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Sample records for causing cauda equina

  1. Postoperative Spinal Epidural Haematoma Causing Cauda Equina Syndrome: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Delen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cauda equina syndrome is a neurological disorder defined by urinary and/or anal sphincter dysfunction, bilateral sciatica and bilateral motor and sensory deficits. Regarding the etiology, lumbar disc disease, spinal stenosis, tumors, haematomas, fractures, infectious diseases and ankylosing spondylitis are pathologies causing this syndrome. Spinal epidural haematomas are common amongst complications after spinal surgery. However the majority of these cases are asymptomatic, thus having little clinical importance. Symptomatic postoperative spinal epidural haematomas is a serious complication, and in order to prevent permanent neurologic deficit it requires urgent surgical intervention. This article aims to present the case of a patient with a spinal epidural haematoma after spinal stenosis surgery, causing cauda equina syndrome.

  2. Cauda equina (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area and continues through the vertebral canal as spinal nerves. Because of its resemblance to a horse's tail, the collection of these nerves at the end of the spinal cord is called the cauda equina. These nerves ...

  3. A rare cause of Cauda equina syndrome: Epidural high grade primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish A Mathesul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cauda equina syndrome (CES may be caused by herniated disc, tumor, trauma, and spinal infections. However, CES due to epidural high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is very rare. Up to our knowledge, few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of epidural high-grade NHL presenting as CES. A 55-year-old man presented with CES caused by extradural compression by primary NHL. The patient underwent an L4-L5 laminectomy. The operative findings were suggestive of well-demarcated epidural tumor. The final histopathological diagnosis revealed epidural high-grade NHL. NHL causing CES is rare. This report highlights the importance of keeping afresh the various causes of CES for prompt diagnosis and management.

  4. Pacinioma of the cauda equina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojc, Nika; Korsic, Marjan; Popovic, Mara

    2006-12-01

    Lesions composed of Pacinian corpuscles or showing Pacinian corpuscle differentiation have usually been described in relation to benign tumours of the peripheral nervous system or reactive hyperplastic processes. On the other hand, mature Pacinian corpuscles have occasionally been detected as part of intraspinal lumbosacral lipomas, a rare developmental anomaly usually associated with spina bifida. A lesion of the cauda equina composed of numerous mature Pacinian corpuscles and nerve fascicles embedded in adipose tissue in association with spina bifida occulta is described in a 5-month-old male with a sacral red papula. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cord-like mass in the region of the cauda equina, presumably connected to the subcutis. With the exception of a low lying, tethered spinal cord, there was no neurological deficit and the range of motor development was normal. In March 2005, at 17 months, surgery was carried out. A cord of yellow tissue was found running from the subcutis through the bone defect into the lumbosacral spinal canal. Intradurally, it ran parallel to the cauda equina, terminating at the conus medullaris. Fifteen months after the surgery the development of the child was normal. Only two similar cases have been reported so far. Due to their occurrence in the sacrococcygeal region and association with developmental anomalies, they have been regarded as malformations and the term Pacinioma has been suggested. Our case with clusters of Pacinian corpuscles may represent a rare variant of complex intraspinal lumbosacral lipomas, closely related to Paciniomas reported by Bale. PMID:17109790

  5. Impact of timing on surgical outcome in patients with cauda equina syndrome caused by lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bečulić, Hakija; Skomorac, Rasim; Jusić, Aldin; Alić, Fahrudin; Imamović, Melica; Mekić-Abazović, Alma; Efendić, Alma; Brkić, Harun; Denjalić, Amir

    2016-08-01

    Aim To analyze the relationship between timing of surgery and outcome in patients with cauda equina syndrome caused by lumbar disc herniation. Methods A retrospective, non-randomized clinical study included 25 consecutive patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by lumbar disc herniation. All patients were operated within 24 hours after hospitalization at the Department of Neurosurgery, Cantonal Hospital Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients were evaluated before surgery on the basis of complete history, neurological examination and neuroimaging evaluations using CT (computed tomography)and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Results Statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative bladder (p=0.05) and bowel (p=0.05) function was found. A significant number of patients had bladder and bowel recovery after surgery, nine (36%) and 11 (44%), respectively. Significant recovery of muscle strength was noted with complete recovery(5/5) in 12 (48%) and partial recovery in 13 (52%) patients. Complete sensory recovery was noted in 16 (64%), incomplete in four (16%), and in five (20%) patients there were no changes. Most commonly, patients with complete sensory recovery were operated within 48 hours of symptom onset. In most patients early surgery was associated with better outcome. Conclusion This research showed that early decompression correlated with better outcome. Patients with cauda equina syndrome must be cleared for surgery in optimal conditions and, if it possible within optimal timing for recovery (within 48 hours). PMID:27452326

  6. Apoplectic presentation of a cauda equina paraganglioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarjun, M. N.; Savardekar, Amey R.; Kishore, Kislay; Rao, Shilpa; Pruthi, Nupur; Rao, Malla Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cauda equina paragangliomas (CEPs) are rare spinal tumors that are mostly misdiagnosed preoperatively as ependymomas or schwannomas on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinically, they usually present with the gradual onset of back pain and radiculopathy rather than an acute cauda equina syndrome. Case Description: A 36-year-old female presented with an acute flaccid paraparesis/cauda equina syndrome. Based upon MRI studies, the predominant differential diagnoses included ependymoma or schwannoma. The intraoperative findings revealed an acute intralesional hemorrhage or apoplexy, responsible for the acute clinical deterioration. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the tumor was a paraganglioma. Conclusion: CEPs commonly present with mild symptoms and signs rather than the acute-onset of a flaccid paraparesis/cauda equina syndrome as seen in this case. Here, the authors review the radiological and histopathological characteristics of CEP and emphasize the role of IHC in differentiating “CEP” from the more common ependymomas. PMID:27127702

  7. Ectopic ganglion in cauda equina: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Andrew K; Fung, Kar-Ming; Peterson, Jo Elle G; Glenn, Chad A; Martin, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Macroscopic ectopic or heterotopic ganglionic tissue within the cauda equina is a very rare pathological finding and is usually associated with spinal dysraphism. However, it may mimic genuine neoplasms of the cauda equina. The authors describe a 29-year-old woman with a history of back pain, right leg pain, and urinary incontinence in whom imaging demonstrated an enhancing mass located in the cauda equina at the L1-2 interspace. The patient subsequently underwent biopsy and was found to have a focus of ectopic ganglionic tissue that was 1.3 cm in greatest dimension. To the authors' knowledge, ectopic or heterotopic ganglionic tissue within the cauda equina in a patient without evidence of spinal dysraphism has never been reported. This patient presented with imaging and clinical findings suggestive of a neoplasm, and an open biopsy proved the lesion to be ectopic ganglionic tissue. The authors suggest that ectopic ganglionic tissue be added to the list of differential diagnoses of a space-occupying lesion arising from the cauda equina. PMID:26871650

  8. Cauda Equina Neuritis: A Chronic Idiopathic Polyneuritis in Two Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseaux, C. G.; Futcher, K. G.; Clark, E G; Naylor, J M

    1984-01-01

    Two cases of cauda equina neuritis are compared and contrasted. Neurological deficits of the tail and perineum were noted and functional deficits were seen in gait, urination, defecation and cranial nerve function. Lesions consisted of nonsuppurative inflammation of the nerve trunks and proliferation of the perineurium of the cauda equina. Cranial nerve involvement in one case supported a diagnosis of polyneuritis equi rather than cauda equina neuritis. The possible etiologies and pathogenesi...

  9. Herniated intervertebral disc associated with a lumbar spine dislocation as a cause of Cauda Equina syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kreichati, Gaby E.; Kassab, Farid N.; Kharrat, Khalil E.

    2006-01-01

    To report a case of Cauda Equina syndrome with the completion of the paralysis after the reduction of a L4L5 dislocation due to a herniated disc. Although several articles have described a post-traumatic disc herniation in the cervical spinal canal, this is not well known in the lumbar region. A 30-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with blunt trauma to the chest and abdomen with multiple contusions plus a dislocation of L4-L5 with an incomplete neurological injury. After an emer...

  10. Cauda equina syndrome in the dog: radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogs with clinical signs typical of cauda equina syndrome require careful evaluation to determine the cause of the disease as this strongly influences choice of treatment. Possible aetiologies include congenital or developmental, inflammatory, traumatic, neoplastic, and degenerative lesions that may involve vertebrae, vertebral joints, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, spinal nerves, or meninges. It must be determined whether clinical signs are due to musculoskeletal or neurological disease before performing special radiographic procedures. Non-contrast radiography permits false-positive diagnosis of obvious degenerative changes involving the L-S disc that may be without clinical signs or permits a false-negative diagnosis due to the failure to appreciate soft tissue lesions not seen radiographically. Special radiographic techniques are recommended and include: (1) stress radiography, (2) discography, and (3) epidural myelography. Evaluation of the results of these studies assists in determining the cause of the cauda equina syndrome and the type of therapy required

  11. Apoptosis of lumbar spinal cord neurons in cauda equina syndrome rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the law of apoptosis of lumbar spinal cord neurons in cauda equina syndrome (CES). Methods Cauda equina of rats was compressed by a piece of silica gel stick. From day 1 to day 28,the lumbar spinal cord specimens were harvested and assessed by Nissl's staining and TUNEL staining. Results Compression of cauda equina caused lesion and apoptosis of neurons in lumbar spinal cord,and the extent of apoptosis reached the peak on 7th day after compression. Conclusion Apoptosis of neurons in lum...

  12. Redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina : MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate MR findings of redundant nerve roots (RNR) of the cauda equina. 17 patients with RNR were studied; eight were men and nine were women, and their ages ranged from 46 to 82 (mean 63) years. Diagroses were established on the basis of T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MRI, which showed a tortuous or coiled configuration of the nerve roots of the cauda equina. MR findings were reviewed for location, magnitude, and signal intensity of redundant nerve roots, and the relationship between magnitude of redundancy and severity of lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) was evaluated. In all 17 patients, MR showed moderate or severe LSCS caused by herniation or bulging of an intervertebral disc, osteophyte from the vertebral body or facet joint, thickening of the ligamentum flavum, degenerative spondylolisthesis, or a combination of these. T2-weighted sagittal and coronal MR images well clearly showed the location of RNR of the cauda equina;in 16 patients(94%), these were seen above the level of constriction of the spinal canal, and in one case, they were observed below the level of constriction. T2-weighted axial images showed the thecal sac filled with numerous nerve roots. The magnitude of RNR was mild in six cases (35%), moderate in five cases (30%), and severe in six cases (35%). Compared with normal nerve roots, the RNR signal on T2-weighted images was iso-intense. All patients with severe redundancy showed severe LSCS, but not all cases with severe LSCS showed severe redundancy. Redundant nerve roots of cauda equina were seen in relatively older patients with moderate or severe LSCS and T2-weighted MR images were accurate in identifying redundancy of nerve roots and evaluating their magnitude and location

  13. Cauda equina syndrome presentation of sacral insufficiency fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacral insufficiency fractures are a well recognised cause for low back, buttock and groin pain in the elderly. However, over a 4 year period, four patients have presented with symptoms of cauda equina syndrome, who were found on investigation to have acute sacral insufficiency fracture without any other aetiological spinal abnormality. Four patients who presented to the spinal surgeons of our institution with symptoms of cauda equina syndrome were referred for spinal MR. Sagittal and axial T1 and T2 weighted turbo spin echo sequences of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine were performed on all patients. Subsequent studies included MR of the sacrum supplemented where appropriate by CT and technetium MDP bone scintigraphy. No evidence of a compressive lesion of the lower thoracic or lumbar spine was present in any of the four patients. Dedicated MR examination of the sacrum in these patients revealed unilateral acute insufficiency fractures involving zone 1 from S1 to S3 extending from the sacro-iliac joint to the lateral margin of the sacral foramen. There was no evidence of compression of the sacral nerve roots. The possible mechanism for the symptomatic presentation is discussed. Sacral insufficiency fractures should be excluded in elderly or osteoporotic patients presenting with cauda equina syndrome who have no evidence of compression in the thoraco-lumbar MR studies. (orig.)

  14. Endoscopic Discectomy for the Cauda Equina Syndrome During Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Seung Myung; Shin, Ho

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain is common during pregnancy. However, the prevalence of symtomatic lumbar disc herniation is rare, and cauda equina syndrome due to disc herniation during pregnancy is even rarer. We report a rare case of lumbar disc herniation causing cauda equina syndrome during third trimester of pregnancy which successfully treated by endoscopic discectomy. This case shows that endoscopic discectomy can be the treatment option for the lumbar disc herniation during pregnancy.

  15. Lumbar disk herniation presented with cauda equina syndrome in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite low back pain being common in pregnancy, cauda equina syndrome is rare. Misdiagnosis and delay in treatment may cause neurological sequelae including urinary and fecal incontinence, sexual dysfunction in patients. A case of cauda equina syndrome in a pregnant woman at 25-week gestation is presented here. The patient underwent an emergency, standard lumbar microdiscectomy under general anesthesia on prone position. Neither the patient nor the baby had any complication related to surgery.

  16. Giant cystic intradural extramedullary pilocytic astrocytoma of Cauda equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytomas of Conus-Cauda equina region are rare. Astrocytomas, which are intramedullary tumors, may rarely have an extramedullary component. However, primary intradural extramedullary astrocytomas are extremely rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. We describe a giant extramedullary pilocytic astrocytoma of Cauda equina in a 20-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in the available literature. This case highlights the fact that astrocytomas can be primarily extramedullary and emphasizes the need to consider pilocytic astrocytoma in the differential diagnosis of cystic Cauda equina tumors.

  17. Presentation of cauda equina syndrome during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Conor Stephen; Patel, Salil; Griffiths-Jones, William; Stokes, Oliver M

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniations are rare in pregnancy, with an incidence of 1:10,000. Less than 2% of these herniations result in cauda equina syndrome (CES). Diagnosing CES in pregnant patients can be difficult because changes in bladder and bowel habits are common in normal pregnancies. We present the case of a 29-year-old woman, with a history of lumbar radiculopathy, who presented at 39 weeks gestation with severe lower back and bilateral lower limb radiculopathy. Symptoms of CES began to develop only after the onset of labour. Diagnostic MRI was obtained following delivery and the patient was treated by microdiscectomy. Following surgery, bladder and bowel function began to normalise and at 3 months follow-up, she had made a full recovery. To the best of our knowledge, CES has never been reported to present during labour. This case highlights the diagnostic dilemma and need for a high index of suspicion. PMID:26581703

  18. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina

  19. Leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Young Hwan [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    The CNS involvement by leukemia may either be meningeal or parenchymal, although meningeal infiltration of leukemic cells, known as leukemic meningitis is more common. We report a case of leukemic meningitis involving the cauda equina in a patient with an acute lymphoblastic crisis which transformed from the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. An MR image revealed diffuse enlargement and peripheral ring enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina.

  20. [Cauda equina syndrome due to giant disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, A; Villas, C

    2002-01-01

    In cases of acute or progressive development in a few hours of bilateral sciatica, severe foot and occasional quadriceps weakness and/or retention or incontinence of urine with perineal hypalgesia or anesthesia, acute compression of the cauda equina should be suspected, which is usually due to a lumbar disc herniation. Cauda equina syndrome requires emergency spinal surgery. To identify and confirm this syndrome by MR, Ismanoatory. Early surgical decompression must be achieved. Decompression within 24-48 hours significantly improves the neurological and urological outcome. We present the case of a patient who had previously been treated for low back pain who developed a cauda equina syndrome a few days later. PMID:12685115

  1. Hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries are very uncommon. Since 19 96, we have received and treated 4 patients with hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina injuries. This report gives a detail description. Four patients with hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries, male: 3, female: 1, aging 13-56 years have been treated in our hospital since 1996. E xtradural blocking injury was in 1 patient, extradural anaesthesia injury in 1 p atient and intraspinal canal myelography injury in 2 patients; the segments of i ntraspinal canal were L2-3 and L3-4. One patient was accompanied b y femoral fracture, 2 patients by intraspinal tumor and 1 patient had operat ion because of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc.

  2. Gitelman's syndrome: a rare presentation mimicking cauda equina syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, C S

    2012-02-01

    We describe a case of bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, sensory disturbance and intermittent urinary incontinence, secondary to untreated Gitelman\\'s syndrome, in a 42-year-old female who was referred with presumed cauda equina syndrome. On examination, the power of both legs was uniformly reduced, and the perianal and lower-limb sensation was altered. However, MRI of the lumbar spine was normal. Measurements of serum and urinary potassium were low and blood gas analysis revealed metabolic alkalosis. Her symptoms resolved following potassium replacement. We emphasise the importance of measurement of the plasma and urinary levels of electrolytes in the investigation of patients with paralysis of the lower limbs and suggest that they, together with blood gas analysis, allow the exclusion of unusual causes of muscle weakness resulting from metabolic disorders such as metabolic alkalosis.

  3. Large animal models of human cauda equina injury and repair: evaluation of a novel goat model

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-tao Chen; Pei-xun Zhang; Feng Xue; Xiao-feng Yin; Cao-yuan Qi; Jun Ma; Bo Chen; You-lai Yu; Jiu-xu Deng; Bao-guo Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies of cauda equina injury have primarily used rat models, which display significant differences from humans. Furthermore, most studies have focused on electrophysiological examination. To better mimic the outcome after surgical repair of cauda equina injury, a novel animal model was established in the goat. Electrophysiological, histological and magnetic resonance imaging methods were used to evaluate the morphological and functional outcome after cauda equina injury and ...

  4. Ependimoma de cauda equina com metastases à distancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lima

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de ependimoma da cauda equina com metástases fora do sistema nervoso central, em uma criança do sexo feminino, com 1 ano e 4 meses de idade, confirmado mediante exame necroscópico completo. As metástases se localizaram no fígado, nos pulmões e em linfonodos inguinais. Os ependimomas representam o tipo de glioma mais frequente nessa região; entretanto, esses tumores dão metástases muito raramente. Revisando a literatura foram encontrados seis casos.

  5. Cauda equina syndrome presenting as abdominal pain: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, Prasad

    2012-09-01

    Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is an uncommon entity. Symptoms include bowel and bladder dysfunction, saddle anesthesia, and varying degrees of lower limb motor and sensory disturbances. The consequences of delayed diagnosis can be devastating, resulting in bowel and bladder incontinence and lower limb paralysis. There is little in literature regarding abdominal pain as a significant feature of the initial presentation of CES. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with CES who presented to the emergency department with gradually worsening lower abdominal pain.

  6. Large animal models of human cauda equina injury and repair:evaluation of a novel goat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-tao Chen; Bao-guo Jiang; Pei-xun Zhang; Feng Xue; Xiao-feng Yin; Cao-yuan Qi; Jun Ma; Bo Chen; You-lai Yu; Jiu-xu Deng

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies of cauda equina injury have primarily used rat models, which display signiifcant differences from humans. Furthermore, most studies have focused on electrophysio-logical examination. To better mimic the outcome after surgical repair of cauda equina injury, a novel animal model was established in the goat. Electrophysiological, histological and magnetic resonance imaging methods were used to evaluate the morphological and functional outcome after cauda equina injury and end-to-end suture. Our results demonstrate successful establish-ment of the goat experimental model of cauda equina injury. This novel model can provide detailed information on the nerve regenerative process following surgical repair of cauda equina injury.

  7. The Usefulness of Lumbar Spine MRI for Cauda Equina Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Baik, Seong Kug [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan(Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Sook [Dept. of Radiology and Medical Research Institite, Pusan National University Hosptal, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To understand the usefulness of the lumbar MRI studies to establish therapeutic plans for cauda equina syndrome (CES) including the management of rectal and bladder dysfunction symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed the lumbar MRI studies of 10 patients with CES. Their diagnoses included four adhesive arachnoiditis of cauda equina (CE), three conus medullaris atrophies, three spinal canal stenoses, one tuberculous leptomeningitis, one metastatic tumor on the sacral canal, and one dural arteriovenous fistula with venous congestion of the conus medullaris. In 6 of the 10 total cases the symptoms of rectal and bladder dysfunction were resolved by decompression laminectomies (n=2), irradiation (n=1), glue embolization (n=1), anticholine and steroid infusion (n=1), and anti-tuberculous medication (n=1) within at least 5 days. The 4 other cases were settled by lumboperitoneal shunting and neural stem cell implants. The study results indicate that lumbar MRI is the modality of choice in search for the causative lesion and to subsequently set up the best therapeutic plans for patients with CES.

  8. The Usefulness of Lumbar Spine MRI for Cauda Equina Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the usefulness of the lumbar MRI studies to establish therapeutic plans for cauda equina syndrome (CES) including the management of rectal and bladder dysfunction symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed the lumbar MRI studies of 10 patients with CES. Their diagnoses included four adhesive arachnoiditis of cauda equina (CE), three conus medullaris atrophies, three spinal canal stenoses, one tuberculous leptomeningitis, one metastatic tumor on the sacral canal, and one dural arteriovenous fistula with venous congestion of the conus medullaris. In 6 of the 10 total cases the symptoms of rectal and bladder dysfunction were resolved by decompression laminectomies (n=2), irradiation (n=1), glue embolization (n=1), anticholine and steroid infusion (n=1), and anti-tuberculous medication (n=1) within at least 5 days. The 4 other cases were settled by lumboperitoneal shunting and neural stem cell implants. The study results indicate that lumbar MRI is the modality of choice in search for the causative lesion and to subsequently set up the best therapeutic plans for patients with CES.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of racemous cysticercosis of the cauda equina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    37-year-old man presented with low back pain for the last 6 months followed by sensation of numbness in the lower limbs that evolved with paraparesis, urinary retention and impotence. Subsequently, he lost control over the bowel function. Neurological examination revealed increased muscle tone along with grade zero power in both lower limbs. Knee and ankle jerks were exaggerated. Nine months prior to admission, a type II diabetes mellitus was diagnosed and he has been taking insulin ever since. MRI revealed multiple cystic lesions in the cauda equina opposite the L1-S1 vertebral bodies with no involvement of the spinal cord (Figure A: sagittal section T1-weighted image after contrast with cystic lesions on the left side - yellow arrow -, and T2-weighted image on the right - red arrows pointing cystic lesions). The cysts were hypointense on T1-weighted images (Figure B: horizontal section - yellow arrows) and hyperintense in T2-weighted images (Figure A - red arrows). Computerized tomography of the brain showed moderate ventricle dilatation (Figure C) with no intra or extra axial lesions. He was submitted to laminectomy and the cysts were surgically removed. An intense inflammatory process (arachnoiditis) involving the nerve roots of the cauda equina was reported. Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of racemous cysticercosis. He improved quickly after surgery. Three months later, at the outpatient clinic, he walked with support, resumed sphincter control of the bladder and bowel and had no more pain. Ten months later he returned to hospital walking with crutches, with hypoesthesia and paraesthesia on the left leg and urinary incontinence. He refused treatment with albendazole and steroids. (author)

  10. Study on different surgical approaches for acute Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Lianbing; Fang, Liangqin; Qiu, YiHua; Xing, Shunming; Chen, Dechun; He, Xiang; Wang, Jinxin; Lai, Jing; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Jiefeng; Liao, Teng; Tan, Junming

    2014-01-01

    To compare the long and short term effectiveness and complications of different surgical approaches for Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome and find a better surgical method for the disease. In this study, follow up records of 144 patients received conventional laminectomy and minimally invasive decompression and fenestration 48 hours within acute injury of lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome were analyzed. Surgical outcome immediately and 3, 6, 1...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of racemous cysticercosis of the cauda equina; Ressonancia magnetica de paciente com cisticercose racemosa da cauda equina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da; Lemos, Sandro Pedroso [Hospital da Baleia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias

    2003-12-01

    37-year-old man presented with low back pain for the last 6 months followed by sensation of numbness in the lower limbs that evolved with paraparesis, urinary retention and impotence. Subsequently, he lost control over the bowel function. Neurological examination revealed increased muscle tone along with grade zero power in both lower limbs. Knee and ankle jerks were exaggerated. Nine months prior to admission, a type II diabetes mellitus was diagnosed and he has been taking insulin ever since. MRI revealed multiple cystic lesions in the cauda equina opposite the L1-S1 vertebral bodies with no involvement of the spinal cord (Figure A: sagittal section T1-weighted image after contrast with cystic lesions on the left side - yellow arrow -, and T2-weighted image on the right - red arrows pointing cystic lesions). The cysts were hypointense on T1-weighted images (Figure B: horizontal section - yellow arrows) and hyperintense in T2-weighted images (Figure A - red arrows). Computerized tomography of the brain showed moderate ventricle dilatation (Figure C) with no intra or extra axial lesions. He was submitted to laminectomy and the cysts were surgically removed. An intense inflammatory process (arachnoiditis) involving the nerve roots of the cauda equina was reported. Histology of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of racemous cysticercosis. He improved quickly after surgery. Three months later, at the outpatient clinic, he walked with support, resumed sphincter control of the bladder and bowel and had no more pain. Ten months later he returned to hospital walking with crutches, with hypoesthesia and paraesthesia on the left leg and urinary incontinence. He refused treatment with albendazole and steroids. (author)

  12. Cauda equina syndrome as the initial presenting clinical feature of medulloblastoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Otaibi Faisal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medulloblastoma is one of the most common pediatric brain malignancies. The usual presenting clinical features are related to posterior fossa syndrome or/and hydrocephalus. Cauda equina syndrome is a very rare presentation for this disease. Case presentation We describe the case of a three-year-old boy with cauda equina syndrome as the initial presenting clinical feature for medulloblastoma. He was initially diagnosed as having a spinal tumor by magnetic resonance imaging scan. Subsequently, a cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a posterior fossa tumor with features of dissemination. He had substantial improvement after treatment. This case report is complemented by a literature review related to this unusual presentation. Conclusions Medulloblastoma primarily presenting with cauda equina syndrome is very rare. However, spinal drop metastasis should be considered in the pediatric age group to avoid suboptimal management.

  13. A Clinical Observation on the Case of Cauda Equina Syndrome Using Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Hwi-yong; Cho Yi-hyun; You Jeong-seok; Yook Tae-han; Hong Kwon-eui

    2008-01-01

    Objective : This study was investigated on the Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture of Caude equina syndrome which has been described as a complex of low back pain, bilateral sciatica, saddle anesthesia and motor weakness in the lower extremity that progress to paraplegia with baldder and bowel incontinence. Methods & Results : Clinical observation was done on Cauda equina syndrome in the Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Woosuk jeonju Oriental Medical Hospital frome May 30 to July 13. The...

  14. Giant Cauda Equina Schwannoma with Dystrophic Calcifications : Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Seung-Jae; Rhim, Seung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Giant spinal schwannoma of the cauda equine involving many nerve roots is rare, and ossification is usually not observed in the schwannoma. A 21-year-old man presented with a 12-month history of urinary dysfunction and numbness below the buttocks. Plain radiography showed scalloping of the posterior surface of the vertebral bodies from L4 to the sacrum, and magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a giant cauda equina tumor with dystrophic calcification. The tumor was compl...

  15. Ependimoma de cauda equina com metastases à distancia Ependymoma of the cauda equina with distant metastases: a case report with review of the literature

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    Sonia Maria Lima

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de ependimoma da cauda equina com metástases fora do sistema nervoso central, em uma criança do sexo feminino, com 1 ano e 4 meses de idade, confirmado mediante exame necroscópico completo. As metástases se localizaram no fígado, nos pulmões e em linfonodos inguinais. Os ependimomas representam o tipo de glioma mais frequente nessa região; entretanto, esses tumores dão metástases muito raramente. Revisando a literatura foram encontrados seis casos.A case of a papillary ependymoma of the spinal cord (cauda equina with metastatic dissemination outside the central nervous system is reported. The patient was a one year old female child who died of pulmonary infection. Metastases were found in the liver, lungs and inguinal lymph nodes. Ependymoma is the most frequent type of glioma found in the cauda equina but metastatic dissemination is a rare occurrence. Only six cases have been recorded in the literature.

  16. Diagnosis of cauda equina abnormalities by using electromyography, discography, and epidurography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromyography (EMG), L7-S1 discography and epidurography were investigated in 15 dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina dysfunction and in 7 control dogs without such clinical signs. Electromyography of paraspinal and pelvic limb muscles was done in 13 of 15 affected dogs. An L7-S1 discogram followed by an epidurogram was performed in all 22 dogs using 20% iopamidol. Results of discograms, epidurograms, and gross necropsy examinations were normal in six of seven control dogs. The one dog in which these studies were abnormal had a mild L7-S1 disc protrusion that did not result in nerve root compression at necropsy. Electromyographic analysis was 100% accurate in predicting the presence or absence of cauda equina disease. None of the results of discograms were falsely negative. Twelve of 15 discograms in clinically affected dogs indicated dorsal disc protrusion, but 2 of these protrusions were found to be noncompressive at surgery (13% error). Abnormal epidurograms occurred in 9 of 15 clinically affected dogs. There was one false positive and two false negatives (20% error). Electromyography was a sensitive screening technique for the presence of cauda equina disease. Discography may be more sensitive for detection of L7-S1 disc protrusion than epidurography. An abnormal radiographic contrast study of the cauda equina may only be useful when combined with an abnormal EMG

  17. Cauda Equina Syndrome Secondary to Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis of Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhotani, Amal; Alrishi, Nouf; Alhalabi, M. Salem; Hamid, Tahira

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is a diffuse or multifocal malignant infiltration of the pia matter and arachnoid membrane. The most commonly reported cancers associated with LMC are breast, lung, and hematological malignancies. Patients with LMC commonly present with multifocal neurological symptoms. We report a case of LMC secondary to gastroesopha-geal junction cancer present initially with cauda equina syndrome. A 51-year-old male patient with treated adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction presented with left leg pain, mild weakness, and saddle area numbness. Initial radiological examinations were unremarkable. Subsequently, he had worsening of his leg weakness, fecal incontinence, and urine retention. Two days later, he developed rapidly progressive cranial neuropathies including facial diplegia, sensorineural hearing loss, dysarthria, and dysphagia. MRI with and without contrast showed diffuse enhancement of leptomeninges surrounding the brain, spinal cord, and cauda equina extending to the nerve roots. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology was positive for malignant cells. The patient died within 10 days from the second presentation. In cancer patients with cauda equina syndrome and absence of structural lesion on imaging, LMC should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first case of LMC secondary to gastroesophageal cancer presenting with cauda equina syndrome. PMID:27239185

  18. Episodic cauda equina compression from an intradural lumbar herniated disc: a case of ‘floppy disc’

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaria, J; Chan, CC; Kamel, MH; McEvoy, L; Bolger, C.

    2011-01-01

    Intradural disc herniation (IDDH) is a rare complication of intervertebral disc disease and comprises 0.26-0.30% of all herniated discs, with 92% of them located in the lumbar region (1). We present a case of IDDH that presented with intermittent symptoms and signs of cauda equina compression. We were unable to find in the literature, any previously described cases of intermittent cauda equina compression from a herniated intradural disc fragment leading to a “floppy disc syndrome”.

  19. Detrusor function with lesions of the cauda equina, with special emphasis on the bladder neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, J K; Beric, A; Petronic, I

    1993-03-01

    A total of 13 patients with proved lesions of the cauda equina underwent neurological evaluation. All patients had video urodynamic testing, while 9 underwent a varying combination of pelvic floor electromyography, lumbosacral evoked potentials to tibial nerve stimulation and the sympathetic skin response from the perineum. All patients had detrusor areflexia with varying degrees of bladder neck incompetence. Reports of clinical and experimental studies are discussed in relation to the pathophysiology of bladder neck function following lesions of the pudendal and preganglionic pelvic nerve to explain why there have been conflicting reports in the literature regarding bladder neck function with lesions of the cauda equina. The adaptive changes observed in the experimental animal, consisting of random regeneration of the cholinergic neuroeffective junctions, adrenergic hyperinnervation and an increased sensitivity of the prejunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors on the adrenergic nerve, may explain the degree of variability of bladder neck incompetence observed clinically. PMID:8437259

  20. Measurements on the lumbosacral junction in normal dogs and those with cauda equina compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative measurements on lateral plain radiographs of the lumbosacral junction in neutral position, in flexion, and in extension, were made of 41 clinically and radiographically normal dogs (21 German shepherd dogs [GSDs], 12 Bernese mountain dogs, eight labrador retrievers) and 58 GSDs with clinical signs of cauda equina compression due to malformation and, or, malarticulation. The comparison of these measurements between sexes, between normal and affected GSDs and between normal GSDs and the two other breeds of dogs showed several statistically significant results. One was that the affected GSDs showed a reduced flexion ability at this junction compared to the normal ones. However, no difference was observed in the degree of sub-luxation of the sacrum between normal and affected GSDs. It was concluded that plain radiographs of the lumbosacral junction in flexion could help in determining a reduced flexion ability, which could be a characteristic of the GSD with cauda equina compression

  1. Study on different surgical approaches for acute Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lianbing; Fang, Liangqin; Qiu, Yihua; Xing, Shunming; Chen, Dechun; He, Xiang; Wang, Jinxin; Lai, Jing; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Jiefeng; Liao, Teng; Tan, Junming

    2014-01-01

    To compare the long and short term effectiveness and complications of different surgical approaches for Lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome and find a better surgical method for the disease. In this study, follow up records of 144 patients received conventional laminectomy and minimally invasive decompression and fenestration 48 hours within acute injury of lumber disk protrusion combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome were analyzed. Surgical outcome immediately and 3, 6, 12, 36 months after the surgery were compared to evaluate the effectiveness two different approaches. The results indicated that there are no significant differences regarding age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) score as well as Frankel scores before the surgery, and significant differences VAS score as well as Frankel scores immediately after the surgery. In conclusion, minimally invasive decompression and fenestration can be of the same effectiveness and less complications comparing with the conventional laminectomy. PMID:25674258

  2. [Cauda equina hemisyndrome after intradural anesthesia with bupivacaine for hip surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soriano, F; Lajarín, B; Verdú, J M; Rivas, F; López-Robles, J

    2002-11-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent hip surgery under subarachnoid anesthesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl to replace an acetabular component. Two days after surgery the patient developed unilateral cauda equina syndrome, affecting five nerve roots (L4 to S3), with no sphincter involvement. Two and a half years later, the lesion had become permanent. We discuss the possible origin of the condition, suggesting differential diagnoses such as mechanical problems (position-mobilization) and anesthetic toxicity. PMID:12516495

  3. Redundant Nerve Roots of Cauda Equina Mimicking Intradural Disc Herniation: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sang Mi; Park, Hyung Ki; Cho, Sung Jin; Chang, Jae Chil

    2013-01-01

    Redundant Nerve Roots (RNRs) is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by a tortuous, serpentine, large and elongated nerve root of the cauda equina. To our knowledge, most cases of RNRs are associated with lumbar stenosis, and RNRs associated with lumbar disc herniation has not been reported until now. Here we present a rare case of unusual RNRs associated with lumbar disc herniation mimicking intradural disc herniation.

