-01

    The effects of 9 different solvents on the measurement of the total phenolics and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruits were studied using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Sixteen to 22 types of phenolics (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavanol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and stilbenes) from different mulberry extracts were characterized and quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the suitable solvents to distinguish between different classes of phenolics. Additionally, the phenolic extraction abilities of ASE and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared. The highest extraction efficiency could be achieved by using 50% acidified methanol (50MA) as ASE solvents with 15.14 mg/gallic acid equivalents g dry weight of mulberry fruit. The PCA results revealed that the 50MA followed by 50% acidified acetone (50AA) was the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics, particularly flavonols (627.12 and 510.31 μg/g dry weight, respectively), while water (W) was not beneficial to the extraction of all categories of phenolics. Besides, the results of 3 antioxidant capability assays (DPPH, ABTS free radical-scavenging assay, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay) showed that water-based organic solvents increased the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts compared with water or pure organic solvents. ASE was more suitable for the extraction of phenolics than UAE. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Solvent Extraction of Rare Earths by Di-2 Ethylhexyl Phosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Kranlert, Kannika; Kraikaew, Jarunee; Pongpansook, Surasak; Chayavadhanangkur, Chavalek; Kranlert, Kannika

    2004-10-01

    Solvent extraction has been widely applied for individual rare earth separation because the separation time is rapid and a large quantity of products is obtained. In this work, this technique was utilized to extract mixed rare earths, obtained from monazite digestion process. Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was used as an extractant. The factors affected the extraction including HNO 3 concentration in mixed rare earth nitrate solution and the amount of D2EHPA were studied. The appropriate concentrations of HNO 3 and D2EHPA were found to be 0.01 and 1.5 M, respectively. From the result of equilibrium curve study, it was observed that heavy rare earths were extracted more efficient than light rare earths. A 6-stage continuous countercurrent solvent extraction was simulated for rare earth extraction. The optimum ratio of solvent to feed solution (S/F) was 2. Because of the high cost of D2EHPA, 1.0 M of D2EHPA was suitable for the rare earth extraction by the continuous countercurrent solvent extraction

  3. X-ray studies of interfacial strontium-extractant complexes in a model solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Mihaylov, Miroslav; Amoanu, Daniel; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Soderholm, L; Schlossman, Mark L

    2014-10-30

    The interfacial behavior of a model solvent extraction liquid-liquid system, consisting of solutions of dihexadecyl phosphate (DHDP) in dodecane and SrCl2 in water, was studied to determine the structure of the interfacial ion-extractant complex and its variation with pH. Previous experiments on a similar extraction system with ErCl3 demonstrated that the kinetics of the extraction process could be greatly retarded by cooling through an adsorption transition, thus providing a method to immobilize ion-extractant complexes at the interface and further characterize them with X-ray interface-sensitive techniques. Here, we use this same method to study the SrCl2 system. X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence near total reflection measured the molecular-scale interfacial structure above and below the adsorption transition for a range of pH. Below the transition, DHDP molecules form a homogeneous monolayer at the interface with Sr(2+) coverage increasing from zero to saturation (one Sr(2+) per two DHDP) within a narrow range of pH. Experimental values of Sr(2+) interfacial density determined from fluorescence measurements are larger than those from reflectivity measurements. Although both techniques probe Sr(2+) bound to DHDP, only the fluorescence provides adequate sensitivity to Sr(2+) in the diffuse double layer. A Stern equation determines the Sr(2+) binding constant from the reflectivity measurements and the additional Sr(2+) measured in the diffuse double layer is accounted for by Gouy-Chapman theory. Above the transition temperature, a dilute concentration of DHDP-Sr complexes resides at the interface, even for temperatures far above the transition. A comparison is made of the structure of the interfacial ion-extractant complex for this divalent metal ion to recent results on trivalent Er(3+) metal ions, which provides insight into the role of metal ion charge on the structure of interfacial ion-extractant complexes, as well as implications for extraction of these two

  4. Evaluation of different solvent mixtures in esterifiable lipids extraction from microalgae Botryococcus braunii for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Ciudad, Gustavo; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-02-01

    Non-polar and polar solvents as well as their mixtures were tested for the extraction of microalgae lipids and thus, to evaluate their effect on total and esterifiable lipids extraction yields with potential to be converted to biodiesel. The obtained results show an increase in lipids and esterifiable lipids extraction yields when non-polar and polar solvent mixtures were used. The higher esterifiable lipids extraction yield was 19.2%wt (based on dry biomass) using a chloroform-methanol mixture (75%v/v of methanol), corresponding to a 98.9%wt esterifiable lipids extraction. In addition, esterifiable lipids extraction yield of 18.9%wt (based on dry biomass) was obtained when a petroleum ether-methanol mixture (75%v/v of methanol) was used, corresponding to a 96.9%wt esterifiable lipids extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The SX Solver: A New Computer Program for Analyzing Solvent-Extraction Equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.K.; Rapko, B.M.; Lumetta, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    A new computer program, the SX Solver, has been developed to analyze solvent-extraction equilibria. The program operates out of Microsoft Excel and uses the built-in ''Solver'' function to minimize the sum of the square of the residuals between measured and calculated distribution coefficients. The extraction of nitric acid by tributylphosphate has been modeled to illustrate the program's use

  6. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared. Key words: Thevetia seed, ...

  7. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared.

  8. Opportunities for switchable solvents for lipid extraction from wet algal biomass: an energy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Algae are considered an important sustainable feedstock for lipid extraction to produce food ingredients, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and biofuels. Next to the costs for cultivation, this route is especially hindered by the energy intensity of drying algae prior to extraction and solvent

  9. Effect of extraction solvents on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of medicinal halophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Aziz, I.; Gul, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the most effective solvent for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of medicinally important coastal halophytes (Thespesia populneoides, Salvadora persica, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Suaeda fruticosa and Pluchea lanceolata) known for high antioxidant potential. Five different solvents (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, acetone and chloroform) were used to quantify polyphenols including total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) and proanthocyanidin contents (PC) and antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities. Among solvents of different polarities 80% methanol appeared most effective for polyphenol extraction. Thespesia populneoides had the highest polyphenols (TPC, TFC and PC) followed by Salvadora persica. Highest antioxidant activity was also found in T. populneoides and S. persica using the same solvent (80% methanol) which appeared better than synthetic antioxidants (BHA and BHT). The correlation analyses of each solvent showed strong to weak relationships among all studied parameters with maximum values (r and R2) in methanol followed by ethanol and water. Weaker correlation of acetone and chloroform indicates low capacity of these solvents both for polyphenol extraction and antioxidant activity. Our results reveal that aqueous methanol extracts of coastal halophytes had comparatively higher antioxidant activity than commercial antioxidants which indicate both their prospective efficacy and potential to replace synthetic derivatives from edible and medicinal products. (abstract)

  10. Chetoui olive leaf extracts: influence of the solvent type on the phenolics and antioxidant activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaza, L.; Ben Youssef, N.; Manai, H.; Haddada, F.M.; Methenni, K.; Zarrouk, M.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the solvent type on the extraction of phenolics and the antioxidant properties of the extracts obtained from Chetoui olive leaves. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: deionized water (ddH2O), 80% methanol (80% MeOH), 70% ethanol (70% EtOH), and 80% acetone. Total phenols and total flavonoids were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two scavenging activity methods, DPPH and ABTS. (Author).

  11. Solvent extraction, membranes, and ion exchange in hydrometallurgical dilute metals separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.; Lee, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    The separation methods which are used in the hydro-metallurgical field are reviewed and compared. Some processes in solvent extraction in use for recovery of crucial metals which are important to the US defense and economy are presented. Various commercial extractants are reviewed and categorized. Other methods such as liquid membranes and ions exchange resins used for dilute metal ions separation are summarized. These methods are compared with solvent extraction. Problems to overcome in the future development of these separation methods are also identified and discussed in this paper

  12. Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract and Solvent Fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-09

    Feb 9, 2015 ... and weak blood anticoagulant activity [12] detected in A. erecta extracts, no other bioactivities have been reported for the species. Extracts and compounds isolated from other. Avrainvillea species have been found to exhibit antioxidant activity [10]. It is therefore likely that. A. erecta may also contain potent ...

  13. In vitro antimicrobial potential of organic solvent extracts of novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of selected promising actinomycetes strains were studied towards Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, dermatophytes and opportunistic pathogens. Crude antimicrobial metabolites were extracted ...

  14. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses

  15. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses.

  16. Separation of cesium from intermediate level liquid radioactive waste by solvent extraction with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, G.

    1989-01-01

    Antioxidants AO 2246, AO 4, AO 4K, AO 301 (Czechoslovakia) and NOCRAC 2246 (Japan) were tested as extracting agents for the separation of cesiium by solvent extraction with substituted phenols. The following effects on extraction were studied: pH of water phase, influence of diluent and of antioxidant concentration, extraction time, influence of salt content. The extraction of cesium from liquid radioactive waste was tested. The best results were obtained by NOCRAC 2246 in nitrobenzene, the extraction efficiency was 92.3% with pH 13.23. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Optimization of coffee oil extraction from spent coffee grounds using four solvents and prototype-scale extraction using circulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krit Somnuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of two parameters—espresso coffee oil extraction time and the ratio of dried spent coffee grounds (DSCG-to-solvent—were conducted on DSCG employing four solvents. Extracted yields were investigated using response surface methodology. The two independent variables—ratio of DSCG-to-solvent (5.1–24.9 g/g and extraction time (0.2–39.8 min—were optimized in the batch mode. The predicted model was verified using actual experiments. The experimental yields achieved were 14.7 percent by weight (wt%; using hexane, 13.1 wt% (using anhydrous ethanol, 11.8 wt% (using hydrous ethanol, and 7.5 wt% (using methanol. Prototype extraction was tested using a circulation process. Approximately 11.8 wt% oil yield of prototype extraction could be obtained from DSCG under the optimal conditions of 30.4 min extraction time and 22.5 g/g ratio of DSCG-to-hexane from the laboratory-scale results. In this study, the miscella (the solution of coffee oil dissolved in the solvent from up to six successive extractions was investigated to determine the optimal oil extraction process. The repeated miscella from each successive extraction showed high efficiency and stability of coffee oil yield similar to that obtained using fresh hexane.

  18. Effectivity of Beta vulgaris L. Extract with various Solvent Fractions to Aedes aegypti Larval Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue vector control is mostly done by using plant-based insecticides. Insecticides from the vegetable and fruit extracts of the leaves of plants that contain compounds alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, and polyphenols can be used as an alternative to naturally control Ae. aegypti. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the B. vulgaris L. extract larvacide against larvae of Ae. aegypti. The materials that been used was B. vulgaris L. fruit parts which was milled and dried to become a powder form. 800 g of dry powder was extracted by 70% methanol by percolation method with occasional stirring for 3 days. The extract was concentrated using an evaporator. 60 g remaining residue was dissolved in distilled water and re-extracted with diethyl ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Each fraction extract was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvent was distilled. The extract was tested qualitatively to determine the content of secondary metabolites. Larvacide test performed by dissolving each extracts in dimetilsulphoxide (DMSO at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1%. The larvae used was larval of Ae. aegypti age of seven days. Death larvae counted every day for seven days to determine the effect of the contact. Tests carried out at a temperature of 27±1°C by immersing 25 larvae at each concentration of the extract with 50 mL volume and three replications was performed. The data obtained were analyzed further with different test. The results showed that fruit extract contains flavonoids, alkoloid, sterols, triterpenes, saponins and tannins. Highest mortality happened which was 82.5% and the lowest mortality happened with a concentration of 0.1% diethyl ether extract fraction. The extracts that are dissolved in various solvent fractions have not been effective as a larvacide until the highest concentration which was 1%. Methanol and polar solvent extracts of the fruit has a larvacide potency a bit

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  20. POLY(AMINOMETHYLENEPHOSPHONIC ACID FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Kaid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaminododecyltetramethylenetetraphosphonic acid (DADTMTPA has been investigated in liquid - liquid extraction of Zn (II and Cu (II in acetate media. The extraction of both cations was carried out in different media with the addition of CH3COONa, CH3COOH, HCl and H2SO4 at different pH values. The maximum extraction yield for copper is 70% after addition of 10 mg of sodium acetate and for zinc is 30% after addition of acetic acid at pHi = 5.5, in one step.

  1. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  2. Solvent extraction applied to the recovery of heavy metals from galvanic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J E; Paiva, A P; Soares, D; Labrincha, A; Castro, F

    2005-04-11

    In this study, a hydrometallurgical treatment involving the solvent extraction and recovery of some heavy metals from a sulphuric acid leach solution of galvanic sludge, using di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and bis-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), both diluted in kerosene, has been investigated. The preliminary tests revealed the necessity to remove other metal species than zinc and nickel, contained in the leach solution, and therefore, processes to cement copper and precipitate chromium were then applied to finally obtain a Zn and Ni pregnant solution prior to solvent extraction. For the experimental conditions studied, Cyanex 272 showed a good recovery of Zn after the stripping stage using H2SO4, but D2EHPA effectively promoted a higher Zn extraction than Cyanex 272 did. The dependence of the solvent extraction method on variables such as pH, contact time and concentration of extractant, as well as the effect of different concentrations of sulphuric acid on stripping, are discussed. The discussion also includes the previous conditions developed to separate the main interfering metallic species from the leach solution in order to improve the extraction and recovery of zinc by solvent extraction. The final objective has been to achieve a solution as pure as possible to recover nickel sulphate.

  3. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). Monosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solvent extraction of Sb(III) with malachite green into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanbhag, B.S.; Turel, Z.R.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction of Sb(III) using malachite green (C. I. Basic green 4) has been described. Effect of different parameters affecting the extraction coefficient value of Sb(III) such as acidity, time of equilibration, KI concentration, solvents, anions, etc. has been studied. For various elements the separation factor has been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the extracted species has been determined by the method of substoichiometric extraction. The decontamination factor for some elements using substoichiometric quantities of the extracting agent has been evaluated. Radiotracers were employed for the extraction studies. The method elaborated has been employed for the quantitative determination of antimony in normal, benign and cancerous tissues of the human brain. (author)

  5. Effect of solvent nature on behaviour of microelements during indium extraction from bromide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, A.B.; Zolotov, Yu.A.; Karabash, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The behaviour of trace amounts (10sup(-4)-10sup(-5) mol/l) of Zn, Sb 3 , Cd, and Tl 3 has been studied during indium (10sup(-3)-1.2 mol/l) extraction from 5 mol HBr with oxygen-containing solvents of various classes, namely, ethers, esters, alcohols, ketones, and nitrocompounds. Extraction of indium itself has also been studied. When extracting agents with a low dielectric constants (DC) are used, co-extraction of microimpurities is observed; the use of the solvents with high DC or high basicity inhibits extraction of microelements with indium. The change of distribution coefficients of microelements with a change of indium concentration in the extract is of the same manner as that of the distribution coefficient of indium itself

  6. Investigation on thermodynamics of solvent extraction of metals: Pt.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiufang; Zhou Xunan; Li Yigui; Teng Teng

    1986-01-01

    The extraction of UO 2 Cl 2 from HCl solution with 30%, 40% and 50% (V/V) trioctyl amine-toluene is studied. The activity coefficients of HCl and UO 2 Cl 2 in aqueous phase are calculated by Pitzer's equation and improved Frank-Thompson's equation. The activity coefficients of each compound in organic phase are obtained as follows: water-by Karl Fischer titration method and Pitzer's equation; diluent-by head space method; extractant and extracted compounds-by thermodynamic method. From the data obtained, the extraction thermodynamic equilibrium constants are calculated to be 1.46 x 10 3 and (2.48-3.79) x 10 5 for HCl respectively

  7. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  8. Multivariate optimization of pressurized solvent extraction of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates from biosolids

    OpenAIRE

    Maricán,Adolfo; Ahumada,Inés; Richter,Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a methodology for pressurized solvent extraction of alkylphenols (APs) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) from biosolids was optimized by utilizing a biosolid natively containing these compounds at a high concentration level. Optimization of the extraction was carried out through a multivariate analysis experimental design with a central composite design (CCD) producing the following optimum values for the variables: temperature of 129 ºC, extraction time per cycle of 34 min i...

  9. Selective solvent extraction of actinides associated to liquid scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardois, C.; Musikas, C.

    1997-01-01

    The problems associated to radioactive waste disposal have acquired a special attention due, particularly, to the element instability and, consequently, to their lixiviation and to their peculiarities which are essential in the radioactivity penetration in the food chains; the other important parameters are the produced amounts and the noxiousnesses. New commercial liquid scintillation counters allow rapid α/β measurements. Associated with liquid-liquid extraction techniques, rapid and selective actinide analyses are possible. Among various actinide extractants, such as amines or organophosphorus compounds, we were particularly interested in tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide (TOPO). Uranium, thorium and americium extractions with (TOPO) in toluene have been investigated. A systematic study of the counting parameters of a PACKARD 2550 TR/AB TM liquid scintillation analyzer is under completion

  10. Selection of propolis Tetragonula sp. extract solvent with flavonoids and polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Daisy; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Rohmatin, Etin; Sahlan, Muhamad; Pratami, Diah Kartika; Mun'im, Abdul

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidants are inhibitory compounds that can inhibit auto oxidation reaction by binding to free radicals and highly reactive molecules. The human body needs antioxidant. Antioxidants can be obtained from a variety of natural ingredients, including propolis. Propolis is the natural sap of the bees, obtained from the herbs around the honeycomb. Ethanol is the solvent that often used to extract propolis. Although it has many advantages, ethanol also has weaknesses such as intolerance to alcohol by some people. Therefore, this research was to extract propolis Tetragonula sp. coarse (C) and soft (S) using four varieties of organic solvent, i.e. olive oil (OO), virgin coconut oil (VCO), propylene glycol (PG), and lecithin (L). It was expected to get the best solvent in extracting propolis. The selection of the best solvent was determined by total flavonoids and polyphenols content assay and antioxidant activity. At each test, the absorbance value read by a microplate reader. Flavonoids content assay is using AlCl3 method with best result on rough-VCO propolis extract of 2509,767 ± 615,02 µg/mL. Polyphenols content assay was using Folin Ciocalteu method with the best results on soft-VCO propolis extract of 1391 ± 171.47 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity assay is using DPPH method with best result on soft-VCO propolis extract with IC50 value of 1,559 ± 0,222 µg/mL.

  11. Extraction of antioxidants from spruce (Picea abies) bark using eco-friendly solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Fagerlund, Amelie; Engman, Lars; Sunnerheim, Kerstin; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are known to avert oxidation processes and they are found in trees and other plant materials. Tree bark is a major waste product from paper pulp industries; hence it is worthwhile to develop an extraction technique to extract the antioxidants. To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from bark of spruce (Picea abies) and also to identify the extracted antioxidants that are abundant in spruce bark. A screening experiment that involved three different techniques was conducted to determine the best technique to extract antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) turned out to be the best technique and a response surface design was therefore utilised to optimise PFE. Furthermore, NMR and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were applied to identify the extracted antioxidants. PFE using water and ethanol as solvent at 160 and 180°C, respectively, gave extracts of the highest antioxidant capacity. Stilbene glucosides such as isorhapontin, piceid and astringin were identified in the extracts. The study has shown that PFE is a fast and environmentally sustainable technique, using water and ethanol as solvent for the extraction of antioxidants from spruce bark. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Conductivity, impurity profile, and cytotoxicity of solvent-extracted polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárková, V.; Humpolíček, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Kopecká, J.; Kuceková, Z.; Moučka, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2016), s. 156-161 ISSN 1042-7147 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * Soxhlet extraction * purification Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.907, year: 2016

  13. Mathematical modelling of zirconium salicylate solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.S.; Evseev, A.M.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Kochetkova, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of equilibrium multicomponent physicochemical system at the extraction of zirconium salicylates by chloroform is carried out from HCl aqueous solutions at pH 0.5-4.7. Adequate models, comprising different molecular forms, corresponding to equilibrium phase composition are built

  14. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Traditionally, the leaves of Tagetes erectus L. are used in India for the alleviation of pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant material in an animal model. Methods: The chloroform, methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

  15. Solvent hold tank sample results for MCU-17-150-152 (July 2017) and MCU-17-153-155 (August 2017): Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    A trend summary that includes the last two Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) monthly samples is shown; MCU- 17-150-152 (July SHT) and MCU-17-153-155 (August SHT). Since the last SHT sample sent for analysis was the August sample the chemical state of the solvent is best approximated by the chemical analysis of the August SHT sample (MCU-17-153-155). This report mainly focused on the chemical analysis of the August SHT sample. The analysis data from the July SHT sample are presented in the “trend” plots of this report. Analysis of the August SHT sample (MCU-17-153-155) indicated that the modifier (CS-7SB) was 2% below but the extractant (MaxCalix) concentration was at its nominal recommended level (169,000 mg/L and 46,400 mg/L respectively). The suppressor (TiDG) level has decreased since the last measurement taken while the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction unit (MCU) was operating in January 2017, but has remained steady in the range of 666 (observed in April) to 715 mg/L (observed in the August 2017 sample) since February 2017, well above the minimum recommended level (479 mg/L), but below the nominal level. The “flat” trends observed in the TiDG, MaxCalix, modifier, and Gamma measurement are consistent with the solvent being idle since January 10, 2017. A strong correlation between density and modifier concentration in the solvent continues to be observed in the SHT samples. This analysis confirms the Isopar™L addition to the solvent in January 2017. This analysis also indicates the solvent did not require further additions. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, Isopar™L, MaxCalix, and modifier are sufficient for continuing operation but are expected to decrease with time if the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) returns to processing radioactive liquid waste. Otherwise, the levels of these components will remain steady. A future Isopar™L trimming addition to the solvent is recommended when MCU resumes processing

  16. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules

  17. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules.

  18. Removal of VOCs from groundwater using membrane-assisted solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, J.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Nunez, L.; Redfield, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    A membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASX) system coupled to a membrane-assisted distillation stripping (MADS) system for use in decontaminating groundwater is discussed. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extracted in the MASX using a sunflower oil solvent. In the MADS, VOCs are stripped from the sunflower oil, and the oil is recycled to the MASX. Thermodynamic data for the sunflower oil-water-VOCs system were experimentally collected. Published membrane-mass transfer results along with these data were used to design the MASX and MADS modules.

  19. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahramanloo KH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kourosh Hasanzadeh Ghahramanloo,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,2 Hamid Akbari Javar,3 Riyanto Teguh Widodo,1 Keivan Majidzadeh,4 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Genetics Department, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS, 4Breast Cancer Research Center (BCRC Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%–61.85% and oleic acid (1.64%–18.97%. Thymoquinone (0.72%–21.03% was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that achieved by the solvent extraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique. Keywords: Nigella sativa L., essential oil extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, solvent extraction, fatty acid composition, thymoquinone, linoleic acid

  20. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  3. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doppler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v, with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem and 57% (ear of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone.

  4. A rapid direct solvent extraction method for the extraction of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone from irradiated ground beef patties using acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Kumar, Amit; Smith, J Scott

    2010-08-01

    The amount of irradiated beef in the U.S. market is growing, and a reliable, rapid method is needed to detect irradiated beef and quantify the irradiation dose. The official analytical method (BS EN 1785 2003) that has been adopted by the European Union is time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid method for the analysis of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in irradiated beef. A 5 g sample of commercially irradiated ground beef patty (90/10) was extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus or with acetonitrile via direct solvent extraction. The Soxhlet hexane extract was evaporated to dryness, and the sample was dissolved in a mixture of ethyl acetate and acetonitrile (1:1). The defatted extract was purified with a 1 g silica cartridge. Another 5 g aliquot of the same patty was mixed with 50 mL acetonitrile and either blended for 1 min with a hand blender or crushed for 10 min with a glass rod. The extraction procedure was repeated 3 times, and the acetonitrile was collected and evaporated to dryness. Eluants from both methods were concentrated under nitrogen and injected into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration in the commercial samples was 0.031 +/- 0.0026 ppm (n = 5) for the Soxhlet method and 0.031 +/- 0.0025 ppm (n = 10) for direct solvent extraction. Recovery of 2-DCB from spiked beef samples in the direct solvent extraction method was 93.2 +/- 9.0% (n = 7). This study showed that the direct solvent extraction method is simple and as efficient and reproducible as the Soxhlet method.

  5. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen Takano 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chern Foo

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  6. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  7. Investigations of ion-size-selective synergism in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.; Aldrup, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    Organophilic crown ethers and other similar macrocyclic compounds produce a synergistic enhancement of the extraction of several metal ions by organic-phase-soluble carboxylic, phosphoric, and sulfonic acids. Ions examined include the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, and some first-row transition elements. In many cases, the synergistic effects are clearly related to the correspondence of the ion size to the macrocycle cavity diameter. In other cases this is less true, and occasionally, complete lack of synergism or even antagonism is observed. These phenomena have been investigated by systematic studies of the systems involved, by equilibrium studies of selected extraction systems, and by vapor-pressure osmometric studies of the intermolecular bonding between the organic-phase macrocycles and acids. Lack of synergism (when it is expected from size correspondence) does not appear to be due to bonding interactions between the macrocycle and the extractant acid. Other considerations suggest that synergism may depend on the degree to which the macrocycle can surround the ion. Possibilities for metal ion separations are noted, and the directions for further, needed investigations are indicated. 18 references, 14 figures, 2 tables

  8. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  9. Cleaning Spent Bleaching Clay through Using Solvent Extraction Method and RSM Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Shahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bleaching clay refers to clays that in their natural or activated state have the capacity to absorb dyes and other remaining undesirable ingredients from edible oil during its purification processes. Thus, the most important function of bleaching clay is to improve the appearance, flavor, odor, and stability of the final oil product. Hexane, acetone, and methyl ethyl ketone were used as the solvents in this research, and RSM (response surface methodology was employed for determining the optimal parameters. The variable parameters included the solvent to clay ratio (SCR and the extraction time. Results showed methyl ethyl ketone with the final oil removal efficiency of 61.3% was superior to hexane and acetone, with efficiencies of 52.7 and 59.1%, respectively. Under the best laboratory conditions and using RSM, the highest extraction efficiency was 5.97 ml/g for the ketone solvents (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone at the extraction time of 3 minutes and 6 seconds, and 5.92 ml/g for hexane at the extraction time of 24 minutes and 30 seconds.Keywords: Cleaning, Spent Bleaching Clay, Solvent Extraction, Response Surface Methodology (RSM, Oil Purification

  10. Cleaning Spent Bleaching Clay through Using Solvent Extraction Method and RSM Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahsa shahi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching clay refers to clays that in their natural or activated state have the capacity to absorb dyes and other remaining undesirable ingredients from edible oil during its purification processes. Thus, the most important function of bleaching clay is to improve the appearance, flavor, odor, and stability of the final oil product. Hexane, acetone, and methyl ethyl ketone were used as the solvents in this research, and RSM (response surface methodology was employed for determining the optimal parameters. The variable parameters included the solvent to clay ratio (SCR and the extraction time. Results showed methyl ethyl ketone with the final oil removal efficiency of 61.3% was superior to hexane and acetone, with efficiencies of 52.7 and 59.1%, respectively. Under the best laboratory conditions and using RSM, the highest extraction efficiency was 5.97 ml/g for the ketone solvents (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone at the extraction time of 3 minutes and 6 seconds, and 5.92 ml/g for hexane at the extraction time of 24 minutes and 30 seconds. Key words: Cleaning, Spent Bleaching Clay, Solvent Extraction, Response Surface Methodology (RSM, Oil Purification

  11. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Junfeng; Yun Zhi; Shi Haixian

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 deg. C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 deg. C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel.

