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Sample records for caused postpubertal behavioral

  1. Prenatal exposure to an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 reduces density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and enhances phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion but not behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine in postpubertal rats.

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    Abekawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Koki; Nakagawa, Shin; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2007-06-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits of parvalbumin-immunoreactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex have been reported in schizophrenia. Glutamate influences the proliferation of this type of interneuron by an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-mediated mechanism. The present study hypothesized that prenatal blockade of NMDA receptors would disrupt GABAergic neurodevelopment, resulting in differences in effects on behavioral responses to a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), and a dopamine releaser, methamphetamine (METH). GABAergic neurons were immunohistochemically stained with parvalbumin antibody. Psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion was measured using an infrared sensor. Prenatal exposure (E15-E18) to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 reduced the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex on postnatal day 63 (P63) and enhanced PCP-induced hyperlocomotion but not the acute effects of METH on P63 or the development of behavioral sensitization. Prenatal exposure to MK-801 reduced the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons even on postnatal day 35 (P35) and did not enhance PCP-induced hyperlocomotion, the acute effects of METH on P35, or the development of behavioral sensitization to METH. These findings suggest that prenatal blockade of NMDA receptors disrupts GABAergic neurodevelopment in medial prefrontal cortex, and that this disruption of GABAergic development may be related to the enhancement of the locomotion-inducing effect of PCP in postpubertal but not juvenile offspring. GABAergic deficit is unrelated to the effects of METH. This GABAergic neurodevelopmental disruption and the enhanced PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in adult offspring prenatally exposed to MK-801 may prove useful as a new model of the neurodevelopmental process of pathogenesis of treatment-resistant schizophrenia via an NMDA-receptor-mediated hypoglutamatergic mechanism.

  2. Comparison of lumbar force between pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents: interference of physical growth, body fat and lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Seabra Moraes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare performance in the lumbar force test in pubertal and post-pubertal adolescents by controlling the interference of physical growth, body fat, screen time and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 933 adolescents (492 girls aged 14-19 from the city of São José, Brazil. Lumbar strength was assessed using the isometric lumbar extension test proposed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology. Sexual maturation was classified according to Tanner’s criteria. Physical growth variables (age, body weight, stature, BMI, body fat (triceps and subscapular skinfolds, sedentary behavior based on screen time and overall physical activity were controlled in the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA, with a significance level of 5%. Results: Post-pubertal boys presented higher lumbar force compared to pubertal ones only when interference of BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity was controlled. Pubertal girls presented higher lumbar force compared to post-pubertal ones, both when controlling the analysis for the studied variables and when not controlled by them. Conclusion: BMI, body fat, screen time and physical activity interfere in the difference in lumbar strength of boys, in which post-pubertal boys presented better performance in lumbar force compared to pubertal ones. Regardless of interference or not of these variables, pubertal girls presented better performance in lumbar force when compared to post-pubertal ones.

  3. Ultrastructure and mitochondrial numbers in pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Prepubertal pig oocytes are associated with lower developmental competence. The aim of this experiment was to conduct an exhaustive survey of oocyte ultrastructure and to use a design-unbiased stereological approach to quantify the numerical density and total number of mitochondria in oocytes...... with different diameters from pre- and postpubertal pigs. The ultrastructure of smaller prepubertal immature oocytes indicated active cells in close contact with cumulus cells. The postpubertal oocytes were more quiescent cell types. The small prepubertal oocytes had a lower total mitochondrial number......, but no differences were observed in mitochondrial densities between groups. Mature postpubertal oocytes adhered to the following characteristics: presence of metaphase II, lack of contact between cumulus cells and oocyte, absence of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, peripheral location of cortical...

  4. Effect of transient postpubertal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of transient postpubertal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on reproductive parameters of Iranian broiler breeder hens. ... Egg number, fertility, hatchability, grading of day-old chicks and embryonic developmental stage of unhatched eggs were determined for individual artificially inseminated hen. Effects of PTU and T4 ...

  5. Neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion alters the dopamine content in the limbic regions in postpubertal rats.

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    Alquicer, Glenda; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Peralta, Fernando; Flores, Gonzalo

    2004-04-01

    The neonatal ventral Hippocampus (nVH) lesion in rats has been used as a model to test the hypothesis that early neurodevelopmental abnormalities lead to behavioral changes putatively linked to schizophrenia. The schizophrenic patients tend to social isolation. In addition, considerable evidence from behavioral and neurochemistry studies strongly implicate the dopamine (DA) system and the medial part of the prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the pathophysiology of the social isolation syndrome. In order to assess effects of the postweaning social isolation (pwSI) on the DA system of the nVH lesions, we investigated the DA content and its metabolite, DOPAC in different limbic subregions in rats postpubertally at postnatal day (P) 78 following nVH lesions at P7 with and without pwSI for 8 weeks. The DA and DOPAC were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The nVH lesion induces increase in the DA content in the hippocampus with no effect in the mPFC, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen, while the pwSI induces major increase in the DA content in limbic subregions such as the mPFC, nucleus accumbens and hipocampus with opposite effect in the caudate-putamen. These results suggest that while pwSI has an effect in the postpubertal content of DA in both sham and nVH lesions in rats, the nVH-lesioned rats appear to be affected to a greater extent than the sham animals underscoring the influence of pwSI differences in the development of behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals.

  6. Effects of Strength Training on Postpubertal Adolescent Distance Runners.

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    Blagrove, Richard C; Howe, Louis P; Cushion, Emily J; Spence, Adam; Howatson, Glyn; Pedlar, Charles R; Hayes, Philip R

    2018-06-01

    Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force-producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However, the effects on adolescent (training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. Participants (n = 25, 13 female, 17.2 ± 1.2 yr) were paired according to their sex and RE and randomly assigned to a 10-wk strength training group (STG) or a control group who continued their regular training. The STG performed twice weekly sessions of plyometric, sprint, and resistance training in addition to their normal running. Outcome measures included body mass, maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max), speed at V˙O2max, RE (quantified as energy cost), speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations, 20-m sprint, and maximal voluntary contraction during an isometric quarter-squat. Eighteen participants (STG: n = 9, 16.1 ± 1.1 yr; control group: n = 9, 17.6 ± 1.2 yr) completed the study. The STG displayed small improvements (3.2%-3.7%; effect size (ES), 0.31-0.51) in RE that were inferred as "possibly beneficial" for an average of three submaximal speeds. Trivial or small changes were observed for body composition variables, V˙O2max and speed at V˙O2max; however, the training period provided likely benefits to speed at fixed blood lactate concentrations in both groups. Strength training elicited a very likely benefit and a possible benefit to sprint time (ES, 0.32) and maximal voluntary contraction (ES, 0.86), respectively. Ten weeks of strength training added to the program of a postpubertal distance runner was highly likely to improve maximal speed and enhances RE by a small extent, without deleterious effects on body composition or other aerobic parameters.

  7. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

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    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposureTy T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni11Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  8. mtDNA copy number in oocytes of different sizes from individual pre- and post-pubertal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Larsen, Knud Erik

    2014-01-01

    from ovaries of 10 pre- and 10 post-pubertal pigs. Cumulus cells were removed and the oocytes were measured (inside-ZP-diameter). Oocytes were transferred to DNAase-free tubes, snap-frozen, and stored at –80°C. The genes ND1 and COX1 were used to determine the mtDNA copy number. Plasmid preparations...... Reproduction 131, 233–245). However, the correlation between size and mtDNA copy number in single oocytes has not been determined. This study describes the relation between oocytes of defined diameters from individual pre- and postpubertal pigs and mtDNA copy number. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were aspirated...

  9. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren

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    Edson dos Santos Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. METHODS: The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG comprised 195 students and the control group (CG, 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, and lean mass (LM. RESULTS: A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (p < 0.001 was observed, as well as on the interaction time x group in all the variables analyzed in both genders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58% and waist circumference (-2.33 cm, as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. CONCLUSION: The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

  10. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Edson Dos Santos; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Morcillo, André Moreno; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2015-01-01

    To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG) comprised 195 students and the control group (CG), 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM). A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (pgenders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58%) and waist circumference (-2.33 cm), as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg) were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. THE CAUSES OF ECONOMIC CRISIS. A BEHAVIORAL FOUNDATION.

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    Soim Horatiu Florin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyclical path of economy is a common place in the economic theory. The economic crisis that started in 2007 was not only one of the most severe since the WWII but it came unexpectedly. The cause of the crises and of the surprise consists in the economic models and theories that were founded on the rationality and maximization behavior of the economic actor. People lack the rationality the mainstream economics assume. This is why both economists and simple people do not act as theory predicts and finally economy does not tend toward equilibrium but suffers recurrent crises. This crisis started as a financial one, because of the subprime loans made in USA, but have spread in production sector because of credit frozen, is now in transforming into a social crisis because of austerity measures taken by governments. The paper analyzes the theoretical foundation of economic theory and how the facts that characterize the recent economic evolution fit with the non mainstream theories. It presents the figures of the economic evolution in the last 3 years and explains them based of the agent’s behavior described by Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman. Their challenge of mainstream economics is based on an analyze of human behavior. Herbert Simon introduced the concept of bounded rationality as opposed to perfect rationality postulated by neoclassic economics and Daniel Kahneman realized experiments that proved that people cannot stick with the performances assumed by mainstream economics. Their conclusion permit to understand the approach of George Soros who says that people actions are bounded by reflexivity and as a consequences sometimes economy move not toward but far from equilibrium, creating bubbles that end in financial and economic crises. As Akerlof mention the cause of the crisis is the reliance of a false theory which said that we are safe. The conclusion is that we need new theories more close to the real life and an agent description

  12. MITOCHONDRIAL DYNAMICS IN PRE- AND POSTPUBERTAL PIG OOCYTES BEFORE AND AFTER IN VITRO MATURATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H. S.; Løvendahl, P.; Nikolaisen, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes from prepubertal (PRE) or postpubertal (POST) pigs are used in, for example, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro fertilization. Here we describe mitochondrial dynamics in pig oocytes of different sizes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM), isolated from PRE or POST animals....... In PRE oocytes, inside-zona pellucida diameter was measured before and after IVM (μm; small: ≤110, medium: >110, large: ≥120) and used for evaluation of (1) mitochondrial numbers before maturation and (2) mitochondrial morphology and location before and after maturation in comparison with POST oocytes....... Oocytes were processed for transmission electron microscopy (Acta Anat. 129:12). For assessment of mitochondrial numbers, paired dissector sections were collected at uniform intervals throughout the oocyte, and in each set of dissector sections a known area fraction was sampled for mitochondrial counting...

  13. Changes in soft tissue nasal widths associated with rapid maxillary expansion in prepubertal and postpubertal subjects.

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    Johnson, Bret M; McNamara, James A; Bandeen, Roger L; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate changes in the soft tissue width of the nose induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Data on greater alar cartilage (GAC) and alar base (AB) widths were compared with a normative sample within the same age range. This prospective study consisted of an RME sample of 79 patients treated with an RME protocol. Mean age at the start of RME treatment was 13.5 years; average duration of treatment was 6.7 months. Patients were grouped into prepubertal and postpubertal groups based on their cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stage. AB and GAC widths were determined at three separate time points. The normative sample consisted of 437 orthodontically untreated whites, aged 10-16 years. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine group differences. In addition, independent sample t-tests were used to compare posttreatment nasal width values vs the untreated normative sample. Increases in AB and GAC widths of the nose in the RME sample were less than 1.5 mm. No significant differences were noted in width changes between the prepubertal and postpubertal subgroups. Comparisons of T3 values showed that on average nasal width increases were greater in the RME group than in untreated norms by 1.7 mm for the GAC measure (statistically significant), and by less than 1 mm for the AB measure. RME has no significant clinical effects on the widths of the apical base and the greater alar cartilage of the nose; no differences were observed between the two maturational subgroups.

  14. "Causes" of pesticide safety behavior change in Latino farmworker families.

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    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Talton, Jennifer W; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Trejo, Grisel; Mirabelli, Maria C; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-07-01

    To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.

  15. High-Intensity Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Damage in Postpubertal Boys and Girls: A Comparative Study.

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    Pal, Sangita; Chaki, Biswajit; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Pal, S, Chaki, B, Chattopadhyay, S, and Bandyopadhyay, A. High-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage in post-pubertal boys and girls: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1045-1052, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the sex variation in high-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary postpubertal boys and girls through estimation of postexercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and catalase activity. Muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, LDH, ALT, and AST were measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 hours after high-intensity incremental treadmill running. Oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and catalase activity were estimated before and immediately after the exercise. Lipid peroxidation and serum catalase activity increased significantly in both groups after exercise (p exercise level at 24 and 48 hours after exercise in both the sexes, (p exercise, the pattern of postexercise release of these markers were found to be similar in both the groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded from the present investigation that high-intensity exercise induces significant oxidative stress and increases indices of skeletal muscle damage in both postpubertal girls and boys. However, postpubertal girls are relatively better protected from oxidative stress and muscle damage as compared to the boys of similar age and physical activity level. It is further evident that sex difference may not be apparent for all the biomarkers of muscle damage in this age group.

  16. Vinclozolin Exposure in Utero Induces Postpubertal Prostatitis and Reduces Sperm Production via a Reversible Hormone-Regulated Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cowin, Prue A.; Gold, Elspeth; Aleksova, Jasna; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Foster, Paul M. D.; Scott, Hamish S.; Risbridger, Gail P.

    2010-01-01

    Vinclozolin is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that binds with high affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and blocks the action of gonadal hormones on male reproductive organs. An alternative mechanism of action of Vinclozolin involves transgenerational effects on the male reproductive tract. We previously reported in utero Vinclozolin exposure-induced prostatitis (prostate inflammation) in postpubertal rats concurrent with down-regulation of AR and increased nuclear factor-κB activat...

  17. Prenatal exposure to phencyclidine produces abnormal behaviour and NMDA receptor expression in postpubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingling; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Lu, Ping; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Zou, Li-Bo; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have shown the disruptive effects of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on neurobehavioural development. Based on the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is growing interest in animal models treated with NMDA antagonists at developing stages to investigate the pathogenesis of psychological disturbances in humans. Previous studies have reported that perinatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) impairs the development of neuronal systems and induces schizophrenia-like behaviour. However, the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to PCP on behaviour and the function of NMDA receptors are not well understood. This study investigated the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to PCP in mice. The prenatal PCP-treated mice showed hypersensitivity to a low dose of PCP in locomotor activity and impairment of recognition memory in the novel object recognition test at age 7 wk. Meanwhile, the prenatal exposure reduced the phosphorylation of NR1, although it increased the expression of NR1 itself. Furthermore, these behavioural changes were attenuated by atypical antipsychotic treatment. Taken together, prenatal exposure to PCP produced long-lasting behavioural deficits, accompanied by the abnormal expression and dysfunction of NMDA receptors in postpubertal mice. It is worth investigating the influences of disrupted NMDA receptors during the prenatal period on behaviour in later life.

  18. Peripheral markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic function in post-pubertal, caucasian males with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonenberghs, J; Delmeire, L; Verkerk, R; Lin, A H; Meskal, A; Neels, H; Van der Planken, M; Scharpe, S; Deboutte, D; Pison, G; Maes, M

    2000-03-01

    Some studies have suggested that disorders in the peripheral and central metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline may play a role in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder. This study examines serotonergic and noradrenergic markers in a study group of 13 male, post-pubertal, caucasian autistic patients (age 12-18 y; I.Q. > 55) and 13 matched volunteers. [3H]-paroxetine binding Kd values were significantly higher in patients with autism than in healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan, the precursor of 5-HT, were significantly lower in autistic patients than in healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences between autistic and normal children in the serum concentrations of 5-HT, or the 24-hr urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. There were no significant differences in [3H]-rauwolscine binding Bmax or Kd values, or in the serum concentrations of tyrosine, the precursor of noradrenaline, between both study groups. There were highly significant positive correlations between age and 24-hr urinary excretion of 5-HIAA and serum tryptophan. The results suggest that: 1) serotonergic disturbances, such as defects in the 5-HT transporter system and lowered plasma tryptophan, may play a role in the pathophysiology of autism; 2) autism is not associated with alterations in the noradrenergic system; and 3) the metabolism of serotonin in humans undergoes significant changes between the ages of 12 and 18 years.

  19. Do people agree about the causes of behavior? A social relations analysis of behavior ratings and causal attributions.

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    Robins, Richard W; Mendelsohn, Gerald A; Connell, Joanie B; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2004-02-01

    Two studies examined consistency and agreement in behavior ratings and causal attributions. In Study 1, participants (N = 280) engaged in a series of getting-acquainted conversations in one of 3 communication media (face-to-face, telephone, computer mediated); in Study 2, participants (N = 120) engaged in a competitive group task. In both studies, participants rated themselves and their interaction partners on a set of behaviors and then made attributions about the causes of those behaviors. The major findings were that (a) participants consistently favored some causal factors over others in explaining both their own and their partners' behavior, supporting the existence of generalized attributional styles; and (b) participants showed moderate self-partner and partner-partner agreement about behavior but virtually no agreement about the causes of behavior. Thus, in brief interactions people tend to see themselves and others through the lens of their stable patterns of perceiving and interpreting behavior.

  20. Reward-seeking behavior and addiction: cause or cog?

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    Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Salama, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    Although dopaminergic system represents the cornerstone in rewarding, other neurotransmitters can modulate both the reward system and the psychomotor effects of addictive drugs. Many hypotheses have been proposed for a better understanding of the reward system and its role in drug addiction. However, after many years of investigation, no single theory can completely explain the neural basis of drug addiction. Recent reports introduce novel neurotransmitters into the game e.g. dynorphins, orexins, histamine, gheralin and galanin. The interacting functions of these neurotransmitters have shown that the reward system and its role in drug dependence, is far more complicated than was thought before. Individual variations exist regarding response to drug exposure, vulnerability for addiction and the effects of different cues on reward systems. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought to influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. However, the individual variations can not be based mainly on genetics; environmental factors seem to play a role too. Here we discuss the current knowledge about the orquestic regulation of different neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior and their potential effect on drug addiction.

  1. Development capacity of pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes evaluated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Hanne; Li, Rong; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Most of the porcine oocytes used for in vitro studies are collected from gilts. Our aims were to study development capacity of gilt v. sow oocytes (pre- and postpubertal respectively) using 2 techniques illustrating development competence [parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear...... transfer (SCNT)], and to describe a simple method to select the most competent oocytes. Inside-ZP diameter of in vitro-matured gilt oocytes was measured (µm; small ≤110; medium >110; large ≥120). Gilt and sow oocytes were morphologically grouped as good (even cytoplasm, smooth cell membrane, visible...

  2. Vinclozolin exposure in utero induces postpubertal prostatitis and reduces sperm production via a reversible hormone-regulated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Prue A; Gold, Elspeth; Aleksova, Jasna; O'Bryan, Moira K; Foster, Paul M D; Scott, Hamish S; Risbridger, Gail P

    2010-02-01

    Vinclozolin is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that binds with high affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and blocks the action of gonadal hormones on male reproductive organs. An alternative mechanism of action of Vinclozolin involves transgenerational effects on the male reproductive tract. We previously reported in utero Vinclozolin exposure-induced prostatitis (prostate inflammation) in postpubertal rats concurrent with down-regulation of AR and increased nuclear factor-kappaB activation. We postulated the male reproductive abnormalities induced by in utero Vinclozolin exposure could be reversed by testosterone supplementation, in contrast to the permanent modifications involving DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) described by others. To test this hypothesis, we administered high-dose testosterone at puberty to Vinclozolin-treated rats and determined the effect on anogenital distance (AGD); testicular germ cell apoptosis, concentration of elongated spermatids, and the onset of prostatitis. Concurrently we examined Dnmt1, -3A, -3B, and -3L mRNA expression. Consistent with previous reports, in utero exposure to Vinclozolin significantly reduced AGD, increased testicular germ cell apoptosis 3-fold, reduced elongated spermatid number by 40%, and induced postpubertal prostatitis in 100% of exposed males. Administration of high-dose testosterone (25 mg/kg) at puberty normalized AGD, reduced germ cell apoptosis, and restored elongated spermatid number. Testosterone restored AR and nuclear factor-kappaB expression in the prostate and abolished Vinclozolin-induced prostatitis. Altered Dnmt expression was evident with in utero Vinclozolin exposure and was not normalized after testosterone treatment. These data demonstrate in utero Vinclozolin-induced male reproductive tract abnormalities are AR mediated and reversible and involve a mechanism independent of Dnmt expression.

  3. COLLECTIVE VORTEX BEHAVIORS: DIVERSITY, PROXIMATE, AND ULTIMATE CAUSES OF CIRCULAR ANIMAL GROUP MOVEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Johann; Bode, Nikolai W F; Denoël, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These "collective vortex behaviors" occur at different group sizes from pairs to several million individuals and have been reported in a large number of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, including humans. However, to date, no comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on vortex behaviors has been conducted. Here, we review the state of the art of the proximate and ultimate causes of vortex behaviors. The ubiquity of this behavioral phenomenon could suggest common causes or fundamental underlying principles across contexts. However, we find that a variety of proximate mechanisms give rise to vortex behaviors. We highlight the potential benefits of collective vortex behaviors to individuals involved in them. For example, in some species, vortices increase feeding efficiency and could give protection against predators. It has also been argued that vortices could improve collective decision-making and information transfer. We highlight gaps in our understanding of these ubiquitous behavioral phenomena and discuss future directions for research in vortex studies.

  4. In Building a Script for an Emotion, Do Preschoolers Add Its Cause before Its Behavior Consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    An emotion concept is a script in which an emotion event is an ordered sequence of subevents from situational cause through bodily changes to behavioral consequence. As children build a script for each emotion, in what order do they add each subevent? Preschoolers (N = 108, three to five years), were asked to name the protagonist's emotion in…

  5. Causes of behavioral disorders leading to compulsory institutional correction or controlled education.

    OpenAIRE

    Poplšteinová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of my work is to provide a comprehensive overview of the possible causes of behavioral disorders that lead to the placement of individuals into correctional institutions. The work is primarily concerned with the influence of the family in the formation of the child's personality and with the other equally important factors from the external and internal environment of the individual.

  6. Concerns about pregabalin: further experience with its potential of causing addictive behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.; Franke, B.; Freudenmann, R.W.; Kolle, M.A.; Schonfeldt-Lecuona, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pregabalin (PRG) is approved for the treatment of neuropathic pain, partial seizures, and generalized anxiety disorder in many countries. Supported by case reports and a few studies there is an ongoing debate on PRG's potential to cause addictive behaviors. Considering that PRG is currently under

  7. CAUSE-FIT, POSITIVE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS WITHIN HYBRID COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Román-Calderón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Socially oriented ventures have provided livelihoods and social recognition to disadvantaged communities in different corners of the world. In some cases, these ventures are the result of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR programs. In Latin America, this type of undertaking has responded positively to unmet social needs. The social cause drives these organizations and their human resources and they give high value to organizational cause-fit. This paper presents empirical evidence of the effects of perceived cause-fit on several worker attitudes and behaviors. Psychological contract theory was adopted as theoretical background. Employees working in a hybrid (for-profit/socially oriented Colombian organization created by a CSR program participated in the survey. Data provided by 218 employees were analyzed using PLS structural equation modeling. The results suggest the ideological components of the employee-employer relationship predict positive attitudes and cooperative organizational behaviors towards hybrid organizations.

  8. Social stimuli cause changes of plasma oxytocin and behavior in guinea pigs

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    BERNARD WALLNER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT is a key factor in the initiation and regulation of sociosexual behavior. The present study analyzes the effects of cohabitation and social challenge on plasma OXT concentration rates in guinea pig pairs in relation to male sociosexual behavior. The cohabitation phase lasted 3 days. On day 4, the pair was socially challenged by introducing an unfamiliar male. Displayed male sexual behavior varied significantly during cohabitation, with peaks on day 1. Sociopositive behavior, i.e., side-by-side contact, was increased on days 3 and 4. Cohabitation per se led to elevated plasma OXT concentrations only in males. In contrast, both sexes reacted with increased plasma OXT concentrations to the social challenge (day 4. At that time, male OXT was significantly correlated with sexual behavior and female OXT with sociosexual behavior received from the partner. Additionally, pairs were synchronized in their OXT release during days 3 and 4. We conclude that cohabitation causes sexually dimorphic plasma OXT concentration patterns in guinea pigs. Secondly, the conformity of OXT release in both sexes may represent an endocrine marker for long-term cohabitation, which is reflected behaviorally by increased spatial proximity

  9. Self-efficacy: a predictor but not a cause of behavior.

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    Hawkins, R M

    1992-12-01

    The concept of self-efficacy, as expounded by Bandura as part of his Social Cognitive Theory, has made considerable impact in the psychological literature. It is argued that self-efficacy is a useful hypothetical construct for predicting behavior, but it has no valid claim to being a cause of behavior. Claims for self-efficacy as a causal agent have failed to acknowledge that self-efficacy itself is an epi-phenomenon of performance. Conventional learning theory explanations of observed performance levels are shown to be more parsimonious than accounts relying on the concept of self-efficacy.

  10. Content and effects of news stories about uncertain cancer causes and preventive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lee, Theodore; Robbins, Rebecca; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kresovich, Alex; Kirshenblat, Danielle; Standridge, Kimberly; Clarke, Christopher E; Jensen, Jakob; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from two studies that describe news portrayals of cancer causes and prevention in local TV and test the effects of typical aspects of this coverage on cancer-related fatalism and overload. Study 1 analyzed the content of stories focused on cancer causes and prevention from an October 2002 national sample of local TV and newspaper cancer coverage (n = 122 television stations; n = 60 newspapers). Informed by results from the content analysis, Study 2 describes results from a randomized experiment testing effects of the volume and content of news stories about cancer causes and prevention (n = 601). Study 1 indicates that local TV news stories describe cancer causes and prevention as comparatively more certain than newspapers but include less information about how to reduce cancer risk. Study 2 reveals that the combination of stories conveying an emerging cancer cause and prevention behavior as moderately certain leads to an increased sense of overload, while a short summary of well-established preventive behaviors mitigates these potentially harmful beliefs. We conclude with a series of recommendations for health communication and health journalism practice.

  11. Protein malnutrition during gestation and early life decreases neuronal size in the medial prefrontal cortex of post-pubertal rats

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    Roelf J. Cruz-Rizzolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective studies in human populations indicate that protein deprivation during pregnancy and early life (early protein malnutrition, EPM is associated with cognitive impairments, learning disabilities and may represent a risk factor for the late onset of some psychiatric disorders, fundamentally schizophrenia, a condition where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether EPM affects structural aspects of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, such as cortical volume, neuronal density and neuronal soma size, which seem altered in patients with schizophrenia. For this, a rat model of EPM (5% casein from conception to postnatal day 60 was adopted and the rat mPFC volume, total number of neurons and average neuronal volume were evaluated on postnatal day 60 (post-pubertal animals by histo- and immunohistochemical techniques using unbiased stereological analysis. EPM did not alter the number of NeuN+ neurons in the rat mPFC. However, a very significant decrease in mPFC volume and average neuronal size was observed in malnourished rats. Although the present study does not establish causal relationships between malnutrition and schizophrenia, our results may indicate a similar structural phenomenon in these two situations.

  12. Mechanically-induced osteogenesis in the cortical bone of pre- to peripubertal stage and peri- to postpubertal stage mice

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    Plochocki Jeffrey H

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise during postnatal development plays a key role in determining adult bone mass and reducing the risk of fracture and osteoporosis later in life. However, the relationship between mechanically-induced osteogenesis and age is unclear. Elevated levels of estrogen during puberty may inhibit periosteal bone formation. Thus, magnitudes of mechanically-induced osteogenesis may be vary with pubertal state. Methods The present study uses a murine model to examine age-related changes in bone formation at the femoral midshaft with voluntary exercise. Pre- to peripubertal mice aged 3 weeks and peri- to postpubertal mice aged 7 weeks were randomly divided into sedentary and exercised groups and subjected to histomorphometric comparison after 4 weeks of treatment. Results Results of the experiment indicate that exercise significantly increased osteogenesis on the periosteal and endocortical surface of the mice in the older age group (P P Conclusion These findings suggest that the amount and location of mechanically-induced osteogenesis differs by age during skeletal development. Late adolescence may be the optimal time to accrue bone mass and maximize bone strength.

  13. Exploring occupational and health behavioral causes of firefighter obesity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Marnie; Choi, BongKyoo; Schnall, Peter L; Wigger, Erin; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean B

    2013-07-01

    Firefighters, as an occupational group, have one of the highest prevalence rates of obesity. A qualitative study investigated occupational and health behavioral determinants of obesity among firefighters. Four focus groups were conducted with firefighters of every rank as Phase I of the FORWARD study which was designed to assess health behavioral and occupational characteristics related to obesity in firefighters. Analysis revealed five main themes of central importance to firefighters: (1) fire station eating culture; (2) night calls and sleep interruption; (3) supervisor leadership and physical fitness; (4) sedentary work; and (5) age and generational influences. The results showed a strong interrelationship between occupational and health behavioral causes of obesity in firefighters. The relevance of these qualitative findings are discussed along with the implications for future obesity interventions with firefighters. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

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    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise.We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors.These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, suggests that endogenous

  15. Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice.

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    Wang, B; Zheng, Y; Shi, H; Du, X; Zhang, Y; Wei, B; Luo, M; Wang, H; Wu, X; Hua, X; Sun, M; Xu, X

    2017-02-01

    Zfp462 is a newly identified vertebrate-specific zinc finger protein that contains nearly 2500 amino acids and 23 putative C2H2-type zinc finger domains. So far, the functions of Zfp462 remain unclear. In our study, we showed that Zfp462 is expressed predominantly in the developing brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions from embryonic day 7.5 to early postnatal stage. By using a piggyBac transposon-generated Zfp462 knockout (KO) mouse model, we found that Zfp462 KO mice exhibited prenatal lethality with normal neural tube patterning, whereas heterozygous (Het) Zfp462 KO (Zfp462 +/- ) mice showed developmental delay with low body weight and brain weight. Behavioral studies showed that Zfp462 +/- mice presented anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming and hair loss, which were similar to the pathological grooming behaviors in Hoxb8 KO mice. Further analysis of grooming microstructure showed the impairment of grooming patterning in Zfp462 +/- mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pbx1 (pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1, an interacting protein of Zfp462) and Hoxb8 decreased in the brains of Zfp462 +/- mice, which may be the cause of anxiety-like behaviors. Finally, imipramine, a widely used and effective anti-anxiety medicine, rescued anxiety-like behaviors and excessive self-grooming in Zfp462 +/- mice. In conclusion, Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice. This provides a novel genetic mouse model for anxiety disorders and a useful tool to determine potential therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders and screen anti-anxiety drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. Repeated Predictable Stress Causes Resilience against Colitis-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

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    Ahmed M Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2 % in drinking water decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and social interaction tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY, a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  17. The causes of variation in learning and behavior: Why individual differences matter

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    Bruno eSauce

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a seminal paper written five decades ago, Cronbach discussed the two highly distinct approaches to scientific psychology: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically-oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between causation and causes of variation (with its origins in the field of genetics reveal the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its associability provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this new light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals’ performance in the Morris Water Maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships.

  18. What Is the Evidence for Environmental Causes of Challenging Behaviors in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders?