  4. Cauda equina syndrome after spinal anaesthesia in a patient with asymptomatic tubercular arachnoiditis

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    Divya Sethi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy underwent emergency debridement surgery of right foot under spinal anaesthesia. Four hours after the surgery, the patient developed symptoms of cauda equina syndrome (CES. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the patient′s spine suggested underlying tubercular arachnoiditis. The boy was started on intravenous methylprednisolone and antitubercular therapy. He responded to the therapy and recovered completely in 2 weeks without any residual neurological deficits. We suggest that underlying pathological changes in the subarachnoid space due to tubercular arachnoiditis contributed to maldistribution of the local anaesthetic drug leading to CES.

  5. Redundant nerve roots of cauda equina in clinically neurologically asymptomatic patients. A clinical and radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiographic study was conducted to determine the incidence of redundant nerve roots of the cauda equina (RNR) in neurologically asymptomatic patients, and to clarify whether RNR has an impact on the clinical symptom. 50 patients who had spine disease such as spondylosis and compression fracture were examined by MRI. They didn't have neurological symptom such as sciatica, leg numbness, and motor weakness of lower extremities. There were 18 men and 32 women, and their mean age was 72.4 years (range: 32-87 years). RNR was found in 18 of the 50 patients (36.0%) and in a higher percentage of the patients who had lumber spinal canal stenosis. We concluded that RNR was only a morphological change of the cauda equine and had little effect on the neurological symptom. (author)

  6. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with hypertrophy of the cauda equina and concomitant demyelinating white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) is thought to almost exclusively affect the peripheral nervous system. We report the case of a 48-year-old patient with a longstanding history of HMSN type I who developed signs and symptoms of a cauda equina compression and of a central nervous system relapsing-remitting demyelinating white matter disease. Gross enlargement of the cauda equina fibers was detected by MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Cranial MR imaging revealed demyelinating white matter lesions. This case suggests that peripheral neuropathic mechanisms may also affect the central myelin in HMSN type I

  7. Asymptomatic cauda equina metastasis in a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Detection by 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central nervous system metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an extremely rare occurrence, although direct intracranial invasion is not infrequent in patients with NPC. Herein we report a case of a 62-year-old male with NPC, in whom the asymptomatic cauda equina metastasis was detected on staging 18F-Fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT). By demonstrating distant metastasis to cauda equina, 18F-FDG PET/CT detection helped in change of management in this patient

  8. A Clinical Observation on the Case of Cauda Equina Syndrome Using Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hwi-yong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was investigated on the Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture of Caude equina syndrome which has been described as a complex of low back pain, bilateral sciatica, saddle anesthesia and motor weakness in the lower extremity that progress to paraplegia with baldder and bowel incontinence. Methods & Results : Clinical observation was done on Cauda equina syndrome in the Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, Woosuk jeonju Oriental Medical Hospital frome May 30 to July 13. The patient was treated with Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture at Shinsu(B23, Gihaesu(B24, Taejangsu(B25, Gwanweonsu(b26, Dangryo(b31, Charyo(b32, Jang-gang(gv1 and Hoe-eum(cv1 with Oriental Medicine treatment. We evaluated SF-36, the bladder incontinence, bowel incontinence, sensibility by sting skin, before and after treatmeat. Conclusion : 1. At the early time, gait disturbance was treated well, but discomfort of bladder incontinence, bilateral sciatica, saddle anesthesia and motor weakness was remained. 2. The symptoms of Cauada equina syndrome, especially bladder incontinence and bilateral sciatica, was recurred in short duration by scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture and oriental medicine treatment.

  9. Radiographic and tomographic aspects of meningeal hemangiosarcoma in a German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemangiosarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasia derived from the endothelial cell line and, therefore, can arise in any tissue with blood vessels. A case of a rare meningeal site of hemangiosarcoma in an eight-year old German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome is described. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, tomographic and histopathological findings

  10. Traumatic transverse fracture of sacrum with cauda equina injury--a case report and review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the sacrum are rare and generally associated with fracture of the pelvis. Transverse fractures of the sacrum are even less frequent and neurological deficit may accompany these fractures. A case of transverse fracture sacrum with cauda equina injury treated by sacral laminectomy and root decompression, is reported.

  11. The role of surgical decompression of Cauda equina in lumbar disc herniation in recovery of bladder function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Cauda equina syndrome from lumbar disc herniation accounts for up to 2-3% of all disc herniations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether recovery of bladder function after surgery depends on preoperative duration of disease. Patients and methods This retrospective study included 47 patients who underwent surgery for cauda equina syndrome due to a herniated disc in the period between 1997 and 2002. Eleven patients were female and 36 male, with a mean age of 43 years (range 23-67. All presented with sciatica and saddle hypoesthesia, whereas 13 presented with motor weakness of legs. All patients had been catheterized at the time of admission to the Neurosurgical unit. Levels of herniation were L4-L5 in 27 (57%, L5-S1 in 14 (30%, and L3-L4 in 6 (13% patients. In 7 (15% patients, surgery was performed within 48 hours of the cauda equina syndrome onset. None underwent surgery within 24 hours. 13 (28% patients were operated between the 2nd and 7th day and 27 (57% after 7th day of the cauda equina onset. The role of preoperative duration of symptoms in recovery of bladder function was examined (chi 2 analysis. RESULTS The follow-up ranged from 15 to 74 months (mean 24.2 months. In 33 patients (70% excellent result were achieved, in 9 (19% patients good results and 5 (11% patients presented with poor results. There was no statistically significant difference concerning the time between the onset of symptoms and surgical decompression and subsequent recovery of bladder function (p>0.05. CONCLUSION After accurate diagnosis and adequate operative treatment, postoperative results of cauda equina syndrome due to lumbar disc herniation appear satisfactory regardless of the timing of surgery.

  12. Cauda equina repair in the rat: part 1. Stimulus-evoked EMG for identifying spinal nerves innervating intrinsic tail muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaskiewicz, Don J; Smirnov, Igor; Cisu, Tudor; DeRuisseau, Lara R; Stelzner, Dennis J; Calancie, Blair

    2009-08-01

    Cauda equina injuries may produce severe leg and pelvic floor dysfunction, for which no effective treatments exist. We are developing a rat cauda equina injury model to allow nerve root identification and surgical repair. One possible difficulty in implementing any repair strategy after trauma in humans involves the correct identification of proximal and distal ends of nerve roots separated by the injury. Two series of studies were carried out. In Series 1, we electrically stimulated segmental contributors to the dorsal and ventral caudales nerves in order to characterize the recruitment patterns of muscles controlling rat tail movements. In Series 2, we attempted to identify individual nerve roots forming the cauda equina by both level of origin and function (i.e., dorsal or ventral), based solely upon the recruitment patterns in response to electrical stimulation. For Series 1 studies, electrical stimulation of the segmental contributors showed that all nerve roots-from the sixth lumbar to the first coccygeal-contributed to recruitment of muscles found at the base of the tail. Intrinsic tail muscles lying more distally in the tail showed a more root-specific pattern of innervation. For Series 2, the rate of successful identification of an unknown nerve root as being ventral was very high (>95%), and only somewhat lower (approximately 80%) for dorsal roots. Correctly identifying the level of origin of that root was more difficult, but for ventral roots this rate still exceeded 90%. Using the rat cauda equina model, we have shown that stimulus-evoked EMG can be used to identify ventral nerve roots innervating tail muscles with a high degree of accuracy. These findings support the feasibility of using this conceptual approach for identifying and repairing damaged human cauda equina nerve roots based on stimulus-evoked recruitment of muscles in the leg and pelvic floor. PMID:19203211

  13. Postoperative cauda equina syndrome in trivial lumbar congenital kyphosis: a case report.

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    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year old man presented with chronic low back pain for about 5 years due to mild congenital lumbar kyphosis (L1-L3 25° with congenital posterior wedge vertebra L2. Preoperative neurologic examination was normal. After posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation with moderate curve correction, the patient gradually developed the symptoms and signs of cauda equina syndrome due to intraoperative L2-3 disc herniation. After 5 days the patient underwent posterior decompression surgery and on the latest follow up visit at 2 years later, nearly all the motor power was recovered but the patient complained of occasional urinary incontinence and residual right leg paresthesia. In surgical treatment of congenital kyphosis, much attention should be paid to the presence of contemporaneous asymptomatic disc herniation.

  14. Reactive Arthritis Secondary to Cauda Equina Injury following Spine Fracture: A Case Report

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    Xiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man presented with a one-month history of muscle weakness and dysesthesia in the lower extremities, urinary retention, and urinary tract infection after lumbar burst fracture resulted from high fall. During the rehabilitation in our hospital, he had arthritis in both the ankle and knee. However, the patient was treated as gouty arthropathy initially. The arthritis was completely remitted in a few days after the patient was diagnosed as reactive arthritis and started with sulfasalazine therapy and there was no recurrence during 4 months of follow-up. Based on this case, early recognition of reactive arthritis is of major importance to avoid delayed initiation of appropriate treatment in the patients with polyarthritis secondary to neurogenic bladder following cauda equina injury after spine fracture.

  15. Oral administration of cytosolic PLA2 inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone ameliorates cauda equina compression injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mushfiquddin; Shunmugavel, Anandakumar; Dhammu, Tajinder S; Matsuda, Fumiyo; Singh, Avtar K.; Singh, Inderjit

    2015-01-01

    Background Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-derived proinflammatory lipid mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotrienes B4 (LTB4), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in spinal cord injury (SCI) pathologies. Reducing the levels of these injurious bioactive lipid mediators is reported to ameliorate SCI. However, the specific role of the group IVA isoform of PLA2 cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) in lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) due to cauda equina compression (C...

  16. Cauda equina redundant nerve roots are associated to the degree of spinal stenosis and to spondylolisthesis

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    Leonor Garbin Savarese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association of redundant nerve roots of cauda equina (RNRCE with the degree of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS and with spondylolisthesis. Method After Institutional Board approval, 171 consecutive patients were retrospectively enrolled, 105 LSS patients and 66 patients without stenosis. The dural sac cross-sectional area (CSA was measured on T2w axial MRI at the level of L2-3, L3-4 and L4-5 intervertebral discs. Two blinded radiologists classified cases as exhibiting or not RNRCE in MRI. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed. Results RNRCE were associated with LSS. RRNCE was more frequent when maximum stenosis<55 mm2. Substantial intra- observer agreement and moderate inter-observer agreement were obtained in the classification of RNRCE. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 27 patients and represented increased risk for RRNCE. Conclusion LSS is a risk factor for RNRCE, especially for dural sac CSA<55 mm2. LSS and spondylolisthesis are independent risk factors for RNRCE.

  17. THE EXPRESSION OF BCL-2, BAX AND CASPASE-3 IN NEURON OF THE SPINAL CORD ANTERIOR HORN AFTER CAUDA EQUINA ACUTE COMPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋; 王展; 李浩鹏; 贺西京

    2006-01-01

    Cauda equina syndrome(CES)is common inclinic,and acute CES are difficult to recover.So,it s very i mportant to i mprove the treat ment ofCES.The study of nerve was turned fromthe si m-ple nerve shift injury research to the neuron changeafter the axon injury.Peripheral nerve injury cancause their central neuron apoptosis was confir medby experi ment,but rare report was observed withthe motor neuron change after the cauda equina in-jury.The present studies want to set the acute CESani mal model and observe th...

  18. Spinal Cauda Equina Stimulation for Alternative Location of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Intractable Phantom Limb Pain Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Moo; So, Yun; Park, Jung Min; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Hae Kyoung; Kim, Jae Hun

    2016-04-01

    Phantom limb pain is a phenomenon in which patients experience pain in a part of the body that no longer exists. In several treatment modalities, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been introduced for the management of intractable post-amputation pain. A 46-year-old male patient complained of severe ankle and foot pain, following above-the-knee amputation surgery on the right side amputation surgery three years earlier. Despite undergoing treatment with multiple modalities for pain management involving numerous oral and intravenous medications, nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency (RF) treatment, the effect duration was temporary and the decreases in the patient's pain score were not acceptable. Even the use of SCS did not provide completely satisfactory pain management. However, the trial lead positioning in the cauda equina was able to stimulate the site of the severe pain, and the patient's pain score was dramatically decreased. We report a case of successful pain management with spinal cauda equina stimulation following the failure of SCS in the treatment of intractable phantom limb pain. PMID:27103968

  19. Spinal Cauda Equina Stimulation for Alternative Location of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Intractable Phantom Limb Pain Syndrome: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Moo; So, Yun; Park, Jung Min; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Phantom limb pain is a phenomenon in which patients experience pain in a part of the body that no longer exists. In several treatment modalities, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been introduced for the management of intractable post-amputation pain. A 46-year-old male patient complained of severe ankle and foot pain, following above-the-knee amputation surgery on the right side amputation surgery three years earlier. Despite undergoing treatment with multiple modalities for pain management involving numerous oral and intravenous medications, nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency (RF) treatment, the effect duration was temporary and the decreases in the patient's pain score were not acceptable. Even the use of SCS did not provide completely satisfactory pain management. However, the trial lead positioning in the cauda equina was able to stimulate the site of the severe pain, and the patient's pain score was dramatically decreased. We report a case of successful pain management with spinal cauda equina stimulation following the failure of SCS in the treatment of intractable phantom limb pain. PMID:27103968

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Spinal Cord and Cauda Equina Motion in Supine Patients With Spinal Metastases Planned for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

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    Tseng, Chia-Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sussman, Marshall S. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Letourneau, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Soliman, Hany; Thibault, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, B. C. John; Simeonov, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Department of Neurosurgery and Spine Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To assess motion of the spinal cord and cauda equina, which are critical neural tissues (CNT), which is important when evaluating the planning organ-at-risk margin required for stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed CNT motion in 65 patients with spinal metastases (11 cervical, 39 thoracic, and 24 lumbar spinal segments) in the supine position using dynamic axial and sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI, 3T Verio, Siemens) over a 137-second interval. Motion was segregated according to physiologic cardiorespiratory oscillatory motion (characterized by the average root mean square deviation) and random bulk shifts associated with gross patient motion (characterized by the range). Displacement was evaluated in the anteroposterior (AP), lateral (LR), and superior-inferior (SI) directions by use of a correlation coefficient template matching algorithm, with quantification of random motion measure error over 3 separate trials. Statistical significance was defined according to P<.05. Results: In the AP, LR, and SI directions, significant oscillatory motion was observed in 39.2%, 35.1%, and 10.8% of spinal segments, respectively, and significant bulk motions in all cases. The median oscillatory CNT motions in the AP, LR, and SI directions were 0.16 mm, 0.17 mm, and 0.44 mm, respectively, and the maximal statistically significant oscillatory motions were 0.39 mm, 0.41 mm, and 0.77 mm, respectively. The median bulk displacements in the AP, LR, and SI directions were 0.51 mm, 0.59 mm, and 0.66 mm, and the maximal statistically significant displacements were 2.21 mm, 2.87 mm, and 3.90 mm, respectively. In the AP, LR, and SI directions, bulk displacements were greater than 1.5 mm in 5.4%, 9.0%, and 14.9% of spinal segments, respectively. No significant differences in axial motion were observed according to cord level or cauda equina. Conclusions: Oscillatory CNT motion was observed to be relatively minor. Our results

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Spinal Cord and Cauda Equina Motion in Supine Patients With Spinal Metastases Planned for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess motion of the spinal cord and cauda equina, which are critical neural tissues (CNT), which is important when evaluating the planning organ-at-risk margin required for stereotactic body radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed CNT motion in 65 patients with spinal metastases (11 cervical, 39 thoracic, and 24 lumbar spinal segments) in the supine position using dynamic axial and sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI, 3T Verio, Siemens) over a 137-second interval. Motion was segregated according to physiologic cardiorespiratory oscillatory motion (characterized by the average root mean square deviation) and random bulk shifts associated with gross patient motion (characterized by the range). Displacement was evaluated in the anteroposterior (AP), lateral (LR), and superior-inferior (SI) directions by use of a correlation coefficient template matching algorithm, with quantification of random motion measure error over 3 separate trials. Statistical significance was defined according to P<.05. Results: In the AP, LR, and SI directions, significant oscillatory motion was observed in 39.2%, 35.1%, and 10.8% of spinal segments, respectively, and significant bulk motions in all cases. The median oscillatory CNT motions in the AP, LR, and SI directions were 0.16 mm, 0.17 mm, and 0.44 mm, respectively, and the maximal statistically significant oscillatory motions were 0.39 mm, 0.41 mm, and 0.77 mm, respectively. The median bulk displacements in the AP, LR, and SI directions were 0.51 mm, 0.59 mm, and 0.66 mm, and the maximal statistically significant displacements were 2.21 mm, 2.87 mm, and 3.90 mm, respectively. In the AP, LR, and SI directions, bulk displacements were greater than 1.5 mm in 5.4%, 9.0%, and 14.9% of spinal segments, respectively. No significant differences in axial motion were observed according to cord level or cauda equina. Conclusions: Oscillatory CNT motion was observed to be relatively minor. Our results

  2. Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation Combined with Cauda Equina Syndrome%腰椎间盘突出合并马尾神经损伤的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许崧杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism, treatment and prognosis of lumbar disc herniation with cauda equina syndrome. Method Eighteen lumbar disc herniation cases with cauda equina syndrome were performed decompressive operation 7 days after developing symptoms. Results 18 cases were followed up for 3. 1 years averagely. Low back pain was recovered completely. Strength of lower extremity was improved partially in 16 cases and not improved in 2 cases. Function of sphincter was still bad. Conclusions Lumbar disc herniation with cauda equina syndrome is an absolute indication of operation. Once diagnosed, decompression must be performed as soon as possible.%目的 探讨腰椎间盘突出症伴马尾神经综合征的发病机制、治疗及预后.方法 回顾性分析18例腰椎间盘突出症伴马尾神经综合征病例,均在出现症状7 d后行手术减压治疗.结果 术后平均随访3.1年,所有患者腰痛全部恢复,下肢肌力部分恢复16例,未恢复2例,但括约肌功能障碍无明显改善.按Masato标准评价疗效:好转8例,差10例.结论 腰椎间盘突出症伴马尾神经综合征是手术的绝对适应证,一经明确诊断必须尽早手术,以抢救神经功能.

  3. 硫化氢对急性马尾神经损伤模型大鼠的神经保护作用%Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide in rats with acute cauda equina syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅智轶; 刘兴振; 吴玉杰; 朱彤; 金文杰

    2014-01-01

    背景:研究发现内源性硫化氢可以作为一种新型气体信号分子,具有重要的信号传递功能和生物调节作用。目的:研究硫化氢对急性马尾神经损伤大鼠的神经保护作用。方法:将72只SD大鼠随机均分为3组,实验组、模型组咬除L4椎板,将长10 mm、厚1.0 mm、宽1.0 mm的硅胶条植入大鼠L5和L6椎管内,建立大鼠马尾神经压迫损伤模型;假手术组仅咬除L4椎板,未植入硅胶条;实验组造模前1 h腹腔注射20μmol/kg的NaHS,模型组与假手术组腹腔注射等量生理盐水。造模后12,24,48,72 h检测马尾神经组织中丙二醛和谷胱甘肽水平,同时在48 h取材进行苏木精-伊红染色和TUNEL染色。结果与结论:苏木精-伊红染色显示,假手术组马尾神经纤维致密有序,髓鞘完整,轴突无肿胀;模型组马尾神经纤维松散,脱髓鞘改变,部分轴突及髓鞘肿胀;实验组马尾神经纤维紧密,少量轴突肿胀、脱髓鞘改变。TUNEL染色显示,假手术组中脊髓和背根神经节组织中阳性细胞数量较少,模型组脊髓和背根神经节中可见大量阳性细胞,实验组阳性细胞数量显著低于模型组。假手术组、实验组丙二醛水平低于模型组(P <0.05, P <0.01),谷胱甘肽水平高于模型组(P <0.05,P <0.01)。表明硫化氢可以降低氧化应激反应,保护急性损伤大鼠马尾神经。%BACKGROUND:Endogenous hydrogen sulfide can be used as a new gaseous signaling molecule, and has important signal transfer function and biological regulation effects. OBJECTIVE:To study the neuroprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide in rats with acute cauda equina syndrome. METHODS: The 72 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups. Experimental group, model group: laminectomy was performed at the lumbar 4 (L4) level of the vertebra, and a piece of silicone (10 mm long, 1 mm thick, and 1 mm wide) was placed under the

  4. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with cauda equina syndrome and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Complications in a case of type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Tushar B; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which mainly involves ectodermal tissue arising from the neural crest, can increase the risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), soft tissue sarcomas and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed soft tissue sarcoma, MPNST, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 22-year-old male reported right focal seizures consequence to severe headache. He had a weakness in both legs, could walk only with the support of a stick for the last 3 months and suffered from constipation and intermittent urinary retention for the past 1 week. The patient had a history of swelling in the back of left thigh for which surgical resection was done 6 months back. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple nodules of varying sizes all over the body, along with many café-au-lait spots and Lisch nodule in iris. Patient had weakness in bilateral hip abduction, extension, knee flexion, extension and ankle dorsiflexion and plantiflexion. Bilateral ankle reflexes were absent while other deep tendon reflexes were sub-optimal. A noncontrast computed tomography brain indicated subarachnoid hemorrhage in left perisylvian region. Ultrasound of left thigh showed a hypoechoic solid lesion in the posterior aspect of left thigh in muscle plane. Histopathology of the lesion following resection showed features suggestive of a low-grade pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Histology of cutaneous nodules was consistent with neurofibroma. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine demonstrated a tumor arising from cauda equina. Histopathological examination of the tumor suggested high-grade MPNST. Unfortunately, the patient's MPNST was inoperable, and he received palliative radiotherapy for local control of the disease. The care of a patient with neurofibromatosis requires a comprehensive multisystem evaluation. MPNST occurs in 8-13% patients with neurofibromatosis. Early diagnosis and surgical resection are key

  5. Edema formation in spinal nerve roots induced by experimental, graded compression. An experimental study on the pig cauda equina with special reference to differences in effects between rapid and slow onset of compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmarker, K; Rydevik, B; Holm, S

    1989-06-01

    Edema formation in spinal nerve roots of the pig cauda equina was studied following experimental compression at various pressure levels, durations, and rates of onset, using a fluorescence microscopic technique. The time-pressure thresholds for the occurrence of edema in the nerve roots were: following rapid onset of compression (0.05-0.1 seconds), 2 minutes at both 50 mm Hg and 200 mm Hg, and following slow onset of compression (the pressure was slowly increased during 15-20 seconds), 2 hours at 50 mm Hg and 2 minutes at 200 mm Hg. Generally, the edema formation was more pronounced after rapid than after slow onset of compression. The data in this study also indicate that intraneural edema might be more easily formed in nerve roots than in peripheral nerves after compression injury. PMID:2546258

  6. Aspectos radiográficos e tomográficos de hemangiossarcoma de meninges causando síndrome da cauda eqüina em um Pastor Alemão Radiographic and tomographic aspects of meningeal hemangiosarcoma in a German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Brandão de Campos Fonseca Pinto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O hemangiossarcoma é uma neoplasma altamente maligna da linha de células endoteliais e que, portanto, pode ter origem em qualquer tecido com vasos sangüíneos. Descreve-se um caso raro de hemangiossarcoma de meninge em um cão Pastor Alemão de 8 anos de idade, com manifestações clínicas de síndrome da cauda eqüina. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clínicos, radiográficos, tomográficos e histopatológicos.Hemangiosarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasia derived from the endothelial cell line and, therefore, can arise in any tissue with blood vessels. A case of a rare meningeal site of hemangiosarcoma in an eight-year old German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome is described. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, tomographic and histopathological findings.

  7. 腰椎间盘突出症致马尾神经综合征手术时机的临床研究%Timing of surgery for cauda equina syndrome due to lumbar disc herniation: a clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建锋; 贾连顺; 李家顺; 史建刚; 邵将

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the impact of the timing of surgical intervention on the clinical outcome of cauda equina syndrome (CES) following surgery for herniated lumbar discs. [ Methods] The clinical data on 148 patients with CES following operation for lumbar disc herniation were collected. In 65 of the patients (treatment group), sensory assessment in the saddle area and measurement of the changes in anal sphincter resting and contraction pressure gradient were carried out to evaluate the severity of cauda equina injuries prior to surgical intervention, and subsequent emergency surgery (within 24 h after CES onset), surgery within 48 h or elective surgery were performed accordingly. The other 83 patients received early surgical interventions upon diagnosis of CES without preoperative assessments (control group) . The postoperative complications and clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. [ Results ] The incidence of postoperative complications showed no significant difference between the treatment and control groups (3. 1 % vs 6. 0% , P > 0. 05) . The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores underwent significant changes at 3 and 18 months after the surgery in both groups ( P 0. 05) . The follow - up examination at 18 months showed better recovery of the urinary functions in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05 ) . [ Conclusion ] Instead of the arbitrary timing simply according to the time of CES onset, the decision on the timing of surgical intervention of CES can be made based on sensory assessment of the saddle area and anal sphincter pressure gradient changes in the patients.%[目的]探讨腰椎间盘突出症致马尾神经综合征手术时机的选择.[方法]回顾性分析148例腰椎间盘突出症致马尾神经综合征患者临床资料,根据术前是否进行鞍区感觉评分及肛门括约肌压力测量分为治疗组(65例)和对照组(83例).治疗组进行鞍区感觉评分,测量肛门括约肌静息压力及

  8. THE ROLE OF LIGAMENTUM FLAVUM CALCIFICATION AT LUMBAR SPINE CAUSING CAUDA EQUINA SYNDROME AND LUMBAR RADICULOPATHY: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The focal calcification or ossification of ligamentum flavum is a rare cau se of thoracic myelopathy and most often occurs among individuals of Japanese descent. It is rare in other ethnic groups and in individuals below the age of 50 year. It is most often described at the lower thoracic level, being uncommon in the lumbar regio n and rare in the cervical region. Here, we present the case of a 40 - year - old Indian female patient who sought medical attention with a six month history of paraesthesia of the lower limbs and progressive difficulty in walking. The clinical profile, togeth er with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine, led to a diagnosis of compressive lumbar myelopathy due to ossification of the ligamentum flavum of lumbar spine. The patient underwent laminectomy and dissection of some of the affec ted ligamentum flavum. After three months of clinical follow - up, the patient had progressed favorably , having no sensory complaints and again becoming ambulatory

  9. Posterior epidural migration of sequestered lumbar disc fragment causing cauda equina syndrome Migración epidural posterior de fragmento de disco lumbar secuestrado que causa síndrome de cauda equina Migração epidural posterior de fragmento de disco lombar sequestrado que causa síndrome da cauda equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior epidural migration (PEM of a sequestered free lumbar disc fragment is rare. The rarity is due to presence of several anatomical restraints which restrict a free fragment to move to the posterior compartment. This unusual presentation of disc herniation appeared in the literature either as a single case report or in small series from two to six cases. Herein two new demonstrative cases will be presented with a brief review of the literature.La migración epidural (PEM posterior Epidural Migration de fragmento de disco lumbar libre secuestrado es rara. La rareza se debe a la existencia de varias restricciones anatómicas impidiendo que el fragmento libre se mueva hacia el compartimento posterior. Esa presentación no común de hernia de disco apareció en la literatura como un relato de caso único o en pequeñas series de dos a seis casos. En este artículo, se presentan dos casos nuevos demostrativos, conjuntamente con una revisión breve de la literatura.A migração epidural posterior (PEM posterior epidural migration de fragmento de disco lombar livre sequestrado é rara. A raridade deve-se à presença de várias restrições anatômicas que impedem que o fragmento livre se mova para o compartimento posterior. Essa apresentação incomum de hérnia de disco apareceu na literatura como relato de caso único ou em pequenas séries de dois a seis casos. Neste artigo, são apresentados dois novos casos demonstrativos, com uma breve revisão da literatura.

  10. Posterior epidural migration of sequestered lumbar disc fragment causing cauda equina syndrome Migración epidural posterior de fragmento de disco lumbar secuestrado que causa síndrome de cauda equina Migração epidural posterior de fragmento de disco lombar sequestrado que causa síndrome da cauda equina

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh; Housain Soufiani; Ava Rahimizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Posterior epidural migration (PEM) of a sequestered free lumbar disc fragment is rare. The rarity is due to presence of several anatomical restraints which restrict a free fragment to move to the posterior compartment. This unusual presentation of disc herniation appeared in the literature either as a single case report or in small series from two to six cases. Herein two new demonstrative cases will be presented with a brief review of the literature.La migración epidural (PEM) posterior Epid...

  11. Síndrome de cauda eqüina produzida por melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lamartine de Assis

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of melanoma of the cauda equina which evolved during two years, starting with pain in the lower extremities and becoming at length a cauda equina syndrome, with bilateral sciatic pain, motor and sensorial signs and bladder and rectal disturbances. The tumor was only partially removed, on account of its infiltrating character. The patient died eleven months later. He had X-ray therapy soon after the operation. Autopsy was not performed but considering the clinical data, the localization and the type of the tumor, authors believe it connected by a primary melanoma of the lombar leptomeninges. A brief review of the literature is made.

  12. Aspectos radiográficos e tomográficos de hemangiossarcoma de meninges causando síndrome da cauda eqüina em um Pastor Alemão Radiographic and tomographic aspects of meningeal hemangiosarcoma in a German Shepherd dog with clinical signs of cauda equina sindrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Brandão de Campos Fonseca Pinto; Cássio Ricardo Auada Ferrigno; Júlia Maria Matera; Luciana N. Torres; Idércio L. Sinhorini; Silvia Renata Gaido Cortopassi; Maria Cristina Ferrarini Nunes Soares Hage

    2007-01-01

    O hemangiossarcoma é uma neoplasma altamente maligna da linha de células endoteliais e que, portanto, pode ter origem em qualquer tecido com vasos sangüíneos. Descreve-se um caso raro de hemangiossarcoma de meninge em um cão Pastor Alemão de 8 anos de idade, com manifestações clínicas de síndrome da cauda eqüina. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clínicos, radiográficos, tomográficos e histopatológicos.Hemangiosarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasia derived from the endothelial...

  13. Síndrome de cauda equina por hernia discal gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, A.; Villas, C.

    2002-01-01

    La aparición de forma aguda o rápidamente progresiva de un cuadro de ciatalgia bilateral, con disminución completa de la fuerza de los pies y ocasionalmente del cuádriceps acompañado de retención y/o incontinencia urinaria e hipoestesia en silla de montar debe hacernos sospechar de la existencia de un síndrome de compresión de la cola de caballo, generalmente a causa de una hernia discal. Se trata de una urgencia quirúrgica absoluta en la patología del raquis. La identificación del síndrom...

  14. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  15. Hypertrophic Synovitis of the Facet Joint Causing Root Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Iwatsuki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritic changes in the facet joints are common in the presence of degenerative disc disease. Changes in the joint capsule accompany changes in the articular surfaces. Intraspinal synovial cysts that cause radicular pain, cauda equina syndrome, and myelopathy have been reported; however, there have been few reports in orthopedic or neurosurgical literature regarding hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint presenting as an incidental para-articular mass. Here, we report a case of hypertrophic synovitis causing root pain. We describe the case of a 65-year-old man suffering from right sciatica and right leg pain in the L5 nerve-root dermatome for 1 year; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed an enhanced mass around the L4–5 facet joint. We investigated this mass pathologically. After right medial facetectomy, the symptoms resolved. Pathological investigation revealed this mass was hypertrophic synovitis. Hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint might cause root pain.

  16. REVIEW OF CAUDA EQUINA LESIONS DUE TO PENETRATING INJURIES IN THE ESFAHAN PROVINCE IMPOSED WAR WOUNDED

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    A MIR HOSSEINI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An Injury of the caudal equine has been suggested to be an unique type of spinal injury than other types of penetrating spinal injuries. However the role of surgery as a method to speed or improve recovery is unclear. The 33 war wounded reported here represent approximately 15% of all penetrating spinal injuries related to Esfahan province. The average age was 23 years they were admitted at first in urgent centers near the war border and then in hospitals in different parts of country they received spine films and syelography. Deficit were Complete. if total loss of function existed and were "incomplete" if any function remained below the level of injury. Improvement at the end of follow up (after two years was defiend as any recovery of motor strength or sensory level. Early neurosurgical intervention for pentrating injuries of caudal equine may be beneficial but carries an increased risk of complications.

  17. [Acute rupture of lumbar intervertebral disc caused by violent manipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J S

    1989-08-01

    Five cases of acute rupture of lumbar intervertebral disc caused by violent manipulation are reported. After protrusion of the lumbar intervertebral disc were treated by violent manipulation, the lumbo-leg pain were severe suddenly. The operations found that the annulus fibrosus had ruptured and the nerve root or cauda equina was constricted by the nucleus pulposus which had entered into the spinal canal. It must be emphasized that their is in danger of more damaging intervertebral disc degenerated by violent manipulation, then the adhesion of the nerve root will occur gradually. We don't suggest to make violent manipulation for the patient with the nerve root injured. We have acquired good results in treating protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc by combined therapy and they are introduced in this article. PMID:2620603

  18. The tolerance of feline corpus and cauda spermatozoa to cryostress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Johannisson, Anders; Axnér, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation can be used to avoid the total loss of genetic material in threatened species. Spermatozoa from the corpus, as from the cauda, are motile and can undergo capacitation. Thus, they can potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. However, cryopreservation of spermatozoa has a direct detrimental effect on sperm quality. The aim of this study was to compare the chromatin stability and the survival rate of spermatozoa from the corpus and cauda epididymis after cryopreservation. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and cryopreserved from the corpus and cauda of 12 domestic cats. Sperm motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were evaluated before and after freezing thawing. The average total number of spermatozoa collected from the corpus was lower (10.2 × 10(6) ± 7.4) than that from the cauda epididymis (24.9 × 10(6) ± 14.4; P = 0.005). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact DNA did not differ significantly whether it was collected from the corpus or cauda regions and did not decrease after freezing thawing in either region. However, motility of spermatozoa from both regions was affected by the freezing thawing process with a significant decline in motility after thaw compared with fresh spermatozoa. A significant difference in the percentage of motile sperm between the corpus and cauda was observed after the freezing thawing process (P < 0.001). Although sperm motility was lower in postthaw spermatozoa from the corpus epididymidis than from the cauda, the rate of the reduction did not differ between regions. This study indicates that the cryopreservation process does not have a negative effect on chromatin stability of feline epididymal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa from the corpus region have a similar freezability as spermatozoa from the cauda region. Therefore, preservation of spermatozoa from the corpus and the cauda epididymidis might be of value in preserving

  19. Spinal Cauda Equina Stimulation for Alternative Location of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Intractable Phantom Limb Pain Syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pil Moo; So, Yun; Park, Jung Min; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Hae Kyoung; Kim, Jae Hun

    2016-01-01

    Phantom limb pain is a phenomenon in which patients experience pain in a part of the body that no longer exists. In several treatment modalities, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been introduced for the management of intractable post-amputation pain. A 46-year-old male patient complained of severe ankle and foot pain, following above-the-knee amputation surgery on the right side amputation surgery three years earlier. Despite undergoing treatment with multiple modalities for pain management ...