  12. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO 3 acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D[IB]CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D[IB]CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables

  13. Dispersion and coalescence of oil droplets by ultrasound and application for solvent extraction of gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Thanh Nguyen, Tam; Okura, Risa; Nakayama, Shingo; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Jin, Jiye

    2015-07-01

    To improve the performance of solvent extraction of rare metals, the effects of ultrasonic and organic solvent conditions on the demulsification of emulsions were examined. Optimized conditions were adopted in the solvent extraction of gallium by ultrasonic irradiation. As organic solvents, chloroform, 1,2-dichloromethane, p-bromotoluene, bromobenzene, and 1,2-dibromoethane were employed. Emulsification was carried out using a horn-type transducer at 20 kHz. Demulsification was performed with plate-type transducers at 1.0-4.8 MHz. The demulsification time decreased with increasing ultrasonic frequency and power because the primary and secondary acoustic forces of droplets become stronger. Inclining the vessel shortened the demulsification time. In the case of chloroform at a low solution pH, the demulsification time was shortest since the zeta potential of droplets was close to zero. The sequential ultrasonic irradiation at 20 kHz and 4.8 MHz greatly shortens the operation time needed for solvent extraction of gallium from an aqueous solution.

  14. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  15. Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction in parallel microbore tubes using MDIMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darekar, Mayur; Singh, K.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction of U(VI) from simulated lean streams is explored using micro-scale contactor comprising of a MDIMJ (Monoblock Distributor with Integrated Microfluidic Junction) and PTFE microbore tubes. 30% (v/v) TBP in dodecane has been used as the extracting phase. The objective of the study is to demonstrate numbering up approach for scale-up of micro-scale extraction using indigenously conceptualized and fabricated MDIMJ. First the performance of MIDIMJ for equal flow distribution is tested. Then the effects of inlet flow rate and O/A ratio on stage efficiency and percentage extraction are studied. The experiments show that it is easy to scale-up single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction by using MDIMJ for numbering up approach. Maximum capacity tested is 4.8 LPH. With O/A = 2/1, more than 90% extraction is achieved in a very short contact time of less than 3s. The study thus demonstrates possibility of process intensification and easy scale-up of micro-scale solvent extraction

  16. Extraction of thymol from different varieties of thyme plants using green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva Bermejo, David; Angelov, Ivan; Vicente, Gonzalo; Stateva, Roumiana P; Rodriguez García-Risco, Mónica; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibañez, Elena; Fornari, Tiziana

    2015-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol found in thyme essential oil. This compound has revealed several biological properties, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this work, a comparison was made between the performance of different green solvents (ethanol, limonene and ethyl lactate), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at different conditions, to extract thymol from three different varieties of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus citriodorus). Additionally, new solubility data of thymol in limonene and ethanol at ambient pressure and temperatures in the range 30-43 °C are reported. The highest thymol recoveries were attained with T. vulgaris (7-11 mg g(-1)). No thymol could be quantified in the PLE samples of T. citriodorus. The highest concentrations of thymol in the extracts were obtained with limonene. Thymol is very soluble in both solvents, particularly in ethanol (∼900 mg g(-1) at ∼40 °C), and is the main compound (in terms of peak area) present in the essential oil extracts obtained. The three solvents show good capacity to extract thymol from T. vulgaris and T. zygis by PLE. Although PLE proved to be a suitable technology to extract thymol from thyme plants, the highest concentrations of thymol were obtained by SFE with supercritical CO2 . © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested.

  18. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  19. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C.; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-07-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  20. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-01-01

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90 Sr and 137 Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  1. Solvent extraction of Pu(IV) with TODGA in C6mimTf2N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaohong Huang; Qiuyue Zhang; Jinping Liu; Hui He; Wenbin Zhu; Xiaorong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the solvent extraction of Plutonium(Pu(IV)) from aqueous nitric acid by N,N,N'N'tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (C 6 mimTf 2 N) room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) were carried out. It was found that Pu(IV) is extracted into RTIL phase as [Pu(NO 3 )(TODGA)] 3+ through cation exchange mechanism. Extraction reaction equation is obtained by the influence of acidity and extractant concentration, and the parameters of thermodynamic equilibrium constant was calculated. (author)

  2. Metals separation using solvent extractants on magnetic microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Pourfarzaneh, M.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation program was initially funded by DOE EM-50 to develop processes for the efficient separation of radionuclides and other hazardous metals. This process has simulated the partnership between industry and ANL for many applications related to hazardous metal problems in industry. In-tank or near-tank hazardous metals separation using magnetic particles promises simple, compact processing at very low costs and employs mature chemical separations technologies to remove and recover hazardous metals from aqueous solutions. The selective chemical extractants are attached to inexpensive magnetic carrier particles. Surfaces of small particles composed of rare earths or ferromagnetic materials are treated to retain chemical extractants (e.g., TBP, CMPO, quaternary amines, carboxylic acid). After selective partitioning of contaminants to the surface layer, magnets are used to collect the loaded particles from the tank. The particles can be regenerated by stripping the contaminants and the selective metals can be recovered and recycled from the strip solution. This process and its related equipment are simple enough to be used for recovery/recycling and waste minimization activities at many industrial sites. Both the development of the process for hazardous and radioactive waste and the transfer of the technology will be discussed

  3. Association of solvent extraction and liquid-liquid flotation processes for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia P.; Mendonca, Luciano A. de; Massarani, Giulio

    2000-01-01

    From the batch solvent extraction process, in this work it has been carried out a preliminary study aiming the determination of the optimal operating conditions for zirconium recovery (10 ppm) using alamine 336 (tricaprylylamine) as extractor. The results have shown that the extraction takes place instantaneously (5s of manual agitation) and that at pH around 2.0 the extraction efficiency is up to 98-99% for an aqueous/organic phase volumetric ratio of 10. Based on these results, it is proposed to evaluate the possibility of using of a pioneering technology for metal recovery at low concentrations, using a experimental set-up that associates standard solvent extraction process with liquid-liquid flotation process. (author)

  4. Crown ethers as size-selective synergists in solvent extraction systems: a new selectivity parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mixtures of macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) and organic-phase-soluble liquid cation exchangers have been found to produce a synergistic effect in the extraction of metal ions. The synergistic effect is size selective; that is, it tends to be greatest for those ions that best fit the crown ether cavity. The mixtures of a liquid cation exchanger and a crown ether also allow metal ion extraction from common mineral-acid anion systems (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- ) that would be impossible with the crown ether alone, because of the difficulty of solubilizing those anions in nonpolar solvents. This cooperation makes the use of crown ethers as size-selective coordinators available for process applications. Size selectivity of compounds such as crown ethers may thus become a useful new parameter in designing selective solvent extraction systems. Results are reported for alkali (including Cs) and alkaline earth (including Sr) extraction by HDEHP mixed with various crown ethers. (author)

  5. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  6. Solvent extraction separation and spectrographic determination of palladium, rhodium and ruthenium in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevilla, C.; Alduan, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of Pd, Rh and Ru in uranium at low ppm level, using solvent extraction has been studied. BPHA, TNOA, TOPO and TBP have been tried as complexing agents; TBP In hexane and 5 M nitric acid medium provides a virtually quantitative extraction. The layer containing the impurities is collected Into graphite powder, and this powder is analysed spectro graphically using carrier destination method with % CuF 2 as a carrier. (Author) 11 refs

  7. Application of IC and HPLC as an analytical tool in solvent extraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debasish; Sureshkumar, M.K.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Ion chromatography and HPLC was used for analyzing the concentration of various metal ions present in the aqueous phase after solvent extraction using a number of novel organic extractants such as CMPO, DMDBTDMA and TODGA. Calibration plots were obtained for each of the metal ions studied. Interference of one group of metal ions on the other was investigated. The error in the expected values was within the < 10% even in the presence of interfering elements. (author)

  8. Recombinant human proinsulin from transgenic corn endosperm: solvent screening and extraction studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Farinas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant pharmaceutical proteins are being produced in different systems such as bacteria and mammalian cell cultures. The use of transgenic plants as bioreactors has recently arisen as an alternative system offering many practical and economic advantages. However, finding an optimum strategy for the downstream processing (DSP of recombinant proteins from plants still remains a challenge. In this work, we studied the extraction of recombinant human proinsulin (rhProinsulin produced in the endosperm of transgenic corn seeds. An efficient extraction solvent was selected and the effects of temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, time, and impeller rotational speed on the extraction were evaluated using an experimental design. After an extraction kinetics study, temperature was further evaluated to maximize rhProinsulin concentration in the extracts and to minimize the native corn components carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and proteins. A high efficiency condition for extracting rhProinsulin with the selected solvent - 50 mM sodium bicarbonate buffer pH 10.0 and 5 mM DTT - was an extraction time of 2 h at a solvent-to-solid ratio of 10:1 and 25º C. The maximum rhProinsulin concentration in the extracts at that condition was 18.87 mg l-1 or 0.42% of the total soluble protein. These values are within the range in which the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants can be competitive with other expression systems. The results presented provide information for the development of an additional production platform for the hormone insulin.

  9. Influence of solvent radiolysis on extraction, scrubbing and stripping of uranium and some fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlowska, W.; Nowak, M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolytically degraded TBP-n-paraffins solvent was used in the laboratory flow-sheet to study the influence of radiation exposure on decontamination of uranium. The influence of accumulated doses on extraction, scrubbing and stripping of uranium and some fission products has been discussed. (author)

  10. Ultrasound-assisted green solvent extraction of high-added value compounds from microalgae Nannochloropsis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniakov, O; Apicella, E; Koubaa, M; Barba, F J; Grimi, N; Lebovka, N; Pataro, G; Ferrari, G; Vorobiev, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate ultrasound (US)-assisted green solvent extraction of valuable compounds from the microalgae Nannochloropsis spp. Individual green solvents (water, ethanol (EtOH), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) and binary mixture of solvents (water-DMSO and water-EtOH) were used for the extraction procedures. Maximum total phenolic compounds yield (Yp ≈ 0.33) was obtained after US pre-treatment (W=400 W, 15 min), being almost 5-folds higher compared to that found for the untreated samples and aqueous extraction (Yp ≈ 0.06). The highest yield of total chlorophylls (Yc ≈ 0.043) was obtained after US (W=400 W, 7.5 min), being more than 9-folds higher than those obtained for the untreated samples and aqueous extraction (Yc ≈ 0.004). The recovery efficiency decreased as DMSO>EtOH>H2O. The optimal conditions to recover phenolic compounds and chlorophylls from microalgae were obtained after US pre-treatment (400 W, 5 min), binary mixtures of solvents (water-DMSO and water-EtOH) at 25-30%, and microalgae concentration of 10%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solvent extraction as additional purification method for postconsumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Jansen, M.

    2011-01-01

    An existing solvent extraction process currently used to convert lightly polluted post-industrial packaging waste into high quality re-granulates was tested under laboratory conditions with highly polluted post-consumer packaging waste originating from municipal solid refuse waste. The objective was

  12. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Pet. Ether. 300. 0.4257. Pet. Ether. 500. 0.4594. Chloroform. 300. 0.5068. Chloroform. 500. 0.4932. Methanol. 300. 0.4833. Methanol. 500. 0.6330. Table 2. Rf values of thevetia seeds oil (petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as mobile phase). Extraction solvent. Radiation dosage (RADS). RF. Pet. Ether. 300.

  13. Fractionation of five technical lignins by selective extraction in green solvents and characterization of isolated fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeriu, C.G.; Fitigau, F.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Frissen, A.E.; Stoutjesdijk, J.H.; Peter, F.

    2014-01-01

    Lignins from softwood, hardwood, grass and wheat straw were fractionated by selective extraction at ambient temperature using green solvents like acetone/water solutions of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% (v/v) acetone and ethyl acetate. A comparison between the isolated fractions and unfractionated lignins

  14. Study on solvent extraction of gold(III) with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole into chloroform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajadhyaksha, M.; Turel, Z.R.

    1985-11-01

    Ideal conditions for the extraction of Au(III) with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-HMBT) into chloroform were established. The effects of various parameters such as pH, time of equilibration, solvents, cation interferences, anion interferences, and stoichiometry of the metal to reagent were established.

  15. Impurity distribution behavior in caprolactam extraction with environmentally benign mixed solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, M.L.; Drumm, C.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study a solvent mixture of heptane containing 40 mass % heptanol was selected as an alternative in the industrial extraction of caprolactam to replace benzene, toluene, or chlorinated hydrocarbons. This work reports the equilibrium distribution ratio of caprolactam and four model

  16. Development of a micro-mixer-settler for nuclear solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Bijendra Kumar; Sampath, M.; Sivakumar, D.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear solvent extraction was traditionally performed with packed columns, pulse columns, mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. However for rapid separations at micro-flow level, micro mixer-settlers were desired and in the past, few of them were actually designed and operated in nuclear solvent extraction research. In the current era of micro-reactor and microchannel devices, there is a renewed interest for micro-mixer-settlers for costly solvents and specialty solutes where small flow-rate is not an issue. In this article, development of a simple but effective micro-mixer-settler for nuclear solvent extraction is reported. The developed unit was tested with 30% TBP/n-dodecane/nitric acid system and in both the regimes of mass transfer c → d (mass transfer from continuous phase to dispersed phase, also written as c → d) and d → c (mass transfer from dispersed phase to continuous phase, also written as d → c) nearly 100% efficiency was observed in extraction as well as stripping modes of operation. (author)

  17. studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from river water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for free and strongly complexed cyanide measurement in river water was developed. Recovery tests from solution with and without river water, using various solvent combinations and background control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen ...

  18. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study

  19. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  20. Thermodynamic Description of Synergy in Solvent Extraction: II Thermodynamic Balance of Driving Forces Implied in Synergistic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J; Bley, M; Dufrêche, J-F; Gourdin, S; Pellet-Rostaing, S; Zemb, T; Dourdain, S

    2017-11-21

    In the second part of this study, we analyze the free energy of transfer in the case of synergistic solvent extraction. This free energy of the transfer of an ion in dynamic equilibrium between two coexisting phases is decomposed into four driving forces combining long-range interactions with the classical complexation free energy associated with the nearest neighbors. We demonstrate how the organometallic complexation is counterbalanced by the cost in free energy related to structural change on the colloidal scale in the solvent phase. These molecular forces of synergistic extraction are driven not only by the entropic term associated with the tight packing of electrolytes in the solvent and by the free energy cost of coextracting water toward the hydrophilic core of the reverse aggregates present but also by the entropic costs in the formation of the reverse aggregate and by the interfacial bending energy of the extractant molecules packed around the extracted species. Considering the sum of the terms, we can rationalize the synergy observed, which cannot be explained by classical extraction modeling. We show an industrial synergistic mixture combining an amide and a phosphate complexing site, where the most efficient/selective mixture is observed for a minimal bending energy and maximal complexation energy.

  1. Exploiting Sequential Injection on-line Solvent Extraction/Back Extraction with Detection by ETAAS or ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    presents an on-line SI-solvent extraction/back extraction procedure used in connection with detection by either ETAAS or ICPMS. Incorporating two newly designed dual-conical gravitational phase separators, its performance is demonstrated for the determination of various metals in reference materials.......Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) are highly sensitive techniques for trace metal analyses. Nevertheless, separation/preconcentration procedures are often called for in order to overcome their inherent low matrix...... tolerances. With detection by ETAAS, separation/preconcentration by solvent extraction has enjoyed much use. However, this approach is not necessarily the optimal one since introduction of organic eluates directly into the graphite tube might lead to deteriorated reproducibility and lower sensitivity...

  2. Exploiting sequential injection on-line solvent extraction/back extraction with detection by ETAAS and ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    presents an on-line SI-solvent extraction/back extraction procedure used in connection with detection by either ETAAS or ICPMS. Incorporating two newly designed dual-conical gravitational phase separators, its performance is demonstrated for the determination of various metals in reference materials.......Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) are highly sensitive techniques for trace metal analyses. Nevertheless, separation/preconcentration procedures are often called for in order to overcome their inherent low matrix tolerance....... With detection by ETAAS, separation/preconcentration by solvent extraction has enjoyed much use. However, this approach is not necessarily the optimal one since introduction of organic eluates directly into the graphite tube might lead to deteriorated reproducibility and lower sensitivity. And for ICPMS...

  3. Search for a solvent using the UNIFAC method for separation of coal tar distillate by liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egashira, R.; Watanabe, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Firstly, the functional groups composing the solvent predicted to be appropriate for the separation of coal tar distillate were selected. Secondly, liquid-liquid equilibria between coal tar distillates and solvents containing fictitious components consisting of the above selected functional groups were estimated by UNIFAC to determine the effects of these groups on the distribution coefficients. Finally, according to these results, solvents containing real components were selected and compared. These results provide useful information for the selection of appropriate extracting solvents.

  4. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subcritical co-solvents extraction of lipid from wet microalgae pastes of Nannochloropsis sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liu, Tianzhong; Chen, Xiaolin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junfeng; Gao, Lili; Chen, Yu; Peng, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper subcritical co-solvents extraction (SCE) of algal lipid from wet pastes of Nannochloropsis sp. is examined. The influences of five operating parameters including the ratio between ethanol to hexane, the ratio of mixed solvents to algal biomass (dry weight), extraction temperature, pressure, and time were investigated. The determined optimum extraction conditions were 3:1 (hexane to ethanol ratio), 10:1 ratio (co-solvents to microalgae (dry weight) ratio), 90°C, 1.4 MPa, and 50 min, which could produce 88% recovery rate of the total lipids. In addition, electron micrographs of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to show that the algal cell presented shrunken, collapsed with some wrinkles and microholes after SCE extraction. The main composition of total lipids extracted under the optimum conditions was TAG which represented more than 80%. And the fatty acid profile of triglycerides revealed that C16:0 (35.67 ± 0.2%), C18:1 (26.84 ± 0.044%) and C16:1 (25.96 ± 0.011%) were dominant. Practical applications: The reported method could save energy consumption significantly through avoiding deep dewatering (for example drying). The composition of the extracted lipid is suitable for the production of high quality biodiesel. PMID:22745570

  6. Preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Junfeng; Shi, Haixian; Yun, Zhi

    2010-09-01

    In the present work the preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL of extraction solvent mixture and methanol/n-hexane volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 35 degrees C, extraction time 30 min. Further, the effect of methanol recycling on the TSE process was also investigated. After TSE process, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-n-hexane solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide as the catalyst. The conversion could achieve 98% with 3:1 n-hexane/oil weight ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 7:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 1.1% alkali catalyst concentration and 120 min reaction time. The properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) product prepared from Jatropha curcas L. oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of different solvent extracts of Benincasa hispida T. on experimental hypochlorhydria in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upanandan Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypochlorhydria is a common problem in any age of people like other gastric disorders. It has so many etiologies such as sympathetic dominance, antiseretory drug use, excess sugar and refined foods, etc. In the present study, our objective was to search out the effective solvent extract of fruit of Benincasa hispida T. for the management of hypochlorhydria in model male albino rats. Hypochlorhydria was induced in rat as per standard method by oral administration of ranitidine. Different solvent extracts (Hydro-methanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous of ripe fruit of B. hispida were prepared following the standard protocol. Various parameters in this concern like free acidity, total acidity, pH, pepsin concentration, chloride and vitamin C levels in gastric juice were measured by standard biochemical and titrimetric methods. It was found that pre-administration followed by co-administration of aqueous extract of B. hispida (ABH resulted significant correction of ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydria in rat. This aqueous extract-treated group showed increased levels of vitamin C, pepsin, and chloride concentration in gastric juice as well as the antioxidant status significantly (P<0.05 in respect to other extract-treated groups. From the results, it can be concluded that the ABH has most effective anti-hypochlorhydric and antioxidative efficacy than other solvent extracts of said plant fruit.

  8. Solvent extraction of lanthanoid and yttrium ions with poly(oxyethylene)alkylphenylether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Takeshita, Ryo-ichi; Ueno, Keihei; Takagi, Makoto.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent extraction of lanthanoid and yttrium ions(M 3+ ) was investigated in a water-dichloroethane system using poly(oxyethylene)-type nonionic surfactants such as Triton X-100 and Triton X-405(L) and picrate ion(A - ) as extraction agent and pairing anion, respectively. The result of extraction studies at various extraction agent concentrations and at various picrate ion concentrations, suggested that the composition of the extracted species was MLA 3 . Among the lanthanoid ions investigated, the ions such as Nd 3+ , Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ , and Gd 3+ gave relatively larger distribution ratios than the other lanthanoid ions, while the yttrium ion was the least extractable among the metal ions investigated. The distribution ratio with extraction agent Triton X-405 was about ten times larger than those with Triton X-100. (author)

  9. Comprehensive comparison of classic Soxhlet extraction with Soxtec extraction, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporring, Sune; Bøwadt, Søren; Svensmark, Bo; Björklund, Erland

    2005-10-07

    This paper compares the extraction effectiveness of six different commonly applied extraction techniques for the determination of PCBs in soil. The techniques included are Soxhlet, Soxtec, ultrasonication extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction. For none of the techniques were the extraction conditions optimized, but instead the extraction parameters were based on the experience from previous successful investigation published by a number of research groups worldwide. In general, all extraction techniques were capable of producing accurate data for one native PCB contaminated soil diluted with another soil sample to obtain two concentration levels. It could therefore be concluded that any of the investigated techniques can be used with success if the extraction conditions applied are chosen wisely.

  10. Alternative oil extraction methods from Echium plantagineum L. seeds using advanced techniques and green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The edible oil processing industry involves large losses of organic solvent into the atmosphere and long extraction times. In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed. Advanced extraction techniques such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) were evaluated to efficiently extract omega-3 rich oil from Echium plantagineum seeds. Extractions were performed with ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and ethanol:water to develop a hexane-free processing method. Optimal PLE conditions with ethanol at 150 °C during 10 min produced a very similar oil yield (31.2%) to Soxhlet using hexane for 8 h (31.3%). UAE optimized method with ethanol at mild conditions (55 °C) produced a high oil yield (29.1%). Consequently, advanced extraction techniques showed good lipid yields and furthermore, the produced echium oil had the same omega-3 fatty acid composition than traditionally extracted oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Four Lignans from Fructus Schisandrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE combined with response surface methodology (RSM modeling and optimization has been developed for the extraction of four lignans in Fructus Schisandrae (the fruits of Schisandra chinensis Baill. The RSM method, based on a three level and three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD, was employed to obtain the optimal combination of extraction condition. In brief, the lignans schizandrin, schisandrol B, deoxyschizandrin and schisandrin B were optimally extracted with 87% ethanol as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 160 °C, static extraction time of 10 min, extraction pressure of 1,500 psi, flush volume of 60% and one extraction cycle. The 3D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. Under the above conditions, the experimental value of four lignans was 14.72 mg/g, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by the model.

  12. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of solvent systems for optimized extractables studies of single use bioprocessing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorival-García, Noemí; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Despite their advantages, there is concern that single-use systems used in biopharmaceutical manufacture might release potentially toxic substances during standard unit operations that negatively impact cell growth. Characterization of the extractables profile for single-use systems is necessary to know which compounds potentially become leachables under operational cell culture conditions. A key issue in the design of extractables studies is the composition of the model solvent, in particular its pH and polarity. In this study, a new approach, based on design of experiments (DoE), has been applied to determine the composition of the model solvent for extractable profiling of single-use bags (SUBs). Particular focus was placed on the determination of the degradation products of the antioxidant Irgafos 168 ® , due to evidence that some of these degradation products have cytotoxic effects on CHO cells. Results indicated that 2-propanol:water is the most appropriate solvent for the extraction of highly hydrophobic compounds with polar groups and/or acid-base properties from SUBs. The described DoE approach simplifies the number of experiments, evaluates all possible solvent water mixtures to select the best extraction solvent based on polarity, establishes the influence of each variable and provides information about variable interaction, which represents an important improvement over current best practice. The developed approach was applied to seven SUBs from different vendors and production dates facilitating the identification of potentially non-satisfactory films for cultivation of CHO cell lines under process conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solvent extraction method for determination of thorium in soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Cohen, N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, precise and accurate analytical technique has been developed for the determination of thorium isotopes in soft tissues. The method consists of preliminary nitric acid digestion of tissues after adding 229 Th tracer, followed by a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid with occasional addition of hydrogen peroxide; thorium is then coprecipitated with iron carrier by ammonium hydroxide. The precipitate is washed until free of sulfate ions, dissolved in 1:1 HNO 3 and finally adjusted to 4 M HNO 3 . Thorium is extracted twice into 25% trilaurylamine (TLA) in xylene (pre-equilibrated with 4 M HNO 3 ) and backwashed twice with 10 M HCl. The aqueous phase is evaporated to almost dryness, treated with H 2 SO 4 with frequent addition of a few drops of HNO 3 , and electrodeposited onto a platinum planchet prior to α spectrometry with a surface-barrier silicon detector. The final total recovery ranged from 24 to 93% with a mean of 65% in 28 samples. Yield appeared to be independent of total iron when 10 to 100 mg Fe were added, and independent of total iron when 10 to 100 mg Fe were added, and independent of the amount of added tracer. The natural 228 Th content of three different beef liver samples was 1.3, 1.4, and 3.0 pCi/kg wet weight. 4 tables

  15. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60 degrees F but insoluble in water above 90 degrees F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL's Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination

  16. The solvent extraction of cerium from sulphate solution - mini plant trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, K.; Wilkins, D.; Ring, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Mt. Weld deposit in Western Australia has a complex rare earth mineralisation. The rare earth phosphate minerals, which include monazite, are amenable to conventional caustic cracking followed by hydrochloric acid dissolution of the trivalent rare earths. The presence of the mineral cerianite in the ore, which is unaffected by the alkali attack, results in rejection of a considerable proportion of the cerium to the acid leach residue. The recovery of cerium from a sulphate solution, resulting from the processing of such a residue, is the subject of the current paper. The liquor treated by solvent extraction contained 63 g L -1 rare earths and the cerium to total rare earth ratio was 75%. Other impurities, including Fe and Th, totalled 2000 ppm. A solvent mixture of commercially available extractants in a low aromatic content diluent was used to extract Ce 4+ selectively over the trivalent rare earths. Partial co-extraction of Fe and Th occurred but it was found that these elements were not easily stripped and therefore selective back extraction of cerium was possible. The cerium was stripped from the organic phase by hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. In continuous counter-current trials two extraction stages and three strip stages were used. In order to produce two grades of strip liquor, stripping was divided into two circuits. The first strip circuit consisting of a single stage, contained proportionally more of the trivalent rare earths. The second strip circuit, consisting of two stages, removed the remaining cerium with proportionally less of the rare earths. A bleed solvent stream was treated for removal of impurities to prevent build-up in the solvent. In the continuous counter current trials, 95% Ce 4+ extraction was achieved and the Ce to total rare earth ratio was upgraded to > 99%

  17. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %).