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    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature on the causes of challenging behaviors has been developed, primarily in the applied behavior analysis literature. One hundred and seventy-three empirical studies were reviewed where functional assessment serves as the primary method of identifying these causes. Most of the studies were able to identify a clear function or…

  19. Relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes

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    Boraczyński Michał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper describes the relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power (AAP in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes. Methods. The sample of 41 taekwondo athletes was divided into two groups: post-pubertal (P-P, n = 19, Mage = 15.6 ± 1.1 years and mature (M, n = 22, Mage = 20.7 ± 2.8 years. Anthropometric features (WB-150, ZPU Tryb-Wag, Poland, body composition (BC-418 MA, Tanita, Japan, maturational status (Pubertal Maturational Observational Scale, and AAP (10-s version of the Wingate Anaerobic Test were assessed. Results. Post-hoc testing revealed significant between-group differences (3.2-20.4%, p < 0.01 in all anthropometric and body composition measures, with effect sizes (ES between −0.79 and −1.25 (p < 0.001, except for fat content and percentage of skeletal muscle mass (SMM (p ≥ 0.05. In group M, the maximal power output (Pmax was greater (ES = −1.15, p < 0.001 and the time of its attainment shorter (ES = 0.59, p < 0.001 than in group P-P. Correlation analyses indicated notably strong associations between body mass (BM and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.950 [95% CI, 0.85-0.98], p < 0.001 and M (r = 0.926 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97], p < 0.001, and similar-sized strong correlations between fat-free mass (FFM and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.955 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99], p < 0.001 and M (r = 0.924 [95% CI, 0.82-0.96], p < 0.001. Additionally, a strong correlation was found between body height and Pmax in groups P-P and M (r = 0.805 [95% CI, 0.54-0.92], p < 0.001 and r = 0.819 [95% CI, 0.58-0.93], p < 0.001, respectively. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that FFM, BM, and absolute SMM best explained the variance in Pmax in both groups (r, 0.939-0.951; r2, 0.882-0.909. Conclusions. The strong correlations observed in both groups between BM, FFM, SMM, and Pmax demonstrate the significant effects of body size and composition on AAP. By determining the current levels of these

  20. Nutrient restriction induces failure of reproductive function and molecular changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in postpubertal gilts.

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    Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-07-01

    People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function.

  1. Chromosome Y variants from different inbred mouse strains are linked to differences in the morphologic and molecular responses of cardiac cells to postpubertal testosterone

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    Churchill Gary A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported previously that when chromosome Y (chrY from the mouse strain C57BL/6J (ChrYC57 was substituted for that of A/J mice (ChrYA, cardiomyocytes from the resulting "chromosome substitution" C57BL/6J-chrYA strain were smaller than that of their C57BL/6J counterparts. In reverse, when chrYA from A/J mice was substituted for that of chrYC57, cardiomyocytes from the resulting A/J-chrYC57 strain were larger than in their A/J counterparts. We further used these strains to test whether: 1 the origin of chrY could also be linked to differences in the profile of gene expression in the hearts of adult male mice, and 2 post-pubertal testosterone could play a role in the differential morphologic and/or molecular effects of chrYC57 and chrYA. Results The increased size of cardiomyocytes from adult male C57BL/6J mice compared to C57BL/6J-chrYA resulted from the absence of hypertrophic effects of post-pubertal testosterone on cells from the latter strain. However, gene profiling revealed that the latter effect could not be explained on the basis of an insensitivity of cells from C57BL/6J-chrYA to androgens, since even more cardiac genes were affected by post-pubertal testosterone in C57BL/6J-chrYA hearts than in C57BL/6J. By testing for interaction between the effects of surgery and strain, we identified 249 "interaction genes" whose expression was affected by post-pubertal testosterone differentially according to the genetic origin of chrY. These interaction genes were found to be enriched within a limited number of signaling pathways, including: 1 p53 signaling, which comprises the interacting genes Ccnd1, Pten and Cdkn1a that are also potential co-regulators of the androgen receptors, and 2 circadian rhythm, which comprises Arntl/Bmal1, which may in turn regulate cell growth via the control of Cdkn1a. Conclusion Although post-pubertal testosterone increased the size of cardiomyocytes from male C56BL/6J mice but not that from

  2. Implication of neuro-genesis during brain development in behavior disorders caused by depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to neurotoxic compounds in the environment. The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds and modifications in its growth could lead to disorders in adulthood. Uranium (U) is an environmental heavy metal and induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry. The aim of my thesis was to investigate whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neuro-genesis processes, which are implicated in brain development and in synaptic plasticity in adults. While DU increased cell proliferation in the hippocampal neuro-epithelium and decreased cell death at prenatal stages, DU lead to opposite effects in the dentate gyrus at postnatal stages. Moreover, DU had an inhibitory effect on the transition toward neuronal differentiation pathway during development. At adult stage, DU induced a decrease in neuronal differentiation but has no impact in cell proliferation. Finally, DU exposure during brain development caused depressive like behavior at late postnatal and adult stage, and decreased spatial memory at adult stage. Consequently, DU exposure during brain development caused modification in neuro-genesis processes associated to cognitive and emotional disorders at adult age. U could present a threat to human health, especially in pregnant women and children. (author)

  3. Postpartum estrogen withdrawal impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and causes depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

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    Zhang, Zhuan; Hong, Juan; Zhang, Suyun; Zhang, Tingting; Sha, Sha; Yang, Rong; Qian, Yanning; Chen, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Postpartum estrogen withdrawal is known to be a particularly vulnerable time for depressive symptoms. Ovariectomized adult mice (OVX-mice) treated with hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP mice) followed by a subsequent estradiol benzoate (EB) withdrawal (EW mice) exhibited depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, as assessed by forced swim, tail suspension and elevated plus-maze, while HSP mice, OVX mice or EB-treated OVX mice (OVX/EB mice) did not. The survival and neurite growth of newborn neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus were examined on day 5 after EW. Compared with controls, the numbers of 28-day-old BrdU(+) and BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells were increased in HSP mice but significantly decreased in EW mice; the numbers of 10-day-old BrdU(+) cells were increased in HSP mice and OVX/EB mice; and the density of DCX(+) fibers was reduced in EW mice and OVX mice. The phosphorylation of hippocampal NMDA receptor (NMDAr) NR2B subunit or Src was increased in HSP mice but decreased in EW mice. NMDAr agonist NMDA prevented the loss of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells and the depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in EW mice. NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 or Src inhibitor dasatinib caused depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in HSP mice with the reduction of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells. The hippocampal BDNF levels were reduced in EW mice and OVX mice. TrkB receptor inhibitor K252a reduced the density of DCX(+) fibers in HSP mice without the reduction of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells, or the production of affective disorder. Collectively, these results indicate that postpartum estrogen withdrawal impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in mice that show depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic Disruption of Circadian Rhythms in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Causes Helplessness, Behavioral Despair, and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice

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    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie E.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Barandas, Rita; Malinow, Roberto; Welsh, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. To investigate the causal relationship between mood disorders and circadian clock disruption, previous studies in animal models have employed light/dark manipulations, global mutations of clock genes, or brain area lesions. However, light can impact mood by noncircadian mechanisms; clock genes have pleiotropic, clock-independent functions; and brain lesions not only disrupt cellular circadian rhythms but also destroy cells and eliminate important neuronal connections, including light reception pathways. Thus, a definitive causal role for functioning circadian clocks in mood regulation has not been established. Methods We stereotactically injected viral vectors encoding short hairpin RNA to knock down expression of the essential clock gene Bmal1 into the brain's master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Results In these SCN-specific Bmal1-knockdown (SCN-Bmal1-KD) mice, circadian rhythms were greatly attenuated in the SCN, while the mice were maintained in a standard light/dark cycle, SCN neurons remained intact, and neuronal connections were undisturbed, including photic inputs. In the learned helplessness paradigm, the SCN-Bmal1-KD mice were slower to escape, even before exposure to inescapable stress. They also spent more time immobile in the tail suspension test and less time in the lighted section of a light/dark box. The SCN-Bmal1-KD mice also showed greater weight gain, an abnormal circadian pattern of corticosterone, and an attenuated increase of corticosterone in response to stress. Conclusions Disrupting SCN circadian rhythms is sufficient to cause helplessness, behavioral despair, and anxiety-like behavior in mice, establishing SCN-Bmal1-KD mice as a new animal model of depression. PMID:27113500

  5. Genetic Disruption of Circadian Rhythms in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Causes Helplessness, Behavioral Despair, and Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Dominic; Long, Jaimie E; Proulx, Christophe D; Barandas, Rita; Malinow, Roberto; Welsh, David K

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. To investigate the causal relationship between mood disorders and circadian clock disruption, previous studies in animal models have employed light/dark manipulations, global mutations of clock genes, or brain area lesions. However, light can impact mood by noncircadian mechanisms; clock genes have pleiotropic, clock-independent functions; and brain lesions not only disrupt cellular circadian rhythms but also destroy cells and eliminate important neuronal connections, including light reception pathways. Thus, a definitive causal role for functioning circadian clocks in mood regulation has not been established. We stereotactically injected viral vectors encoding short hairpin RNA to knock down expression of the essential clock gene Bmal1 into the brain's master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In these SCN-specific Bmal1-knockdown (SCN-Bmal1-KD) mice, circadian rhythms were greatly attenuated in the SCN, while the mice were maintained in a standard light/dark cycle, SCN neurons remained intact, and neuronal connections were undisturbed, including photic inputs. In the learned helplessness paradigm, the SCN-Bmal1-KD mice were slower to escape, even before exposure to inescapable stress. They also spent more time immobile in the tail suspension test and less time in the lighted section of a light/dark box. The SCN-Bmal1-KD mice also showed greater weight gain, an abnormal circadian pattern of corticosterone, and an attenuated increase of corticosterone in response to stress. Disrupting SCN circadian rhythms is sufficient to cause helplessness, behavioral despair, and anxiety-like behavior in mice, establishing SCN-Bmal1-KD mice as a new animal model of depression. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  6. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

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    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  7. Peri-adolescent asthma symptoms cause adult anxiety-related behavior and neurobiological processes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jasmine I; Caruso, Michael J; Michael, Kerry C; Bourne, Rebecca A; Chirichella, Nicole R; Klein, Laura C; Craig, Timothy; Bonneau, Robert H; August, Avery; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-05-30

    Human and animal studies have shown that physical challenges and stressors during adolescence can have significant influences on behavioral and neurobiological development associated with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of asthma during adolescence and increased rates of internalizing disorders in humans with asthma, we used a mouse model to test if and which symptoms of adolescent allergic asthma (airway inflammation or labored breathing) cause adult anxiety- and depression-related behavior and brain function. To mimic symptoms of allergic asthma in young BALB/cJ mice (postnatal days [P] 7-57; N=98), we induced lung inflammation with repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite extract (most common aeroallergen for humans) and bronchoconstriction with aerosolized methacholine (non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist). Three experimental groups, in addition to a control group, included: (1) "Airway inflammation only", allergen exposure 3 times/week, (2) "Labored breathing only", methacholine exposure once/week, and (3) "Airway inflammation+Labored breathing", allergen and methacholine exposure. Compared to controls, mice that experienced methacholine-induced labored breathing during adolescence displayed a ∼20% decrease in time on open arms of the elevated plus maze in early adulthood (P60), a ∼30% decrease in brainstem serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA expression and a ∼50% increase in hippocampal serotonin receptor 1a (5Htr1a) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (Crhr1) expression in adulthood (P75). This is the first evidence that experimentally-induced clinical symptoms of adolescent asthma alter adult anxiety-related behavior and brain function several weeks after completion of asthma manipulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in Rational Economic Behavior Model, Caused By the Development of E-Commerce

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    Menzeleev Ilya, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author examines the origins of rationality concept and its transformation within the framework of economic science. According to the author, rationality is a fundamental concept both for philosophy and for economics. Changes in rational economic behavior model significantly effect on informal institutes (in short-term perspective and on formal institutes (in long-term period. In the paper it is said about significant changes taking place with humanity right now. Today it becomes more and more difficult to describe human behavior by uniform concept of rationality. Now people live in a world that is developing unprecedentedly fast, with the usage of incredible amount of information, countless tasks and social contacts. The development of the Internet and IT tools facilitate this process. Already since the midtwentieth century advertising and marketing has been influencing people’s lifestyle like politics or news. Media resources brands today are comparable to the resources of some political parties or even TV channels what means that advertising today is one of the main factors affecting consumers ' minds and their behavioral model, main feature of which is the premise of rationality or justification of actions. The author analyzes the changes of models of rationality over time and, above all, the changes caused by the development of Internet marketing and its tools for monitoring user activity and the impact on decision making in the Network. In conclusion a number of recommendations is given, which can help consumers to save an independence in making decisions in the Internet environment.

  9. The insecticide imidacloprid causes mortality of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex by interfering with feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Nyman

    Full Text Available If an organism does not feed, it dies of starvation. Even though some insecticides which are used to control pests in agriculture can interfere with feeding behavior of insects and other invertebrates, the link from chemical exposure via affected feeding activity to impaired life history traits, such as survival, has not received much attention in ecotoxicology. One of these insecticides is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, a neurotoxic substance acting specifically on the insect nervous system. We show that imidacloprid has the potential to indirectly cause lethality in aquatic invertebrate populations at low, sublethal concentrations by impairing movements and thus feeding. We investigated feeding activity, lipid content, immobility, and survival of the aquatic arthropod Gammarus pulex under exposure to imidacloprid. We performed experiments with 14 and 21 days duration, both including two treatments with two high, one day pulses of imidacloprid and one treatment with a low, constant concentration. Feeding of G. pulex as well as lipid content were significantly reduced under exposure to the low, constant imidacloprid concentration (15 µg/L. Organisms were not able to move and feed--and this caused high mortality after 14 days of constant exposure. In contrast, feeding and lipid content were not affected by repeated imidacloprid pulses. In these treatments, animals were mostly immobilized during the chemical pulses but did recover relatively fast after transfer to clean water. We also performed a starvation experiment without exposure to imidacloprid which showed that starvation alone does not explain the mortality in the constant imidacloprid exposure. Using a multiple stressor toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling approach, we showed that both starvation and other toxic effects of imidacloprid play a role for determining mortality in constant exposure to the insecticide.

  10. The Insecticide Imidacloprid Causes Mortality of the Freshwater Amphipod Gammarus pulex by Interfering with Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Anna-Maija; Hintermeister, Anita; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

    2013-01-01

    If an organism does not feed, it dies of starvation. Even though some insecticides which are used to control pests in agriculture can interfere with feeding behavior of insects and other invertebrates, the link from chemical exposure via affected feeding activity to impaired life history traits, such as survival, has not received much attention in ecotoxicology. One of these insecticides is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, a neurotoxic substance acting specifically on the insect nervous system. We show that imidacloprid has the potential to indirectly cause lethality in aquatic invertebrate populations at low, sublethal concentrations by impairing movements and thus feeding. We investigated feeding activity, lipid content, immobility, and survival of the aquatic arthropod Gammarus pulex under exposure to imidacloprid. We performed experiments with 14 and 21 days duration, both including two treatments with two high, one day pulses of imidacloprid and one treatment with a low, constant concentration. Feeding of G. pulex as well as lipid content were significantly reduced under exposure to the low, constant imidacloprid concentration (15 µg/L). Organisms were not able to move and feed – and this caused high mortality after 14 days of constant exposure. In contrast, feeding and lipid content were not affected by repeated imidacloprid pulses. In these treatments, animals were mostly immobilized during the chemical pulses but did recover relatively fast after transfer to clean water. We also performed a starvation experiment without exposure to imidacloprid which showed that starvation alone does not explain the mortality in the constant imidacloprid exposure. Using a multiple stressor toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling approach, we showed that both starvation and other toxic effects of imidacloprid play a role for determining mortality in constant exposure to the insecticide. PMID:23690941

  11. Feeding behavior and crop damage caused by capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, G A; Almeida Paz, I C L; Piovezan, U; Garcia, R G; Lima, K A O; Nääs, I A; Salgado, D D; Pilecco, M; Belloni, M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the yield loss caused by capybaras in rural areas of Dourados-MS, their feeding periods, crop preferences and the landscape characteristics of farms that may affect the occurrence of capybara's herds. Semi-structured interviews in 24 different farms were done during a period between April 2010 and August 2011. Field observations were held at different times of the day, and also during the night in order to record peaks of the feeding behavior in six farms. Direct counting of capybaras along with the group of animals reported as seen by the farmers during the interviews was used to estimate the size of herds. Data was analyzed using the Principal Components Analyses and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The average number of capybaras found in a regular herd was 18.8 ± 7.90 animals. The average number of capybara herd by farms was of 1.38 ± 0.92 while the average number of capybaras by farms was 32.33 ± 27.87. Capybaras selected rice (Oryza sativa) when it was available (14.5% of devastation in 1.18% of total planted area); however, the most eaten crop was corn (Zea mays) with 38.55% of loss rate in 16.17% of the total planted area. Capybaras ate mostly in the evening and during the night. The availability of water resources in the rural area predisposed the occurrence of capybara's herds.

  12. Anyone Can Become a Troll: Causes of Trolling Behavior in Online Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Justin; Bernstein, Michael; Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-01-01

    In online communities, antisocial behavior such as trolling disrupts constructive discussion. While prior work suggests that trolling behavior is confined to a vocal and antisocial minority, we demonstrate that ordinary people can engage in such behavior as well. We propose two primary trigger mechanisms: the individual's mood, and the surrounding context of a discussion (e.g., exposure to prior trolling behavior). Through an experiment simulating an online discussion, we find that both negat...

  13. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Angstman, Nicholas B.; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plate...

  14. Analysis of transient permeation behavior of hydrogen isotope caused by abrupt temperature change of first wall and blanket wall material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, Michio; Tanaka, Satoru; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa

    1989-01-01

    To obtain further information on the transient permeation behavior of hydrogen isotopes as caused by an abrupt temperature change, numerical calculations were carried out for two typical metals, nickel and vanadium. Deuterium permeation through nickel is analyzed as a typical case of bulk-diffusion-limited permeation. Its transient behavior changed dramatically according to the specimen thickness. The transient behavior, in general, is separated into two parts, initial and latter period behaviors. Conditions which cause such a separation were evaluated. Evaluation of the hydrogen diffusivity and solubility by an analysis of transient curves of hydrogen permeation was carried out. The transient behavior of simultaneous gas- and ion-driven hydrogen permeation through vanadium was also analyzed. Overshooting of the hydrogen permeation rate appears with an abrupt temperature increase. Increasing the impinging ion flux causes the overshooting peak to become sharper, and also reduces the change of the steady-state permeation rate to be attained after the temperature change compared with the initial value. (orig.)

  15. Sudden oak death-caused changes to surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in Douglas-fir-tanoak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.S. Valachovic; C.A. Lee; H. Scanlon; J.M. Varner; R. Glebocki; B.D. Graham; D.M. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    We compared stand structure and fuel loading in northwestern California forests invaded by Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to assess whether the continued presence of this pathogen alters surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in ways that may encumber future firefighting response. To attempt to account for these...

  16. The Selfish Goal: autonomously operating motivational structures as the proximate cause of human judgment and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y; Bargh, John A

    2014-04-01

    We propose the Selfish Goal model, which holds that a person's behavior is driven by psychological processes called goals that guide his or her behavior, at times in contradictory directions. Goals can operate both consciously and unconsciously, and when activated they can trigger downstream effects on a person's information processing and behavioral possibilities that promote only the attainment of goal end-states (and not necessarily the overall interests of the individual). Hence, goals influence a person as if the goals themselves were selfish and interested only in their own completion. We argue that there is an evolutionary basis to believe that conscious goals evolved from unconscious and selfish forms of pursuit. This theoretical framework predicts the existence of unconscious goal processes capable of guiding behavior in the absence of conscious awareness and control (the automaticity principle), the ability of the most motivating or active goal to constrain a person's information processing and behavior toward successful completion of that goal (the reconfiguration principle), structural similarities between conscious and unconscious goal pursuit (the similarity principle), and goal influences that produce apparent inconsistencies or counterintuitive behaviors in a person's behavior extended over time (the inconsistency principle). Thus, we argue that a person's behaviors are indirectly selected at the goal level but expressed (and comprehended) at the individual level.

  17. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Nicholas B; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  18. Advanced behavioral analyses show that the presence of food causes subtle changes in C. elegans movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eAngstman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used and studied model organism, C. elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  19. Hypothyroidism during neonatal and perinatal period induced by thyroidectomy of the mother causes depressive-like behavior in prepubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Pineda-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Adelaida Hernandez-Garcia, Margarita Franco-Colin, Rocio Ortiz-ButronDepartamento de Fisiología ‘Mauricio Russek Berman,’ Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: The objective of this study was to see if neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1 thyroidectomy caused hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland had been removed and the parathyroid reimplanted; and 2 false thyroidectomy. The thyroidectomy was made on rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. The rats were mated and one day after giving birth, eight pups were assigned to each group randomly and they were distributed into two groups: a hypothyroid group containing male pups of a hypothyroid mother with a hypothyroid wet nurse; and a euthyroid group of male pups of a euthyroid mother with a euthyroid wet nurse. We analyzed the behavioral test at a prepubertal age. The neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused by the mother’s thyroidectomy caused a decrease in body weight and length. We found that the neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism enhanced the total exploratory activity without affecting social contact and the time spent in the open and closed arms in an elevated plus-maze. The hypothyroidism caused immobility without altering the lower climbing duration in the swimming test. This study shows a novel model to cause neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism without using pharmacological drugs. We demonstrated that hypothyroid animals had a reduction in body weight and length, a retardation of neurodevelopment, and they had depressive-like behavior.Keywords: perinatal hypothyroidism, thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone, behavior, metabolism

  20. Anyone Can Become a Troll: Causes of Trolling Behavior in Online Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Justin; Bernstein, Michael; Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-01-01

    In online communities, antisocial behavior such as trolling disrupts constructive discussion. While prior work suggests that trolling behavior is confined to a vocal and antisocial minority, we demonstrate that ordinary people can engage in such behavior as well. We propose two primary trigger mechanisms: the individual's mood, and the surrounding context of a discussion (e.g., exposure to prior trolling behavior). Through an experiment simulating an online discussion, we find that both negative mood and seeing troll posts by others significantly increases the probability of a user trolling, and together double this probability. To support and extend these results, we study how these same mechanisms play out in the wild via a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of a large online news discussion community. This analysis reveals temporal mood effects, and explores long range patterns of repeated exposure to trolling. A predictive model of trolling behavior shows that mood and discussion context together can explain trolling behavior better than an individual's history of trolling. These results combine to suggest that ordinary people can, under the right circumstances, behave like trolls.

  1. Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joel C; Danon, Leon; O'Hagan, Justin J; Goldstein, Edward; Lajous, Martin; Lipsitch, Marc

    2010-05-05

    Many schools were temporarily closed in response to outbreaks of the recently emerged pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. The effectiveness of closing schools to reduce transmission depends largely on student/family behavior during the closure. We sought to improve our understanding of these behaviors. To characterize this behavior, we surveyed students in grades 9-12 and parents of students in grades 5-8 about student activities during a week long closure of a school during the first months after the disease emerged. We found significant interaction with the community and other students-though less interaction with other students than during school-with the level of interaction increasing with grade. Our results are useful for the future design of social distancing policies and to improving the ability of modeling studies to accurately predict their impact.

  2. Exploiting Scanning Behavior for Predators Can Reduce Rice Damage Caused by Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is often damaged by birds, especially sparrows, in Asia. Bird nets are sometimes used as countermeasures; however this approach is expensive and labor intensive. For this reason, farmers generally eschew bird nets, even though no alternative countermeasures are available. This study focused on exploiting the bird behavior of scanning for predators to reduce crop damage. When birds forage for seeds on the ground they often stop pecking and briefly raise their heads, apparently to scan for predators. Low visibility habitats increase scanning behavior and increased scanning behavior reduces habitat quality from the bird’s perspective; therefore, this study tested the relationship between rice damage rate and visibility at the periphery of rice fields, where tree sparrows rest after feeding. Overall, low visibility reduced damage to rice. Because visibility was mainly affected by weeds, weed management techniques contribute to crop damage management. To reduce damage, weeding can be decreased; therefore, this technique is cost- and labor-efficient.

  3. Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many schools were temporarily closed in response to outbreaks of the recently emerged pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. The effectiveness of closing schools to reduce transmission depends largely on student/family behavior during the closure. We sought to improve our understanding of these behaviors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To characterize this behavior, we surveyed students in grades 9-12 and parents of students in grades 5-8 about student activities during a week long closure of a school during the first months after the disease emerged. We found significant interaction with the community and other students-though less interaction with other students than during school-with the level of interaction increasing with grade. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are useful for the future design of social distancing policies and to improving the ability of modeling studies to accurately predict their impact.

  4. A Phenomenological Study on Inelastic Torsion Caused By Nonlinear Behavior Changes during Earthquake Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Bahram Beheshti-Aval

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of many symmetric structures, which were designed based on the seismic codes, is due to their asymmetricity induced during inelastic behavior. Although the structure was designed symmetrically assuming elastic based criteria, different factors such as material inconsistency in structure, construction details discrepancy and construction errors may result in asymmetric behavior in inelastic deformation range. So far, these considerations have been rarely contemplated in previous published investigations and should be studied regarding the importance of irregularity in increase of seismic demand of structures in the inelastic range. In this paper, as the first step, the asymmetry and irregularity in plan due to non-similar inelastic characteristics with respect to axis passing through center of gravity as well as the effect and importance of each irregularity factors are studied by changing the excitation properties applying to one-storey one-bay steel structures. This simplified structure is chosen due to studying and illustrating the absolute effect of this kind of irregularity in which higher mode effect is eliminated. The results show that the behavior of a structure with inelastic asymmetry is completely different from the structure with elastic asymmetry. As for inelastic asymmetry structure, although the translational and rotational oscillations before yielding were uncouple, these DOFs after yielding become coupled until reaching the terminal rotation point (rotation reaches a constant value and then become uncoupled, i.e., again oscillated symmetrically. This behavior is different from the structures with elastic asymmetricity, in which the translational and rotational movements being coupled during all the excitation time. This effect has not been recognized in previews studies on inelastic behavior of initially elastic symmetry buildings. The study of these behaviors aids the designer to choose the appropriate rehabilitation

  5. Linguistic Mechanisms Cause Rapid Behavior Change. Part Two: How Linguistic Frames Affect Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Written and spoken language contains inherent mechanisms driving motivation. Accessing and modifying psycholinguistic mechanisms, links language frames to changes in behavior within the context of motivational profiling. For example, holding an object like an imported apple feels safe until one is informed it was grown in a toxic waste dump.…

  6. Pilot Control Behavior Discrepancies Between Real and Simulated Flight Caused by Limited Motion Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, P.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Flight simulators provide a flexible, efficient, and safe environment for research and training at much lower costs than real flight. The ultimate validity of any simulation would be achieved when – for a particular task – human cognitive and psychomotor behavior in the simulator corresponds

  7. Attributed causes for work-family conflict: emotional and behavioral outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilies, R.; de Pater, I.E.; Lim, S.; Binnewies, C.

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict may give rise to different emotional reactions, depending on the causal attributions people make for the experience of work-family conflict. These emotional reactions, in turn, may result in specific behavioral reactions, that may either be adaptive or maladaptive in nature. In

  8. Intrathecal administration of clonidine or yohimbine decreases the nociceptive behavior caused by formalin injection in the marsh terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makau, Christopher M; Towett, Philemon K; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of noradrenergic system in the control of nociception is documented in some vertebrate animals. However, there are no data showing the role of this system on nociception in the marsh terrapins. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the antinociceptive action of intrathecal administration...... of the α 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine and α 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine was evaluated in the African marsh terrapin using the formalin test. The interaction of clonidine and yohimbine was also evaluated. RESULTS: Intrathecal administration of clonidine (37.5 or 65 μg/kg) caused...... a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Yohimbine, at a dose of 25 μg/kg, significantly blocked the effect of clonidine (65 μg/kg). However, administration of yohimbine (40 or 53 μg/kg) caused a significant reduction in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior. Intrathecal...

  9. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    behavior of adult Pterostichus cupreus carabid beetles was quantified after being raised on copper-contaminated food and soil during larval development. Copper was found to have an acute toxic effect measured in larval mortality, to cause a slight increase in the developmental period of males......It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  10. Distributional map of the terminal and sub-terminal sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the prepubertal and postpubertal testis of a subject affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (Morris's syndrome): lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Vannelli, G B; Marini, M; Zappoli Thyrion, G D; Gheri, R G; Sgambati, E

    2004-01-01

    In the present research we have investigated the distribution of the sugar residues of the glycoconjugates in the prepubertal and postpubertal testes of a subject with Morris's syndrome (CAIS, Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome). For this purpose a battery of six horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins was used (SBA, PNA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEAI). We have obtained a complete distributional map of the terminal and sub-terminal oligosaccharides in the tunica albuginea, interstitial tissue, lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, mastocytes and endothelial cells. Furthermore the present study has shown that a large amount of sugar residues were detectable in the prepubertal and postpubertal testes but that some differences exist with particular regard to the Sertoli cells. The Sertoli cells and the Leydig cells of the retained prepubertal testis of the patient affected by Morris's syndrome were characterized by the presence of alpha-L-fucose, which was absent in the retained prepubertal testis of the normal subjects. Comparing the results on the postpubertal testis with those obtained on the same aged testis of healthy subjects we have demonstrated that alpha-L-fucose in the Sertoli and Leydig cells and D-galactose-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in the Leydig cells are a unique feature of the subject affected by Morris's syndrome. D-galactose (ss1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and sialic acid, which are present in the Leydig cells of the normal testis were never observed in the same cells of the postpubertal testis of the CAIS patient.

  11. Impulsive action and impulsive choice across substance and behavioral addictions: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2014-11-01

    Substance use disorders are prevalent and debilitating. Certain behavioral syndromes ('behavioral addictions') characterized by repetitive habits, such as gambling disorder, stealing, shopping, and compulsive internet use, may share clinical, co-morbid, and neurobiological parallels with substance addictions. This review considers overlap between substance and behavioral addictions with a particular focus on impulsive action (inability to inhibit motor responses), and impulsive choice (preference for immediate smaller rewards to the detriment of long-term outcomes). We find that acute consumption of drugs with abuse potential is capable of modulating impulsive choice and action, although magnitude and direction of effect appear contingent on baseline function. Many lines of evidence, including findings from meta-analyses, show an association between chronic drug use and elevated impulsive choice and action. In some instances, elevated impulsive choice and action have been found to predate the development of substance use disorders, perhaps signifying their candidacy as objective vulnerability markers. Research in behavioral addictions is preliminary, and has mostly focused on impulsive action, finding this to be elevated versus controls, similar to that seen in chronic substance use disorders. Only a handful of imaging studies has explored the neural correlates of impulsive action and choice across these disorders. Key areas for future research are highlighted along with potential implications in terms of neurobiological models and treatment. In particular, future work should further explore whether the cognitive deficits identified are state or trait in nature: i.e. are evident before addiction perhaps signaling risk; or are a consequence of repetitive engagement in habitual behavior; and effects of novel agents known to modulate these cognitive abilities on various addictive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  13. A single exposure to immobilization causes long-lasting pituitary-adrenal and behavioral sensitization to mild stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Fuentes, Silvia; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    We have previously reported that a single exposure to immobilization (IMO) in rats causes a long-term desensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to the same (homotypic) stressor. Since there are reports showing that a single exposure to other stressors causes sensitization of the HPA response to heterotypic stressors and increases anxiety-like behavior, we studied in the present work the long-term effects of IMO on behavioral and HPA response to mild superimposed stressors. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 h of IMO and then exposed for 5 min to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) at 1, 3 or 7 days after IMO. Blood samples were taken at 15 min after initial exposure to the EPM. Increases in anxiety-like behavior and HPA responsiveness to the EPM were found at all times post-IMO. Changes in the resting levels of HPA hormones did not explain the enhanced HPA responsiveness to the EPM (Experiment 3). In Experiments 4 and 5, we studied the effects of a single exposure to a shorter session of IMO (1 h) on behavioral and HPA responses to a brief and mild session of foot-shocks done 10 days after IMO. Neither previous IMO nor exposure to shocks in control rats modified behavior in the EPM. However, a brief session of shocks in previously IMO-exposed rats dramatically increased anxiety in the EPM. HPA and freezing responses to shocks were similar in control and previous IMO groups. Therefore, a single exposure to IMO appears to induce long-lasting HPA and behavioral sensitization to mild superimposed stressors, although the two responses are likely to be at least partially independent. Long-term effects of IMO on the susceptibility to stress-induced endocrine and emotional disturbances may be relevant to the characterization of animal models of post-traumatic stress.