  20. Non-Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma Presenting As Cauda Equina Syndrome-a Rare presentation: One Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pradipta Guha; Debasis Sarkar; Indranil Thakur; Partha Sardar; Sekhar Mukherjee; Sanjoy Kumar Chatterjee

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease occurs in 5% of all cases of Hodgkin's disease. It occurs more commonly in male. Only 5% of all Hodgkin's lymphoma cases develop spinal cord compression[1] and in only 0.2% cases, spinal cord compression occurs as the initial presentation[2]. So our case is rare both in the form of the unique variety of Hodgkin's disease and also in the form of presentation.

  1. Síndrome da cauda flácida em cão da raça labrador retriever: primeiro relato no Brasil Limber syndrome in a labrador retriever dog: first report in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lígia Mistieri

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da cauda flácida é uma enfermidade que acomete cães de caça, principalmente Labradores Retriever e do grupo Pointer. Embora sua etiologia não esteja totalmente definida, sabe-se que sua ocorrência é precedida de esforço físico extenuante, exposição ao frio ou água fria e confinamento em caixas de transporte. O presente trabalho descreve o caso de um cão da raça Labrador Retriever, macho não castrado, de quatro anos de idade que apresentou súbita dor e flacidez da cauda após banho frio. Fratura vertebral, síndrome da cauda eqüina, outras enfermidades da medula espinhal ou de glândulas adanais e afecções prostáticas foram descartadas após exames auxiliares. A divulgação deste relato é relevante uma vez que esta síndrome ainda não foi descrita no Brasil.Limber syndrome is a disease that occurs in hunting dogs, commonly Labrador retriever and in dogs that belong to the group of Pointer. The aetiology is still unknown, but its occurrence is prior to extenuating exercises, cold exposure and cold water and transport jail maintenance. This article describes the case of a 4-year-old-intact-male Labrador Retriever that suddenly developed tail pain and limberness after cold bath. It was possible to exclude vertebral fracture, cauda equina syndrome, spinal cord or adanal gland injuries and prostatic disease as the auxiliary evaluations were made. This publication is important because there are no reports of Limber syndrome in Brazil.

  2. ASOCIACIÓN SEROLÓGICA DE LA RINONEUMONITIS VIRAL EQUINA Y LA ANEMIA INFECCIOSA EQUINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeiro López-Herrera

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de asociación serológica entre los herpesvirus equinos tipos 1 y 4 (HVE-1 y HVE-4 causantes de la rinoneumonitis equina y el virus de la anemia infecciosa equina (VAIE en caballos de trabajo provenientes de 5 municipios del Meta. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta serológica transversal en 68 equinos provenientes de los municipios de San Martín, Guamal, Restrepo, Cumaral y Paratebueno. Para la evaluación de los anticuerpos contra los HVE-1 y HVE-4, se utilizó un ELISA indirecto para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos dirigidos contra la glicoproteína G del HVE-1 y HVE-4 (Svanovir ™ EHV1/EHV4-Ab ELISA; para el diagnóstico de anticuerpos contra el VAIE se utilizó la prueba de inmunodifusión en agar de gel de Coggins. Resultados. No se encontraron reactores al HVE-1; sin embargo, el porcentaje de seropositividad fue de 94.12% (64/68 y 13.2%(9/68 para HVE-4 y VAIE respectivamente. El porcentaje de animales coinfectados HVE-4 y AIE fue 13.23% (9/68. Cuando se discriminaron los resultados por Municipio se encontró un 27.9% (19/68 de reactividad en el municipio de Restrepo, 26.5% (18/68 en Cumaral, 14.7% (10/68 en Paratebueno, 14.7% (10/68 en Guamal, y 10.3% (7/68 en San Martin. El porcentaje de reactores por municipio al VAIE fue Cumaral 5.88% (4/68, Restrepo 4.4% (3/68, Guamal 1.47%(1/68 y San Martín 1.47% (1/68. Conclusión. El alto porcentaje de coinfección entre HVE-4 y VAIE sugiere un efecto importante en la interacción, pues el efecto inmunosupresor del VAIE podría facilitar la reactivación del estado latente del HVE-4.

  3. What Is Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... component. Other diseases. Some types of arthritis and cancer can cause back pain. Your job. If you ... pain. Spinal stenosis. This condition causes the spinal canal to become ... or a nerve root problem called cauda equina syndrome, surgery is needed ...

  4. Solitary Epidural Lipoma with Ipsilateral Facet Arthritis Causing Lumbar Radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hong Kyun; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Kook Jin

    2012-01-01

    A 55-year-old obese man (body mass index, 31.6 kg/m2) presented radiating pain and motor weakness in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass posterior to the L5 vertebral body, which was isosignal to subcutaneous fat and it asymmetrically compressed the left side of the cauda equina and the exiting left L5 nerve root on the axial T1 weighted images. Severe arthritis of the left facet joint and edema of the bone marrow regarding the left pedicle were also found. As far...

  5. The Protective Effects of Carrot Seed Extract on Spermatogenesis and Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserves in Gentamicin Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carrot (Daucus carota L. is known to possess antifertility properties in female.However, according to Iranian traditional medicine, it can increase the potency in men. Theaim of this study was to investigate the influence of carrot seed extract (CSE on spermatogenesis,number and motility of sperms in cauda epididyme in male rats.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: controlgroup, groups receiving low- and high doses of CSE, animals that received high-dose of CSEwith gentamicin, and a gentamicin only group. After 4 weeks treatment, fasting serum sampleswere obtained for the sex hormone analysis. Under anesthesia, testis, cauda epididymidesand sperm ducts were dissected and sperm count, motility and cauda epididymis spermreserves (CESR were determined. Histopathological changes of testis were also studied toassess spermatogenesis. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed byTukey HSD tests.Results: Administration of CSE caused a significant increase in CESR compared with thecontrol (28.2 ± 1.8 vs. 45.1 ± 2.0, ×106. The extract could also protect testis from the gentamicin-induced necrosis. The CSE administration caused about 3.5-times increase in theLH levels even in spite of receiving 5 mg/kg/day gentamicin with no significant effect on FSHlevels. The testosterone concentrations in the group received 400 mg/kg CSE were 30% and83% higher than its levels in the control and the gentamicin treated group, respectively.Conclusion: CSE can overcome reproductive toxicity of gentamicin and induces spermatogenesisprobably mainly through the elevation of testosterone levels.

  6. Pleuroneumonía Equina (Equine Pleuropneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2009-03-01

    extension of the infection to the visceral pleura and pleural cavity, which causes pleuritis. Risk factors include transport, viral infections, exhausting exercise, general anesthesia, and any condition that enhances aspiration of oropharyngeal microrganisms or that impairs their clearance. Clinical signs may vary in acute or chronic diseases. In acute pleuropneumonia, horses havefever, lethargy, nasal discharge, cough, exercise intolerance, dispnea and pleurodinia. In chronic cases, intermittent fever, weight loss and subesternal edema are more frequent. Diagnosis is based mainly in thoracic ultrasonography and in the cytologicand biochemical analysis and culture of the pleural and tracheal fluids. Treatment consists on administration of systemic antibiotics to inhibit bacterial growth, removal of excessive pleural fluid, antiinflammatory and analgesic drugs, and supportive care (fluid therapy, oxygen and bronchodilators. Prognosis can be favorable when the disease is identified early and aggressive treatment is provided. In chronic cases or when complications like laminitis, colitis or thrombosis develop, prognosis is guarded to poor. The most common sequelae of pleuropneumonia are pulmonary abscesses,bronchopleural fistulae, pneumothorax and restrictive pericarditis.

  7. Function of the conus medullaris and cauda equina in the early period following spinal cord injury and the relationship to recovery of detrusor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beric, A; Light, J K

    1992-12-01

    A total of 26 patients with an early suprasacral spinal cord injury underwent comprehensive neurourological evaluation to determine if there was any correlation between the return of detrusor function and neural function of the sacral cord. In addition, the incidence of a subclinical sacral neural dysfunction early after spinal cord injury was assessed. Lumbosacral evoked potentials to tibial nerve stimulation were used to assess the sensory root and cord gray matter of the L5 to S2 segments, while urodynamic evaluation was performed to assess detrusor function. Of those patients with normal lumbosacral evoked potentials 82% recovered detrusor contractility as opposed to 66% with abnormal evoked potentials. Four patients (23.5%) had persistent detrusor areflexia when studied 9 to 20 months following the acute injury. The potential problems attempting to correlate the neurophysiological and urodynamic studies are multiple and are extensively discussed. Despite these potential problems the return of detrusor function correlated well with associated normal lumbosacral evoked potentials suggesting that this test can be used in the early phase following spinal cord injury to predict return of bladder function, since it is independent of the level of spinal cord excitability. Of the patients studied 38% had coexistence of an occult lumbosacral dysfunction. This rate is higher than that found in the chronic stabilized spinal cord injury population (20.5%), since the cases in our study may represent a more severe lesion. PMID:1433618

  8. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with cauda equina syndrome and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Complications in a case of type 1 neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar B Patil; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which mainly involves ectodermal tissue arising from the neural crest, can increase the risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), soft tissue sarcomas and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed soft tissue sarcoma, MPNST, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 22-year-old male reported right focal seizures consequence to severe headache. He had a weakness in both legs, could walk only with ...

  9. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria: An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%, whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9% and inorganic matter (67.1%. The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  10. Multiple schwannomas of cauda equine in the absence of von Recklinghausen's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple schwannomas in the absence of neurofibromatosis is rarely reported in the literature. We present a 56-year-old female with a history of severe leg and back pain on the left side for one year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 4 schwannomas located in the cauda equine in the absence of von Recklinghausen's disease. (author)

  11. In vitro fertilization using frozen-thawed feline epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Axnér, Eva; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation offers a potential for rescuing genetic material from endangered or valuable animals after injury or death. Spermatozoa from corpus, as well as from cauda, have the capability to be motile and to undergo capacitation and can thus potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. In the present study, feline frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions were investigated for their ability to fertilize homologous oocytes and further embryo development in vitro. Epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda of seven cats were cryopreserved and used for IVF. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 419) were obtained from female cats after routine spaying. Frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa showed similar properties of acrosome integrity, membrane integrity, and chromatin integrity as frozen-thawed spermatozoa from cauda except corpus spermatozoa showed lower motility (P < 0.05). The fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa was confirmed by similar number of embryos developing to the two- and four-cell stages compared with sperm from cauda (32.03% vs. 33.33%). However, oocytes fertilized with corpus spermatozoa had lower potential to develop to the blastocyst stage (6.79%) and had lower cell numbers compared to oocytes fertilized with cauda spermatozoa (14.08%). In conclusion, spermatozoa from corpus epididymis had a similar capability to fertilize homologous oocytes in vitro as sperm from cauda but resulted in fewer embryos developing to the blastocyst stage compared to spermatozoa from the cauda. PMID:27242180

  12. Posterior epidural migration of lumbar ruptured disc: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Deug Hee; Lee, Sang Ho; Park, Hyeon Seon; Park, Jy Young; Chung, Seung Eun; Jo, Byung June [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Disc fragment migration occurs in 35%-72% of lumbar disc herniations. Most of the herniated disc fragments migrate in the rostal, caudal and lateral directions. Posterior epidural disc fragment migration is a rare finding and posterior migration causing Cauda Equina syndrome is exceptionally rare. We report here on two cases of L4-5 disc fragment posterior epidural migration that caused Cauda Equina syndrome, and this was diagnosed by performing radiological examination, and we also include a review of the related literature.

  13. Effect of Solanum surattense seed on the oxidative potential of cauda epididymal spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirumalai T; David E; Viviyan Therasa S; Elumalai EK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Solanum surattense (S. surattense) on the oxidative potential of cauda epididymal spermatozoa. Methods: S. surattense seed extract was orally administered at the dosage of 10 mg/kg b.w. for 15 days, after which aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), citric acid and iso-citrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) were assayed. Results: The activity levels of the enzymes AST and ALT, which are considered to be the androgenicity in the sperm suspension, were depleted in the extract fed rats. The activity level of the enzyme ICDH, was reduced significantly in the treated group (P<0.001). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the oral administration of the aqueous seed extract of S. surattense can deplete the oxidative stress of cauda epididymal spermatozoa in albino rats.

  14. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Briffa

    Full Text Available 'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  15. Síndrome de la cola de caballo causado por ependimoma

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1982-01-01

    Siete imágenes de un ependimoma causante del síndrome de la cola de caballo en un paciente de 41 años. Seven pictures of an ependymoma that has caused a cauda equina syndrome in a 41-year-old male patient.

  16. 椎板成形术治疗老年马尾神经综合症(CES)63例%Reconstructing the vertebral laminate treated the elder Cauda Equina Syndrome 63 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦; 丁林坚; 刘英杰; 杨伟光; 黄永杰; 莫健斌; 黄俊杰

    2003-01-01

    目的:椎板成形术治疗老年马尾神经综合征的临床效果.方法:椎板成形术(全椎板切除,椎管减压,"H"形大块植骨,椎板下穿丝加压固定术)治疗腰椎管狭窄所致老年马尾神经损害(CES)63 例.结果:本组病人平均随访1年10个月,根据Nakai标准,优良率84.13 %.结论:老年腰椎管狭窄引起的CES行椎板成形术治疗,马尾神经彻底减压是消除症状和功能恢复的保证;大块"H"型植骨钢丝加压内固定,既可减轻术后疤痕膜形成,又重建脊柱稳定和促进植骨的融合.

  17. Comparison of four methods to evaluate sperm DNA integrity between mouse caput and cauda epididymidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serafín Pérez-Cerezales; Alberto Miranda; Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that transit through the epididymis involves an increase in the compaction of sperm chromatin,which acquires fully condensed status at the caput epididymidis.The purpose of this study was to compare the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay,the comet assay,the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test by analysing spermatozoa from the caput and cauda epididymidis in order to demonstrate the ability of each technique to discriminate between different degrees of sperm maturity related to chromatin compaction and DNA fragmentation.Our results suggest that some populations of DNA-fragmented spermatozoa associated with immature sperm can only be identified using the comet assay and the SCSA but not with the SCD test or the TUNEL assay.

  18. Eventos de Desconexao na Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Fahr, H. J.

    2001-08-01

    Observacoes cometárias e de vento solar sao comparadas com o propósito de determinar-se as condicoes do vento solar associadas aos eventos de desconexao (DEs) observados em caudas de plasma cometárias. Os dados cometários sao provenientes do The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. A análise visual sistemática das imagens do atlas revelou, entre outras estruturas morfológicas, 47 DEs ao longo da cauda de plasma do P/Halley. Estes 47 DEs registrados em 47 imagens distintas permitiram a descoberta de 19 origens de DEs, ou seja, o tempo em que as desconexoes iniciaram foi calculado. Os dados do vento solar sao provenientes de medidas feitas in situ pela sonda espacial IMP-8, as quais foram usadas para elaborar a variacao da velocidade do vento solar, densidade e pressao dinâmica durante o intervalo analisado. O presente trabalho compara as atuais teorias conflitantes, baseadas nos mecanismos de formacao, com o intuito de explicar o fenômeno cíclico dos DEs, ou seja, os efeitos de producao iônica, os efeitos de pressao e os efeitos de reconexao magnética sao analisados. Para cada uma das 19 origens de DEs comparou-se a densidade com a respectiva velocidade do vento solar com o intuito de determinar-se uma possível correlacao entre estas origens e os efeitos de pressao dinâmica. Quando da ocorrência de 6 origens de DEs o IMP-8 nao realizou medidas, nos outros 13 casos 10 origens (77%) mostraram uma anticorrelacao entre velocidade e densidade e apenas 3 (23%) revelaram uma tendência similar entre velocidade e densidade. Portanto, a análise inicial demonstra uma fraca correlacao entre as origens dos DEs e os efeitos de pressao.

  19. Assessment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis by magnetic resonance phlebography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is evidence to suggest that cauda equina intermittent claudication is caused by local circulatory disturbances in the cauda equina as well as compression of the cauda equina. We evaluated the role of magnetic resonance phlebography (MRP) in identifying circulatory disturbances of the vertebral venous system in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Extensive filling defects of the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus were evident in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (n=53), whereas only milder abnormalities were noted in patients with other lumber diseases (n=16) and none in normal subjects (n=13). The extent of the defect on MRP correlated with the time at which intermittent claudication appeared. In patients with lumber spinal canal stenosis, extensive defects of the internal vertebral venous plexus on MRP were noted in the neutral spine position, but the defect diminished with anterior flexion of the spine. This phenomenon correlated closely with the time at which intermittent claudication appeared. Our results highlight the importance of MRP for assessing the underlying mechanism of cauda equina intermittent claudication in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and suggest that congestive venous ischemia is involved in the development of intermittent claudication in these patients. (author)

  20. Ultrastructure of the epithelium lining of cauda epididymidis in mongrel dogs Ultraestrutura do epitélio de revestimento da cauda epididimária em cães sem raça definida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C. Schimming

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining of cauda epididymidis in mongrel dogs was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The epididymal epithelium is pseudostratified with stereocilia and is composed predominantly of principal and clear cells. Therefore, exist basal and apical cells. The principal and clear cells show features suggesting that they may be preferentially involved in absorptive and secretive functions. These results are compared with previously published data on the cauda epididymidis of other mammalian species, in order to understand the significance of the epididymis in sperm maturation.O epitélio de revestimento da cauda epididimária em cães sem raça definida foi examinado através da microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O epitélio epididimário é pseudoestratificado com estereocílios na borda luminal e é composto principalmente por células principais e claras. Além destes tipos, foi observado algumas células basais e apicais. As células principais e claras apresentaram características ultra-estruturais que sugerem que as mesmas estão envolvidas com funções absortivas e secretórias. Os resultados foram comparados com estudos prévios realizados na cauda do ducto epididimário de outros mamíferos, com o objetivo de melhor entender o papel do epidídimo na maturação espermática.

  1. Metritis Equina Contagiosa en yeguas de la Raza Española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Márquez Sánchez, Daniel Fernando Ramírez Vega, Elías Velázquez Cantón, Carlos Ramiro Muñoz, Aída Lorena Murillo Medina y Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo*

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación fue realizada para el diagnóstico de Taylorella equigenitalis, agente causal de la metritis equina contagiosa (MEC. Se realizó al sur de la Ciudad de México, en una yeguada de la raza española, con un total de 29 animales. Se analizaron parámetros reproductivos de todas las yeguas. Fueron seleccionadas 4 yeguas, las cuales presentaron metritis y se trataron con antibiótico, se realizó la prueba para metritis equina contagiosa y un examen bacteriológico general. La Taylorella equigenitalis es el agente causal de la MEC, es un cocobacilo microaerofílico gram-negativo que anteriormente se denominaba como Haemophilus equigenitalis. Reside exclusivamente en el tracto genital de los equinos. Los sementales son portadores asintomáticos, pero ambos sexos lo pueden tener. La enfermedad es altamente contagiosa. Su transmisión es esencialmente venérea, pero las yeguas pueden ser infectadas por el caballerango o instrumentos veterinarios. La Taylorella equigenitalis provoca infertilidad temporal. Los signos principales van desde una copiosa a una ligera descarga vaginal mucopurulenta y variable cervicitis y vaginitis. La detección de la infección depende del cultivo con hisopos del tracto urogenital, tanto de la hembra, como del macho. La toma de muestras se realizó seriada en 3 ocasiones con un intervalo mínimo de 7 días. Los hisopos fueron transportados al Laboratorio de Diagnóstico de Salud Animal ubicado en Tecámac, Estado de México, siendo este el único reconocido oficialmente para procesar este tipo de muestras. Se transportaron con las precauciones necesarias, para evitar pérdida en la viabilidad. El medio de rutina utilizado fue agar chocolate con una rica base nutritiva como el Eugon con un 10 p. 100 de sangre de equino sin dextrosa. El medio inoculado fue incubado a 37ºC bajo 10 p. 100 de CO2. Los resultados para T. equigenitalis fueron negativos en las 4 yeguas; sin embargo, hubo crecimiento bacteriano

  2. A STUDY OF HIATAL LEVEL IN SACRUM: IS THIS THE CAUSE OF BACK PROBLEMS IN INDIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Prasad

    2016-06-01

    so can be taken as a base study and the study can be further studied to find the definitive cause for the above-mentioned malformations. METHODS The aim of the study is to find out the incidence of opening of sacral hiatus at each level of sacral vertebra and to find out any other malformations associated with it. The study has been done in the Department of Anatomy, Nalanda Medical College, Patna. The study was done from June 2015 to May 2016. One hundred sacra were studied and the level of the hiatus was noted and also the associated malformations were noted if any. RESULTS In the present study, in one sacrum total non-fusion of lamina was seen. This may result in complete herniation of the lower parts of conus medullaris or at least the cauda equina parts of the spinal cord. This may in turn result in the stretching of the lower fibres of the cauda equina resulting in the symptoms of lower limbs like pain and paralysis of lower limbs as well as in chronic lower backache. The hiatus is seen in more frequencies as it progresses lower down the sacral levels. It has been observed in 11 cases at the level of S3, 31 cases at the level of S4 and in 57 cases at the level of S5. CONCLUSION The level at which the hiatus opens is successfully studied in this study. This study is intended to help the clinicians, orthopaedicians and the general practitioners to understand and if possible intervene before the natural progression of the disease sets in. It is also important anthropologically as there might be anthropological and racial variations. This might spark an interest in the world of Forensic sciences as well as it can be used in identification. Papers have been presented and it has been ruled that in diabetic mothers the caudal malformations are common. The link between diabetic mothers and chronic lower backache has still not been established. This study so can be taken as a base study and the study can be further studied to find the definitive cause for the above

  3. Vulnerabilidad a la introducción y transmisión local de la Encefalitis Equina Venezolana. Delicias, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoenny Peña García

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La Encefalitis Equina Venezolana (EEV es una enfermedad infecciosa, causada por un arbovirus de la familia Togaviridae, es transmitida del caballo o aves al hombre a través de picaduras de mosquitos, constituyendo una zoonosis. Cuba presta colaboración internacionalista en países donde esta enfermedad es endémica y considerada peligrosa, desde el punto de vista económico y sanitario. Se realizó  un estudio epidemiológico, para determinar la vulnerabilidad de introducción y transmisión local de la Encefalitis Equina Venezolana en el Área de Salud Delicias en el año 2009. Se utilizaron las siguientes variables: país de procedencia del colaborador, géneros de culícidos transmisores, población equina y se determinaron zonas de riesgo. Se identificaron tres países endémicos, el que mayor cantidad de colaboradores tuvo fue Venezuela, con 66 (85,7%, seguido de Ecuador y Haití, que solo tuvieron 1 (1,3%. El Consejo Popular 3 es el que más colaboradores en zonas endémicas poseyó (50, para un 87,7%. En el área se identificaron 11 géneros de mosquitos, de ellos cuatro transmisores de la EEV (Culex, Mansonia, Psorophora, y Anopheles, la población de equinos se distribuye en todo el territorio. Constituyen las zonas de mayor riego para la transmisión local de la enfermedad la parte noreste del poblado de Delicias y el poblado de San Manuel, determinándose 12 comunidades atendidas por Consultorios Médicos de Familia de alto riesgo para la transmisión local.

  4. Whole-body heat exposure induces membrane changes in spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis of laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wechalekar, Harsha; Setchell, Brian P.; Peirce, Eleanor J.; Ricci, Mario; Leigh, Chris; Breed, William G.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if exposure to hot environmental temperatures had a direct, detrimental effect on sperm quality. For this the effect of whole-body heat exposure on epididymal spermatozoa of laboratory mice was investigated. C57BL/6 mice (n = 7) were housed in a microclimate chamber at 37°C–38°C for 8 h per day for three consecutive days, while control mice (n = 7) were kept at 23°C–24°C. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were obtained 16 h after the last heat treatment. The...

  5. A importância da odontologia na prática clínica equina

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, Diana Luísa de Oliveira Moreira

    2010-01-01

    A odontologia equina é uma área da prática clínica que se encontra em ascensão. O domínio desta área tem-se revelado bastante importante quando se pretende estimar a idade de um cavalo através da sua dentição. No entanto, a sua máxima importância prende-se com a prevenção de alterações que eventualmente possam surgir na cavidade oral do equino e com a identificação e resolução destas aquando da sua presença. É também de grande importância saber que, de entre a enorme variedade de patolo...

  6. Producció recombinant de la gonadotrofina coriònica equina amb el llevat Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Ubach Font, Anna

    2009-01-01

    En aquest estudi es presenta el procés d'obtenció d'una proteïna recombinant, l'hormona gonadotrofina coriònica equina (eCG) en el llevat metilotròfic Pichia pastoris.S'ha sintetitzat els gens mitjançant la tècnica de PCR, ja que les seqüències són relativament curtes, 294 i 472 nucleòtids pels gens codificadors de la cadena α i β, respectivament. Això ha permès poder modificar la seqüència per tal d'adaptar-la a l'ús codons més utilitzats per P. pastoris, eliminar i afegir dianes d...

  7. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  8. Bases ósseas e musculares dos cortes comerciais da cauda de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I.S. Figueiredo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A exploração comercial de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caiman yacare constitui importante cadeia produtiva no Estado de Mato Grosso. As características nutricionais e representatividade na massa corporal de crocodilianos tornaram a região da cauda objeto de estudos morfofisiológicos, evolutivos e tecnológicos. Como inexiste a caracterização anatômica dos músculos e ossos que constituem os cortes comerciais dessa região, objetivou-se descrever os músculos e correspondentes bases ósseas da cauda. Na descrição óssea, foram utilizados um exemplar adulto e seis juvenis. Para caracterização muscular, 24 espécimes juvenis foram conservados em freezer e dissecados a fresco, em ambos os antímeros, para verificação de simetria de ocorrência, fixações musculares, relacões de sintopia, forma e arquitetura muscular. As vértebras caudais são procélicas, exceto a primeira da série, e possuem na superfície ventral do corpo áreas para articulação com os processos hemais, exceto a primeira e as quatro ou cinco últimas. Os cortes comerciais da região são o filé de cauda, composto pelos músculos semiespinhal caudal, longuíssimo caudal, ilioisquiocaudal, caudofemoral longo, transverso e profundo da cauda, enquanto o corte ponta de cauda é constituído pelos músculos longuíssimo caudal e ilioisquiocaudal, com as cinco ou seis últimas vértebras caudais.

  9. Urgent discectomy: Clinical features and neurological outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Albert

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Motor deficits, sensory deficits, and cauda equina dysfunction were significantly improved immediately after urgent surgery. After 6 weeks, motor and sensory deficits were also significantly improved compared to the neurological status at discharge. Thus, we advocate immediate surgery of disc herniation in patients with acute onset of motor deficits, perineal numbness, or bladder or bowel dysfunction indicative of cauda equina syndrome.

  10. L’immunogenicità nella cavia e nel cavallo di due formulazioni di un vaccino inattivato e adiuvato per la peste equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available L’efficacia di due vaccini monovalenti, inattivati e adiuvati per il controllo della Peste Equina, allestiti con i sierotipi 5 e 9, è stata saggiata su cavia per selezionare la formulazione con le migliori capacità immunogene. Nella formulazione dei vaccini sono state prese in considerazione: la risposta immunitaria evocata nella cavia e le proprietà infiammatorie di due diversi tipi di adiuvanti precedentemente saggiati nella specie di destino del vaccino.Il vaccino allestito con il sierotipo 9, saggiato in uno studio pilota su cavallo, si è dimostrato capace fin dalla prima somministrazione di stimolare la produzione di anticorpi neutralizzanti. La risposta anticorpale evocata ha subito un marcato rialzo dopo la somministrazione della dose di richiamo, effettuata dopo 28 giorni, perdurando per almeno 10 mesi. La cavia sembra essere un utile modello di laboratorio per la valutazione delle proprietà antigeniche dei vaccini contro la peste equina.

  11. L’immunogenicità nella cavia e nel cavallo di due formulazioni di un vaccino inattivato e adiuvato per la peste equina

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi; Simonetta Ulisse; Emanuela Rossi; Paola Franchi; Gisella Armillotta; Sara Capista; Agostino Peccio; Mauro Di Ventura; Attilio Pini

    2012-01-01

    L’efficacia di due vaccini monovalenti, inattivati e adiuvati per il controllo della Peste Equina, allestiti con i sierotipi 5 e 9, è stata saggiata su cavia per selezionare la formulazione con le migliori capacità immunogene. Nella formulazione dei vaccini sono state prese in considerazione: la risposta immunitaria evocata nella cavia e le proprietà infiammatorie di due diversi tipi di adiuvanti precedentemente saggiati nella specie di destino del vaccino.Il vaccino allestito con il sierotip...

  12. Vaccino inattivato e adiuvato per il controllo delle infezioni da sierotipo 9 del virus della peste equina: valutazione dell'efficacia in cavallo e cavia

    OpenAIRE

    Rossella Lelli; Umberto Molini; Gaetano Federico Ronchi; Emanuela Rossi; Paola Franchi; Simonetta Ulisse; Gisella Armillotta; Sara Capista; Siegfried Khaiseb; Mauro Di Ventura; Attilio Pini

    2013-01-01

    La peste equina (PE) è una malattia virale non contagiosa dei solipedi trasmessa da insetti vettori appartenenti al genere Culicoides. La malattia è endemica in numerose regioni dell'Africa e passate esperienze hanno evidenziato come l'Italia sia un paese esposto alle malattie infettive emergenti, endemiche in Africa. Un'incursione del virus della PE unitamente alla presenza del vettore Culicoides potrebbero essere causa di una emergenza epidemica. Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP) comm...

  13. Extramedullary haematopoiesis in Thalassaemia: results of radiotherapy: a report of three patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistevou-Gompaki, K.; Paraskevopoulos, P.; Kotsa, K. [Theagenion Cancer Center, Thessaloniki (Greece); Skaragas, G.; Repanta, E. [Saint Paul`s Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1996-10-01

    Extramedullary haematopoiesis is sometimes encountered in serve anaemia. Rarely, it may cause neurological symptoms, leading to spinal cord or cauda equina compression. Three patients with thalassaemia intermedia, who developed neurological complications, are described. The diagnoses were based on the clinical findings, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Small doses of radiotherapy (10-20 Gy in 5-10 fractions) relieved symptoms in all of these patients. Our experience supports the role of radiation therapy as a treatment for this complication. (Author).

  14. Extramedullary haematopoiesis in Thalassaemia: results of radiotherapy: a report of three patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extramedullary haematopoiesis is sometimes encountered in serve anaemia. Rarely, it may cause neurological symptoms, leading to spinal cord or cauda equina compression. Three patients with thalassaemia intermedia, who developed neurological complications, are described. The diagnoses were based on the clinical findings, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Small doses of radiotherapy (10-20 Gy in 5-10 fractions) relieved symptoms in all of these patients. Our experience supports the role of radiation therapy as a treatment for this complication. (Author)

  15. Adolescence spinal epidural abscess with neurological symptoms: case report, a lesson to be re-learnt

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Tabrizi, Ali; Elmi, Asghar; Soleimanpour, Jafar; Gavidel, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Epidural abscess of the spinal column is a rare condition that can be fatal if left untreated. It promptly progresses and can cause neurologic paralysis, urinary retention or cauda equina syndrome. Compromised immune system that occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus, AIDS, chronic renal failure, alcoholism, or cancer is a predisposing factor. It mostly occurs in adults. Here we would like to report a case of spontaneous pyogenic lumbar epidural abscess with neurological deficit diagnosed ...

  16. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Kertmen, H.; Gürer, B.; Yimaz, E. R.; Sekerci, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patien...

  17. Whole-body heat exposure induces membrane changes in spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechalekar, Harsha; Setchell, Brian P; Peirce, Eleanor J; Ricci, Mario; Leigh, Chris; Breed, William G

    2010-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if exposure to hot environmental temperatures had a direct, detrimental effect on sperm quality. For this the effect of whole-body heat exposure on epididymal spermatozoa of laboratory mice was investigated. C57BL/6 mice (n = 7) were housed in a microclimate chamber at 37 degrees C-38 degrees C for 8 h per day for three consecutive days, while control mice (n = 7) were kept at 23 degrees C-24 degrees C. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were obtained 16 h after the last heat treatment. The results showed that sperm numbers were similar in the two groups (P = 0.23), but after heat treatment, a significant reduction in the percentage of motile sperm was present (P phosphotidylserine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane, and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD), which binds to the sperm nucleus when the plasma membrane is damaged. The percentage of spermatozoa showing positive staining with Annexin V-PE or 7-AAD or both, was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in heat-exposed mice compared with controls. These results show that whole-body heat exposure to 37 degrees C-38 degrees C induces membrane changes in the epididymal spermatozoa of mice, which may lead to apoptosis. PMID:20531278

  18. Prevalencia de anemia infecciosa equina en el municipio de Santa Clara, Cuba - Prevalence of equine infectious anemia in the municipality of Santa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Cuenca, Julio C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDada la naturaleza de contagiosidad y fatalidad de la anemia infecciosa equina nos propusimos realizar un estudio serológico con el objetivo de conocer la tasa de prevalencia de la enfermedad en el municipio de Santa Clara, provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba.SummaryGiven the nature of infectiousness and fatality of the equine infectious anemia we intended to carry out a serological study with the objective of knowing the prevalence rate of the disease in the municipality of Santa Clara, Villa Clara province, Cuba.