  18. Headspace single drop microextraction versus dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using magnetic ionic liquid extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Rahn, Kira L; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-05-15

    A headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) method and a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method were developed using two tetrachloromanganate ([MnCl 4 2- ])-based magnetic ionic liquids (MIL) as extraction solvents for the determination of twelve aromatic compounds, including four polyaromatic hydrocarbons, by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analytical performance of the developed HS-SDME method was compared to the DLLME approach employing the same MILs. In the HS-SDME approach, the magnetic field generated by the magnet was exploited to suspend the MIL solvent from the tip of a rod magnet. The utilization of MILs in HS-SDME resulted in a highly stable microdroplet under elevated temperatures and long extraction times, overcoming a common challenge encountered in traditional SDME approaches of droplet instability. The low UV absorbance of the [MnCl 4 2- ]-based MILs permitted direct analysis of the analyte enriched extraction solvent by HPLC. In HS-SDME, the effects of ionic strength of the sample solution, temperature of the extraction system, extraction time, stir rate, and headspace volume on extraction efficiencies were examined. Coefficients of determination (R 2 ) ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and limits of detection (LODs) varied from 0.04 to 1.0μgL -1 with relative recoveries from lake water ranging from 70.2% to 109.6%. For the DLLME method, parameters including disperser solvent type and volume, ionic strength of the sample solution, mass of extraction solvent, and extraction time were studied and optimized. Coefficients of determination for the DLLME method varied from 0.997 to 0.999 with LODs ranging from 0.05 to 1.0μgL -1 . Relative recoveries from lake water samples ranged from 68.7% to 104.5%. Overall, the DLLME approach permitted faster extraction times and higher enrichment factors for analytes with low vapor pressure whereas the HS-SDME approach exhibited better extraction efficiencies for

  19. Accelerated, microwave-assisted, and conventional solvent extraction methods affect anthocyanin composition from colored grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona; Bryan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Anthocyanins are important dietary components with diverse positive functions in human health. This study investigates effects of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on anthocyanin composition and extraction efficiency from blue wheat, purple corn, and black rice in comparison with the commonly used solvent extraction (CSE). Factorial experimental design was employed to study effects of ASE and MAE variables, and anthocyanin extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (DAD), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatography. The extraction efficiency of ASE and MAE was comparable with CSE at the optimal conditions. The greatest extraction by ASE was achieved at 50 °C, 2500 psi, 10 min using 5 cycles, and 100% flush. For MAE, a combination of 70 °C, 300 W, and 10 min in MAE was the most effective in extracting anthocyanins from blue wheat and purple corn compared with 50 °C, 1200 W, and 20 min for black rice. The anthocyanin composition of grain extracts was influenced by the extraction method. The ASE extraction method seems to be more appropriate in extracting anthocyanins from the colored grains as being comparable with the CSE method based on changes in anthocyanin composition. The method caused lower structural changes in anthocaynins compared with the MAE method. Changes in blue wheat anthocyanins were lower in comparison with purple corn or black rice perhaps due to the absence of acylated anthocyanin compounds in blue wheat. The results show significant differences in anthocyanins among the 3 extraction methods, which indicate a need to standardize a method for valid comparisons among studies and for quality assurance purposes. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Journal of Food Science © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists® Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

  20. Optimization of co-solvent addition in supercritical fluid extraction of fat with carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Dušica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is concerned with supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using CO2, as an analytical technique for total fat extraction from food and feed samples. Its most significant advantages are safety, cleanness, and shorter extraction time. The main limitation of this technique includes the difficulty of extracting polar lipids due to the non-polar character of the solvent (CO2 used for the extraction. The influence of ethanol as a co-solvent on the SFE of mash pig feed was investigated in this paper. Total fat content was determined by SFE and Soxhlet method for ten commercially available mesh pig feeds. Yields of the fat extracted by both methods were plotted one against the other and compared. Statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 has been found only between the total fat obtained by the Soxhlet extraction and SFE by pure CO2. Based on the mathematical model, maximum yield of the extracted fat is achieved at an ethanol addition of 0.67 ml/g of sample, when the other parameters are the same as recommended by the producer’s procedure.

  1. A new approach to solvent extraction: Electronic pulses shatter water droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have invented a device that represents a significant improvement in the area of solvent extraction, which is a widely used technique to recover valuable materials from a liquid stream. Known as the Emulsion Phase Contactor (EPC), the technology uses a pulsed electrical field to enhance recovery of chemicals (either valuable products or pollutants) that are dissolved in water. Because of its higher efficiency, the recovery method can be accomplished in much smaller vessels than those used in conventional solvent extractors, which use mechanical processes to recover chemicals. When water droplets carrying the substance to be extracted are introduced into the EPC, they are shattered by electronic pulses that produce water particles in the 1- to 5-micron size range. These water particles are up to 100 times smaller than those created by mechanical agitation. These tiny particles produce a much greater surface area than can be achieved using chemical agitators, enabling the chemical solvent to extract more material from the water base. In addition, the EPC uses much less power than mechanical methods and has no moving parts; therefore, servicing requirements for the extraction apparatus are expected to be significantly reduced. ORNL researchers initially tested the technology at a very small scale, and evaluated its capabilities in extracting high-value substances such as isotopes, pharmaceuticals, and precious metals. Further work has indicated that the EPC can be applied on a much larger scale to handle more common chemical substances

  2. The simple solutions concept: a useful approach to estimate deviation from ideality in solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorel, C.; Pacary, V.

    2010-01-01

    The solvent extraction systems devoted to uranium purification from crude ore to spent fuel involve concentrated solutions in which deviation from ideality can not be neglected. The Simple Solution Concept based on the behaviour of isopiestic solutions has been applied to quantify the activity coefficients of metals and acids in the aqueous phase in equilibrium with the organic phase. This approach has been validated on various solvent extraction systems such as trialkylphosphates, malonamides or acidic extracting agents both on batch experiments and counter-current tests. Moreover, this concept has been successfully used to estimate the aqueous density which is useful to quantify the variation of volume and to assess critical parameters such as the number density of nuclides. (author)

  3. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2008-04-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective.

  4. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Pu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Yawei; Wang Thanh; Li Xiaomin; Ding Lei; Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2010-03-17

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K{sub ow}). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields.

  5. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  6. Separation and recovery of heavy metals from waste water using synergistic solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Limei; Xu, Zheng; Sun, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal wastewater pollution is one of the three major water pollutions in the world. The zinc hydrometallurgy smelting process usually discharge large quantities of heavy metal wastewater into the environment. In this paper, a synergistic solvent extraction process has been developed to recover copper, nickel, zinc and cadmium respectively from calcium and magnesium. The synergistic organic system contained 0.50 M Versatic 10 and 0.5 M Mextral 984H in DT100. Adjusting pH to 2.0 at 40 °C, the copper will be extracted preferentially with the extraction rate more than 99%. Continuing to adjust pH to 4.2 at 40 °C, the nickel will be extracted secondly with an extraction rate more than 98%; the zinc and cadmium in raffinate could be extracted separately while pH is about 6.5.

  7. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  8. Solvent Extraction of Tungsten(VI) from Moderate Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with LIX 63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Hoai Thanh; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Incheon Technology Service Centre, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The solvent extraction of tungsten(VI) from hydrochloric acid solutions using 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxydodecan-6-one oxime (LIX 63) was analyzed in solutions having an initial pH range from 2 to 5, by varying the concentration of metal and extractant. In our experimental range, the cationic exchange reaction as well as the solvation reaction occurred simultaneously. The cation exchange reaction was identified by applying a slope analysis method to the extraction data. The existence of cationic tungsten(VI) species was confirmed by ion exchange experiments with Diphonix resin at pH 3. Further study is needed to identify the nature of this tungsten cationic species.

  9. Solvent extraction atomic absorption determination of indium in minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Samchuk, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    A method of the atomic-absorption determination of indium in minerals and rocks after extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone of an indium complex with N-cinnamoylphenylhydroxylamine (CAPHA) has been developed. The characteristic indium concentration in the dispersion of the extract into the acetylene-air flame is 0.08 mcg/ml. The indium-CAPHA complex is extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone practically completely at pH 3.5-7.6, Ksub(ex)=10sup(-0.92). Consideration is given to the effect of organic solvents on the absorption of indium

  10. Solvent effects on quantitative analysis of brominated flame retardants with Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Li, Dan; Zhu, Xifen; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an

    2017-05-18

    Reliable quantifications of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) not only ensure compliance with laws and regulations on the use of BFRs in commercial products, but also is key for accurate risk assessments of BFRs. Acetone is a common solvent widely used in the analytical procedure of BFRs, but our recent study found that acetone can react with some BFRs. It is highly likely that such reactions can negatively affect the quantifications of BFRs in environmental samples. In this study, the effects of acetone on the extraction yields of three representative BFRs [i.e., decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] were evaluated in the Soxhlet extraction (SE) system. The results showed that acetone-based SE procedure had no measureable effect for the recovery efficiencies of decaBDE but could substantially lower the extraction yields for both TBBPA and HBCD. After 24 h of extraction, the recovery efficiencies of TBBPA and HBCD by SE were 93 and 78% with acetone, 47 and 70% with 3:1 acetone:n-hexane, and 82 and 94% with 1:1 acetone:n-hexane, respectively. After 72 h of extraction, the extraction efficiencies of TBBPA and HBCD decreased to 68 and 55% with acetone, 0 and 5% with 3:1 acetone/n-hexane mixtures, and 0 and 13% with 1:1 acetone/n-hexane mixtures, respectively. The study suggested that the use of acetone alone or acetone-based mixtures should be restricted in the quantitative analysis of HBCD and TBBPA. We further evaluated nine alternative solvents for the extraction of the three BFRs. The result showed that diethyl ether might be reactive with HBCD and may not be considered as the alternative to acetone used solvents for the extraction of HBCD.

  11. Effect of pyrolysis on solvent extractability of toxic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakitani, Tomo; Hata, Toshimitsu; Kajimoto, Takeshi; Imamura, Yuji

    2004-06-18

    Solvent extraction was conducted to investigate the behavior of toxic metals in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and its pyrolysis residue. Four kinds of solvents, along with sulfuric and phosphoric acid as mineral agents, and citric and oxalic acid as complexing agents, were used. The CCA elements from the wood treated without pyrolysis were easily extracted. However, only a small amount of CCA elements were extracted from the pyrolyzed residue, even under very low pH conditions. The toxic elements in the pyrolyzed wood showed high stabilization against the solvent extraction. Pyrolysis strongly immobilized the toxic elements in the residue. Therefore, pyrolysis is not suitable as a pretreatment.

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L., from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El Amine Dib

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, solvent extracts from aerial parts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L. were assessed for their total phenol content, antimicrobial and antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and ferric-ion reducing power activities. The amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids in the solvent extracts were determined spectrometrically. (310.78 mg GA/g extract and antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.056 mg/mL. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ferric reducing antioxidant power for both extracts tested. The methanolic extract exhibited the best antimicrobial activity against three gram-positive bacterium (Listeria monocytogenes: 100%, Bacillus. cereus: 69% and Staphylococcus aureus: 66%, as well as against Candida albicans (81%. Finally, a relationship was observed between the biological activities potential and total phenolic and flavonoid levels of the extract. The results of this study provided an alternative of utilising Anacyclus pyrethrumaerial parts as readily accessible source of natural antioxidant in food cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry

  13. Solvent or thermal extraction of ethylene oxide from polymeric materials: Medical device considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anne D; Forrey, Christopher; Saylor, David M; Vorvolakos, Katherine

    2017-12-11

    Ethylene oxide (EO) gas is commonly used to sterilize medical devices. Bioavailable residual EO, however, presents a significant toxicity risk to patients. Residual EO is assessed using international standards describing extraction conditions for different medical device applications. We examine a series of polymers and explore different extraction conditions to determine residual EO. Materials were sterilized with EO and exhaustively extracted in water, in one of three organic solvents, or in air using thermal desorption. The EO exhaustively extracted varies significantly and is dictated by two factors: the EO that permeates the material during sterilization; and the effectiveness of the extraction protocol in flushing residual EO from the material. Extracted EO is maximized by a close matches between Hildebrand solubility parameters δ polymer , δ EO , and δ solvent . There remain complexities to resolve, however, because maximized EO uptake and detection are accompanied by great variability. These observations may inform protocols for material selection, sterilization, and EO extraction. 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of HEH[EHP] impurities on the ALSEP solvent extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holfeltz, Vanessa E. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; Campbell, Emily L. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Peterman, Dean R. [Aqueous Separations and Radiochemistry Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA; Standaert, Robert F. [Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Department of Biochemistry & amp, Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; Biology & amp, Soft Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Shull Wollan Center — a Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Paulenova, Alena [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

    2017-12-20

    In solvent extraction processes, organic phase impurities can negatively impact separation factors, hydrolytic performance, and overall system robustness. This affects the process-level viability of a separation concept and necessitates knowledge of the behavior and mechanisms to control impurities in the solvent. The most widespread way through which impurities are introduced into a system is through impure extractants and/or diluents used to prepare the solvent, and often development of new purification schemes to achieve the desired level of purity is needed. In this work, the acidic extractant, 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP])—proposed for application in extractive processes aimed at separating trivalent minor actinides from lanthanides and other fission products—is characterized with respect to its common impurities and their impact on Am(III) stripping in the Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) system. To control impurities in HEH[EHP], existing purification technologies commonly applied for the acidic organophosphorus reagents are reviewed, and a new method specific to HEH[EHP] purification is presented.

  15. Experiences in running solvent extraction plant for thorium compounds [Paper No. : V-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalkrishnan, C.R.; Bhatt, J.P.; Kelkar, G.K.

    1979-01-01

    Indian Rare Earths Ltd. operates a Plant using thorium concentrates as raw material, employing hydrocarbonate route, for the manufacture of thorium compounds. A small demonstration solvent extraction plant designed by the Chemical Engineering Division, B.A.R.C. is also being operated for the same purpose using a partly purified thorium hydrocarbonate as raw material. In the solvent extraction process, separation of pure thorium is done in mixer settlers using 40% mixture of tri-butyl phosphate in kerosene. Though a comparatively purer raw material of hydrocarbonate than thorium concentrate is used, heavy muck formation is encountered in the extraction stage. Production of nuclear grade thorium oxide has been successful so far as quality is concerned. The quality of thorium nitrate suffers in the yellow colouration and high phosphate content, the former being only partly controlled through the use of pretreated kerosene. When a larger solvent extraction plant is to be designed to use thorium concentrates as raw material, some of the problems encountered will be considered. (author)

  16. Integration of ceramic membrane and compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Hao; Lee, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In our previous publications, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction process (CASX) was developed and proved to be kinetically efficient process for metal removal. In the current study, CASX with a ceramic MF membrane integrated for separation of spent solvent was employed to remove and recover metal from wastewater. MF was operated either in crossflow mode or dead-end with intermittent flushing mode. Under crossflow mode, three distinct stages of flux vs. TMP (trans-membrane pressure) relationship were observed. In the first stage, flux increases with increasing TMP which is followed by the stage of stable flux with increasing TMP. After reaching a threshold TMP which is dependent of crossflow velocity, flux increases again with increasing TMP. At the last stage, solvent was pushed through membrane pores as indicated by increasing permeate COD. In dead-end with intermittent flushing mode, an intermittent flushing flow (2 min after a 10-min or a 30-min dead-end filtration) was incorporated to reduce membrane fouling by flush out MSAB accumulated on membrane surface. Effects of solvent concentration and composition were also investigated. Solvent concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1% (w/w) have no adverse effect in terms of membrane fouling. However, solvent composition, i.e. D(2)EHPA/kerosene ratio, shows impact on membrane fouling. The type of metal extractants employed in CASX has significant impact on both membrane fouling and the quality of filtrate due to the differences in their viscosity and water solubility. Separation of MSAB was the limiting process controlling metal removal efficiency, and the removal efficiency of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) followed the same trend as that for COD.

  17. Solvent extraction of strontium(II) as ion-pairs with tetraphenylborate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Yu

    1975-01-01

    Solvent extraction of strontium(II) and sodium(I) as ion-pairs with tetraphenylborate ion(TBP - ) into nitrobenzene or hexane containing trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) has been determined under various conditions. The extraction of strontium(II) from water into nitrobenzene is rather independent of the extractant concentration but that into TOPO-hexane is second order dependent on the extractant, while the extraction of this metal ion from 0.1 mol dm -3 sodium perchlorate solution into nitrobenzene is second order dependent on the extractant concentration. The extraction of strontium(II) at a certain extractant concentration into nitrobenzene is greatly impaired by an addition of sodium perchlorate, while that into TOPO-hexane is not very much affected by the added salt. The extraction of sodium(I) with TPB - into TOPOP-hexane is complicated. On the basis of these results, separation of strontium(II) from cesium(I) or potassium(I) by extraction as ion-pairs with TPB - into nitrobenzene was considered. It was concluded that the separation is not possible in the absence of co-existing sodium salt in the aqueous phase; an effective masking agent for strontium(II) is necessary under such conditions. On the other hand, the separation is good in the presence of a sodium salt in the aqueous phase and the separation improves as the extractant concentration decreases. (author)

  18. MODELING OF THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION EQUILIBRIUM OF URANIUM (VI SULFATE WITH ALAMINE 336

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. C. Avelar

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the solvent extraction of uranium from sulfate acid solutions using Alamine 336 as an extractant dissolved in commercial kerosene Exxsol D-100 and 5% v/v of tridecanol as a modifying agent at room temperature (25±2 ºC and an aqueous/organic volumetric ratio of unity. Experiments were carried out at typical concentration levels like those used at the uranium plant of INB (Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil, Brazil. Data fitting using the slope analysis method revealed that uranium is extracted by Alamine 336 as UO2SO4 and UO2(SO422- species, forming (R3NH+2UO2(SO422- in the organic phase; the extraction of the species UO2(SO434- seems improbable for the operating conditions investigated. The extraction of uranium is significantly reduced when the concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions in the aqueous phase are increased.

  19. Enrichment of copper and recycling of cyanide from copper-cyanide waste by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Teng-yue; Liu, Kui-ren; Han, Qing; Xu, Bin-shi

    2016-11-01

    The enrichment of copper from copper-cyanide wastewater by solvent extraction was investigated using a quaternary ammonium salt as an extractant. The influences of important parameters, e.g., organic-phase components, aqueous pH values, temperature, inorganic anion impurities, CN/Cu molar ratio, and stripping reagents, were examined systematically, and the optimal conditions were determined. The results indicated that copper was effectively concentrated from low-concentration solutions using Aliquat 336 and that the extraction efficiency increased linearly with increasing temperature. The aqueous pH value and concentrations of inorganic anion impurities only weakly affected the extraction process when varied in appropriate ranges. The CN/Cu molar ratio affected the extraction efficiency by changing the distribution of copper-cyanide complexes. The difference in gold leaching efficiency between using raffinate and fresh water was negligible.

  20. The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Martínez, María Eugenia; Soto, Carmen; Poirrier, Paola; Perez-Correa, Jose R; Vergara-Salinas, Jose R; Zúñiga, María Elvira

    2013-08-15

    We evaluate the total phenolic compounds (TPC) content and the antioxidant activity (AA) of extracts obtained from ground fresh thyme (FT) and depleted thyme (DT), a by-product of the process of essential oil extraction. In addition, enzymatic treatments were evaluated to improve the extraction yields of polyphenolic compounds from thyme. Extractions were performed using several solvents as methanol, ethanol, and water. Enzymes were applied prior to extraction or during the extraction process. The best results were obtained using a mixture of methanol and water, resulting in 2790 and 220 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L of TPC for FT and DT, respectively. A similar result was observed for AA. With regard to enzymatic treatment, application of Grindamyl CA 150 enzyme as a pre-treatment resulted in the production of an extract from DT with 614 mg TE (trolox equivalent)/L of AA, 70% more than the control, and an AA of 621 mg TE/L (74% more than the control sample) was obtained using Grindamyl CA 150 during the extraction process. These results suggest that enzymatic treatment is an interesting alternative for producing antioxidant extracts from DT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solvent optimization on Taxol extraction from Taxus baccata L., using HPLC and LC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sadeghi-aliabadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Taxol, a natural antitumor agent, was first isolated from the extract of the bark of Taxus brevifolia Nutt., which is potentially a limited source for Taxol. In the search of an alternative source, optimum and cost benefit extracting solvents, various solvents with different percentage were utilized to extract Taxol from needles of Taxus baccata. "nMethods: One g of the dried needles of Taxus baccata, collected from Torkaman and Noor cities of Iran, was extracted with pure ethanol or acetone and 50% and 20% of ethanol or acetone in water. Solvents were evaporated to dryness and the residues were dissolved in 5 ml of methanol and filtered. To one ml of the filtrate was added 50 μl of cinamyl acetate as the internal standard and 20 μl of the resulting solution was subjected to the HPLC to determine the extraction efficiencies of tested solvents. Five μl of filtrate was also subjected to the LC-MS using water/acetonitrile (10/90 as mobile phase and applying positive electrospray ionization (ESI to identify the authenticity of Taxol. "nResults: Results of this study indicated that Taxol extraction efficiency was enhanced as the percentage of ethanol or acetone was increased. HPLC analysis showed that Taxol could be quantified by UV detection using standard curve. The standard curve covering the concentration ranges of 7.8 - 500 μg/ml was linear (r2= 0.9992 and CV% ranged from 0.52 to 15.36. LC-MS analysis using ESI in positive-ion mode confirmed the authenticity of Taxol (m/z 854; M+H, as well as some adduct ions such as M+Na (m/z 876, M+K (m/z 892 and M+CH3CN+H2O (m/z 913. "nConclusions: The results suggest that 100% acetone is the best solvent for the extraction of Taxol from Taxus baccata needles.

  2. Response Surface Optimization of Rotenone Using Natural Alcohol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvent as Additive in the Extraction Medium Cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Shafiqa Othman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone is a biopesticide with an amazing effect on aquatic life and insect pests. In Asia, it can be isolated from Derris species roots (Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis. The previous study revealed the comparable efficiency of alcohol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES in extracting a high yield of rotenone (isoflavonoid to binary ionic liquid solvent system ([BMIM]OTf and organic solvent (acetone. Therefore, this study intends to analyze the optimum parameters (solvent ratio, extraction time, and agitation rate in extracting the highest yield of rotenone extract at a much lower cost and in a more environmental friendly method by using response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD. By using RSM, linear polynomial equations were obtained for predicting the concentration and yield of rotenone extracted. The verification experiment confirmed the validity of both of the predicted models. The results revealed that the optimum conditions for solvent ratio, extraction time, and agitation rate were 2 : 8 (DES : acetonitrile, 19.34 hours, and 199.32 rpm, respectively. At the optimum condition of the rotenone extraction process using DES binary solvent system, this resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in a rotenone concentration of 0.49 ± 0.07 mg/ml and yield of 0.35 ± 0.06 (%, w/w as compared to the control extract (acetonitrile only. In fact, the rotenone concentration and yield were significantly influenced by binary solvent ratio and extraction time (P<0.05 but not by means of agitation rate. For that reason, the optimal extraction condition using alcohol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES as a green additive in the extraction medium cocktail has increased the potential of enhancing the rotenone concentration and yield extracted.

  3. Optimization of deep eutectic solvent-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijin; Wang, Maoshan

    2017-02-01

    In this study, deep eutectic solvents were proposed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Dioscorea opposita Thunb. Several deep eutectic solvents were prepared for the extraction of polysaccharides, among which the deep eutectic solvent composed of choline chloride and 1,4-butanediol was proved to be suitable for the extraction. Based on the screening of single-factor experiment design and orthogonal experiment design, three experimental factors were optimized for the Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology, which gave the optimal extraction conditions: water content of 32.89%(v/v), extraction temperature of 94.00°C, and the extraction time of 44.74min. The optimal extraction conditions could supply higher extraction yield than those of hot water extraction and water-based ultrasound-assisted extraction. Therefore, deep eutectic solvents were an excellent extraction solvent alternative to the extraction of polysaccharides from sample matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional amino acid ionic liquids as solvent and selector in chiral extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fei; Zhang, Qianli; Ren, Dandan; Nie, Zhou; Liu, Qian; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2010-07-09

    Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) have received great attention due to their potentials in catalysis and separations. In this work, functional AAILs were used as solvent and selector in chiral liquid–liquid extraction for the first time. The AAILs have shown distinct enantioselectivity in amino acid extraction. Using these functional AAILs as acceptor phase and ethylacetate as donor phase, more L-enantiomer of amino acid was extracted into the ionic liquid phase than that of D-enantiomer. The influencing factors, including AAILs structure, copper ion concentration, organic phase and amino acid concentration, were investigated. We found that the enantioselective enrichment of racemic amino acids was achieved through a chiral ligand-exchange mechanism. The enantioselectivity of single-step extraction was up to enantiomeric excess value of 50.6%. Moreover, the functional AAILs were found to be efficient extraction solvents for amino acids. The logarithm of distribution coefficient for L-Phe was in the range of 3.4–3.6 in the ionic liquid–ethylacetate two-phase system. This liquid–liquid extraction approach may extend the application of ionic liquids in chiral separations.

  5. A computer aided solvent extraction process design in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, S.E.; Purandare, H.D.; Lawande, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous and conceptual design is attempted of the first step of flowsheet formulation for solvent extraction process for fuel reprocessing plant. The design incorporates three cycles of extraction contractors; the first optimised to maximise Pu recovery while the second and third cycles to maximise fission product decontaminations. There are three basic types of extraction steps in these different cycles requiring painstaking design, namely, extraction-scrub, Pu strip-scrub and simple strip. The extraction system to start with is: U nitrate - Pu nitrate - fission product nitrates - nitric acid - tri-butyl phosphate/diluent. With suitable simplifying assumptions and adopting the concept of discrete equilibrium stagewise operation, simple X-Y operating diagrams could be used. The calculations could therefore be done using McCabe Thiele graphical method. The procedure adopted was to consider the macro-component of U to obtain initial optimum flow sheet details and the number of theoretical stages for each contactor and later to incorporate the behaviour of Pu and fission products. A computer program was written to calculate, for different combinations of nitric acid salting strengths, (1) the U concentration profiles along the contractors and (2) the number of stages needed for various different solvent and aqueous phase flow ratios, using experimentally obtained equilibrium data. The method used is indicated and some samples of results obtained for three types of extraction-scrub operation studied are given. These simplified calculations provided the necessary insight into these difficult operations. (auth.)

  6. Recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The OPPA process offers three potential advantages over the DEPA-TOPO process. The OPPA extractant is much less expensive and has a higher extraction power for uranium than the DEPA-TOPO solvent. In addition it extracts U(IV), the prevailing oxidation state of uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid and this eliminates the liquor oxidation step required in the DEPA-TOPO process. However, the DEPA-TOPO solvent is known to be extremely stable and this process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-plant scale at phosphate plants. It is understood that several companies are planning to commercialize this process in the near future. On the other hand, the potentially more attractive OPPA process has not been proven in a pilot plant operation and some questions about the solubility and stability of the OPPA need to be answered. Because of the wide spread interest in this process, a program was started in cooperation with Mobil and Allied Chemical companies to study this extractant, to identify and isolate the material that solubilizes the mono- and diacids, and to determine the optimum concentration and ratios for uranium extraction. In addition, a long-term cyclic test is planned to better define solubility losses and stability of the extractant. Consideration will also be given to improving the recovery of uranium lost to the gypsum during calcination. 12 figures

  7. Application of fast solvent extraction processes to studies of exotic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierczinski, B.; Malmbeck, R.; Skarnemark, G.; Alstad, J.; Omtvedt, J.P.; Eberhardt, K.; Kratz, J.V.; Mendel, M.; Naehler, A.; Trautmann, N.; Wiehl, N.