  14. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés eArenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony as well. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe. Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees´ physiology, behavior and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits.

  15. All-cause mortality risk as a function of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    Emerging work demonstrates individual associations of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on mortality risk. Limited research has evaluated all three of these parameters in a model when considering mortality risk, and their potential additive association on mortality risk has not been fully evaluated, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,295 adults 20-85 yrs), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were objectively assessed (accelerometry) with cardiorespiratory estimated from a prediction equation taking into consideration participant demographic, anthropometric and behavioral characteristics. Using the median values, a PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score was created that ranged from 0-3, indicating the number of these three positive characteristics. Those with below median sedentary behavior did not have a reduced all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.34-1.04; P = 0.07), but those with above median MVPA (HR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82; P = 0.02) and above median CRF did (HR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.09-0.43; P sedentary behavior, were independently associated with reduced mortality risk. Adults with all three characteristics (below median sedentary and above median MVPA and CRF), however, had the lowest mortality risk.

  16. Experimental heart failure causes depression-like behavior together with differential regulation of inflammatory and structural genes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFrey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background-Depression and anxiety are common and independent outcome predictors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. However, it is unclear whether CHF causes depression. Thus, we investigated whether mice develop anxiety- and depression-like behavior after induction of ischemic CHF by myocardial infarction (MI.Methods and Results- In order to assess depression-like behavior, anhedonia was investigated by repeatedly testing sucrose preference for 8 weeks after coronary artery ligation or sham operation. Mice with large MI and increased left ventricular dimensions on echocardiography (termed CHF mice showed reduced preference for sucrose, indicating depression-like behavior. 6 weeks after MI, mice were tested for exploratory activity, anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function using the elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB, open field (OF and object recognition (OR tests. In the EPM and OF, CHF mice exhibited diminished exploratory behavior and motivation despite similar movement capability. In the OR, CHF mice had reduced preference for novelty and impaired short-term memory. On histology, CHF mice had unaltered overall cerebral morphology. However, analysis of gene expression by RNA-sequencing in prefrontal cortical, hippocampal, and left ventricular tissue revealed changes in genes related to inflammation and cofactors of neuronal signal transduction in CHF mice, with Nr4a1 being dysregulated both in prefrontal cortex and myocardium after MI. Conclusions-After induction of ischemic CHF, mice exhibited anhedonic behavior, decreased exploratory activity and interest in novelty, and cognitive impairment. Thus, ischemic CHF leads to distinct behavioral changes in mice analogous to symptoms observed in humans with CHF and comorbid depression.

  17. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Middeldorp, Christel M; M van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-10-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate genetic analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the Mx software package. The influence of maternal personality characteristics and demographic and lifestyle factors was tested to identify specific risk factors that may underlie the shared environment of twins. Furthermore, it was tested whether crying without a cause and being easily upset were predictive of later internalizing, externalizing and attention problems. Crying without a cause yielded a heritability estimate of 60% in boys and girls. For easily upset, the heritability was estimated at 43% in boys and 31% in girls. The variance explained by shared environment varied between 35% and 63%. The correlation between crying without a cause and easily upset (r = .36) was explained both by genetic and shared environmental factors. Birth cohort, gestational age, socioeconomic status, parental age, parental smoking behavior and alcohol use during pregnancy did not explain the shared environmental component. Neuroticism of the mother explained a small proportion of the additive genetic, but not of the shared environmental effects for easily upset. Crying without a cause and being easily upset at age 2 were predictive of internalizing, externalizing and attention problems at age 7, with effect sizes of .28-.42. A large influence of shared environmental factors on crying without a cause and easily upset was detected. Although these effects could be specific to these items, we could not explain them by personality characteristics of the mother or by demographic and lifestyle factors, and we recognize that these effects may reflect other maternal characteristics. A substantial influence of genetic factors

  18. Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causes Hyperactivity and Agressive Behavior: Role of Altered Catcholamines and BDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochum, Carrie; Doherty-Lyon, Shannon; Hoffman, Carol; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Zellikoff, Judith T.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of untoward effects on the offspring. However, recent epidemiological studies have brought into question whether the association between neurobehavioral deficits and maternal smoking is causal. We utilized an animal model of maternal smoking to determine the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on neurobehavioral development. Pregnant mice were exposed to either filtered air or mainstream CS from gestation day (GD) 4 to parturition for 4 hr/d and 5 d/wk, with each exposure producing maternal plasma concentration of cotinine equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes per day (25 ng/ml plasma cotinine level). Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and behavior assessed on at 4 weeks of age and again at 4–6 months of age. Male, but not female, offspring of CS-exposed dams demonstrated a significant increase in locomotor activity during adolescence and adulthood that was ameliorated by methylphenidate treatment. Additionally, male offspring exhibited increased aggression, as evidenced by decreased latency to attack and number of attacks in a resident intruder task. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a significant decrease in striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin and a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein. Taken in concert, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to CS produces behavioral alterations in mice that are similar to those observed in epidemiological studies linking maternal smoking to neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a role for monoaminergic and BDNF alterations in these effects. PMID:24486851

  19. The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all-cause mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-tabar; Zaroudi, Marsa; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Keshtkar, Abbas-Ali; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Pourshams, Akram; Sani, Akbar Feiz; Jafari, Elham; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul D; Berennan, Paul J; Boffetta, Paolo; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Background Most studies that have assessed the association between combined lifestyle factors and mortality outcomes have been conducted in populations of developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between combined lifestyle scores and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for the first time among Iranian adults. Methods The study population included 50,045 Iranians, 40–75 years of age, who were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, between 2004 and 2008. The lifestyle risk factors used in this study included cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and Alternative Healthy Eating Index. The lifestyle score ranged from zero (non-healthy) to 3 (most healthy) points. From the study baseline up to analysis, a total of 4691 mortality cases were recorded. Participants with chronic diseases at baseline, outlier reports of calorie intake, missing data, and body mass index of less than 18.5 were excluded from the analyses. Cox regression models were fitted to establish the association between combined lifestyle scores and mortality outcomes. Results After implementing the exclusion criteria, data from 40,708 participants were included in analyses. During 8.08 years of follow-up, 3,039 cases of death due to all causes were recorded. The adjusted hazard ratio of healthy life style score, compared with non-healthy lifestyle score, was 0.68(95% CI: 0.54, 0.86) for all-cause mortality, 0.53(95% CI: 0.37, 0.77) for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.82(95% CI: 0.53; 1.26) for mortality due to cancer. When we excluded the first two years of follow up from the analysis, the protective association between healthy lifestyle score and cardiovascular death did not change much 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.84), but the inverse association with all-cause mortality became weaker 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.94), and the association with cancer mortality was non-significant 0.92 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.48). In the gender-stratified analysis, we found an inverse

  20. The Triglyceride to HDL Ratio and Its Relationship to Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postpubertal Children: Observation from the Wausau SCHOOL Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Olson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and diabetes and raises the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL ratio in adults, but is not well defined in children. Purpose. To investigate the TG/HDL ratios in children as an IR marker. Methods. Wausau SCHOOL Project assessed 99 prepubertal and 118 postpubertal children. The TG/HDL ratio was correlated with numerous risk factors. Results. TG/HDL ratio was significantly correlated with QUICKI, HOMA-IR, zBMI, waist-to hip ratio, systolic and diastolic BP, LDL size and LDL number. A group of 32 IR children (HOMA-IR > 1 SD from the mean, i.e., >2.45 had significantly higher TG/HDL (3.11 ± 1.77 compared to non-IR children (1.86 ± 0.75. A TG/HDL ratio of ≥2.0 identified 32 of the 40 children deemed IR by HOMA-IR (>2.45 with a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.66. Children with TG/HDL ratio ≥3 were heavier and had higher BP, glucose, HOMA-IR, LDL number, and lower HDL level, QUICKI, and LDL size, regardless of pubertal status. Conclusion. The TG/HDL ratio is strongly associated with IR in children, and with higher BMI, waist hip ratio, BP, and more athrogenic lipid profile.

  1. Odor experiences during preimaginal stages cause behavioral and neural plasticity in adult honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela eRamirez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial insects, experiences acquired during the development have long-term consequences on mature behavior. In the honeybee that suffers profound changes associated with metamorphosis, the effect of odor experiences at larval instars on the subsequent physiological and behavioral response is still unclear. To address the impact of preimaginal experiences on the adult honeybee, colonies containing larvae were fed scented food. The effect of the preimaginal experiences with the food odor was assessed in learning performance, memory retention and generalization in 3-5- and 17-19-day-old bees, in the regulation of their expression of synaptic-related genes and in theperception and morphology of their antennae. Three-5 day old bees that experienced 1-hexanol (1-HEX as food scent responded more to the presentation of the odor during the 1-HEX conditioning than control bees (i.e. bees reared in colonies fed unscented food. Higher levels of PER to 1-HEX in this group also extent to HEXA, the most perceptually similar odor to the experienced one that we tested. These results were not observed for the group tested at older ages. In the brain of young adults, larval experiences triggered similar levels of neurexins and neuroligins expression, two proteins that have been involved in synaptic formation after associative learning. At the sensory periphery, the experience did not alter the number of the olfactory sensilla placoidea, but did reduce the electrical response of the antennae to the experienced and novel odor. Our study provides a new insight into the effects of preimaginal experiences in the honeybee and the mechanisms underlying olfactory plasticity at larval stage of holometabolous insects.

  2. Early age conductive hearing loss causes audiogenic seizure and hyperacusis behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Jayaram, Aditi; Kumaraguru, Anand; Fu, Qiang; Li, Ji; Allman, Brian

    2011-12-01

    Recent clinical reports found a high incidence of recurrent otitis media in children suffering hyperacusis, a marked intolerance to an otherwise ordinary environmental sound. However, it is unclear whether the conductive hearing loss caused by otitis media in early age will affect sound tolerance later in life. Thus, we have tested the effects of tympanic membrane (TM) damage at an early age on sound perception development in rats. Two weeks after the TM perforation, more than 80% of the rats showed audiogenic seizure (AGS) when exposed to loud sound (120 dB SPL white noise, hearing loss recovered. The TM damaged rats also showed significantly enhanced acoustic startle responses compared to the rats without TM damage. These results suggest that early age conductive hearing loss may cause an impaired sound tolerance during development. In addition, the AGS can be suppressed by the treatment of vigabatrin, acute injections (250 mg/kg) or oral intakes (60 mg/kg/day for 7 days), an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the catabolism of GABA. c-Fos staining showed a strong staining in the inferior colliculus (IC) in the TM damaged rats, not in the control rats, after exposed to loud sound, indicating a hyper-excitability in the IC during AGS. These results indicate that early age conductive hearing loss can impair sound tolerance by reducing GABA inhibition in the IC, which may be related to hyperacusis seen in children with otitis media. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Towards a balanced social psychology: causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joachim I; Funder, David C

    2004-06-01

    Mainstream social psychology focuses on how people characteristically violate norms of action through social misbehaviors such as conformity with false majority judgments, destructive obedience, and failures to help those in need. Likewise, they are seen to violate norms of reasoning through cognitive errors such as misuse of social information, self-enhancement, and an over-readiness to attribute dispositional characteristics. The causes of this negative research emphasis include the apparent informativeness of norm violation, the status of good behavior and judgment as unconfirmable null hypotheses, and the allure of counter-intuitive findings. The shortcomings of this orientation include frequently erroneous imputations of error, findings of mutually contradictory errors, incoherent interpretations of error, an inability to explain the sources of behavioral or cognitive achievement, and the inhibition of generalized theory. Possible remedies include increased attention to the complete range of behavior and judgmental accomplishment, analytic reforms emphasizing effect sizes and Bayesian inference, and a theoretical paradigm able to account for both the sources of accomplishment and of error. A more balanced social psychology would yield not only a more positive view of human nature, but also an improved understanding of the bases of good behavior and accurate judgment, coherent explanations of occasional lapses, and theoretically grounded suggestions for improvement.

  4. Mutations affecting the SAND domain of DEAF1 cause intellectual disability with severe speech impairment and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Rajamanickam, Shivakumar; Jensik, Philip J; Vergult, Sarah; de Rocker, Nina; Newhall, Kathryn J; Raghavan, Ramya; Reardon, Sara N; Jarrett, Kelsey; McIntyre, Tara; Bulinski, Joseph; Ownby, Stacy L; Huggenvik, Jodi I; McKnight, G Stanley; Rose, Gregory M; Cai, Xiang; Willaert, Andy; Zweier, Christiane; Endele, Sabine; de Ligt, Joep; van Bon, Bregje W M; Lugtenberg, Dorien; de Vries, Petra F; Veltman, Joris A; van Bokhoven, Hans; Brunner, Han G; Rauch, Anita; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Carvill, Gemma L; Hoischen, Alexander; Mefford, Heather C; Eichler, Evan E; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Menten, Björn; Collard, Michael W; de Vries, Bert B A

    2014-05-01

    Recently, we identified in two individuals with intellectual disability (ID) different de novo mutations in DEAF1, which encodes a transcription factor with an important role in embryonic development. To ascertain whether these mutations in DEAF1 are causative for the ID phenotype, we performed targeted resequencing of DEAF1 in an additional cohort of over 2,300 individuals with unexplained ID and identified two additional individuals with de novo mutations in this gene. All four individuals had severe ID with severely affected speech development, and three showed severe behavioral problems. DEAF1 is highly expressed in the CNS, especially during early embryonic development. All four mutations were missense mutations affecting the SAND domain of DEAF1. Altered DEAF1 harboring any of the four amino acid changes showed impaired transcriptional regulation of the DEAF1 promoter. Moreover, behavioral studies in mice with a conditional knockout of Deaf1 in the brain showed memory deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior. Our results demonstrate that mutations in DEAF1 cause ID and behavioral problems, most likely as a result of impaired transcriptional regulation by DEAF1. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A new technique for long term, stress free, cannulation of the lateral ventricle in postpubertal, freely moving, pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerdenburg, van F.; Dierx, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulation in adolescent and adult pigs has some unique problems. Placement of the cannula is very difficult due to large individual variability in size and structure of the skull and frontal sinus. Furthermore, the rough behavior of the animals makes it necessary to

  6. Traumatic brain injury causes long-term behavioral changes related to region-specific increases of cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöttker, Bruno; Stöber, Franziska; Hummel, Regina; Angenstein, Frank; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Schäfer, Michael K E

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death and survivors often suffer from long-lasting motor impairment, cognitive deficits, anxiety disorders and epilepsy. Few experimental studies have investigated long-term sequelae after TBI and relations between behavioral changes and neural activity patterns remain elusive. We examined these issues in a murine model of TBI combining histology, behavioral analyses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a proxy for neural activity. Adult C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to unilateral cortical impact injury and investigated at early (15-57 days after lesion, dal) and late (184-225 dal) post-traumatic time points. TBI caused pronounced tissue loss of the parietal cortex and subcortical structures and enduring neurological deficits. Marked perilesional astro- and microgliosis was found at 57 dal and declined at 225 dal. Motor and gait pattern deficits occurred at early time points after TBI and improved over the time. In contrast, impaired performance in the Morris water maze test and decreased anxiety-like behavior persisted together with an increased susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures suggesting alterations in neural activity patterns. Accordingly, SPECT imaging of CBF indicated asymmetric hemispheric baseline neural activity patterns. In the ipsilateral hemisphere, increased baseline neural activity was found in the amygdala. In the contralateral hemisphere, homotopic to the structural brain damage, the hippocampus and distinct cortex regions displayed increased baseline neural activity. Thus, regionally elevated CBF along with behavioral alterations indicate that increased neural activity is critically involved in the long-lasting consequences of TBI.

  7. Bubbling behavior of a fluidized bed of fine particles caused by vibration-induced air inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Shuji; Kobayakawa, Murino; Mizutani, Megumi; Imran, Mohd; Yasuda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a vibration-induced air inflow can cause vigorous bubbling in a bed of fine particles and report the mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs. When convective flow occurs in a powder bed as a result of vibrations, the upper powder layer with a high void ratio moves downward and is compressed. This process forces the air in the powder layer out, which leads to the formation of bubbles that rise and eventually burst at the top surface of the powder bed. A negative pressure is created below the rising bubbles. A narrow opening at the bottom allows the outside air to flow into the powder bed, which produces a vigorously bubbling fluidized bed that does not require the use of an external air supply system.

  8. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  9. Low Flow Regimes of the Tarim River Basin, China: Probabilistic Behavior, Causes and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are a frequent occurrence in Xinjiang, China, and therefore fundamental to determining their hydrologic characteristics is low flow analysis. To that end, 11 probability distribution functions and 26 copulas functions were employed to analyze the changing characteristics of low flow regime (defined as seven-day low flow of the Tarim River Basin. Results indicated that: (1 The Wakeby distribution satisfactorily described the probabilistic behavior of the low flow regime. According to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, Bayesian Information Criterions (BIC, maximum likelihood, and other residual-based metrics, Tawn copula, Farlie–Gumbel–Morgenstern copula and Frank copula were the best choice and used in this current study. (2 After 1987, hydrological droughts of longer return periods were prone to higher occurrence frequency. (3 The low flow volume has been increasing in recent years due to the temperature-induced increase of snowmelt and increasing precipitation. However, hydrological droughts can be expected to occur due to the massive increase in water demand from the development of irrigated agriculture, increasing arable land and livestock farming. As a result, the water shortage in the lower Tarim River Basin will be increasingly severe under the influence of climate change and human activities. To alleviate the shortage would call for the development of water-saving agricultural irrigation, water-saving technology, conservation of eco-environment and sustainable development of local socio-economy.

  10. Chronic dietary chlorpyrifos causes long-term spatial memory impairment and thigmotaxic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Granero, Caridad; Ruiz-Muñoz, Ana M; Nieto-Escámez, Francisco A; Colomina, María T; Aschner, Michael; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and the role of neurotransmitter systems, other than the cholinergic system, in mediating OP neurotoxicity. In this study, rats were administered 5mg/kg/day of chlorpyrifos (CPF) for 6 months commencing at 3-months-of-age. The animals were examined 7 months later (at 16-months-of-age) for spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and locomotor activity. In addition, we assessed the chronic effects of CPF on glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) function using pharmacological challenges with dizocilpine (MK801) and diazepam. Impaired performance related to altered search patterns, including thigmotaxis and long-term spatial memory was noted in the MWM in animals exposed to CPF, pointing to dietary CPF-induced behavioral disturbances, such as anxiety. Twenty-four hours after the 31st session of repeated acquisition task, 0.1mg/kg MK801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected for 4 consecutive days. Decreased latencies in the MWM in the control group were noted after two sessions with MK801 treatment. Once the MWM assessment was completed, animals were administered 0.1 or 0.2mg/kg of MK801 and 1 or 3mg/kg of diazepam i.p., and tested for locomotor activity. Both groups, the CPF dietary and control, displayed analogous performance in motor activity. In conclusion, our data point to a connection between the long-term spatial memory, thigmotaxic response and CPF long after the exposure ended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal disruption of serine racemase causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in adulthood: clinical rescue by d-serine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hagiwara

    Full Text Available D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR. Given the role of D-serine in both neurodevelopment and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal disruption of D-serine synthesis by SRR inhibition could induce behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, in later life.Neonatal mice (7-9 days were injected with vehicle or phenazine methosulfate (Met-Phen: 3 mg/kg/day, an SRR inhibitor. Behavioral evaluations, such as spontaneous locomotion, novel object recognition test (NORT, and prepulse inhibition (PPI were performed at juvenile (5-6 weeks old and adult (10-12 weeks old stages. In addition, we tested the effects of D-serine on PPI deficits in adult mice after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Finally, we assessed whether D-serine could prevent the onset of schizophrenia-like behavior in these mice. Neonatal Met-Phen treatment reduced D-serine levels in the brain, 24 hours after the final dose. Additionally, this treatment caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms in juveniles and to schizophrenia in adults. A single dose of D-serine improved PPI deficits in adult mice. Interestingly, chronic administration of D-serine (900 mg/kg/day from P35 to P70 significantly prevented the onset of PPI deficits after neonatal Met-Phen exposure.This study shows that disruption of D-serine synthesis during developmental stages leads to behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms and schizophrenia, in later life. Furthermore, early pharmacological intervention with D-serine may prevent the onset of psychosis in adult.

  12. On the behavior of pressurized pipings under excessive-stresses caused by earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udoguchi, Y.; Akino, K.; Shibata, H.

    1975-01-01

    Five types of breaking experiments on pipe elements and piping structures had been carried out from 1971 to 1973 by the technical sub-committee of the Japan Electric Association under the leadership taken by Y. Udoguchi, one of the authors. One of the fruitful results was to realize the guillotine-type rupture of pipe element on a shaking table. However, it was also shown that the margin for the design is enough, and allowable stresses under earthquake loading are obtained by modifying those of the Emergency Condition of the ASME Code. The experiments effected were as follows: straight pipe elements, curved pipes and T-branch pipe connections, made of both ferritic and austenitic steels, were subjected to repeated bending moment, torsional moment and combined under pressurized condition. The pressure corresponded to their design value, but the stresses caused by such moments exceeded over their allowable stress of the Faulted Condition of the ASME Code. The wave patterns were both sinusoidal and natural earthquake records

  13. Alterations in the brain adenosine metabolism cause behavioral and neurological impairment in ADA-deficient mice and patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Fumagalli, Francesca; Bianchi, Veronica; Poliani, Pietro L.; Dallatomasina, Chiara; Riboni, Elisa; Politi, Letterio S.; Tabucchi, Antonella; Carlucci, Filippo; Casiraghi, Miriam; Carriglio, Nicola; Cominelli, Manuela; Forcellini, Carlo Alberto; Barzaghi, Federica; Ferrua, Francesca; Minicucci, Fabio; Medaglini, Stefania; Leocani, Letizia; la Marca, Giancarlo; Notarangelo, Lucia D.; Azzari, Chiara; Comi, Giancarlo; Baldoli, Cristina; Canale, Sabrina; Sessa, Maria; D’Adamo, Patrizia; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive variant of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by systemic accumulation of ADA substrates. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities observed in ADA-SCID patients surviving after stem cell transplantation or gene therapy represent an unresolved enigma in the field. We found significant neurological and cognitive alterations in untreated ADA-SCID patients as well as in two groups of patients after short- and long-term enzyme replacement therapy with PEG-ADA. These included motor dysfunction, EEG alterations, sensorineural hypoacusia, white matter and ventricular alterations in MRI as well as a low mental development index or IQ. Ada-deficient mice were significantly less active and showed anxiety-like behavior. Molecular and metabolic analyses showed that this phenotype coincides with metabolic alterations and aberrant adenosine receptor signaling. PEG-ADA treatment corrected metabolic adenosine-based alterations, but not cellular and signaling defects, indicating an intrinsic nature of the neurological and behavioral phenotype in ADA deficiency. PMID:28074903

  14. Oocyte cryopreservation for fertility preservation in postpubertal female children at risk for premature ovarian failure due to accelerated follicle loss in Turner syndrome or cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, K; Bedoschi, G

    2014-12-01

    To preliminarily study the feasibility of oocyte cryopreservation in postpubertal girls aged between 13 and 15 years who were at risk for premature ovarian failure due to the accelerated follicle loss associated with Turner syndrome or cancer treatments. Retrospective cohort and review of literature. Academic fertility preservation unit. Three girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome, 1 girl diagnosed with germ-cell tumor. and 1 girl diagnosed with lymphoblastic leukemia. Assessment of ovarian reserve, ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation, and mature oocyte cryopreservation. Response to ovarian stimulation, number of mature oocytes cryopreserved and complications, if any. Mean anti-müllerian hormone, baseline follical stimulating hormone, estradiol, and antral follicle counts were 1.30 ± 0.39, 6.08 ± 2.63, 41.39 ± 24.68, 8.0 ± 3.2; respectively. In Turner girls the ovarian reserve assessment indicated already diminished ovarian reserve. Ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation was successfully performed in all female children referred for fertility preservation. A range of 4-11 mature oocytes (mean 8.1 ± 3.4) was cryopreserved without any complications. All girls tolerated the procedure well. Oocyte cryopreservation is a feasible technique in selected female children at risk for premature ovarian failure. Further studies would be beneficial to test the success of oocyte cryopreservation in young girls. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. From Correlates to Causes: Can Quasi-Experimental Studies and Statistical Innovations Bring Us Closer to Identifying the Causes of Antisocial Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Strait, Luciana B.; Odgers, Candice L.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal, epidemiological studies have identified robust risk factors for youth antisocial behavior, including harsh and coercive discipline, maltreatment, smoking during pregnancy, divorce, teen parenthood, peer deviance, parental psychopathology, and social disadvantage. Nevertheless, because this literature is largely based on observational studies, it remains unclear whether these risk factors have truly causal effects. Identifying causal risk factors for antisocial behavior would be informative for intervention efforts and for studies that test whether individuals are differentially susceptible to risk exposures. In this paper, we identify the challenges to causal inference posed by observational studies and describe quasi-experimental methods and statistical innovations that may move us beyond discussions of risk factors to allow for stronger causal inference. We then review studies that use these methods and we evaluate whether robust risk factors identified from observational studies are likely to play a causal role in the emergence and development of youth antisocial behavior. For most of the risk factors we review, there is evidence that they have causal effects. However, these effects are typically smaller than those reported in observational studies, suggesting that familial confounding, social selection, and misidentification might also explain some of the association between risk exposures and antisocial behavior. For some risk factors (e.g., smoking during pregnancy, parent alcohol problems) the evidence is weak that they have environmentally mediated effects on youth antisocial behavior. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention efforts to reduce antisocial behavior and for basic research on the etiology and course of antisocial behavior. PMID:22023141

  16. Putative Epigenetic Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in Anxiety- and Depression-Related Behaviors Caused by Nicotine as a Stressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Hayase

    Full Text Available Like various stressors, the addictive use of nicotine (NC is associated with emotional symptoms such as anxiety and depression, although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated due to the complicated involvement of target neurotransmitter systems. In the elicitation of these emotional symptoms, the fundamental involvement of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation has recently been suggested. Furthermore, among the interacting neurotransmitter systems implicated in the effects of NC and stressors, the endocannabinoid (ECB system is considered to contribute indispensably to anxiety and depression. In the present study, the epigenetic involvement of histone acetylation induced by histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors was investigated in anxiety- and depression-related behavioral alterations caused by NC and/or immobilization stress (IM. Moreover, based on the contributing roles of the ECB system, the interacting influence of ECB ligands on the effects of HDAC inhibitors was evaluated in order to examine epigenetic therapeutic interventions. Anxiety-like (elevated plus-maze test and depression-like (forced swimming test behaviors, which were observed in mice treated with repeated (4 days NC (subcutaneous 0.8 mg/kg and/or IM (10 min, were blocked by the HDAC inhibitors sodium butyrate (SB and valproic acid (VA. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 agonist ACPA (arachidonylcyclopropylamide; AC also antagonized these behaviors. Conversely, the CB1 antagonist SR 141716A (SR, which counteracted the effects of AC, attenuated the anxiolytic-like effects of the HDAC inhibitors commonly in the NC and/or IM groups. SR also attenuated the antidepressant-like effects of the HDAC inhibitors, most notably in the IM group. From these results, the combined involvement of histone acetylation and ECB system was shown in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. In the NC treatment groups, the limited influence of SR against the HDAC inhibitor

  17. Examining the Causes and Consequences of Short-Term Behavioral Change during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Conard

    Full Text Available Sibudu in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa with its rich and high-resolution archaeological sequence provides an ideal case study to examine the causes and consequences of short-term variation in the behavior of modern humans during the Middle Stone Age (MSA. We present the results from a technological analysis of 11 stratified lithic assemblages which overlie the Howiesons Poort deposits and all date to ~58 ka. Based on technological and typological attributes, we conducted inter-assemblage comparisons to characterize the nature and tempo of cultural change in successive occupations. This work identified considerable short-term variation with clear temporal trends throughout the sequence, demonstrating that knappers at Sibudu varied their technology over short time spans. The lithic assemblages can be grouped into three cohesive units which differ from each other in the procurement of raw materials, the frequency in the methods of core reduction, the kind of blanks produced, and in the nature of tools the inhabitants of Sibudu made and used. These groups of assemblages represent different strategies of lithic technology, which build upon each other in a gradual, cumulative manner. We also identify a clear pattern of development toward what we have previously defined as the Sibudan cultural taxonomic unit. Contextualizing these results on larger geographical scales shows that the later phase of the MSA during MIS 3 in KwaZulu-Natal and southern Africa is one of dynamic cultural change rather than of stasis or stagnation as has at times been claimed. In combination with environmental, subsistence and contextual information, our high-resolution data on lithic technology suggest that short-term behavioral variability at Sibudu can be best explained by changes in technological organization and socio-economic dynamics instead of environmental forcing.

  18. Examining the Causes and Consequences of Short-Term Behavioral Change during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Nicholas J; Will, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Sibudu in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) with its rich and high-resolution archaeological sequence provides an ideal case study to examine the causes and consequences of short-term variation in the behavior of modern humans during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). We present the results from a technological analysis of 11 stratified lithic assemblages which overlie the Howiesons Poort deposits and all date to ~58 ka. Based on technological and typological attributes, we conducted inter-assemblage comparisons to characterize the nature and tempo of cultural change in successive occupations. This work identified considerable short-term variation with clear temporal trends throughout the sequence, demonstrating that knappers at Sibudu varied their technology over short time spans. The lithic assemblages can be grouped into three cohesive units which differ from each other in the procurement of raw materials, the frequency in the methods of core reduction, the kind of blanks produced, and in the nature of tools the inhabitants of Sibudu made and used. These groups of assemblages represent different strategies of lithic technology, which build upon each other in a gradual, cumulative manner. We also identify a clear pattern of development toward what we have previously defined as the Sibudan cultural taxonomic unit. Contextualizing these results on larger geographical scales shows that the later phase of the MSA during MIS 3 in KwaZulu-Natal and southern Africa is one of dynamic cultural change rather than of stasis or stagnation as has at times been claimed. In combination with environmental, subsistence and contextual information, our high-resolution data on lithic technology suggest that short-term behavioral variability at Sibudu can be best explained by changes in technological organization and socio-economic dynamics instead of environmental forcing.