  19. Avaliação da migração das células progenitoras após terapia da tendinite equina

    OpenAIRE

    P.G.G. Oliveira; A.M. Carvalho; A.L.M. Yamada; L. Maia; N.P.P. Freitas; M.J. Watanabe; F.C. Landim-Alvarenga; A.L.G. Alves

    2014-01-01

    A terapia celular vem sendo utilizada com resultados promissores no tratamento da tendinite equina, entretanto ainda existem dúvidas quanto à persistência e ao comportamento dessas células quando implantadas no local da lesão, e quanto à sua migração para outros focos inflamatórios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a marcação das células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs) com nanocristal antes e após o implante em lesões tendíneas experimentais do tendão flexor digital superficial (TFDS) de equino...

  20. Análise de Estruturas Morfológicas da Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1997-08-01

    531 imagens contidas no The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (Brandt et al., 1992) cobrindo o período de setembro de 1985 a julho de 1986 foram analisadas visando identificar, caracterizar as propriedades e correlacionar estruturas morfológicas da cauda de plasma do cometa P/Halley. A análise revelou 151 estruturas ondulatórias, 146 ondas solitárias (sólitons), 12 caudas do tipo Swan (Hyder et al., 1974; Niedner & Brandt, 1980; Jockers, 1985), 47 eventos de desconexão (D.E.'s) (Niedner & Brandt, 1979; Jockers, 1985; Celnik et al., 1988; Delva et al., 1991) e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots") (Matsuura & Voelzke, 1990; Voelzke, 1996). - feita uma análise comparativa com outros trabalhos similares objetivando disciplinar a nomenclatura das estruturas morfológicas e a sua classificação. As estruturas ondulatórias correspondem a ondulaçóes ou trens de onda, enquanto que os sólitons referem-se a estruturas morfológicas usualmente denominadas "kinks" (Tomita et al., 1987). O valor médio do comprimento de onda, corrigido dos efeitos de projeção, Lc medido em 16 estruturas ondulatórias distintas corresponde a (2,2 +- 0,2) x 10^6 km. O valor médio da velocidade de fase cometocêntrica, corrigida dos efeitos de projeção, Vfc é igual a (114 +- 31) km/s e a amplitude média A da onda corresponde a (2,8 +- 0,5) x 10^5 km. Lc e A tendem a aumentar com o incremento da distància cometocêntrica. As ondas são claramente não-lineares e é discutido o local de sua excitação. A distribuição dos D.E.'s na distància heliocêntrica apresenta um caráter bimodal possivelmente associado com a distribuição espacial das fronteiras de setor magnético do meio interplanetário. Em geral, pode-se associar a ocorrência de um "knot" e/ou de uma cauda do tipo Swan com a ocorrência de um D.E., mas este último pode ocorrer independentemente. Os 47 D.E.'s em diferentes fases de evolução foram fotografados em 47 imagens distintas que

  1. Utilização de gastroscopia no despiste da EGUS / SUGE (Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome / Síndrome de Úlcera Gástrica Equina)

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Joana de Sousa Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A Síndrome de Úlcera Gástrica Equina (SUGE) tem recebido nas últimas décadas uma atenção crescente, devido à sua elevada prevalência, e às suas repercussões económicas e no bem-estar dos animais. Pensa-se que a SUGE terá uma etiologia multifactorial, envolvendo vários factores de risco que predispõem à lesão da mucosa ao alterarem a acidez gástrica, a concentração de ácidos gordos voláteis ou o aporte sanguíneo. São c...

  2. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  3. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucaud, L. de; Dousset, V.; Viaud, B.; Caille, J.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Caillaud, P.; Guerin, J. [Service de Neurochirurgie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1999-10-01

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  4. A sacral lesion resembling osteochondrosis in the German Shepherd dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 30% (21 of 65) of German Shepherd dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina compression had radiographic and pathologic abnormalities compatible with osteochondrosis of the sacral endplate. Most of these dogs had a defect in the dorsal part of the sacral endplate and a detached bone fragment in the vertebral canal. Similar lesions were also found in growing and young adult dogs without clinical signs. The dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina compression also had severe degenerative disc disease with protrusion of the lumbosacral disc and compression of the cauda equina, suggesting that the signs of cauda equina compression more likely were related to the secondary degenerative changes (disc protrusions) rather than the primary disease. Clinically normal German Shepherds with sacral osteochondrosis usually were younger than 18 months, the dogs with cauda equina compression and sacral osteochondrosis older than 18 months (mean age 4.8 years). On the average, these dogs were two years younger as compared to dogs with cauda equina compression without sacral osteochondrosis. Male dogs are more often affected than females (5:1). There is a breed predisposition: in dogs other than German Shepherds, osteochondrosis of the sacral endplate seems to be extremely rare

  5. Avaliação da migração das células progenitoras após terapia da tendinite equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.G. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A terapia celular vem sendo utilizada com resultados promissores no tratamento da tendinite equina, entretanto ainda existem dúvidas quanto à persistência e ao comportamento dessas células quando implantadas no local da lesão, e quanto à sua migração para outros focos inflamatórios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a marcação das células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs com nanocristal antes e após o implante em lesões tendíneas experimentais do tendão flexor digital superficial (TFDS de equinos, bem como observar a possibilidade de migração das CTMs marcadas para outro foco de lesão, o membro contralateral do mesmo animal. Para isso, foi realizada a indução de lesão experimental no TFDS em ambos os membros torácicos de cinco equinos e, após sete dias, foram implantadas as CTMs autólogas marcadas com o nanocristal Qtracker 655 em um dos membros dos animais. Após sete dias do implante, foi realizada a biópsia tendínea para posterior avaliação histopatológica, utilizando-se microscopia com fluorescência. Também foi realizado o teste de viabilidade celular antes e após a incubação com o nanocristal. As CTMs marcadas e injetadas no tecido tendíneo mantiveram sua fluorescência sete dias após seu implante, e não ocorreu migração para o membro contralateral. O uso do nanocristal para a marcação das CTMs derivadas da medula óssea equina mostrou-se efetivo pelo fato de essa nanopartícula não ter alterado a viabilidade celular e por ela ter permanecido ativa durante o período implantado.

  6. Vaccino inattivato e adiuvato per il controllo delle infezioni da sierotipo 9 del virus della peste equina: valutazione dell'efficacia in cavallo e cavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Lelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La peste equina (PE è una malattia virale non contagiosa dei solipedi trasmessa da insetti vettori appartenenti al genere Culicoides. La malattia è endemica in numerose regioni dell'Africa e passate esperienze hanno evidenziato come l'Italia sia un paese esposto alle malattie infettive emergenti, endemiche in Africa. Un'incursione del virus della PE unitamente alla presenza del vettore Culicoides potrebbero essere causa di una emergenza epidemica. Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP commercializza un vaccino vivo attenuato contenente 7 dei 9 sierotipi virali, i sierotipi 5 e 9 sono esclusi dal vaccino. L'uso di tali vaccini è controverso, pertanto, da diversi anni, vengono condotti studi su prodotti inattivati o ricombinanti. Poiché la ricerca sui vaccini PE è ostacolata dalla necessità di utilizzare il cavallo per la valutazione dell'immunogenicità, in un precedente esperimento è stata studiata la risposta sierologica ai sierotipi 5 e 9, in cavie e cavalli. Nelle due specie animali è stata osservata una risposta durevole e sovrapponibile. Nel presente studio sono state saggiate per un periodo di 12 mesi le risposte sierologiche ottenute in cavie e cavalli immunizzati con il vaccino inattivato formulato con il sierotipo 9. Le risposte sierologiche nelle due specie animali si sono confermate sovrapponibili. Al challenge dell'immunità i cavalli sono risultati protetti dall'infezione e dalla malattia.

  7. [Lumbar disc herniation and andrological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bao-fang

    2015-10-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common male disease. In the past, More academic attention was directed to its relationship with lumbago and leg pain than to its association with andrological diseases. Studies show that central lumber intervertebral disc herniation may cause cauda equina injury and result in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, priapism, and emission. This article presents an overview on the correlation between central lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and andrological diseases, focusing on the aspects of etiology, pathology, and clinical progress, hoping to invite more attention from andrological and osteological clinicians. PMID:26665671

  8. Neurally augmented sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, S

    2007-01-01

    Neurally Augmented Sexual Function (NASF) is a technique utilizing epidural electrodes to restore and improve sexual function. Orgasmic dysfunction is common in adult women, affecting roughly one quarter of populations studied. Many male patients suffering from erectile dysfunction are not candidates for phosphdiesterase therapy due to concomitant nitrate therapy. Positioning the electrodes at roughly the level of the cauda equina allows for stimulation of somatic efferents and afferents as well as modifying sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Our series of women treated by NASF is described. Our experience shows that the evaluation of potential candidates for both correctable causes and psychological screening are important considerations. PMID:17691397

  9. Microsurgical excision of hematoma of the lumbar ligamentum flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Yayama, Takafumi; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2010-07-01

    Hematoma of the lumbar ligamentum flavum is a very rare cause of sciatica. A 72-year-old man presented with left-sided sciatica and paresthesia of the lateral aspect of his left foot. From CT and MRI findings, he was diagnosed as having a hematoma embedded in the ligamentum flavum, which compressed the dura mater at the L5/S1 disc level. After an adequate surgical field was obtained with a microscope and a Casper retractor, the hematoma of the ligamentum flavum could be excised via a unilateral approach and satisfactory decompression of the cauda equina and nerve roots were obtained. PMID:20537575

  10. Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Gündüz; Salih Baran; Belgin Erhan; Ayşe Nur Bardak; Feride Savaş

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Spinal cord injuries affect sexual function and cause problems in erection, ejaculation, orgasm and fertility; erectile dysfunction is the most important one. The aim of this study is to evaluate the erectile dysfunction seen after spinal cord injury.Materials and Method: Sixty male patients with spinal cord injury, 20 above the level of T10, 20 between T11 and L2, 20 with conus/cauda equina lesions were included in this study. The patients were evaluated according to the American ...

  11. Lumbar disc protrusion therapy by combination drug administration in epidural space%硬膜外腔联合用药治疗腰椎间盘突出症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹美华; 杨德荣; 许晶; 马玉清

    2003-01-01

    @@ BACKGROUND: Lumbar disc protrusion was a syndrome dueto degeneration of disc, disruption of fibrous tings and protrusion ofnucleus pulposus and stimulation of cauda equina. It was the mostcommon cause of leg and back pain. it had a high incidence rate andthe patients suffered too greatly to normal work and life. Afternon-operative therapy, symptoms of most patients disappeared orrelieved. Only 10% to 15% of the patients needed operation. Re-cently, combination drug administration in epidural space were usedin lumbar disc protrusion therapy with a highly successful rate andhttle danger.

  12. Modelo de suspensão pela cauda e seu efeito em algumas propriedades mecânicas do osso do rato Model of tail suspension and its effect in some mechanical properties of the rat bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Valadares da Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção do metabolismo mineral normal dos ossos é um resultado de vários fatores inclusive das solicitações mecânicas que são aplicadas aos ossos pelas contrações musculares e pela força da gravidade. O propósito desta investigação foi estudar um modelo de suspensão de rato pela cauda que simulasse assim as alterações esqueléticas que podem acontecer em um ambiente de microgravidade. O modelo foi analisado em termos de tolerância do animal e dos efeitos sobre a resistência mecânica do complexo tíbia-fíbula. Após a realização do ensaio de flexão em três pontos, foram obtidos os principais parâmetros mecânicos (carga e deflexão no limite máximo, carga e deflexão no limite elástico, rigidez e resiliência. Foram utilizadas cinqüenta e três ratas fêmeas, distribuídas em quatro grupos conforme o período de suspensão (controle, 7, 14 e 21 dias. O modelo de suspensão mostrou-se eficaz com boa adaptação dos animais e promoveu um enfraquecimento significativo nos ossos principalmente no período de 21 dias.The maintenance of the normal metabolism of minerals in the bone is a result of several factors including the mechanical demands that are applied to the bones by muscle contractions and gravity force. The proposal of this investigation was to study a model of tail suspension of rats thus simulating the skeletal alterations that may occur in a microgravity environment. The model was analyzed in terms of animal tolerance and the ensuing effects on the mechanical resistance of the tibiofibular complex. After a three-point bending test in flexion the main mechanical parameters were obtained, (load and deflection at the ultimate limit, load and deflection at the yielding point, stiffness and resilience. 53 adult female rats were used and distributed in four groups according to the length of time in suspension (control, 7, 14 and 21 days. The model of suspension was efficient with good animals adaptation and it

  13. Diagnóstico diferencial de trombose aortoilíaca e mieloencefalite protozoária equina: relato de caso Differential diagnosis between aorto-iliac thrombosis and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    P.B. Escodro; P.F.R. Lopes; C.G. Gianini; D.N. Jorge Filho

    2010-01-01

    Relata-se o caso de uma égua de atividade de polo, que apresentou inicialmente claudicação leve no membro posterior esquerdo, a qual evoluiu para ataxia e atrofia da musculatura glútea do lado esquerdo, com diagnóstico de trombose aortoilíaca (TAI). A paciente foi tratada com suspeita de mieloencefalite protozoária equina, devido à semelhança dos sinais clínicos com essa doença, porém o líquido cefalorraquidiano apresentou-se negativo para anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis neurona. A palpação trans...

  14. 脑瘫痉挛性马蹄足腓肠肌组织化学和超微结构观察%Histochemical and Electron Microscopic Study of Gastrochemius Muscles in Spastic Equina of Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月光; 唐彦萍; 陈华军; 薛黔; 胡雪梅

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four biopsy specimens of the gastrochemius muscles were taken from 12 surgical treated cases with spastic equina deformity. There were examined histochemically by myosin ATP ase method and studied ultra-structurally. The histochemical change is that the type I fibers, slow-twitch fibers, occupy a significantly higher proportion than control, and offten gather together to form type grouping. Ultra-structural abnormalities were found in all of the 24 specimens. The results showed that the surgical treatment of spastic equina deformity was usually ineffective in long term, because there was not only disorder of the central nervous system but also the change of the muscle fiber types.%对24个脑瘫痉挛性马蹄足经手术治疗后的腓肠肌标本进行肌球蛋白ATP酶组化研究和超微结构观察.组织化学的主要改变是Ⅰ型肌纤维(慢缩纤维)比例增多和Ⅰ型肌纤维的聚集,全部标本均可见到超微结构异常.结果表明,脑瘫痉挛性马蹄足外科手术治疗远期效果不佳,除中枢神经系统失调外,还与腓肠肌肌纤维型转变有关.

  15. Pelvic nerve injury causes a rapid decrease in expression of choline acetyltransferase and upregulation of c-Jun and ATF-3 in a distinct population of sacral preganglionic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JanetRKeast

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic regulation of the urogenital organs is impaired by injuries sustained during pelvic surgery or compression of lumbosacral spinal nerves (e.g. cauda equina syndrome. To understand the impact of injury on both sympathetic and parasympathetic components of this nerve supply, we performed an experimental surgical and immunohistochemical study on adult male rats, where the structure of this complex part of the nervous system has been well defined. We performed unilateral transection of pelvic or hypogastric nerves and analysed relevant regions of lumbar and sacral spinal cord, up to four weeks after injury. Expression of c-Jun, the neuronal injury marker activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT were examined. We found little evidence for chemical or structural changes in substantial numbers of functionally related but uninjured spinal neurons (e.g. in sacral preganglionic neurons after hypogastric nerve injury, failing to support the concept of compensatory events. The effects of injury were greatest in sacral cord, ipsilateral to pelvic nerve transection. Here, around half of all preganglionic neurons expressed c-Jun within one week of injury, and substantial ATF-3 expression also occurred, especially in neurons with complete loss of ChAT-immunoreactivity. There did not appear to be any death of retrogradely labelled neurons, in contrast to axotomy studies performed on other regions of spinal cord or sacral ventral root avulsion models. Each of the effects we observed occurred in only a subpopulation of preganglionic neurons at that spinal level, raising the possibility that distinct functional subgroups have different susceptibility to trauma-induced degeneration and potentially different regenerative abilities. Identification of the cellular basis of these differences may provide insights into organ-specific strategies for attenuating degeneration or promoting regeneration of these circuits after

  16. Perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e presença do gene vapA em Rhodococcus equi de origem humana, ambiental e equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Kolling Girardini

    2013-06-01

    macrolídeos (azitromicina a 6,7%, eritromicina a 6% e claritromicina a 3,3% e rifamicina (13%. Todas as amostras humanas e ambientais foram sensíveis aos macrolídeos e rifamicina. Contudo, isolados ambientais demonstraram níveis elevados de resistência à penicilina e cloranfenicol. Da mesma forma, os isolados humanos apresentaram alto nível de resistência ao ceftiofur, lincomicina e sulfazotrim. O IRMA em todos os isolados de R. equi variou de 0 a 0,67, tendo como valores médios 0,19 para as amostras clínicas de equinos, 0,14 nas ambientais e em isolados humanos foi de 0,1. Apesar da alta sensibilidade observada nos isolados analisados, verificaram-se diferentes níveis de resistência nas amostras clínicas de equinos. Em contraste, os isolados ambientais não demonstraram resistência em relação aos agentes antimicrobianos utilizados na terapia da rodococose equina. Além disso, em isolados humanos não se observou resistência contra a droga para uso restrito em terapia de humano. Com base no IRMA observado em isolados clínicos de equinos, destacamos a importância de medidas restritivas e mais cautela na utilização de antimicrobianos em infecções causadas por R. equi para evitar o aumento de novas cepas multirresistentes.

  17. Idiopathic Lumbar Epidural Lipomatosis Mimicking Disc Herniation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Efe; Ilik, Kemal; Acar, Turker; Yıldız, Melda

    2016-05-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare condition which is described as the accumulation of fat in the extradural territory and often causes dural impingement. Spinal epidural lipomatosis has been implicated in causing a variety of neurologic impairments ranging from back pain, radiculopathy, claudication, myelopathy or even cauda equina syndrome. We report a 46-year-old female with obesity and a history of chronic back pain and radiculopathy who developed idiopathic Spinal epidural lipomatosis diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this report is to present a case of spinal epidural lipomatosis presenting with symptomatic cord compression and also remind this rare condition as a the differential diagnosis of epidural lesions in patients with risk factors. PMID:27309484

  18. Replicación viral y producción de óxido nítrico y malondialdehído en cultivos celulares y ratones tratados preventivamente con melatonina, minociclina y ácido ascórbico infectados por el virus de encefalitis equina venezolana

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar de Acosta, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    El virus de Encefalitis Equina Venezolana (EEV) ha causado extensas epidemias a lo largo de América del Sur, sobre todo en Venezuela. Afecta, con una alta morbilidad, el sistema nervioso central (SNC) en humanos y equinos. Existen sustancias antioxidantes que interactúan con los radicales libres retardando la oxidación; entre ellas se encuentran la Melatonina (MLT), la Minociclina (MIN) y el Ácido ascórbico (AA). Se plantea determinar el efecto in vitro e in vivo de la MLT, MIN y AA sobre la ...

  19. Diagnóstico diferencial de trombose aortoilíaca e mieloencefalite protozoária equina: relato de caso Differential diagnosis between aorto-iliac thrombosis and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Escodro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma égua de atividade de polo, que apresentou inicialmente claudicação leve no membro posterior esquerdo, a qual evoluiu para ataxia e atrofia da musculatura glútea do lado esquerdo, com diagnóstico de trombose aortoilíaca (TAI. A paciente foi tratada com suspeita de mieloencefalite protozoária equina, devido à semelhança dos sinais clínicos com essa doença, porém o líquido cefalorraquidiano apresentou-se negativo para anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis neurona. A palpação transretal indicou uma massa na bifurcação aortoilíaca esquerda. Na avaliação ultrassonográfica, visualizou-se imagem hiperecoica aderida ao endotélio vascular, sugerindo TAI atingindo a estenose de 70% da luz arterial.The case of a mare used for polo is reported. The animal showed clinical signs of soft lameness of the hindlimb, evolving to ataxia and gluteal muscle atrophy, with aorto-iliac thrombosis (AIT. The patient was treated with the suspect of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM, due to the resemblance of clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was negative for antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona. The transrectal examination indicated a mass in the left aorto-iliac bifurcation. In the ultrasonographic evaluation, a hyperechoic image adhered to the vascular endothelium was observed, suggesting (AIT, occupying 70% of arterial lumen. The present article has the objective of pointing out the importance of the differential diagnosis between AIT and EPM in horses with ataxia in hindlimbs and muscular atrophy.

  20. MR imaging in Guillain-Barre syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI in a 5-year-old girl with Guillain-Barre syndrome showed marked enhancement of nerve roots in the region of the conus medullaris and cauda equina. This enhancement gradually disappeared after high-dose immunoglobulin therapy. This characteristic finding of MRI may have diagnostic utility and represent the clinical course of the disease. (orig.). With 2 figs

  1. MR imaging in Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, F. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo General Hospital (Japan); Utsumi, Y. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo General Hospital (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    MRI in a 5-year-old girl with Guillain-Barre syndrome showed marked enhancement of nerve roots in the region of the conus medullaris and cauda equina. This enhancement gradually disappeared after high-dose immunoglobulin therapy. This characteristic finding of MRI may have diagnostic utility and represent the clinical course of the disease. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of acute Guillain-Barré syndrome in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongjun Hou; Xiaojun Yu; Huimin Jiang; Xi Li; Bingyi Cao; Yaotang Chen; Jiao Chen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined 24 children with acute Guillain-Barré syndrome using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plain scans and fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted imaging (T1WI)scans. Axial MRI plain scans centering on the medullary conus were positive in nine patients (38%).These displayed variable thickening involving the cauda equina with isointensity on T1WI and isointensity or slight hyperintensity on T2WI. False negatives were obtained in patients with cervical and cranial nerve symptoms. Contrast enhancement of T1WI with fat suppression w as positive in all patients in the cauda equina with varied thickening and enhancement centering on the medullary conus. Five patients (36%) were positive in the cervical nerves and 3 patients (50%) were positive in the cranial nerves. These patients had corresponding cervical and cranial nerve symptoms,respectively. Patients with serious clinical symptoms in the lower limbs exhibited obvious involvement of the cauda equina by MRI. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between the extent of enlargement of the cauda equina, centering on the medullary conus, and cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration.

  3. Reversible bladder denervation in acute polyradiculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Andersen, J T

    1982-01-01

    A case of reversible bladder denervation in acute polyradiculitis is presented, in which both motor and sensory bladder involvement could be demonstrated using cystometry and denervation-hypersensitivity testing. Attention is drawn to the differential diagnosis to cauda equina syndromes of other...

  4. Abnormalities in central and peripheral nerve conduction in patients with anorectal incontinence.

    OpenAIRE

    Snooks, S J; Swash, M; Henry, M M

    1985-01-01

    Thirty women with idiopathic anorectal incontinence were investigated by nerve conduction studies. Twenty-two (73%) patients had abnormal nerve conduction studies. In 7 (23%) of these patients there was conduction delay in the cauda equina between L1 and L4 vertebral levels but in the remainder the distal innervation of the pelvic sphincters was abnormal.

  5. Radiation-induced nerve root degeneration and hypertrophic neuropathy in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats: The relation with changes in aging rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-month-old WAG Rij rats were irradiated with 300 kV X-rays on the lumbar region of the spinal column with doses below the level for causing paralysis due to radiation radiculomyelopathy. 8-9 months after irradiation. degeneration of predominantly the ventral nerve roots of the cauda equina was observed. Three stages were distinguishable: I) Demyelination and proliferation of Schwann cells: II) Local swelling of ventral nerve roots, with concentric layers of Schwann cells resembling hypertrophic neuropathy: III) Malignant Schwannoma, invading roots and spinal cord. It is concluded that the degenerative and proliferative lesions represent a continuous series of stages of slowly progressive lesions. The ventral nerve root degeneration (Ist stage) is similar to that observed in aging, unirradiated rats, normally developing at the age of 18-20 months. (orig.)

  6. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with hypertrophic ligamentum flavum in lumbar spinal canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirathanathornnukul, Napaphat; Limthongkul, Worawat; Yingsakmongkol, Wicharn; Singhatanadgige, Weerasak; Parkpian, Vinai; Honsawek, Sittisak

    2016-04-01

    Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is the most common spinal disorder in elderly patients, causing low back and leg pain, radiculopathy, and cauda equina syndrome. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent regulator of many cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the pattern of VEGF expression in the ligamentum flavum (LF) of patients with LSCS. 24 patients with LSCS were recruited in this prospective study. We quantified and localized VEGF expression in LF tissues obtained during surgery. VEGF messenger RNA and protein expression in LF were determined using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. VEGF expression was significantly higher in the hypertrophic LF group than in the non-pathological LF group (plumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:26956787

  7. Strontium-89 therapy and subarachnoid phenol block successfully eliminated intractable pain of metastasis in the patient with advanced urachal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a 39-year-old man with intractable multifocal pain caused by metastatic urachal carcinoma to the bone. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy in May 2008, and lung metastasis occurred 9 months after the surgery. He then received salvage chemotherapy, but developed metastasis to the liver, brain, and bone. He was hospitalized due to a shoulder pain, a lower back pain, buttocks pain, numbness in both legs, and drop foot in right leg. MRI revealed metastases to the spine, and lumbar spinal canal stenosis with cauda equina compression. Even a combination of fentanyl-patch, oral acetaminophen, gabapentin and paroxetine was not effective for pain control. Strontium-89 therapy and subarachnoid phenol block successfully eliminated intractable pain. The patient could be discharged from hospital and received a palliative care at home for a short period of time. (author)

  8. Recurrent perimedullary arteriovenous fistula at thoracic level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI Jian; CHEN Zuo-quan; DENG Dong-feng; PAN Qing-gang; LING Feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (PMAVF, type Ⅳ spinal cord arteriovenous malformation,SCAVM) is a direct arteriovenous shunt without abnormal vascular connection between the feeding artery and draining vein. Most patients with PMAVF present with a progressive myelopathy caused by venous hypertension, resulting in disabling deficits and incurable complete transverse myelopathy.1'2The lesion is usually located on the surface of the spinal cord or under the pia mater at the level of the conus medullaris or cauda equina, thoracic PMAVF is rarely encountered. Most PMAVFs are fed by the anterior spinal artery (ASA), posterior spinal artery (PSA), or both.1-5 Multiple arterial feeders from the ASA can make the treatment of the disease difficult.6From August 2004 to February 2005, we treated a patient with a recurrent PMAVF (type Ⅳb) at the thoracic level with multiple blood supply.

  9. Urinary incontinence a first presentation of central pontine myelinolysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Asmah Hassan; Shak, Joanna; Alsawaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    An 84-year-old lady was treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemia with IV insulin, fluids and catheterisation for fluid balance monitoring. Trial without catheter failed as the patient complained of new-onset urinary incontinence and lack of awareness of bladder filling. In light of her breast cancer history, we excluded cauda equina. Ultrasound KUB showed an enlarged bladder. Whole-body MRI revealed a lesion in the pons which was highly suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Her electrolytes were normal throughout her admission; thus, the rapid fluctuation in osmolality, secondary to her hyperglycaemic state, was the likely cause of CPM. CPM has been reported secondary to hyperglycaemia; however, this is the first reported case of CPM presenting as urinary incontinence and loss of bladder sensation. PMID:26209689

  10. Analysis of cytokines in the spinal fluid of patients with intervertebral disc degeneration. Characteristics of matrix metalloproteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal fluid was collected from 26 patients with degenerative disc diseases (11 with lumbar disc herniation and 15 with lumbar spinal canal stenosis) and 4 healthy subjects when myelography or spinal anesthesia for surgery was performed, and the levels of major cytokines that are known to cause disc degeneration were measured. Cell cytometry and fractionation were performed. Levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, TGF-β were analyzed by ELISA; matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3 and MMP-9, a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 by enzyme immunoassay; and IL-6 by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Disc degeneration was evaluated by MRI and classified into 5 grades (from 0 to 4). In the clinical evaluations prior to and post-surgery, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system was used. The levels of MMPs in the spinal fluid from the patients with lumbar disc herniation and lumbar spinal canal stenosis were significantly higher than those in the spinal fluid from healthy subjects. The severity of disc degeneration was not associated with the levels of MMPs. Of the patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis, levels of MMPs were higher in patients with cauda equina syndrome than in patients with radiculopathy. The levels of IL-6 and TIMP-1 were significantly higher in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (in both patients with cauda equina syndrome and those with radiculopathy) than in those with lumbar disc herniation. There was no significant difference between patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and those with lumbar disc herniation with respect to the number of cells and cell fractions. These results indicate that MMPs, TIMPs and the above-mentioned cytokines are also produced in the spinal canal and are involved in the degeneration of discs and spinal nerves. (author)

  11. The role of Gd-enhanced three-dimensional MRI fast low-angle shot (FLASH) in the evaluation of symptomatic lumbosacral nerve roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikkawa, Ichiro; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Saita, Kazuo; Ookami, Hitoshi; Nakama, Sueo; Hoshino, Yuichi [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In the field of lumbar spine disorders, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can clearly depict a lumbar nerve root from the distal region to the dorsal root ganglion. In this study, we used a gadoliniumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced-three-dimensional (3-D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence when examining lumbosacral disorders. The subjects were 33 patients (14 men and 19 women) in whom lumbosacral neural compression had been diagnosed clinically. Twenty-one patients had lumbar disc herniation, 11 had lumbar spinal stenosis, and 1 had lumbar radiculopathy caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Five subjects with low back pain were also studied as a control group. In all patients and in all 5 of the controls, the dorsal root ganglion of every root was enhanced clearly. There was no root enhancement in the 5 controls. Enhancement of the symptomatic nerve roots, caused by compression, was found in 11 of the 33 patients. All 11 patients had rediculopathy, and muscle weakness was more frequent in patients with enhanced nerve roots than in those without enhancement. There was no enhancement of the cauda equina, even in the patients with cauda syndrome. The enhancement effect may reflect some pathological condition of the compressed nerve root and needs to be studied further. (author)

  12. The role of Gd-enhanced three-dimensional MRI fast low-angle shot (FLASH) in the evaluation of symptomatic lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of lumbar spine disorders, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can clearly depict a lumbar nerve root from the distal region to the dorsal root ganglion. In this study, we used a gadoliniumdiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced-three-dimensional (3-D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence when examining lumbosacral disorders. The subjects were 33 patients (14 men and 19 women) in whom lumbosacral neural compression had been diagnosed clinically. Twenty-one patients had lumbar disc herniation, 11 had lumbar spinal stenosis, and 1 had lumbar radiculopathy caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Five subjects with low back pain were also studied as a control group. In all patients and in all 5 of the controls, the dorsal root ganglion of every root was enhanced clearly. There was no root enhancement in the 5 controls. Enhancement of the symptomatic nerve roots, caused by compression, was found in 11 of the 33 patients. All 11 patients had rediculopathy, and muscle weakness was more frequent in patients with enhanced nerve roots than in those without enhancement. There was no enhancement of the cauda equina, even in the patients with cauda syndrome. The enhancement effect may reflect some pathological condition of the compressed nerve root and needs to be studied further. (author)

  13. Sincronização do estro mediante utilização de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, gonadotrofina coriônica equina, benzoato de estradiol e desmame interrompido no puerpério de vacas da raça Nelore

    OpenAIRE

    Vianna, Gerson Ney de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Neste estudo comparou-se dois métodos de sincronização de estro em 150 vacas Nelore, entre junho de 2007 e janeiro de 2008, no município de Janiópolis, Paraná. Foram utilizados dois protocolos de sincronização de estro. No primeiro grupo (G1), 30 dias (D30) pós-parto, foram utilizados pessários vaginais impregnados com progesterona. No D38, foram retirados os pessários, aplicou-se 500 UI de gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG) e os bezerros foram separados das mães durante 48 horas. N...

  14. Aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N; Singh, S K

    2016-09-01

    Antifertility efficacy of oral administration of aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi (200, 400 and 600 mg kg(-1) body weight/day for 35 days) was evaluated in Parkes strain male mice. Various reproductive end points such as histopathology, sperm parameters, testosterone level, haematology, serum biochemistry and fertility indices were assessed; activities of 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and immunoblot expressions of StAR and P450scc in the testis were also assessed. Histologically, testes in Mimusops-treated mice showed nonuniform and diverse degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules; both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same sections of testis. The treatment had adverse effects on testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and StAR and P450scc, serum level of testosterone and on motility, viability and number of spermatozoa in cauda epididymis. However, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine, and haematological parameters were not affected by the treatment. Also, libido was not affected in treated males, but their fertility was markedly suppressed. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, the alterations caused in the above parameters recovered to control levels, suggesting that Mimusops treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Further, there were no detectable signs of toxicity in treated males. PMID:27489141

  15. Cauda-conus syndrome resulting from neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh N

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male, presented with insidious onset, gradually progressive, burning paresthesia over the saddle area, sphincteric disturbance, impotence and paraparesis. Investigations revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the conus medullaris suggestive of neurocysticercosis . This was supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci. On treatment with steroids he showed marked improvement.