    1998-01-01

    Fast solvent extraction is a chemical separation method, which can be applied to study exotic nuclides. Since about 1970 the SISAK technique, which is an on-line method based on multi-stage solvent extraction separations, has been successfully used to investigate the nuclear properties of β-decaying nuclides with half-lives down to about one second. During the last decade it has become possible to produce transactinide elements in high enough yields to investigate their chemical properties on a one-atom-at-a-time scale. For this purpose it was necessary to improve and change the detection part of the SISAK system in order to be capable to detect spontaneously fissioning and α-decaying nuclides in a flowing organic solution. This technique is based on liquid scintillation counting with pulse-shape discrimination and pile-up rejection. (author)

  8. Solvent extraction of methane from simulated geopressured-geothermal fluids: sub-pilot test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

    1982-01-14

    The extraction of methane dissolved in 15 wt % sodium chloride solution at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi has been demonstrated using n-hexadecane as the solvent in a sub-pilot scale extraction column operated in a continuous, countercurrent flow mode. Greater than 90% recovery of methane was obtained with solvent/brine mass flow ratios in the range of .040 to .045. The height of an ideal stage in this experimental Elgin-type spray column is estimated to be 1.5 ft. Application of this process on actual geopressured fluids is technically feasible, and when combined with direct drive injection disposal is economically attractive. Design and operation of a methane saturated-brine supply system to provide simulated geopressured fluid continuously at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi are also described.

  9. Extraction of caffeine, chlorogenic acids and lipids from green coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and co-solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. A.de Azevedo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on experimental data on the extraction of caffeine, coffee oil and chlorogenic acids from green coffee beans using pure supercritical CO2 and supercritical CO2 modified with ethanol (5% w/w and isopropyl alcohol (5% w/w at 50 and 60ºC and 15.2 24.8 e 35.2 MPa. In this study extraction kinetics were obtained for all assays i.e. samples were collected at several time intervals for each solvent and mixed solvent. When pure CO2 and CO2-ethanol mixed solvent were used, an increase in pressure resulted in an increase in the amount of oil extracted. When CO2 was modified with isopropyl alcohol, the amount of coffee oil extracted also increased with pressure. Caffeine extraction initially increased and subsequently decreased with pressure. Chlorogenic acids were only extracted when isopropyl alcohol was used as a co-solvent. An increase in extraction temperature resulted in a decrease of caffeine and oil extraction (retrograde condensation when only CO2 was used as solvent. With the use of co-solvent this retrograde behavior was no longer observed and the increase in temperature resulted in the increase in the extracted amounts of caffeine, coffee oil and chlorogenic acids.

  10. Continuous solvent extraction feed adjustment for HTGR fuel reprocessing. Interim development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin, L.J.

    1978-06-01

    The two-cycle Acid-Thorex solvent extraction process requires that the feed stream to each thorium cycle be processed to reduce its nitric acid concentration (feed adjustment). This interim development report presents the results of bench-scale and pilot-plant-scale feed adjustment experiments using a continuous mode of operation. An examination of formic acid denitration and fluoride ion volatilization is also included

  11. Characterization of molybdenum interfacial crud in a uranium mill that employs tertiary-amine solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.; McDowell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    In the present work, samples of a molybdenum-caused green gummy interfacial crud from an operating western US uranium mill have been physically and chemically examined. Formaton of cruds of this description has been a long-standing problem in the use of tertiary amine solvent extraction for the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (Amex Process). The crud is essentially an organic-continuous dispersion containing about 10 wt % aqueous droplets and about 37 wt % greenish-yellow crystalline solids suspended in kerosene-amine process solvent. The greenish-yellow crystals were found to be a previously unknown double salt of tertiary amine molybdophosphate with three tertiary amine chlorides having the empirical formula (R 3 NH) 3 [PMo 12 O 40 ].3(R 3 NH)Cl. To confirm the identification of the compound, a pure trioctylamine (TOA) analog was synthesized. In laboratory extraction experiments, it was demonstrated that organic-soluble amine molydophosphate forms slowly upon contact of TOA solvent with dilute sulfuric acid solutions containing low concentrations of molybdate and phosphate. If the organic solutions of amine molybdophosphate were then contacted with aqueous NaCl solutions, a greenish-yellow precipitate of (TOAH) 3 [PMo 12 O 40 ].3(TOAH)Cl formed at the interface. The proposed mechanism for the formation of the crud under process conditions involves build up of molybdenum in the solvent, followed by reaction with extracted phosphate to give dissolved amine molybdophosphate. The amine molybdophosphate then co-crystallizes with amine chloride, formed during the stripping cycle, to give the insoluble double salt, which precipitates as a layer of small particles at the interface. The proposed solution to the problem is the use of branched-chain, instead of straight-chain, tertiary amine extractants under the expectation that branching would increase the solubility of the double salt. 2 figures, 5 tables

  12. Extraction of oil from pequi fruit (Caryocar Brasiliense, Camb. using several solvents and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniassi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oil extraction process from pequi pulp using different solvents (hexane, acetone and ethyl alcohol and their mixtures was investigated, using a simplex-centroid design. The extraction occurred at 50°C, under stirring (22 Hz, for 16 hours. The solid-liquid ratio used was 1:10 (w/w. Higher yield values were obtained for extractions with acetone and hexane, especially their mixtures with ethanol. Iodine value, saponification value and refractive index did not differ significantly among the treatments. A higher acid value was obtained for the extraction with ethyl alcohol. Higher carotenoid contents were obtained for the extraction with acetone and ethyl alcohol as pure solvents. The fatty acid profile in the oil fraction of the extracts did not vary among the different types of solvents and their mixtures.En este trabajo fue estudiado el proceso de extracción de aceite de la pulpa de pequi utilizando diferentes disolventes (n-hexano, acetona y etanol y sus mezclas, empleando diseño central simplex. Las extracciones fueron realizadas a 50°C, durante 16 horas de agitación (22 Hz. La proporción sólido:líquido empleada fue 1:10 (p/p. Los mayores rendimientos fueron obtenidos para las extracciones con acetona y con hexano, especialmente cuando fueron mezclados con etanol. El índice de yodo, el índice de saponificación y el índice de refracción no difirieron significativamente entre los tratamientos. Los mayores valores de acidez se obtuvieron en la extracción con etanol. Los mayores contenidos en carotenoides se obtuvieron en las extracciones con acetona y etanol como disolventes puros. El perfil de los ácidos grasos en las fracciones de aceite de los extractos no presentó variación entre los diferentes tipos de disolventes y sus mezclas.

  13. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics.

  14. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  15. Separation of Metal lons by Solvent Extraction with Organophosphorus Acid Compounds and Its Industrial Application

    OpenAIRE

    姚,秉華; 永長,幸雄; Yao,BINGHUA; NAGAOSA,Yukio

    1997-01-01

    Solvent extraction of iron(Ⅲ), zinc(Ⅱ), copper(Ⅱ),cadmium(Ⅱ),manganese(Ⅱ), cobalt(Ⅱ), magnesium(Ⅱ), and nickel(Ⅱ) from aqueous sufate media has been studied with organophosphorus acid compounds as extractants. The pH 1/2 va1ues for all metal ions described above have been discussed in tenns of the separatione : sfficiency between nickel(Ⅱ) and the other metal ions. As a practical application,the purification of unrefined nickel(Ⅱ) sulfate solution,containing the other metal ions as impurities...

  16. The solvent extraction of carrier-free 90Y from 90Sr with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, J.T.; Lo, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple solvent extraction method has been developed for the separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr. Crown ether dissolved in chloroform was used as a selective reagent and organic picrate anion was chosen as a counter ion. The effect of various factors on the extraction equilibrium constant of strontium log K ex = 9.15 was obtained from the study of the distribution coefficient versus to crown ether concentration. The separation method was simple, resulted high purity (>99.9%) and quantitative yield, and took less than half an hour. (author) 27 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  18. Selective and Efficient Solvent Extraction of Copper(II Ions from Chloride Solutions by Oxime Extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kaboli Tanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxime extractants 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde oxime (HL1 and 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzaldehyde oxime (HL2 were synthesized and characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. Suitable lipophilic nature of the prepared extractants allowed examining the ability of these molecules for extraction-separation of copper from its mixture with normally associated metal ions by performing competitive extraction experiments of Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Pb(II ions from chloride solutions. Both ligands transfer selectively the copper ions into dichloromethane by a cation exchange mechanism. Conventional log-log analysis and isotherm curves showed that Cu(II ions are extracted as the complexes with 1:2 metal to ligand ratio by both extractants. Verification of the effect of the organic diluent used in the extraction of copper ions by HL1 and HL2 demonstrated that the extraction efficiency varies as: dichloromethane ~ dichloroethane > toluene > xylene > ethylacetate. Time dependency investigation of the extraction processes revealed that the kinetics of the extraction of copper by HL2 is more rapid than that of HL1. The application of the ligands for extraction-separation of copper ions from leach solutions of cobalt and nickel-cadmium filter-cakes of a zinc production plants was evaluated.

  19. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  20. A solvent proceed for the extraction of the irradiate uranium and plutonium in the reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.; Regnaut, P.; Prevot, I.

    1955-01-01

    Description of the conditions of plutonium, fission products and of uranium separation by selective extraction of the nitrates by organic solvent, containing a simultaneous extraction of plutonium and uranium, followed by a plutonium re-extraction after reduction, and an uranium re-extraction. The rates of decontamination being insufficient in this first stage, we also describes the processes of decontamination permitting separately to get the rates wanted for uranium and plutonium. Finally, we describes the beginning of the operation that consists in a nitric dissolution of the active uranium while capturing the products of gaseous fission, as well as the final concentration of the products of fission in a concentrated solution. (authors) [fr

  1. The extraction of essential oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Putri, D. K.; Kusuma, H. S.; E Syahputra, M.; Parasandi, D.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of the important essential oil-producing plant, contributes more than 50% of total exports of Indonesia’s essential oil. However, the extraction of patchouli oil that has been done in Indonesia is generally still used conventional methods that require enormous amount of energy, high solvent usage, and long time of extraction. Therefore, in this study, patchouli oil extraction was carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Based on this research, it is known that the extraction of patchouli oil using microwave hydrodistillation method with longer extraction time (240 min) only produced patchouli oil’s yield 1.2 times greater than solvent-free microwave extraction method which require faster extraction time (120 min). Otherwise the analysis of electric consumption and the environmental impact, the solvent-free microwave extraction method showed a smaller amount when compared with microwave hydrodistillation method. It is conclude that the use of solvent-free microwave extraction method for patchouli oil extraction is suitably method as a new green technique.

  2. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohdaly, Adel A A; Sarhan, Mohamed A; Smetanska, Iryna; Mahmoud, Awad

    2010-01-30

    Growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and screening of raw materials to identify new antioxidants. The food-processing industry generates substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. In this study the antioxidant properties and total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of three industrial by-products, sugar beet pulp, sesame cake and potato peel, extracted with various solvents were examined. Since different antioxidant compounds have different mechanisms of action, several methods were used to assess the antioxidant efficacy of extracts. Among the six solvents tested, methanol gave the highest extract yield of potato peel and sugar beet pulp, while diethyl ether gave the highest extract yield of sesame cake. Methanol exhibited the highest extraction ability for phenolic compounds, with total phenolics amounting to 2.91, 1.79 and 0.81 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight in potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts respectively, and also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in the three assays used. All three methods proved that potato peel extract had the highest antioxidant activity owing to its high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. On the basis of the results obtained, potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts could serve as natural antioxidants owing to their significant antioxidant activity. Therefore they could be used as preservative ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. [Recovery of copper from sewage sludge by bioleaching-solvent extraction-electrodeposition process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Liang, Jian-Ru

    2009-11-01

    Sewage sludge contains not only a lot of organic matter and plant nutrients, but also some harmful metals. Recovery of sludge-born metals for sewage sludge of high metal content is very important for safe reutilization of sewage sludge and for economic consideration. Here, we reported a recovery technique for sludge-born copper using bioleaching-solvent extraction-electrodeposition (L-SX-EW) process through batch experiments. The tested sludge containing 7 432 mg/kg Cu was collected from Suzhou Wastewater Treatment Plant located in industrial zone of Suzhou City, Jiangsu, China. The results showed that more than 90% of sludge-born Cu could be solubilized into aqueous phase within 72 h through bioleaching process. Furthermore, soluble Cu in the form of Cu2+ in bioleached sludge filtrate could be concentrated into organic phase through the extracting operation using 2% solvent extractant M5640 under the optimized condition of 1/3 phase ratio (O/A) and pH 2.0, in which Cu2+ extraction efficiency reached more than 95%, whereas the co-existing soluble iron extraction efficiency was less than 10%. Stripping results showed that the Stripping rate of Cu was 80.07% when the phase ratio (O/A) was 2/1 using 1.5 mol/L H2SO4 as stripping solvent. After the concentrated Cu2+ in acidic aqueous phase was electrolyzed for 6 h at 2.1 V bath voltage and 55 degrees C, more than 90% of the Cu2+ recovery efficiency was achieved in the form of elemental Cu powder. There wasn't any wastewater generation in this process. Therefore, this L-SX-EW technique exhibited a potential application for the recovery of metal for heavy metal-loaded sludge.

  4. Selection of optimum ionic liquid solvents for flavonoid and phenolic acids extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N. R. A.; Yunus, N. A.; Mustaffa, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    Phytochemicals are important in improving human health with their functions as antioxidants, antimicrobials and anticancer agents. However, the quality of phytochemicals extract relies on the efficiency of extraction process. Ionic liquids (ILs) have become a research phenomenal as extraction solvent due to their unique properties such as unlimited range of ILs, non-volatile, strongly solvating and may become either polarity. In phytochemical extraction, the determination of the best solvent that can extract highest yield of solute (phytochemical) is very important. Therefore, this study is conducted to determine the best IL solvent to extract flavonoids and phenolic acids through a property prediction modeling approach. ILs were selected from the imidazolium-based anion for alkyl chains ranging from ethyl > octyl and cations consisting of Br, Cl, [PF6], BF4], [H2PO4], [SO4], [CF3SO3], [TF2N] and [HSO4]. This work are divided into several stages. In Stage 1, a Microsoft Excel-based database containing available solubility parameter values of phytochemicals and ILs including its prediction models and their parameters has been established. The database also includes available solubility data of phytochemicals in IL, and activity coefficient models, for solid-liquid phase equilibrium (SLE) calculations. In Stage 2, the solubility parameter values of the flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin) and phenolic acids (e.g. gallic acid and caffeic acid) are determined either directly from database or predicted using Stefanis and Marrero-Gani group contribution model for the phytochemicals. A cation-anion contribution model is used for IL. In Stage 3, the amount of phytochemicals extracted can be determined by using SLE relationship involving UNIFAC-IL model. For missing parameters (UNIFAC-IL), they are regressed using available solubility data. Finally, in Stage 4, the solvent candidates are ranked and five ILs, ([OMIM] [TF2N], [HeMIM] [TF2N], [HMIM] [TF2N

  5. Comparison of membrane assisted solvent extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, and solid phase microextraction in analysis of tetramine in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Lowri S; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2009-04-01

    Three environmentally friendly extraction techniques, membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), were compared for the direct analysis of the highly toxic rodenticide tetramine in food. The optimized MASE method was applied to seven foods fortified with tetramine and compared to previously reported SBSE and HS-SPME results. Parameters such as the standard addition linearity (MASE (0.964-0.999), SBSE (0.966-0.999), HS-SPME (0.955-0.999)), recovery (MASE (12-86%), SBSE (36-130%), HS-SPME (50-200%)), reproducibility (MASE (3.0-30%), SBSE (4.4-9.6%), HS-SPME (1-12%)), and LOD (MASE (1.6-6.4 ng/g), SBSE (0.2-2.1 ng/g), HS-SPME (0.9-4.3 ng/g)) were compared.

  6. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaj Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction.

  7. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  8. Separation of Molybdenum from Acidic High-Phosphorus Tungsten Solution by Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongli; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2017-10-01

    A solvent-extraction process for deep separation of molybdenum from an acidic high-phosphate tungsten solution was developed using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the extractant and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a complexing agent. The common aqueous complexes of tungsten and molybdenum (PMoxW12-xO40 3-, x = 0-12) are depolymerized to {PO4[Mo(O)2(O-O)]4}3- and {PO4[W(O)2(O-O)]4}3- by H2O2. The former can be preferentially extracted by TBP. The extractant concentration, phase contact time, H2O2 dosage, and H2SO4 concentration were optimized. By employing 80% by volume TBP, O:A = 1:1, 1.0 mol/L H2SO4, 1.0 mol/L H3PO4, a contact time of 2 min, and a molar ratio of H2O2/(W + Mo) equal to 1.5, 60.2% molybdenum was extracted in a single stage, while limiting tungsten co-extraction to 3.2%. An extraction isotherm indicated that the raffinate could be reduced to <0.1 g/L Mo in six stages of continuous counter-current extraction.

  9. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  10. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Claire M.; Ellwood, Michael J.; Wille, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new sample preparation method for seawater copper isotopic analysis (δ 65 Cu). •Solvent-extraction was used to pre-concentrate metals from seawater samples. •Anion-exchange was used to purify copper from the metal-rich extract. •δ 65 Cu was measured in the north Tasman Sea. •Seawater δ 65 Cu may be linked to marine biological activity. -- Abstract: Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater

  11. Removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from contaminated soils by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladanowski, C.; Petti, L.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted using hexane for the removal of light crude oil from contaminated sand, peat, and clay soils. The bench-scale process tested consists of three major steps: solvent washing, settling/decantation/filtration of extract, and solvent recycle. The results indicate that the use of solvent extraction for cleanup of oil-contaminated soils is an effective technology at the bench-scale level. Using a 1,000 g batch system, extremely high oil removal efficiencies were obtained from contaminated sand (up to 98.9%) and peat soil (up to 83.9%). The final oil contaminant concentration for sand varied between 0.06% and 0.39%, while that for peat soil varied between 1.52% and 5.21%. The guidelines for the decommissioning and cleanup of sites in Ontario for oil and grease (1 wt %) were met in all instances for the treated sand. Hexane recovery from diesel-contaminated sand and peat soil experiments was ca 81% and 67% respectively. 4 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Treatment of phenol in synthetic saline wastewater by solvent extraction and two-phase membrane biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Ruey-Shin; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Ya-Han

    2009-05-15

    Phenol in synthetic saline (100gL(-1) NaCl) and acidic (pH 3) wastewater was treated by a hybrid solvent extraction and two-phase membrane biodegradation process at 30 degrees C. Kerosene was adopted to be the organic solvent because it was biocompatible and had a suitable partition coefficient for phenol. Phenol in water was first extracted by kerosene in a batch stirred vessel and the loaded solvent was passed through the lumen of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow-fiber membrane contactor; in the meantime, Pseudomonas putida BCRC 14365 in mineral salt medium was flowed across the shell, to which tetrasodium phyophosphate (1gL(-1)) was added as a dispersing agent. The effect of the initial phenol level in wastewater (110-2400mgL(-1)) on phenol removal and cell growth was experimentally studied. At a cell concentration of 0.023gL(-1), it was shown that the removal of phenol from saline wastewater was more efficient at a level of 2000mgL(-1) when 0.02-m(2) membrane module was used. The effects of bigger membrane module size (0.19m(2) area) and higher initial cell concentration (0.092-0.23gL(-1)) on the performance of such a hybrid process for the treatment of higher-level phenol in saline wastewater was also evaluated and discussed.

  13. Bifunctionalized ordered mesoporous organosilica synthesized in deep eutectic solvent for extraction of triazine herbicides from watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zan; Jia, Jun; Wang, Mingwei; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Fengxia

    2017-12-22

    A C 8 -and-amino-bifunctionalized ordered mesoporous organosilica (C 8 -AMS) was prepared in a deep eutectic solvent-a green solvent-that was used as the reaction medium for this procedure instead of organic solvents or other catalyst for the first time. This method provided a nontoxic way for C 8 grafting and obtaining an ordered mesoporous organosilica material with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Besides advantages such as its large surface area, regular and uniform pore size, and hydrothermal stability, the obtained bifunctionalized C 8 -AMS also have two main functional groups in the obtained structure, C 8 and amino, which enriched the adsorption mechanism of the material and as a result improved the adsorption selectivity of C 8 -AMS. Its performance as an adsorbent was estimated in extracting trace triazine herbicides from watermelon using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The proposed method provided satisfactory features in terms of linearity (0.01-2.00μgg -1 ), limits of detection (2.9-5.1ngg -1 ), accuracy (recovery: 85.7-101.7%), and precision (intra-day and inter-day RSDs: 1.68-2.60% and 3.05-4.01%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solvent-extraction methods applied to the chemical analysis of uranium. III. Study of the extraction with inert solvents; Metodos de extraccion con disolventes aplicados al analisis quimico del uranio. III. Estudio de la extraccion con disolvente inertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.

    1964-07-01

    The extraction of uranium on the trace level is studied by using tributylphosphate as active agent under conditions aiming the attainment of quantitative extraction by means of a single step process using a number of salting-out agents and keeping inside the general lines as reported in two precedent papers. Two inert solvents were investigated, benzene and cyclohexane, which allowed to derive the corresponding empirical equations describing the extraction process and the results obtained were compared with those previously reported for solvents which, like ethyl acetate and methylisobuthylketone, favour to a more or less extend the extraction of uranium. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 - SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of

  16. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  17. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Breil, Cassandra; Meullemiestre, Alice; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyze...

  18. The use of solvent extraction in the nuclear fuel cycle, forty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, M.

    1990-01-01

    The high degree of purity required for the fissile and fertile elements used as fuels in nuclear reactors has made solvent extraction the choice as the purification method in the different steps of the fuel cycle. This technique, owing to its specificity, and its adaptability both to continuous multistage processes and to remote control, has served to achieve the requisite purities with safe, reliable operation. A review of the different steps of the cycle including uranium and thorium production, uranium enrichment, reprocessing, and the recovery of transuranics, highlights the diversity of the solvents used and the improvements made to the processes and the equipment. According to the different authors, this technique is capable of meeting future needs, aimed to reduce the harmful effects associated with the nuclear fuel cycle to the lowest possible levels

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  20. Solvent Extraction: Structure of the Liquid-Liquid Interface Containing a Diamide Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoppola, Ernesto [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble France; Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze France; Watkins, Erik B. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble France; Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Campbell, Richard A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble France; Konovalov, Oleg [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38430 Grenoble France; Girard, Luc [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze France; Dufrêche, Jean-Francois [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze France; Ferru, Geoffroy [Argonne National Labororatory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Fragneto, Giovanna [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble France; Diat, Olivier [Institut de Chimie Séparative de Marcoule, UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM/Université Montpellier, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze France

    2016-06-20

    Knowledge of the (supra)molecular structure of an interface that contains amphiphilic ligand molecules is necessary for a full understanding of ion transfer during solvent extraction. Even if molecular dynamics already yield some insight in the molecular configurations in solution, hardly any experimental data giving access to distributions of both extractant molecules and ions at the liquid–liquid interface exist. Here, the combined application of X-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements represents a key milestone in the deduction of the interfacial structure and potential with respect to two different lipophilic ligands. Indeed, we show for the first time that hard trivalent cations can be repelled or attracted by the extractant-enriched interface according to the nature of the ligand.

  1. A solvent extraction study of molybdenum chloride and molybdenum thiocyanate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, L.P.; Lillie, E.G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of reducing agents on molybdenum(VI) solutions in hydrochloric acid was studied by a solvent extraction technique to elucidate the composition of the colored molybdenum thiocyanate complex. Neither copper(I) chloride nor ascorbic acid have any effect on the extraction of MoO2Cl2; it is inferred that tin(II) chloride reduces Mo(VI) stepwise to a polynuclear Mo(V)??Mo(VI) complex and then to Mo(V). The colored thiocyanate complex produced by copper(I) and by ascorbic acid differs only slightly in extraction characteristics from the uncolored Mo(VI) complex. It is suggested that the color may be produced by an isomerization reaction of MoO2(SCN)2, and thus that the colored species may be a hexavalent rather than pentavalent molybdenum complex. ?? 1974.

  2. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, S.

    1986-09-01

    Purification of phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines is investigated. Extraction of cadmium is extensively examined regarding the importance of the aqueous phase, the diluent and the amine. The solubility of tri-n-octyl-amine is determined in water and phosphoric acid solutions. Properties of valuable constituent such as uranium and yttrium are screened. Modelling of the system is performed by adapting Bromley's model for electrolytes to the different dissociation/association equilibria in the aqueous phase. In the organic phase simple expressions are used for the non-ideal behaviour. Amine-acid equilibria are investigated for all acids present in industrial phosphoric acid. New extraction constants are calculated for phosphoric and hydro- fluosilic acid. Calculations are compared with experiments both from binary and multicomponent acid mixtures

  3. Simulated PUREX Solvent Extraction Experiments Using {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Np and {sup 85}Sr Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju hyeong; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Tae hoon; Park, Hyoung gyu; Kim, Jisu [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyuk jin [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chan ki; Kang, Do kyu; Jeong, Hyeon jun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    PUREX (plutonium uranium redox extraction) is an aqueous reprocessing method that separates U from spent nuclear fuel using a solvent extraction process. In solvent extraction process, predicting the behavior of U, MA (minor actinides) and TRU (transuranic elements) is important, because efficiency of U recovery is determined by their combined behavior. In this study, PUREX-simulated aqueous solution was prepared by varying [HNO{sub 3}] as 0.1 M, 1 M, and 5 M, to measure U extraction behavior. It is hard to determine the optimum nitric acid concentration for extraction of only uranium because the mechanism is very complicated. It can’t be calculated by mathematics, but, in this experiment, only 3 points of nitric acid concentration exist. Anyway, the optimum point is at 0.5 M of nitric acid. Therefore, estimation of the optimum point is not correct. If more accurate estimation should be needed, more experiments are needed. How to increase the separation efficiency of uranium and plutonium is very important for PUREX process. However, in real spent nuclear fuel, there are many nuclides, about 50 elements of FPs and MAs. The mechanism of solvent extraction is more complicated, as elements participated in reaction are increased. Therefore, understanding the behaviors of FPs and MAs during the solvent extraction is very important. The highest separation efficiency can be obtained and designed, when we make the appropriate modeling of the solvent extraction process in the view of engineering.

  4. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  5. Comparison of microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismanto, A. W.; Kusuma, H. S.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    The comparison of solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and microwave hydrodistillation (MHD) in the extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. was examined. Dry cajuput leaves were used in this study. The purpose of this study is also to determine optimal condition (microwave power). The relative electric consumption of SFME and MHD methods are both showing 0,1627 kWh/g and 0,3279 kWh/g. The results showed that solvent-free microwave extraction methods able to reduce energy consumption and can be regarded as a green technique for extraction of cajuput oil.