  19. Insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: relationship with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, underlying causes and emerging treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Pattison, Michelle L; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Phelps, Scott; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2018-02-01

    Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage. This research also suggests that poor insight may arise in response to biological, experiential, neuropsychological, social-cognitive, metacognitive and socio-political factors. Studies of the effects of existing and developing treatments indicate that they may influence insight. In the context of earlier research and historical models, these findings support an integrative model of poor insight. This model suggests that insight requires the integration of information about changes in internal states, external circumstances, others' perspectives and life trajectory as well as the multifaceted consequences and causes of each of those changes. One implication is that treatments should, beyond providing education, seek to assist persons with schizophrenia to integrate the broad range of complex and potentially deeply painful experiences which are associated with mental illness into their own personally meaningful, coherent and adaptive picture. © 2018 World Psychiatric Association.

  20. SCREEN FOR DOMINANT BEHAVIORAL MUTATIONS CAUSED BY GENOMIC INSERTION OF P-ELEMENT TRANSPOSONS IN DROSOPHILA: AN EXAMINATION OF THE INTEGRATION OF VIRAL VECTOR SEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    FOX, LYLE E.; GREEN, DAVID; YAN, ZIYING; ENGELHARDT, JOHN F.; WU, CHUN-FANG

    2007-01-01

    Here we report the development of a high-throughput screen to assess dominant mutation rates caused by P-element transposition within the Drosophila genome that is suitable for assessing the undesirable effects of integrating foreign regulatory sequences (viral cargo) into a host genome. Three different behavioral paradigms were used: sensitivity to mechanical stress, response to heat stress, and ability to fly. The results, from our screen of 35,000 flies, indicate that mutations caused by t...

  1. Mutation of the key residue for extraribosomal function of ribosomal protein S19 cause increased grooming behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Kaitsuka, Taku; Fujino, Rika; Araki, Kimi; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

    2016-08-26

    Ribosomal protein S19 (RP S19) possesses ribosomal function as RP S19 monomer and extraribosomal function as cross-linked RP S19 oligomers which function as a ligand of the complement 5a (C5a) receptor (CD88). We have generated a Gln137Glu-RP S19 knock-in (KI) mouse, which is shown to possess the weakened extraribosomal function of RP S19. Because whether the extraribosomal function of RP S19 has a role in brain function had been unclear, we performed behavioral analysis on these mice and demonstrated that KI mice displayed an increased grooming behavior during open-field test and elevated plus maze test and an enhanced freezing behavior in contextual fear conditioning test. These results suggest an involvement of RP S19 oligomers in some anxiety-like behavior, especially grooming behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unusual social behavior in HPC-1/syntaxin1A knockout mice is caused by disruption of the oxytocinergic neural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomonori; Sanada, Masumi; Kofuji, Takefumi; Akagawa, Kimio

    2016-07-01

    HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A), a neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor, contributes to neural function in the CNS by regulating transmitter release. Recent studies reported that STX1A is associated with human neuropsychological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previously, we showed that STX1A null mutant mice (STX1A KO) exhibit neuropsychological abnormalities, such as fear memory deficits, attenuation of latent inhibition, and unusual social behavior. These observations suggested that STX1A may be involved in the neuropsychological basis of these abnormalities. Here, to study the neural basis of social behavior, we analyzed the profile of unusual social behavior in STX1A KO with a social novelty preference test, which is a useful method for quantification of social behavior. Interestingly, the unusual social behavior in STX1A KO was partially rescued by intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin (OXT). In vivo microdialysis studies revealed that the extracellular OXT concentration in the CNS of STX1A KO was significantly lower compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, dopamine-induced OXT release was reduced in STX1A KO. These results suggested that STX1A plays an important role in social behavior through regulation of the OXTergic neural system. Dopamine (DA) release is reduced in CNS of syntaxin1A null mutant mice (STX1A KO). Unusual social behavior was observed in STX1A KO. We found that oxytocin (OXT) release, which was stimulated by DA, was reduced and was rescued the unusual social behavior in STX1A KO was rescued by OXT. These results indicated that STX1A plays an important role in promoting social behavior through regulation of DA-induced OXT release in amygdala. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Developmental exposure to low concentrations of two brominated flame retardants, BDE-47 and BDE-99, causes life-long behavioral alterations in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Lilah; Wells, Corinne N; Drastal, Meghan; Odamah, Kathryn-Ann; Galat, Richard E; Behl, Mamta; Levin, Edward D

    2018-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used as flame retardants until the early 2000s, mainly in home furnishings and electronics. The persistence of PBDEs in the environment leads to continued ubiquitous exposure to low levels, with infants and children experiencing higher exposures than adults. Accumulating evidence suggest that low-level exposures during early life stages can affect brain development and lead to long-term behavioral impairments. We investigated the effects of zebrafish exposure to low doses of the two prominent PBDEs; 2,2',4,4',5,-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) and 2,2',4,4',-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), during embryo-development on short- and long-term behavioral endpoints. We included the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) due to its well documented neurotoxicity across species from zebrafish to humans. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to the following individual treatments; 0.1% DMSO (vehicle control); 0.3μM CPF; 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3μM BDE-47; 0.003, 0.03, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20μM BDE-99 from 5 until 120h post fertilization (hpf). Low exposure levels were determined as those not causing immediate overt toxicity, and behavior assays were conducted in the low-level range. At 144 hpf the larvae were tested for locomotor activity. At approximately 6 months of age adult zebrafish were tested in a behavioral battery including assays for anxiety-related behavior, sensorimotor response and habituation, social interaction, and predator avoidance. In the short-term, larval locomotor activity was reduced in larvae treated with 0.3μM CPF and 0.1μM BDE-47. BDE-99 treatment caused non-monotonic dose effects, with 0.3μM causing hyperactivity and 1μM or higher causing hypoactivity. In the long-term, adult anxiety-related behavior was reduced in all treatments as measured in both the novel tank dive test and tap test. We show that exposure of zebrafish embryos to low concentrations of the brominated flame retardants BDE-47 and

  4. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in

  5. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, Basten; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, S.; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, T.G.; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C.; Rosenstiel, P.C.; Dierking, K.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Background: The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide
    nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  6. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, L.B.; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, S.; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, T.G.; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C.; Rosenstiel, P.C.; Dierking, K.; Kammenga, J.E.; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Background The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  7. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, L Basten; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, Sunna; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, Timm G; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C; Rosenstiel, Philip C; Dierking, Katja; Kammenga, Jan E; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  8. Homozygous SLC6A17 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Progressive Tremor, Speech Impairment, and Behavioral Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Z.; Willemsen, M.H.; Papon, M.A.; Musante, L.; Benevento, M.; Hu, H; Venselaar, H.; Wissink-Lindhout, W.M.; Silfhout, A.T. van; Vissers, L.E.L.M.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Marouillat, S.; Wienker, T.F.; Ropers, H.H.; Kahrizi, K.; Nadif Kasri, N.; Najmabadi, H.; Laumonnier, F.; Kleefstra, T.; Bokhoven, H. van

    2015-01-01

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity

  9. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon.

  10. Neonatal stroke causes poor midline motor behaviors and poor fine and gross motor skills during early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D; Heathcock, Jill C

    2013-03-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD) were assessed from 2 to 7 months of age. The following variables were analyzed: percentage of time in midline and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III). Infants with neonatal stroke demonstrated poor performance in midline behaviors and fine and gross motor scores on the BSID-III. These results suggest that infants with NS have poor midline behaviors and motor skill development early in infancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acquisition of Xyllela fastidiosa causes changes to the inoculation behavior (EPG X wave) of an efficient sharpshooter vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a foregut-borne bacterium that is inoculated into xylem cells of a healthy plant during feeding by sharpshooter vectors. Inoculation occurs during salivation and egestion behaviors that are likely represented by the sharpshooter X wave. The objective of this study was to t...

  12. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  13. Social defeat stress causes depression-like behavior with metabolite changes in the prefrontal cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Yun; Zhou, Xin-Yu; Yang, Li-Ning; Wang, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Pu, Jun-Cai; Liu, Lan-Xiang; Gui, Si-Wen; Zeng, Li; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Chan-Juan; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a serious mental disorder with high morbidity and mortality. The role of social stress in the development of depression remains unclear. Here, we used the social defeat stress paradigm to induce depression-like behavior in rats, then evaluated the behavior of the rats and measured metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Within the first week after the social defeat procedure, the sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted to examine the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. For our metabolite analysis, multivariate statistics were applied to observe the distribution of all samples and to differentiate the socially defeated group from the control group. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to find the potential relationships among the differential metabolites. In the OFT and EPM, there were no significant differences between the two experimental groups. In the SPT and FST, socially defeated rats showed less sucrose intake and longer immobility time compared with control rats. Metabolic profiling identified 25 significant variables with good predictability. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed that "Hereditary Disorder, Neurological Disease, Lipid Metabolism" was the most significantly altered network. Stress-induced alterations of low molecular weight metabolites were observed in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Particularly, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and energy metabolism were significantly perturbed. The results of this study suggest that repeated social defeat can lead to metabolic changes and depression-like behavior in rats.

  14. Understanding the neural control of ingestive behaviors: helping to separate cause from effect with dehydration-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A G

    2000-06-01

    Eating and drinking are motivated behaviors that are made up of coordinated sets of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral motor events. Although the spinal cord, hindbrain, and hypothalamus contain the motor neurons and circuitry sufficient to maintain the reflex parts of these motor events, inputs from the telencephalon are required to furnish the behavioral components with a motivated (goal-directed) character. Each of these motor events derives from the complex interaction of a variety of sensory inputs with groups of neural networks whose components are distributed throughout the brain and collectively support motor expression and coordination. At a first approximation based on a variety of data, these networks can be divided into three groups: networks that stimulate, those that inhibit, and those that disinhibit motor functions. A fourth contributor is the circadian timing signal that originates in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and provides the temporal anchor for the expression of all behaviors. This article discusses the nature of these networks using neuroanatomical (tract-tracing and neuropeptide in situ hybridization), endocrine, and behavioral evidence from a variety of experimental models. A persistent problem when studying the control of food intake from a neural systems perspective has been the difficulty in separating those neuronal changes that result in hunger from those that are as a consequence of eating. To address this problem, dehydration-associated anorexia is presented as a particularly useful experimental model because it can be used to distinguish between neural mechanisms underlying anorexia and those changes that occur as a consequence of anorexia. The article concludes by highlighting the potential role of neuropeptidergic action in the operation of these networks, using forebrain neuropeptidergic innervation of the parabrachial nucleus as an example. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Social defeat stress causes depression-like behavior with metabolite changes in the prefrontal cortex of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yun Liu

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder is a serious mental disorder with high morbidity and mortality. The role of social stress in the development of depression remains unclear. Here, we used the social defeat stress paradigm to induce depression-like behavior in rats, then evaluated the behavior of the rats and measured metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Within the first week after the social defeat procedure, the sucrose preference test (SPT, open field test (OFT, elevated plus maze (EPM and forced swim test (FST were conducted to examine the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors. For our metabolite analysis, multivariate statistics were applied to observe the distribution of all samples and to differentiate the socially defeated group from the control group. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to find the potential relationships among the differential metabolites. In the OFT and EPM, there were no significant differences between the two experimental groups. In the SPT and FST, socially defeated rats showed less sucrose intake and longer immobility time compared with control rats. Metabolic profiling identified 25 significant variables with good predictability. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed that "Hereditary Disorder, Neurological Disease, Lipid Metabolism" was the most significantly altered network. Stress-induced alterations of low molecular weight metabolites were observed in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Particularly, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and energy metabolism were significantly perturbed. The results of this study suggest that repeated social defeat can lead to metabolic changes and depression-like behavior in rats.

  16. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate

  17. Crying Without a Cause and Being Easily Upset in Two-Year-Olds: Heritability and Predictive Power of Behavioral Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen-Blokhuis, M.M.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ∼18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate

  18. The Relative Power of an Emotion's Facial Expression, Label, and Behavioral Consequence to Evoke Preschoolers' Knowledge of Its Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Lay people and scientists alike assume that, especially for young children, facial expressions are a strong cue to another's emotion. We report a study in which children (N=120; 3-4 years) described events that would cause basic emotions (surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness) presented as its facial expression, as its label, or as its…

  19. Genetic ablation of the GluK4 kainate receptor subunit causes anxiolytic and antidepressant-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catches, Justin S; Xu, Jian; Contractor, Anis

    2012-03-17

    There is a clear link between dysregulation of glutamatergic signaling and mood disorders. Genetic variants in the glutamate receptor gene GRIK4, which encodes the kainate receptor subunit GluK4, alter the susceptibility for depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that Grik4(-/-) mice have reduced anxiety and an antidepressant-like phenotype. In the elevated zero-maze, a test for anxiety and risk taking behavior, Grik4(-/-) mice spent significantly more time exploring the open areas of the maze. In anxiogenic tests of marble-burying and novelty-induced suppression of feeding, anxiety-like behavior was consistently reduced in knockout animals. In the forced swim test, a test of learned helplessness that is used to determine depression-like behavior, knockout mice demonstrated significantly less immobility suggesting that Grik4 ablation has an antidepressant-like effect. Finally, in the sucrose preference test, a test for anhedonia in rodents, Grik4(-/-) mice demonstrated increased sucrose preference. Expression of the GluK4 receptor subunit in the forebrain is restricted to the CA3 region of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus regions where KARs are known to modulate synaptic plasticity. We tested whether Grik4 ablation had effects on mossy fiber (MF) plasticity and found there to be a significant impairment in LTP likely through a loss of KAR modulation of excitability of the presynaptic MF axons. These studies demonstrate a clear anxiolytic and antidepressant phenotype associated with ablation of Grik4 and a parallel disruption in hippocampal plasticity, providing support for the importance of this receptor subunit in mood disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Homozygous SLC6A17 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Progressive Tremor, Speech Impairment, and Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H.; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M.; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F.; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia

    2015-01-01

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neu...

  1. Unusual interlayer quantum transport behavior caused by the zeroth Landau level in YbMnBi2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Y; Hu, J; Graf, D; Zou, T; Zhu, M; Shi, Y; Che, S; Radmanesh, S M A; Lau, C N; Spinu, L; Cao, H B; Ke, X; Mao, Z Q

    2017-09-21

    Relativistic fermions in topological quantum materials are characterized by linear energy-momentum dispersion near band crossing points. Under magnetic fields, relativistic fermions acquire Berry phase of π in cyclotron motion, leading to a zeroth Landau level (LL) at the crossing point, a signature unique to relativistic fermions. Here we report the unusual interlayer quantum transport behavior resulting from the zeroth LL mode observed in the time reversal symmetry breaking type II Weyl semimetal YbMnBi 2 . The interlayer magnetoresistivity and Hall conductivity of this material are found to exhibit surprising angular dependences under high fields, which can be well fitted by a model, which considers the interlayer quantum tunneling transport of the zeroth LL's Weyl fermions. Our results shed light on the unusual role of zeroth LLl mode in transport.The transport behavior of the carriers residing in the lowest Landau level is hard to observe in most topological materials. Here, Liu et al. report a surprising angular dependence of the interlayer magnetoresistivity and Hall conductivity arising from the lowest Landau level under high magnetic field in type II Weyl semimetal YbMnBi 2 .

  2. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  3. Cardiovascular health knowledge and behavior in patient attendants at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan – a cause for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Atif

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about coronary heart disease (CHD and its risk factors is an important pre-requisite for an individual to implement behavioral changes leading towards CHD prevention. There is scant data on the status of knowledge about CHD in the general population of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge of CHD in a broad Pakistani population and identify the factors associated with knowledge. Methods Cross sectional study was carried out at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan using convenience sampling. Standard questionnaire was used to interview 792 patient attendants (persons accompanying patients. Knowledge was computed as a continuous variable based on correct answers to fifteen questions. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine the factors independently associated with knowledge. Results The mean age was 38.1 (±13 years. 27.1% had received no formal education. The median knowledge score was 3.0 out of a possible maximum of 15. Only 14% were able to correctly describe CHD as a condition involving limitation in blood flow to the heart. Majority of respondents could identify only up to two risk factors for CHD. Most commonly identified risk factors were stress (43.4%, dietary fat (39.1%, smoking (31.9% and lack of exercise (17.4%. About 20% were not able to identify even a single risk factor for CHD. Factors significantly associated with knowledge included age (p = 0.023, income (p Conclusion This is the first study assessing the state of CHD knowledge in a relatively diverse non-patient population in Pakistan. There are striking gaps in knowledge about CHD, its risk factors and symptoms. These translate to inadequate preventive behavior patterns. Educational programs are urgently required to improve the level of understanding of CHD in the Pakistani population.

  4. Perceptions about the cause of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior in a Pakistani population – results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Wajeeha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. Generally patients with schizophrenia are considered dangerous. They are isolated and treatment is delayed. Studies have shown favorable prognosis with good family and social support, early diagnosis and management. Duration of untreated psychosis is a bad prognostic indicator. We aimed to determine the perceptions regarding the etiology of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 people at the out patient departments of Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Questions were related to a vignette of a young man displaying schizophrenic behavior. Data was analyzed on SPSS v 14. Results The mean age of the participants was 31.4 years (range = 18–72 and 77% of them were males. The majorities were graduates (61.9% and employed (50%. Only 30% of the participants attributed 'mental illness' as the main cause of psychotic symptoms while a large number thought of 'God's will' (32.3%, 'superstitious ideas' (33.1%, 'loneliness' (24.8% and 'unemployment' (19.3% as the main cause. Mental illness as the single most important cause was reported by only 22%. As far as management is concerned, only 40% reported psychiatric consultation to be the single most important management step. Other responses included spiritual healing (19.5% and Sociachanges (10.6 while 14.8% of respondents said that they would do nothing. Gender, age, family system and education level were significantly associated with the beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia (p Conclusion Despite majority of the study population being well educated, only a few recognized schizophrenia as a mental illness and many held superstitious beliefs. A vast majority of Pakistanis have non-biomedical beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia. Their

  5. Binge-pattern cocaine administration causes long-lasting behavioral hyperarousal but does not enhance vulnerability to single prolonged stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisieski, Michael J; Perrine, Shane A

    2017-11-01

    Cocaine use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. This could be due to vulnerability to post-traumatic symptoms conferred by previous exposure to cocaine. Therefore, we combined chronic binge-pattern cocaine with a model of psychological trauma (single prolonged stress) to determine whether the behavioral effects of psychological trauma are enhanced in cocaine-sensitized individuals. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 14 days of cocaine (15mg/kg/injection) or saline in a binge pattern (3 injections per day, 1h apart). Seven days after the last injection animals were exposed to traumatic stress or a control procedure. Seven days after stress, activity and anxiety-like behaviors were measured. Binge-pattern cocaine increased locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze, and both cocaine and SPS exposure increased the rapidity with which rats moved through grooming sequences. Neither binge-pattern cocaine nor SPS increased anxiety-like behaviors, and no interactions were found between binge-pattern cocaine exposure and SPS exposure. A behavioral phenotype categorization approach demonstrated that cocaine-exposed groups expressed a high incidence of hyperactivity-like symptoms. These results suggest that binge-pattern cocaine exposure causes a long-lasting hyper-exploratory phenotype but does not make individuals more vulnerable to a later traumatic stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Dynamic Behavior of a Network of Pipelines and Liquefaction of Soil Caused by the Earthquake Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mirza Goltabar Roshan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis pipelines in the quake as one of the most vital arteries in the current circumstances in the world is of special importance. in our everyday activities, used to underground structures such as pipes, tunnels, wells and so on for services such as transporting water, transportation, irrigation, drainage, sewage disposal, transporting oil and gas, carrying acid waste, industrial, household and so on. With regard to the huge investments structures, especially buried underground pipes, we need to study these constructs in response to the earthquake, is clearly felt. Pipelines used for transporting gas and other fluids, are widely distributed in all areas. These lines due to passing through the densely populated areas are always buried in the earth. Seismic behavior of these pipes as a result of the interaction between the soil and the pipe is different from the above-ground structures. The manner of modelling of the effects of soil liquefaction on the pipes in this thesis is that two shear springs and a normal spring is defined between soil and the pipe that in liquefaction mode minimize the friction shear strength.

  7. Homozygous SLC6A17 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Progressive Tremor, Speech Impairment, and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H.; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M.; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F.; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Najmabadi, Hossein; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Kleefstra, Tjitske; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2015-01-01

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neutral amino acids and glutamate, and plays an important role in the regulation of glutamatergic synapses. Prediction programs and 3D modeling suggest that the identified mutations are deleterious to protein function. To directly test the functional consequences, we investigated the neuronal subcellular localization of overexpressed wild-type and mutant variants in mouse primary hippocampal neuronal cells. Wild-type protein was present in soma, axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines. p.Pro633Arg altered SLC6A17 was found in soma and proximal dendrites but did not reach spines. p.Gly162Arg altered SLC6A17 showed a normal subcellular distribution but was associated with an abnormal neuronal morphology mainly characterized by the loss of dendritic spines. In summary, our genetic findings implicate homozygous SLC6A17 mutations in autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, and their pathogenic role is strengthened by genetic evidence and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. PMID:25704603

  8. Human amyloid β peptide and tau co-expression impairs behavior and causes specific gene expression changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyin; Saar, Valeria; Leung, Ka Lai; Chen, Liang; Wong, Garry

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques consisting of Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles formed by aggregation of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau. We generated a novel invertebrate model of AD by crossing Aβ1-42 (strain CL2355) with either pro-aggregating tau (strain BR5270) or anti-aggregating tau (strain BR5271) pan-neuronal expressing transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans. The lifespan and progeny viability of the double transgenic strains were significantly decreased compared with wild type N2 (P5E-21). RNA interference of 13 available top up-regulated genes in Aβ1-42+pro-aggregating tau animals revealed that F-box family genes and nep-4 could enhance life span deficits and chemotaxis deficits while Y39G8C.2 (TTBK2) could suppress these behaviors. Comparing the list of regulated genes from C. elegans to the top 60 genes related to human AD confirmed an overlap of 8 genes: patched homolog 1, PTCH1 (ptc-3), the Rab GTPase activating protein, TBC1D16 (tbc-16), the WD repeat and FYVE domain-containing protein 3, WDFY3 (wdfy-3), ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2, ARFGEF2 (agef-1), Early B-cell Factor, EBF1 (unc-3), d-amino-acid oxidase, DAO (daao-1), glutamate receptor, metabotropic 1, GRM1 (mgl-2), prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha 2, P4HA2 (dpy-18 and phy-2). Taken together, our C. elegans double transgenic model provides insight on the fundamental neurobiologic processes underlying human AD and recapitulates selected transcriptomic changes observed in human AD brains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Homozygous SLC6A17 mutations cause autosomal-recessive intellectual disability with progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Najmabadi, Hossein; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Kleefstra, Tjitske; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2015-03-05

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neutral amino acids and glutamate, and plays an important role in the regulation of glutamatergic synapses. Prediction programs and 3D modeling suggest that the identified mutations are deleterious to protein function. To directly test the functional consequences, we investigated the neuronal subcellular localization of overexpressed wild-type and mutant variants in mouse primary hippocampal neuronal cells. Wild-type protein was present in soma, axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines. p.Pro633Arg altered SLC6A17 was found in soma and proximal dendrites but did not reach spines. p.Gly162Arg altered SLC6A17 showed a normal subcellular distribution but was associated with an abnormal neuronal morphology mainly characterized by the loss of dendritic spines. In summary, our genetic findings implicate homozygous SLC6A17 mutations in autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, and their pathogenic role is strengthened by genetic evidence and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Features of distribution and causes of risk-oriented behavior among young people (by the example of psychoactive substances use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Kukovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the university students’ views of possible situations and the reasons for the use of substances that can be addictive by their peers. So-called psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, energy drinks can act as risk factors and  contribute to the development of a number of socially significant diseases.  The study did not provide for the study of the spread of harmful habits among young people, but only an analysis of the responses concerning the situation and the reasons for these phenomena.  The study involved 137 students aged 17 to 21 years.  It was found that the majority of respondents can not identify a single best reason, but pointed out a few of these reasons and situations.  It is shown that in the opinion of young people, the freer use of psychoactive substances among young people is primarily promoted by visits to discos, meeting with friends who are on the background of the lack of interesting activities and hobbies, as well as the situation, accompanied by an insufficient level of adult supervision, including the holidays period.  Analysis of the study results suggests a lack of skill level output from "uncomfortable" psychological situations among young people. The survey results indicate key influence of family and social environment on the degree of the risk-oriented behavior manifestation of young people.  Taking into account the significant contribution of risk factors in the state of public health indicators, analysis of the processes of formation and perception of health risks among young people requires special attention.  Conducting further systematic sociological studies, which will condition the direction and influence the quality of health preservation programs seems relevant and appropriate.

  11. Moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relation between behavior problems in persons with dementia and the distress they cause in caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales-González, C; Romero-Moreno, R; Losada, A; Márquez-González, M; Zarit, S H

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) are the principal sources of stress in caregivers. The aim of the present work is to analyze the moderating effect of self-efficacy for managing BPSD on the distress these problems generate in family caregivers. The participants were 231 family caregivers of people with dementia. We assessed the frequency and caregiver distress associated with three dimensions of BPSD (depressive, disruptive and memory problems). In addition, we assessed the moderating effect of self-efficacy for dealing with BPSD in the relationship between the dementia patient's frequency of BPSD and caregiver distress through hierarchical regression analyses, one for each of the dimensions of BPSD. We found a moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relation between the frequency of BPSD and the distress in caregivers for the dimensions of depressive and disruptive behaviors. Caregivers having to deal with a high frequency of behavior problems but with high levels of self-efficacy presented significantly lower levels of distress associated with depressive and disruptive behavior problems compared to those caregivers with low levels of self-efficacy. No differences in the effects of self-efficacy were found for distress levels of caregivers who dealt with low frequency of BPSD. Also, we did not find a moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relation between the frequency of memory problems and caregivers' distress. The results suggest that self-efficacy for managing BPSD attenuates the relation between the frequency of behavior problems – both disruptive and depressive – and the distress they cause in caregivers.

  12. Moderate injury in motor-sensory cortex causes behavioral deficits accompanied by electrophysiological changes in mice adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ouyang

    Full Text Available Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI in children often happen when there's a sudden blow to the frontal bone, end with long unconscious which can last for hours and progressive cognitive deficits. However, with regard to the influences of moderate TBI during children adulthood, injury-induced alterations of locomotive ability, long-term memory performance, and hippocampal electrophysiological firing changes have not yet been fully identified. In this study, lateral fluid percussion (LFP method was used to fabricate moderate TBI in motor and somatosensory cortex of the 6-weeks-old mice. The motor function, learning and memory function, extracellular CA1 neural spikes were assessed during acute and subacute phase. Moreover, histopathology was performed on day post injury (DPI 16 to evaluate the effect of TBI on tissue and cell morphological changes in cortical and hippocampal CA1 subregions. After moderate LFP injury, the 6-weeks-old mice showed severe motor deficits at the early stage in acute phase but gradually recovered later during adulthood. At the time points in acute and subacute phase after TBI, novel object recognition (NOR ability and spatial memory functions were consistently impaired in TBI mice; hippocampal firing frequency and burst probability were hampered. Analysis of the altered burst firing shows a clear hippocampal theta rhythm drop. These electrophysiological impacts were associated with substantially lowered NOR preference as compared to the sham group during adulthood. These results suggest that moderate TBI introduced at motorsenory cortex in 6-weeks-old mice causes obvious motor and cognitive deficits during their adulthood. While the locomotive ability progressively recovers, the cognitive deficits persisted while the mice mature as adult mice. The cognitive deficits may be attributed to the general suppressing of whole neural network, which could be labeled by marked reduction of excitability in hippocampal CA1

  13. Moderate injury in motor-sensory cortex causes behavioral deficits accompanied by electrophysiological changes in mice adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Yan, Qichao; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Zhiheng

    2017-01-01

    Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children often happen when there's a sudden blow to the frontal bone, end with long unconscious which can last for hours and progressive cognitive deficits. However, with regard to the influences of moderate TBI during children adulthood, injury-induced alterations of locomotive ability, long-term memory performance, and hippocampal electrophysiological firing changes have not yet been fully identified. In this study, lateral fluid percussion (LFP) method was used to fabricate moderate TBI in motor and somatosensory cortex of the 6-weeks-old mice. The motor function, learning and memory function, extracellular CA1 neural spikes were assessed during acute and subacute phase. Moreover, histopathology was performed on day post injury (DPI) 16 to evaluate the effect of TBI on tissue and cell morphological changes in cortical and hippocampal CA1 subregions. After moderate LFP injury, the 6-weeks-old mice showed severe motor deficits at the early stage in acute phase but gradually recovered later during adulthood. At the time points in acute and subacute phase after TBI, novel object recognition (NOR) ability and spatial memory functions were consistently impaired in TBI mice; hippocampal firing frequency and burst probability were hampered. Analysis of the altered burst firing shows a clear hippocampal theta rhythm drop. These electrophysiological impacts were associated with substantially lowered NOR preference as compared to the sham group during adulthood. These results suggest that moderate TBI introduced at motorsenory cortex in 6-weeks-old mice causes obvious motor and cognitive deficits during their adulthood. While the locomotive ability progressively recovers, the cognitive deficits persisted while the mice mature as adult mice. The cognitive deficits may be attributed to the general suppressing of whole neural network, which could be labeled by marked reduction of excitability in hippocampal CA1 subregion.