  16. Resposta ovariana de cabras submetidas a implantes de progesterona seguidos de aplicações de gonadotrofina coriônica equina Ovarian response of goats submitted to implants of progesterone followed by administration of equine corionic gonadotrophin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos de diferentes doses de gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG na dinâmica folicular e nas concentrações hormonais em cabras alpinas. Durante a estação reprodutiva, as cabras foram submetidas à sincronização do estro e da ovulação com um dispositivo de progesterona por 14 dias. As cabras (n=24 foram divididas aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos de seis e, no dia da remoção do dispositivo, receberam 0 (controle, 200, 300 e 400 UI de eCG. O desenvolvimento folicular foi observado via ultrassonografia um dia antes da administração da eCG até a ovulação seguinte. Determinaram-se diariamente as concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol e progesterona por radioimunoensaio. Todos os animais tratados manifestaram estro. Observaram-se ciclos estrais com três e quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. O tamanho do maior folículo nos animais controle na terceira onda (5,5 ± 0,50 mm foi menor que naqueles tratados com 300 UI de eCG (7,17 ± 0,35 mm. A aplicação de gonadotrofina aumentou o número de folículos pequenos e médios em relação ao grupo controle, uma vez que o número médio de corpos lúteos foi maior nas fêmeas tratadas com 400 UI (4,27 ± 0,23 em comparação àquelas tratadas com 200 UI (1,95 ± 0,19. A concentração plasmática de progesterona e estradiol diferiu entre os grupos experimentais. A combinação de progestágenos e eCG é uma alternativa adequada para a sincronização do estro e suporta o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de técnicas reprodutivas, como a superovulação e a transferência de embriões em cabras.The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of different dosages of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG on the follicular dynamics and hormonal concentrations in Alpine goats. During the breeding season, the goats were submitted to estrous and ovulation synchronization with a device containing progesterone for 14 days. Female goats (n=24 were divided

  17. Neurologic complications after intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in combination with systemic polychemotherapy in primary CNS lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Kathrin; Pels, Hendrik; Kowoll, Annika; Kuhnhenn, Jan; Schlegel, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    Intrathecal application of liposomal cytarabine (Ara-C) (DepoCyte(®)) has been associated with neurotoxicity when applied as part of a polychemotherapy regimen. Patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma treated with high-dose systemic methotrexate (MTX)- and Ara-C-based polychemotherapy including six cycles of liposomal Ara-C (50 mg intrathecally every 3 weeks) were prospectively monitored for neurotoxic side-effects. Between November 2005 and February 2009, 149 intrathecal applications of liposomal cytarabine (DepoCyte(®)) were carried out in 33 patients, 7 (21%) of whom developed an incomplete conus medullaris/cauda equina syndrome with incontinence for bladder (6) and bowel function (3) or lumbosacral polyradicular paresis (1), resolving only incompletely over a follow-up period of 9-30 months. In six of these seven patients, lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was negative for leptomeningeal infiltration or arachnoiditis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis performed in six of these seven patients showed normal cell count in all and increased total protein in four of them. One patient among these seven suffered a seizure without other identifiable causes. Conus/cauda syndrome has to be considered as a serious potential neurotoxic side-effect in patients receiving liposomal Ara-C as part of a multimodal regimen including high-dose systemic MTX and Ara-C. PMID:20953896

  18. Pleuroneumonía Equina (Equine Pleuropneumonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Díez-de Castro, Elisa; Mayer-Valor, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    ResumenLa pleuroneumonía es un problema frecuente en el caballo. Esta enfermedad consiste en colonización bacteriana del parénquima pulmonar, desarrollo de una neumonía o abscesos pulmonares y la consiguiente extensión del proceso hacia la pleura visceral y el espacio pleural provocando pleuritis. Generalmente, su desarrollose asocia con cualquier condición que favorezca la aspiración de secreciones faríngeas o impida su eliminación (transporte, enfermedades víricas, ejercicio extenuante, ane...

  19. What Causes Angina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Angina? Underlying Causes Angina usually is a symptom of coronary heart ... and cause angina or a heart attack . Immediate Causes Many factors can trigger angina pain, depending on ...

  20. What Causes Lymphocytopenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low lymphocyte counts with no underlying cause. Acquired Causes Many acquired diseases, conditions, and factors can cause ... anemia . Radiation and chemotherapy (treatments for cancer). Inherited Causes Certain inherited diseases and conditions can lead to ...

  1. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can' ... reason why emergency treatment is so important. Underlying Causes The underlying causes of cardiogenic shock are conditions ...

  2. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  3. Rat Spermatogenesis Damage in Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia and the Protective Role of Melatonin: I Cauda Epididymal Spermatozoa Daño en la Espermatogénesis de Rata en Hipoxia Hipobárica Intermitente y el Papel Protector de la Melatonina: I Espermatozoides de la Cauda Epididimaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hartley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At present it is not clear if male fertility is affected by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH. This is an important issue since a large human population works over 3000 masl. This study analyzes epididymal sperm, in adult Sprague Dawley rats after five cycles of IHH (7 days exposure to 4200 masl in a hypobaric chamber / 7 days at 500 masl. The animals were separated into groups of 8, one group was exposed to hypoxia (7 days, and the others to IHH for one to five cycles. Controls (500 masl were examined at the beginning and at the end of the 70 experimental days. A duplicate set of rats treated with melatonin (supposedly protecting from hypoxia was also examined, as were their controls, injected with 0,03% ethanol (melatonin solvent. Epididymal sperm parameters, were evaluated. Damage caused by IHH increases with time. Sperm counts drop, while sperm chromatin swelling, DNA instability (metachromasia with acridine orange epifluorescence and comet (+ tests increase. Melatonin counteracts all this damage, possibly due to its high efficiency as a reactive oxygen species scavenger. In conclusion, IHH exposure damages sperm quality and therefore male reproductive function.En la actualidad no está claro si la fertilidad masculina se ve afectada por la hipoxia hipobárica intermitente (HHI. Esta es una cuestión importante, ya que una gran población humana trabaja a más de 3000 metros sobre el nivel del mar (msnm. Este estudio analiza los espermatozoides del epidídimo, en ratas Sprague Dawley adultas, después de cinco ciclos de HHI (7 días de exposición a 4200 msnm en una cámara hipobárica / 7 días a 500 msnm. Los animales fueron separados en grupos de 8, un grupo fue expuesto a la hipoxia (7 días, y los otros a HHI de uno a cinco ciclos. Los controles (500 msnm se examinaron al comienzo y al final de los 70 días de experimentación. Un grupo duplicado de ratas tratadas con melatonina (supuestamente protegiendo de la hipoxia también fue

  4. What Causes Raynaud's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Raynaud's? There are two main types of Raynaud’s— ... type of Raynaud's is often called Raynaud's phenomenon. Causes of Secondary Raynaud's Many things can cause secondary ...

  5. What Causes Thrombocytopenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thrombocytopenia? Many factors can cause thrombocytopenia (a low ... known for sure. Rare and Serious Conditions That Cause Blood Clots Some rare and serious conditions can ...

  6. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. However, studies show ... blood clots can worsen angina (chest pain) or cause a heart attack or stroke . Researchers continue to ...

  7. What Causes Hemochromatosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Hemochromatosis? The two types of hemochromatosis are primary and secondary. Each type has a different cause. Primary Hemochromatosis Primary hemochromatosis is caused by a ...

  8. What Causes Aplastic Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Aplastic Anemia? Damage to the bone marrow's stem ... system attacks its own cells by mistake. Acquired Causes Many diseases, conditions, and factors can cause aplastic ...

  9. Causes of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Causes of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a complex group of diseases with ... and type 2 diabetes. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack ...

  10. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Respiratory Failure? Diseases and conditions that impair breathing can cause ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the lungs, ...

  11. About Alzheimer's Disease: Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Causes Age-related changes in the brain Genetics Health, ... for the Causes of AD" NIA Information on Causes Alzheimer’s Disease in People with Down Syndrome Understanding ...

  12. Causes of Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility Causes of male infertility Causes of female infertility Infertility is clinically defined as the inability to conceive naturally after one year of frequent, unprotected intercourse. Approximately 7. ...

  13. Human errors - human caused, environment caused

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of human error in the safe operation of Nuclear Plants has been well recognised. The human error could be due to a large number of reasons. Eg. coming from factors like sensing, perceiving, predicting, familiarity, skills, rules, individual performance and environmental factors such as ergonomics, work organisation, procedure, time and duration of work, training, physical environment etc. Two incidents highlighting human caused and environmental caused errors are described. Also a distribution of causes of failure and affected systems of Safety Related Unusual Occurrences is presented on the basis of the reports received by the regulatory body. A system to analyse human errors with respect to human caused and environment caused is being developed. The input data for this analysis is obtained from Safety Related Unusual Occurrence reports received by the regulatory body. The regulatory requirement for submission of these reports include first information report (by telex, telephone etc) within 24 hours of the incident and detailed report within 20 days. The detailed report amongst other information also contains information with respect to the cause of the incident. These reports are discussed at various levels and an attempt is made to identify the root cause. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than ...

  15. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  16. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic ... in the severity of the disease. How Is Cystic Fibrosis Inherited? Every person inherits two CFTR genes—one ...

  17. What Causes Polycythemia Vera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Polycythemia Vera? Primary Polycythemia Polycythemia vera (PV) also ... in the body's JAK2 gene is the main cause of PV. The JAK2 gene makes a protein ...

  18. What Causes Atelectasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atelectasis? Atelectasis can occur if the lungs can' ... expand and fill with air. Atelectasis has many causes. Conditions and Factors That Prevent Deep Breathing and ...

  19. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is ...

  20. What Causes Hypotension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Hypotension? Conditions or factors that disrupt the body's ability to control blood pressure cause hypotension. The different types of hypotension have different ...

  1. What Causes Anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  2. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series ...

  3. Causes of Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series ...

  4. What Causes Parkinson's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National HelpLine Educational Publications Online Seminars Parkinson's News Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ... more. Order Free Materials Today Causes What Causes Parkinson's? To date, despite decades of intensive study, the ...

  5. What Causes Cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy can be acquired or inherited. “Acquired” means ... case when the disease occurs in children. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy usually is inherited. It’s caused by ...

  6. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... lactase in the body is the cause of lactose intolerance. The names for the three types of lactose ...

  7. What Causes Bronchitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Bronchitis? Acute Bronchitis Infections or lung irritants cause acute bronchitis. The ... fire, also may lead to acute bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis Repeatedly breathing in fumes that irritate and damage ...

  8. Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

    2006-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand. PMID:16881441

  9. What Causes Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and ... causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart's tiny arteries. The cause ...

  10. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  11. AN AMAZINGCASE REPORT OF CERVICAL SHWANNOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ruqia Asna; Shakeel Ahmed; Khudsia; Baig,

    2014-01-01

    This is a case report of a patient with history of vague chest pain and facial numbness. When the patient was subjected for evaluation he was found to have cervical Schwannoma. He was operated and was successfully treated. Schwannomas are extramedullary-intradural tumors composed of Schwann cells, which can arise from spinal nerves at any level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or cauda equina) and most often arise from a posterior (sensory) nerve root. The most common initial ...

  12. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy mimicking a lumbar spinal stenosis syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, L; Platts, A. D.; Thomas, P K

    1995-01-01

    A patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) established by biopsy developed cauda equina symptoms due to swelling of the nerve roots in the lumbar spinal canal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed profoundly thickened nerve roots from the level of the conus medullaris, filling the caudal thecal sac. Immunosuppressant treatment produced partial clinical and radiological resolution. This case shows that spinal compressive syndromes may occur in acqu...

  13. Internodal segments in human laryngeal nerves.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, P M; FitzGerald, M J

    1985-01-01

    The laryngeal nerves of a recently deceased patient were examined in order to determine whether the prenatal elongation of the recurrent nerves (especially of the left) is accompanied by significant elongation of internodal segments among their myelinated fibres. No evidence was found to support this notion. In the nerve roots of the cauda equina, internodal elongation is known to accompany ascent of the spinal cord during fetal life. The difference in behaviour in the two cases seems to lie ...

  14. Acute Hydrocephalus due to Secondary Leptomeningeal Dissemination of an Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus; Heinz-Herrmann Hugo; Stark, Andreas M.; H. Maximilian Mehdorn

    2009-01-01

    Secondary leptomeningeal dissemination of oligodendroglioma is very rare. We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian male who presented with acute hydrocephalus. 8 months before, the patient had undergone craniotomy for right frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma, WHO grade III. By that time, there was no evidence of tumor dissemination. MRI now ruled out local tumor progression but revealed meningeal contrast enhancement along the medulla, the myelon, and the cauda equina. Repeated lumbar ...

  15. GEBELİKLE SEMPTOMATİKLEŞEN MİKSOPAPİLLER EPANDİMOM

    OpenAIRE

    Bölük, Dr. Ayhan

    1998-01-01

    The cauda equina is the most frequent location for epandymomas, particularly the myxopapillary variant, which generally arises from the filum terminale. Delays in arriving at the proper diagnosis have been the rule. This condition has been improved after the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We describe the clinical findings and MR imaging of a case of myxopapllary epandimoma arising in the filum terminate of a pregnant woman. She become symptomatic during after first pregnancy. She was opera...

  16. A rare case of concurrent penile and spinal schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luke; Arachchi, Asiri; Makris, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma of the penis is extremely rare. This is the case of a young male who presented with pain on sexual intercourse, multiple lumps on the dorsal shaft of his penis, as well as a temporal headache. He was subsequently diagnosed with schwannoma affecting both his penile region and cauda equina. This clinical finding has not been previously described in the literature. Hence, its presentation is unique to our specialty. PMID:27141200

  17. Somatosensory evoked potentials after multisegmental lower limb stimulation in focal lesions of the lumbosacral spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Restuccia, D; Insola, A; Valeriani, M; Santilli, V; Bedini, L.; Le Pera, D.; Barba, C.; Denaro, F.; Tonali, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Recording techniques permit the separate analysis of the response from cauda equina roots and the spinal potential that is probably generated by the activation of dorsal horn cells. To improve the functional assessment of focal lesions of the lumbosacral cord, lower limb somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were measured by multisegmental stimulation.
METHODS—Common peroneal and tibial nerves SEPs were recorded in 14 patients in whom MRI demonstrated compress...

  18. Polyradiculopathies from Schwannomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yuxia; Kraus, James A.; Reddy, Hasini; Groff, Michael; Eric T Wong

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of schwannomatosis presenting as radicular pain and numbness in multiple radicular nerve distributions. There were multiple peripheral nerve tumors detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the left vestibular nerve, cauda equina, right radial nerve, thoracic paraspinal nerve, and brachial plexi. Several resected tumors have features of schwannomas, including hypercellular Antoni A areas, hypocellular Antoni B areas, Verocay bodies, and hyalinized blood vessels. The s...

  19. Treatment of Posttraumatic Abdominal Autonomic Neuropathy Manifesting as Functional Dyspepsia and Chronic Constipation: An Integrative East-West Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shubov, Andrew; Taw, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old male with a history of spinal cord injury and cauda equina syndrome resulting in neurogenic bladder presented with chronic constipation and functional dyspepsia that was refractory to medical management. He was treated with an integrative East-West approach including acupuncture, trigger point injections, and Tui Na massage. Both his pain and constipation improved after a series of treatments, and this improvement was largely sustained at 2-year follow-up. This patient's symptom...

  20. Ligamentum flavum hematoma: a case report and literature review Hematoma del ligamento amarillo: caso clínico y revisión de la literatura Hematoma de ligamento amarelo: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson Sfreddo; Marcelo Teodoro Ezequiel Guerra

    2012-01-01

    The aim is to present a rare case of ligamentum flavum hematoma in the lumbar region, discuss its physiopathology and treatment and review the literature. A woman aged 68 presented with neurogenic claudication due to degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis that evolved into a sudden worsening with cauda equina syndrome. The magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) showed signs of degeneration of the lumbar spine, with a narrow spinal canal from L2 to S1, anterolisthesis L4 L5 and an expansive lesion ...

  1. Spontaneous Remission of a Big Subligamentous Extruded Disc Herniation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Çitişli, Veli; İbrahimoğlu, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous Regression of a Big Subligamentous Extruded Disc Herniation: Case Report And Review of The Literature The most efficient method for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation is still controversial. The most important aspect is the application of the suitable conservative or surgical treatment to the right patient at the right time. In lumbar disc herniation patients, one must not precipitate except for cases that require surgical indications as in cauda equina syndrome, evolutive mo...

  2. Uncomplicated mechanically induced pelvic pain and organic dysfunction in low back pain patients

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanical disorders of the lumbar spine have been given much attention in the literature. Short of an acute cauda equina syndrome, few reports exist detailing the findings and clinical course of patients with pelvic and disorders of bladder, bowel and gynecologic/sexual function of spinal origin. Two uncomplicated representative cases of mechanically induced pelvic pain and organic dysfunction (PPOD) in patients presenting with low back pain are detailed. These patients typically reveal a wi...

  3. Causes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause. PMID:12858714

  4. Particles causing lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell ...

  5. Mechanical properties of nerve roots and rami radiculares isolated from fresh pig spinal cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Nishida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No reports have described experiments designed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares for the purpose of explaining the complexity of symptoms of medullary cone lesions and cauda equina syndrome. In this study, to explain the pathogenesis of cauda equina syndrome, monoaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares, and analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress-strain relationship and strength characteristics. Using the same tensile test device, the nerve root and ramus radiculares isolated from the spinal cords of pigs were subjected to the tensile test and stress relaxation test at load strain rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s -1 under identical settings. The tensile strength of the nerve root was not rate dependent, while the ramus radiculares tensile strength tended to decrease as the strain rate increased. These findings provide important insights into cauda equina symptoms, radiculopathy, and clinical symptoms of the medullary cone.

  6. Symptomatic lumbosacral perineural cysts: A report of three cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mayur; Velho, Vernon; Mally, Rahul; Khan, Shadma W

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral perineural cysts (Tarlov's cysts) are nerve root cysts, which are usually asymptomatic and are detected incidentally on imaging. These cysts are rare with an incidence of 4.6%. We report three cases of Lumbosacral Tarlov's cysts, which presented with cauda equina syndrome and radicular pain syndrome. Two of our patients had symptoms of cauda equina syndrome, and one had acute sciatica. Complete excision of the cyst was achieved in two patients and marsupialization of the cyst was done in another patient due to its large size and dense adherence to the sacral nerve roots. All the patients were relieved of the radicular pain with no new neurological deficit following surgery. Symptomatic lumbosacral Tarlov's cyst is a rare lesion, and the presentation can be low back pain, cauda equina syndrome or sciatica. Therefore, this entity should be kept in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these symptoms. Complete Surgical excision of these symptomatic cysts is the treatment of choice to achieve a cure. PMID:26396612

  7. Treatment planning of paraspinal tumors with CT-myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and aim: Artifacts due to metal implants are an important problem in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy planning in tumors such as chordoma of the spine. A strict differentiation between target and radiosensitive structures e.g. spinal cord is absolutely essential for high-dose radiotherapy. Up to now CT and MRI techniques have provided only limited image quality in such situations. We introduce an approach to facilitate segmentation by using the technique of CT-myelography for radiation treatment. Patient and method: A 48-year-old woman with multiple inoperable relapses of a chordoma in the lumbar spine and extensive metal instrumentation in this area was given to radiotherapy using IMRT-technique (intensity modulated). MRI- and CT-planning images did not allow differentiation between myelon, cauda equina, dural sac and tumor. In this situation we performed a CT-myelography with the patient in treatment position. Result: CT-myelographic images enabled precise differentiation between myelon, cauda equina and intraspinal tumor. A substantial improvement of the segmentation of the spinal cord was obtained. There was no compression of the dural sac along the spine. This information provided the basis for a precise radiotherapy planning in IMRT-technique. Conclusion: In situations where CT- and MRI-techniques are not able to generate precise images which allow differentiation between tumor, myelon and cauda equina because of metal artifacts, CT-myelography is a promising technique which may help the diagnostic radiologist and radiation oncologist in planning radiotherapy. (orig.)

  8. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, especially ...

  9. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...

  10. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  11. Causes of Congenital Malformations

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The genetic epidemiology of congenital malformations (CMs) and interaction with environmental causes are reviewed from the Arkansas Center for Birth Defects, Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AS.

  12. What Causes Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this section you can get information on cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use, and learn how it ... Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer ...

  13. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of ... Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive Health Topics | News & Publications | Resources ...

  14. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes Rett syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... as bad for development as too little. Is Rett syndrome passed from one generation to the next? In ...

  15. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  16. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo ... Site Terms & Conditions of Use | Web Design and Development by The Berndt Group

  17. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  18. What Causes COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes COPD? Long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is COPD? 05/22/2014 Describes how COPD, or chronic ...

  19. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The ... videos produced for the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Looking for Additional Information? Visit our provider site ...

  20. Causes of Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  1. Causes of Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... progressive neurological disease. > Arteriovenous malformations Defects of the circulatory system that are believed to arise during fetal development. > ... skeletal muscles. > Neurofibromatosis Progressive disorder of the nervous ... Polio is caused by a virus that attacks the nerves which control motor function. > ...

  2. Frontotemporal Disorders: Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s Alzheimer's Basics Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Caregiving Other Dementias Publications FAQs ...

  3. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 Common causes of anovulatory bleeding (absent, infrequent periods, and irregular periods) include 2 : Adolescence Uncontrolled diabetes Eating disorders Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism Hyperprolactinemia (an abnormally high concentration ...

  4. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, A M; Hart, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of 33 months in a paediatric accident and emergency department, the clinical pattern and possible causes of vulvovaginitis were studied prospectively in 200 girls presenting with genital discharge, irritation, pain, or redness. The major causes were poor hygiene and threadworms. The suspicion of sexual abuse arose in a few girls but no organisms of sexually transmitted disease were found. Urinary symptoms were common but only 20 patients had a significant bacteriuria and 40 had ...

  5. Do Institutions Cause Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We revisit the debate over whether political institutions cause economic growth, or whether, alternatively, growth and human capital accumulation lead to institutional improvement. We find that most indicators of institutional quality used to establish the proposition that institutions cause growth are constructed to be conceptually unsuitable for that purpose. We also find that some of the instrumental variable techniques used in the literature are flawed. Basic OLS results, as well as a var...

  6. Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Causes & Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Causes Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria ...

  7. What Causes Cushing's Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the lungs, pancreas (pronounced PAN-kree-uhs ), thyroid, or thymus How Tumors Can Cause Cushing’s Syndrome Normally, the pituitary gland ... cancerous, are mostly found in the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, and thymus. ... are more vulnerable to tumors in one or more glands that influence cortisol ...

  8. [Myopathy caused by hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, C; Mouro, A M; Luís, M L; Fonseca, F; Quina, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a case of primary hypothyroidism where the main symptoms were caused by muscular lesions and disappeared after treatment with L-thyroxine. Based on this case study the authors then review both the clinical aspects and the diagnostical methods of hypothyroidism myopathy, noting its frequency, be it in terms of isolated laboratory changes or in terms of functional changes. PMID:1807095

  9. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  10. What Causes Rainbows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  11. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  12. Hérnia discal lombar Lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto Vialle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hérnia discal lombar é o diagnóstico mais comum dentre as alterações degenerativas da coluna lombar (acomete 2 a 3% da população e a principal causa de cirurgia de coluna na população adulta. O quadro clínico típico inclui lombalgia inicial, seguida de lombociatalgia e, finalmente, de dor ciática pura. A história natural da hérnia de disco é de resolução rápida dos sintomas (quatro a seis semanas. O tratamento inicial deve ser conservador, com manejo medicamentoso e fisioterápico, podendo ser acompanhado ou não por bloqueios percutâneos radiculares. O tratamento cirúrgico está indicado na falha do controle da dor, déficit motor maior que grau 3, dor radicular associada à estenose óssea foraminal ou síndrome de cauda equina, sendo esta última uma emergência médica. Uma técnica cirúrgica refinada, com remoção do fragmento extruso, e preservação do ligamento amarelo, resolve a sintomatologia da ciática e reduz a possibilidade de recidiva em longo prazo.Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis amongst the degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine (affecting around 2 to 3% of the population, and is the principal cause of spine surgery in the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (from 4-6 weeks. Early treatment should be conservative, with pain management and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with selective nerve root block. Surgery should be considered if pain management is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit (strength grade 3 or less, where there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or in the presence of cauda equina syndrome, the latter representing a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces

  13. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  14. Cause Related Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hrabcová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor work is focused on the Cause Related Marketing (CRM) which may be a part of the marketing strategy of any particular company. This term mainly means cooperation between the private and non-profit sector created by using traditional marketing tools. These tools, e. g. advertising, public relations, licensing and marketing at large, are described at the beginning of the theoretical part. Furthermore this work focuses on Corporate Social Responsibility which is strongly connected t...

  15. Hacking for a cause

    OpenAIRE

    Still, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of hacktivism, which is hacking for a political or social cause on the Internet. Generally hackers, even those hacking government–sponsored sites, have been negatively stereotyped as malicious thrill seekers or, worse yet, cyberterrorists. But increasingly there are more politically motivated hackers distancing themselves from cyberterrorism by engaging in hacktivism that is intent more upon disruption than disobedience. Certain hacktivists, in fact, have creat...

  16. Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Daria La; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrinological disorder that may be caused by several physiological and pathological conditions. Several drugs may determine a significant increase in prolactin serum concentration that is frequently associated with symptoms. The so-called typical antipsychotics are frequently responsible for drug-related hyperprolactinemia. Risperidone is one of the atypical neuroleptics most likely to induce hyperprolactinemia, while other atypical drugs are unfrequenlty and...

  17. Root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides some fundamental techniques of evaluating human performance and equipment related events which are in use in Krsko NPP. Before the large industrial accidents the human factor was considered as very reliable and was not accepted as a possible source of errors. Today it is evident that safety is a proper combination of factors associated with people, technology and organization. Determining the cause of equipment failures is a much more enjoyable, exercise than doing the same for human errors. People are emotional: they can be angry, scared, defensive, not trustful. Because of all that the determination of causes for human errors is much more difficult.In many cases the definition of human factors relates to operators as the source of the human errors. Such an approach restricts the search for the true root cause of an event. In reality the human factor is associated with operators as well as with managers, designers, instructors, maintenance people etc. Operating experience and in-depth analysis with the resulting lessons learnt are all evidence of the relevance of human errors for safety. The nuclear power plant industry has estimated the risk due to human errors closing to 70%. It is therefore obvious that sophisticated techniques are needed to focus on human errors. The root cause analysis in NPP Krsko is based on the following methods: Event and Causal Factor Charting, Change Analysis, Barrier Analysis, MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree Analysis) and Human Performance Evaluation. Event and casual Factor Charting is used for investigation of complex problems which need to be visualized in the form of a chart so as to provide a better understanding of the chronology of an event. Change Analysis is usually used for a particular problem with the equipment failure by using key questions: what?, when?, where?, who? and how? to find a final answer to the question WHY something happened. Barrier Analysis is used for procedural and

  18. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  19. Causes of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Saridi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Infertility seems to be a multidimensional health issue with personal, economic and social dimensions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 8-10% of couples are facing some kind of infertility problem. Infertility is defined as the inability of getting pregnant after trying for at least 6 months or one year, for women over 35 years old, without use of birth control means and while having normal sexual intercourse. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes οf infertility, as well as the risk factors. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly of the last five years in the “pubmed data base” which referred to the causes οf infertility, as well as the risk factors. Results: During recent years, it has been noticed a remarkable increase in the prevalence of infertility, globally. According to the literature, nowadays, infertility occurs not only due to health problems but it may also be a result of the choices imposed by the modern lifestyle. Results of recent studies indicate that, regarding women’s aspect, problems of fallopian tubes, ovary, matrix or disorders menstruation, are the main causes of infertility, while in regard to men’s aspect, the poor quality of sperm and varicocele. Other contributing factors were environmental, socio-economic as well as advanced age of child-bearing and smoking. Conclusions: As it is supported by published evidence, infertility is an issue of great complexity, which threatens with demographic problem. Information of couples regarding risk factors consist the cornerstone for prevention.

  20. Friction Causing Unpredictability

    OpenAIRE

    Oldham, Joshua; Weigert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The periodic motion of a classical point particle in a one-dimensional double-well potential acquires a surprising degree of complexity if friction is added. Finite uncertainty in the initial state can make it impossible to predict in which of the two wells the particle will finally settle. For two models of friction, we exhibit the structure of the basins of attraction in phase space which causes the final-state sensitivity. Adding friction to an integrable system with more than one stable e...

  1. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  2. Over-expression of PUMA correlates with the apoptosis of spinal cord cells in rat neuropathic intermittent claudication model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic intermittent claudication (NIC is a typical clinical symptom of lumbar spinal stenosis and the apoptosis of neurons caused by cauda equina compression (CEC has been proposed as an important reason. Whereas, the factors and the mechanism involved in the process of apoptosis induced by CEC remain unclear. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In our modified rat model of NIC, a trapezoid-shaped silicon rubber was inserted into the epidural space under the L5 and L6 vertebral plate. Obvious apoptosis was observed in spinal cord cells after compression by TUNEL assay. Simultaneously, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression levels of PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis and p53 were upregulated significantly in spinal cord under compression, while the expression of p53 inhibitor MDM2 and SirT2 decreased in the same region. Furthermore, CEC also resulted in the upregulation of Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic genes expression and caspase-3 activation. With the protection of Methylprednisolone, the upregulation of PUMA and p53 expression as well as the decrease of MDM2 and SirT2 in spinal cord were partially rescued in western bolt analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that over-expression of PUMA correlates with CEC caused apoptosis of spinal cord cells, which is characterized by the increase of p53, Bax and Bad expression. PUMA upregulation might be crucial to induce apoptosis of spinal cord cells through p53-dependent pathway in CEC.

  3. Friction causing unpredictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of friction on the dynamics of a classical point particle in a one-dimensional double-well potential. It turns out that finite uncertainty in the initial conditions of the particle may prevent us from reliably predicting the well in which the particle will come to rest. This difficulty—to make reliable long-term predictions—originates from the layered structure of phase-space regions sending the particle to the left and the right well, respectively. Similar structures are known to arise in models used, for example, to described the tossing of a coin where friction is, however, not the root cause of the phenomenon. (paper)

  4. [Relapse: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2013-09-01

    Relapse after a first episode of schizophrenia is the recurrence of acute symptoms after a period of partial or complete remission. Due to its variable aspects, there is no operational definition of relapse able to modelise the outcome of schizophrenia and measure how the treatment modifies the disease. Follow-up studies based on proxys such as hospital admission revealed that 7 of 10 patients relapsed after a first episode of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications on relapse prevention has been widely demonstrated. Recent studies claim for the advantages of atypical over first generation antipsychotic medication. Non-adherence to antipsychotic represents with addictions the main causes of relapse long before some non-consensual factors such as premorbid functioning, duration of untreated psychosis and associated personality disorders. The consequences of relapse are multiple, psychological, biological and social. Pharmaco-clinical studies have demonstrated that the treatment response decreases with each relapse. Relapse, even the first one, will contribute to worsen the outcome of the disease and reduce the capacity in general functionning. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role besides patients and their families. The development of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, access to care and the therapeutic alliance should be promoted. Relapse prevention is a major goal of the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. It is based on adherence to the maintenance treatment, identification of prodromes, family active information and patient therapeutical education. PMID:24084426

  5. Characteristic MRI and MR Myelography Findings for the Facet Cyst Hematoma at T12-L1 Spine: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Eun [Dept of Diagnostic Radiology, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Ho [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gun [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Seoul Wooridul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Sung Suk [Dept of Radiology, Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A facet cyst is a very rare condition in the thoracolumbar spine and more so, hemorrhage into a cyst is extremely rare. We present a case of a facet cyst hematoma in the T12-L1 spine. A 69-year-old woman complained of chronic back pain with right lower extremity pain, and weakness for 3 years. MRI and MR myelography showed an extradural mass at the T12-L1 level with heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-and T2-weighted images, which was continuous to the right T12-L1 facet joint. The neighboring facet joint showed severe degeneration on the CT scan. The mass a was simple hematoma covered with a thin fibrous membrane and connected with facet joint macroscopically and microscopically. The pathogenesis of the facet cyst hematoma is not clear but it can compress nerve roots or dura mater and cause radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome. Surgical removal should be recommended for symptomatic relief.

  6. A clinician's approach to acute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, D G

    1997-01-27

    Two important goals in treating acute low back pain are to return the patient to regular activity as quickly as possible and to do so in a manner that is cost-effective. By following a logical treatment protocol, the clinician is often able to provide the treatment necessary to provide the patient with relief. Referral to an orthopedist or neurosurgeon may be appropriate in only a minority of cases. Thus, after the initial history and physical examination, ruling out (or in) conditions that require urgent or emergent care is essential. These conditions include cauda equina syndrome, circulatory collapse due to expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm, and tumor, infection, and other underlying disorders as a cause of low back pain. Patients without these conditions can be started on conservative therapy-without radiographic or laboratory tests-regardless of the specific diagnosis. Conservative therapy consists of passage of time, controlled physical activity, physical modalities (e.g., cryotherapy or thermotherapy), local injections, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants. Because low back pain is so common, even the small proportion of patients who do not improve after 6 weeks of conservative therapy represents a sizable number. The location and radiation of pain are used as initial guides to classifying these patients into four groups: those with localized pain, sciatica, anterior thigh pain, or posterior thigh pain. Each follows a different diagnostic path, which will be described herein. PMID:9217555

  7. Medical-surgical treatment of progressive tuberculous (Pott's) paraplegia in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loembe, P M

    1995-10-01

    The present study deals with the results of the medical-surgical treatment of 22 patients with Pott's tetraplegia or paraplegia. Seventeen had progressive tetraplegia-paraplegia which failed to respond solely to medical treatment. On admission, four patients exhibited an acute onset tetraplegia-paraplegia, and one had a 'spinal tumour syndrome'. In addition to antituberculous therapy, seven patients had anterior spinal surgery, consisting of four corporectomies, two anterior debridments and grafting, and one debridment alone. Moreover, one patient had a posterior interbody fusion, four had laminotomies, and 10 had laminectomies. The causes of the spinal cord or cauda equina compression, as was determined at operation, were extradural abscess in eight patients, bony compressions in 11, arachnoiditis in two, and posterior neural arch tuberculosis in one patient. Neurological recovery began between 10 and 21 days postoperatively. The mean length of follow-up was 42.36 months (range 8-144 months). Fourteen patients were found to be functionally and neurologically normal at follow-up examinations (63%). Eighty-two percent recovered sufficiently to walk unaided. Two patients were left paralysed and unable to walk. Two patients were able to get about on crutches. The onset of objective improvement soon after surgical decompression suggests a causal effect. It was concluded that early neural decompression and spinal stabilisation provided the maximum potential for neurological recovery. PMID:8848312

  8. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  9. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis? Primary Thrombocythemia In this condition, ... the bone marrow make too many platelets. What causes this to happen usually isn't known. When ...

  10. What Causes Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein in the blood) causes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The ADAMTS13 gene controls the enzyme, which is ... enough enzyme activity causes overactive blood clotting. In TTP, blood clots form in small blood vessels throughout ...

  11. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section Other Causes of Leg Pain Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... a crowd of people walking. Photo: iStock Leg pain can come from a variety of causes. Your ...

  12. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Other Causes of Leg Pain Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... Leg pain can come from a variety of causes. Your health care professional has specific ways to ...

  13. Drugs that may cause impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  14. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these chemical abnormalities cause permanent brain damage and dementia. ... Metabolic causes of dementia include: Endocrine disorders, such as Addison disease , Cushing disease Heavy metal exposure, such as to lead, arsenic, ...