  6. Solvent Extraction and QSPR of Catecholamines with a Bis(2-ethlhexyl) Hydrogen Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, Kazuharu.; Fujimoto, Yuko.; Ota, Keisuke.; Inoue, Katsutoshi. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    In order to develop an effective separation recess for catecholamine (CA), a basic investigation on solvent extraction of dopamine (DA), adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline (NA) from hydrochloric acid solution and their stripping is conducted at 30 degree C employing bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA) in chloroform, n-hexane and toluene as the organic diluents. From the dependencies of the distribution ratios on the concentrations of reactant species, i.e. CA, hydrogen ion and D2EHPA, it is elucidated that CA (RNH{sub 2}) is extracted with D2EHPA (HR`) according to the ion exchange mechanism, as the complex type, RNH{sub 3}R` (HR`){sub 3}, and the equilibrium constants (K{sub ex,CA}) for the extraction reactions are also evaluated. The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) of K{sub ex,CA} values for each organic diluent is discussed using molecular modeling with semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations considering the solvent effect. (author)

  7. Removal of endotoxins from bacteriophage preparations by extraction with organic solvents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Szermer-Olearnik

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin, pyrogen constitutes a very troubling contaminant of crude phage lysates produced in Gram-negative bacteria. Toxicity of LPS depends on the strong innate immunity response including the cytokines. Therefore, its removal is important for bacteriophage applications. In this paper, we present a procedure for extractive removal of endotoxin from bacteriophage preparations with water immiscible solvents (1-octanol or 1-butanol. During extraction most of the phage lytic activity is retained in the aqueous phase, while endotoxin accumulates in the organic solvent. The levels of endotoxin (expressed as endotoxin units, EU in the aqueous bacteriophage-containing fraction determined by limulus amebocyte lysate or EndoLISA assay were exceptionally low. While the initial endotoxin levels in the crude phage lysates ranged between 10(3 and 10(5 EU/ml the average level after organic extraction remaining in the aqueous fraction was 5.3 EU/ml. These values when related to phage titers decreased from 10(3-10(5 EU/10(9 PFU (plaque forming units down to an average of 2.8 EU/10(9 PFU. The purification procedure is scalable, efficient and applicable to all the bacteriophages tested: T4, HAP1 (E. coli and F8 (P. aeruginosa.

  8. Studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ojeka

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A method for free and strongly complexed cyanide measurement in river water was developed. Recovery tests from solution with and without river water, using various solvent combinations and background control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen cyanide in Kaduna River, Nigeria. The method enhanced the determination of undissociated hydrogen cyanide and the equilibria between hydrogen cyanide, cyanide ion and complex cyanides. A small portion of the hydrogen cyanide was extracted by equilibrating the sample with methylchloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, hexane and 2-octanol inclusions, respectively, in the solvent matrix with 2.5 M NaOH. The extracted hydrogen cyanide is transferred into tetrasodium pyrophosphate solution and determined colorimetrically. A total cyanide concentration of 0.03 mg/L in the river water and 0.40 mg/L in an effluent water sample, respectively, were obtained by the proposed method compared to 0.020 and 0.45 mg/L from the established diffusion method. The proposed method was sensitive and reproducible in the range of 0 to 5 mgL-1 of hydrogen cyanide with detectable limit of about 0.01 mgL-1.

  9. Solvent extraction of uranium: Towards good practice in design, operation and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, P.; Hall, S.; Ballestrin, S.; Hunt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium solvent extraction, USX has been applied commercially for recovery and concentration for over 60 years. Uranium in acidic liquor, which is prepared following ore leaching, solid/liquid separation and clarification, can be treated through a sequence of operations; extraction-scrubbing-stripping, to obtain purified liquor, and hence precipitation of marketable products. USX has dominated the primary uranium industry as the preferred technological route for recovery of uranium into converter grade yellowcake or Uranium Ore Concentrate. The practices of design and operation of USX facilities has found renewed interest as new mines are developed following decades of industry dormancy. Development of the Olympic Dam and Honeymoon operations in Australia has lead to innovative design and operation of pulsed columns technology in applications of solvent extraction. This article seeks to outline principles of design and operation from the practitioner’s perspective. The discussion also reviews historical developments of USX applications and highlights recent innovations. This review is hoped to provide guidance for technical personnel who wish to learn more about good practices that leads to reliable USX performance. (author)

  10. Determination of Iron Species by Combination of Solvent Assisted-Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dehghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive solvent assisted-dispersive solid phase extraction method was developed for the extraction of iron(II prior to its spectrophotometric determination. The Fe(II reacted with 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl-1,3,5-triazine, neutralized with sodium dodecyl sulfate and extracted onto the fine particles of benzophenone which were formed upon rapid injection of a mixture of benzophenone as the sorbent and ethanol as the disperser solvent into the aqueous solution. After phase separation, the sedimented phase containing the complex was dissolved in ethanol and the analyte concentration was determined by measuring its absorption at 594 nm. Total iron was determined after the reduction of Fe(III to Fe(II with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Under the optimized conditions, an enhancement factor of 32, the detection limit of 0.16 µg l-1, and the relative standard deviation of 1.9% (n = 6 at 20 µg l-1 concentration level of Fe(II were achieved. The method was successfully applied to the determination of iron species in water samples and total iron in infant dry formula milk, apple, rice, spinach and parsley samples.

  11. Dispersion-free solvent extraction of Cr(VI) from acidic solutions using hollow fiber contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Francisco J; Alonso, Manuel; Lopez, Félix A; Lopez-Delgado, Aurora; Padilla, Isabel

    2009-10-15

    The use of dispersión-free solvent extraction, through microporous hydrophobic membrane has been investigated. The hollow fiber contactor, with surface area of 1.4 m2 was used to extract Cr(VI) (0.005-0.12 g/L from aqueous sulphuric acidic media (pH 2.5-4.2 +/- 0.05). Several parameters such as extractant concentration, feed acidity and metal concentration in the initial aqueous solution were investigated. Results revealed that 15% v/v Cyanex 923 in Exxsol D-100 as organic phase and feed in the 2.5 pH range, gave optimum extraction (exceeding 95%) of Cr(VI) and it was possible to strip using 10 g/L hydrazine sulfate (also with recoveries exceeding 95%). In this step, Cr(VI) is immediately reduced to the less hazardous Cr(III) state. Results also showed that under the various experimental conditions, chromium(VI) extraction was rate-controlled by the interfacial reaction on the membrane surface. Typical overall mass transfer coefficients values are 4.2 x 10(-5) and 3.6 x 10(-6) cm/s for extraction and stripping operations, respectively.

  12. The Variation Test and Extraction Equipment to Optimum Asphalt by Using Gasoline Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardi, Fitridawati

    2017-12-01

    Based on the Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision, the extraction test should be carried out using the specimen from the loose asphalt mixture extracted from the back of the finisher bitumen machine. The purpose of this research is to find out the result of pretest and posttest extraction asphalt content. The Extraction test using two equipment, they are Soklet and Centrifuge. The specimens was used AMP, Asphalt Finisher and Core, which involved gasoline solvent. Based on the asphalt level extraction test results, the appropriate equipment was used centrifuge with the level accuracy as requirement of Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision and the level of ease used as equipment in the field study. The asphalt content obtained for AMP 5,51%, Asphalt Finisher5,46% and Core 5.34%. As for the socket asphalt content obtained is AMP 5.55%, Asphalt Finisher 5.50% and Core core 5. 41%. The extract test value of asphalt content decreased, so it can be formulated KA JMF

  13. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of various solvent extracts from Impatiens balsamina L. stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bu-Li; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Jin-Yin; Chen, Chu-Ying; Guo, Juan-Hua; Huang, Chang-Gan

    2012-06-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as the quantity of phenolic substances of Impatiens balsamina L. stem extracts obtained with various solvent were determined in this study. All of the extracts possessed moderate antioxidant potential in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was estimated using the cylinder-plate and agar dilution methods against four bacterial and six fungal strains. The extracts showed good antimicrobial activity especially antifungal activity against all of the tested microorganisms. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 2.88 to 13.63 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 0.98 to 7.87 mg quercetin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. The results presented here indicate that the I. balsamina stem extracts have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and are therefore a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Our work indicates that the I. balsamina stem may be a good candidate as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. It can be applied in food industry for preservation. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of various solvent systems for lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and its effects on primary metabolites of lipid-extracted biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Guldhe, Abhishek; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential to grow rapidly, synthesize, and accumulate lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The effects of solvent extraction of lipids on other metabolites such as proteins and carbohydrates in lipid-extracted algal (LEA) biomass are crucial aspects of algal biorefinery approach. An effective and economically feasible algae-based oil industry will depend on the selection of suitable solvent/s for lipid extraction, which has minimal effect on metabolites in lipid-extracted algae. In current study, six solvent systems were employed to extract lipids from dry and wet biomass of Scenedesmus obliquus. To explore the biorefinery concept, dichloromethane/methanol (2:1 v/v) was a suitable solvent for dry biomass; it gave 18.75% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 32.79% proteins, and 24.73% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. In the case of wet biomass, in order to exploit all three metabolites, isopropanol/hexane (2:1 v/v) is an appropriate solvent system which gave 7.8% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 20.97% proteins, and 22.87% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. Graphical abstract: Lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and biorefianry approach.

  16. Separation of Manganese and Cadmium from Cobalt Electrolyte Solution by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq Alam; Mirza Hossain; Hesam Hassan Nejad

    2012-01-01

    Impurity metals such as manganese and cadmium from high-tenor cobalt electrolyte solution were selectively removed by solvent extraction method using Co-D2EHPA after converting the functional group of D2EHPA with Co2+ ions. The process parameters such as pH, organic concentration, O/A ratio, kinetics etc. were investigated and the experiments were conducted by batch tests in the laboratory bench scale. Results showed that a significant amount of manganese and cadmium can be ext...

  17. Correction in the efficiency of uranium purification process by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    An uranium solvent extraction, of high purification, with full advantage of absorbed uranium in the begining of process, is described. Including a pulsed column, called correction column, the efficiency of whole process is increased, dispensing the recycling of uranium losses from leaching column. With the correction column the uranium losses go in continuity, for reextraction column, increasing the efficiency of process. The purified uranium is removed in the reextraction column in aqueous phase. The correction process can be carried out with full efficiency using pulsed columns or chemical mixer-settlers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  19. Initial studies of the recovery of Cu from MSWI fly ash leachates using solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlfeldt Fedje, Karin; Ekberg, Christian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Pires, Eduardo; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2012-10-01

    Large volumes of ash from combustion of municipal solid waste are produced and most of it is landfilled. As this type of ash contains significant amounts of metal compounds the landfilling strategy is not optimal when considered from a resource conservation perspective. A better situation would be created if metals were recovered from the ash. In the present study leaching and solvent extraction was applied for release and separation of copper from municipal solid waste combustion fly ashes. The results showed promising results with Cu yields of 50-95%. The yield was heavily dependent on the efficiency of the initial leaching of Cu from the ash.

  20. Impact of solvent extraction organics on adsorption and bioleaching of A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hualong, Yu; Xiaorong, Liu

    2017-04-01

    Copper solvent extraction entrained and dissoluted organics (SX organics) in the raffinate during SX operation can contaminated chalcopyrite ores and influence bioleaching efficiency by raffinate recycling. The adsorption and bioleaching of A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum with contaminated ores were investigated. The results showed that, A. ferrooxidans and L. ferriphilum cells could adsorb quickly on minerals, the adsorption rate on contaminated ores were 83% and 60%, respectively, larger than on uncontaminated ores. However, in the bioleaching by the two kinds of acid bacterias, contaminated ores presented a lower bioleaching efficiency.

  1. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  5. Extraction of DNA by magnetic ionic liquids: tunable solvents for rapid and selective DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Nacham, Omprakash; Yu, Honglian; Li, Tianhao; Yamsek, Melissa M; Ronning, Donald R; Anderson, Jared L

    2015-02-03

    DNA extraction represents a significant bottleneck in nucleic acid analysis. In this study, hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were synthesized and employed as solvents for the rapid and efficient extraction of DNA from aqueous solution. The DNA-enriched microdroplets were manipulated by application of a magnetic field. The three MILs examined in this study exhibited unique DNA extraction capabilities when applied toward a variety of DNA samples and matrices. High extraction efficiencies were obtained for smaller single-stranded and double-stranded DNA using the benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate(III) ([(C8)3BnN(+)][FeCl3Br(-)]) MIL, while the dicationic 1,12-di(3-hexadecylbenzimidazolium)dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide bromotrichloroferrate(III) ([(C16BnIM)2C12(2+)][NTf2(-), FeCl3Br(-)]) MIL produced higher extraction efficiencies for larger DNA molecules. The MIL-based method was also employed for the extraction of DNA from a complex matrix containing albumin, revealing a competitive extraction behavior for the trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([P6,6,6,14(+)][FeCl4(-)]) MIL in contrast to the [(C8)3BnN(+)][FeCl3Br(-)] MIL, which resulted in significantly less coextraction of albumin. The MIL-DNA method was employed for the extraction of plasmid DNA from bacterial cell lysate. DNA of sufficient quality and quantity for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was recovered from the MIL extraction phase, demonstrating the feasibility of MIL-based DNA sample preparation prior to downstream analysis.

  6. The Extraction Process of Trimethyl Xanthina in Vitro Culture of Callus Camellia Sinensis with ethyl Acetate Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimethyl xanthina is one of the compounds contained bioactive culture in vitro Cammelia sinensis callus which is widely used in the field of food, beverage, agriculture and health industries. The presence of trimethyl xanthina on food, beverages and health is needed in a certain amount depending on the use which is achieved by the user. To get a certain amount of trimethyl xanthina from callus culture of Cammelia sinensis, the extraction process is performed on the water solvent, as well as non-solvent water / organic solvent such as ethyl acetate. The purpose of this study was to obtain profile of trimethyl xanthina in the extraction of Cammelia sinensis callus. The experimental methods used consisted of dissolution, filtration, extraction with water solvent and ethyl acetate, then followed by identification of trimethyl xanthina using HPLC. The results shows the profile form of trimethyl xanthina of Cammelia sinensis callus have similarities with the standard form of trimethyl xanthina.

  7. Extraction of p-hydroxyacetophenon and catechin from Norway spruce needles. Comparison of different extraction solvents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vosmanská, M.; Sýkora, D.; Fähnrich, J.; Kovářová, Marcela; Volka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 382, - (2005), s. 1135-1140 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Picea abies * phenolic compounds * extraction Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2005

  8. Solvent Extraction of Copper: An Extractive Metallurgy Exercise for Undergraduate Teaching Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, Iain A.; Forgan, Ross S.; Brodie, Claire; Gavine, Jack S.; Harris, Leanne; Houston, Daniel; Hoyland, Andrew D.; McCaughan, Rory P.; Miller, Andrew J.; Wilson, Liam; Woodhall, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment for advanced undergraduate students has been developed in the context of extractive metallurgy. The experiment serves as a model of an important modern industrial process that combines aspects of organic/inorganic synthesis and analysis. Students are tasked to prepare a salicylaldoxime ligand and samples of the…

  9. Online determination of copper in aluminum alloy by microchip solvent extraction using isotope dilution ICP-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Masashi; Seki, Tatsuya; Chikama, Katsumi

    2009-09-15

    Isotope dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS)/ICP-MS combined with microchip solvent extraction was successfully applied for the online determination of copper in an aluminum alloy. The microchip solvent extraction was developed for the separation of Cu from major element, and optimal pH range was wider than that of the batchwise extraction method. The dimensions of the microchip were 30 mm x 70 mm and that of micro-channel on the microchip was 180 microm wide and 40 microm deep. The copper complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline was extracted into o-xylene at pH 5.5 and back extracted with 0.1 mol l(-1) nitric acid at flow rate of 20 microl min(-1). The total extraction efficiency (water/organic solvent/nitric acid) was around 40%. IDMS/ICP-MS was coupled with solvent extraction for precise determination of Cu. The extraction and back-extraction on the microchip took about 1s and the total measurement time for the IDMS/ICP-MS was about 40s/sample. The blank value of this method was 0.1 ng g(-1). The proposed method was used for the determination of Cu in Al standard materials (JSAC 0121-C, The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry and 7074 Al alloy, Nippon Light Metal Co. Ltd.). The obtained analytical results are in good agreement with the certified values.

  10. Evaluation of Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction and microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Thanh; Li, Xiaomin; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-03-17

    Three commonly applied extraction techniques for persistent organic chemicals, Soxhlet extraction (SE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), were applied on soil and fish samples in order to evaluate their performances. For both PCBs and PBDEs, the two more recent developed techniques (ASE and MAE) were in general capable of producing comparable extraction results as the classical SE, and even higher extraction recoveries were obtained for some PCB congeners with large octanol-water partitioning coefficients (K(ow)). This relatively uniform extraction results from ASE and MAE indicated that elevated temperature and pressure are favorable to the efficient extraction of PCBs from the solid matrices. For PBDEs, difference between the results from MAE and ASE (or SE) suggests that the MAE extraction condition needs to be carefully optimized according to the characteristics of the matrix and analyte to avoid degradation of higher brominated BDE congeners and improve the extraction yields. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction: spectroscopic study of interactions comparison to solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustenholtz Farawila, A.

    2005-06-01

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO 2 ) was chosen to study Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of cesium and uranium. At first, crown ethers were considered as chelating agents for the SFE of cesium. The role of water and its interaction with crown ethers were especially studied using Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy in SF-CO 2 . A sandwich configuration between two crown ethers and a water molecule was observed in the SF-CO 2 phase for the first time. The equilibrium between the single and the bridge configurations was defined. The enthalpy of the hydrogen bond formation was also calculated. These results were then compared to the one in different mixtures of chloroform and carbon tetra-chloride using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). To conclude this first part and in order to understand the whole picture of the recovery of cesium, I studied the role of water in the equilibrium between the cesium and the di-cyclo-hexano18-crown-6.In a second part, the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium was studied in SF-CO 2 . For this purpose, different complexes of Tributyl Phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water were used as chelating and oxidizing agents. I first used FT-IR to study the TBP-water interaction in SF-CO 2 . These results were then compared to the one obtained with NMR in chloroform. NMR spectroscopy was also used to understand the TBP-nitric acid-water interaction first alone and then in chloroform. To conclude my research work, I succeeded to improve the efficiency of uranium extraction and stripping into water for a pilot-plant where enriched uranium is extracted from incinerated waste coming from nuclear fuel fabrication. TBP-nitric acid complexes were used in SF-CO 2 for the extraction of uranium from ash. (author)

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction: spectroscopic study of interactions comparison to solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustenholtz Farawila, A

    2005-06-15

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO{sub 2}) was chosen to study Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of cesium and uranium. At first, crown ethers were considered as chelating agents for the SFE of cesium. The role of water and its interaction with crown ethers were especially studied using Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy in SF-CO{sub 2}. A sandwich configuration between two crown ethers and a water molecule was observed in the SF-CO{sub 2} phase for the first time. The equilibrium between the single and the bridge configurations was defined. The enthalpy of the hydrogen bond formation was also calculated. These results were then compared to the one in different mixtures of chloroform and carbon tetra-chloride using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). To conclude this first part and in order to understand the whole picture of the recovery of cesium, I studied the role of water in the equilibrium between the cesium and the di-cyclo-hexano18-crown-6.In a second part, the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium was studied in SF-CO{sub 2}. For this purpose, different complexes of Tributyl Phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water were used as chelating and oxidizing agents. I first used FT-IR to study the TBP-water interaction in SF-CO{sub 2}. These results were then compared to the one obtained with NMR in chloroform. NMR spectroscopy was also used to understand the TBP-nitric acid-water interaction first alone and then in chloroform. To conclude my research work, I succeeded to improve the efficiency of uranium extraction and stripping into water for a pilot-plant where enriched uranium is extracted from incinerated waste coming from nuclear fuel fabrication. TBP-nitric acid complexes were used in SF-CO{sub 2} for the extraction of uranium from ash. (author)

  13. Determination of persistent organic pollutants in solid environmental samples using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. Exhaustive extraction and sorption/desorption studies of PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, E.

    1998-10-01

    Human activity is constantly causing environmental problems due to production and release of numerous chemicals. A group of compounds of special concern is persistent organic pollutants (POP). These toxic, lipophilic chemicals have a high chemical and biological stability, and tend to accumulate in the lipid phase of living organisms. A major sink for POPs are sediments, and consequently these are important for the distribution of POPs in the aquatic environment. Traditionally, determination of POPs relay on exhaustive extraction using liquid extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet extraction developed in the late 19th century) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. Since liquid-solid extraction normally requires large volumes of organic solvents in combination with long extraction times and extract clean-up, there has been an increasing demand for improved technology. This should result in reduced organic solvent consumption and sample preparation time, at the same time improving the environment and cutting costs for POP monitoring. In this thesis two modern techniques with capability of fulfilling at least one of these goals have been investigated: (1) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), and (2) Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were chosen as model compounds in all experiments performed on environmental matrices, since they cover a relatively large range of physiochemical parameters. Important parameters influencing the overall extraction efficiency in ASE and SFE, are discussed and illustrated for a large number of sediments. It was demonstrated that, by careful consideration of the experimental parameters, both techniques are capable of replacing old methods such as Soxhlet extraction. ASE is somewhat faster than SFE, but the extracts generated in SFE are much cleaner and can be analyzed without sample clean-up. Consequently the overall sample preparation time may be substantially lower using SFE. However, ASE is important

  14. Wet process of phosphoric acid purification by solvent extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate and cyclohexanol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction is an efficient, economical and widely-used technology for the purification of wet process phosphoric acid (WPA. This present work focused on the development of a solvent extraction system, TC, representing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanol mixtures. The equilibrium phase diagram of the system H3PO4−H2O−TC at 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure was obtained. The effects of extraction time, phosphoric acid concentration, extractant concentration, temperature and phase volume ratio on extraction efficiency were studied. The extracted complexes were estimated to be 1.8H3PO4 2TC. The extraction process of H3PO4 was exothermic and the enthalpy change, ΔH, was obtained. The solvent mixtures had a high efficiency for phosphoric acid purification via multi-stage counter-current extraction from the industrial WPA in a reciprocating plate extraction column with an H3PO4 extraction yield of 85.08 % at 313.2 K. The stability, extraction efficiency and recycling capability of TC for H3PO4 extraction were also estimated.

  15. Evaluation of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon citratus extracted in different solvents for antioxidant and antibacterial activity against human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandar Balakrishnan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the lemongrass plant Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus leaves extracted serially by the solvents (chloroform, methanol and water. Methods: The plant leaves extracts were used for antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Nocardia sp., Serratia sp., and Enterobacter aeruginosa microorganisms by the Kirby Bauer agar disc diffusion method. This study was carried out on lemongrass plant leaf extracts in different concentration of all solvents. The leaf extracts from different solvents were tested for their scavenging activity against the stable free radical DPPH in quantization using a spectrophotometric assay. Oxidative damage was induced in vitro by treating blood DNA and analyzing the effects of the leaf extracts. Results: The results showed that C. citratus extracts exhibited maximum zones of inhibition in chloroform, methanol and water extracts. It was Observed that the C. citratus extracts exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Analyzed data in the present work suggested that antibacterial activity of C. citratus plant leaf extracts showed good results for Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. DPPH scavenging activity was highly elicited by the extract of C. citratus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of C. citratus leaves effectively decreased the extent of DNA damage. Conclusions: The present study suggested that the lemongrass plant extracts could offer various health benefits.

  16. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  17. Rirang uranium ore processing: continuous solvent extraction of uranium from Rirang ore acid digestion solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riza, F.; Nuri, H. L.; Waluya, S.; Subijanto, A.; Sarono, B.

    1998-01-01

    Separation of uranium from Rirang ore acid digestion solution by means of continuous solvent extraction using mixer-settlers has been studied and a mixture of 0.3 M D2EHPA and 0.075 M TOPO extracting agent and kerosene diluent is employed to recover and separate uranium from Th, RE, phosphate containing solution. The experiments have been conducted batch-wise and several parameters have been studied including the aqueous to organic phase ratio, A/O, the extraction and the stripping times, and the operation temperature. The optimum conditions for extraction have been found to be A/O = 2 ratio, five minute extraction time per stage at room temperature. The uranium recovery of 99.07% has been achieved at those conditions whilst U can be stripped from the organic phase by 85% H 3 PO 4 solution with an O/A = 1 for 5 minutes stripping time per stage, and in a there stage operation at room temperature yielding a 100% uranium recovery from the stripping process

  18. Recovery of nitrotoluenes from wastewater by solvent extraction enhanced with salting-out effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Wei, Kuo-Ming

    2007-08-17

    Toluene extraction enhanced by salting-out effect was employed to recover dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) from wastewater of toluene nitration processes (e.g. dinitration or trinitration). The batchwise experiments were conducted to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the extracting performance, including concentrations and species of inorganic salts, such as NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4) and MgSO4, acidity of wastewater, volume ratios of solvent versus wastewater and extraction stages in existence of inorganic salts. It was found that recovery of total organic compounds (TOC) was significantly elevated with increasing concentrations of salts, whose promoting effects were in the following order: NaCl>Na(2)SO(4)>K(2)SO(4)>MgSO4>KCl on the weight basis of wastewater. Besides, high volume ratio of toluene/wastewater (ca. 2.0) was more suitable for recovery of TOC from wastewater with or without addition of NaCl, of which extractable priority was as follows: 2,6-DNT>2,4-DNT>2,4,6-TNT. It is remarkable that TOC in wastewater would be almost completely recovered by sequential four stages toluene extraction, promoted continuously by salting-out effect.

  19. Comparision in the solvent extraction behavior of uranium (VI) in some trialkyl phosphates in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rama, R.; Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.; Suresh, A. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Division

    2016-07-01

    Higher homologs of trialkyl phosphates (TAlP) are proposed for reprocessing of fast reactor fuels. Solvent extraction behavior of U(VI) from nitric acid medium was studied in some TAlP present in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) ionic liquid. The extractants investigated were tri-n-propylphosphate (TPP), tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), tri-n-amylphosphate (TAP), tri-n-octylphosphate (TOP), tri-iso-amylphosphate (TIAP) and tri-iso-butylphosphate (TIBP). The extraction of uranium (VI) was investigated as a function of various parameters, such as the equilibration time, [HNO{sub 3}], [TAlP], temperature and nature of ionic liquid cation. The distribution ratios of U(VI) increased with an increase in the concentration of nitric acid and decreases in the order TOP>TAP≅ TIAP>TBP≅TIBP>TPP. The stoichiometry of the extraction was determined by slope analysis of the extraction data. Distribution ratios of U (VI) were determined at various temperatures and the thermodynamic parameters were derived. Quantitative stripping of uranium from the loaded ionic liquid phase was achieved using dilute nitric acid.