  14. Minimal traumatic brain injury causes persistent changes in DNA methylation at BDNF gene promoters in rat amygdala: A possible role in anxiety-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Bhamburkar, Tanmayi; Shelkar, Gajanan; Choudhary, Amit; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Sakharkar, Amul J

    2017-10-01

    Minimal traumatic brain injury (MTBI) often transforms into chronic neuropsychiatric conditions including anxiety, the underlying mechanisms of which are largely unknown. In the present study, we employed the closed-head injury paradigm to induce MTBI in rats and examined whether DNA methylation can explain long-term changes in the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the amygdala as well as trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors. The MTBI caused anxiety-like behaviors and altered the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) isoforms (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) and factors involved in DNA demethylation such as the growth arrest and DNA damage 45 (GADD45a and GADD45b). After 30days of MTBI, the over-expression of DNMT3a and DNMT3b corresponded to heightened DNMT activity, whereas the mRNA levels of GADD45a and GADD45b were declined. The methylated cytosine levels at the BDNF promoters (Ip, IVp and IXp) were increased in the amygdala of the trauma-induced animals; these coincided negatively with the mRNA levels of exon IV and IXa, but not of exon I. Interestingly, treatment with 5-azacytidine, a pan DNMT inhibitor, normalized the MTBI-induced DNMT activity and DNA hypermethylation at exon IVp and IXp. Furthermore, 5-azacytidine also corrected the deficits in the expression of exons IV and IXa and reduced the anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest that the DNMT-mediated DNA methylation at the BDNF IVp and IXp might be involved in the regulation of BDNF gene expression in the amygdala. Further, it could also be related to MTBI-induced anxiety-like behaviors via the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of young post-pubertal dairy bulls alters the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and spermatozoa but has no effect on semen volume or sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C J; Fair, S; English, A M; Holden, S A; Dick, J R; Lonergan, P; Kenny, D A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with rumen protected n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the quantity and quality of semen from young post-pubertal dairy bulls. Pubertal Holstein-Friesian (n = 43) and Jersey (n = 7) bulls with a mean ± s.e.m. age and bodyweight of 420.1 ± 5.86 days and 382 ± 8.94 kg, respectively, were blocked on breed, weight, age and semen quality (based on the outcomes of two pre-trial ejaculates) and randomly assigned to one of three treatments: (i) a non-supplemented control (CTL, n = 15), (ii) rumen-protected safflower (SO, n = 15), (iii) rumen-protected n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil (FO, n = 20). Bulls were fed their respective diets, ad libitum for 12 weeks; individual intakes were recorded using an electronic feeding system for the initial 6 weeks of the feeding period. Semen was collected via electro-ejaculation at weeks -2, -1, 0, 7, 10, 11 and 12 relative to the beginning of the trial period (week 0). On collection, semen volume, sperm concentration and progressive linear motility (PLM) were assessed. On weeks -2, -1, 0, 10, 11, 12, semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and frozen using a programmable freezer. On weeks -1, 7 and 11; a sub-sample of semen was separated into sperm and seminal plasma, by centrifugation and stored at - 20 °C until analysis of lipid composition. Semen from 10 bulls per treatment were used for post-thaw analysis at weeks 10, 11 and 12 (3 straws per ejaculate). Sperm motility was analysed by computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). In addition, membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction and oxidative stress were assessed using flow cytometry. Sperm from bulls fed SO had a 1.2 fold higher total n-6 PUFA content at week 11 compared to week -1 (P semen volume, concentration or PLM of sperm when assessed either immediately following collection or post-thawing. Membrane fluidity and oxidative stress of sperm were also not affected by

  16. OCD-like behavior is caused by dysfunction of thalamo-amygdala circuits and upregulated TrkB/ERK-MAPK signaling as a result of SPRED2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, M; Weber, M; Post, A M; Popp, S; Grein, J; Zechner, M; Guerrero González, H; Kreis, A; Schmitt, A G; Üçeyler, N; Lesch, K-P; Schuh, K

    2018-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling. Excessive self-grooming, reflecting OCD-like behavior in rodents, resulted in facial skin lesions in SPRED2 knockout (KO) mice. This was alleviated by treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In addition to the previously suggested involvement of cortico-striatal circuits, electrophysiological measurements revealed altered transmission at thalamo-amygdala synapses and morphological differences in lateral amygdala neurons of SPRED2 KO mice. Changes in synaptic function were accompanied by dysregulated expression of various pre- and postsynaptic proteins in the amygdala. This was a result of altered gene transcription and triggered upstream by upregulated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)/ERK-MAPK signaling in the amygdala of SPRED2 KO mice. Pathway overactivation was mediated by increased activity of TrkB, Ras, and ERK as a specific result of SPRED2 deficiency and not elicited by elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Using the MEK inhibitor selumetinib, we suppressed TrkB/ERK-MAPK pathway activity in vivo and reduced OCD-like grooming in SPRED2 KO mice. Altogether, this study identifies SPRED2 as a promising new regulator, TrkB/ERK-MAPK signaling as a novel mediating mechanism, and thalamo-amygdala synapses as critical circuitry involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

  17. Nocturnal agitation in Huntington disease is caused by arousal-related abnormal movements rather than by rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutel, Dulce; Tchikviladzé, Maya; Charles, Perrine; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Roze, Emmanuel; Durr, Alexandra; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Patients with Huntington disease (HD) and their spouses often complain of agitation during sleep, but the causes are mostly unknown. To evaluate sleep and nocturnal movements in patients with various HD stages and CAG repeats length. The clinical features and sleep studies of 29 patients with HD were retrospectively collected (11 referred for genotype-phenotype correlations and 18 for agitation during sleep) and compared with those of 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients had videopolysomnography, but the movements during arousals were re-analyzed in six patients with HD with stored video. The patients had a longer total sleep period and REM sleep onset latency, but no other differences in sleep than controls. There was no correlation between CAG repeat length and sleep measures, but total sleep time and sleep efficiency were lower in the subgroup with moderate than milder form of HD. Periodic limb movements and REM sleep behavior disorders were excluded, although 2/29 patients had abnormal REM sleep without atonia. In contrast, they had clumsy and opisthotonos-like movements during arousals from non-REM or REM sleep. Some movements were violent and harmful. They might consist of voluntary movements inappropriately involving the proximal part of the limbs on a background of exaggerated hypotonia. Giant (>65 mcV) sleep spindles were observed in seven (24%) patients with HD and one control. The nocturnal agitation in patients with HD seems related to anosognostic voluntary movements on arousals, rather than to REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural phase transition causing anomalous photoluminescence behavior in perovskite (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Mlayah, A.; Lusson, A.; Bouchez, G.; Boukheddaden, K.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Optical and structural properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-type (C 6 H 11 NH 3 ) 2 [PbI 4 ] (abbreviated as C 6 PbI 4 ) were investigated using optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and x-ray diffraction measurements. Room temperature, optical absorption measurements, performed on spin-coated films of C 6 PbI 4 , revealed two absorption bands at 2.44 and 3.21 eV. Upon 325 nm (3.815 eV) laser irradiation, strong green PL emission peaks were observed at 2.41 eV (P1) and 2.24 eV (P2) and assigned to free and localized excitons, respectively. The exciton binding energy was estimated at 356 meV. At low temperature, two additional emission bands were detected at 2.366 eV (P3) and a large band (LB) at 1.97 eV. The former appeared only below 40 K and the latter emerged below 130 K. The thermal dependence of the PL spectra revealed an abnormal behavior accompanied by singularities in the peak positions and intensities at 40 and 130 K. X-ray diffraction studies performed on powder and single crystals as a function of temperature evidenced significant changes of the interlayer spacing at 50 K and ∼138 K. Around 138 K, a commensurate to incommensurate structural phase transition occurred on cooling. It involves a symmetry breaking leading to a distortion of the PbI 6 octahedron. The resulting incommensurate spatial modulation of the Pb–I distances (and Pb–I–Pb angles) causes a spatial modulation of the band gap, which is at the origin of the emergence of the LB below ∼130 K and the anomalous behavior of the position of P1 below 130 K. The change of the interlayer spacing in the 40-50 K range may in turn be related to the significant decrease of the intensity of P2 and the maximum emission of the LB. These results underline the intricate character of the structural and the PL properties of the hybrid perovskites; understanding such properties should benefit to the design of optoelectronic devices with targeted properties

  19. Structural phase transition causing anomalous photoluminescence behavior in perovskite (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yangui, A. [Groupe d’Etudes de la Matière Condensée, UMR CNRS 8653-Université de Versailles Saint Quentin En Yvelines, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra km 3.5 BP 1171, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Pillet, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modélisations, UMR-CNRS 7036, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Mlayah, A. [Centre d’Elaboration de Matériaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS UPR 8011-Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig 31055, Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Lusson, A.; Bouchez, G.; Boukheddaden, K., E-mail: Younes.abid@fss.rnu.tn, E-mail: kbo@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d’Etudes de la Matière Condensée, UMR CNRS 8653-Université de Versailles Saint Quentin En Yvelines, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Triki, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie, Electrochimie Moléculaires, Chimie Analytique, UMR CNRS 6521-Université de Bretagne Occidentale, BP 809, 29285 Brest (France); Abid, Y., E-mail: Younes.abid@fss.rnu.tn, E-mail: kbo@physique.uvsq.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra km 3.5 BP 1171, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2015-12-14

    Optical and structural properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-type (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] (abbreviated as C{sub 6}PbI{sub 4}) were investigated using optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and x-ray diffraction measurements. Room temperature, optical absorption measurements, performed on spin-coated films of C{sub 6}PbI{sub 4}, revealed two absorption bands at 2.44 and 3.21 eV. Upon 325 nm (3.815 eV) laser irradiation, strong green PL emission peaks were observed at 2.41 eV (P1) and 2.24 eV (P2) and assigned to free and localized excitons, respectively. The exciton binding energy was estimated at 356 meV. At low temperature, two additional emission bands were detected at 2.366 eV (P3) and a large band (LB) at 1.97 eV. The former appeared only below 40 K and the latter emerged below 130 K. The thermal dependence of the PL spectra revealed an abnormal behavior accompanied by singularities in the peak positions and intensities at 40 and 130 K. X-ray diffraction studies performed on powder and single crystals as a function of temperature evidenced significant changes of the interlayer spacing at 50 K and ∼138 K. Around 138 K, a commensurate to incommensurate structural phase transition occurred on cooling. It involves a symmetry breaking leading to a distortion of the PbI{sub 6} octahedron. The resulting incommensurate spatial modulation of the Pb–I distances (and Pb–I–Pb angles) causes a spatial modulation of the band gap, which is at the origin of the emergence of the LB below ∼130 K and the anomalous behavior of the position of P1 below 130 K. The change of the interlayer spacing in the 40-50 K range may in turn be related to the significant decrease of the intensity of P2 and the maximum emission of the LB. These results underline the intricate character of the structural and the PL properties of the hybrid perovskites; understanding such properties should benefit to the design of optoelectronic devices with

  20. Structural phase transition causing anomalous photoluminescence behavior in perovskite (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Mlayah, A.; Lusson, A.; Bouchez, G.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.; Boukheddaden, K.

    2015-12-01

    Optical and structural properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-type (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4] (abbreviated as C6PbI4) were investigated using optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and x-ray diffraction measurements. Room temperature, optical absorption measurements, performed on spin-coated films of C6PbI4, revealed two absorption bands at 2.44 and 3.21 eV. Upon 325 nm (3.815 eV) laser irradiation, strong green PL emission peaks were observed at 2.41 eV (P1) and 2.24 eV (P2) and assigned to free and localized excitons, respectively. The exciton binding energy was estimated at 356 meV. At low temperature, two additional emission bands were detected at 2.366 eV (P3) and a large band (LB) at 1.97 eV. The former appeared only below 40 K and the latter emerged below 130 K. The thermal dependence of the PL spectra revealed an abnormal behavior accompanied by singularities in the peak positions and intensities at 40 and 130 K. X-ray diffraction studies performed on powder and single crystals as a function of temperature evidenced significant changes of the interlayer spacing at 50 K and ˜138 K. Around 138 K, a commensurate to incommensurate structural phase transition occurred on cooling. It involves a symmetry breaking leading to a distortion of the PbI6 octahedron. The resulting incommensurate spatial modulation of the Pb-I distances (and Pb-I-Pb angles) causes a spatial modulation of the band gap, which is at the origin of the emergence of the LB below ˜130 K and the anomalous behavior of the position of P1 below 130 K. The change of the interlayer spacing in the 40-50 K range may in turn be related to the significant decrease of the intensity of P2 and the maximum emission of the LB. These results underline the intricate character of the structural and the PL properties of the hybrid perovskites; understanding such properties should benefit to the design of optoelectronic devices with targeted properties.

  1. CDC National Health Report: leading causes of morbidity and mortality and associated behavioral risk and protective factors--United States, 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole Blair; Hayes, Locola D; Brown, Kathryn; Hoo, Elizabeth C; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2014-10-31

    Although substantial progress has been made in improving the health of persons in the United States, serious problems remain to be solved. Life expectancy is increasing, and the rates of the leading causes of death are improving in many cases; however, numerous indicators (i.e., measures of observed or calculated data on the status of a condition) of the health and safety of the U.S. population remain poor. This report reviews population health in the United States and provides an assessment of recent progress in meeting high-priority health objectives. The health status indicators described in this report were selected because of their direct relation to the leading causes of death and other substantial sources of morbidity and mortality and should be the focus of prevention efforts. Data are reported starting in 2005 (or the earliest available year since 2005) through the current data year. Because data sources and specific indicators vary regarding when data are available, the most recent year for which data are available might range from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained from 17 CDC surveys or surveillance systems and three non-CDC sources to provide a view of this particular point of time in the nation's health and trends in recent years. Data from the following CDC surveillance systems and surveys were used: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); Emerging Infections Program/Active Bacterial Core surveillance (EIP/ABCs); Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet); Internet Panel Surveys: Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health-Care Personnel and Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women; National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN); National HIV Surveillance System; National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS); National Immunization Survey (NIS); National Immunization Survey

  2. Deviant Behavior in Higher Educational Institutions of the Central Federal District and the Northwestern Federal District: Causes, Scale, Varieties, and Prospects of Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanov, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Corruption and other forms of unacceptable behavior in Russian universities frequently is the result of poor conditions of work, low salaries, and inadequate administrative and oversight structures. A thorough reform and reorganization of institutions of higher education should go a long way to reducing the incidence of this behavior. [This…

  3. External Costs of Risky Health Behaviors Associated with Leading Actual Causes of Death in the U.S.: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armineh Zohrabian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on external costs of risky behaviors in the U.S. and provides a framework for estimating them. External costs arise when a person does not bear all the costs of his or her behavior. They provide one of the strongest rationales for government interventions. Although the earlier estimates of external costs no longer have policy relevance, they demonstrated that the existence of external costs was an empirical question. We recommend that the estimates of external costs be updated as insurance structures, environments, and knowledge about these behaviors change. The general aspects of external costs may apply to countries other than the U.S. after taking into account differences in institutional, policy and epidemiological characteristics.

  4. Attributions of the "causes" of group performance as an alternative explanation of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, D G; Bendoly, E; Podsakoff, P M

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility that feedback regarding team performance may influence team members' reports of organizational citizenship behaviors. Ninety-five teams of business students (N = 412) participated in a labor-scheduling simulation over a local area network. Teams were provided with false negative, false positive, or neutral feedback regarding their performance. Results support the hypothesis that the perception of 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping behavior and civic virtue) in work groups may, in part. be a function of the nature of the performance feedback that group members receive. However, negative feedback appears to play a more critical role than positive feedback in this attributional process. Possible reasons for these findings, as well as their implications, are discussed.

  5. How tobacco smoke causes disease: the biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease : a report of the Surgeon General

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    .... This report specifically reviews the evidence on the potential mechanisms by which smoking causes diseases and considers whether a mechanism is likely to be operative in the production of human disease by tobacco smoke...

  6. Surface fire intensity influences simulated crown fire behavior in lodgepole pine forests with recent mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad M. Hoffman; Penelope Morgan; William Mell; Russell Parsons; Eva Strand; Steve. Cook

    2013-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks have had a significant impact on forests throughout western North America and have generated concerns about interactions and feedbacks between beetle attacks and fire. However, research has been hindered by a lack of experimental studies and the use of fire behavior models incapable of accounting for the heterogeneous fuel complexes. We...

  7. Exposure to the widely used fungicide Mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    The widely used fungicide Mancozeb has been shown to cause hypothyroxinemia and other adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system in adult experimental animals. In humans, hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on the developing nervous system and can lead...... to impaired cognitive function and motor development in children. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether perinatal Mancozeb exposure would cause developmental neurotoxicity in rats. Groups of 9-21 time-mated Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 50, 100 or 150 mg Mancozeb/kg bw/day by gavage...... offspring. The dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused neurotoxicity in the pregnant dams, and was therefore reduced to 100 mg/kg bw/day in mid study. T4 levels showed a dose-dependent and significant decreased in dams from all three dose groups on GD 15, whereas offspring T4 levels, thyroid weights and histology were...

  8. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0% treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  9. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  10. Combined fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia causes myelin deficits and autism-like behavior in a rat model of diffuse white matter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Erik; Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kammen, Caren M; van der Toorn, Annette; Groenendaal, Floris; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Heijnen, Cobi J; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Benders, Manon N J L; Nijboer, Cora H A

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults and fluctuating cerebral oxygenation. However, the exact mechanisms underlying diffuse WMI are not fully understood and no treatment options are currently available. The use of clinically relevant animal models is crucial to advance knowledge on the pathophysiology of diffuse WMI, allowing the definition of novel therapeutic targets. In the present study, we developed a multiple-hit animal model of diffuse WMI by combining fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia in rats. We characterized the effects on white matter development and functional outcome by immunohistochemistry, MRI and behavioral paradigms. Combined fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia resulted in delayed cortical myelination, microglia activation and astrogliosis at P18, together with long-term changes in oligodendrocyte maturation as observed in 10 week old animals. Furthermore, rats with WMI showed impaired motor performance, increased anxiety and signs of autism-like behavior, i.e. reduced social play behavior and increased repetitive grooming. In conclusion, the combination of fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia in rats induces a pattern of brain injury and functional impairments that closely resembles the clinical situation of diffuse WMI. This animal model provides the opportunity to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying WMI, and can be used to develop novel treatment options for diffuse WMI in preterm infants. © 2017 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A part of patients with autism spectrum disorder has haploidy of HPC-1/syntaxin1A gene that possibly causes behavioral disturbance as in experimentally gene ablated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofuji, Takefumi; Hayashi, Yuko; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Sanada, Masumi; Tamaru, Masao; Akagawa, Kimio

    2017-03-22

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable and encompasses a various set of neuropsychiatric disorders with a wide-ranging presentation. HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) encodes a neuronal plasma membrane protein that regulates the secretion of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. STX1A gene ablated mice (null and heterozygote mutant) exhibit abnormal behavioral profiles similar to human autistic symptoms, accompanied by reduction of monoamine secretion. To determine whether copy number variation of STX1A gene and the change of its expression correlate with ASD as in STX1A gene ablated mice, we performed copy number assay and real-time quantitative RT-PCR using blood or saliva samples from ASD patients. We found that some ASD patients were haploid for the STX1A gene similar to STX1A heterozygote mutant mice. However, copy number of STX1A gene was normal in the parents and siblings of ASD patients with STX1A gene haploidy. In ASD patients with gene haploidy, STX1A mRNA expression was reduced to about half of their parents. Thus, a part of ASD patients had haploidy of STX1A gene and lower STX1A gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term exposure to dim light at night disrupts rhythmic behaviors and causes neurodegeneration in fly models of tauopathy and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mari; Subramanian, Manivannan; Cho, Yun-Ho; Kim, Gye-Hyeong; Lee, Eunil; Park, Joong-Jean

    2018-01-08

    The accumulation and aggregation of phosphorylated tau proteins in the brain are the hallmarks for the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, disruptions in circadian rhythms (CRs) with altered sleep-wake cycles, dysregulation of locomotion, and increased memory defects have been reported in patients with AD. Drosophila flies that have an overexpression of human tau protein in neurons exhibit most of the symptoms of human patients with AD, including locomotion defects and neurodegeneration. Using the fly model for tauopathy/AD, we investigated the effects of an exposure to dim light at night on AD symptoms. We used a light intensity of 10 lux, which is considered the lower limit of light pollution in many countries. After the tauopathy flies were exposed to the dim light at night for 3 days, the flies showed disrupted CRs, altered sleep-wake cycles due to increased pTau proteins and neurodegeneration, in the brains of the AD flies. The results indicate that the nighttime exposure of tauopathy/AD model Drosophila flies to dim light disrupted CR and sleep-wake behavior and promoted neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Noonan Syndrome: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be delayed. But because this disorder causes bone maturity to be delayed, growth sometimes continues into the ... mild intellectual disability A wide range of mental, emotional and behavioral issues that are usually mild Hearing ...

  14. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  15. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...

  16. Shining Light on the Differences in Molecular Structural Chemical Makeup and the Cause of Distinct Degradation Behavior Between Malting- and Feed- Type Barley Using Synchrotorn FTIR Microspectroscopy: A Novel Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.; Doiron, K.; Liu, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use advanced synchrotron-sourced FTIR microspectroscopy (SFTIRM) as a novel approach to identify the differences in protein and carbohydrate molecular structure (chemical makeup) between these two varieties of barley and illustrate the exact causes for their significantly different degradation kinetics. Items assessed included (1) molecular structural differences in protein amide I to amide II intensities and their ratio within cellular dimensions, (2) molecular structural differences in protein secondary structure profile and their ratios, and (3) molecular structural differences in carbohydrate component peak profile. Our hypothesis was that molecular structure (chemical makeup) affects barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. Using SFTIRM, the protein and carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup of barley was revealed and identified. The protein molecular structural chemical makeup differed significantly between the two varieties of barleys. No difference in carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup was detected. Harrington was lower than Valier in protein amide I, amide II, and protein amide I to amide II ratio, while Harrington was relatively higher in model-fitted protein a-helix and β-sheet, but lower in the others (β-turn and random coil). These results indicated that it is the molecular structure of protein (chemical makeup) that may play a major role in the different degradation kinetics between the two varieties of barleys (not the molecular structure of carbohydrate). It is believed that use of the advanced synchrotron technology will make a significant step and an important contribution to research in examining the molecular structure (chemical makeup) of plant, feed, and seeds.

  17. Selective Mutism: Causes and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the diagnostic criteria, causes, assessment, and treatment of selective mutism in school-age children. The most successful treatments have included various forms or combinations of behavior modification, though these may not address the underlying problem. (Author/DB)

  18. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...

  19. Effect of transient postpubertal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... in serum levels of testosterone and sperm production in. Iranian indigenous ..... tain ranges, growth in birds is related to thyroid hormone exposure ... reported no increase in muscle or body mass which is in agreement with ...

  20. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  1. Controlled Low-Pressure Blast-Wave Exposure Causes Distinct Behavioral and Morphological Responses Modelling Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Comorbid Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Amitai; Ram, Omri; Ifergane, Gal; Matar, Michael A; Sagi, Ram; Ostfeld, Ishay; Hoffman, Jay R; Kaplan, Zeev; Sadot, Oren; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-01-01

    The intense focus in the clinical literature on the mental and neurocognitive sequelae of explosive blast-wave exposure, especially when comorbid with post-traumatic stress-related disorders (PTSD) is justified, and warrants the design of translationally valid animal studies to provide valid complementary basic data. We employed a controlled experimental blast-wave paradigm in which unanesthetized animals were exposed to visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile effects of an explosive blast-wave produced by exploding a thin copper wire. By combining cognitive-behavioral paradigms and ex vivo brain MRI to assess mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) phenotype with a validated behavioral model for PTSD, complemented by morphological assessments, this study sought to examine our ability to evaluate the biobehavioral effects of low-intensity blast overpressure on rats, in a translationally valid manner. There were no significant differences between blast- and sham-exposed rats on motor coordination and strength, or sensory function. Whereas most male rats exposed to the blast-wave displayed normal behavioral and cognitive responses, 23.6% of the rats displayed a significant retardation of spatial learning acquisition, fulfilling criteria for mTBI-like responses. In addition, 5.4% of the blast-exposed animals displayed an extreme response in the behavioral tasks used to define PTSD-like criteria, whereas 10.9% of the rats developed both long-lasting and progressively worsening behavioral and cognitive "symptoms," suggesting comorbid PTSD-mTBI-like behavioral and cognitive response patterns. Neither group displayed changes on MRI. Exposure to experimental blast-wave elicited distinct behavioral and morphological responses modelling mTBI-like, PTSD-like, and comorbid mTBI-PTSD-like responses. This experimental animal model can be a useful tool for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of blast-wave-induced mTBI and PTSD and comorbid mTBI-PTSD.

  2. What Causes SIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Look Like? How Can Caregivers Create a Safe Sleep Environment? Babies Need Tummy ... exactly what causes SIDS at this time. Scientists and health care providers are working very hard to find the cause or causes ...

  3. Common-cause analysis using sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Stack, D.W.

    1977-12-01

    Common-cause analysis was developed at the Aerojet Nuclear Company for studying the behavior of a system that is affected by special conditions and secondary causes. Common-cause analysis is related to fault tree analysis. Common-cause candidates are minimal cut sets whose primary events are closely linked by a special condition or are susceptible to the same secondary cause. It is shown that common-cause candidates can be identified using the Set Equation Transformation System (SETS). A Boolean equation is used to establish the special conditions and secondary cause susceptibilities for each primary event in the fault tree. A transformation of variables (substituting equals for equals), executed on a minimal cut set equation, results in replacing each primary event by the right side of its special condition/secondary cause equation and leads to the identification of the common-cause candidates

  4. Chronic restraint stress causes anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, downregulates glucocorticoid receptor expression, and attenuates glutamate release induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shuichi; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Ninomiya, Midori; Richards, Misty C; Wakabayashi, Chisato; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Stress and the resulting increase in glucocorticoid levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. We investigated the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS: 6 hours × 28 days) on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats and on the possible changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent neural function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We observed significant reductions in body weight gain, food intake and sucrose preference from 1 week after the onset of CRS. In the 5th week of CRS, we conducted open-field (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swim tests (FST). We observed a decrease in the number of entries into open arms during the EPM (anxiety-like behavior) and increased immobility during the FST (depression-like behavior). When the PFC was removed after CRS and subject to western blot analysis, the GR expression reduced compared with control, while the levels of BDNF and its receptors remained unchanged. Basal glutamate concentrations in PFC acute slice which were measured by high performance liquid chromatography were not influenced by CRS. However, BDNF-induced glutamate release was attenuated after CRS. These results suggest that reduced GR expression and altered BDNF function may be involved in chronic stress-induced anxiety--and depression-like behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. What Causes Cushing's Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What causes Cushing syndrome? Cushing syndrome can develop for two reasons: Medication ... uhs ), thyroid, or thymus How Tumors Can Cause Cushing Syndrome Normally, the pituitary gland in the brain controls ...

  7. What Causes COPD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD What Causes COPD? Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Long- ... and the airways usually is the cause of COPD. In the United States, the most common irritant ...

  8. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  9. The Cause of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...

  10. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Can I Deal With My Asthma? Allergy Testing Definition: Allergy-Triggered Asthma Asthma Center Asthma View more ...

  11. What causes education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Why do universities not give priority to education? The article suggests a formal answer on the basis of Lacan’s four discourses. Why education? Why do we learn? Is it caused by a natural curiosity or is it caused by anxiety? Is it at all possible to control the influence that we undoubtedly have...

  12. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  13. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  14. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  15. What Causes a Toothache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... See a Dentist? What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Men: Looking for a Better ... sinus or ear infections and tension in the facial muscles can cause discomfort that resembles a toothache, ...

  16. Causes of Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and often disabling disease of the central nervous system. > Muscular dystrophy MD is characterized by the degeneration of skeletal muscles. > Neurofibromatosis Progressive disorder of the nervous system that causes tumors on the nerves. > Post-polio ...

  17. What causes IBD?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What causes IBD? An overly aggressive cell-mediated immune response to luminal commensal bacteria in genetically susceptible individuals. Sartor, Gastroenterology 2004.

  18. Behavioral experiments in a wild passerine cause short-term reductions in parental provisioning and nestling mass Experimentos conductuales en un ave paserina silvestre causan reducciones de corto plazo en el cuidado parental y peso de pichones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOUTER F.D VAN DONGEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on wild animals often involves the capture and temporary removal of individuals from their territory. Although the acute effects of such procedures are well understood in terms of stress hormone profiles, their effect on the behaviour of captured individuals after release is poorly known. Additionally, for socially-monogamous individuals captured whilst breeding, little is known regarding whether the remaining individual compensates for the temporary loss of its partner and whether offspring condition or survival ultimately decreases due to any reductions in parental provisioning. We investigated the influence of field-based experiments requiring temporary adult removal on adult provisioning behaviour and nestling mass in the thorn-tailed rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda, a Chilean furnariid species with equal parental effort between sexes. During the absence of the removed individual, remaining individuals did not increase nestling provisioning rates while, upon their release, removed individuals did not return to nestling feeding for at least 38 minutes and typically much longer. This drastic reduction in combined parental provisioning negatively affected nestling mass, while average nestling mass increased during a control period, nestlings failed to gain weight during and subsequent to parental removal. Finally, our experiments did not affect fledging probability. Overall, our results indicate that the temporary removal of rayaditos from their territories can cause short-term reductions in parental provisioning and nestling weight, but is unlikely to lead to any long-term effects on nestling survival.Las investigaciones en animales silvestres frecuentemente requieren la captura y remoción de individuos de sus territorios. Si bien se conocen los efectos a nivel hormonal de tales métodos, sus efectos sobre la conducta de los individuos después de la liberación son escasamente conocidos. Además, para individuos de especies mon

  19. Rebels with a Cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Steve; McKeon, Loren Marie

    1998-01-01

    Describes the activities and benefits of Positive Peer Groups (PPG), a Cleveland-based diocese program involving 40 schools. Designed for students with behavioral or academic problems, it focuses on school service projects that teach students to develop and implement valuable social skills. Describes the positive social and academic effects PPG…

  20. Adolescent Sleepiness: Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Shana L; Capener, Dale; Daly, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality are common among adolescents. The multidimensional causes of insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality include biological, health-related, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The most common direct consequence of insufficient and/or poor sleep quality is excessive daytime sleepiness, which may contribute to poor academic performance, behavioral health problems, substance use, and drowsy driving. Evaluation of sleepiness includes a detailed sleep history and sleep diary, with polysomnography only required for the assessment of specific sleep disorders. Management involves encouraging healthy sleep practices such as having consistent bed and wake times, limiting caffeine and electronics at night before bed, and eliminating napping, in addition to treating any existing sleep or medical disorders. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(9):e340-e344.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Cancer-causing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, R.L.; Holland, J.M.; Storer, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation causes cancer. That simple fact was known by the early 1900s. Further, radiation can induce cancer in almost any tissue in animals and humans. But the cancer-causing dose may vary by 20-fold for different tissues in animals. Such variation is also seen in people who are exposed, typically, to low radiation doses. Hence, the minimum dose that causes human cancer is not known. Thus, the crucial question becomes what factors, including amount of exposure, trigger cancer. Radiation is divided into two types, ionizing and nonionizing. Of the two, ionizing radiation involves higher energies. Thus by ejecting electrons from molecules, charged particles called ion pairs are formed. They are short-lived, and often break down to form highly reactive free radicals, which are molecular fragments containing unpaired electrons. Nonionizing radiation, which involves ultraviolet light and micro- and radiowaves, causes molecular excitations such as vibrations and electron movement, but produces no ions. And though ultraviolet light causes skin cancer, ionizing radiation is, by far, the more potent carcinogen

  2. Dyscalculia: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder affecting the ability to acquire school-level arithmetic skills, affecting approximately 3-6% of individuals. Progress in understanding the root causes of DD and how best to treat it have been impeded by lack of widespread research and variation in characterizations of the disorder across studies. However, recent years have witnessed significant growth in the field, and a growing body of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence now points to an underlying deficit in the representation and processing of numerical magnitude information as a potential core deficit in DD. An additional product of the recent progress in understanding DD is the resurgence of a distinction between ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ developmental dyscalculia. The first appears related to impaired development of brain mechanisms for processing numerical magnitude information, while the latter refers to mathematical deficits stemming from external factors such as poor teaching, low socio-economic status, and behavioral attention problems or domain-general cognitive deficits. Increased awareness of this distinction going forward, in combination with longitudinal empirical research, offers great potential for deepening our understanding of the disorder and developing effective educational interventions.

  3. Education and Cause-specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Lange, Theis; Osler, Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differential exposures to behavioral risk factors have been shown to play an important mediating role on the education-mortality relation. However, little is known about the extent to which educational attainment interacts with health behavior, possibly through differential...... vulnerability. METHODS: In a cohort study of 76,294 participants 30 to 70 years of age, we estimated educational differences in cause-specific mortality from 1980 through 2009 and the mediating role of behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and body mass index). With the use...... of marginal structural models and three-way effect decomposition, we simultaneously regarded the behavioral risk factors as intermediates and clarified the role of their interaction with educational exposure. RESULTS: Rate differences in mortality comparing participants with low to high education were 1...