  15. Fisiopatología de la septicemia neonatal equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ospina Chirivi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La septicemia neonatal es la mayor causa de mortalidad y morbilidad en equinos en sus primeros siete días de vida y dentro de su fisiopatología. Es importante tener en cuenta los factores predisponentes extrínsecos e intrínsecos al potro que los hace susceptibles a la entrada de agentes que principalmente son de etiología bacteriana. No obstante, se deben considerar otros tipos de etiología infecciosa (virus y hongos, así como las etiologías de índole no infecciosa. Se menciona una amplia variedad de mecanismos que producen distintas lesiones que deben atenderse con medidas de cuidado crítico neonatal, por lo que es imprescindible para el clínico de equinos conocer los mecanismos de patogenicidad de la enfermedad, la presentación clínica y las lesiones anatomopatológicas. Así, los conceptos del síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica (SIRS, síndrome de disfunción multiorgánica (MODS y el colapso circulatorio periférico o shock son algunos de los elementos que se definen como los pilares de la fisiopatología de la septicemia neonatal, y se han estudiado ampliamente en medicina de equinos. Este trabajo muestra una revisión corta de los mecanismos de desencadenamiento de la septicemia neonatal, y resalta la importancia de investigaciones epidemiológicas en Colombia; muestra la necesidad de hacer trabajos retrospectivos y prospectivos y de dar a conocer algunas de las medidas de prevención de la enfermedad en equinos.

  16. Does Health cause Schooling or Does Schooling cause Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Neves Sequeira

    2007-01-01

    Using a panel data approach we investigate whether schooling cause health or health cause schooling. We found evidence that supports the influence of the level of health in increases in education and the influence of education growth in health improvements. Both effects are present in poor countries but not in rich ones.

  17. Causes of automotive turbocharger faults

    OpenAIRE

    Jan FILIPCZYK

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of examinations of turbocharger damages. The analysis of the causes of faults in 100 engines with turbochargers of cars, buses and trucks has been carried out. The incidence and structure of turbocharged engine faults has been compared to the causes of faults of naturally aspirated engines. The cause of damage, the possibility of early detection, the time between overhaul and the impact on engine operation for each case of fault was carried out as well. The re...

  18. Polyhydramnios: Causes, Diagnosis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, A.; Herr, D.; Solomayer, E. F.; Meyberg-Solomayer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Polyhydramnios is defined as a pathological increase of amniotic fluid volume in pregnancy and is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Common causes of polyhydramnios include gestational diabetes, fetal anomalies with disturbed fetal swallowing of amniotic fluid, fetal infections and other, rarer causes. The diagnosis is obtained by ultrasound. The prognosis of polyhydramnios depends on its cause and severity. Typical symptoms of polyhydramnios includ...

  19. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-01-01

    The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the prot...

  20. Causes of automotive turbocharger faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan FILIPCZYK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of examinations of turbocharger damages. The analysis of the causes of faults in 100 engines with turbochargers of cars, buses and trucks has been carried out. The incidence and structure of turbocharged engine faults has been compared to the causes of faults of naturally aspirated engines. The cause of damage, the possibility of early detection, the time between overhaul and the impact on engine operation for each case of fault was carried out as well. The results of examinations allowed to determine the most common causes of damages and how to prevent them.

  1. Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P

    2013-11-01

    Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique. PMID:23412165

  2. What Causes Heart Valve Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other infections with strep bacteria that progress to rheumatic fever can cause heart valve disease. When the body tries to fight the strep ... you feel better before the medicine is gone. Heart valve disease caused by rheumatic fever mainly affects older adults who had strep ...

  3. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, RG; Rathleff, M;

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...

  4. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.;

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...

  5. Does excessive pronation cause pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, R.G.; Rathleff, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...

  6. Cystitis Caused by Aeromonas caviae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Benwan, Khalifa; Abbott, Sharon; Janda, J. Michael; Huys, Geert; Albert, M. John

    2007-01-01

    Aeromonas sp. organisms rarely cause urinary tract infection. We report for the first time a case of urinary tract infection caused by A. caviae in an adult patient with a history of increased frequency of urination, dysuria, hematuria, and weight loss.

  7. Substituição da agulha isolada para eletroneuroestimulação pela agulha metálica de cateter intravenoso, na verificação da punção epidural, em cães Replacement of an insulated electric neurostimulation spinal needle with an intravenous catheter metal needle to confirm correct epidural puncture in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Tudury

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o eletroneuroestimulador como um meio adequado para confirmação do posicionamento da ponta de agulhas isoladas no espaço epidural lombossal, por meio de pequenas estimulações elétricas que provocam contrações dos músculos inervados, empregando-se agulha de cateter intravenoso em vez de agulha isolada para a eletroneuroestimulação. Foram utilizados 40 cães para procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos, abdominais ou retroumbilicais que necessitassem de bloqueio epidural. Durante a introdução gradativa da agulha no canal vertebral lombossacral, estímulos elétricos de 1,5 a 0,5mA foram aplicados. Diante de contrações musculares em membros pélvicos, cauda e/ou ânus, as quais foram consideradas respostas condizentes com o correto posicionamento da agulha no espaço epidural, estimulando raízes da cauda equina, procedeu-se à administração da associação de lidocaína, bupivacaína e tramadol. Constatou-se a adequada anestesia epidural mediante relaxamento do esfíncter anal, ausência dos reflexos patelares e flexor e a analgesia na área cirúrgica abdominal. Conclui-se que o método foi eficaz para a confirmação do correto posicionamento da agulha no espaço epidural durante a realização dessa anestesia regional em cães.The electric neurostimulator was used as an adequate mean for the confirmation of the correct placement of the tip of the insulated needles in the lumbosacral epidural space through small electric stimulations causing muscle contractions by using an intravenous catheter needle instead of an electric neurostimulation insulated needle. Forty dogs were selected based on the need for an epidural block for orthopedic, abdominal or retroumbilical surgical procedures. Electrical stimuli were applied from 1.5 to 0.5mA during a gradual introduction of the needle into the lumbosacral vertebral canal. Responses that were considered as indicative of the correct placement of the needle and stimulation of

  8. Determinación de nitrito como metabolito estable del óxido nítrico en el líquido sinovial de articulación metacarpofalángica equina Nitrite determination as a stable metabolite of nitric oxide in synovial fluid of equine metacarpophalangeal joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Adarmes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La osteoartritis (OA se caracteriza por fibrilación y erosión del cartílago articular. El óxido nítrico (NO• sería un importante mediador biológico de la OA y su producción es significativamente mayor en el cartílago OA. El NO• inhibe la síntesis de matriz cartilaginosa e induce la apoptosis en el cartílago articular. Se determinó indirectamente la producción de NO• a través de la concentración de nitrito utilizando la reacción de Griess. Se comparó la concentración de nitrito del líquido sinovial de la articulación metacarpofalángica equina con diferente condición patológica. La clasificación articular y la edad se determinaron por inspección macroscópica. El grupo normal NN (n = 47 no presentó daño visual de las estructuras articulares. Los grupos con daño articular fueron: a un grupo con membrana sinovial congestiva sin daño del cartílago NA (n = 25, b un grupo con daño del cartílago y con membrana sinovial normal AN (n = 23, y c un grupo con daño del cartílago y con membrana sinovial congestiva AA (n = 15. El cartílago articular dañado presentó erosiones y múltiples líneas de roce y la membrana sinovial dañada presentó aspecto congestivo. No hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos analizados. Sólo hubo tendencia a aumentar en el grupo NA (44,4 ± 32,6 µmol/L, posiblemente asociado a la integridad del cartílago y a su mayor respuesta al estímulo proinflamatorio de la membrana sinovial congestiva. La concentración de nitrito tendió a disminuir en el grupo con daño de cartílago y membrana sinovial AA (26,3 ± 22,1 µmol/L que se explicaría por la pérdida de cartílago en este modelo in vivo.The striking feature of osteoarthritis (OA is fibrilation and loss of articular cartilage. Nitric oxide (NO• has been involved as an important biological mediator of OA and its production is significantly higher in OA cartilage. NO• suppresses cartilagenous matrix synthesis and induces

  9. Unnecessary multiple epidural steroid injections delay surgery for massive lumbar disc: Case discussion and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural steroid injections (ESI in the lumbar spine are not effective over the long-term for resolving "surgical" lesions. Here, we present a patient with a massive L2-L3 lumbar disk herniation whose surgery was delayed for 4 months by multiple unnecessary ESI, resulting in a cauda equina syndrome. Methods: A 54-year-old male acutely developed increased low back and radiating left leg pain in October of 2014. In December of 2014, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan showed a massive central/left sided disk herniation at the L2-L3 level resulting in marked thecal sac and left L2 foraminal and L3 lateral recess root compression. Despite the marked degree of neural compression, pain management treated him with 3 ESI over the next 3 months. Results: At the end of April of 2015, he presented to spine surgeon with a cauda equina syndrome. When the new MRI scan confirmed the previously documented massive central-left sided L2-L3 disk herniation, the patient emergently underwent an L1-L3 laminectomy with central-left sided L2-L3 lateral/foraminal diskectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was neurologically intact. Conclusions: Pain specialists performed multiple unnecessary lumbar ESI critically delaying spinal surgery for 4 months in this patient with a massive lumbar disk herniation who ultimately developed a cauda equina syndrome. Unfortunately, pain specialists (e.g., radiologists, anesthesiologists, and physiatrists, not specifically trained to perform neurological examinations or spinal surgery, are increasingly mismanaging spinal disease with ESI/variants. It is time for spine surgeons to speak out against this, and "take back" the care of patients with spinal surgical disease.

  10. Causes of secondary headache (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result ...

  11. Empyema Caused by Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren A; Gibb, A. Patrick; Gill, M John

    1999-01-01

    Extraintestinal infections of Clostridium difficile are rare and often associated with underlying disorders. A case of empyema caused by aspiration of C difficile in a patient with carcinoid syndrome and C difficile colitis is described.

  12. Foods That May Cause Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only starch that does not cause gas. Fiber Dietary fiber is carbohydrate that is indigestible in the small ... certain bacteria digest fiber (fermentation), which produces gas. Dietary fiber can be classified as either soluble or insoluble. ...

  13. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  14. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes a Heart Attack? Coronary Heart Disease A heart attack happens if ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  15. Drugs that may cause impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... McVary KT. Clinical practice: Erectile dysfunction. N Engl J Med . ... AP, Renwick AG, Hiller K. Erectile dysfunction. In: Medical ...

  16. What Causes Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? Lack of Energy Balance A lack of energy ... Deficiency article. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  17. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that normally lines ...

  18. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  19. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart muscle. Eventually, an area of plaque can rupture (break open). This may cause a blood clot ... tendency is inherited, which means it's passed from parents to children through the genes. Members of these ...

  20. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  1. What Causes Diabetic Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're on medicine to treat high blood sugar). It's unclear whether these risk factors have a common cause or are mainly related by their combined effects on the heart. Obesity seems to set the stage for metabolic syndrome. ...

  2. Human Caused Fire and Acres

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Number of wildland fires and acres burned as a result of human causes, from 2001 through 2008 (updated annually). Displayed by the eleven Geographic Areas used by...

  3. Hobo transposons causing chromosomal breakpoints.

    OpenAIRE

    Ladevèze, V; Aulard, S.; Chaminade, N; Périquet, G; Lemeunier, F

    1998-01-01

    Several laboratory surveys have shown that transposable elements (TEs) can cause chromosomal breaks and lead to inversions, as in dysgenic crosses involving P-elements. However, it is not presently clear what causes inversions in natural populations of Drosophila. The only direct molecular studies must be taken as evidence against the involvement of mobile elements. Here, in Drosophila lines transformed with the hobo transposable element, and followed for 100 generations, we show the appearan...

  4. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  5. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari A; Agarwal J; Garg A

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD) is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic ...

  6. Radiculopathy Caused by Discal Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae Young

    2013-01-01

    Discal cyst is an intraspinal cyst with a distinct communication with the corresponding intervertebral disc. It is a rare condition and could present with radiculopathy similar to that caused by lumbar disc herniation. We present a patient with a large discal cyst in the ventrolateral epidural space of the 5th lumbar vertebral (L5) level that communicated with the adjacent 4th lumbar and 5th lumbar intervertebral disc, causing L5 radiculopathy. We alleviated the radiating pain with selective ...

  7. Causes of Hypersomnia – Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-01-01

    The causes of hypersomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) besides volitionalsleep deprivation and obstructive sleep apnea are principally due to primary centralnervous system abnormalities. Most common amongst these is Narcolepsy, a primarydisorder of the neural control of wakefulness and sleep. The recent discovery ofhypocretin/orexin deficiency as the main cause of narcolepsy will lead to importanttherapeutic advances for patients with narcolepsy and further to understanding of thecon...

  8. An Unusual Cause of Hydronephroureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a common method of contraception among women because of its low cost and high efficacy. Perforations are possible resulting in multiple complications including urinary complications. Obstructive hydronephrosis and hydroureter is one of the main clinical concerns in genitourinary practice leading to radiological investigations for determination of the cause. Determination of the cause leads to early treatment, hence saving the renal function. In this case report, we describe hydronephrosis and hydroureter secondary to a migrated/displaced IUCD. (author)

  9. Le quattro cause della tragedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vestrucci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze one of the highest achievements of humankind, the classical tragedy, via the application of the heuristic paradigm proposed by Aristotle in his Physics, the fourfold determination of the concept of cause. This scientific methodology – one of the most effective viatica for a comprehensive response to the question of the nature of an object – informs the inquiry into the universal nature of tragedy, its hypercomplexity and hence its ethical and human relevance. Firstly, the concept of tragedy is dissected into its four causes – material, formal, efficient and final; given that the object of research is at the same time tragedy in general and this specific tragedy (i.e. the category and its case, each cause is subdivided in two, a distal one (if referred to the type and a proximal one (if referred to the empirical object. Then, the methodology of the four causes is applied to the formal cause alone, the tragic conflict, in an attempt to better understand tragedy’s quiddity. The results of this more specific causal determination are finally applied to the four causes of tragedy, supporting the hypothesis of a close relationship between hybris, amartia, tragic conflict and education of the phronesis.

  10. A cause-coupling-defense approach to common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status and recent history of common cause failures (CCF) research are briefly reviewed. Current US Nuclear Regulatory Commission research in the area of CCFs is described with emphasis on the remaining problem areas. These include deficiencies in data and the need to more completely understand the characteristics of CCFs. The concepts and relationships of root cause, coupling, and defensive mechanisms are discussed. Key definitions and some in-depth analysis of these concepts are included. An overview of the recent research to be published is presented. This research includes (1) the cause-defense methodology for analyzing CCFs, (2) guidelines for identifying potential CCFs as part of a nuclear power plant walkdown and procedures review, and (3) requirements for an industry-wide data base, including documentation of failure events and additional component failure and failure mode data requirements to support future PRAs. 5 refs

  11. AN AMAZINGCASE REPORT OF CERVICAL SHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqia Asna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a patient with history of vague chest pain and facial numbness. When the patient was subjected for evaluation he was found to have cervical Schwannoma. He was operated and was successfully treated. Schwannomas are extramedullary-intradural tumors composed of Schwann cells, which can arise from spinal nerves at any level (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or cauda equina and most often arise from a posterior (sensory nerve root. The most common initial symptom therefore is pain in a radicular distribution. Early detection and surgery gives excellent results in such cases.

  12. Spinal MRI Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Alkan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is a relatively common, acute, and rapidly progressive, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The diagnosis is usually established on the basis of symptoms and signs, aided by cerebrospinal fluid findings and electrophysiologic criteria. Previously, radiologic examinations have been used only to rule out other spinal abnormalities. We report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome with marked enhancement of nerve roots of the conus medullaris and cauda equina on MR imaging. These MR observations may help confirm the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  13. Spinal MRI Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ozlem; Yildirim, Tulin; Tokmak, Naime; Tan, Meliha

    2009-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is a relatively common, acute, and rapidly progressive, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The diagnosis is usually established on the basis of symptoms and signs, aided by cerebrospinal fluid findings and electrophysiologic criteria. Previously, radiologic examinations have been used only to rule out other spinal abnormalities. We report a case of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome with marked enhancement of nerve roots of the conus medullaris and cauda equina on MR imaging. These MR observations may help confirm the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:22470650

  14. Myelography, CT and MRI in leukaemic infiltration of the lumbar theca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.C. (Dept. of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Lee, S.K. (Dept. of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Ho, Y.J. (Dept. of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China)); Lee, K.R. (Inst. of Life Science, National TsingHua Univ. (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1993-08-01

    A 25-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, while in remission, developed paraparesis, with faecal and urinary incontinence. CT demonstrated increased density of the lumbar theca and enlargement of the nerve roots. Myelography showed complete obstruction below the L3 level. MRI showed increased signal intensity in the lumbar sac on T1 weighting, and the cauda equina enhanced with gadolinium-DTPA. Lymphoblasts were seen in the lumbar spinal fluid. After chemoterhapy, these abnormalities resolved, as did the paraparesis and incontinence. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of implant stabilization in tubercular Spondylodiscitis: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Kumar Maila

    2015-10-01

    Results: Mechanical failure of the implant was the most commonly encountered complication. Neurological complications included progressive neurologic deterioration, hoarseness of voice, cauda equina syndrome, foot drop. Persistent worsening of pain, DVT and pressure ulcers were the complications encountered that are not specific to a region of spine. Conclusions: Stabilization is not without complications in tubercular spine. But with strict adherence to guidelines the complications can be minimal and are not dismal. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2647-2653

  16. WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoje Pašić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.

  17. Sciatica caused by pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Lin; Chen, Jung-Tsung; Liu, Yu-Fang; Cho, Der-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Many etiologies may cause sciatica, and intra-abdominal masses usually affect the lumbosacral plexus by local invasion or distal metastases. Lumbosacral plexopathy caused by compression of intra-abdominal tumors instead of invasion is rarely seen. A 67-year-old woman had a 3-month history of progressive neurogenic claudication, lumbago and left L5 radiculopathy with foot drop. Nocturia and progressive abdominal distension with voiding dysfunction were also noted. Imaging studies showed a huge pelvic mass with severe compression of the left lumbosacral trunk. There was no direct invasion of the lumbosacral plexus by the pelvic mass noted in the preoperative imaging studies or intraoperative findings. Bilateral ovarian borderline mucinous cystic tumor with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) was diagnosed, and the sciatica was improved dramatically after subsequent abdominal debulking surgery. Although rare, neural compression caused by PMP and intra-abdominal masses needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of sciatica. PMID:19181596

  18. Verminous aneurysm caused by filaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, F V; de Araújo, A P; da Cunha, A M; Sidow, J R; Pavão, S G; de Araújo, E D

    1983-06-01

    Aneurysms caused by atherosclerosis are relatively frequent, as a consequence of the high incidence of this degenerative disease of the arteries. Other types of aneurysm, for example, those of infectious etiology, are more uncommon. Bacterias and fungi are able to cause aneurysms in several parts of the arterial tree. Stengel et al (1943), in a review of world literature described 217 cases of mycotic aneurysms. The Stedman's Medical Dictionary refers to a special type of aneurysm observed in horses, caused by intra-vascular migration of a worm, the Strongylus vulgaris. It has been named verminous aneurysm and generally involves the mesenteric arteries. We haven't found in medical literature any similar observations refering to human cases. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case of aneurysm the etiology of which we have imputed to the filaria (Wuchereria bancrofti). This case was observed in Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:6346961

  19. Causes of Hypersomnia – Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The causes of hypersomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS besides volitionalsleep deprivation and obstructive sleep apnea are principally due to primary centralnervous system abnormalities. Most common amongst these is Narcolepsy, a primarydisorder of the neural control of wakefulness and sleep. The recent discovery ofhypocretin/orexin deficiency as the main cause of narcolepsy will lead to importanttherapeutic advances for patients with narcolepsy and further to understanding of thecontrol of sleep and wakefulness in general. Importantly, the excessive daytimesleepiness is not due to psychiatric conditions, but rather is always due to sleepdeprivation or an underlying diagnosable and treatable sleep disorder.Key words : EDS, Sleep, Narcolepsy

  20. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1994-12-01

    Amino alcohols are used in various industries, often as minor constituents of compounds to modify the properties of the compound. Generally, they are considered to be safe, but they have been known to cause local skin irritation at higher concentrations in solutions. We report on three cases of occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines: two metal workers exposed to a cutting fluid containing triethanolamine, and one cleaner exposed to a detergent containing monoethanolamine. The diagnosis was based on work-related symptoms and on a chamber challenge with the suspected agent. Persistence of the symptoms after exposure ended was a common feature of the three cases. PMID:7709998

  1. Fighting for a Common Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cause China and Russia conduct joint antiterrorism exercises with no ulterior motives The Peace Mission 2009, a joint military exercise that was held on July 22-26 by China and Russia, was meant to convey one message: that both countries are firmly resolved to rooting out the "three evil forces" of terrorism, extremism and separatism. About 1300 service people from the army

  2. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  3. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  4. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  5. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  6. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...

  7. [Gastroduodenal intussusception causing gastric retention.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, M.; Berg, J.O.; Lindstrom, C.; Jensen, C.V.; Wettergren, A.

    2008-01-01

    A case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal lipoma is presented. The condition was characterized by severe upper gastrointestinal retention, epigastric pain and weight loss. The mass was diagnosed by CT scan. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation. The patient was treated...

  8. Causes of oncogenic chromosomal translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Aplan, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Non-random chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with a variety of cancers, especially hematologic malignancies and childhood sarcomas In addition to their diagnostic utility, chromosomal translocations are increasingly being used in the clinic to guide therapeutic decisions. However, the mechanisms which cause these translocations remain poorly understood. Illegit...

  9. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  10. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  11. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Intrauterine Intussusception Causing Ileal Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kumar Sarin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine intussusception (IUI is the one of the rarest recognized causes of jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA. We report on a 15-day old full-term neonate presenting with features of intestinal obstruction, wherein on exploration, a visible ileo-ileal intussusception resulting in ileal atresia was found. The relevant literature has been reviewed.

  13. Rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prober, A.; Tverskoy, M.

    1986-12-01

    A rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema is described which developed in two patients after epidural anaesthesia. Only two case reports could be found in literature describing similar conditions. The anaesthesia is performed using the 'loss of resistance' technique with injection of air for the identification of the epidural space. Possible explanations for the development of the emphysema are discussed.

  14. Unusual Cause of Knee Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Huri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of partial intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon as an unusual cause of pseudolocking of the knee. A 13-year-old semiprofessional soccer player applied to our clinic with a locked right knee in spite of the therapy applied (cold pack, NSAID, and immobilization in another institution 20 days after the injury. Significant extension loss was observed in his right knee with 30∘–90∘ ROM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and arthroscopy confirmed the intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon and synovitis. The ruptured part of the tendon was debrided, and the inflammatory tissue around the tendon, which may lead to pseudolocking, was gently removed with a shaver in order to regain the normal ROM. The patient was discharged with full ROM and weight bearing first day after the surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon causing pseudolocking of the knee.

  15. A rare cause of osteonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostinis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the HFE gene, which increase intestinal iron absorption. The prevalence of C282Y homozygosity, which causes the disorder, is 0.5% in Caucasian populations. The clinical manifestations are related to excess iron in the tissues, especially the liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, and skin. They include fatigue, loss of libido or impotence in males, liver disease, skin pigmentation, diabetes mellitus, cardiac enlargement—with or without heart failure, and conduction defects. The classic triad of cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and skin pigmentation (“bronze diabetes” results from a combination of iron deposits and melanin. It occurs late in the disease, when the total body iron content is more than five times the normal value, about 20 grams. Left untreated, approximately half of all patients with HH eventually develop arthralgia or arthropathy. Chondrocalcinosis, chronic pseudo-osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis are the major rheumatic manifestations of HH. The cause of the arthropathy is still unknown. Iron deposits within joints may trigger a number of pathologic events, such as free radical generation and crystal deposition, which stimulate immune complex formation and inflammation.Materials and methodsWe describe the case of a 48-year-old male suffering from chronic bilateral ankle pain.ResultsThe work-up revealed osteonecrosis of ankle. The patient also presented high plasma ferritin levels and homozygosity for the C282Y mutation. Other than HH, which was confirmed by liver biopsy, the patient had no other risk factors for osteonecrosis.DiscussionHH represents a rare cause of osteonecrosis, and there are no prior reports of aseptic osteonecrosis of the ankle in a patient with this disease. The pathogenetic mechanism remains unknown.

  16. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Gavin R.; Daniel Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to a...

  17. The Real Causes of Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Hamsag

    2015-01-01

    Having defined what inflation is, this study proposes some hypothesizes to eliminate external and psychological factors; it also examines a closed economy. It shows that the deep cause of inflation is the out of balance relation between consumption expenditure and saving. If consumption expenditure increases more than saving, the result is an inflation of the real economy. If saving increase to the prejudice of consumption expenditure, the financial markets are undergoing inflation. The main ...

  18. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS - CAUSES & IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Komal Singhal

    2014-01-01

    A financial crisis is a disturbance to financial markets that disrupts the markets capacity to allocate capital – financial intermediation and hence investment comes to a halt. The Sub Prime mortgage crisis originated in U.S in early 2008 and transmitted to India and other Emerging Market Economies through various channels. Macro economic variables like growth, employment and prices all were affected badly. This paper attempts an analysis of causes of global financial crisis a...

  19. Winter mortality and its causes

    OpenAIRE

    Keatinge, W R

    2002-01-01

    In the 1970s scientific research focussed for the first time on dramatic rises in mortality every winter, and on smaller rises in unusually hot weather. Following the recent decline in influenza epidemics, approximately half of excess winter deaths are due to coronary thrombosis. These peak about two days after the peak of a cold spell. Approximately half the remaining winter deaths are caused by respiratory disease, and these peak about 12 days after peak cold. The rapid coronary deaths are ...

  20. Skills obsolescence: causes and cures.

    OpenAIRE

    Loo, Jasper van; Grip, Andries de; Steur, Margot de

    2001-01-01

    Until now there has been surprisingly little research on the causes of and the remedies for skills obsolescence. This study tries to fill that gap to some extent by analysing the relation between risk factors and skills obsolescence. Moreover, the role remedies play to counter skills obsolescence is analysed. Four empirical analyses that relate skills obsolescence to risk factors and remedies are presented. We find that most risk factors identified in the literature can be validated empirical...

  1. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose; Roos, Michael M. W.

    2012-01-01

    In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination on the e......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  2. Rare cause of oesophagus perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Benzin, Mehmet Fatih; Dandin, Ozgur; Cakir, Tugrul; Sozen, Isa; Sabuncuoglu, Aylin; Teomete, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oesophagus perforations, which are generally caused by iatrogenic injuries, are a serious clinical event. There are still high rates of mortality and morbidity and there is no gold standard of surgical treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE The case is here presented of a 54-year old female with complaints of dysphagia after having swallowed a bone in food, who was determined with oesophagus perforation on CT examination. DISCUSSION Oesophagus perforation generally occurs secondary to i...

  3. Ascariasis cholecystitis: An unusual cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Balakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection to infest man. Usually the adult worm lives in the small intestine. Rarely it migrates through the ampulla of vater and enters the common bile duct. We are reporting a case of gall bladder ascariasis causing acute cholecystitis treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in gallbladder is rare entity as it is difficult to reach there due to the narrow and tortuous cystic duct.

  4. Ascariasis cholecystitis: An unusual cause

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty Balakrishna; Shetty Prashanth; Sharma Pritam

    2008-01-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection to infest man. Usually the adult worm lives in the small intestine. Rarely it migrates through the ampulla of vater and enters the common bile duct. We are reporting a case of gall bladder ascariasis causing acute cholecystitis treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in gallbladder is rare entity as it is difficult to reach there due to the narrow and tortuous cystic duct.

  5. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  6. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  7. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1) Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2) Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3) The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  8. An uncommon cause of syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Davide; Amaradio, Maria Domenica; Battaglia, Eliana; Demma, Shirin; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The authors present a case of a man with recurrent syncopal episodes. The patient had been hospitalized twice before reaching a correct diagnosis. The syncope was originally ascribed to a sick sinus syndrome, which led to pacemaker implantation. Nonetheless, the patient relapsed with no evidence of pacemaker dysfunction, and was readmitted to the hospital where the likely cause for his symptoms was identified: an adenocarcinoma of the lung infiltrating the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves. No further syncopal episodes occurred after thoracic surgery. This syncope led to an early diagnosis of lung cancer leading to appropriate and life extending treatment. PMID:26407606

  9. [Meningoencephalitis caused by Pseudomonas cepacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Monrás, Miriam Fina; Batlle Almodóvar, María del Carmen; González, Cernero; Tamargo Martínez, Isis; Meneses, Félix Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    A case of meningoencephalitis of bacterial etiology caused by Pseudomonas cepacia was described. The strain was received at the Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Acute Respiratory Infections of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, where its microbiological identification was confirmed. This isolation was a finding in an adult immunocompetent patient. The evolution was favourable with no sequelae for his future life. Pseudomona cepacia has been associated with respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with Pseudomonas cepacia may be asymptomatic or present fatal acute and fulminant infection. PMID:23427437

  10. Rash caused by Oryctes nasicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Stefano; Fanoni, Daniele; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of rash caused by crushing of a male of Oryctes nasicornis (Linnaeus 1758) (Coleoptera, "http:// it. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Scarabaeidae" \\o "Scarabaeidae" Scarabaeidae), popularly known as "European rhinoceros beetle", on the skin of an Italian tourist who developed the reaction during a trip to Turkey. The rash appeared one hour after the crushing of the insect on the skin. The patient was observed one day later, when she returned to Italy. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature. PMID:26858273

  11. Onycholysis caused by Candida Krusei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Onycholysis caused by Candida krusei is rare. A 21 years old male patient presented with grayish discolouration and elevation of all fingernails since one year. Patient was refractory to treatment with fluconazole. Potassium hydroxide preparation of subungual debris revealed fungal elements. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was identified by cultural characteristics, morphotyping, microscopy and biochemical tests as Candida krusei. The isolate was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin-B but susceptible to nystatin and clotrimazole. Patient responded well to clotrimazole and terbinafine.

  12. Trapezoid fracture caused by assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshikare V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.

  13. Acute pancreatitis caused by bortezomib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakoglu, Tevfik; Akyol, Pinar; Guney, Tekin; Dilek, Imdat; Atalay, Roni; Koseoglu, Huseyin; Akin, Ebru; Demirezer Bolat, Aylin; Buyukasik, Naciye Semnur; Ersoy, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis has been reported rarely. Bortezomib is a selective and reversible proteasome inhibitor used for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, one case report about acute pancreatitis (AP) caused by bortezomib was published in the international literature. Herein we report a case of AP in a 67-year-old male on bortezomib therapy. On the fourth day after the first administration of bortezomib, the patient admitted to the hospital with symptoms of AP. The common etiological factors for AP were all excluded. Than the patient was diagnosed as bortezomib-induced pancreatitis. PMID:23561979

  14. "The Causes of Euro Instability"

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Biefang-Frisancho Mariscal, Iris; Brown, Andrew; Sawyer, Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the causes of the general decline in the value of the euro by assessing the various explanations proffered in existing literature, then offering a more satisfactory explanation. The argument prevalent in the literature--that the decline in value of the euro is due to "U.S. strength" rather than to any inherent difficulties with its imposition--is viewed as somewhat undeveloped. We suggest that U.S. strength is an important but only partial factor in euro decline; the other...

  15. Neurological causes of taste disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, J G; Lang, C J G

    2006-01-01

    In caring for patients with taste disorders, the clinical assessment should include complete examination of the cranial nerves and, in particular, gustatory testing. Neurophysiological methods such as blink reflex and masseter reflex allow the testing of trigeminofacial and trigeminotrigeminal pathways. Modern imaging methods (MRI and computed tomography) enable the delineation of the neuroanatomical structures which are involved in taste and their relation to the bony skull base. From a neurological point of view, gustatory disorders can result from damage at any location of the neural gustatory pathway from the taste buds via the peripheral (facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal nerve) and central nervous system (brainstem, thalamus) to its representation within the cerebral cortex. Etiopathogenetically, a large number of causes has to be considered, e.g. drugs and physical agents, cerebrovascular disorders including dissection of the carotid artery and pontine/thalamic lesions, space-occupying processes - in particular tumors compressing the cerebellopontine angle and the jugular foramen of the skull base - head trauma and skull base fractures, isolated cranial mononeuropathy (e.g. Bell's palsy) or polyneuropathy, epilepsy, dementia, multiple sclerosis and major depression. In addition to this, aging can also lead to diminished taste perception. Due to the broad differential diagnostic considerations, it is essential to look for additional, even mild, neurological signs and symptoms. Treatment must relate to the underlying cause. Zinc may be tried in idiopathic dysgeusia. PMID:16733343

  16. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  17. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  18. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Violence-Related Injury Deaths, United States - 2013 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age ...

  19. Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma M Al-Jasser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year–old man with pre-existing rheumatic heart disease and aortic regurgitation (AR presented with intermittent fever, ankle swelling and clinical evidence of endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (TEE revealed vegetations and destruction of the aortic valve (AV. Blood cultures grew a gram positive coccobacillus which was phenotypically identified as Abiotrophia defectvia (A.defectiva. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE due to A.defectiva was made. Treatment, with penicillin and gentamicin, was administered for 4 weeks. Mechanical valve replacement was required few days after starting the antibiotic therapy. The patient had a favorable outcome on follow up.Although A.defectiva is an uncommon cause of endocarditis, early and correct identification of this pathogen is important to improve the outcome and the prognosis of patients with IE due to this organism.

  20. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  1. Nonlinear vibration caused by fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Chee-Hoe; Wiercigroch, Marian; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Deans, William F.

    2007-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to study the interactions between vibration and fatigue crack growth. In this paper, a detailed mathematical modelling of a newly designed fatigue-testing rig, description of the rig, experimental set-up and procedures, and sensor calibrations are presented. The test rig consists of two base-excited oscillators, one positioned above and the other below a single-edge-notched beam sample. The inertial forces of the oscillators act on the sample causing its bending and fatigue. Mathematically the fatigue crack sample is modelled as a discrete spring with piecewise nonlinear stiffness which is assumed to be constant when the crack closes and to decrease with crack length when it opens. The results from the modelling correlate well with the experimental tests.