  20. Solvent extraction of jojoba oil from pre-pressed jojoba meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Haron, Dalia E.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The solvent extraction process of jojoba oil from the meal cake obtained after the mechanical pressing of jojoba seeds was studied. Commercial hexane and petroleum ether were used as solvents and the extraction was carried out at temperatures ranging from 30 to 55 °C using solvent-to-solid ratios, R between 2 and 15 L/kg. The equilibrium compositions of the solvent and solid phases were determined. Based on the equilibrium data, the partition coefficient or distribution ratio, D of the oil between both phases was estimated. Also, the number of extraction stages necessary to achieve a certain degree of oil recovery has been determined using different hexane-to-meal ratios. Jojoba oil was also tested for its physical and chemical properties including chemical composition, percentage fatty acid, peroxide value, flash point, fire point, pour point, refractive index, saponification and iodine values. The stability of jojoba oil during storage at room temperature and during heat treatment was also studied.Se ha estudiado el proceso de extracción con disolventes del aceite contenido en la harina residual del prensado mecánico de las semillas de jojoba. Como disolventes se han utilizado hexano técnico y éter de petróleo, habiéndose efectuado extracciones a temperaturas comprendidas entre 30 ºC y 55 ºC , con relaciones de disolvente a sólido, R, de entre 12 y 15 L/kg. Se han determinado las composiciones del extracto y del residuo sólido en el equilibrio y a partir de los datos de equilibrio, se ha estimado el coeficiente de partición o cociente de distribución, D, del aceite entre ambas fases. Asimismo, se ha determinado el número de etapas de extracción necesarias para conseguir un cierto grado de recuperación del aceite, utilizando diferentes relaciones entre hexano y harina. También se han determinado las propiedades físicas y químicas del aceite de jojoba, incluyendo la composición química, el porcentaje de ácidos grasos

  1. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used

  2. A green analytical chemistry approach for lipid extraction: computation methods in the selection of green solvents as alternative to hexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascant, Mari Merce; Breil, Cassandra; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Silvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-05-01

    There is a great interest in finding alternatives and green solvents in extraction processes to replace petroleum based solvents. In order to investigate these possibilities, computational methods, as Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) and conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS), were used in this work to predict the solvation power of a series of solvents in salmon fish lipids. Additionally, experimental studies were used to evaluate the performance in lipids extraction using 2-methyltetrahydrofurane, cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethyl carbonate, isopropanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, p-cymene and d-limonene compared with hexane. Lipid classes of extracts were obtained by using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), whereas gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) technique was employed to obtain fatty acid profiles. Some differences between theoretical and experimental results were observed, especially regarding the behavior of p-cymene and d-limonene, which separate from the predicted capability. Results obtained from HPTLC indicated that p-cymene and d-limonene extract triglycerides (TAGs) and diglycerides (DAGs) at levels of 73 and 19%, respectively, whereas the other studied extracts contain between 75 and 76% of TAGs and between 16 and 17% of DAGs. Fatty acid profiles, obtained by using GC-FID, indicated that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) between 19.5 and 19.9% of extracted oil, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in the range between 43.5 and 44.9%, and PUFAs between 31.2 and 34.6% were extracted. p-Cymene and limonene extracts contained lower percentages than the other studied solvents of some PUFAs due probably to the fact that these unsaturated fatty acids are more susceptible to oxidative degradation than MUFAs. Ethyl acetate has been found to be the best alternative solvent to hexane for the extraction of salmon oil lipids. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Comparison of extraction techniques, including supercritical fluid, high-pressure solvent, and soxhlet, for organophosphorus hydraulic fluids from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, M D; Seiber, J N

    1996-09-01

    The efficiencies of three extraction techniques for removal of nonpesticidal organophosphates from soil were determined. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and a low solvent volume flow through technique referred to here as high-pressure solvent extraction (HPSE). SFE, optimized by varying parameters of temperature, pressure, and methanol polarity modifier, showed at least 90% efficiency in the extraction of OPs from both spiked and native soils. HPSE experiments showed efficient and consistent recoveries over a range of temperatures up to 200 °C and pressures up to 170 atm. Recovery of TCP from spiked soils with HPSE depends on the system variables of temperature and pressure, which dictate density and flow rate. HPSE provided extraction efficiencies comparable to those obtained with Soxhlet extraction and SFE but with substantial savings of time and cost.

  4. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R; Sharma, Ajay K; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm) method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80°C and for piperine at 40°C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest.

  5. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solvent Extraction Separation of Phosphorus for the Measurement of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Heung N.; Ahn, Hong Joo; Han, Sun ho; Jee, Kwang Yong

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus is a major element in life and plays essential roles in the human body. On the other hand, phosphorus organic compound has high toxicity, therefore, the determination of trace amount of phosphorus is important in environment studies. Development of an analytical method for the determination of low levels of phosphorus is very important as a very few analytical techniques yield reliable results for this element at trace levels. Radioactive phosphorus, 32 P (T1/2 = 14.3 d, Emax 1.71 MeV) is the highest energy beta-emitting radionuclides and now generally accepted as an effective therapeutic agent for chronic leukemia and excess red blood cells. But, 32 P used in diagnosis and treatment are generated radioactive waste such as pipette tips, latex gloves, angioplastic balloons, Kimwipes etc.. We'll analyze 32 P in medical radioactive waste in the future. Even if 32 P has low level activity and short halflife, we have to control radioactive materials in medical waste. In this work, experiment separation using solvent extraction of inactive phosphorus as preliminary experiments for the establishment of analysis. Phosphorus is extracted tri-n-octylamine (TNOA)/ xylene, which is the most suitable solvent and then is measured by UV-visable spectrophotometer

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  8. Elucidation of the structure of organic solutions in solvent extraction by combining molecular dynamics and X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferru, G.; Gomes Rodrigues, D.; Berthon, L.; Guilbaud, P.; Diat, O.; Bauduin, P.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the supramolecular structure of the organic phase containing amphiphilic ligand molecules is mandatory for full comprehension of ionic separation during solvent extraction. Existing structural models are based on simple geometric aggregates, but no consensus exists on the interaction potentials. Herein, we show that molecular dynamics crossed with scattering techniques offers key insight into the complex fluid involving weak interactions without any long range ordering. Two systems containing mono- or diamide extractants in heptane and contacted with an aqueous phase were selected as examples to demonstrate the advantages of coupling the two approaches for furthering fundamental studies on solvent extraction. (authors)

  9. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kappe@uni-graz.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee

  10. Definition of a Counter Current Solvent Extraction Flowsheet for Aluminum Recovery using 0.4 mol/L DEHPA-Ca in Kerosene as Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, J.C.; Salgado, M.; Labadie, J; Pena, J.

    1999-01-01

    Significant tonnage of Aluminum are discarded in the Residual Solution WL from Cuban Ni-Co mineral processing. After a previous treatment a new residual solution will contain 6 g/L of aluminum in sulfate media. In the present work a Solvent Extraction flowsheet was developed to recover Al using as solvent a 0.4 mol/L kerosene solution of DEHPA converted to the calcium salt. Some studies related with the extraction and stripping process of Al and other metals containing in the waste liquor were carried out. These studies have shown the possibility of Al recovering from the WL. The process parameters were optimized. A 75% purity AICI 3 was obtained with a 70% yield for all the process

  11. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Burnett, W.C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Oceanography

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  12. Antimicrobial potential and phyto chemical analysis of different solvent extracted samples of viola pilosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Panni, M. K.; Shafi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of susceptibility of medicinal plants for bacterial pathogens is significant for suitable choice of treatment. Different solvent extracted samples of Viola pilosa shoots were investigated for their antibacterial and phytochemical activities using 0.5, 1 and 2 mg disc-1 concentrations. The antibacterial bioassay was assayed by disc diffusion method against six microbes. The studies revealed that ethyl acetate extracted fractions resulted in maximum growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at 2000 mu g disc-1 concentration. Similarly, Xanthomonas campestris and Klebsiella pneumonia were found more susceptible to n-butanol extract. Maximum reduction in the activity of B. subtilis and E. coli was recorded by n-hexane fractions at two mg per disc. The most susceptible microbe was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results further revealed that all the tested microbes were found completely resistant to water extracted fractions at all the tested concentrations measuring 0% ZI. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of various bioactive compounds including flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, fats, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins. (author)

  13. Pressurized hot water extraction followed by miniaturized membrane assisted solvent extraction for the green analysis of alkylphenols in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro-González, N; Turnes-Carou, I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2015-02-27

    A novel and Green analytical methodology for the determination of alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol) in sediments was developed and validated. The method was based on pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) followed by miniaturized membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design in order to minimize the number of assays according to Green principles. Matrix effect was studied and compensated using deuterated labeled standards as surrogate standards for the quantitation of the target compounds. The analytical features of the method were satisfactory: relative recoveries varied between 92 and 103% and repeatability and intermediate precision were MQL) ranged from 0.061 (4-n-nonylphenol) to 1.7ngg(-1) dry weight (nonylphenol). Sensitivity, selectivity, automaticity and fastness are the main advantages of the exposed methodology. Reagent consumption, analysis time and waste generation were minimized. The "greenness" of the proposed method was evaluated using an analytical Eco-Scale approach and satisfactory results were obtained. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated analysing sediment samples of Galicia coast (NW of Spain) and the ubiquity of alkylphenols in the environment was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extraction of α-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana L. using alternative solvents: Computational predictive and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bundeesomchok, Kunnitee; Filly, Aurore; Rakotomanomana, Njara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of alternative green solvents, i.e. D-limonene, dimethylcarbonate (DMC), ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate and methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) compared to the petroleum based dichloromethane, for extraction of alpha-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarps. The Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) were used to explain the dissolution behavior of the solutes and solvents, and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation. The (COSMO-RS), a...

  15. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  16. Application of 2k Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Mumtaj; Garg, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental ...

  17. Changes in total phenol, flavonoid contents and anti-Lactobacillus activity of Callisia fragrans due to extraction solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thom; Cao, Diem Kieu; Pham, Thanh Vy; Huynh, Tan Dat; Ta, Nhat Thuy Anh; Nguyen, Ngoc Thao Linh; Nguyen, Huu Thanh; Le, Hue Huong; Bui, Anh Vo; Truong, Dieu-Hien

    2018-04-01

    Callisia fragrans is a wonder herb with many medicinal properties such as burn, dental diseases, cancer diseases and arthritis in folk medicine. It is noted that the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of traditional plants depend on not only the extracting method but also the solvent used for extraction. In this study, the effect of five extraction solvents (i.e., distilled water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% ethyl acetate, and 80% chloroform) on yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of Callisia leaves was determined. Besides, changes in anti-Lactobacillus fermentum activity of C. fragrans freeze-dried extract was also evaluated using disk-diffusion method. The recovery percentage of extractable yield of fresh leaves are ranged from 11.93% w/w for distilled water extract to 16.60% w/w for aqueous ethanol extracts. The yield of 80% aqueous methanol extract (16.27% w/w) is only slightly less than that of the ethanol extract. Significant differences were observed among TPC and TFC obtaining by 80% methanol (0.0522% and 0.0335% w/w, respectively) compared to other solvents (p treatment of dental caries.

  18. Evaluation of ionic liquids as solvent for aromatic extraction: Experimental, correlation and COSMO-RS predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, Noelia; Domínguez, Irene; Gómez, Elena; Palomar, Jose; Domínguez, Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BMimMSO 4 and BMimNTf 2 were studied as solvents to extract aromatic from aliphatic hydrocarbons. • Liquid + liquid equilibrium data were measured at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. • Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. • Experimental data were satisfactorily correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. • COSMO-RS model was used as a predictive tool to describe the experimental LLE data for the studied ternary systems. -- Abstract: For the study of the separation of benzene or toluene from octane, nonane and cyclooctane, the ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate, BMimMSO 4 , and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, BMimNTf 2 , were used as solvents. The (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ternary systems {octane, or nonane, or (cyclooctane + benzene + BMimMSO 4 )}, and {(nonane + toluene + BMimMSO 4 ) or BMimNTf 2 } at T = 298.15 K were determined, and an analysis of the influence of the structure of each compound was carried out. Besides, the experimental data have been compared with literature data with sulfolane as solvent. The experimental results obtained have been correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. Finally, COSMO-RS has been used to predict the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium of the systems studied. The differences between the predicted and experimental values were used to evaluate the ability of the COSMO-RS model to describe the impact of the structure of the alkane, aromatic and ionic liquid on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria

  19. Enhanced and green extraction polyphenols and furanocoumarins from Fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Peng; Guo, Na; Niu, Li-Li; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-10-25

    Nowadays, green extraction of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has gained increasing attention. As green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) have been highly rated to replace toxic organic solvents in extraction process. In present study, to simultaneous extraction five main bioactive compounds from fig leaves, DES was tailor-made. The tailor-made DES composed of a 3:3:3 molar ratio of glycerol, xylitol and D-(-)-Fructose showed enhanced extraction yields for five target compounds simultaneously compared with traditional methanol and non-tailor DESs. Then, the tailor-made DES based extraction methods have compared and microwave-assisted extraction was selected and optimized due to its high extraction yields with lower time consumption. The influencing parameters including extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions the extraction yield of caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten was 6.482mg/g, 16.34mg/g, 5.207mg/g, 15.22mg/g and 2.475mg/g, respectively. Macroporous resin D101 has been used to recovery target compounds with recovery yields of 79.2%, 83.4%, 85.5%, 81.2% and 75.3% for caffeoylmalic acid, psoralic acid-glucoside, rutin, psoralen and bergapten, respectively. The present study suggests that DESs are truly designer and efficient solvents and the method we developed was efficient and sustainable for extraction main compounds from Fig leaves.mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Organic Solvents on Microalgae Growth, Metabolism and Industrial Bioproduct Extraction: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Miazek, Krystian; Kratky, Lukas; Sulc, Radek; Jirout, Tomas; Aguedo, Mario; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-01-01

    In this review, the effect of organic solvents on microalgae cultures from molecular to industrial scale is presented. Traditional organic solvents and solvents of new generation-ionic liquids (ILs), are considered. Alterations in microalgal cell metabolism and synthesis of target products (pigments, proteins, lipids), as a result of exposure to organic solvents, are summarized. Applications of organic solvents as a carbon source for microalgal growth and production of target molecules are di...

  1. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 35–50 days, depending on the solvent and a slower second stage. The highest degradation rates were observed in extracts prepared with linoleic acid rich solvents (sunflower oil, soybean oil and grape seed oil, while the lowest were found in oil with saturated fatty acids (Myritol 312® and paraffin oil. These results confirm the connection between the degradation of carotenoids and lipid autoxidation, and suggest that the influence of the oil solvents on the stability of oil extracts of Calendula officinalis is a factor that must be considered when selecting a solvent for the production of marigold oil extracts.

  2. Copper solvent extraction from chalcopyrite concentrate acid leach solutions by LIX 984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elamari K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper production from ores or sulphide concentrates is classically realized by pyrometallurgical route. In this study, hydrometallurgical treatment of a copper sulphide concentrate, provided by Hajar Mine (ONA-Group, Morocco, was tested by using a mixture of nitric and hexafluorosilicic acids. Copper is present in the solid product as chalcopyrite and its amount is 28.1 % by weight. Leaching stage allows to dissolve more than 90% of copper witch is accompanied, in the same averages, by Zn and Fe. The leach solution obtained has pH = 0.6 and Eh = 580 mV/ENH and contains 19.3 g/L Cu, 18.1 g/L Fe, 4.5 g/L Zn and 0.03 g/L Pb. The recovery of copper from this leach solution was curried out by solvent extraction using Lix 984, diluted in Escaid 110. McCabe - Thiele distribution isotherms showed that at pH 1.7 total and selective copper extraction can be realized with Øo:Øa =1.5:1 in 3 extraction stages. Stripping of the loaded copper by treating the organic phases was easily obtained by a sulphuric acid solution.

  3. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  4. Studies on sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate from the MEK solvent extraction generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, R.; Moore, D.E.; Maddalena, D.J.; Boyd, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography has revealed organic residues in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate obtained from 99 Mo-molybdate by extraction, using the organic solvent methylethylketone (MEK). The organic residues have been identified as either (i) low molecular weight carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone, presumably caused by the effects of γ-radiation on MEK, or (ii) condensation products resulting from the action of strong alkali on MEK during the extraction process. The quantities of organic residues varied from batch to batch of extracted pertechnetate; up to 40 μ mL -1 was found. When these compounds were tested, in rats, by addition to a pyrophosphate bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical, the tissue distribution was not significantly different from that in the control, which contained no added compound. Assay for 99 Tc in MEK-derived pertechnetate indicated up to 10 μg mL -1 of 99 Tc carrier. An assessment of the biological effect of 99 Tc carrier was obtained by (i) red blood cell labelling, where 6 ng mL -1 of 99 Tc was sufficient to reduce labelling efficiency; and (ii) pyrophosphate tissue distribution, where a significant effect was obtained in the presence of 10 μ mL -1 of 99 Tc carrier

  5. ENCAPSULATION OF EXTRACT FROM WINERY INDUSTRY RESIDUE USING THE SUPERCRITICAL ANTI-SOLVENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mezzomo

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace (seed, skin and stem is a winery byproduct with high levels of biologically active compounds, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials, that could be converted into high added-value products. Since these components are easily degraded by oxygen, light and high temperature exposure, stabilization is important, for instance, by a microencapsulation process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence on the particle characteristics of the operational conditions applied in the Supercritical Anti-Solvent (SAS process for the co-precipitation of grape pomace extract and poly(-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. The morphology and size of the particles formed, their stability and thermal profile were evaluated, and also the co-precipitation efficiency. The conditions studied allowed the production of microparticles with spherical shape for all operational conditions, with estimated particle size between 4 ± 2 and 11 ± 5 µm, and very good co-precipitation efficiencies (up to 94.4 ± 0.6%. The co-precipitated extract presented higher stability compared to the crude extract, indicating the effectiveness of the co-precipitation process and coating material against degradation processes.

  6. Solvent extraction separation of copper and zinc from MSWI fly ash leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) contains significant amounts of metals, some of which are valuable and some of which are potentially toxic. This type of ash is most often stabilized and landfilled which means that the metals will be difficult to reclaim at a later stage. In recent years efforts have been made to develop feasible methods to recover selected metals, such as Zn, from MSW fly ash. If this would be possible, a significant amount of valuable metals could be re-inserted in the industrial material loops. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a process for recovery of Cu and Zn from MSW combustion fly ash based on hydrochloric acid leaching followed by two solvent extraction processes, one for each metal. The separation of Cu from the acid leachate was done using an aldoxime extractant, LIX860N-I, in kerosene and a mixture of phosphine oxides, Cyanex 923, also in kerosene, was used for extraction of Zn from the Cu-depleted aqueous phase. The extraction of Cu was selective, but a significant amount of other metals, such as Fe and Pb, were co-extracted together with Zn. It was shown that it is possible to decrease the contamination of Fe by using a suitable concentration of nitric acid solution for stripping or by removing the contaminating metals through cementation. The suggested process was tested for two MSW combustion fly ashes in laboratory scale experiments and gave Cu yields of 69-87% and Zn yields of 75-80% based on the contents in the ash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  8. Effect of organic solvents in the extraction of plutonium(IV) nitrate by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide [BESO] (Paper No. AL-29)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1990-02-01

    Extraction of plutonium(IV) nitrate by BESO into ten 'inert' organic solvents has been investigated to evaluate their influence on metal extraction. Such effects are correlated with solubility parameters of solvents and other related physical properties by application of the theory of regular solutions. The extracted species is found to be (BESO) 2 PU(NO 3 ) 4 irrespective of the nature of these solvents. (author). 1 tab

  9. Separation and microdetermination of Sm, Eu and Gd from egyptian beach monazite using solvent extraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.M.; Baky, K.A.; Aly, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Lanthanide hydrous oxides concentrate produced from monazite mineral of the Egyptian beach black sand deposits contains a considerable percent of samarium, europium and gadolinium as a group, which in turn represents a valuable concentration with respect to their international prices due to their scarcity and wide demand in modern industries. The rare earth elements, being chemically similar to one another, invariably occur together in the source minerals and behaves as a single chemical entity. The problem of separating them one from another for scientific purposes or industrial use has been one of the most challenging tasks of rare earth technology. The present work is directed to microdetermination of Sm, Eu and Gd in their acid solutions after complete separation and recovery using di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid diluted with kerosene (D2EHPA/KX) as a solvent for the extraction processes. Different acid solutions with different pH values for their stripping were utilised

  10. Refining of crude uranium by solvent extraction for production of nuclear pure uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Manna, S.; Singha, M.; Hareendran, K.N.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Kumar, K.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is the primary fuel material for any nuclear fission energy program. Natural uranium contains only 0.712% of 235 U as fissile constituent. This low concentration of fissile isotope in natural uranium calls for a very high level of purity, especially with respect to neutron poisons like B, Cd, Gd etc. before it can be used as nuclear fuel. Solvent extraction is a widely used technique by which crude uranium is purified for reactor use. Uranium metal plant (UMP), BARC, Trombay is engaged in refining of uranium concentrate for production of nuclear pure uranium metal for fabrication of fuel for research reactors. This paper reviews some of the fundamental aspects of this refining process with some special references to UMP, BARC. (author)

  11. Deasphalting solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J. A; Caceres, J; Vela, G; Bueno, H

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how the deasphalted oil (DMO) or demetalized oil (DMO) quality (CCR, Ni, V end asphaltenes contents) changes with: DAO or DMO yield, solvent/feed ratio, type of vacuum reside (from paraffinic to blends with vis breaking bottoms), extraction temperature and extraction solvent (propane, propylene, n-butane and I butane)

  12. Extraction of essential oil and pigments from Curcuma longa [L] by steam distillation and extraction with volatile solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzan, Anna Carolina C M; Toniolo, Fabio S; Bredow, Eliane; Povh, Nanci P

    2003-11-05

    Curcuma longa [Linn] (turmeric), of the Zingiberaceae family, has a great importance in the food, textile, and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this work was to identify the best processing conditions to maximize the yields of essential oil and pigments, as well as their content of ar-turmerone, (alpha and beta)-turmerone, and the curcuminoids, respectively. Autoclave pressure and distillation time were the variables studied for the steam distillation process. The highest yields of essential oil (0.46 wt %) and pigment (0.16 wt %)-expressed as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin-were obtained at a pressure of 1.0 x 10(5) Pa and a time of 2 h. On the other hand, with extraction by volatile solvents, the best yield of essential oil (5.49 wt %) was obtained when using 0.175, 0.124, 0.088 mm particles (Foust, A. S.; Wenzel, L. A.; Clump, C. W.; Maus, L.; Andersen, L. B. Princípios das Operações Unitárias; Editora Guanabara Dois S.A.: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1982), at 40 degrees C, and 6 h of extraction. However, the best yield of pigment (7.98 wt %) was obtained under the same conditions, except for the temperature (30 degrees C).

  13. A severe process disturbance in an uranium mill resulting from microbial infection in the solvent extraction plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, H.; McGill, J. [ERA - Ranger Mine, Jabiru, Northern Territory (Australia); Jones, D.R. [EWL Sciences, Darwin, Northern Territory (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    The Ranger uranium mill in northern Australia is a conventional sulfuric acid leach and tertiary amine solvent extraction plant. In 1998 a microbial infection in the solvent extraction plant caused the amine to be expelled from the hydrocarbon diluent into the aqueous raffinate, leading to a severe voluminous foaming in the CCD wash plant and subsequent shutdown of operations. This sudden occurrence was outside the knowledge of the industry and took ten months to fully identify and control. Production during this period was severely curtailed but has since returned to normal. This case history outlines the events that occurred and describes the investigative work that ultimately restored the plant to normal operations. (author)

  14. Supercritical CO2 extraction of Schinus molle L with co-solvents: mathematical modeling and antimicrobial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scopel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the antimicrobial activity of the Schinus molle L. leaves extracts obtained under supercritical conditions using carbon dioxide and co-solvents. Antimicrobial qualitative evaluation was carried out through the bioautography technique and the microorganisms studied were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosas, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Salmonella choleraesuis. The supercritical fluid extraction was carried out in a pilot scale equipment using carbon dioxide modified by the addition of co-solvents, such as ethanol and water at 150 bar and 333 K. A mathematical modeling of the process was also performed.

  15. Effect of growth conditions and extraction solvents on enhancement of antimicrobial activity of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mashhadinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding increasing rate of drug resistance among microbial pathogens, a global search to find new antimicrobial agents from natural compounds with fewer side effects has been considered by many researchers worldwide. Bioactive compounds with good antimicrobial activity have been isolated from different algae and cyanobacteria. The current study was performed to determine antimicrobial potential and to characterize the effect of algal growth modes (autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic and extraction solvents on antimicrobial activity of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris against four bacterial and one fungal pathogens. C. vulgaris was grown under different growth conditions and the biomass was harvested. Different extracts were prepared using acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate as extraction solvents and antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated against two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a fungal strain (Candida albicans using agar well diffusion assay. In addition, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts were determined. Moreover, the total oil content and lipid productivity of C. vulgaris grown under different modes were determined. The heterotrophic growth resulted in stronger antimicrobial activity compared to the other growth conditions. In addition, the highest antimicrobial activity was observed for chloroform mediated extract and extraction using acetone resulted in minimum antimicrobial activity. Moreover, heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth significantly increased the total lipid content and lipid productivity compared to the autotrophic growth. C. vulgaris exhibited good antimicrobial potential and the antimicrobial efficacy could be influenced by extraction solvents and growth conditions.

  16. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  17. Fractionation of commercial hexane and use of its fractions as extracting solvent of cottonseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Ola A.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of producing off-graded cottonseed oil using locally produced commercial hexane as extracting solvent has explored this research. It was aimed in this work to investigate whether this problem can be solved by controlling the boiling range of the extracting solvent. Four different hexane fractions of different boiling ranges were prepared from commercial hexane. The boiling range of commercial hexane was 62-68ºC while the boiling ranges of the four fractions were 62- 64, 64-65, 65-66 and 66-68ºC. Commercial hexane and the prepared four hexane fractions were then used to extract cottonseed oil from a fixed seed sample. The five crude oil samples were then refined and bleached and their colours were measured. The results have shown that the heaviest hexane fraction ( b.r 66-68ºC produced the lightest coloured oils. The colour index of the bleached oil using this heavy cut was 190 compared to 350 using the original commercial hexane. However, the production of a commercial hexane cut having a narrow boiling range will be costly. Therefore, this research has been extended to investigate the suitability of a heavy petroleum cut which has a boiling range as wide as that of commercial hexane to extract cottonseed oil. The boiling range of this cut was 66-72ºC. The obtained results proved that the extraction of cottonseed oil using that heavy petroleum fraction produces much lighter oil than the use of conventional hexane solvent.En esta investigación se ha examinado el problema de producir aceite de semilla de algodón sin-clasificar usando hexano comercial producido localmente como disolvente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar si este problema puede ser solucionado controlando el rango de ebullición del disolvente extractante. Cuatro fracciones diferentes de hexano de diversos rangos de ebullición fueron preparadas del hexano comercial. El rango al que ebullía el hexano comercial era 62-68ºC mientras que los

  18. Effect of Extraction Solvents and Drying Methods on the Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Helicteres hirsuta Lour. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ngoc Thuy Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicteres hirsuta Lour. (H. hirsuta L. is widely distributed in southeast Asian countries and has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant. However, optimal conditions for preparation of dried materials for further processing and suitable solvents for the extraction of bioactive compounds have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different extraction solvents and different drying conditions on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of the H. hirsuta L. leaves. The results showed that both extraction solvents and drying conditions had a significant impact on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of H. hirsuta L. leaves. Among the five solvents investigated, water could extract the highest level of solid content and phenolic compounds, whereas methanol was more effective for obtaining flavonoids and saponins than other solvents. The leaves dried under either hot-air drying at 80 °C (HAD80, or vacuum drying at 50 °C (VD50 yielded the highest amount of total phenolic compounds (7.77 and 8.33 mg GAE/g, respectively and total flavonoid content (5.79 and 4.62 mg CE/g, respectively, and possessed the strongest antioxidant power, while leaves dried using infrared drying at 30 °C had the lowest levels of bioactive compounds. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids had a strong correlation with antioxidant capacity. Therefore, HAD80 and VD50 are recommended for the preparation of dried H. hirsuta L. leaves. Water and methanol are suggested solvents to be used for extraction of phenolic compounds and saponins from H. hirsuta L. leaves for the potential application in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. Reutilization of mango byproducts: study of the effect of extraction solvent and temperature on their antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; Gonzalez, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Mango biowastes, obtained after processing, contain large amounts of compounds with antioxidant activity that can be reused to reduce their environmental impact. The present study evaluates the effect of solvent (methanol, ethanol, acetone, water, methanol:water [1:1], ethanol:water [1:1], and acetone:water [1:1]), and temperature (25, 50, and 75 °C) on the efficiency of the extraction of antioxidants from mango peel and seed. Among the factors optimized, extraction solvent was the most important. The solvents that best obtained extracts with high antioxidant capacity were methanol, methanol:water, ethanol:water, and acetone:water (β-carotene test, antioxidant activity coefficient 173 to 926; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, inhibition ratio 15% to 89%; 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid ABTS(·+); and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH· scavenging, 7 to 22 and 8 to 28 g trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity [TE] per 100 g mango biowaste on a dry matter basis [DW]). Similarly, the flavonoid (0.21 to 1.4 g (+)-catechin equivalents per 100 g DW), tannin (3.8 to 14 g tannic acid equivalents per 100 g DW), and proanthocyanidin (0.23 to 7.8 g leucoanthocyanidin equivalents per 100 g DW) content was highest in the peel extracts obtained with methanol, ethanol:water, or acetone:water and in the seed extracts obtained with methanol or acetone:water. From the perspective of food security, it is advisable to choose ethanol (which also has a notable antioxidant content), ethanol:water, or acetone:water, as they are all solvents that can be used in compliance with good manufacturing practice. In general, increasing temperature improves the capacity of the extracts obtained from mango peel and seed to inhibit lipid peroxidation; however, its effect on the extraction of phytochemical compounds or on the capacity of the extracts to scavenge free radicals was negligible in comparison to that of the solvent. There are many antioxidant compounds

  20. RP-HPTLC densitometric determination and validation of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in accelerated solvent extract of Vanilla planifolia*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Upendra Kumar; Sharma, Nandini; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Arun Kumar

    2007-12-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive RP-HPTLC method is developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts of Vanilla planifolia pods. In addition to this, the applicability of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) as an alternative to microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet extraction was also explored for the rapid extraction of phenolic compounds in vanilla pods. Good separation was achieved on aluminium plates precoated with silica gel RP-18 F(254S) in the mobile phase of methanol/water/isopropanol/acetic acid (30:65:2:3, by volume). The method showed good linearity, high precision and good recovery of compounds of interest. ASE showed good extraction efficiency in less time as compared to other techniques for all the phenolic compounds. The present method would be useful for analytical research and for routine analysis of vanilla extracts for their quality control.