  4. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A M; Hart, C A

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of 33 months in a paediatric accident and emergency department, the clinical pattern and possible causes of vulvovaginitis were studied prospectively in 200 girls presenting with genital discharge, irritation, pain, or redness. The major causes were poor hygiene and threadworms. The suspicion of sexual abuse arose in a few girls but no organisms of sexually transmitted disease were found. Urinary symptoms were common but only 20 patients had a significant bacteriuria and 40 had sterile pyuria. Specific skin problems occurred in 28 cases. Simple measures to improve hygiene and treatment of threadworms gave effective relief. Genital irritation caused urinary symptoms with no clinical evidence of infection, and it is advised that antibiotic treatment should await urine culture. Specific skin problems require help from a dermatologist. The possibility of sexual abuse must be considered especially if the vulvovaginitis is persistent or recurrent after adequate treatment. PMID:1580682

  5. Behaviorism, private events, and the molar view of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective-objective or inner-outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms.

  6. Behaviorism, Private Events, and the Molar View of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2011-01-01

    Viewing the science of behavior (behavior analysis) to be a natural science, radical behaviorism rejects any form of dualism, including subjective–objective or inner–outer dualism. Yet radical behaviorists often claim that treating private events as covert behavior and internal stimuli is necessary and important to behavior analysis. To the contrary, this paper argues that, compared with the rejection of dualism, private events constitute a trivial idea and are irrelevant to accounts of behavior. Viewed in the framework of evolutionary theory or for any practical purpose, behavior is commerce with the environment. By its very nature, behavior is extended in time. The temptation to posit private events arises when an activity is viewed in too small a time frame, obscuring what the activity does. When activities are viewed in an appropriately extended time frame, private events become irrelevant to the account. This insight provides the answer to many philosophical questions about thinking, sensing, and feeling. Confusion about private events arises in large part from failure to appreciate fully the radical implications of replacing mentalistic ideas about language with the concept of verbal behavior. Like other operant behavior, verbal behavior involves no agent and no hidden causes; like all natural events, it is caused by other natural events. In a science of behavior grounded in evolutionary theory, the same set of principles applies to verbal and nonverbal behavior and to human and nonhuman organisms. PMID:22532740

  7. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  8. What Causes Stuttering?

    OpenAIRE

    Büchel, Christian; Sommer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Stuttering, with its characteristic disruption in verbal fluency, has been known for centuries; earliest descriptions probably date back to the Biblical Moses' “slowness of speech and tongue” and his related avoidance behavior (Exodus 4, 10–13). Stuttering occurs in all cultures and ethnic groups (Andrews et al. 1983; Zimmermann et al. 1983), although prevalence might differ. Insofar as many of the steps in how we produce language normally are still a mystery, disorders like stuttering are ev...

  9. Landslides - Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  10. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  11. Aliteracy : causes and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, Thijs Martinus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The reading motivation of the majority of students declines in the upper half of primary school, which implies a risk for aliteracy: Students can read but, due to lack of practice, their skills remain underdeveloped (Chapter 2). In this thesis we have explored causes and solutions for this important

  12. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  13. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  14. Fighting a lost cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mario Haaf

    2015-01-01

    This essay claims that the declared war on drugs has failed, it has caused more harm than good, and that a new approach is necessary. The focus of analysis lays especially on the implemented drug policies of Mexico and the United States. The goal is to point out the flaws of the current policy based

  15. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  16. Changing weather causes behavioral responses in the lower mesopelagic

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, S; Rø stad, Anders; Aksnes, DL

    2017-01-01

    Mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers at a 700 m deep location in the Red Sea ascended 70 to 80 m during a passing rain storm that reduced light levels at the surface by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The changes in vertical distribution were

  17. Changing weather causes behavioral responses in the lower mesopelagic

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, S

    2017-05-10

    Mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers at a 700 m deep location in the Red Sea ascended 70 to 80 m during a passing rain storm that reduced light levels at the surface by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The changes in vertical distribution were observed down to the deepest part of the water column and were interpreted as a response to sudden dark weather. However, light measurements suggest that the mesopelagic targets (fish) did not fully compensate for the reduction in ambient light, and the calculated light levels in the scattering layers were similar to 1 order of magnitude lower during the passage of the storm. The results show that fluctuating weather conditions may affect pelagic ecosystems even towards the lower parts of the mesopelagic zone.

  18. Causes of Behavioral Processes: An Interview with Mario A. Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Hurtado-Parrado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mario A. Bunge es uno de los filósofos y humanistas más prominentes de nuestra época. Su amplio número de publicaciones ha cubierto muchos campos, entre otros, epistemología, ontología, ética, filosofía de la ciencia natural y social, filosofía de la tecnología, y filosofía de la mente. Un tópico que intercepta muchas de estas áreas y que es recurrente en el trabajo de Bunge es la causalidad. Su análisis de causación, causa principal, y la redefinición de determinismo ha sido aplicado a diferentes temas filosóficos que van desde el papel causal del funcionamiento neuronal hasta el fenómeno de las leyes sociales. Bunge ha criticado el funcionalismo, cognitivismo, computacionalismo, conductismo e idealismo en su intento por explicar el comportamiento tanto humano como no humano. Este artículo es el resultado de una extensa entrevista con el Dr. Bunge en la cual el discute una variedad de temas conceptuales vinculados a la noción de causalidad y explicación en psicología.

  19. Not without cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Dara L.; Yarbrough, Melanie L.; Orth, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a gram-negative halophillic bacterium that causes worldwide seafood-borne gastroenteritis. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in the environment and incidence of infection have been linked to rising water temperatures caused by global warming. Among its virulence factors, V. parahaemolyticus harbors two type III secretion systems (T3SS). Recently, we have shown that T3SS1 induces rapid cellular death that initiates with acute autophagy, as measured by LC3 lipidation and accumulation of early autophagosomal vesicles. While not the first characterized pathogen to usurp autophagy, this is the first example of an extracellular pathogen that exploits this pathway for its own benefit. Here we discuss possible roles for the induction of autophagy during infection and discuss how V. parahaemolyticus-induced autophagy provides insight into key regulatory steps that govern the decision between apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:19011375

  20. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  2. Hypothalamic demyelination causing panhypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Douglas, Julia; Burgess, John; Dreyer, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Hypothalamic involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is rare and endocrinopathies involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in patients with demyelinating conditions have rarely been reported. We present two cases of MS/NMOSD with associated hypothalamic-pituitary involvement and subsequent hypopituitarism, including the first report of a patient with hypothalamic demyelination causing panhypopituitarism. Differential diagnoses, including alemtuzumab-related and primary pituitary pathology are discussed. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. Tracing Actual Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    produce a full explanation. While related, this problem dif- fers from the problem of determining actual causes where the focus is on identifying...1987]. We prove that the decision problem for causal slices is DP1 - complete. DP1 is the class of computational problems that can be solved using an NP ...machine and a co- NP machine simultaneously. Based on this result, we further show that the decision problem for causal histories is in ΠP2 . Closely

  4. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  5. Hacking for a cause

    OpenAIRE

    Still, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of hacktivism, which is hacking for a political or social cause on the Internet. Generally hackers, even those hacking government–sponsored sites, have been negatively stereotyped as malicious thrill seekers or, worse yet, cyberterrorists. But increasingly there are more politically motivated hackers distancing themselves from cyberterrorism by engaging in hacktivism that is intent more upon disruption than disobedience. Certain hacktivists, in fact, have creat...

  6. Improving Student Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pamela; Gilbert, Janice T.

    This report describes a program for improving the behavior of seventh and eighth grade students with learning disabilities in a self-contained classroom setting. Analysis of probable causes revealed that students demonstrated a lack of problem-solving skills, showed a low frustration tolerance, and exhibited poor self-concepts. Two major…

  7. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is always more effective to positively reinforce desired behaviors and to teach children alternative behaviors rather ... he is angry, but instead to express his feelings through words. It’s important for him to learn ...

  8. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment...

  9. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    An array of epidemiological results and databases on test animal indicate that risk of cancer and atherosclerosis can be up- or down-regulated by diet through a range of 200%. Other factors contribute incrementally and include the natural terrestrial environment and various human activities that jointly produce complex exposures to endotoxin-producing microorganisms, ionizing radiations, and chemicals. Ordinary personal habits and simple physical irritants have been demonstrated to affect the immune response and risk of disease. There tends to be poor statistical correlation of long-term risk with single agent exposures incurred throughout working careers. However, Agency recommendations for control of hazardous exposures to humans has been substance-specific instead of contextually realistic even though there is consistent evidence for common mechanisms of toxicological and carcinogenic action. That behavior seems to be best explained by molecular stresses from cellular oxygen metabolism and phagocytosis of antigenic invasion as well as breakdown of normal metabolic compounds associated with homeostatic- and injury-related renewal of cells. There is continually mounting evidence that marrow stroma, comprised largely of monocyte-macrophages and fibroblasts, is important to phagocytic and cytokinetic response, but the complex action of the immune process is difficult to infer from first-principle logic or biomarkers of toxic injury. The many diverse database studies all seem to implicate two important processes, i.e., the univalent reduction of molecular oxygen and breakdown of aginuine, an amino acid, by hydrolysis or digestion of protein which is attendant to normal antigen-antibody action. This behavior indicates that protection guidelines and risk coefficients should be context dependent to include reference considerations of the composite action of parameters that mediate oxygen metabolism. A logic of this type permits the realistic common-scale modeling of

  10. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    As we are being flooded by Darwin lollipops, t-shirts, quills and stamps it is becoming increasingly difficult to be heard or seen in the commercialised celebration in 2009. Some are in the business for the science, but a lot are in it for profit. Accordingly, the Darwin industry has left the hands...... of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  11. Fighting a lost cause

    OpenAIRE

    Haaf, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This essay claims that the declared war on drugs has failed, it has caused more harm than good, and that a new approach is necessary. The focus of analysis lays especially on the implemented drug policies of Mexico and the United States. The goal is to point out the flaws of the current policy based on prohibition and persecution by analyzing its origins and comparing the current approach with the failures of the alcohol prohibition in the 1920s in the United States. One of the main points th...

  12. [Epistaxis: causes and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwiec, H; Szymański, M; Szymańska, A; Klatka, J

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of 265 patients treated in hospital due to nasal bleeding revealed that almost half of them suffered from hypertension and in about 30% of cases it was impossible to establish the cause of epistaxis. The most frequent way to stop the bleeding was anterior nasal packing and in case of failure posterior nasal packing together with anterior one. Posterior nasal packing with Foley's catheter is relatively simple and effective procedure. Introduction of superselective embolization of maxillary artery and dermoplasty in Rendu-Osler disease was very helpful.

  13. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  14. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  15. What causes cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichopoulos, D.; Li, F.P.; Hunter, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer, a major killer throughout human history, changed its grasp as humankind advanced industrially and technologically. Although the risk of a few types of cancer has declined dramatically in developed countries in this century, the incidence of the most significant forms of the disease has increased. Cancers of the lung, breast, prostate and colon and rectum have all become more frequent in countries where risk factors such as cigarette smoking, unhealthful dietary habits and exposure to dangerous chemicals at work or in the environment are now more common. As industrialization has proliferated, so, too, have the suspected causes of cancer. In recent years, news accounts have been full of warnings about all manner of modern conveniences, from pharmaceuticals to cellular telephones. Meanwhile the pace of technological advance makes it more vital than ever to single out definitive causes of cancer from an ever expanding array of possibilities. For this daunting task, researchers rely heavily on epidemiology. Epidemiologists identify factors that are common to cancer victims’ history and way of life and evaluate them in the context of current biological understanding. Ultimately, the evidence may persuade researchers that one or more of these factors or characteristics “cause” the disease— that is to say, exposure to them significantly increases the odds of the illness developing

  16. Genetic Causes of Rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Demir, Korcan; Shi, Yufei

    2017-01-01

    Rickets is a metabolic bone disease that develops as a result of inadequate mineralization of growing bone due to disruption of calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D metabolism. Nutritional rickets remains a significant child health problem in developing countries. In addition, several rare genetic causes of rickets have also been described, which can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of genetic disorders of vitamin D biosynthesis and action, such as vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B), vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A), and vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2B (VDDR2B). The second group involves genetic disorders of excessive renal phosphate loss (hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets) due to impairment in renal tubular phosphate reabsorption as a result of FGF23-related or FGF23-independent causes. In this review, we focus on clinical, laboratory and genetic characteristics of various types of hereditary rickets as well as differential diagnosis and treatment approaches. PMID:29280738

  17. [Tropical causes of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.

  18. Salmonid behavior and water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally T. Sauter; John McMillan; Jason B. Dunham

    2001-01-01

    Animals react not only to immediate changes in their environment but also to cues that signal long-term changes to which they must adapt to survive. A proximate factor stimulates an animal’s immediate behavioral response, whereas what is known as an ultimate factor causes an animal to adjust its behavior to evolving conditions, thereby increasing its fitness and...

  19. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  20. The judged seriousness of an environmental loss is a matter of what caused it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; George L. Peterson; R. Marc Brodersen; Valerie Ford; Paul A. Bell

    2005-01-01

    Environmental losses, each described along with its cause, were judged for seriousness. Four types of cause were studied: illegal behavior, carelessness, economic and population growth, and natural events. Identical environmental losses (e.g., of a herd of elk or a large stand of trees) were considered most serious when caused by illegal behavior or carelessness, and...

  1. Goal inferences about robot behavior : goal inferences and human response behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broers, H.A.T.; Ham, J.R.C.; Broeders, R.; De Silva, P.; Okada, M.

    2014-01-01

    This explorative research focused on the goal inferences human observers draw based on a robot's behavior, and the extent to which those inferences predict people's behavior in response to that robot. Results show that different robot behaviors cause different response behavior from people.

  2. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  3. Infective Causes of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, M; Michael, B D; Solomon, T

    2015-06-01

    A wide range of infections of the central nervous system are responsible for both acute seizures and epilepsy. The pathogenesis and clinical semiology of the seizure disorders vary widely between the infective pathogens. The exact mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood, but appear, at least in part, to relate to the pathogen; the degree of cortical involvement; delays in treatment; and the host inflammatory response. The treatment of infective causes of seizures involves both symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs and direct treatment of the underlying condition. In many cases, early treatment of the infection may affect the prognosis of the epilepsy syndrome. The greatest burden of acute and long-term infection-related seizures occurs in resource-poor settings, where both clinical and research facilities are often lacking to manage such patients adequately. Nevertheless, education programs may go a long way toward addressing the stigma, leading to improved diagnosis, management, and ultimately to better quality of life. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. [Relapse: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2013-09-01

    Relapse after a first episode of schizophrenia is the recurrence of acute symptoms after a period of partial or complete remission. Due to its variable aspects, there is no operational definition of relapse able to modelise the outcome of schizophrenia and measure how the treatment modifies the disease. Follow-up studies based on proxys such as hospital admission revealed that 7 of 10 patients relapsed after a first episode of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications on relapse prevention has been widely demonstrated. Recent studies claim for the advantages of atypical over first generation antipsychotic medication. Non-adherence to antipsychotic represents with addictions the main causes of relapse long before some non-consensual factors such as premorbid functioning, duration of untreated psychosis and associated personality disorders. The consequences of relapse are multiple, psychological, biological and social. Pharmaco-clinical studies have demonstrated that the treatment response decreases with each relapse. Relapse, even the first one, will contribute to worsen the outcome of the disease and reduce the capacity in general functionning. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role besides patients and their families. The development of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, access to care and the therapeutic alliance should be promoted. Relapse prevention is a major goal of the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. It is based on adherence to the maintenance treatment, identification of prodromes, family active information and patient therapeutical education. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  5. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  6. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  7. Study on residents prime behavior against a flood disaster. ; In case of northern Hyogo floods caused by the typhoon 19th, 1990. Suigaiji no jumintaio kodo ni kansuru kenkyu. ; 1990 nen taifu 19 go no Hyogoken hokubu suigai wo jirei to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murosaki, Y; Onishi, K [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)

    1991-11-08

    This study analyzed the case of the flood disaster in the Northern Hyogo Prefecture in Japan caused by the Typhoon No. 19 in 1990, as to the residents {prime} behavior against the flood disaster, actualities of the living in the evacuation areas, and actions taken by the governmental offices, and brought the future problems in disaster treatment into light. The governmental evacuation recommendation has a certain effect on promoting the early evacuation of residents. An evacuation, whether done early enough or belated, depends on the reliability to the public information source and the face-to-face information transmittability. A trend shows that people living on the second floor get delayed in evacuation. The evacuation rate reduces in people owning houses, people engaged in farming, male sex, and large families. A trend shows that the rate of appealing living difficulties is relatively higher among people who evacuated to public evacuation areas including public halls than from those who evacuated to private evacuating places including houses of acquaintances. The administrative public organizations must maintain the disaster preventive administration wireless system and establish human information transmission network so that people can get information easily. Public evacuation places are required to have TV sets installed and information reporters arranged. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  9. HIV behavioral research online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Mary Ann; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Tesoriero, James M; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Internet access has caused a global revolution in the way people of all ages and genders interact. Many have turned to the Internet to seek love, companionship, and sex, prompting researchers to move behavioral studies online. The sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) has been more closely studied than that of any other group online given the abundance of gay-oriented websites and concerns about increasing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Not only does the Internet provide a new medium for the conduct of behavioral research and for participant recruitment into an array of research studies, it has the as yet unrealized potential to reach huge numbers of MSM with innovative harm reduction and prevention messages tailored to individualized needs, interests, and risk behavior. Internet-based research on sexual behavior has many advantages in rapidity of recruitment of diverse samples which include individuals unreachable through conventional methods (i.e., non-gay identified and geographically and socially isolated MSM, etc.). Internet-based research also presents some new methodologic challenges in study design, participant recruitment, survey implementation, and interpretation of results. In addition, there are ethical issues unique to online research including difficulties in verifying informed consent, obstacles to surveying minors, and the ability to assure anonymity. This paper presents a review of Internet-based research on sexual behavior in MSM, a general discussion of the methodologic and ethical challenges of Internet-based research, and recommendations for future interdisciplinary research.

  10. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  11. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  12. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Maxwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache.We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats.Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity.Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  14. Environmental Pollution, Causes and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Pham van Huong; , Huynh Thanh Dat; Nguyen Quoc Hung

    2017-01-01

    Pollution induces harmful effects on environment and health security. Main deep causes will be analyzed including natural disasters like volcanoes eruption, climate change as well as and men-caused disasters which are nuclear explosions and dioxin sprays.

  15. Drugs that may cause impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  16. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  17. Behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief entry presents the mediating-moderating variable model as a conceptual framework for understanding behavior change in regard to physical activity/exercise and adiposity. The ideas are applied to real world situations....

  18. Psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyankov, I.

    2009-01-01

    The psychological consequences caused by eventual nuclear terrorist act are believed to be some of the most: serious. in this article are presented the issues concerning psychological effects as psychological suffering, alteration of risk estimation, changes of individual and social behavior, etc. The most common psychological consequences as a result of the most popular large-scale nuclear accidents in Chernobyl, TMI (USA), Goiania (Brazil) are described. Some of the main factors, such as sex, age, health status, social status and etc, are analyzed. These factors determine the expression of psychological reactions provoked by nuclear accidents or eventual act of nuclear terrorism. In addition, the main precautions to cope with psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism are listed

  19. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  20. [Behavioral impairments in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Kenichi

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral impairments in parkinsonian patients include agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movement, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, REM sleep behavioral disorder, and restless legs syndrome. Dementia, psychoses, and emotional disorders, such as depression and anxiety/panic disorder, also impair behavior. Symptoms may be produced by dysfunction of the central nervous system, medication, and/or the psychosocial problems associated with Parkinson's disease. Treatment therefore should be based on the cause of the symptoms seen. In some cases, the reduction or change of antiparkinsonian drugs, or both, may be effective. Treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including motor fluctuations, may reduce the risk of panic attacks being evoked in the 'off' period. Use of antidepressants, sedatives, and neuroleptics may often be effective. Physicians should identify the causes of the symptoms of behavioral impairment and select appropriate treatments.

  1. Dysfunctional health service conflict: causes and accelerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the causes and accelerants of dysfunctional health service conflict and how it emerges from the health system's core hierarchical structures, specialized roles, participant psychodynamics, culture, and values. This article sets out to answer whether health care conflict is more widespread and intense than in other settings and if it is, why? To this end, health care power, gender, and educational status gaps are examined with an eye to how they undermine open communication, teamwork, and collaborative forms of conflict and spark a range of dysfunctions, including a pervasive culture of fear; the deny-and-defend lawsuit response; widespread patterns of hierarchical, generational, and lateral bullying; overly avoidant conflict styles among non-elite groups; and a range of other behaviors that lead to numerous human resource problems, including burnout, higher staff turnover, increased errors, poor employee citizenship behavior, patient dissatisfaction, increased patient complaints, and lawsuits. Bad patient outcomes include decreased compliance and increased morbidity and mortality. Health care managers must understand the root causes of these problems to treat them at the source and implement solutions that avoid negative conflict spirals that undermine organizational morale and efficiency.

  2. Applications of root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satterwhite, D.G.; Meale, B.M.; Krantz, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The underlying causes for the failure of components, the root causes, can be obtained from operational data sources. This information is of value in focusing attention of the industry on the actual causes of component unavailability and, therefore, on the important contributors to plant risk. An application of this methodology to an actual plant system, and the results of this study, are presented in this paper

  3. Behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  5. Pop-rock music as precipitating cause in youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, R E; Farberow, N L

    1994-03-01

    The plaintiffs in a law suit alleged that the heavy metal rock band Judas Priest, and its publisher CBS, were liable for damages to two youths who shot themselves after listening to the band's album. Crucial issues included "proximate cause" and "precipitating cause" in suicide, and the alleged role of subliminal messages. The judge ruled that although the "heavy metal" music might have had a toxic influence, the sounds and words are protected by the free speech first amendment. The influence of subliminal messages on behavior is unproven. There were many other elements in the personalities and situations of the victims to account for their self-destructive behavior.

  6. Does excessive pronation cause pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C G; Nielsen, Rasmus Gottschalk N; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2008-01-01

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist of ...

  7. On the Causes of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, A. Philip; Faigman, David L.; Fienberg, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Professor Pearl's comment on our original article, Dawid et al. Our focus there on the distinction between the "Effects of Causes" (EoC) and the "Causes of Effects" (CoE) concerned two fundamental problems, one a theoretical challenge in statistics and the other a practical challenge for trial courts. In this…

  8. When Telomerase Causes Telomere Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glousker, Galina; Lingner, Joachim

    2018-02-05

    Telomerase counteracts telomere shortening, preventing cellular senescence. Telomerase deficiency causes telomere syndromes because of premature telomere exhaustion in highly proliferative cells. Paradoxically, in a recent issue of Cell, Margalef et al. (2018) demonstrate that telomerase causes telomere loss in cells lacking the RTEL1 helicase, which is defective in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time-dated...

  10. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  11. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  12. Cause-related marketing as a win-win strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raletić Saša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects present in the market tend to achieve synergetic effect by well-established partnerships more often. Cause related marketing based on the direct partnership between companies and nonprofit organizations and indirect partnership between the company and the customer, in order to support a social cause, is as such the subject of this analysis. Cause-related marketing is a manifestation of social-cause marketing and the adaptation of commercial marketing tailored for the programs that influence the voluntary behavior of customers, which will enhance well-being of society. The aim of this analysis is to present cause-related marketing as a win-win situation for all participants in the exchange and in the community. The outcome of the analysis are benefits realized by means of Liste Read phonetically cause-related marketing campaigns. .

  13. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  14. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  15. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

  16. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  17. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. Results-In 2015, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2015 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without

  18. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  19. Governing of common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Agreed strategy is to govern common cause failures by the application of diversity, to assure that the overall plant safety objectives are met even in the case that a common cause failure of a system with all redundant trains is assumed. The presented strategy aims on the application of functional diversity without the implementation of equipment diversity. In the focus are the design criteria which have to be met for the design of independent systems in such a way that the time-correlated failure of such independent systems according a common cause can be excluded deterministically. (author)

  20. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome......, firms in competitive product markets, and firms that have incurred substantial sunk cost are associated with lower rates of technology out-licensing. We also posit that sunk costs negatively moderate the relationship between competition in the licensor?s product market, and licensing rate. We test our...

  1. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  2. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  3. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  4. Behavioral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David S

    2017-01-01

    Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts. The discovery that what our genes do depends in part on our experiences has shed light on how Nature and Nurture interact at the molecular level inside of our bodies. Data emerging from the world's behavioral epigenetics laboratories support the idea that a person's genes alone cannot determine if, for example, he or she will end up shy, suffering from cardiovascular disease, or extremely smart. Among the environmental factors that can influence genetic activity are parenting styles, diets, and social statuses. In addition to influencing how doctors treat diseases, discoveries about behavioral epigenetics are likely to alter how biologists think about evolution, because some epigenetic effects of experience appear to be transmissible from generation to generation. This domain of research will likely change how we think about the origins of human nature. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1333. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1333 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  6. Causes of secondary headache (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result ...

  7. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  8. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles needed to move, speak, eat and breathe. Statins are medications prescribed for the treatment of high cholesterol. These medications can sometimes cause muscle pain (myalgia), muscle weakness or, very rarely, severe muscle ...

  9. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? Endometriosis is when tissue is found outside the ...

  10. An Unusual Cause of Hydronephroureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.; Khan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a common method of contraception among women because of its low cost and high efficacy. Perforations are possible resulting in multiple complications including urinary complications. Obstructive hydronephrosis and hydroureter is one of the main clinical concerns in genitourinary practice leading to radiological investigations for determination of the cause. Determination of the cause leads to early treatment, hence saving the renal function. In this case report, we describe hydronephrosis and hydroureter secondary to a migrated/displaced IUCD. (author)

  11. Hepatopulmonary syndrome causing severe hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Bente Kjær; Andersen, Mette Winther; Eriksen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnoea is a common complaint in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an important cause to be aware of in the setting of liver disease, dyspnoea and hypoxaemia. HPS causes microvascular dilatation, angiogenesis and arteriovenous bypassing. The patients suffer f...... from hypoxaemia in upright position and even during minimal psychical activity. Contrast echocardiography, using micro-bubbles as the contrast, is required to establish the diagnosis. No medical therapy is available, only liver transplantation can cure the disease....

  12. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  13. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER COMPLAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrie Prasetyo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complaining is one form of communication for consumers to express their dissatisfaction. Understanding the consumer complaint behavior is an important thing for businesses; however, it is not easy to do. The initial step in understanding this behavior of consumer complaints is to map consumers based on their behavior of complaints and analyze the factors that influence this. This study examines the complaint behavior of consumers in Cibubur who have experienced dissatisfaction with a product.  The objectives of this study are to map the consumer complaint behavior and identify its relationship with various factors such as consumer demographics, personality, attitude to businesses, attribution of the causes of dissatisfaction, and product attributes. A crosstab descriptive analysis method was used to map the consumers, while the Pearson correlation analysis methods was used to analyze consumer complaint behavioral relationships with various factors. The results of this study indicated that consumers in Cibubur based on their complaint behavior are classified into four groups: passive, voicers, irates and activist. The passive consumers dominate the category with a percentage of 49%.  The voicers, irates, and activist belong to the complaining type and are dominated by young women, with high levels of education and income. Keywords: consumer complaint behavior, product, crosstab, pearson correlation

  14. Citation behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    poorly with the name-dropping interpretation and better with the quality and impact-interpretation. The results demonstrate that authors in the field of Healthcare tend to cite highly cited documents when they have a choice. This is more likely caused by differences related to quality than differences...

  15. Appointment breaking: causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1992-12-01

    From a review of research on health care appointment breaking, the authors find that patient demographic characteristics, psychosocial problems, previous appointment keeping, health beliefs, and situational factors predict no-show behavior. Suggestions are offered for designing the marketing mix to increase patient appointment keeping. Methods for mitigating the negative effects of no-shows on health care providers are described.

  16. Angelman syndrome, cause of epilepsy in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, P.; Vicenova, A.; Svecova, L.; Kolnikova, M.

    2014-01-01

    Several chromosomal syndromes include brain dysfunction symptoms as mental retardation, developmental speech disorders and epilepsy. Authors present a case report of Angelman syndrome – neuro behavioral disorder associated with deletion in the maternal chromosome 15q 11-g13 causing mutation of the UBE3A gene. The main features consist of psychomotor retardation, developmental speech disorder, ataxia, tremor, hyperactivity, clapping hands, inadequate laughter and happiness, attention deficit and epilepsy. The later starts before the 3rd year of age in form of atypical absences, myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. EEG typically shows episodes of slow activity with sharp waves occipitally. Prognosis is poor. Genetic syndromes importantly contribute to the etiology of epilepsy with early seizures. (author)

  17. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  18. Behavioral Teratology Comes to the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Yvonne

    1987-01-01

    The article discusses types of teratogenic agents, (behavioral defects caused by toxic agents) behavioral targets, organismic vulnerability during growth spurts, teratogenic "routing" (path to the brain), exposure, and duration of effects. Lead is used as a paradigm of chemical neurotoxins known to affect cognitive and noncognitive…

  19. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  20. Endogenous opiates mediate radiogenic behavioral change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to ionizing radiation caused stereotypical locomotor hyperactivity similar to that produced by morphine. Naloxone administration prevented this radiation-induced behavioral activation. These results support the hypothesis that endorphins are involved in some aspects of radiogenic behavioral change

  1. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specifi...

  2. Addictive behaviors and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjas, T; Eusebio, A; Fluchère, F; Azulay, J-P

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the dopaminergic system and the longstanding exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) may cause, in a group of vulnerable patients, dysregulation of the brain reward system. These patients develop DRT-related compulsions, which include addiction to levodopa or dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs or behavioral addiction reported in Parkinson's disease include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying and binge eating. Although the underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood, these behaviors are linked by their reward-based and repetitive nature. Such behaviors may result in devastating psychosocial impairment for the patients and are often hidden. The recognition of these behaviors is important and allows a better clinical management. Although the limited data do not permit particular therapeutic strategies, some approaches are worth considering: DRT reduction, trials of non-dopaminergic medications and subthalamic chronic stimulation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. [Noroviruses: leading cause of gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, H; Dubrous, P; Koeck, J L

    2010-04-01

    Although noroviruses were the first viral agents to be linked to gastrointestinal disease, they were long considered a secondary cause far behind rotaviruses. Development of molecular-based diagnostic techniques has provided clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of noroviruses that are now recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks but also as an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in both children and adults. Norovirus infection is generally characterized by mild acute vomiting and diarrhea usually lasting for only a few days, but it can lead to more severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms in high-risk groups such as young children, elderly, and immunodeficient persons. It has been demonstrated that they are present in tropical countries. Molecular epidemiological studies have documented the great genetic diversity of noroviruses with regular emergence of variants. Since no vaccine is available, prevention on norovirus infection depends mainly on strict personal and community hygiene measures.