  2. An unusual cause for halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Gabriella; Ali, Haythem; Aboul Enein, Mohamed; Poynter, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This report describes an unusual cause for halitosis and an unusual treatment for the underlying problem. Halitosis is a symptom which can result from a diverse range of underlying pathologies, most frequently those affecting the oral cavity or respiratory tract. Uncommonly, it arises due to pathology within the upper gastrointestinal tract. The case of a patient presenting with severe persistent halitosis attributable to mesh erosion occurring 8 years after redo laparoscopic hiatus hernia repair is described. Full external healing of the erosion tract was observed such that no symptomatic oesophageal perforation resulted. Mesh erosion is typically managed with surgical intervention. In this case, the infected mesh was successfully removed endoscopically. PMID:27095805

  3. Osteomyelitis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, nonfermenting gram-negative rod and described as a waterborne bacterium since it habits aquatic environments ubiquitously. It has frequently been isolated from aquatic surroundings in the hospital and from various human body sites. Although occasionally considered a non-pathogen, A. xylosoxidans has been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infection due to contaminated fluids. Moreover, a wide variety of infectious etiologies due to A. xylosoxidans has been reported primarily in immunocompromised individuals. Heightened awareness of this bacterium and associated clinical importance is warranted for clinicians since its broad disease spectrum in humans and frequent multi-drug resistance may result in an increased mortality rate. In this report, we describe a case of osteomyelitis caused by A. xylosoxidans in a patient with a history of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Hyperprolactinemia: causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic data on hyperprolactinemia (i.e. an excess of PRL above a reference laboratory's upper limits), the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are given in this review. The following issues are discussed: regulation of prolactin (Prl) secretion, definition of hyperprolactinemia, its etiology and pathogenesis as well as its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment (including medical and surgical therapy). It should be stressed that finding of elevated PRL serum concentrations constitute the beginning of diagnostic procedure and, after exclusion of physiologic, pharmacologic, and other organic causes of increased PRL levels, should be followed by detailed diagnosis including MRI. In patients in whom hyperprolactinemia has been confirmed the treatment with dopamine agonists (with prevalence of cabergoline, followed by quinagoline) is currently considered first-choice therapy. Surgery should be performed only in the patients resistant or intolerant to these agents, or in patients who refuse long-term therapy. (author)

  5. Extrapyramidal syndromes caused by antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extrapyramidal syndromes are significant side effects of antipsychotic therapy due to their severity, frequent occurrence and complications. This paper gives a brief summary of the literature with the emphasis on epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as the treatment of extrapyramidal disorders induced by antipsychotics. Dystonia. Sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. It may appear either as an acute or delayed, i.e. tardive sign. The incidence of dystonia is 2-3% among the patients treated with antipsychotics, and 50% among the ones cured with conventional antipsychotics. Akathisia. The main feature of this curious adverse effect is the psychomotor restlessness and the inability to remain motionless. Although akathisia is not very frequent, its incidence and prevalence ranges from 5 to 50% among the treated patients. It is most probably a result of the blockage of dopaminergic receptors. Parkinsonism. The most frequent secondary Parkinsonism is the one caused by drugs. The characteristic parkinsonian signs regress 4 to 16 weeks after the discontinuation of antipsychotic therapy. In the era of atypical antipsychotics this adverse effect appears less frequently. Tardive dyskinesia. Involuntary choreatic movements may appear days and months after the introduction of continuous use of antipsychotics. The individual susceptibility may play the major role in the development of this side effect. Conclusion. Numerous studies have compared conventional and atypical antipsychotics as well as atypical ones with one another in order to decrease the risk of development of extrapyramical side effects as well as to prevent their occurrence and improve their treatment.

  6. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  7. What Causes the Symptoms of Sinusitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sinusitis Cause Colds, bacterial infections, allergies, asthma, and other health conditions can cause sinusitis, or inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Acute ...

  8. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.D.

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of �what dose does?� in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of �what dose is?� Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  9. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  10. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P.

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  11. Onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzitelli, Gaetano; Guanziroli, Elena; Moschin, Annalisa; Sangalli, Roberta; Veraldi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A case of onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides in a man with diabetes is presented. The infection was characterized by a brown-black pigmentation of the nail plates and subungual hyperkeratosis of the first three toes of both feet. Onychogryphosis was also visible on the third left toe. Direct microscopic examinations revealed wide and septate hyphae and spores. Three cultures on Sabouraud-gentamicin-chloramphenicol 2 agar and chromID Candida agar produced white, creamy, and smooth colonies that were judged to be morphologically typical of T. mucoides. Microscopic examinations of the colonies showed arthroconidia and blastoconidia. The urease test was positive. A sugar assimilation test on yeast nitrogen base agar showed assimilation of galactitol, sorbitol, and arabinitol. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) confirmed the diagnosis of T. mucoides infection. The patient was treated with topical urea and oral itraconazole. Three months later, a mild improvement was observed. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. PMID:26603646

  12. Nosocomial infections caused by staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplano, A; Struelens, M J

    1998-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative species of staphylococci (CNS), particularly S epidermidis, are among the most frequently isolated bacteria from patients with nosocomial infection. Conventional methods used in the clinical microbiology laboratory for identification, susceptibility testing, and epidemiologic typing of staphylococci have several limitations Identification to species level is often limited to S. aureus, based on ability to produce coagulase, thermostable nuclease, and clumping factor. However, several newly-described species of staphylococci may express some of these characters, whereas atypical strains of S. aureus do not, leading to misidentification (1,2). Furthermore, among the 17 species of staphylococci currently recognized to be indigenous to humans, the potential of S. lugdunensis to cause serious infections is being increasingly recognized (1,2) Therefore, further speciation of CNS is clinically relevant. Distinction of true CNS infection from specimen contamination by skin flora can be addressed by demonstrating the repeated isolation of the same clone from multiple specimens, e g., blood cultures (1). Currently available, rapid biochemical test systems enable identification of staphylococci to species level with 60-90% accuracy (1). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, the only routinely available strain marker, is not reliable for clonal delmeation because of phenotypic variation among clonally derived isolates (1). PMID:21390761

  13. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to an underlying deficit in the representation and processing of numerical magnitude information as a potential core deficit in DD. An additional product of the recent progress in understanding DD is the resurgence of a distinction between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ developmental dyscalculia. The first appears related to impaired development of brain mechanisms for processing numerical magnitude information, while the latter refers to mathematical deficits stemming from external factors such as poor teaching, low socio-economic status, and behavioral attention problems or domain-general cognitive deficits. Increased awareness of this distinction going forward, in combination with longitudinal empirical research, offers great potential for deepening our understanding of the disorder and developing effective educational interventions.

  14. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  15. Environmental Degradation: Causes and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tyagi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development. In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.

  16. Genetic causes of spermatogenic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annelien Massart; Willy Lissens; Herman Tournaye; Katrien Stouffs

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10%-15% of couples are infertile,and a male factor is involved in almost half of these cases.This observation is due in part to defects in spermatogenesis,and the underlying causes,including genetic abnormalities,remain largely unknown.Until recently,the only genetic tests used in the diagnosis of male infertility were aimed at detecting the presence of microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome and/or chromosomal abnormalities.Various other single-gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility.However,their causative effects often remain unproven.The recent evolution in the development of whole-genome-based techniques and the large-scale analysis of mouse models might help in this process.Through knockout mouse models,at least 388 genes have been shown to be associated with spermatogenesis in mice.However,problems often arise when translating this information from mice to humans.

  17. Paravertebral cutaneous hemangiosarcoma in dog causing medular compression /
    Hemangiossarcoma cutâneo paravertebral em cão causando compressão medular

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense; Paula Cava Rodrigues; Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias; Rogério Anderson Marcasso

    2010-01-01

    A seven-year-old male Scottish terrier was examined at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina due to a toracolumbar syndrome classified as V degree and a mass in lumbar region back right of slow growth with evaluation of two months. Myelography showed an interruption of the column of contrast between the 11th and 12th thoracic vertebrae. A hemilaminectomy was performed in this region. Spinal cord compression at this location was not observed, however during the cauda...

  18. 3-D MRI/CT fusion imaging of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI/CT fusion in demonstrating lumbar nerve root compromise. We combined 3-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) imaging of bone with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neural architecture (cauda equina and nerve roots) for two patients using VirtualPlace software. Although the pathological condition of nerve roots could not be assessed using MRI, myelography or CT myelography, 3-D MRI/CT fusion imaging enabled unambiguous, 3-D confirmation of the pathological state and courses of nerve roots, both inside and outside the foraminal arch, as well as thickening of the ligamentum flavum and the locations, forms and numbers of dorsal root ganglia. Positional relationships between intervertebral discs or bony spurs and nerve roots could also be depicted. Use of 3-D MRI/CT fusion imaging for the lumbar vertebral region successfully revealed the relationship between bone construction (bones, intervertebral joints, and intervertebral disks) and neural architecture (cauda equina and nerve roots) on a single film, three-dimensionally and in color. Such images may be useful in elucidating complex neurological conditions such as degenerative lumbar scoliosis(DLS), as well as in diagnosis and the planning of minimally invasive surgery. (orig.)

  19. Chronic spinal subdural hematoma; Spinales chronisches subdurales Haematom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, T.; Lensch, T. [Radiologengemeinschaft, Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [German] Spinale subdurale Haematome sind im Vergleich zu epiduralen Haematomen selten, chronische Verlaufsformen noch seltener. Ursaechlich sind neben Lumbalpunktionen und traumatischen Verletzungen auch Blutgerinnungsstoerungen, Gefaessmalformationen und Tumoren. Aufgrund der Kompression von Myelon und Cauda equina kommt es zu zunehmenden Ruecken- oder radikulaeren Schmerzen mit anschliessender Paraparese sowie einer Darm- und Blasenstoerung, weshalb in den meisten Faellen eine operative Entlastung durchgefuehrt wird. Magnetresonanztomographisch stellen sich die Haematome meist als thorakale bzw. lumbale subdurale Raumforderungen dar, die Signalintensitaet variiert mit dem Blutungsalter. Wir berichten ueber den klinischen Verlauf und die bildgebende Diagnostik von 3 Patienten mit spinalen chronischen subduralen Haematomen. (orig.)

  20. Intraoperative ultrasonography of the vertebral canal in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bonelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative ultrasound (IOS can provide details on various conditions of the spinal cord and vertebral canal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using IOS in dogs undergoing spinal surgery and to describe the main findings. The vertebral canal of 21 dogs was examined with intraoperative ultrasonography: 13 underwent spinal surgery for removal of herniated intervertebral disc material, three for stabilization of vertebral fracture/luxation, two for removal of vertebral neoplasia, and three for cauda equina decompression. Particular attention was given to signs of cord compression. Intraoperative ultrasonography was feasible and useful in dogs undergoing surgery for spinal cord or cauda equina decompression and fracture stabilization. It was not paramount for locating the compression when this had been done via computed tomography (CT, but it showed alterations in spinal cord parenchyma not observed on CT and also confirmed adequate decompression of the spinal cord. The main advantages of intraoperative ultrasonography were estimation of vascularization and extent of spinal cord lesion. Most importantly, it allowed real time evaluation of the spinal cord and vertebral canal, which permits the modification of the surgical procedure.

  1. A definition of “uncomplicated bone metastases” based on previous bone metastases radiation trials comparing single-fraction and multi-fraction radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Paul M.; Wong, Erin; Thavarajah, Nemica; Dennis, Kristopher; Lutz, Stephen; Zeng, Liang; Chow, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The most recent systematic review of randomized trials in patients with bone metastases has shown equal efficacy of single fraction (SF) and multiple fraction (MF) palliative radiation therapy in pain relief. It is important to determine the patient population to which the evidence applies. This study aims to examine the eligibility criteria of the studies included in the systematic review to define characteristics of “uncomplicated” bone metastases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria of 21 studies included in the systematic review were compared. Common eligibility criteria were documented in hopes of defining the specific features of a common patient population representative of those in the studies. More than half of the studies included patients with cytological or histological evidence of malignancy. Patients with impending and/or existing pathological fracture, spinal cord compression or cauda equina compression were excluded in most studies. Most studies also excluded patients receiving retreatment to the same site. “Uncomplicated” bone metastases can be defined as: presence of painful bone metastases unassociated with impending or existing pathologic fracture or existing spinal cord or cauda equina compression. Therefore, MF and SF have equal efficacy in patients with such bone metastases. PMID:26579484

  2. 7 CFR 276.6 - Good cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good cause. 276.6 Section 276.6 Agriculture... cause. (a) When a State agency has failed to comply with provisions of the Act, the regulations issued... cause for the noncompliance. FNS shall evaluate good cause in these situations on a case-by-case...

  3. Sucrose ingestion causes opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segato F.N.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The intake of saccharin solutions for relatively long periods of time causes analgesia in rats, as measured in the hot-plate test, an experimental procedure involving supraspinal components. In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation using a different model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l for 1 day or 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The indexes (mean ± SEM, N = 12 for the groups receiving tap water for 1 day or 14 days, and sucrose solution for 1 day or 14 days were 0.09 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.08 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(3,47 = 9.521, P<0.001 and the Tukey multiple comparison test (P<0.05 showed that the analgesia index of the 14-day sucrose-treated animals differed from all other groups. Naloxone-treated rats (N = 7 receiving sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.20 ± 0.10 while rats receiving only sucrose (N = 7 had an index of 0.68 ± 0.11 (t = 0.254, 10 degrees of freedom, P<0.03. This result indicates that the analgesic effect of sucrose depends on the time during which the solution is consumed and extends the analgesic effects of sweet substance intake, such as saccharin, to a model other than the hot-plate test, with similar results. Endogenous opioids may be involved in the central regulation of the sweet substance-produced analgesia.

  4. Idiopathic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in the Lumbar Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Ali A; Phukan, Rishabh D; Leonard, Dana A; Herzog, Tyler L; Wood, Kirkham B; Bono, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of epidural fat, known as spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL), can cause symptomatic compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, or cauda equina. Suggested predisposing factors such as obesity, steroid use, and diabetes mellitus have been based on a few reported cases, many of which were not surgically confirmed. There is a paucity of epidemiological data in surgically confirmed cases for this disorder. The purpose of this independently reviewed, retrospective, matched cohort analysis was to compare the demographics and incidence of comorbidities of patients who underwent lumbar decompression for SEL vs degenerative stenosis without SEL. Two surgeons' databases were reviewed to identify patients older than 18 years who underwent decompression surgery for magnetic resonance imaging-verified, symptomatic lumbar SEL. A matched control group comprised an equal number of patients with degenerative stenosis (n=14). Demographic data, body mass index, symptom type/duration, comorbidities, complications, treatment history, and associated pathology were collected from medical records. Previously suggested risk factors, such as obesity, endocrinopathy, and epidural steroid injections, were not significantly different between the SEL and control groups. Furthermore, there were no differences in operative times, complications, or blood loss. The only noted difference between the 2 groups was the preoperative duration of symptoms, on average double in patients with SEL. This series represents the largest of its kind reported to date. Because symptom duration was the only difference noted, it is postulated to be the result of lack of awareness of SEL. Future prospective study in a larger group of patients is warranted. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):163-168.]. PMID:27018608

  5. Peripheral neurological involvement as the first manifestation of spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, L F; Robin, S; Guégan-Massardier, E; Krzanowska, K; Mejjad, O; Vittecoq, O; Le Loet, X

    1997-12-01

    A 42-year-old male was admitted for right-sided sciatica with asymptomatic septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the right foot. He had a history of active chronic hepatitis C and septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the left foot. His symptoms included low back pain, poorly systematized right-sided sciatica, impairment of all forms of sensation in both lower limbs, absent ankle jerks, episodes of urinary retention, urgency, and painless septic arthritis of the fifth toe of the right foot. Roentgenograms showed a spina bifida occulta of L5 and a bony erosin in the distal interphalangeal joint of the right fifth toe. Distal denervation in the territory of L5 was demonstrated by the electromyographic study. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed an area of high signal on T1 and T2 images, located within the spinal canal opposite L4 and suggestive of an intraspinal lipoma, as well as tethering of the spinal cord in an abnormally distal position. Antimicrobial therapy was effective in ensuring resolution of the infectious arthritis. The low back pain and sciatica responded to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug therapy and did not recur subsequently. Many patients who have roentgenograms taken to evaluate low back pain and sciatica are found to have a spina bifida occulta. This complex birth defect involving the spinal canal, meninges and spinal cord or cauda equina can cause neurologic and/or urinary symptoms in adulthood. Magnetic resonance imaging is essential in this situation to evaluate the spinal cord and to look for an intraspinal lipoma. PMID:9476274

  6. Functional neurologic recovery in two dogs diagnosed with severe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the vertebral column, spinal cord, and cauda equina nerve roots occur frequently in human and veterinary medicine and lead to devastating consequences. Complications include partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and visceral functions, which are among the main causes of euthanasia in dogs. The present case report describes neurological functional recovery in two dogs that were treated surgically for severe spinal fracture and vertebral luxation. In the first case, a stray, mixed breed puppy was diagnosed with thoracolumbar syndrome and Schiff-Scherrington posture, as well as a T13 caudal epiphyseal fracture with 100% luxation between vertebrae T13 and L1; despite these injuries, the animal did show deep pain sensation in the pelvic limbs. Decompression through hemilaminectomy and spinal stabilization with vertebral body pins and bone cement were performed, and the treatment was supplemented with physiotherapy and acupuncture . In the second case, a mixed breed dog was diagnosed with a vertebral fracture and severe luxation between L6 and L7 after a vehicular trauma, but maintained nociception and perineal reflex. Surgical stabilization of the spine was performed using a modified dorsal segmental fixation technique Both patients showed significant recovery of neurological function. Complete luxation of the spinal canal observed radiographically does not mean a poor prognosis, and in some cases, motor, sensory, and visceral functions all have the potential for recovery. In the first case the determining factor for good prognosis was the presence of deep pain perception, and in the second case the prognosis was determined by the presence of sensitivity and anal sphincter tone during the initial neurological examination

  7. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    effects. Also, some herbs are safe in modest amounts but they may become toxic at higher doses. For example, liquorice root can be used safely for treating duodenal and gastric ulcers, but large amounts of liquorice can cause serious side effects such as hypokalemia, high blood pressure, and heart failure. Finally, other herbs, toxic by themselves: for example, germander, an herb used in some weight-loss programs, can cause fatal hepatitis. Other herbs may be toxic because of possible contaminants: the Chinese herbs caowu and chuanwu used for the management of rheumatism, arthritis, bruises, and fractures may contain highly toxic potentially fatal alkaloids such as aconitine.Therefore, despite the increased tendency to seek natural therapies, athletes have to be aware that "natural" does not equal to "safe." Herbs should not be touted as miraculous side effects-free substances, but rather as compounds that work through simple biochemistry. The effects of most herbal supplements have not been studied using rigorous scientific methodology, and the hyperbolic advertising and advocacy literature surrounding herbal products often contains untested claims, and under-reports side effects.All the preparations mentioned above exhibit hormone-like activity. Evidence in animals of reproductive disturbances associated with ingestion of feed rich in oestrogenic substances includes a lower conception rate in sheep after prolonged isoflavones consumption, infertility in cattle after consuming feed containing coumestrol, decreased fertility in captive cheetahs fed with dietary oestrogens, hyperoestrogenism in pigs fed with diets containing zearalenone, uterotropic effects in mice fed with soybean, reduced fecundity in adult males rats fed a high phytoestrogen diet for 3 days (Glover and Assinder, 2006; Srilatha, 2004 Also, in a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, a vegetarian diet during pregnancy was associated with a 5-fold higher risk of hypospadias, and consumption

  8. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) ... develop. The most common faulty gene that can cause AAT deficiency is called PiZ. If you inherit ...

  9. What Causes Prader-Willi Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)? Skip sharing on social ... from parent to child. The genetic changes that cause Prader-Willi syndrome occur in a portion of ...

  10. Spontaneous pneumothorax: epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause

    OpenAIRE

    Noppen, M

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax represents a common clinical problem. An overview of relevant and updated information on epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause(s) of spontaneous (primary and secondary) pneumothorax is described.

  11. Risk Factors and Causes of Syncope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a common cause of sudden and unexplained death in children and young adults. It may occur in as ... 000 individuals and causes up to 4,000 deaths in children and young adults each year in the United ...

  12. Detecting Rare Disease-Causing Glitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Capsules Detecting Rare Disease-Causing Glitches A Priceless Gift: Your Family Health History Featured Website: Go4Life ... Health Capsules Detecting Rare Disease-Causing Glitches A Priceless Gift: Your Family Health History Featured Website: Go4Life ...

  13. Spontaneous pneumothorax: epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noppen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumothorax represents a common clinical problem. An overview of relevant and updated information on epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause(s of spontaneous (primary and secondary pneumothorax is described.

  14. Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - hemolytic - caused by chemicals or toxins ... Possible substances that can cause hemolytic anemia include: Anti-malaria drugs (quinine compounds) Arsenic Dapsone Intravenous water infusion (not half-normal saline or normal saline) Metals (chromium/chromates, ...

  15. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Cancer Treatment Request Permissions Print to PDF Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment November 2, 2015 ... Torisel) Topotecan (Hycamtin, Brakiva) Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Recommendations for preventing vomiting caused by chemotherapy and targeted therapy The ...

  16. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do we know what causes testicular cancer? Can testicular cancer be prevented? Previous Topic What are the risk factors for testicular cancer? Next Topic Can testicular cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes testicular cancer? The ...

  17. Rhinofacial zygomycosis caused by conidiobolus coronatus

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, D. R.; Pillai, S; Rao, L

    2004-01-01

    Fungal infections are common in a tropical country like India. Among the Zygomycosis infections, those caused by Mucorales are more prevalent. However, there exists another order of zygomycetes, the Entomophthorales, which rarely cause clinical disease. We report a rare cause of fungal infection of the maxillo-facial region and the oropharynx in a previously healthly male adult caused by Conidiobolus coronata of the order Entomophthorales to highlight the clinical presentation and treatment o...

  18. Group B streptococcal phospholipid causes pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Jerri; Kim, Geumsoo; Wehr, Nancy B.; Levine, Rodney L

    2003-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial infection in the newborn. Infection in many cases causes persistent pulmonary hypertension, which impairs gas exchange in the lung. We purified the bacterial components causing pulmonary hypertension and identified them as cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Synthetic cardiolipin or phosphatidylglycerol also induced pulmonary hypertension in lambs. The recognition that bacterial phospholipids may cause pulmonary hypertension in new...

  19. Actinomyces naeslundii: An Uncommon Cause of Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes, Christopher D.; Carl Urban; Glenn Turett

    2015-01-01

    Actinomyces rarely causes endocarditis with 25 well-described cases reported in the literature in the past 75 years. We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) caused by Actinomyces naeslundii. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of endocarditis due to this organism and the second report of PVE caused by Actinomyces.

  20. Actinomyces naeslundii: An Uncommon Cause of Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Cortes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces rarely causes endocarditis with 25 well-described cases reported in the literature in the past 75 years. We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE caused by Actinomyces naeslundii. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of endocarditis due to this organism and the second report of PVE caused by Actinomyces.

  1. Actinomyces naeslundii: An Uncommon Cause of Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Christopher D; Urban, Carl; Turett, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Actinomyces rarely causes endocarditis with 25 well-described cases reported in the literature in the past 75 years. We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) caused by Actinomyces naeslundii. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of endocarditis due to this organism and the second report of PVE caused by Actinomyces. PMID:26697243

  2. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal…

  3. Raquianestesia contínua com altas doses de anestésicos locais Raquianestesia continua con altas dosis de anestésicos locales Continuous spinal anesthesia with high dose of local anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2010-10-01

    been gaining credibility. The objective of this paper is to report the possible safety of the new catheter with a large dose of hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine with 1.6% glucose associated with hyperbaric 2% lidocaine with 1.6% glucose. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 78 years old, 85 kg, 168 cm, physical status ASA III, with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic renal failure. The patient was candidate for surgery for huge bilateral inguinal and umbilical hernias, being submitted to preoperative pneumoperitoneum for one week to stretch abdominal cavity. After venoclysis with an 18G catheter, he was monitored with cardioscope, non-invasive blood pressure, and pulse oximetry; he was sedated with 1 mg of midazolam and 100 µg of fentanyl intravenously, and placed in left lateral decubitus. He underwent continuous spinal anesthesia by a median puncture in L3-L4 with a set with a 27G cut-bevel needle and 22G catheter. The total dose of anesthetic used was 25 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine (hyperbaric, with 1.6% glucose, 160 mg of 2% lidocaine (hyperbaric, with 1.6% glucose, and morphine (100 µg. The patient was followed-up until the 30th postoperative day without neurological complaints. CONCLUSIONS: Recently, the poor distribution of the local anesthetic through the microcatheter was attributed as the cause of cauda equina syndrome. This case report showed that, with the administration of high doses of hyperbaric anesthetics through the new catheter, poor distribution or risk of cauda equina syndrome were not observed

  4. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow bot...

  5. Nasal leech infestation causing persistent epistaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Sarathi, Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epis...

  6. An unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Adarsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI bleed often brings the patient to the emergency medical service with great anxiety. Known common causes of GI bleed include ulcers, varices, Mallory-Weiss among others. All causes of GI bleed should be considered however unusual during the evaluation. Aortoenteric fistula (AEF is one of the unusual causes of GI bleed, which has to be considered especially in patients with a history of abdominal surgery in general and aortic surgery in particular.

  7. A rare cause of Cushing's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg;

    2014-01-01

    Excess glucocorticoid levels cause Cushing's syndrome (CS) and may be due to pituitary, adrenal or ectopic tumours. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels are useful in identifying adrenal tumours. In rare cases, ACTH-producing phaeochromocytomas are the cause of CS. We present two cases of ACTH...

  8. Barrett's ulcer: cause of spontaneous oesophageal perforation.

    OpenAIRE

    Limburg, A. J.; Hesselink, E. J.; Kleibeuker, J H

    1989-01-01

    We report two patients, who presented within six months with the classic clinical picture of 'spontaneous' oesophageal perforation, which was caused by a perforated Barrett's ulcer. These two cases underline the importance of postoperative endoscopy in ruling out intrinsic oesophageal disease as the cause of the rupture in every patient, who survives this life threatening condition.

  9. Do We Know What Causes Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can ovarian cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes ovarian cancer? We don’t yet know exactly what causes most ovarian cancers. As discussed in the previous section, we do know some factors that make a woman ...

  10. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  11. Survivors' Reactions: Suicide vs. Other Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Kelly, Leah D.

    The literature on suicide survivors suggests that suicide grief is different than the grief associated with survivorship from other causes. The few studies that have compared groups of survivors from other causes, however, have often not observed as many differences as expected based on the suicide survivors literature. In this study, 230 college…

  12. Fatigue in traffic : causes and effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    The role of fatigue must not be underestimated when studying the causes of crashes. Crashes in which driver fatigue plays a role are not only a matter of having spent too long behind the wheel; fatigue can also be caused by too little sleep, stress, or the time of the day. According to a conservativ

  13. Irreversible brain damage caused by methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Moeller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is an addictive scene substance usage of which is increasing rapidly. While methamphetamine often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms like anxiety, psychosis and hallucinations, reports of structural ongoing cerebral alterations are rare. We here report a case of this kind of damage caused through methamphetamine use.

  14. Interpreting Causes of Personal Stress with "Cheese"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Karl L.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to identify the root causes of individual stress have been made for centuries. The result has been the development of a myriad of approaches and explanations as to the cause of stress by psychologists, educators, researchers, and self-help authors. Each approach carries a degree of validity in the context that individuals experience…

  15. Genes Causing Male Infertility in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence C. Layman

    2002-01-01

    There are an accumulating number of identified gene mutations that cause infertility in humans. Most of the known gene mutations impair normal puberty and subsequently cause infertility by either hypothalamic /pituitary deficiency of important tropic factors to the gonad or by gonadal genes.

  16. Satellite anomalies caused by disturbed space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    Seven types of satellite anomalies are discussed and examples are given from historical reports. Types of anomalies and their causes are: o Single Event Upsets (SEU) caused by penetrating energetic ions; o Deep dielectric ("bulk") charging (DDC) by high-energy electrons; o Surface charging by thermal electrons causing electrostatic discharge (ESD) and Phantom Commands (PC); o Magnetopause crossing events (MPE) that reverse ambient fields at geostationary satellite altitudes; o dB/dT of field-aligned currents causing satellite tumbling at lower altitudes; o Optical effects of high-energy ions on star-trackers and limb sensors; and o Power panel degradation from high-energy ions. Recent and older events are considered, in part because the problems recur even though technology has changed to take them into account and awareness of the conditions causing them seems widespread. Systematic anomaly reporting is requested to increase the significance of records collected for particular events.

  17. The causes of the Chernobyl event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobylsk event has two components, the explosion of the RBMK type nuclear reactor number 4 and the sanitary damages that resulted. The causes of the explosion are of three kinds: conception error, management fault, exploitation personnel mistakes and political causes. For the sanitary damages there are the immediate causes and the deep causes. No emergency planning to answer to a such disaster and no iodinated tablets delivery to protect the thyroid for the direct causes. The secret culture made that the knowledge developed by the Soviet researchers was not diffused to the medical and nuclear communities of USSR. The civil authorities were not aware of it or they neglected it. (N.C.)

  18. CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Karambin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nThere is a lack of large, prospective epidemiologic studies concerning acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in pediatric population. To determine the different causes of respiratory distress in children, we prepared a retrospective study and included the whole 567 children with respiratory distress referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, and causes of respiratory distress were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. Pneumonia, asthma, and croup were the major causes of ARDS in children with a rate of 38.4, 19.04, and 16.5 percent, respectively. It seems that infectious factors are at the top of the list of ARDS causing factors which can be helpful to approach and manage such patients. We suggest vaccinating these at risk groups against common infectious factors such as H. Influenza and RSV which can cause either pneumonia or inducing asthma.

  19. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  20. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  1. Hip labral cyst caused by psoas impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Marc; Alvarez, Sonia; Ríos, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Hip labral impingement can cause labral tears and secondary paralabral cyst formation. Femoroacetabular impingement is the main cause of labral impingement, but other conditions such as iliopsoas tendon impingement are described. There is no description of labral cyst resulting from psoas impingement treated arthroscopically in the literature. We present the case of a young sportsman with groin pain caused by psoas impingement with a labral tear and secondary paralabral cyst who was treated arthroscopically by cyst debridement, psoas tenotomy, and labral repair. PMID:22840990

  2. Identification of microcracks caused by autogenous shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Guang, Ye;

    2005-01-01

    Detection and quantification of microcracks caused by restrained autogenous shrinkage in high-performance concrete is difficult. Available techniques either lack the required resolution or may cause further cracks indistinguishable from the original ones. The new technique presented in this paper...... the autogenous shrinkage and cause crack formation during hardening. Subsequently, liquid gallium is intruded into the cracks under pressure. After solidification of the gallium, the crack pattern is frozen and can be analyzed after plane polishing of the samples. The microcracks are identified by...

  3. Root cause analysis for wet waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since, typically, most utility radioactive waste is dry waste, volume reduction efforts should start with this. However, significant cost can still be saved with a modest reduction in the wet radioactive waste volume. Even though there may be several potential solutions to wet waste volume reduction, a Root Cause Analysis should be performed to identify the solution that will be the most effective for volume reduction. The method described here provides for a logical sequence of determining root causes. Finally, the solution adopted must be evaluated after implementation to determine its effectiveness and verify that the root cause was addressed

  4. ROOT CAUSE IDENTIFICATION OF TENSILE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vukčević

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Every organization faces continuous quality improvement and needs to use an appropriate tools and techniques to achieve that. The basic requirements for success and solving the problems are use of quality tools which will guide you step by step to solve them. Contents of this paper try to use well known root cause identification tool with implementation at laboratory tensile test of reinforced steel, providing mechanical properties of metal specimen. Cause analysis tool are used when you want to discover the cause of a problem or situation or to gain desired results.

  5. Commotio Cordis Caused by Violence in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Jiao; Chen, Zhenglian; Chen, Xinshan; Lin, Wei; Dong, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Commotio cordis (CC) is a recognized rare cause of sudden death in which an apparently minor blow to the chest causes ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. CC diagnosis is still a challenge for forensic pathologists. A retrospective study of 9794 autopsy cases was conducted at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College (DFM-TMC, China) from 1955 to 2014. A total of 39 cases (0.4%) were determined to be caused by CC. A male preponderance (male to female of 37:2...

  6. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. PMID:27220606

  7. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates. PMID:8334539

  8. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Causes and Risk Factors Diagnosis and Treatment Sleepwalking Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Terrors Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment Sleep Eating Disorder Overview & Facts Symptoms & Risk Factors Diagnosis & Treatment REM ...

  9. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Younger skin Causes of aging skin Creating anti-aging plan Fillers giving patients better, longer-lasting results Maximizing anti-aging products Selecting anti-aging products Sun damage Wrinkle ...

  10. Do We Know What Causes Malignant Mesothelioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can malignant mesothelioma be prevented? Do we know what causes malignant mesothelioma? Researchers have found ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  11. Do We Know What Causes Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can kidney cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes kidney cancer? Although many risk ... genes − the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  12. Do We Know What Causes Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can stomach cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes stomach cancer? There are many ... genes — the instructions for how our cells function. We look like our parents because they are the ...

  13. Do We Know What Causes Myelodysplastic Syndromes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can myelodysplastic syndromes be prevented? Do we know what causes myelodysplastic syndromes? Some cases of ... the instructions for nearly everything our cells do. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  14. Do We Know What Causes Vulvar Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can vulvar cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes vulvar cancer? Several risk factors ... cancer of the vulva have been identified, and we are beginning to understand how these factors can ...

  15. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can breast cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes breast cancer? Many risk factors ... Genes have instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  16. Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Liver cancer risk factors Do we know what causes liver cancer? Can liver cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Liver cancer risk factors Next Topic Can liver cancer be prevented? Do ...

  17. Extramedullary haematopoeisis causing spinal cord compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ismail

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary haematopoeisis (EMH is a rare cause of spinal cord compression. However, in a patient with a haematological disorder and in particular thalassaemia, EMH with paraspinal masses should be considered and imaging planned appropriately.

  18. Renal abscess caused by Salmonella Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhi is a true pathogen, which is capable of causing both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. Unusual presentations of Salmonella should always be kept in mind as this organism can cause disease in almost any organ of the body. S. typhi has been reported to cause the life-threatening infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, myocarditis, empyema, and hepatic abscess. Renal involvement by S. typhi is a relatively rare presentation. We report a case of renal abscess caused by S. typhi in an afebrile, 10-year-old child who did not have any clinical history of enteric fever. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolation of S. typhi from the renal abscess, and interestingly this isolate was found to be resistant to quinolones.

  19. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  20. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  1. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  2. Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dental hygienist can remove tartar. Back to top Gingivitis The longer plaque and tartar are on teeth, ... cause inflammation of the gums that is called “gingivitis.” In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and ...

  3. [Cervix factors as a cause of infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, P; Westergaard, L

    1990-04-23

    The uterine cervix plays an important role in the natural fertilization process and, consequently, it is also a significant factor in infertility. In about 6% of infertile couples, the infertility is caused by the cervical factor. The post coital test (PCT) is the most essential diagnostic procedure. A good PCT result excludes the cervical factor as the cause of infertility. A poor or negative PCT result, on the other hand, only indicates that the cervical tract is the cause in the case of women with verified ovulation and in whom other causes have been excluded. Treatment of the cervical factor has always been difficult. Intrauterine insemination is the best documented treatment method with a pregnancy rate of about 30%. In future, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be alternatives in the treatment of infertility owing to the cervical factor. PMID:2184560

  4. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  5. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979....