  1. Indium recovery from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction with D2EHPA: a statistical approach to the experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes M.C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work presents the optimization results of obtaining a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with D2EHPA solubilized in isoparaffin and exxsol. The variables studied in the extraction step were D2EHPA concentration, acidity of the aqueous phase and time of contact between phases. Different hydrochloric and sulfuric acid concentrations were studied for the stripping step. The optimum experimental conditions resulted in a solution with 99% indium extraction and less than 4% iron. The construction of a McCabe-Thiele diagram indicated two theoretical countercurrent stages for indium extraction and at least six stages for indium stripping. Finally, the influence of associated metals found in typical sulfate leach liquors from zinc plants was studied. Under the experimental conditions for maximum indium extraction, 96% indium extraction was obtained, iron extraction was about 4% and no Ga, Cu and Zn were co-extracted.

  2. Solvent optimization extraction of antioxidants from foxtail millet species' insoluble fibers and their free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, Mohamed Lamine; Nsor-Atindana, John; Ming, Zhou Hui

    2013-11-15

    In this study, water and 80% of four organic solvents were employed to optimize the extraction of antioxidants from two species of foxtail millet's insoluble fibers under the same temperature, time, and solid/solvent ratio. The results showed that the acetone was able to extract the maximum amount of antioxidants (2.32 mg/g fiber for white specie and 3.86 mg/g fiber for yellow specie) followed by methanol and propanol from both samples. The neutral and the ethanol on the other hand extracted small amount of the antioxidants from the two fiber materials. While considerable level of Total Polyphenols Content (TPC) was recorded in both the water and the organic solvents' extracts, only traces of Total Flavonoid content (TFC) were observed in water, methanol and ethanol extracts. Propanol and acetone extracts was negative to the TFC test. The potency of both white and yellow foxtail millets' insoluble fibers antioxidant extracts was investigated using five different in vitro tests. It was realized that there was a variation in their capacities to quench DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals for the time running of 0-60 min. The samples from the yellow cereal exhibited high inhibition capacity against ABTS(+). No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH and ABTS(+). In general, the yellow species contained more antioxidants in comparison with the white one and this accounted for its high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recovery of Vanadium from H2SO4-HF Acidic Leaching Solution of Black Shale by Solvent Extraction and Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of vanadium from sulfuric and hydrofluoric mixed acid solutions generated by the direct leaching of black shale was investigated using solvent extraction and precipitation methods. The process consisted of reduction, solvent extraction, and stripping, followed by precipitation and calcination to yield vanadium pentoxide. The influence of various operating parameters on the extraction and recovery of vanadium was studied. Vanadium (IV was selectively extracted using a mixture of 10% (v/v di(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and 5% (v/v tri-n-butylphosphate in sulfonated kerosene. Using six extraction and five stripping stages, the extraction efficiency for vanadium was 96.7% and the stripping efficiency was 99.7%. V2O5 with a purity of 99.52% was obtained by oxidation of the loaded strip solution and precipitation of ammonium polyvanadate at pH 1.8 to 2.2, followed by calcination of the dried precipitate at 550 °C for 2 h. It was concluded that the combination of solvent extraction and precipitation is an efficient method for the recovery of vanadium from a multi-element leach solution generated from black shale.

  4. Luminescence investigation of Fe (III) – rhodamine B complexes obtained by solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czoik, Rozalia, E-mail: rozalia.czoik@us.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Żur, Lidia; Szpikowska-Sroka, Barbara; Połedniok, Justyna [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Swinarew, Andrzej S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, 12 Bankowa Street, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Pisarski, Wojciech A. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2013-07-15

    Optical properties of complexes of rhodamine B (RB) and Fe{sup 3+} ions have been investigated using optical spectroscopy. The ionic-association coordination compounds of rhodamine B and iron ions (FeRB) were prepared in the acid environment by means of solvent extraction to chloroform phase. Emission and excitation spectra and luminescence decay curves were analyzed as a function of metal ion concentration. It was found that Fe{sup 3+} ions at such conditions were effective in quenching fluorescence and that the intensity of luminescence clearly depended on the metal ion concentration. The emission decrease was observed in the concentration range from 1 to 60 μg Fe/mL solution. Similar relationship was also recorded for the luminescence lifetimes of the investigated systems. Basis on the lifetime and fluorescence intensity measurements and the Stern-Volmer relation the values of quenching rate constant k{sub q} and K{sub sv} constant for the investigated system at chloroform phase were also determined. -- Highlights: ► The complexes of rhodamine B and Fe{sup 3+} were prepared by extraction to chloroform phase. ► Optical properties of FeRB complexes were studied as a function of Fe{sup 3+} concentration. ► The emission intensities and lifetimes decrease with increasing of quencher content. ► The quenching rate constant k{sub q} and K{sub sv} constant for the study systems were determined.

  5. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels improvement and extension of the solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.; Chesne, A.

    1964-01-01

    Improvements made in the conventional tri-butylphosphate process are described, in particular. the concentration and the purification of plutonium by one extraction cycle using tri-butyl-phosphate with reflux; and the use of an apparatus working continuously for precipitating plutonium oxalate, for calcining the oxalate, and for fluorinating the oxide. The modifications proposed for the treatment of irradiated uranium - molybdenum alloys are described, in particular, the dissolution of the fuel, and the concentration of the fission product solutions. The solvent extraction treatment is used also for the plutonium fuels utilized for the fast breeder reactor (Rapsodie) An outline of the process is presented and discussed, as well as the first experimental results and the plans for a pilot plant having a capacity of 1 kg/day. The possible use of tn-lauryl-amine in the plutonium purification cycle is now under consideration for the processing plant at La Hague. The flowsheet for this process and its performance are presented. The possibility of vitrification is considered for the final treatment of the concentrated radioactive wastes from the Marcoule (irradiated uranium) and La Hague (irradiated uranium-molybdenum) Centers. Three possible processes are described and discussed, as well as the results obtained from the operation of the corresponding experimental units using tracers. (authors) [fr

  6. Determination of 90Sr in milk by solvent extraction of 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Toshihiko; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1977-01-01

    In order to replace the conventional method using violent fuming nitric acid, a new method for the determination of 90 Sr in milk has been developed by using the solvent extraction with bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The daughter nuclide 90 Y in a radiochemical equilibrium with its parent 90 Sr was extracted with 2:1 HDEHP-toluene from the acid solution (1M HCl) of milk ash sample prepared by dry-ashing. After stripping with 8M HCl, 90 Y, together with stable yttrium added as carrier, was precipitated as oxalate to prepare β-counting source. The radiochemical purity was confirmed by decay curve. The decontamination of strontium was checked by applying non-dispersive fluorescence x-ray analysis using 133 Ba as irradiating source. Bone samples of cow were also analyzed by the same method and the results were compared with those obtained by other methods. The duplicate crosschecking analyses of finely ground bone samples were carried out to examine the effectiveness of this method. This simple new method was found to be very effective for the routine analysis of 90 Sr in these samples. (auth.)

  7. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire M; Ellwood, Michael J; Wille, Martin

    2013-05-02

    Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory simulations of the mixed solvent extraction recovery of dominate polymers in electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Bo; Lv, Xu-Dong; Yang, Wan-Dong; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2017-11-01

    The recovery of four dominant plastics from electronic waste (e-waste) using mixed solvent extraction was studied. The target plastics included polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN). The extraction procedure for multi-polymers at room temperature yielded PC, PS, ABS, and SAN in acceptable recovery rates (64%, 86%, 127%, and 143%, respectively, where recovery rate is defined as the mass ratio of the recovered plastic to the added standard polymer). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the recovered plastics' purity using a similarity analysis. The similarities ranged from 0.98 to 0.99. Another similar process, which was denoted as an alternative method for plastic recovery, was examined as well. Nonetheless, the FTIR results showed degradation may occur over time. Additionally, the recovery cost estimation model of our method was established. The recovery cost estimation indicated that a certain range of proportion of plastics in e-waste, especially with a higher proportion of PC and PS, can achieve a lower cost than virgin polymer product. It also reduced 99.6%, 30.7% and 75.8% of energy consumptions and CO 2 emissions during the recovery of PC, PS and ABS, and reduced the amount of plastic waste disposal via landfill or incineration and associated environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solvent extraction method for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingorani, S.B.; Sathe, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A solvent extraction method, using tributyl phosphate, for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and other food samples has been presented in this report in view of large number of samples recieved after Chernobyl accident for checking radioactive contamination. The earlier nitration method in use for the determination of 90 Sr through its daughter 90 Y takes over two weeks for analysis of a sample. While by this extraction method it takes only 4 to 5 hours for sample analysis. Complete estimation including initial counting can be done in a single day. The chemical recovery varies between 80-90% compared to nitration method which is 65-80%. The purity of the method has been established by following the decay of yttrium-90 separated. Some of the results obtained by adopting this chemical method for food analysis are included. The method is, thus, found to be rapid and convenient for accurate estimation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Resin purification from Dragons Blood by using sub critical solvent extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuddin; Nahar

    2018-04-01

    Jernang resin (dragon blood) is the world's most expensive sap. The resin obtained from jernang that grows only on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. Jernang resin is in demand by the State of China, Hong Kong, and Singapore since they contain compounds that have the potential dracohordin as a medicinal ingredient in the biological and pharmacological activity such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor and cytotoxic activity. The resin extracting process has conventionally been done by drizzly with maceration method as one way of processing jernang, which is done by people in Bireuen, Aceh. However, there are still significant obstacles, namely the quality of the yield that obtained lower than the jernang resin. The technological innovation carried out by forceful extraction process maceration by using methanol produced a yield that is higher than the extraction process maceration method carried out in Bireuen. Nevertheless, the use of methanol as a solvent would raise the production costs due to the price, which is relatively more expensive and non-environmentally friendly. To overcome the problem, this research proposed a process, which is known as subcritical solvent method. This process is cheap, and also abundant and environmentally friendly. The results show that the quality of jernang resins is better than the one that obtained by the processing group in Bireuen. The quality of the obtained jernang by maceration method is a class-A quality based on the quality specification requirements of jernang (SNI 1671: 2010) that has resin (b/b) 73%, water (w/w) of 6.8%, ash (w/b) 7%, impurity (w/w) 32%, the melting point of 88°C and red colours. While the two-stage treatment obtained a class between class-A and super quality, with the resin (b/b) 0.86%, water (w/w) of 6.5%, ash (w/w) of 2.8%, levels of impurities (w/w) of 9%, the melting point of 88 °C and dark-red colours.

  11. Solvent extraction of chromium and copper using Schiff base derived from terephthaldialdehyde and 5-amino-2-methoxy-phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Al Zoubi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Separation with solvent extraction of Cu2+ and Cr3+ from aqueous solution using [N,N′-p-phenylene bis (5-amino-2-methyoxy-phenol] as the new extractant has been studied. The Schiff base was synthesized by reaction of terephthaldialdehyde and 5-amino-2-methoxy-phenol. Schiff base has been characterized by elemental analyses, mass and IR spectral data. The Schiff base has been studied by liquid–liquid extraction toward the metal ions (UO22+ and d-metal ions (Hg2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ from aqueous phase to organic phase. The effect of chloroform and nitrobenzene as organic solvents on the metal chlorides extraction was investigated at 25 ± 0.1 °C by using flame atomic absorption. It observed that extraction percentages not effect with the change of diluents. It was found that the extraction efficiency of ligand for metals is in the order Cu2+ > Cr3+. The results show that metals ions of U3+ and Hg2+ are not extracted by Schiff base (E < 1%. The extractability and selectivity of cations was evaluated as a function of relationship between distribution ratios of metal and pH. Cu2+ showed the highest extractability and selectivity at pH 6.27. The effect of ionic strength and aqueous to organic phase on the extraction has been studied.

  12. The state of the art of partitioning technology for long-lived actinides and fission products by solvent extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, M.; Koma, Y.; Nomura, K.; Sano, Y.

    1998-04-01

    Japan launched an ambitious long-term program on partitioning and transmutation (P-T) called OMEGA in 1988. Under the program PNC has being carried out its R and D activities. A check and review process based on progress made was conducted in fall 1998 by STA (Science and Technology Agency). This report was prepared to submit the state of R and D activities on partitioning by solvent extraction program in PNC for seven years (1990-1997) to STA. The paper described the progress, the results and future plans on (a) improved PUREX process for the extraction of Np with Pu by valence control, (b) improved TRUEX process for the extraction of minor Actinides and (c) other potential solvents for the extraction of other long-lived FPs from spent fuels. (H. Itami)

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  14. Use of sulfoxides as novel synergists in the solvent extraction of uranium (VI) by various substituted diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    The role of symmetric long chain dialkyl sulfoxides as synergists in the solvent extraction of uranyl ion into toluene with heptafluoro dimethyl octanedione (HFOD) from nitric acid solutions has been investigated. The synergistic reactivity of different sulfoxides follows the order : DPSO < DBSO < DISO < DHSO < BESO. Five β-diketones namely HTFA, HTTA, HFOD, HPMBP, HPMTFP are studied in combination with bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfoxide (BESO) to reveal their extraction ability. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  15. The solvent extraction of terbium and europium by di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid and various organophosphorous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Farah, K.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ by di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid, HDEHP in seven different solvents from an aqueous phase of 0.1 M ionic strength is studied as a function of the pH and the acid concentration. Antagonistic effects are observed when the extraction was studied by mixtures of HDEHP and tributylphosphate, TBP, or trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). (author)

  16. Literature Review: Crud Formation at the Liquid/Liquid Interface of TBP-Based Solvent-Extraction Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Casella, Amanda J.

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes the literature reviewed on crud formation at the liquid:liquid interface of solvent extraction processes. The review is focused both on classic PUREX extraction for industrial reprocessing, especially as practiced at the Hanford Site, and for those steps specific to plutonium purification that were used at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford Site.

  17. GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Different Solvent Extracts of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37±1.24 mg GAE/g and flavonoid contents (26.90±1.35 mg RE/g and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32% followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26% at 500 μg/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63±30.95 μM of Fe (II/g dry weight was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695.92±25.44 μM of Fe (II/g dry weight. The methanol extract showed greater antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. However, both hexane and acetone extracts failed to inhibit E. coli. S. aureus and C. albicans were more susceptible to all the extracts. Further, GC-MS analysis confirmed the occurrence of a total 46 phytocompounds in different solvent extracts. Some of the major compounds included carvacrol (37.7%, tetracontane (16.6%, squalene (15.6%, tetrapentacontane (13.7%, and Phytol (12.9%. In conclusion, extraction solvents influenced the recovery of phytocompounds and the highest pharmacological activities of the methanol extract could be correlated to the presence of additional bioactive compounds.

  18. GC-MS Based Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Different Solvent Extracts of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Arumugam, Greetha; Kaur, Ravinder; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Yusoff, Mazina Mohd; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the phytochemistry, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects of Plectranthus amboinicus leaves extracted in different solvents. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic (94.37 ± 1.24 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (26.90 ± 1.35 mg RE/g) and exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (90.13 ± 3.32%) followed by the acetone extract (80.23 ± 3.26%) at 500  μ g/mL concentration. Similarly, the highest ferric ion reduction potential (849.63 ± 30.95  μ M of Fe (II)/g dry weight) was exhibited by the methanol extract followed by the acetone extract (695.92 ± 25.44  μ M of Fe (II)/g dry weight). The methanol extract showed greater antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens ( Bacillus subtilis , Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , and Candida albicans ). However, both hexane and acetone extracts failed to inhibit E. coli . S. aureus and C. albicans were more susceptible to all the extracts. Further, GC-MS analysis confirmed the occurrence of a total 46 phytocompounds in different solvent extracts. Some of the major compounds included carvacrol (37.7%), tetracontane (16.6%), squalene (15.6%), tetrapentacontane (13.7%), and Phytol (12.9%). In conclusion, extraction solvents influenced the recovery of phytocompounds and the highest pharmacological activities of the methanol extract could be correlated to the presence of additional bioactive compounds.

  19. Radiation stability of diglycolamide functionalized calix[4]arenes in ionic liquid: Solvent extraction, EPR and GC–MS studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, A; Mohapatra, P.K.; Patil, A.B.; Kadam, R.M.; Verboom, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid-based solvent systems containing diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) are efficient for actinide ion extraction from nitric acid feeds. Therefore, the radiolytic stability of three C4DGAs (wide-rim, narrow-rim and both side DGA-functionalized calix[4]arenes) and TODGA

  20. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Breil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC to obtain the distribution of lipids classes and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID to obtain fatty acid profiles. Our aim was to correlate simulation with experimentation for extraction and solvation of lipids with bio-based solvents in order to make a preliminary evaluation for the replacement of hexane to extract lipids from microorganisms. Differences between theory and practice were noted for several solvents, such as CPME, MeTHF and ethyl acetate, which appeared to be good candidates to replace hexane.

  1. Estimation of rare earth elements in uranium matrix after solvent extraction of uranium as uranium-antipyrine-anion complex using chloroform as solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Roopa; Murthy, D.S.R.; Malhotra, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The neutron economy in a nuclear reactor dictates the occurrence of neutron absorbers at very low levels. Hence the determination of lanthanides especially Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy is one of the most difficult and complicated analytical tasks particularly in high uranium matrix. Solvent extraction is a potent and versatile technique for the separation of lanthanides. The systems generally used for lanthanide extraction are TBP-nitrate, TBP-chloride, TBP-thiocyanate TOPO, DEHPA-nitrate etc. However, these methods of extraction of lanthanides fail to give a clear cut separation for their determination from uranium matrix. Hence analytical procedures have been standardised for extraction of uranium matrix into the organic phase leaving lanthanides unextracted in the aqueous phase. In this direction Cyanex-923 a mixture of 4 trialkyl phosphine oxides, TBP- TOPO and trioctylamine in xylene have been used for extraction of uranium and consequent determination of lanthanides by ICP-AES in the aqueous phase. In this paper the authors have investigated uranium -antipyrine -anion, a different combination other than the well known phosphine oxides and tertiary amines for extraction of uranium

  2. Arsenic Speciation of Solvent-Extracted Leachate from New and Weathered CCA-Treated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHAN, BERNINE I.; SOLO - GABRIELE, HELENA M.; DUBEY, BRAJESH K.; TOWNSEND, TIMOTHY G.; CAI, YONG

    2009-01-01

    For the past 60 yr, chromate-copper-arsenate (CCA) has been used to pressure-treat millions of cubic meters of wood in the United States for the construction of many outdoor structures. Leaching of arsenic from these structures is a possible health concern as there exists the potential for soil and groundwater contamination. While previous studies have focused on total arsenic concentrations leaching from CCA-treated wood, information pertaining to the speciation of arsenic leached is limited. Since arsenic toxicity is dependent upon speciation, the objective of this study was to identify and quantify arsenic species leaching from new and weathered CCA-treated wood and CCA-treated wood ash. Solvent-extraction experiments were carried out by subjecting the treated wood and the ash to solvents of varying pH values, solvents defined in the EPA’s Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), rainwater, deionized water, and seawater. The generated leachates were analyzed for inorganic As(III) and As(V) and the organoarsenic species, monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by hydride generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC–HG-AFS). Only the inorganic species were detected in any of the wood leachates; no organoarsenic species were found. Inorganic As(V) was the major detectable species leaching from both new and weathered wood. The weathered wood leached relatively more overall arsenic and was attributed to increased inorganic As(III) leaching. The greater presence of As(III) in the weathered wood samples as compared to the new wood samples may be due to natural chemical and biological transformations during the weathering process. CCA-treated wood ash leached more arsenic than unburned wood using the SPLP and TCLP, and ash samples leached more inorganic As(III) than the unburned counterparts. Increased leaching was due

  3. Study on extraction of cellulose from corn cobs by deep eutectic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie LIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore a new method for the separation and extraction of cellulose, cellulose is extracted from waste biomass corn cobs by deep eutectic solvent(DES, in which 1,4-butanediol (BDO and choline chloride (ChCl are used as the donor and the acceptor of hydrogen bonds, respectively. The influence of the molar ration of ChCl to BDO, the treatment temperature, the interaction time and liquid-solid ratio to fiber material yield and cellulose content under ordinary pressure is investigated through experiment. The structures of raw materials and the products are characterized by using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric (TG/DTG, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The result shows that the fiber material yield and cellulose content are 44.6% and 77.8%, respectively under the optimum conditions which are ChCl-BDO molar ration of 1∶3, treatment temperature of 180 ℃, reaction time of 4 h and liquid-solid ration of 20∶1(g∶g, and under the condition, the removal rate of lignin and hemicellulose are 95% and 75%, respectively, with only losing a little cellulose. The FT-IR, TG/DTG, XRD and SEM results show that the lignin and hemicellulose in the corn cobs are greatly removed after DES treatment. The fiber material internal is more loose and the structure of the cellulose is barely damaged. The result shows that DES has a good prospect in the field of cellulose separation and extraction.

  4. Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO 4 - ) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4'(5')[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO 4 - extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO 4 - extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar reg-sign M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 x 10 -5 M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent

  5. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, funded the development of an enhanced Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. This effort lead to the development of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) with Tris (3,7-dimethyl octyl) guanidine (TiDG). The first deployment target for the NGS solvent is within the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the new chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the affected facility. This report provides the calculated data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers known to be used or present in the MCU, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Saltstone facilities that will be exposed to the NGS showed that TiDG could selectively affect the elastomers and some thermoplastics to varying extents, but the typical use of these polymers in a confined geometry will likely prevent the NGS from impacting component performance. The polymers identified as of primary concern include Grafoil® (flexible graphite), Tefzel®, Isolast®, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and fluorocarbon rubber (FKM). Certain polymers like NBR and EPDM were found to interact mildly with NGS but their calculated swelling and the confined geometry will impede interaction with NGS. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid (cellulose fibers-reinforced glycerin and protein) may leach protein and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) may leach plasticizer (such as Bis-Ethylhexyl-Phthalates) into the NGS solvent. Either case

  6. Comparison of solvent/derivatization agent systems for determination of extractable toluene diisocyanate from flexible polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangronsveld, Erik; Berckmans, Steven; Spence, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) is produced from the reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyols. Limited and conflicting results exist in the literature concerning the presence of unreacted TDI remaining in FPF as determined by various solvent extraction and analysis techniques. This study reports investigations into the effect of several solvent/derivatization agent combinations on extractable TDI results and suggests a preferred method. The suggested preferred method employs a syringe-based multiple extraction of foam samples with a toluene solution of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine. Extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography using an ion trap mass spectrometry detection technique. Detection limits of the method are ~10ng TDI g(-1) foam (10 ppb, w/w) for each TDI isomer (i.e. 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI). The method was evaluated by a three-laboratory interlaboratory comparison using two representative foam samples. The total extractable TDI results found by the three labs for the two foams were in good agreement (relative standard deviation of the mean of 30-40%). The method has utility as a basis for comparing FPFs, but the interpretation of extractable TDI results using any solvent as the true value for 'free' or 'unreacted' TDI in the foam is problematic, as demonstrated by the difference in the extracted TDI results from the different extraction systems studied. Further, a consideration of polyurethane foam chemistry raises the possibility that extractable TDI may result from decomposition of parts of the foam structure (e.g. dimers, biurets, and allophanates) by the extraction system.

  7. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caunii Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl iminoazanium. The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50 proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL > methanol (0.079mg/mL. The profiles of each extract (fingerprint were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint.

  8. Recovery of Acetic Acid from An Ethanol Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Using Various Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thi Thu Huong; Kim, Tae Hyun [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Um, Byung Hwan [Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using various solvents was studied for recovery of acetic acid from a synthetic ethanol fermentation broth. The microbial fermentation of sugars presented in hydrolyzate gives rise to acetic acid as a byproduct. In order to obtain pure ethanol for use as a biofuel, fermentation broth should be subjected to acetic acid removal step and the recovered acetic acid can be put to industrial use. Herein, batch LLE experiments were carried out at 25°C using a synthetic fermentation broth comprising 20.0 g l{sup -1} acetic acid and 5.0 g l{sup -1} ethanol. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and tri-n-alkylphosphine oxide (TAPO) were utilized as solvents, and the extraction potential of each solvent was evaluated by varying the organic phase-to-aqueous phase ratios as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0. The highest acetic acid extraction yield was achieved with TAPO; however, the lowest ethanol-to-acetic acid extraction ratio was obtained using TOPO. In a single-stage batch extraction, 97.0 % and 92.4 % of acetic acid could be extracted using TAPO and TOPO when the ratio of organic-to-aqueous phases is 4:1 respectively. A higher solvent-to-feed ratio resulted in an increase in the ethanol-to-acetic acid ratio, which decreased both acetic acid purity and acetic acid extraction yield.