  4. WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoje Pašić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.

  5. Drug induced mortality: a multiple cause approach on Italian causes of death Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grippo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related mortality is a complex phenomenon that has several health, social and economic effects. In this paper trends of drug-induced mortality in Italy are analysed. Two approaches have been followed: the traditional analysis of the underlying cause of death (UC (data refers to the Istat mortality database from 1980 to 2011, and the multiple cause (MCanalysis, that is the analysis of all conditions reported on the death certificate (data for 2003-2011 period.Methods: Data presented in this paper are based on the Italian mortality register. The selection of Icd codes used for the analysis follows the definition of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Using different indicators (crude and standardized rates, ratio multiple to underlying, the results obtained from the two approaches (UC and MC have been compared. Moreover, as a measure of association between drug-related causes and specific conditions on the death certificate, an estimation of the age-standardized relative risk (RR has been used.Results: In the years 2009-2011, the total number of certificates whit mention of drug use was 1,293, 60% higher than the number UC based. The groups of conditions more strongly associated with drug-related causes are the mental and behavioral disorders (especially alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and fibrosis of liver, AIDS and endocarditis.Conclusions : The analysis based on multiple cause approach shows, for the first time, a more detailed picture of the drug related death; it allows to better describe the mortality profiles and to re-evaluate  the contribution of a specific cause to death.

  6. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  7. Causes of death in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Karen; Tovu, Viran; Langati, Jeffrey Tila; Buttsworth, Michael; Dingley, Lester; Calo, Andy; Harrison, Griffith; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D; Taylor, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death. Deaths 2001-2007 were coded for cause (ICDv10) for ages 0-59 years from: hospital separations (HS) (n = 636), hospital medical certificates (MC) of death (n = 1,169), and monthly reports from community health facilities (CHF) (n = 1,212). Ill-defined causes were 3 % for hospital deaths and 20 % from CHF. Proportional mortality was calculated by cause (excluding ill-defined) and age group (0-4, 5-14 years), and also by sex for 15-59 years. From total deaths by broad age group and sex from 1999 and 2009 census analyses, community deaths were estimated by deduction of hospital deaths MC. National proportional mortality by cause was estimated by a weighted average of MC and CHF deaths. National estimates indicate main causes of deaths <5 years were: perinatal disorders (45 %) and malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia (27 %). For 15-59 years, main causes of male deaths were: circulatory disease 27 %, neoplasms 13 %, injury 13 %, liver disease 10 %, infection 10 %, diabetes 7 %, and chronic respiratory disease 7 %; and for females: neoplasms 29 %, circulatory disease 15 %, diabetes 10 %, infection 9 %, and maternal deaths 8 %. Infection included tuberculosis, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Liver disease (including hepatitis and cancer) accounted for 18 % of deaths in adult males and 9 % in females. Non-communicable disease (NCD), including circulatory disease, diabetes, neoplasm, and chronic respiratory disease, accounted for 52 % of premature deaths in adult

  8. Causes of Hypersomnia – Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The causes of hypersomnia or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS besides volitionalsleep deprivation and obstructive sleep apnea are principally due to primary centralnervous system abnormalities. Most common amongst these is Narcolepsy, a primarydisorder of the neural control of wakefulness and sleep. The recent discovery ofhypocretin/orexin deficiency as the main cause of narcolepsy will lead to importanttherapeutic advances for patients with narcolepsy and further to understanding of thecontrol of sleep and wakefulness in general. Importantly, the excessive daytimesleepiness is not due to psychiatric conditions, but rather is always due to sleepdeprivation or an underlying diagnosable and treatable sleep disorder.Key words : EDS, Sleep, Narcolepsy

  9. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that the effect of this treatment has not been documented. Therefore the authors can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive...

  10. Man-caused seismicity of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanov, Alexandr; Emanov, Alexey; Leskova, Ekaterina; Fateyev, Alexandr

    2010-05-01

    . A spatial displacement of activations along with mine working has been found. An impact of technogeneous factors on behavior of seismic process was investigated. It was demonstrated that industrial explosions in neighboring open-casts have no pronounced effect on seismic process near lavas. Stoppage of mole work in lavas leads to simultaneous changes in man-caused seismicity. The number of technogeneous earthquakes is halved. The earthquakes of small powers remain, but such slack lead to occasional though more strong technogeneous earthquakes.

  11. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  12. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  13. Unusual cause of mechanical ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, E S; Beck, A H

    1987-07-01

    A patient with the signs of mechanic ileus is reported. Past history of dilative cardiomyopathy with atrial fibrillation and the recent occlusion of the left renal artery suggested arterial mesenteric embolism. Celiacography ruled out mesenteric thromboembolism and vigorous enemas resulted in the delivery of the foreign bodies causing the mechanic ileus: 2 '10-Pfennig' coins.

  14. Dislocated Shoulder: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by: Sports injuries. Shoulder dislocation is a common injury in contact sports, such as football and hockey, and in sports that may involve falls, such as downhill skiing, gymnastics and volleyball. ... is a common source of dislocation. Falls. You may dislocate your ...

  15. Root cause - A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 3 yr, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) region V has been pursuing an initiative with region V power reactor licensees to provide improved and more consistent performance in event evaluation. The objectives of the initiative have been to encourage licensees to (a) develop improved skills within the plant organization for events evaluation, with particular emphasis on formal root-cause analysis, and (b) to increase the number of events subjected to root-cause analysis. The NRC's continuing effort now focuses on the need for more consistent quality of event evaluation by licensees. As current licensee programs continue to develop, the NRC will be paying additional attention to how well licensees maintain these programs as an effective and useful tool. Now that licensees have taken the initial steps to establish these programs, licensee management will need to provide continuing attention to ensure that the process does not become overly cumbersome. It is important that the final format for the root-cause programs be easy to use and recognized as being a valuable tool by all licensee personnel involved in the event evaluation process. This will become increasingly important as licensees expand the population of events requiring root-cause analysis and place additional responsibility on the line organization for the implementation of these programs

  16. Endocarditis Caused by Rhodotorula Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Matthew S.; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K.; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Schuetz, Audrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp.

  17. Endocarditis caused by Rhodotorula infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew S; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L; Jenkins, Stephen G; Walsh, Thomas J; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp.

  18. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  19. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  20. [Gastroduodenal intussusception causing gastric retention.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, M.; Berg, J.O.; Lindstrom, C.

    2008-01-01

    A case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal lipoma is presented. The condition was characterized by severe upper gastrointestinal retention, epigastric pain and weight loss. The mass was diagnosed by CT scan. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation. The patient was treated succ...

  1. Complex Odontome Causing Facial Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya Patil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common non-cystic odontogenic lesions representing 70% of all odontogenic tumors. Often small and asymptomatic, they are detected on routine radiographs. Occasionally they become large and produce expansion of bone with consequent facial asymmetry. We report a case of such a lesion causing expansion of the mandible in an otherwise asymptomatic patient.

  2. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are visible just under the surface of the skin Spinal stenosis —narrowing in the spine, causing pressure on the nerves and spine, with resulting numbness and pain Lumbar disease Osteoarthritis QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER Does my medical history raise my risk for P.A.D.? Do ...

  3. [Gastroduodenal intussusception causing gastric retention.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, M.; Berg, J.O.; Lindstrom, C.

    2008-01-01

    A case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal lipoma is presented. The condition was characterized by severe upper gastrointestinal retention, epigastric pain and weight loss. The mass was diagnosed by CT scan. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation. The patient was treated...

  4. Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome revisited: imaging and clinical findings in pre- and postpubertal girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Lorna P.; Guillerman, R.P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Boswell, Hillary B. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Gynecology, Houston, TX (United States); Crotty, Eric J.; O' Hara, Sara M.; Birkemeier, Krista L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-05-15

    In 1960 Van Wyk and Grumbach described a syndrome of juvenile hypothyroidism, precocious puberty and ovarian enlargement. These findings undergo complete regression with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. This diagnosis can be made on the basis of imaging findings and thyroid function analysis, avoiding surgery. To relate the distinctive clinical and imaging features and putative pathophysiological mechanism of a series of patients with Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome (VWGS). Patients with VWGS diagnosed at two large children's hospitals over a 6-year period beginning in 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Five female patients were diagnosed with cystic ovarian enlargement and hypothyroidism at ages ranging from 9 to 17 years. Isosexual precocious puberty was found in prepubescent patients. Associated findings included delayed bone age, ascites, and pleural and pericardial effusions. Ovarian cyst involution occurred following treatment of the hypothyroidism. The association of primary hypothyroidism with cystic ovarian enlargement and precocious puberty is important to recognize. In the absence of suspected ovarian torsion, surgery is unnecessary, as cyst regression occurs after appropriate thyroid hormone replacement. Noncompliance with hormone replacement therapy should be considered when cystic ovarian enlargement is noted in patients with a history of hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  5. Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome revisited: imaging and clinical findings in pre- and postpubertal girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, Lorna P.; Guillerman, R.P.; Boswell, Hillary B.; Crotty, Eric J.; O'Hara, Sara M.; Birkemeier, Krista L.

    2008-01-01

    In 1960 Van Wyk and Grumbach described a syndrome of juvenile hypothyroidism, precocious puberty and ovarian enlargement. These findings undergo complete regression with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. This diagnosis can be made on the basis of imaging findings and thyroid function analysis, avoiding surgery. To relate the distinctive clinical and imaging features and putative pathophysiological mechanism of a series of patients with Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome (VWGS). Patients with VWGS diagnosed at two large children's hospitals over a 6-year period beginning in 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. A literature review was also conducted. Five female patients were diagnosed with cystic ovarian enlargement and hypothyroidism at ages ranging from 9 to 17 years. Isosexual precocious puberty was found in prepubescent patients. Associated findings included delayed bone age, ascites, and pleural and pericardial effusions. Ovarian cyst involution occurred following treatment of the hypothyroidism. The association of primary hypothyroidism with cystic ovarian enlargement and precocious puberty is important to recognize. In the absence of suspected ovarian torsion, surgery is unnecessary, as cyst regression occurs after appropriate thyroid hormone replacement. Noncompliance with hormone replacement therapy should be considered when cystic ovarian enlargement is noted in patients with a history of hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  6. Animal-caused fatalities in New Mexico, 1993-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Sarah L

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate animal-caused fatalities in New Mexico using data collected during medicolegal death investigations, including toxicology, survival interval, and circumstances. A retrospective review of the computerized database and hard copies of files from a centralized, statewide medical examiner's office, excluding deaths due to zoonotic diseases and motor vehicle collisions involving animals. Between 1993 and 2004, 63 deaths caused by animals were reported in New Mexico. The majority of decedents were male (46/63, 73%) and non-Hispanic white (33/63, 52%). Horses were the most commonly implicated animals, with 43 (68%) deaths due to a person being thrown from, crushed, dragged, or kicked by a horse. Cattle caused 9 deaths (14%), dogs caused 3 (5%), and venomous animals caused 3, whereas a bear was responsible for 1 death. Ten decedents (16%) had alcohol present at the time of death, and 8 would have been over the legal blood alcohol concentration for driving (0.08%). Ten deaths (16%) were work-related and included deaths of jockeys and ranch workers. The majority of deaths (42/63, 67%) occurred in remote locations, potentially delaying access to treatment. Survival intervals ranged from 1 day to 33 years. Whereas both human and animal behavior can be difficult to predict, a review of animal-caused fatalities investigated by a medical examiner revealed that in many cases, deaths could have been prevented by either the use of protective gear or alterations in human behavior.

  7. The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochd, M.

    1988-01-01

    The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

  8. Driving safety and adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R C; Sanders, J M; Schonberg, S K

    1986-04-01

    Accidents, and mainly automotive accidents, are currently the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among young people. Understanding and addressing the issue of automotive accident prevention requires an awareness of the multiple psychodynamic, familial, and societal influences that affect the development and behavior of adolescents. Risk-taking behavior is the product of complex personal and environmental factors. As pediatricians, we have the obligation and the opportunity to improve the safety of our youth who drive and ride. This opportunity is available to us not only in our roles as counselors to youth and families, but also as we serve as role models, educators, and agents for change within our communities.

  9. Unusual Cause of Knee Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Huri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of partial intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon as an unusual cause of pseudolocking of the knee. A 13-year-old semiprofessional soccer player applied to our clinic with a locked right knee in spite of the therapy applied (cold pack, NSAID, and immobilization in another institution 20 days after the injury. Significant extension loss was observed in his right knee with 30∘–90∘ ROM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and arthroscopy confirmed the intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon and synovitis. The ruptured part of the tendon was debrided, and the inflammatory tissue around the tendon, which may lead to pseudolocking, was gently removed with a shaver in order to regain the normal ROM. The patient was discharged with full ROM and weight bearing first day after the surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating intrasubstance tear of popliteus tendon causing pseudolocking of the knee.

  10. Toxic agents causing cerebellar ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to intoxication and poisoning, especially so the cerebellar cortex and Purkinje neurons. In humans, the most common cause of a toxic lesion to the cerebellar circuitry is alcohol related, but the cerebellum is also a main target of drug exposure (such as anticonvulsants, antineoplastics, lithium salts, calcineurin inhibitors), drug abuse and addiction (such as cocaine, heroin, phencyclidine), and environmental toxins (such as mercury, lead, manganese, toluene/benzene derivatives). Although data for the prevalence and incidence of cerebellar lesions related to intoxication and poisoning are still unknown in many cases, clinicians should keep in mind the list of agents that may cause cerebellar deficits, since toxin-induced cerebellar ataxias are not rare in daily practice. Moreover, the patient's status may require immediate therapies when the intoxication is life-threatening. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  12. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  13. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose

    2012-01-01

    on the efficient equilibrium, we consider sunspots as a potential reason for coordination failure. We conduct an experiment with a three player 2x2x2 game in which coordination on the efficient equilibrium is easy and should normally occur. In the control session, we find almost perfect coordination on the payoff......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  14. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers.

  15. A rare cause of osteonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostinis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the HFE gene, which increase intestinal iron absorption. The prevalence of C282Y homozygosity, which causes the disorder, is 0.5% in Caucasian populations. The clinical manifestations are related to excess iron in the tissues, especially the liver, heart, pancreas, pituitary, and skin. They include fatigue, loss of libido or impotence in males, liver disease, skin pigmentation, diabetes mellitus, cardiac enlargement—with or without heart failure, and conduction defects. The classic triad of cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and skin pigmentation (“bronze diabetes” results from a combination of iron deposits and melanin. It occurs late in the disease, when the total body iron content is more than five times the normal value, about 20 grams. Left untreated, approximately half of all patients with HH eventually develop arthralgia or arthropathy. Chondrocalcinosis, chronic pseudo-osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis are the major rheumatic manifestations of HH. The cause of the arthropathy is still unknown. Iron deposits within joints may trigger a number of pathologic events, such as free radical generation and crystal deposition, which stimulate immune complex formation and inflammation.Materials and methodsWe describe the case of a 48-year-old male suffering from chronic bilateral ankle pain.ResultsThe work-up revealed osteonecrosis of ankle. The patient also presented high plasma ferritin levels and homozygosity for the C282Y mutation. Other than HH, which was confirmed by liver biopsy, the patient had no other risk factors for osteonecrosis.DiscussionHH represents a rare cause of osteonecrosis, and there are no prior reports of aseptic osteonecrosis of the ankle in a patient with this disease. The pathogenetic mechanism remains unknown.

  16. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical failure analysis for root-cause determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines a practical failure analysis sequence. Several technical definitions are required. A failure is defined as a component that was operating in a system where the system malfunctioned and the replacement of the device restored system functionality. The failure mode is the malfunctioning behavior of the device. The failure mechanism is the underlying cause or source of the failure mode. The failure mechanism is the root cause of the failure mode. The failure analysis procedure needs to be adequately refined to result in the determination of the cause of failure to the degree that corrective action or design changes will prevent recurrence of the failure mode or mechanism. An example of a root-cause determination analysis performed for a nuclear power industry customer serves to illustrate the analysis methodology

  18. Deep Space Spaceflight Hazards Effects on Cognition, Behavioral Health, and Behavioral Biomarkers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. J.; Norsk, P.; Zwart, S.; Crucian, B.; Simonsen, L. C.; Antonsen, E.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway missions provide testing grounds to identify the risk of both behavioral performance and cognitive perturbations caused by stressors of spaceflight such as radiation, fluid shifts, sleep deprivation, chronic stress, and others.

  19. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DECREASE MACHINABILITY POSSIBLE CAUSES FOR CLAIMED ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Náprstková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Production Technology and Management is often asked by companies with a request to solve a specific technical task. One of these tasks was the analysis of aluminum alloy worsened machinability when the rods from this alloy exhibited against assumption significantly worse (longer chips during machining. The alloy was complaint and, of course, it created economic damage. Obviously, the company was interested in the causes of this alloy behavior change that could possibly generate future complaints procedures to defend itself better, or to avoid mistakes in the production of the material. At the faculty analysis that could contribute to identifying the cause of the worsened machinability were done.

  1. Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, M; Muñoz, P; Marín, M; Goenaga, M A; Idígoras Viedma, P; de Alarcón, A; Lepe, J A; Sousa Regueiro, D; Bravo-Ferrer, J M; Pajarón, M; Costas, C; García-López, M V; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Moreno, M; Bouza, E

    2017-10-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1-3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56-73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diarrhea caused by circulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Elisabeth; Kump, Patrizia; Krejs, Guenter J

    2012-09-01

    Circulating agents cause intestinal secretion or changes in motility with decreased intestinal transit time, resulting in secretory-type diarrhea. Secretory diarrhea as opposed to osmotic diarrhea is characterized by large-volume, watery stools, often more than 1 L per day; by persistence of diarrhea when patients fast; and by the fact that on analysis of stool-water, measured osmolarity is identical to that calculated from the electrolytes present. Although sodium plays the main role in water and electrolyte absorption, chloride is the major ion involved in secretion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cause of pitting in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem

  4. Onycholysis caused by Candida Krusei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Onycholysis caused by Candida krusei is rare. A 21 years old male patient presented with grayish discolouration and elevation of all fingernails since one year. Patient was refractory to treatment with fluconazole. Potassium hydroxide preparation of subungual debris revealed fungal elements. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was identified by cultural characteristics, morphotyping, microscopy and biochemical tests as Candida krusei. The isolate was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin-B but susceptible to nystatin and clotrimazole. Patient responded well to clotrimazole and terbinafine.

  5. NEW TOURISM: CAUSES AND CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto JonayRodriguez Darias; Agustín Santana Talavera; Pablo Diaz Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    International tourism has been through major changes, one of them by the 1950s which resulted in conventional forms of tourism. Nevertheless, in the past two decades changes seem to go faster. The upsurge of what was labeled as “new forms of tourism” in the 1990s changed the rules in several ways, turning the planet into a tourist destination and consolidating that “anything can be sold for a tourist”. This paper intends to determine which caused these changes and begin a debate related to th...

  6. NEW TOURISM: CAUSES AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto JonayRodriguez Darias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has been through major changes, one of them by the 1950s which resulted in conventional forms of tourism. Nevertheless, in the past two decades changes seem to go faster. The upsurge of what was labeled as “new forms of tourism” in the 1990s changed the rules in several ways, turning the planet into a tourist destination and consolidating that “anything can be sold for a tourist”. This paper intends to determine which caused these changes and begin a debate related to those (old new forms of tourism and contemporary new forms of tourism.

  7. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination.

  8. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  9. Neoplastic causes of abnormal puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Susanne; Shelso, John; Wright, Karen; Furman, Wayne

    2014-04-01

    Neoplasm-related precocious puberty (PP) is a rare presenting feature of childhood cancer. Moreover, evaluation of suspected PP in a child is complex, and cancer is often not considered. We characterized the clinicopathologic features of patients presenting with PP at a large pediatric cancer center, reviewed the relevant literature, and developed an algorithm for the diagnostic work-up of these patients. We examined the records of all patients with a neoplasm and concomitant PP treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from January 1975 through October 2011, reviewed the available literature, and analyzed the demographic, clinical, endocrine, and neoplasm-related features. Twenty-four of 13,615 children and adolescents (0.18%) were diagnosed with PP within 60 days of presentation. Primary diagnoses included brain tumor (12), adrenocortical carcinoma (5), hepatoblastoma (4), and others (3). PP was observed 0-48 months before diagnosis of neoplasm; 17 patients had peripheral PP and 7 had central PP. Neoplasm-related PP is rare and takes the form of a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by tumor production of hormones or by alteration of physiologic gonadotropin production. PP can precede diagnosis of malignancy by months or years, and neoplastic causes should be considered early to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis. Treatment of the primary malignancy resolved or diminished PP in surviving patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lay beliefs about the causes and cures of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Minji; Furnham, Adrian; Jeon, Mina; Ko, Young-Mi

    2017-09-01

    Lay beliefs about schizophrenia are an important factor associated with treatment-seeking behavior. This study was conducted to investigate the lay beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia in South Korea. A total of 654 adults (mean age, 35.96 ± 11.33 years) completed two questionnaires assessing their views on the causes and cures of schizophrenia. The factor structures of lay beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia were then analyzed and the correlations between the resultant factors investigated. From the cause items, four factors were extracted: Health/Lifestyle, God/Fate, Social/Environmental and Biological. Four factors were also extracted from the treatment items: Self-Help/Stress Management, Physical Treatment/Health Management, Religious Help and Mental Health Service Utilization. Notably, most participants believed that items in the Social/Environmental and Biological factors were the causes of schizophrenia, while they believed that items in the Mental Health Service Utilization and Self-Help/Stress Management factors were the treatments. Participants' beliefs about the causes and treatments of schizophrenia were systematically correlated. Overall, laypeople have reasonably accurate beliefs and a multidimensional view of the causes and treatments of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, our results suggest that public education about the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia are necessary to increase actual usage of mental health services and treatments for schizophrenia.

  11. Timing Sicknesses in Control Systems Causes, Cure and Prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M

    2003-01-01

    In some cases, Trigger Generators or Data Acquisition Systems used for Beam Diagnostics show undefined or unreliable timing behavior. This presentation identifies common reasons, ways to fix the problems and some general rules to avoid them from the beginning. Examples will be given to discuss causes for e.g. double bunches and timing and trigger jumps, periodic as well as randomly. It will be discussed, how proper layout, timing calculations and timing measurements can avoid these inconvenient effects in advance.

  12. Measuring and analyzing the causes of problematic Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, I-Ping; Su, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Since Internet surfing became a daily activity, people have changed their behavior. This research analyzes the causes of problematic Internet use through an online survey, where 1,094 samples were collected. Based on the results of structural equation modeling analysis, the following conclusions are reached: First, novelty, security, and efficiency increase users' online trust. Second, information and efficiency enhance users' sharing and anonymity online. Third, greater trust in Internet environments leads to an increase in a user's cognitive bias toward online behavioral responsibility and Internet addiction. Fourth, a user's attitude toward online sharing further increases the cognitive bias toward online copyright. Fifth, a user's attitude toward anonymity increases cognitive bias toward online copyright, online behavioral responsibility, and deepens Internet addiction.

  13. Behavior changes after minor emergency procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, Holly; Iyer, Srikant

    2013-10-01

    Procedures are common in pediatric emergency departments and frequently cause distress from pain and/or anxiety. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, types, and magnitude of long-term behavior changes after procedures in the emergency setting. This is a descriptive pilot study to determine if children display negative behavioral changes after a minor emergency department procedure (abscess drainage or laceration repair). Behavior change was measured at 1 week by telephone follow-up using the 27-item Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire, a well-validated instrument that measures behavior changes across 6 categories: general anxiety, separation anxiety, anxiety about sleep, eating disturbances, aggression toward authority, and apathy/withdrawal. Significant behavior change was defined as 5 or more negative behavior changes on the 27-item questionnaire. Twenty percent of children who underwent abscess drainage (n = 30) and 20% who underwent laceration repair (n = 30) displayed significant negative behavior change at 1 week. Children who displayed significant negative behavior change tended to be younger (3.6 vs 5.9 years) and trended toward being more likely to have received anxiolysis or sedation (16.7% vs 8.3%). Separation anxiety, sleep difficulties, and aggression toward authority were the most common behavior changes. In this pilot study, a significant percentage of children undergoing common emergency procedures exhibited an appreciable burden of negative behavior change at 1 week; these results demonstrate the need for further rigorous investigation of predictors of these changes and interventions, which can ameliorate these changes.

  14. 5-HT causes splanchnic venodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Bridget M; Orer, Hakan S; Krieger-Burke, Teresa; Darios, Emma S; Thompson, Janice M; Fink, Gregory D; Watts, Stephanie W

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] causes relaxation of the isolated superior mesenteric vein, a splanchnic blood vessel, through activation of the 5-HT 7 receptor. As part of studies designed to identify the mechanism(s) through which chronic (≥24 h) infusion of 5-HT lowers blood pressure, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT causes in vitro and in vivo splanchnic venodilation that is 5-HT 7 receptor dependent. In tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction, the portal vein and abdominal inferior vena cava relaxed to 5-HT and the 5-HT 1/7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine; relaxation was abolished by the 5-HT 7 receptor antagonist SB-269970. Western blot analyses showed that the abdominal inferior vena cava and portal vein express 5-HT 7 receptor protein. In contrast, the thoracic vena cava, outside the splanchnic circulation, did not relax to serotonergic agonists and exhibited minimal expression of the 5-HT 7 receptor. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chronically implanted radiotelemetry transmitters underwent repeated ultrasound imaging of abdominal vessels. After baseline imaging, minipumps containing vehicle (saline) or 5-HT (25 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were implanted. Twenty-four hours later, venous diameters were increased in rats with 5-HT-infusion (percent increase from baseline: superior mesenteric vein, 17.5 ± 1.9; portal vein, 17.7 ± 1.8; and abdominal inferior vena cava, 46.9 ± 8.0) while arterial pressure was decreased (~13 mmHg). Measures returned to baseline after infusion termination. In a separate group of animals, treatment with SB-269970 (3 mg/kg iv) prevented the splanchnic venodilation and fall in blood pressure during 24 h of 5-HT infusion. Thus, 5-HT causes 5-HT 7 receptor-dependent splanchnic venous dilation associated with a fall in blood pressure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This research is noteworthy because it combines and links, through the 5-HT 7 receptor, an in vitro observation (venorelaxation) with in vivo events

  15. From Behaviorism to Selectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  16. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  17. Cholestasis caused by Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beştaş, Remzi; Yalçin, Kendal; Çiçek, Muttalip

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an infectious disease caused by the hepatic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Here, we report the case of Fasciola gigantica presenting with biliary obstruction and abdominal pain that was diagnosed and treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP). A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and jaundice. Physical examination revealed icterus and hepatomegaly. Laboratory findings revealed an increase in liver transaminases and bilirubin. Abdominal ultrasonography showed extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. The patient underwent ERCP. One live Fasciola gigantica was removed from the common bile duct by ERCP. In conclusion, fascioliasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice, especially in endemic regions, and it should be kept in mind that ERCP plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of Fasciola gigantica treated by ERCP in Turkey.

  18. A rare cause of hemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Aversa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are rare, malignant, endothelial-cell tumors of vascular origin that can arise at any body site. They frequently metastasize to the lung, heralded by dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest pain, pneumothoraces, and diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. However, in most cases lung metastases are discovered after the diagnosis of a primary angiosarcoma has already been established. Very rarely will an undiagnosed metastatic angiosarcoma present as diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. We describe the case of a 59-year-old male who presented to hospital with dyspnea and hemoptysis. CT chest revealed rapidly progressing nodular changes and broncho-alveolar lavage returns were progressively bloody. Open lung wedge biopsy ultimately revealed metastatic angiosarcoma and extensive pulmonary hemorrhage. Our case highlights the key clinical, radiological, and pathological features of this rare malignancy that frequently metastasizes to the lung and reminds clinicians to consider it as a cause of hemoptysis and pulmonary hemorrhage.

  19. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  20. Codfish may cause acute abdomen☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Almeida, Carlos E.; Rainho, Rui; Gouveia, António

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies ingestion is frequent and can cause several complications. Perforation is rare but can occur in any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Fish bones are one of the most frequent objects responsible. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 77-year-old patient resorted to emergency room for severe abdominal pain with 5 days of evolution. A CT scan showed an undefined liquid collection involving a linear image with 25 mm, suggestive of a foreign body. On laparotomy an abscess was resected with a fish bone inside. DISCUSSION Bowel perforation by foreign bodies can mimic other abdominal emergency conditions. Since fish bone ingestion is usually not remembered, diagnosis can be late. Surgery is the treatment of choice and is most commonly performed by laparotomy. CONCLUSION A low threshold of suspicion along with a good clinical history and radiological studies is extremely important in order to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:24055920

  1. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  2. [Epilepsy: incidens, prevalens and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Lars; Sundelin, Heléne; Sveinsson, Olafur

    2018-05-21

    Epilepsy affects people in all ages with the highest incidence in small children, particularly before age one year, and in elderly aged 65 years and older. In Sweden, between 4500-5000 persons develop epilepsy annually. Based on studies from North America and Europe, including the Nordic countries, the number of people with active epilepsy in Sweden is between 60000-70000. The lifetime risk for epilepsy up to age 85 years is 4-5 %, i.e. approximately every 25th person. The new epilepsy classification divides etiology into the following groups: structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown. The majority (70%) of people with epilepsy eventually become seizure free. Epilepsy increases the risk of psychosocial problems and accidents. People with epilepsy have up to a 3-fold increase in mortality, mainly due to the underlying causes and epilepsy related deaths, e.g. status epilepticus, SUDEP and accidents. Somatic, psychiatric and neuropsychiatric comorbidities are common in epilepsy.

  3. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  4. Hyperprolactinemia: causes, diagnosis, and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasek, M.; Pawlikowski, M.; Lewinski, A.

    2006-01-01

    The basic data on hyperprolactinemia (i.e. an excess of PRL above a reference laboratory's upper limits), the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are given in this review. The following issues are discussed: regulation of prolactin (Prl) secretion, definition of hyperprolactinemia, its etiology and pathogenesis as well as its symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment (including medical and surgical therapy). It should be stressed that finding of elevated PRL serum concentrations constitute the beginning of diagnostic procedure and, after exclusion of physiologic, pharmacologic, and other organic causes of increased PRL levels, should be followed by detailed diagnosis including MRI. In patients in whom hyperprolactinemia has been confirmed the treatment with dopamine agonists (with prevalence of cabergoline, followed by quinagoline) is currently considered first-choice therapy. Surgery should be performed only in the patients resistant or intolerant to these agents, or in patients who refuse long-term therapy. (author)

  5. Rash caused by Oryctes nasicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Stefano; Fanoni, Daniele; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of rash caused by crushing of a male of Oryctes nasicornis (Linnaeus 1758) (Coleoptera, "http:// it. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Scarabaeidae" \\o "Scarabaeidae" Scarabaeidae), popularly known as "European rhinoceros beetle", on the skin of an Italian tourist who developed the reaction during a trip to Turkey. The rash appeared one hour after the crushing of the insect on the skin. The patient was observed one day later, when she returned to Italy. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shumei; Xue, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21-24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16-18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. Obesity in children is a major health concern of the developed world. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity is on the increase in all the pediatric age groups, in males and females, and in various ethnic and racial groups. Factors, such as eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism, and lifestyle play an important role in the development of obesity. Over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. Obesity occurs when the body consumes more calories than it burns, through overeating and underexercising. The symptoms of obesity include breathing disorders, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain types of cancer such as prostate, bowel, breast and uterine, coronary heart disease, diabetes (type 2 in children), depression, liver and gallbladder problems, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, and joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, pain in knees and lower back. Environmental, behavioral such as consumption of convenience foods, genetic, and family factors contribute to pediatric obesity. Obesity can be countered through lower calorie consumption, weight loss and diet programs, as well as increased physical activity. A number of endogenous molecules including leptin, hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptor

  7. Insufficient sleep in adolescents: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Weiss, Miriam R

    2017-08-01

    Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times. Consequences range from inattentiveness, reduction in executive functioning and poor academic performance to increased risk of obesity and cardio-metabolic dysfunction, mood disturbances which include increased suicidal ideation, a higher risk of engaging in health risk behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, and increased rates of car crashes, occupational injuries and sports-related injuries. In response to these concerns, a number of promising measures have been proposed to reduce the burden of adolescent sleep loss, including healthy sleep education for students and families, and later school start times to allow adolescents to obtain sufficient and appropriately-timed sleep.