  6. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; BULUT, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactariu...

  7. Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma S; Sharma Nalini; Yeolekar M

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) due to compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel, caused by cysticercosis. Nerve conduction studies revealed severe CTS. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested an inflammatory mass compressing the median nerve in carpal tunnel. The histological diagnosis was consistent with cysticercosis. The case resolved with conservative treatment. Such solitary presentation of entrapment median neuropathy as CTS caused by cysticercosis is extr...

  8. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented .......7 in Aragon. However, the model in Madrid showed a poor AOC performance, showing therefore insights that the study period should be larger due to the low occurrence of lightning-fires in that region....

  9. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose o...

  10. Loss of LRPPRC causes ATP synthase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mourier, Arnaud; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Brandt, Tobias; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Defects of the oxidative phosphorylation system, in particular of cytochrome-c oxidase (COX, respiratory chain complex IV), are common causes of Leigh syndrome (LS), which is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with severe progressive neurological symptoms that usually present during infancy or early childhood. The COX-deficient form of LS is commonly caused by mutations in genes encoding COX assembly factors, e.g. SURF1, SCO1, SCO2 or COX10. However, other mutations affecting genes that encode...

  11. Oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankari Leena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of certain dipteran flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. Herein, a case of oral myiasis in the maxillary anterior region of a 14-year-old mentally challenged boy is being reported. The myiasis was caused by the larvae of Chrysomya bezziana species. The clinical findings are presented. Etiology and the importance of oral health in special people are also discussed.

  12. Megaproject policy and planning: problems causes, cures

    OpenAIRE

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems in megaproject policy and planning and their causes and possible cures. After considerations of methodology, the paper first identifies as a main problem in megaproject development pervasive misinformation about the costs, benefits, and risks involved. A consequence of misinformation is cost overruns, benefit shortfalls, and waste. Second, the paper explores the causes of misinformation and finds that political- economic explanations best account ...

  13. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Causing Hydrops Fetalis

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer Çetiner; Sinem Altunyuva Usta; Figen Akalın

    2014-01-01

    Fetal heart failure and hydrops fetalis may occur due to systemic arteriovenous fistula because of increased cardiac output. Arteriovenous fistula of the central nervous system, liver, bone or vascular tumors such as sacrococcygeal teratoma were previously reported to be causes of intrauterine heart failure. However, coronary arteriovenous fistula was not reported as a cause of fetal heart failure previously. It is a rare pathology comprising 0.2–0.4% of all congenital heart diseases even dur...

  14. The social causes for improving innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Shao

    2010-01-01

    Innovadon and ralated economic and social categories have been at the centre of poficy discussions on the future of Chinese economy and society.The purpose of this paper is to illustrate three macro-causes on a extent cause of the term innovation.Many experts have discussed how to inprove the innovation of people,especially on specific fields.This paper is to discfibe the macroscopical function of economy and the government of improving innovation.

  15. Low Birth Weight Causes Survey in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...

  16. Symptomatic Elbow Ganglion Causing Pronator Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Blagg, MD; W. Bradford Rockwell, MD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Descriptions of ganglion cysts date back to 400 BC. Ganglions causing peripheral nerve compression have been described most notably at the wrist. Ganglion compression of the median nerve at the elbow is rare. We report a case of a palmar elbow ganglion causing median nerve compression and the clinical presentation of pronator syndrome. After removal of the ganglion and median nerve decompression, the patient’s symptoms fully resolved.

  17. Symptomatic Elbow Ganglion Causing Pronator Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Blagg, MD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Descriptions of ganglion cysts date back to 400 BC. Ganglions causing peripheral nerve compression have been described most notably at the wrist. Ganglion compression of the median nerve at the elbow is rare. We report a case of a palmar elbow ganglion causing median nerve compression and the clinical presentation of pronator syndrome. After removal of the ganglion and median nerve decompression, the patient’s symptoms fully resolved.

  18. Is hyperprolactinemia the main cause of infertility?

    OpenAIRE

    Mikaily J; Malekzadeh R; Ziadalizadeh B; Valizadeh Toosi M; Khoncheh A; Masserat S

    1999-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia probably is one of infertility causes. Its incidence is 20% in infertile patients. In this study importance of hyperprolactinema was studied. Importance of hyperprolactinemia as a primary factor of infertility, is uncertain. We studied 500 infertile women in infertility center of Shariati hospital. Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia was 19%. Hyperprolactinemia as a sole cause of infertility was found in only 0.8%. There was a good correlation between galactorrhea and hyperpro...

  19. An unusual cause of perianal fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Kocierz, L; Leung, E; Thumbe, V

    2011-01-01

    Anal pain is a common presentation in colorectal clinic. Accurate diagnosis often requires examination under anaesthesia as pain prevents careful assessment. This report intends to highlight a rare cause of a superficial perianal fistula caused by an ingested foreign body. A 36-year-old Afro-Caribbean gentleman underwent examination under anaesthesia of rectum. He had a 2-week history of perianal pain and discharge. Intra-operatively, a piece of bone from a pork spare rib was found embedded w...

  20. Schoolchildren's social representations on bullying causes

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate schoolchildren's social representations on the causes of bullying. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 schoolchildren recruited from five elementary schools in Sweden. Mixed methods (grounded theory as well as descriptive statistic methods) were used to analyze data. According to the findings, the most prevalent social representation on bullying causes among the children is to view bullying as a reaction to deviance. The seco...

  1. Cystoid Macular Edema: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Alcobendas, Noelia; Zulueta, Joseba; García Martín, Elena Salobrar; Salazar Corral, Juan José; Ramirez Sebastian, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of studies on cystoid macular edema published in the last seven years. Cystoid macular edema is a major cause of loss of visual acuity. It is the final common pathway of many diseases and can be caused by numerous processes including inflammatory, vascular, adverse drug reactions, retinal dystrophy or intraocular tumors. These processes disrupt the blood-retinal barrier, with fluid extravasation to the macular parenchyma. Imaging tests are esse...

  2. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  3. Loss of LRPPRC causes ATP synthase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, Arnaud; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Brandt, Tobias; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-05-15

    Defects of the oxidative phosphorylation system, in particular of cytochrome-c oxidase (COX, respiratory chain complex IV), are common causes of Leigh syndrome (LS), which is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with severe progressive neurological symptoms that usually present during infancy or early childhood. The COX-deficient form of LS is commonly caused by mutations in genes encoding COX assembly factors, e.g. SURF1, SCO1, SCO2 or COX10. However, other mutations affecting genes that encode proteins not directly involved in COX assembly can also cause LS. The leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC) regulates mRNA stability, polyadenylation and coordinates mitochondrial translation. In humans, mutations in Lrpprc cause the French Canadian type of LS. Despite the finding that LRPPRC deficiency affects the stability of most mitochondrial mRNAs, its pathophysiological effect has mainly been attributed to COX deficiency. Surprisingly, we show here that the impaired mitochondrial respiration and reduced ATP production observed in Lrpprc conditional knockout mouse hearts is caused by an ATP synthase deficiency. Furthermore, the appearance of inactive subassembled ATP synthase complexes causes hyperpolarization and increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Our findings shed important new light on the bioenergetic consequences of the loss of LRPPRC in cardiac mitochondria. PMID:24399447

  4. Autologous implant of bone marrow mononuclear stem-cells as treatment for equine bicipital tendonitis: case report Implante autólogo de células mononucleares de médula ósea como tratamiento de tendinitis bicipital equina: reporte de caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Menarim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicipital bursitis in the horse, the inflammation of the bicipital tendon and its surrounding bursa, has been reported to represent a low percentage of lameness cause. However, it is the main cause of lameness associated to the shoulder region and it has been under diagnosed. Due to high recurrence in different types of tendon injuries, treatments aiming to re-establish tendon functionality have been a focus of research. The aim of this study is to report the implant of a bone marrow mononuclear cell fraction as treatment for bicipital bursitis in a horse. A 7 year old crossbred draught gelding was presented with severe lameness of the left forelimb and pain in the shoulder region. Clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation revealed hemorrhagic synovial fluid, decrease of lameness after shoulder joint anesthesia and bicipital tendon fibers rupture and inflammation. The patient was successfully treated by triamcinolone injection adjacent to the tendon lesion followed by intralesional injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells seven days after the first treatment. Also, rest and controlled exercise were performed. Further clinical and ultrasound evaluations were executed at days 2, 15, 35, 75 and 120. After day 120 the horse started working and despite bicipital bursitis has been reported to exhibit high recurrence, neither clinical nor ultrasonographic signs of recurrence were reported for 15 months after lameness onset. These results suggest that use of regenerative medicine associated to rest and a controlled exercise protocol, accelerated tendon repair, reduced recovery period and allowed successful return to working activities without recurrence.La bursitis bicipital es la principal causa de cojera asociada al hombro equino, sin embargo representa un pequeño porcentaje de las causas de claudicaciones en caballos. Debido a la alta recurrencia observada en casos de tendinitis, tratamientos en base a medicina regenerativa se han tornado en un

  5. Historical review of the causes of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-02-10

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  6. Unusual causes of mechanical small bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We herein report our experience regarding unusual causes of bowel obstruction to increase the awareness of surgeons regarding this disease. From 1991 to 2003, we had experience at the University affiliated hospitals, northern Jordan with 24 patients with small bowel obstruction resulting from unusual causes. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these patients with regards to the mode of presentation, cause of obstruction, radiological and operative findings, management and outcome. We recorded 15 patients who underwent previous abdominal surgery. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in only one patient with an internal hernia, but the abdominal CT scan suggested the diagnosis in 5 of the 9 patients who had the scan. The final diagnosis was internal hernias in 11 patients, foreign bodies in 5, ischemic strictures in 3, carcinoid tumors in 2, endometriosis in 2, and metastatic deposit from interstitial bladder carcinoma in one patient. Nine of the 12 patients with recurrent obstruction had either short course or recurrence obstruction during the same hospital admission. W carried out bowel resections in 15 patients (5 resections were due to bowel strangulation). Post operative death occurred in 4 patients. Awareness of these rare causes of intestinal obstruction even in patients with previous abdominal operation might improve the outcome. The tentative diagnosis of adhesion obstruction in patients with unusual obstructive etiology might lead to a higher rate of gangrenous complications. Rigorous preoperative evaluation including careful history and early abdominal CT may show the obstructive cause. (author)

  7. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  8. Tracking alarm causes by logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An operator should provide the correct and fast actions on a cause of alarms and failure for reducing the effect of failure. There are a lot of study. But most of those studies may use a physical knowledges or causal relationships. Most of those studies impose on high level information like the physical knowledges or causal relationships of failure rather than the logical states or process signals as the detail causes of failure. It is very difficult that the physical knowledges or causal relationships are to be implemented and verified. This paper proposes a methodology for tracking alarm by logic of alarms. This methodology uses the proper logical knowledges on the proven logic and alarm diagram or electrical alarm relay logic than the uncertain physical knowledges or causal relationships. This system is to display the highlighted alarm procedure related to the causes. The system can be used for operator to identify the detail causes of alarm without checking all candidates for causes in alarm response procedure and the logical states of alarm with alarm logic disgrams provided on CRT dynamically

  9. Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Pattern of Precipitating Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Uddin Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is one of the most common acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM. DKA is a recognised presenting feature of type 1 DM, but it commonly complicates previously diagnosed diabetic patients of all types, specially if they get infection or discontinue treatment. Objective: To describe the precipitating causes of DKA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done from September to November, 2010 in Bangladesh Institute of Research & Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM. Diagnosed DKA cases were evaluated clinically and by laboratory investigations for identification of precipitating causes. Results: Out of 50 patients, 28 were female. Mean age was 38.3 years. Forty patients (80% were known diabetics and 10 (20% were detected diabetic first time during this admission. Severe DKA cases were less common. Infection (20, 40% was the commonest precipitating cause followed by noncompliance (14, 28%. In 7 (14% cases no cause could be identified. Other less common causes included acute myocardial infarction, acute pancreatitis, stroke and surgery. Conclusion: Infection and noncompliance were the major precipitants of DKA. So, it is assumed that many DKA cases might be prevented by proper counselling regarding adherence to medication and sick days’ management.

  10. A diagnostic support tool for lumbar spinal stenosis: a self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Toru

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no validated gold-standard diagnostic support tool for LSS, and therefore an accurate diagnosis depends on clinical assessment. Assessment of the diagnostic value of the history of the patient requires an evaluation of the differences and overlap of symptoms of the radicular and cauda equina types; however, no tool is available for evaluation of the LSS category. We attempted to develop a self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire as a diagnostic support tool for LSS using a clinical epidemiological approach. The aim of the present study was to use this tool to assess the diagnostic value of the history of the patient for categorization of LSS. Methods The initial derivation study included 137 patients with LSS and 97 with lumbar disc herniation who successfully recovered following surgical treatment. The LSS patients were categorized into radicular and cauda equina types based on history, physical examinations, and MRI. Predictive factors for overlapping symptoms between the two types and for cauda equina symptoms in LSS were derived by univariate analysis. A self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire (SSHQ was developed based on these findings. A prospective derivation study was then performed in a series of 115 patients with LSS who completed the SSHQ before surgery. All these patients recovered following surgical treatment. The sensitivity of the SSHQ was calculated and clinical prediction rules for LSS were developed. A validation study was subsequently performed on 250 outpatients who complained of lower back pain with or without leg symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of the SSHQ were calculated, and the test-retest reliability over two weeks was investigated in 217 patients whose symptoms remained unchanged. Results The key predictive factors for overlapping symptoms between the two categories of LSS were age > 50, lower-extremity pain or numbness, increased pain when walking

  11. Root Causes of the Housing Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    In this chapter we investigate root causes of the recent US housing bubble which has been caused a serious downturn in US economic growth since autumn of 2008. We propose a simple model of housing markets in order to indicate the possible determinants of recent housing prices. Utilizing the model, we verify a number of hypotheses which have been proposed in the recent literature on the housing bubbles. We suggest that the main causes of the housing bubble from 2000 to 2006 are (1) non-elastic housing supply in the metropolitan areas, and (2) declines in the mortgage loan rate and the housing premium by the massive mortgage credit expansion. We also suggest that these factors were strongly influenced by policies that governments and the Federal Reserve Board performed.

  12. Studies on the cause of radiation cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the advent of medical radiations, the radiation injuries have been intensively studied, particularly the eye. Most of the previous investigation has concerned radiation cataractogenesis. There are a variety of opinions regarding the causes of the radiation cataract formation. In this investigation, I consider direct and indirect effects as two mechanisms for radiation induction of cataracts. It is shown that radiation cataracts in albino rabbits should be studied by reference to the alteration of the lens, dynamic study of the aqueous humor and microcirculation of the iris and ciliary body. Experimental evidence from this study supports the hypothesis that cataractogenesis may be caused by the circulatory insufficiency due to radiation damage of the fine vasculature supplying nutrition to the iris and ciliary body. However I can not perfectly deny that cataractogenesis may be caused by the direct radiation injury in this study. (author)

  13. NRC research in common-cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status and recent history of common-cause failure (CCF) research are briefly reviewed. Current NRC research in the area of CCFs is described with emphasis on the remaining problem areas. These include deficiencies in data and the need to more completely understand the characteristics of CCFs. The concepts and relationships of root cause, coupling mechanisms, and defensive mechanisms are discussed. Key definitions and some in-depth analysis of these concepts are included. An overview of the recent research to be published is presented. This research includes: (1) the cause-defense methodology for analyzing CCFs; (2) guidelines for identifying potential CCFs as part of a nuclear power plant walkdown and procedures review; and (3) requirements for an industry-wide data base, including documentation of failure events and additional component failure and failure mode data requirements to support future PRAs. 5 refs

  14. Cause-specific mortality after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae;

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cause-specific mortality in relation to age, sex, stroke severity, and cardiovascular risk factor profile in the Copenhagen Stroke Study cohort with 10 years of follow-up. In a Copenhagen community, all patients admitted to the hospital with stroke during 1992-1993 (n = 988) were...... registered on admission. Evaluation included stroke severity, computed tomography scan, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Cause of death within 10 years according to death certificate information was classified as stroke, heart/arterial disease, or nonvascular disease. Competing-risks analyses were...... performed by cause-specific Cox regression after multiple imputation of missing data, assuming that values were missing at random. Death was due to stroke in 310 patients (31%), to heart/arterial disease in 209 patients (21%), and to nonvascular diseases in 289 patients (29%); 180 patients were still alive...

  15. Job loss does not cause ill health

    OpenAIRE

    Salm, Martin

    2008-01-01

    I use longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the effect of job loss on health for near elderly employees. Job loss is a major cause of economic insecurity for working age individuals, and can cause reduction in income, and loss of health insurance. To control for possible reverse causality, this study focuses on people who were laid off for an exogenous reason - the closure of their previous employers’ business. I find that the unemployed are in worse health than...

  16. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  17. HETEROTOPIC PANCREAS: AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF INTUSSUSCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Musthafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult intussusception is a rare entity which constitutes 5 - 10% of all intussusceptions. In adults 90% have a cause for intussusception which is usually a polyp , adenoma , adhesion , hamartoma or tumour as lead point. Rarely described lead poi nt is heterotopic pancreatic tissue with lipoma . Hereby reporting 32 year old male presented with abdominal pain , melaena and vomiting for 1 week. His CT abdomen showed submucosal lipoma causing ileoileal intussusception. He underwent ileal resection and anastamosis . Histopathology of the specimen showed heterotopic pancreatic tissue with lipoma as lead point. A comprehensive review on intussusception in adults is attempted

  18. THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina G. ŢUCA

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the global economy has been facing a very severe economic and financial crisis. The leading economies of the world are going through a period of deep recession. The aim of this article is to emphasize the causes of the current crisis as well as the measures taken to counteract its effects. In order to achieve this purpose, representative articles on the subject have been analyzed. Compared to other crises, the current crisis is based on totally different causes. That is why th...

  19. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    : feather light touch, pinprick, sharp/dull discrimination, warm, cold, point location, brush stroke direction, 2-point discrimination and pain perception. Gustation was tested for recognition of sweet, salt, sour and bitter. Mandibular block analgesia causes lingual nerve injury more frequently than......Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed...

  20. Image processing in diabetic related causes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of all the experimental results and analysis carried out on medical images of diabetic related causes. The experimental investigations have been carried out on images starting from very basic image processing techniques such as image enhancement to sophisticated image segmentation methods. This book is intended to create an awareness on diabetes and its related causes and image processing methods used to detect and forecast in a very simple way. This book is useful to researchers, Engineers, Medical Doctors and Bioinformatics researchers.

  1. Fatigue in traffic : causes and effects.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The role of fatigue must not be underestimated when studying the causes of crashes. Crashes in which driver fatigue plays a role are not only a matter of having spent too long behind the wheel; fatigue can also be caused by too little sleep, stress, or the time of the day. According to a conservative estimate based on studies abroad, driver fatigue is involved in 10-15% of all severe crashes. Although technical aids to prevent fatigue crashes are being developed, they are not yet ready for us...

  2. Chaos caused by fatigue crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear dynamic responses including chaotic oscillations caused by a fatigue crack growth are presented. Fatigue tests have been conducted on a novel fatigue-testing rig, where the loading is generated from inertial forces. The nonlinearity is in the form of discontinuous stiffness caused by the opening and closing of a growing crack. Nonlinear dynamic tools such as Poincare maps and bifurcation diagrams are used to unveil the global dynamics of the system. The results obtained indicate that fatigue crack growth strongly influences the dynamic response of the system leading to chaos

  3. Chaos caused by fatigue crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foong, C.-H.; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Wiercigroch, Marian; Deans, William

    2003-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic responses including chaotic oscillations caused by a fatigue crack growth are presented. Fatigue tests have been conducted on a novel fatigue-testing rig, where the loading is generated from inertial forces. The nonlinearity is in the form of discontinuous stiffness caused by the opening and closing of a growing crack. Nonlinear dynamic tools such as Poincare maps and bifurcation diagrams are used to unveil the global dynamics of the system. The results obtained indicate that fatigue crack growth strongly influences the dynamic response of the system leading to chaos.

  4. Does the Minimum Wage Cause Inefficient Rationing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何满辉; 梁明秋

    2008-01-01

    By not allowing wages to dearthe labor market,the minimum wage could cause workers with low reservation wages to be rationed out while equally skilled woTkers with higher reservation wages are employed.I find that proxies for reservation wages of unskilled workers in high-impact stales did not rise relative to reservation wages in other states,suggesting that the increase in the minimum wage did not cause jobs to be allocated less efficiently.However,even if rationing is efficient,the minimum wage can still entail other efficiency costs.

  5. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis o...

  6. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well. PMID:25095477

  7. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by cladophialophora boppii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rickson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is an infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, caused by dematiaceous fungi. An adult male presented with a history of multiple reddish nodules over the face and hands. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsies showed a dense granulomatous infiltrate of macrophages, containing intracytoplasmic basophilic bodies throughout the dermis. Gomori methenamine-silver stained sections revealed yeast cells within macrophages. Multiple cultures on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar grew Cladophialophora boppii. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole for a year and the response monitored with dermal ultrasound. This is the first case report of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cl. boppii in India.

  8. Targeting the Root Cause of Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trescott, Laura; Holcomb, Joshua; Spellmon, Nicholas; Mcleod, Cathy; Aljehane, Leala; Sun, Fei; Li, Chunying; Yang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a serious genetic condition caused by CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation. CF patients have shortened lifespan due to airway obstruction, infection, and end-stage lung failure. However, recent development in CF therapy suggests a brighter future for CF patients. Targeting specific CFTR mutations aims to potentiate the channel gating activity of impaired CFTR and restore protein trafficking to the plasma membrane. Gene therapy introduces correct CFTR gene into the affected airway epithelium leading to the functional expression of CFTR in CF patients. This review will sum up the current status in CF-cause targeting therapy. PMID:25316272

  9. Autism: is there a biological cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J E

    1994-12-01

    1. Autism is the term used to describe certain characteristics observed in some children, including a preference for aloneness, and sameness. 2. The condition was thought for some time to be caused by a psychological disturbance resulting from a combination of stress and poor parental upbringing. 3. Recently emerging data suggests the symptoms are related to a cognitive deficit associated with a biological cause. 4. As research progresses, it is hoped it will become possible to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or looking after those with, autism. PMID:7862687

  10. Why Does Flow Director Cause Packet Reordering?

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Intel Ethernet Flow Director is an advanced network interface card (NIC) technology. It provides the benefits of parallel receive processing in multiprocessing environments and can automatically steer incoming network data to the same core on which its application process resides. However, our analysis and experiments show that Flow Director cannot guarantee in-order packet delivery in multiprocessing environments. Packet reordering causes various negative impacts. E.g., TCP performs poorly with severe packet reordering. In this paper, we use a simplified model to analyze why Flow Director can cause packet reordering. Our experiments verify our analysis.

  11. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: rare cause of meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cátia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Sara Tavares; Nunes, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacillus, which is an extremely rare cause of meningitis. To our knowledge, there are only five previous pediatrics cases. Here, we describe the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed meningitis associated with this organism, after several neurosurgical procedures and previous treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic. He was treated successfully with a combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and levofloxacin. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis, especially among severely debilitated or immunosuppressed patients. Antimicrobial therapy is complicated by the high resistance of the organism to multiple antibiotics. PMID:25252064

  12. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  13. Prevention of pulsations caused by flexible risers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid S.P.C; Golliard, J.; Korst, H.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades, flexible risers have increasingly been used in the offshore oil and gas industry. In gas applications these risers can generate high amplitude tonal pressure fluctuations when the gas velocity reaches a threshold value. The resulting pressure fluctuations can then cause high

  14. Nosocomial empyema caused by Clostridium difficile.

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, A J; Das, S. S.; Tabaqchali, S

    1996-01-01

    Pleural infection with Clostridium difficile is extremely rare. A case of nosocomial empyema following chest drain insertion in a 46 year old man is described. The potential of C difficile to cause extra-intestinal infections should be recognised and its isolation from other sites should not be ignored.

  15. Prenatal hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Rabol, A;

    1996-01-01

    With routine use of obstetric ultrasonography, fetal low-grade hydronephrosis is commonly detected, but may resolve spontaneously after birth. Two cases are presented to illustrate that in some cases such findings can express intermittent hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels. Renal det...

  16. Arare cause of dysphagia: Pemfigus Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    SARIKAYA, Murat; Doğan, Zeynal; Ergül, Bilal; FİLİK, Levent; TAŞER, Nesibe

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality by affecting the mucous membranes and skin. Pemphigus vulgaris affecting especially the oral mucosa can also be observed in the esophagus. Herein, we describe a patient with odynophagia and dysphagia who was diagnosed as pemphigus vulgaris.

  17. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R;

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However...

  18. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Seyma; Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A "case study" design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of…

  19. Schoolchildren's Social Representations on Bullying Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate schoolchildren's social representations on the causes of bullying. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 schoolchildren recruited from five elementary schools in Sweden. Mixed methods (grounded theory as well as descriptive statistic methods) were used to analyze data. According to…

  20. Epidural Abscess Caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis

    OpenAIRE

    Addidle, Michael; Pynn, Joanne; Grimwade, Kate; Giola, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    We present an interesting case of a patient who developed an epidural abscess caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. This is the first report in the medical literature of a spinal epidural abscess associated with this organism. Diagnosis of S. moniliformis infection requires a high degree of suspicion, and a delay may be inevitable when a relevant clinical history is lacking.

  1. Clearing Up Blurry Vision: Causes of Myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carrie Lock; 秦艳艳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Next time you can't make out a distant highway sign, blame your parents.Scientists in the United Kingdom have found that myopia, or nearsightedness, is predominantly hereditary②, and they' re beginning to unravel③ the genetic④mechanism that causes the vision problem.

  2. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-12

    Dr. Elizabeth Briere discusses Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae which causes a variety of infections in children and adults.  Created: 11/12/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2015.

  3. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  4. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

  5. Granulomatous peritonitis caused by glove starch.

    OpenAIRE

    Michowitz, M.; Stavorovsky, M.; Ilie, B.

    1983-01-01

    Corn starch particles are used as a surgical glove lubricant. At present there is no better alternative for this lubricant. Implantation of corn starch particles into the peritoneal cavity can induce foreign body reactions, starch peritonitis and starch granulomata, and may cause adhesions and intestinal obstruction. Starch peritonitis should be treated conservatively.

  6. [Causes of removal of kidney allotransplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental', R L; Il'inskiĭ, I M; Tikhomirova, T E; Bitsans, Ia B; Luse, L Ia

    1983-07-01

    The most frequent causes of cessation of the functioning of 60 kidney transplants was an acute rejection reaction and thrombosis of main vessels of the transplanted kidney. The authors believe the attraction of the cytological analysis of the urine, instrumental and roentgen-radiological examinations as well as biochemical data to improve the diagnosis of pathological changes in the transplant. PMID:6353738

  7. Causes and CT findings of adult intussusception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult intussusception is a rare condition, unlike in children. There is an identifiable bowel lesion as a leading point in most of cases. Retrospectively we reviewed 22 patients with adult intussusception, and analyzed CT scans of 13 patients during the last 5 years. Twenty of the 22 patients had various causes of intussusception and 7 patients were associated with primary malignancy, 5 patients with benign tumor, and 4 patients with adhesive band. CT scans of 13 cases all showed characteristic target appearance or sausage-like soft tissue mass within the bowel, suggesting intussusception. In eleven of the 13 patients(84.6%) an intussuscepting mass was identified on CT scan as the lead point. Specific diagnosis for the cause of intussusception could be made by CT in four of 13 cases (three lipomas and one mucocele). In conclusion, CT is useful not only for the diagnosis but also for the evaluation of the leading causes of intussusception. Especially, CT could determined the exact causes of intussusception in cases of lipoma and mucocele

  8. Causes and CT findings of adult intussusception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Jae Mun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Hyun; Park, Young Ha; Kim, II Sun; Kim, Jong Woo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Adult intussusception is a rare condition, unlike in children. There is an identifiable bowel lesion as a leading point in most of cases. Retrospectively we reviewed 22 patients with adult intussusception, and analyzed CT scans of 13 patients during the last 5 years. Twenty of the 22 patients had various causes of intussusception and 7 patients were associated with primary malignancy, 5 patients with benign tumor, and 4 patients with adhesive band. CT scans of 13 cases all showed characteristic target appearance or sausage-like soft tissue mass within the bowel, suggesting intussusception. In eleven of the 13 patients(84.6%) an intussuscepting mass was identified on CT scan as the lead point. Specific diagnosis for the cause of intussusception could be made by CT in four of 13 cases (three lipomas and one mucocele). In conclusion, CT is useful not only for the diagnosis but also for the evaluation of the leading causes of intussusception. Especially, CT could determined the exact causes of intussusception in cases of lipoma and mucocele.

  9. Causes and Treatment of Insomnia among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jack R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    As much as 13 percent of the adolescent population may suffer from chronic insomnia, which can impair the victim's daily existence and affect personal life, school performance, and school attendance. The prevalence of adolescent insomnia, and its cause, diagnosis, and treatment are examined. (Author/CB)

  10. Accidental intestinal myiasis caused by genus Sarcophaga

    OpenAIRE

    Das A; Pandey A; Madan M; Asthana A; Gautam A

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis of different organs has been reported off and on from various regions in the world. We report a human case of intestinal myiasis caused by larvae of Sarcophaga. A 25 - year - old male presented with symptom of passage of live worms in stool. Following diagnosis and treatment the patient improved completely with cessation of maggots in stool.

  11. Accidental intestinal myiasis caused by genus Sarcophaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis of different organs has been reported off and on from various regions in the world. We report a human case of intestinal myiasis caused by larvae of Sarcophaga. A 25 - year - old male presented with symptom of passage of live worms in stool. Following diagnosis and treatment the patient improved completely with cessation of maggots in stool.

  12. Atopy and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, T; Husemoen, L L N; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopy is the familial or personal propensity to develop immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against common environmental allergens and is associated with high risk of allergic disease. It has been proposed that atopy may have effects on risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. OBJECTI......BACKGROUND: Atopy is the familial or personal propensity to develop immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against common environmental allergens and is associated with high risk of allergic disease. It has been proposed that atopy may have effects on risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association of atopy with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We included a total of 14 849 individuals from five Danish population-based cohorts with measurements of atopy defined as serum-specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. Participants were...... followed by linkage to the Danish Registry of Causes of Death to obtain information on mortality status and cause of death (median follow-up time 11.3 years). The relative mortality risk was estimated by Cox regression and expressed as hazard ratios, HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs). RESULTS: A total of...

  13. Causes of mortality in common loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Cliplef, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized are necropsy results from 222 carcasses of Common Loons (Gavia immer) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center from 1976 through 1991.  The carcasses were from 18 states, and 10 or more birds each were from Minnesota, Florida, Virginia, Michigan, Wisconsin, Maine, and North Carolina.  Seventy-three (33%) carcasses were emaciated, and in some of these birds emaciation was thought to be related to exposure to mercury.  OVer 40% of these emaciated birds were from Florida.  Trauma, including blunt trauma of unknown origin, outboard motor propeller wounds, and shooting caused the deaths of 49 (22%) loons, 30 of which were from Minnesota.  Diseases, primarily avian botulism type E and aspergillosis, account for 39 (18%) moralities and lead poisoning for 14 (6%), 11 of which had fishing sinkers in their stomachs.  Most of the avian botulism type E cases occurred during two outbreaks on Lake Michigan.  Seven of the 14 lead-poisoned birds were from Minnesota.  Nine (4%) birds died of miscellaneous causes and 9 (4%) of drowning, primarily from entanglement in nets.  No diagnosis could be reached for 29 (13%) carcasses.  Sample bias precludes interpretation of these data to represent actual proportional causes of mortality in the loon population.  However, the sample size is sufficient to clearly identify major causes of mortality.

  14. Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

  15. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montiel-Jarquín Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopahologic studies.The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in Wodd J Gastroenterol 2007 luly;13 (27):3760-3762,about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies,which are considered necessary for its diagnosis.

  16. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad...

  17. Radiation Accident Experience: Causes and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since inception of the nuclear energy program in the United States of America, the Atomic. Energy Commission (USAEC) has maintained an extensive system for the reporting and review of radiation accidents in USAEC federal and licensing activities. Accidents required to be reported fall-into two main categories: (1) Accidents causing or threatening to cause radiation exposure to industrial workers or to the general public; (2) Accidents causing damage to or shutdown of facilities, or damage to public property. While many of the reported accidents carry with them the potential for exposure of persons to radioactivity, the cases reported, in this analysis are limited to those where certain prescribed levels of exposure have been exceeded or where significant uptake by the critical organ has occurred. This paper presents detailed analyses of the accident experience encountered in USAEC programs over the past nine years, including: (1) A breakdown of the types of work activities in the nuclear industry under which radiation accidents have occurred; (2) Characterization of the causes of such accidents as related to the types of work activities; (3) Lessons to be learned both in avoiding such accidents and in emergency planning, should such accidents occur. (author)

  18. Economic Loss Caused by GMOs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2008-01-01

    This book presents how European jurisdictions currently respond to economic losses caused by the admixture of gentically modified crops with conventional or organic crops and what alternatives there are from a comparative perspective. Country reports from most European countries are complemented by...... an economic analysis of possible solutions as well as a survey of insurance problems....

  19. Hypersensitivity syndrome caused by amitriptyline administration

    OpenAIRE

    Milionis, H.; Skopelitou, A; Elisaf, M

    2000-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous manifestations are among the most common side effects associated with psychotropic drugs. Skin reactions due to amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant agent) include rashes and hypersensitivity reactions (for example, urticaria and photosensitivity) as well as hyperpigmentation. Hypersensitivity syndrome is a specific severe idiosyncratic reaction causing skin, liver, joint, and haematological abnormalities, which usually resolve after the discontinuation of the implicate...

  20. Unusual causes of intrahepatic cholestatic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elias E Mazokopakis; John A Papadakis; Diamantis P Kofteridis

    2007-01-01

    We report five cases with unusual causes of intrahepatic cholestasis,including consumption of Teucrium polium (family Lamiaceae) in the form of tea,Stauffer's syndrome,treatment with tamoxifen citrate for breast cancer,infection with Coxiella Burnetii (acute Q fever),and infection with Brucella melitensis (acute brucellosis).