  9. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  10. Stepwise elution of a three-phase solvent system in centrifugal partition extraction: a new strategy for the fractionation and phytochemical screening of a crude bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Romain; Hubert, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Tree bark represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules for the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents. However, the detailed screening of secondary metabolites in crude bark extracts is often hampered by the presence of tannins, which are difficult to separate from other plant constituents. In the present study, a new centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) method was developed in order to fractionate a crude bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). A three-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane, methyl tert-butyl ether, acetonitrile and water was optimised for the stepwise elution at 20 mL/min of different phytochemical classes according to their hydrophobicity. Onedimensional and two-dimensional NMR analyses of the simplified fractions were then performed in order to characterise potentially interesting metabolites. In one step, 5 g of the initial crude extract were efficiently fractionated to yield highly simplified fractions that contained triterpenes, ellagic acid derivatives, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. All undesired compounds, that is, the highly abundant water-soluble tannins (78.8%), were totally removed and each run was rapidly achieved in 90 min on a the multi-gram scale and with low solvent volumes. Centrifugal partition extraction in the elution mode using a three-phase solvent system can thus be proposed as an efficient and cost-effective alternative for a rapid fractionation of crude bark extracts and for an effective screening of potentially active secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Mathematical modeling of cadmium(II) solvent extraction from neutral and acidic chloride media using Cyanex 923 extractant as a metal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A A; Coll, M T; Fortuny, A; Rathore, N S; Sastre, A M

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes experimental work and the mathematical modeling of solvent extraction of cadmium(II) from neutral and acidic aqueous chloride media with a Cyanex 923 extractant in Exxol D-100. Solvent extraction experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of variations in the composition of the aqueous and organic phases on the efficiency of cadmium(II) extraction. In neutral and acidic chloride conditions, the extraction of cadmium(II) by the organophosphorous extractant Cyanex 923 (L) is based on the solvation mechanism of neutral H(n)CdCl((2+n)) species and the formation of H(n)CdCl((2+n))L(q) complexes in the organic phase, where n=0, 1, 2 and q=1, 2. The mathematical model of cadmium(II) extraction was derived from the mass balances and chemical equilibria involved in the separation system. The model was computed with the Matlab software. The equilibrium parameters for metal extraction, i.e. the stability constants of the aqueous Cd-Cl complexes, the formation constants of the acidic Cd-Cl species and the metal equilibrium extraction constants, were proposed. The optimized constants were appropriate, as there was good agreement when the model was fitted to the experimental data for each of the experiments. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solvent Extraction of Co, Ni and Mn from NCM Sulfate Leaching Solution of Li(NCMO2 Secondary Battery Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hyun Seon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the study on recycling Li(NCMO2 lithium-ion battery scraps, solvent extraction experiments were performed using different extraction agents such as PC88A, Cyanex272 and D2EHPA to separate Co, Ni and Mn from the leaching solution. When the ratio of Mn to Ni was about 0.4 in the leaching solution, the separation factor for Co and Mn was found to be less than 10 so that the separation of Co and Ni was insufficient. When solvent extraction was done using the solution with the lower Mn/Ni ratio of 0.05 where Mn was removed by potassium permanganate and chlorine dioxide, more than 99% of Mn could be extracted through five courses of extraction using 30vol% D2EHPA while the extraction rates of Co and Ni were around 17% and 11%, respectively. In the case that Mn was removed from the solution, the extraction rate of Co was higher than 99% whereas less than 7% Ni was extracted using Cyanex272 suggesting that Co and Ni elements were effectively separated.

  13. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound assisted extraction of natural dye from jackfruit's wood (Artocarpus heterophyllus): The effect of ethanol concentration as a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, Ike Dayi; Gala, Selfina; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Azo dye are synthetic organic dyes which has an azo group (- N = N -) as chromophore. Azo dye is resistand to decomposition process and harmfull for the environment and human being. Natural dye can be used as substitution of azo dye at textile industry. Natural dye are eco - friendly and can be applied for dyeing of fibrous material. Natural dye can be obtained from natural origin such as leaves, wood, or roots. The wood of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) can used as natural source of natural dye. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is a new method that can be used to extract natural dye from jackfruit's wood. The aim of this research are to study about influence of ethanol concentration as solvent and extraction kinetic. Jackfruit's wood dust from sawmill used for the experimentation were sifted by sieve 35 mesh. Ethanol 96% used as solvent of this experiment and varied the concentration in volume to volume ratio (v/v). Experiment were carried out from 20 to 50 minutes. The result of this experiment shows that ethanol concentration influenced yield of extraction from jackfruit's wood. Concentration of ethanol will be affected polarity of solvent. The Peleg model was used to describe about kinetic model of natural dye extraction. Value of k1 and k2 constant are 0.003835 and 0.04186 respectively.

  15. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2009-12-01

    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength.

  16. Recovery by solvent extraction of vanadium from spent catalysts leaching solutions using Primene 81R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, L. J.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of vanadium contained in solutions coming from spent catalysts leaching process by means of solvent extraction techniques using primary amine Primene 81R, has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of these effluents. Results obtained allows to propose an extraction mechanism for vanadium(V with this amine in acidic media, verifying the great influence of pH on the process and fix adequate ranges for variables: O/A ratio, organic phase composition, pH, stirring speed and phase separation speed. These values were simulated in industrial conditions. Vanadium is finally recovered by means of precipitation as ammonium metavanadate and later calcination to obtain vanadium pentoxide of commercial grade.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la recuperación del vanadio contenido en soluciones procedentes del proceso de lixiviación de catalizadores agotados, por medio de la técnica de extracción con disolventes, empleando la amina primaria PRIMENE 81R, planteando un proceso industrial multietapa para el tratamiento de estos efluentes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten proponer un mecanismo de extracción para el vanadio(V, con esta amina en medio ácido, verificando la gran influencia del pH en el proceso y Ajando los rangos adecuados para las siguientes variables: relación O/A, composición de la fase orgánica, pH, velocidad de agitación y velocidad de separación de fases. Esos valores se simularon en condiciones industriales. El vanadio se recupera finalmente precipitándolo como metavanadato amónico y posterior calcinación para obtener pentóxido de vanadio de calidad comercial.

  17. INTEC High-Level Waste Studies Universal Solvent Extraction Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Battisti, T.; Herrmann, S.; Losinski, S.J.; McBride, S.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes a feasibility study that has been conducted on the Universal Solvent Extraction (UNEX) Process for treatment and disposal of 4.3 million liters of INEEL sodium-bearing waste located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This feasibility study covers two scenarios of treatment. The first, the UNEX Process, partitions the Cs/Sr from the SBW and creates remote-handled LLW and contact-handled TRU waste forms. Phase one of this study, covered in the 30% review documents, dealt with defining the processes and defining the major unit operations. The second phase of the project, contained in the 60% review, expanded on the application of the UNEX processes and included facility requirements and definitions. Two facility options were investigated for the UNEX process, resulting in a 2 x 2 matrix of process/facility scenarios as follows: Option A, UNEX at Greenfield Facility, Option B, Modified UNEX at Greenfield Facility, Option C, UNEX at NWCF, th is document, covers life-cycle costs for all options presented along with results and conclusions determined from the study

  18. PUBG; purex solvent extraction process model. [IBM3033; CDC CYBER175; FORTRAN IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldard, J.F.; Beyerlein, A.L.

    PUBG is a chemical model of the Purex solvent extraction system, by which plutonium and uranium are recovered from spent nuclear fuel rods. The system comprises a number of mixer-settler banks. This discrete stage structure is the basis of the algorithms used in PUBG. The stages are connected to provide for countercurrent flow of the aqueous and organic phases. PUBG uses the common convention that has the aqueous phase enter at the lowest numbered stage and exit at the highest one; the organic phase flows oppositely. The volumes of the mixers are smaller than those of the settlers. The mixers generate a fine dispersion of one phase in the other. The high interfacial area is intended to provide for rapid mass transfer of the plutonium and uranium from one phase to the other. The separation of this dispersion back into the two phases occurs in the settlers. The species considered by PUBG are Hydrogen (1+), Plutonium (4+), Uranyl Oxide (2+), Plutonium (3+), Nitrate Anion, and reductant in the aqueous phase and Hydrogen (1+), Uranyl Oxide (2+), Plutonium (4+), and TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) in the organic phase. The reductant used in the Purex process is either Uranium (4+) or HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate).IBM3033;CDC CYBER175; FORTRAN IV; OS/MVS or OS/MVT (IBM3033), NOS 1.3 (CDC CYBER175); The IBM3033 version requires 150K bytes of memory for execution; 62,000 (octal) words are required by the CDC CYBER175 version..

  19. New design centrifugal contactor remotely controlled for solvent extraction operations for feed clarification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelieri, T.; Gerardi, A.; Petrigliano, G.; Siepe, V.

    1987-01-01

    The project concept of the nuclear facilities has gone through an important evolution in the past years in relation to the need of: garantiing the remote maintenance reducing workers exposure when operating in high-risk areas; making easier final decommissioning operations of the plants. In this way the ITREC pilot plant (built in 1970s') for its modular characteristic based on Rack Removal System (R.R.S.) was the first example of this new concept of project. A further development, in the field of remote maintenance and decommissioning operations, we can obtain associating to the R.R.S. concept that of projecting the single components (only for the critical ones) remotely demountable in their higher radioactive parts to consent the maintenance-substitution and/or decommissioning operations without interfering with remaining parts of the plant which it is connected. All of this helps in the realization of the aim making better plant operations reducing drastically work time and therefore non-functioning period of the plants. These principles have been applicated in the realization of two important components in reprocessing plant: the centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction and feed clarification centrifuge

  20. Solvent-extraction and Langmuir-adsorption-based transport in chemically functionalized nanopore membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Damian J; Baker, Lane A; Martin, Charles R

    2005-11-10

    We have investigated the transport properties of nanopore alumina membranes that were rendered hydrophobic by functionalization with octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS). The pores in these ODS-modified membranes are so hydrophobic that they are not wetted by water. Nevertheless, nonionic molecules can be transported from an aqueous feed solution on one side of the membrane, through the dry nanopores, and into an aqueous receiver solution on the other side. The transport mechanism involves Langmuir-type adsorption of the permeating molecule onto the ODS layers lining the pore walls, followed by solid-state diffusion along these ODS layers; we have measured the diffusion coefficients associated with this transport process. We have also investigated the transport properties of membranes prepared by filling the ODS-modified pores with the water-immiscible (hydrophobic) liquid mineral oil. In this case the transport mechanism involves solvent extraction of the permeating molecule into the mineral oil subphase confined with the pores, followed by solution-based diffusion through this liquid subphase. Because of this different transport mechanism, the supported-liquid membranes show substantially better transport selectivity than the ODS-modified membranes that contain no liquid subphase.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  3. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO 4 )) in C 6 H 6 has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA) 3 TDAHA(A - = Cl - or ClO 4 - ). The values of the equilibrium constant K T,S have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined

  4. Solvent effects on extraction of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III), with decanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Fujii, Yukio; Mizuta, Masateru

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of aluminum(III) and indium(III) with decanoic acid in 1-octanol was carried out at 25 deg C and at an aqueous ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4 ). Monomeric and tetrameric aluminum(III) decanoates and monomeric indium(III) decanoate are responsible for the extraction. From a comparison of the present results with those obtained from the previous works, the polymerization of the extracted species was found to be more extensive in benzene than in 1-octanol, and the metal decanoates were highly polymerized in the following order in both solvents: Al > Ga > In. (author)

  5. The Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity (Streptococcus agalactiae by Using Mahkota Dewa Extract (Phaleria macrocarpa L. with Diffirent Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiana Safitri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of mahkota dewa extract and the effective concentration of mahkota dewa extract against Streptococcus agalactiae. This research was conducted from 2Mayth to 2Juneth 2016. The material ware Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria which isolated from mastitis milk, mahkota dewa which extracted using Aquades and ethanol. The method design was experiment research using Nested Design with 6 treatments and 5 replications. The concentrations of the treatments were P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30%, P4 (40% and P5 (50% and positive control P0 (iodips 10%. The collected data were analyzed using the analysis of variance indicated the significant effects, the least significant different test (LSD was then employed. Mahkota dewa extract using ethanol (50% result showed that significantly (P<0.01 on growth of Streptococcus agalactiae was 20.34± 0.92mm. Mahkota dewa extract using aquades (50% result showed that significantly (P<0.01 on growth of Streptococcus agalactiae was 10.0 ± 0.50 mm. The conclusion of this research is Mahkota dewa fruits extract with ethanol had inhibitory higher in habiting the Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria compared to aquades solvent. The best of treatment of Mahkota dewa fruits extract with ethanol and Aquades solvent in concentration 50% had a high ability to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae.

  6. Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Arroyo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Germanium recovery from coal fly ash by hydrometallurgical procedures was studied at the pilot scale (5 kg of fly ash/h. Results were used to design the equipment of a demonstration-sized plant (200 kg of fly ash/h. The process is based on hydrometallurgical operations: firstly a germanium extraction from fly ash by leaching and a consequent Ge separation from the other elements present in the solution by solvent extraction procedures. Based on the experimental results, mass balances and McCabe-Thiele diagrams were applied to determine the number of steps of the solvent extraction stage. Different arrangements have been studied and a countercurrent process with three steps in extraction and six steps in elution was defined. A residence time of 5 min was fixed in both the extraction and elution stages. Volumetric ratios in extraction and stripping were: aqueous phase/organic phase = 5 and organic phase/stripping phase = 5, so a concentration factor of 25 is achieved. Mixers and decanters were completely defined. The maximum extracted and eluted germanium was estimated and a global efficiency of 94% was achieved. The cost-effectiveness of the equipment was estimated using the Lang factors.

  7. Results Of Analytical Sample Crosschecks For Next Generation Solvent Extraction Samples Isopar L Concentration And pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the implementation process for the Next Generation Cesium Extraction Solvent (NGCS), SRNL and F/H Lab performed a series of analytical cross-checks to ensure that the components in the NGCS solvent system do not constitute an undue analytical challenge. For measurement of entrained Isopar(reg s ign) L in aqueous solutions, both labs performed similarly with results more reliable at higher concentrations (near 50 mg/L). Low bias occurred in both labs, as seen previously for comparable blind studies for the baseline solvent system. SRNL recommends consideration to use of Teflon(trademark) caps on all sample containers used for this purpose. For pH measurements, the labs showed reasonable agreement but considerable positive bias for dilute boric acid solutions. SRNL recommends consideration of using an alternate analytical method for qualification of boric acid concentrations.

  8. Recovery of Cu(II from diluted aqueous solutions by non-dispersive solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, E. J.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The removal of copper from diluted aqueous solutions with ACORGA M5640 extractant using non-dispersive solvent extraction technology was studied. It was possible to remove Cu(II below the international standars from solutions having initially as low concentration as 0,01 g/l under various experimental conditions, i.e aqueous pH 4.0, 10 % v/v ACORGA M5640 in Exxol D100, an organic flow of 100 ml/min, and an aqueous flow 50ml/min. Since the removal occurs by chelating ion exchange between copper from solution and protons from the extractant, the former was stripped by using a 180 g/l sulphuric acid solution which flowed (50 ml/min through the tube side organic was passed (400 ml/min through the shell side of the fibers of the module

    Se estudia la eliminación del cobre presente en disoluciones acuosas diluidas empleando el agente de extracción ACORGA M5640 y la tecnología de extracción con disolventes no dispersiva. Bajo las condiciones experimentales estudiadas, pH de la fase acuosa 4,0 ±0,1, 10 % v/v ACORGA M5640 en Exxsol D100, flujo de la fase orgánica 100 ml/min, flujo de la fase acuosa 50 ml/min, es posible eliminar el Cu(II, por debajo de los límites marcados internacionalmente, en disoluciones con un contenido tan bajo como 0,01 g/1 del metal. Debido a que la extracción transcurre mediante un intercambio catiónico (y formación de un compuesto tipo quelato entre el cobre presente en el medio acuoso y los protones del agente de extracción, el metal se puede reextraer mediante la utilización de una disolución de 180 g/1 de ácido sulfúrico que fluye (50 ml/min a través de la parte interior de las fibras del módulo, mientras que la fase orgánica fluye (400 ml/min por la parte exterior de las mismas fibras.

  9. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil: minimizing sample pretreatment using automated Soxhlet with ethyl acetate as extraction solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolar, Oliver H J; Rost, Helmut; Braun, Rudolf; Loibner, Andreas P

    2002-05-15

    A simplified sample pretreatment method for industrially PAH-contaminated soils applying automated Soxhlet (Soxtherm) with ethyl acetate as extraction solvent is presented. Laborious pretreatment steps such as drying of samples, cleanup of crude extracts, and solvent exchange were allowed to be bypassed without notable performance impact. Moisture of the soil samples did not significantly influence recoveries of PAHs at a wide range of water content for the newly developed method. However, the opposite was true for the standard procedure using the more apolar 1:1 (v/v) n-hexane/acetone solvent mixture including postextraction treatments recommended by the U.S. EPA. Moreover, ethyl acetate crude extracts did not appreciably effect the chromatographic performance (HPLC-(3D)FLD), which was confirmed by a comparison of the purity of PAH spectra from both pretreatment methods. Up to 20% (v/v) in acetonitrile, ethyl acetate proved to be fully compatible with the mobile phase of the HPLC whereas the same concentration of n-hexane/acetone in acetonitrile resulted in significant retention time shifts. The newly developed pretreatment method was applied to three historically contaminated soils from different sources with extraction efficiencies not being significantly different compared to the standard procedure. Finally, the certified reference soil CRM 524 was subjected to the simplified procedure resulting in quantitative recoveries (>92%) for all PAHs analyzed.

  10. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  11. Identification of Major Flavone C-Glycosides and Their Optimized Extraction from Cymbidium kanran Using Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Jeong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium kanran, an orchid exclusively distributed in Northeast Asia, has been highly valued as a decorative plant and traditional herbal medicine. Here, C. kanran extracts were prepared in 70% aqueous methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and subjected to liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis, which were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis, respectively. It was found that the extracts were rich in flavone C-glycosides including vicenin-2, vicenin-3, schaftoside, vitexin, and isovitexin. Ten deep eutectic solvents (DESs were synthesized by combining choline chloride (hydrogen bond acceptor with various polyols and diols (hydrogen bond donors and were tested as a medium for the efficient production of extracts enriched with potentially bioactive flavone C-glycosides from C. kanran. A DES named ChCl:DPG, composed of choline chloride and dipropylene glycol at a 1:4 molar ratio, exhibited the best extraction yields. Then, the effects of extraction conditions on the extraction efficiency were investigated by response surface methodology. Lower water content in the extraction solvent and longer extraction time during UAE were desirable for higher extraction yields. Under the statistically optimized conditions, in which 100 mg of C. kanran powder were extracted in 0.53 mL of a mixture of ChCl:DPG and water (74:26, w/w for 86 min, a total of 3.441 mg g−1 flavone C-glycosides including 1.933 mg g−1 vicenin-2 was obtained. This total yield was 196%, 131%, and 71% more than those obtained using 100% methanol, water, and 70% methanol, respectively.

  12. Uranium concentrate obtained from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction using ammonium sulfate as extractant agent; Obtencao de concentrado de uranio a partir de licor sulfurico por extracao por solventes utilizando sulfato de amonio como agente reextratante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.br; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    Results of uranium concentrate obtainment from sulfuric liquor by solvent extraction followed by chemical precipitation techniques are presented. In the extraction process a tertiary amine as extractant agent and ammonium sulfate solution as stripping agent were used. Uranium was precipitated from the pregnant strip solution as ammonium diuranate by addition of ammonium hydroxide solution. Equilibrium pH and chloride content in the loaded solvent were the main interference on the uranium stripping stage. From a chloride-free uranium loaded organic phase a pregnant strip solution containing 33.2 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and a stripped solvent with 0.006 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8} using 5 stages of mixer-settlers were obtained. The chemical precipitation stage yielded a high purity ammonium diuranate precipitate with a recovery of 99.98%. After calcination, the product presented 99.7 % U{sub 3}O{sub 8} content. (author)

  13. Solvent extraction behavior of several elements with long chain amines in the presence of thiourea as a complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    The solvent estraction behaviour of U, Fe, Cd, In, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Mn, Cr, Ag, Bi, Pb, Tl, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir, Os, Au, Hg, Sn, and Sb with tri-n-octylamine diluted with benzene, xylene, varsol and methyl-isobutyl-cetone from HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 and HI is investigated. The effect of thiourea as a complexing ligand, giving rise to unextracted cationic species of several metallic ions and its consequence in the extraction by the amine is described. The effect of an acidified thiourea solution for scribbing the organic phase is studied as well. It is demonstrated that the stable cationic metal-thiourea complexes are not extracted. The study confirms that the extraction mechanisms is an ion exchange association between the protonated amine and the extracted anionic species. Special emphasis is given to the uranium extraction and its decontamination from several elements. Applications of the new technique are described [pt

  14. Solvent Extraction and Separation of Chromium(III) and (V I) in Aqueous Solutions with Trioctylphosphine Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, T.; Yamada, M.

    1999-01-01

    The solvent extraction of chromium(III) and (V I) in aqueous solutions with a solvating type extractant, trioctylphosphine oxide(TOPO), in hexane is studied. Kinetically inert Cr 3+ is extracted from 1 mol dm -3 sodium perchlorate solution very quickly and quantitatively as Cr(H 2 O · TOPO) 6 3+ (CIO 4 -) 3 . Chromium(V I) in hydrochloric acid is extracted effectively as the H 2 CrO $ (H CI) n centre dot TOPO m species ( m = 2 or 3, n = 0 to 2) and the distribution ratio increased by an increase in the acid concentration. From these, a procedure is proposed for the extraction of both chromium(V I) and chromium(III) in aqueous solution separately with 0.1 mol dm -3 TOPO in hexane

  15. Separation of Ce and La from Synthetic Chloride Leach Solution of Monazite Sand by Precipitation and Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Raju; Jeon, Ho Seok; Lee, Man Seung

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation and solvent extraction experiments have been performed to recover light rare earths from simulated monazite sand chloride leach solutions. Precipitation conditions were obtained to recover Ce by adding NaClO as an oxidant. Among some cationic extractants (PC 88A, D2EHPA, Cyanex 272, LIX 63), PC 88A showed the best performance to separate La from the resulting chloride solution. Furthermore, the mixture of PC 88A with other solvating (TBP, TOPO) and amine extractants (Alamine 336, Aliquat 336) was tested to increase the separation factor of La from Pr and Nd. The use of mixed extractants greatly enhanced the separation of La from the two other metals. McCabe-Thiele diagrams for the extraction of Pr and Nd with the PC 88A/Alamine 336 mixture were constructed.

  16. Preliminary study for the separation of rare earth group elements in medium and heavy fractions by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, P.S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study is the definition of a solvent extraction system suitable to achieve the separation of Rare Earth group elements, contained in hydrochloric acid media, into two fractions, medium and heavy rare earth groups. The experimental programme is proposed and developed in two parts, batch and continuous tests, with phosphonic acid, in an aliphatic diluent. In these tests, extraction and stripping behaviour of Y, Dy, Sm and Gd are examined, as they are the most concentrated elements in the solution feed. Y is the most extracted element and Dy is extracted along with Y due to the low separation factor Y/Dy = 3.64, identified for the system studied. Sm and Gd practically are not extracted into the organic phase and under the same conditions are easily scrubbed from it. Results obtained in batch were confirmed in continuous tests performed in laboratory scale mixer settlers assembly. It is proposed and successfully tested a solvent extraction circuit suitable to achieve the separation of the rare earth mixture studied in two concentrates one rich in Sm, Gd and the other rich in Dy, Y respectively. The point of fractioning of this mixture for the experimental conditions studied is located between the elements Gd and Dy. (author). 135 refs., 36 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Chemical Equilibrium and Synergism for Solvent Extraction of Trace Lithium with Thenoyltrifluoroacetone in the Presence of Trioctylphosphine Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sang; In, Gyo; Choi, Jong Moon

    2003-01-01

    Equilibria and applications of a synergistic extraction were studied for the determination of a trace lithium by using thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as ligands. Several equations were derived for the extraction of lithium into m-xylene as a phase of Li-TTA·mTOPO adduct. Distribution coefficients and extraction constant were determined together with a stability constant of the adduct. The adduct was quantitatively extracted from the basic solution of higher than pH 9 by shaking for 30 minutes. m- Xylene was selected as an optimum solvent by comparing the extraction efficiency among several kinds of organic solvents. The stability constant (β 2 ) for Li-TTA/2TOPO was 150 times higher than Li-TTA/TOPO. The distribution coefficient of Li-TTA/2TOPO into m-xylene was 9.12 and the logarithmic extraction constant (log Kex) was 6.76. Trace lithium of sub-ppm level in seawater samples could be determined under modified conditions and a detection limit equivalent to 3 times standard deviation for background absorption was 0.42 ng/mL

  18. Effect of White Turmeric Extract (Curcuma zedoaria Using Zam-zam Solvent Compare with Ethanol Solvent Against Breast Cancer Cell T47D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isna Hudaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Curcuma zedoaria is one of the herbal plants potentially protects and cures many diseases, particularly as anti-cancer and anti-tumor. Anti-cancer active compounds of it are flavonoid, phenolic, and saponin. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the cytotoxicity of Curcuma zedoria extract (CZE. Methods: Experimental Quasi with post test non equivalent control group design on T47D cell line at Biology laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Sultan Agung Islamic University, Semarang. The research was consisted of 2 groups, namely: intervention group with CZE zam-zam solvent and intervention group with CZE ethanol solvent given 10 different dosages each for 1.000 μg/mL; 500 μg/mL; 250 μg/mL; 125 μg/mL; 62.5 μg/mL; 31.25 μg/mL; 15.62 μg/mL; 7.81 μg/mL; 3.90 μg/mL; 1.95 μg/mL. Cytotoxicity test of IC50 using direct counting method and analyzed by probit analysis. Results: IC50 value of CZE in zam-zam and ethanol solvent were 28.24 μg/ml and 13.71 µg/ml respectively at the same 24 hours incubation period. Chi-square test revealed p value was 0.000 (α = 0.05, meaning that there was significant relationship. Conclusion: CZE activity using ethanol is highly active while CZE using zam-zam water is moderate and both of them have the toxicity on breast cancer cell. As the result, apoptosis process may occur.

  19. Mercury extraction by the TRUEX process solvent. II. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, 203 Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl 2 , from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO 3 and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na 2 CO 3 . Because experiments described here show that mercury can be extracted from SBW and stripped from the solvent, a process has been developed to partition mercury from the actinides in SBW. 10 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Solvent Vapor Annealing-Mediated Crystallization Directs Charge Generation, Recombination and Extraction in BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Babics, Maxime

    2017-12-19

    Small-molecule (SM) donors that can be solution-processed with fullerene acceptors (e.g., PC61/71BM), or their “nonfullerene” counterparts, are proving particularly promising for the realization of high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In several recent studies, solvent vapor annealing (SVA) protocols have been found to yield significant BHJ device efficiency improvements via structural changes in the active layer morphologies. However, the mechanisms by which active layer morphologies evolve when subjected to SVA treatments, and the structural factors impacting charge generation, carrier transport, recombination and extraction in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors, remain important aspects to be elucidated. In this report, we show that – in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors – selective crystallization promoted by SVA mediates the development of optimized morphologies across the active layers, setting domain sizes and boundaries. Examining BHJ solar cells subjected to various SVA exposure times, with BDT[2F]QdC as the SM donor and PC71BM as the acceptor, we connect those morphological changes to specific carrier effects, showing that crystal growth effectively directs charge generation and recombination. We find that the SM donor-pure domains growing at the expense of a mixed donor-acceptor phase play a determining role, establishing optimum networks with 10-20nm-sized domains during the SVA treatment. Longer SVA times result in highly textured active layers with crystalline domains that can exceed the lengthscale of exciton diffusion, while inducing detrimental vertical morphologies and deep carrier traps. Last, we emphasize the field-dependence charge generation occurring upon SVA-mediated crystallization and link this carrier effect to the mixed phase depletion across the BHJ active layer.