  8. The Financial Crisis: Origins, Causes And Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Permeti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in recent years took start in response to a crisis of the real estate market in the United States in 2007. The year 2009 has seen an economic crisis and between 2010 and 2011 it was known the spreading of the crisis sovereign debt and public finances of many countries. The financial markets failed in their main task: the allocation of risk. The products and services traded in the financial market are characterized by the immateriality and legal complexity. It means a high uncertainty degree and a high risk. Therefore is very important to protect the investors and this means: give them the right information, right legislation, market confidence and a product that respond to their needs. The crisis causes are: weaknesses in the regulatory, malfunction of the rating agencies, political errors and conflicts of interest. This means that we need: more rules, more capital, less debt, more transparency. The financial markets and the economy have always moved in harmony and savers have undertaken a countercyclical behavior, against trend or against the cycle and for investing in financial markets with the probability in favor we need a map that comes from the statistics.

  9. Can cardiac surgery cause hypopituitarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Flverly; Burger, Ines; Poll, Eva Maria; Reineke, Andrea; Strasburger, Christian J; Dohmen, Guido; Gilsbach, Joachim M; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka

    2012-03-01

    Apoplexy of pituitary adenomas with subsequent hypopituitarism is a rare but well recognized complication following cardiac surgery. The nature of cardiac on-pump surgery provides a risk of damage to the pituitary because the vascular supply of the pituitary is not included in the cerebral autoregulation. Thus, pituitary tissue may exhibit an increased susceptibility to hypoperfusion, ischemia or intraoperative embolism. After on-pump procedures, patients often present with physical and psychosocial impairments which resemble symptoms of hypopituitarism. Therefore, we analyzed whether on-pump cardiac surgery may cause pituitary dysfunction also in the absence of pre-existing pituitary disease. Twenty-five patients were examined 3-12 months after on-pump cardiac surgery. Basal hormone levels for all four anterior pituitary hormone axes were measured and a short synacthen test and a growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine (GHRH-ARG)-test were performed. Quality of life (QoL), depression, subjective distress for a specific life event, sleep quality and fatigue were assessed by means of self-rating questionnaires. Hormonal alterations were only slight and no signs of anterior hypopituitarism were found except for an insufficient growth hormone rise in two overweight patients in the GHRH-ARG-test. Psychosocial impairment was pronounced, including symptoms of moderate to severe depression in 9, reduced mental QoL in 8, dysfunctional coping in 6 and pronounced sleep disturbances in 16 patients. Hormone levels did not correlate with psychosocial impairment. On-pump cardiac surgery did not cause relevant hypopituitarism in our sample of patients and does not serve to explain the psychosocial symptoms of these patients.

  10. Epidermoid Causing Ischemic Stroke in the Brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Ramdasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tumors may rarely cause stroke. We report an epidermoid cyst causing stroke in a pediatric patient. We have also reviewed the literature and pathogenesis of stroke caused by intracranial tumors.

  11. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...

  12. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  13. Renal Aging: Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin D; Hughes, Jeremy; Ferenbach, David A

    2017-02-01

    Individuals age >65 years old are the fastest expanding population demographic throughout the developed world. Consequently, more aged patients than before are receiving diagnoses of impaired renal function and nephrosclerosis-age-associated histologic changes in the kidneys. Recent studies have shown that the aged kidney undergoes a range of structural changes and has altered transcriptomic, hemodynamic, and physiologic behavior at rest and in response to renal insults. These changes impair the ability of the kidney to withstand and recover from injury, contributing to the high susceptibility of the aged population to AKI and their increased propensity to develop subsequent progressive CKD. In this review, we examine these features of the aged kidney and explore the various validated and putative pathways contributing to the changes observed with aging in both experimental animal models and humans. We also discuss the potential for additional study to increase understanding of the aged kidney and lead to novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  15. Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List About PPMD Events News Login By Area Learning & Behavior Attention, Listening & Learning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ... Care Guidelines ❯ By Area ❯ Learning & Behavior Share Print Learning & Behavior Facts to Remember People with Duchenne may ...

  16. Can ureteral stones cause pain without causing hydronephrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Gee, Michael S; Noble, Vicki E; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-09-01

    While computerized tomography (CT) is the gold standard for diagnosis of ureterolithiasis, ultrasound is a less costly and radiation-free alternative which is commonly used to evaluate patients with ureteral colic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency with which patients with ureteral stones and renal colic demonstrate hydronephrosis in order to better understand the evaluation of these patients. Two hundred and forty-eight consecutive patients presenting with ureteral colic and diagnosed with a single unilateral ureteral stone on CT scan in an urban tertiary care emergency department were retrospectively reviewed. Radiology reports were reviewed for stone size, diagnosis, and degree of hydronephrosis. Of the 248 patients evaluated for suspected ureteral stone, 221 (89.1 %) demonstrated any hydronephrosis, while 27 (10.9 %) did not. Hydronephrosis grade, available in 194 patients, was as follows: mild-70.6 %, moderate-27.8 %, and severe-1.5 %. Mean patient age was 47.0 years (SD 15.5), gender distribution was 35.9 % female and 64.1 % male, and mean stone axial diameter was 4.1 mm (SD 2.4). Stone location was as follows: ureteropelvic junction-4.1 %, proximal ureter-21 %, distal ureter-24.9 %, and ureterovesical junction-47.1 %. Axial stone diameter and coronal length (craniocaudal) were both significant predictors of degree of hydronephrosis (ANOVA, p hydronephrosis. In patients with ureteral stones and colic, nearly 11 % do not demonstrate any hydronephrosis and a majority (nearly 71 %) will demonstrate only mild hydronephrosis. Stone diameter appears to be related to degree of hydronephrosis, whereas age, gender, and stone location are not. The lower incidence of hydronephrosis for small stones causing renal colic may explain the lower diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound when compared to CT for detecting ureteral stones.

  17. Infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, C A; Berning, S E

    1994-01-01

    To update readers on the clinical management of infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to provide a general description of the organism, culture and susceptibility testing, and clinical manifestations of the disease, and to provide several aspects of the treatment of the disease, including historical perspective, current approaches, and research opportunities for the future. The current medical literature, including abstracts presented at recent international meetings, is reviewed. References were identified through MEDLINE, MEDLARS II, Current Contents, and published meeting abstracts. Data regarding the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, culture and susceptibility testing, and treatment of tuberculosis are cited. Specific attention has been focused on the clinical management of patients with noncontagious infection and potentially contagious active disease (TB) caused by M. tuberculosis. Information contributing to the discussion of the topics selected by the authors is reviewed. Data supporting and disputing specific conclusions are presented. The incidence of TB is increasing in the US, despite the fact that available technologies are capable of controlling the vast majority of existing cases. Fueling the fire is the problem of coinfection with HIV and M. tuberculosis. Very few drugs are available for the treatment of TB, and few of these approach the potency of isoniazid and rifampin. Preventive therapy of patients exposed to multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is controversial and of unknown efficacy. Treatment of active disease caused by MDR-TB requires up to four times longer, is associated with increased toxicity, and is far less successful than the treatment of drug-susceptible TB. Strategies for the management of such cases are presented. The rising incidence of TB in the US reflects a breakdown in the healthcare systems responsible for controlling the disease, which reflects the past budgetary reductions. Although TB control

  18. Best practices in managing child and adolescent behavioral health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Vera; Rocker, Joshua; Saggu, Babar M; Andrus, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral health emergencies most commonly present as depression, suicidal behavior, aggression, and severe disorganization. Emergency clinicians should avoid relying solely on past medical history or previous psychiatric diagnoses that might prematurely rule out medical pathologies. Treatments for behavioral health emergencies consist of de-escalation interventions aimed at preventing agitation, aggression, and harm. This issue reviews medical pathologies and underlying causes that can result in psychiatric presentations and summarizes evidence-based practices to evaluate, manage, and refer patients with behavioral health emergencies.

  19. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work follow...

  20. Behavioral Medicine and University Departments of Family Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Grantham, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Behavioral medicine brings knowledge and skills from the social sciences to the practice of medicine. Modifying behavior which causes a health problem, disease prevention and health promotion, improving the relationship between patients and health professionals, understanding cultural and ethical issues, and the effect of illness on behavior are all aspects of behavioral medicine. Such `whole person' medicine fits well into family practice. However, careful consideration of the risks, challen...

  1. Behavioral Teratogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monalisa; Barik, Bedanta Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Developmental biology is a fascinating branch of science which helps us to understand the mechanism of development, thus the findings are used in various therapeutic approach. Drosophila melanogaster served as a model to find the key molecules that initiate and regulate the mechanism of development. Various genes, transcription factors, and signaling pathways helping in development are identified in Drosophila. Many toxic compounds, which can affect the development, are also recognized using Drosophila model. These compounds, which can affect the development, are named as a teratogen. Many teratogens identified using Drosophila may also act as a teratogen for a human being since 75% of conservation exist between the disease genes present in Drosophila and human. There are certain teratogens, which do not cause developmental defect if exposed during pregnancy, however; behavioral defect appears in later part of development. Such compounds are named as a behavioral teratogen. Thus, it is worthy to identify the potential behavioral teratogen using Drosophila model. Drosophila behavior is well studied in various developmental stages. This chapter describes various methods which can be employed to test behavioral teratogenesis in Drosophila.

  2. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  3. Hypothermia in neonatal piglets: Interactions and causes of individual differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Trine S; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jørgensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major cause of mortality in neonatal piglets. However, there are considerable individual differences in the successful recovery from postnatal hypothermia in the common farrowing environment, and so far the causes and interactions of causes have not been studied in detail. Using...... 635 crossbred neonatal piglets, the aim of this study was to identify the links among different physiological and behavioral measures and their connections to the piglets’ ability to overcome initial postnatal hypothermia, with rectal temperature at 2 h as the response variable. The data included......: birth weight, hypoxia at birth (viability score and lactate in umbilical cord blood), latency to first udder contact and first suckle, scans of individual piglet position during the first 2 h after birth, and rectal temperature at birth and 2 h post partum. A graphical chain model was used to analyze...

  4. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  5. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non-smokers : cause or consequence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W; Boomsma, Dorret I

    The molecular mechanisms causing smoking-induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome-wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers,

  6. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non-smokers: Cause or consequence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Jansen, R.; Brooks, A.I.; Willemsen, G.; Grootheest, G. van; Geus, E.J.C. de; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms causing smoking-induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome-wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers,

  7. The Causes of Churn in the Telecommunication Industry: A Single, Exploratory Case Study on Kenyan Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This single explorative case study investigated the causes of churn in the telecommunication industry in Kenya, narrowed down to include only the capital city of Nairobi. The question of this dissertation was split into three sub-questions. The first sub-question investigated the behavioral patterns of customers causing churn. The second…

  8. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  9. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  10. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnapriya Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children′s physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  11. Environmental Degradation: Causes and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tyagi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development. In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.

  12. INTERCULTURAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майкл Б Хиннер

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural misunderstandings involve a number of complex causes which can easily escalate into conflicts. Since conflicts are also complex, it is not easy to find solutions because there is no one solution for all problems. Systems Theory, transdisciplinarity, and the social ecological model take a holistic approach in investigating complex phenomena. They permit the creation of a theoretical framework based on previous empirical research and theories across scientific disciplines to identify the relevant elements of complex phenomena and to understand the interrelationship of these elements. Intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts are very complex phenomena because they include culture, perception, identity, ethnocentrism, relationships, trust building and conflict management as well as intercultural commu-nication competence which entails cognition, metacognition, and social metacognition. Since most em-pirical studies focus on isolated, individual elements in specific contexts, this article describes the theoretical framework of how the various findings and theories developed in different scientific disciplines can be used to form a cohesive framework to help circumvent intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts. In so doing, it follows the general principles of Systems Theory, transdisciplinarity, and the social ecological model.

  13. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  15. Optimism and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Grodstein, Francine; DeMeo, Dawn L; De Vivo, Immaculata; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked positive psychological attributes like optimism to a lower risk of poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. It has been demonstrated in randomized trials that optimism can be learned. If associations between optimism and broader health outcomes are established, it may lead to novel interventions that improve public health and longevity. In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health behaviors, health conditions) variables. We used prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 70,021). Dispositional optimism was measured in 2004; all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were assessed from 2006 to 2012. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that a higher degree of optimism was associated with a lower mortality risk. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of optimism, women in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.66, 0.76) for all-cause mortality. Adding health behaviors, health conditions, and depression attenuated but did not eliminate the associations (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97). Associations were maintained for various causes of death, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and infection. Given that optimism was associated with numerous causes of mortality, it may provide a valuable target for new research on strategies to improve health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hypocalcaemia: Causes, diagnostics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypocalcaemia is a state with total calcium serum level below 2.25 mM/l. From the total serum calcium content, 50% is free and ionized, 40% is protein-bound and 10% is bound for organic anions. The most frequent causes of hypocalcaemia are iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism, magnesium deficit, disorders of vitamin D metabolism and chronic renal failure. Iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism is associated with low serum ionized calcium and low serum parathormone levels. There are two important clinical signs of hypocalcemia: Chvostek's sign (twitches of upper lip after percussion on facial nerve over mandible and Trousseau's sign (carpal spasm after increasing pressure in blood pressure cuff placed about the upper arm for 20 milimeters above systolic pressure for 3-5 minutes. The following lab analyses should be performed when hypocalcaemia is an option: serum levels of creatinine, calcium, magnesium, 25 - hydroxyvitamin, parathormone, potassium, sodium, chloride and bicarbonates. If hypocalcaemia is mild, it could be treated with oral calcium preparations, usually calcium carbonate, in a dose of 1 to 2 grams of elemental calcium daily. In more severe hypocalcaemia intravenous calcium-gluconate or calcium-chloride should be administered, as 10% solutions. These parenteral preparations of calcium should be diluted prior to the intravenous administration, and the administration should be longer than 20 minutes in order to avoid adverse effects on heart. If administration of calcium does not correct hypocalcaemia, oral vitamin D should be also prescribed. If this does not regulate calcaemia, from 0.25 to 1 micrograms of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (clacitriol daily should be prescribed. Calcium serum levels should be kept within the lower part of normal serum concentration range.

  17. Mechanics of integrating root causes into PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruske, S.Z.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Stepina, P.L.; Vesely, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of root cause importance, root cause data for selected components of a pressurized water reactor auxiliary feedwater system, an Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) auxiliary feedwater system model, and the results of root cause importance calculations. The methodology shown herein is straightforward and is easily applied to existing probabilistic risk assessments. Root cause importance can greatly benefit the areas of design, maintenance, and inspection. Root cause importance for various components and circumstances can be evaluated

  18. Root cause and how to find it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gano, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth discussion of the definition of root cause, the use of the cause-and-effect process to find the root cause, and the use of proper cause categorization as a means to better understand the nuances of root cause. It also provides a detailed statistical breakdown of reactor trips at boiling water reactors for 1986 as compiled from Boiling Water Reactor Owners' Group Scram Frequency Reduction Commitee (BWROGSFRC) data

  19. Sucrose ingestion causes opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Segato

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The intake of saccharin solutions for relatively long periods of time causes analgesia in rats, as measured in the hot-plate test, an experimental procedure involving supraspinal components. In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation using a different model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l for 1 day or 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The indexes (mean ± SEM, N = 12 for the groups receiving tap water for 1 day or 14 days, and sucrose solution for 1 day or 14 days were 0.09 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.08 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(3,47 = 9.521, P<0.001 and the Tukey multiple comparison test (P<0.05 showed that the analgesia index of the 14-day sucrose-treated animals differed from all other groups. Naloxone-treated rats (N = 7 receiving sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.20 ± 0.10 while rats receiving only sucrose (N = 7 had an index of 0.68 ± 0.11 (t = 0.254, 10 degrees of freedom, P<0.03. This result indicates that the analgesic effect of sucrose depends on the time during which the solution is consumed and extends the analgesic effects of sweet substance intake, such as saccharin, to a model other than the hot-plate test, with similar results. Endogenous opioids may be involved in the central regulation of the sweet substance-produced analgesia.

  20. Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  1. Overcoming Deception in Evolution of Cognitive Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    When scaling neuroevolution to complex behaviors, cognitive capabilities such as learning, communication, and memory become increasingly important. However, successfully evolving such cognitive abilities remains difficult. This paper argues that a main cause for such difficulty is deception, i.......e. evolution converges to a behavior unrelated to the desired solution. More specifically, cognitive behaviors often require accumulating neural structure that provides no immediate fitness benefit, and evolution often thus converges to non-cognitive solutions. To investigate this hypothesis, a common...... evolutionary robotics T-Maze domain is adapted in three separate ways to require agents to communicate, remember, and learn. Indicative of deception, evolution driven by objective-based fitness often converges upon simple non- cognitive behaviors. In contrast, evolution driven to explore novel behaviors, i...

  2. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja-Hyun eBaik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DAmesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural rewards such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  3. Complex dream-enacting behavior in sleepwalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillmann, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Currently, dream-enacting behaviors are viewed as occurring typically in association with a REM-sleep behavior disorder. In some cases, dream-like mentation is found also in non-REM parasomnia. We report a case of complex and dramatic sleepwalking behavior in a 26-year-old adult male who tied his 4-month-old daughter to the clothesline in the attic of his house. The explanation of this seemingly senseless behavior, which was related to psychosocial stressors, was found in a detailed dream-like mentation that was reported by the patient. At the same time, an organic factor, namely, a worsening of the patient's asthma, was identified as the cause of an increased fragmentation of sleep. In some cases of non-REM parasomnia, detailed dream-like mentation may act as a bridge between psychosocial stressors and the specific parasomnic behavior.

  4. Consumer behavior changing: methods of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elīna Gaile-Sarkane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methods of analyses of consumer buying behavior as well as to evaluation of most important factors what influences consumer behavior. This research aims at investigations about the changes in consumer behavior caused by globalization and development of information technologies; it helps to understand the specific factors what should be taken into account in evaluation of consumer behavior. The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, synthesis, expert method, statistic method, etc. Research findings disclosed that there is possibility to introduce new methods for evaluation of changing consumer behavior.

  5. Esophageal hypermotility: cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, O M; Tatum, R P; Yates, R B; Sahin, M; Coskun, K; Martin, A V; Wright, A; Oelschlager, B K; Pellegrini, C A

    2016-07-01

    Nutcracker esophagus (NE), Jackhammer esophagus (JHE), distal esophageal spasm (DES), and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (HTLES) are defined by esophageal manometric findings. Some patients with these esophageal motility disorders also have abnormal gastroesophageal reflux. It is unclear to what extent these patients' symptoms are caused by the motility disorder, the acid reflux, or both. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) on esophageal motility disorders, gastroesophageal reflux, and patient symptoms. Between 2007 and 2013, we performed high-resolution esophageal manometry on 3400 patients, and 221 patients were found to have a spastic esophageal motility disorder. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to determine the manometric abnormality, presence of gastroesophageal symptoms, and amount of esophageal acid exposure. In those patients that underwent LNF, we compared pre- and postoperative esophageal motility, gastroesophageal symptom severity, and esophageal acid exposure. Of the 221 patients with spastic motility disorders, 77 had NE, 2 had JHE, 30 had DES, and 112 had HTLES. The most frequently reported primary and secondary symptoms among all patients were: heartburn and/or regurgitation, 69.2%; respiratory, 39.8%; dysphagia, 35.7%; and chest pain, 22.6%. Of the 221 patients, 192 underwent 24-hour pH monitoring, and 103 demonstrated abnormal distal esophageal acid exposure. Abnormal 24-hour pH monitoring was detected in 62% of patients with heartburn and regurgitation, 49% of patients with respiratory symptoms, 36.8 % of patients with dysphagia, and 32.6% of patients with chest pain. Sixty-six of the 103 patients with abnormal 24-hour pH monitoring underwent LNF. Thirty-eight (13NE, 2JHE, 6 DES, and 17 HTLES) of these 66 patients had a minimum of 6-month postoperative follow-up that included clinical evaluation, esophageal manometry, and 24-hour pH monitoring

  6. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  7. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borrione

    2008-12-01

    effects. Also, some herbs are safe in modest amounts but they may become toxic at higher doses. For example, liquorice root can be used safely for treating duodenal and gastric ulcers, but large amounts of liquorice can cause serious side effects such as hypokalemia, high blood pressure, and heart failure. Finally, other herbs, toxic by themselves: for example, germander, an herb used in some weight-loss programs, can cause fatal hepatitis. Other herbs may be toxic because of possible contaminants: the Chinese herbs caowu and chuanwu used for the management of rheumatism, arthritis, bruises, and fractures may contain highly toxic potentially fatal alkaloids such as aconitine.Therefore, despite the increased tendency to seek natural therapies, athletes have to be aware that "natural" does not equal to "safe." Herbs should not be touted as miraculous side effects-free substances, but rather as compounds that work through simple biochemistry. The effects of most herbal supplements have not been studied using rigorous scientific methodology, and the hyperbolic advertising and advocacy literature surrounding herbal products often contains untested claims, and under-reports side effects.All the preparations mentioned above exhibit hormone-like activity. Evidence in animals of reproductive disturbances associated with ingestion of feed rich in oestrogenic substances includes a lower conception rate in sheep after prolonged isoflavones consumption, infertility in cattle after consuming feed containing coumestrol, decreased fertility in captive cheetahs fed with dietary oestrogens, hyperoestrogenism in pigs fed with diets containing zearalenone, uterotropic effects in mice fed with soybean, reduced fecundity in adult males rats fed a high phytoestrogen diet for 3 days (Glover and Assinder, 2006; Srilatha, 2004 Also, in a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, a vegetarian diet during pregnancy was associated with a 5-fold higher risk of hypospadias, and consumption

  8. Examining Teachers' Behavioral Management Charts: A Comparison of Class Dojo and Paper-Pencil Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Rimel, Hillary

    2017-01-01

    Many teachers report using behavioral management charts in their classrooms as a means of managing student behaviors, but little is known about exactly what behaviors teachers are charting, or specifically how. Misunderstanding over how real-world teachers maintain behavioral charts may cause miscommunication between the teacher and the school…

  9. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    at the Technical University of Denmark. The data set includes face-to-face interaction (Bluetooth), communication (calls and texts), mobility (GPS), social network (Facebook), and general background information including a psychological profile (questionnaire). This thesis presents my work on the Social Fabric...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived....... Evidence is provided, which implies that the asymmetry is caused by a self-enhancement in the initiation dynamics. These results have implications for the formation of social networks and the dynamics of the links. It is shown that the Big Five Inventory (BFI) representing a psychological profile only...

  10. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions......In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers...... are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert...

  11. A Rare Cause of Postprandial Abdominal Pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causes abdominal symptoms. Median ... compression of the coeliac artery by the median arcuate ligament. ... existing symptoms might cause frustration to patient and relatives. ... disease, chest pathology, etc., were excluded from the study.

  12. Symptoms and Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcer. How do H. pylori cause a peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer disease? H. pylori are spiral-shaped bacteria that ... peptic ulcer. How do tumors from ZES cause peptic ulcers? Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that ...

  13. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ... Self Test & Diagnosis Treatment Snoring Overview and Facts Causes and Symptoms Self Tests & ... Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient ...

  14. Mesenteric lipoma causing recurrent intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-12

    Jan 12, 2013 ... vomiting, constipation, and central abdominal mass. ... Mesenteric lipoma may cause abdominal pain by complete intestinal .... Kaniklides C, Frykberg T, Lundkvist K. Pediatric mesenteric lipoma: An unusual cause of repeated ...

  15. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  16. Sjogren's Syndrome: Can It Cause Recurrent UTIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sjogren's syndrome last year, I've had three urinary tract infections. Is there any evidence that Sjogren's syndrome causes ... cause symptoms that you might mistake for a urinary tract infection (UTI). Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in ...

  17. Patient-reported causes of heart failure in a large European sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Ivy; Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2018-01-01

    ), psychosocial (35%, mainly (work-related) stress), and natural causes (32%, mainly heredity). There were socio-demographic, clinical and psychological group differences between the various categories, and large discrepancies between prevalence of physical risk factors according to medical records and patient...... distress (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.94–2.51, p = 0.09), and behavioral causes and a less threatening view of heart failure (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.40–1.01, p = 0.06). Conclusion: European patients most frequently reported comorbidities, smoking, stress, and heredity as heart failure causes, but their causal......Background: Patients diagnosed with chronic diseases develop perceptions about their disease and its causes, which may influence health behavior and emotional well-being. This is the first study to examine patient-reported causes and their correlates in patients with heart failure. Methods...

  18. Mechanical behavior of superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreen, S.

    1986-04-01

    Recent developments affecting the mechanical behavior of superalloys over three ranges of operating temperatures are reviewed. At lower temperatures, activity has been focused on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in light water reactor and sour gas well environments. The susceptibility to intergranular crack growth is critically dependent upon the grain boundary chemistry, and a method of minimizing the sensitivity of the boundaries to attack has been pursued. At intermediate temperatures, considerable effort has been directed toward increasing the tensile and fatigue strengths. The higher strength materials, however, show increased fracture sensitivity. In particular, embrittlement due to diffusion into the grain boundaries of aggressive species, such as oxygen or sulfur from the environments, becomes a problem. Minor element alloying additions of boron, zirconium, magnesium, etc., are helpful in retarding the degradation caused by the environment. At higher temperatures, the major thrust is toward improving the creep strength. The weak link in the materials, which is the transverse grain boundaries, has been eliminated by the use of specialized processing steps to produce either directionally solidified materials with minimum transverse grain boundaries, or single crystal materials. Single crystal materials permit alloying and heat treating modifications that further enhance the creep strength. The materials are very anisotropic in properties, but are successfully used in turbine blades and could be useful in other special applications

  19. Urinary infection caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Helen

    1973-01-01

    The laboratory findings and clinical presentations in urinary infections in 23 nurses, 10 caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3 and 13 by Escherichia coli, were studied, and the symptoms and possible predisposing factors compared. There were no important differences between the two groups. The infections caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3 were symptomatically severe, as were those caused by Escherichia coli. PMID:4593863

  20. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Romagnoli, Mark; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen C

    2014-08-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is a rare cause of human infections. Previously, bacteremia and meningitis caused by this organism linked to probiotic use have been reported in a neonate. We report the first case of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by B. breve in an adult without a history of probiotic use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Data needs for common cause failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, G.W.; Paula, H.M.; Rasmuson, D.; Whitehead, D.

    1990-01-01

    The procedures guide for common cause failure analysis published jointly by USNRC and EPRI requires a detailed historical event analysis. Recent work on the further development of the cause-defense picture of common cause failures introduced in that guide identified the information that is necessary to perform the detailed analysis in an objective manner. This paper summarizes these information needs

  2. Clustering of unhealthy behaviors in the aerobics center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Participants were 13,621 adults (aged 20-84) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Four health behaviors were observed (diet, fitness, smoking, and drinking). Baseline characteristics of the study population and bivariate relations between pairs of the health behaviors were evaluated separately for those with and without chronic disease using cross-tabulation and a chi-square test. The odds of partaking in unhealthy behaviors were also calculated. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assess clustering. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors and mortality. The four health behaviors were related to each other. LCA results suggested that two classes existed. Participants in class 1 had a higher probability of partaking in each of the four unhealthy behaviors than participants in class 2. No differences in health behavior clustering were found between participants with and without chronic disease. Mortality risk increased relative to the number of unhealthy behaviors participants engaged in. Unhealthy behaviors cluster together irrespective of chronic disease status. Such findings suggest that multi-behavioral intervention strategies can be similar in those with and without chronic disease.

  3. Polymicrobial infective endocarditis caused by Neisseria sicca and Haemophilus parainfluenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz Koshkelashvili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a common clinical problem in industrialized countries. Risk factors include abnormal cardiac valves, a history of endocarditis, intracardiac devices, prosthetic valves and intravenous drug use. We report a case of polymicrobial infective endocarditis in a 33 year-old female with a history chronic heroin use caused by Neisseria sicca and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. We believe the patient was exposed to these microbes by cleansing her skin with saliva prior to injection. Pairing a detailed history with the consideration of atypical agents is crucial in the proper diagnosis and management of endocarditis in patients with high-risk injection behaviors.

  4. Dealing with Emotional, Behavioral and Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjeh, Divine

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the differences between emotional and behavioral disorders, physical and health impairments and Traumatic brain Injury at the level of definitions, causes, and characteristics. It also describes specific and the most effective instructional strategies for students with these disabilities. It further suggests ways and means by…

  5. Reinforcement, Behavior Constraint, and the Overjustification Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bruce W.

    1980-01-01

    Four levels of the behavior constraint-reinforcement variable were manipulated: attractive reward, unattractive reward, request to perform, and a no-reward control. Only the unattractive reward and request groups showed the performance decrements that suggest the overjustification effect. It is concluded that reinforcement does not cause the…

  6. Endocrine Tumors Causing Arterial Hypertension: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonacera, Agata; Stancanelli, Benedetta; Malatino, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Some tumors are a relatively rare and amendable cause of hypertension, often associated with a higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as compared with that of both general population and patients with essential hypertension. This worse prognosis is not entirely related to blood pressure increase, because the release of substances from the tumor can directly influence blood pressure behavior. Diagnostic approach is challenging and needs a deep knowledge of the different neuro-hormonal and genetic mechanisms determining blood pressure increase. Surgical tumor removal can, but not always, cause blood pressure normalization, depending on how early was tumor detection, since a long-standing history of hypertension is often associated with a much weaker effect on blood pressure. Moreover, target organ damage can be affected by the substances themselves released by the tumors as well as by tumor removal. In this review we consider the phenotype and genetic features of patients with tumor-induced hypertension and focus on their diagnostic work-up.

  7. Oral Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in a Disabled Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Novo-Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2 cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6 cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five maggots were removed during inspection, whereas 75 maggots were surgically removed under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation. Dipyrone, ivermectin, and clindamycin were prescribed, and the patient remained hospitalized for 3 days. Seven days after surgical intervention, no maggots were observed. Our study emphasizes that dentists must recognize the symptoms and behaviors of parasitic diseases that affect the oral cavity.

  8. Oral Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in a Disabled Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Neto, José Pereira; Dos Santos, Fabiano de Sant'Ana; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias; Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; Scannavino, Fábio Luiz Ferreira; Martins, Alex Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of fly species, which can infect humans. Patients with special needs, especially those with severe neuropsychomotor limitations, may have oral manifestations of this disease. Here, we present a clinical case in which a disabled person was affected by oral myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax. Maggots were found in two ulcerated lesions, a 2 cm diameter lesion in the maxilla and a 6 cm diameter lesion in the mandible. Forty-five maggots were removed during inspection, whereas 75 maggots were surgically removed under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation. Dipyrone, ivermectin, and clindamycin were prescribed, and the patient remained hospitalized for 3 days. Seven days after surgical intervention, no maggots were observed. Our study emphasizes that dentists must recognize the symptoms and behaviors of parasitic diseases that affect the oral cavity.

  9. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  10. Qualitative behavior of global solutions to inhomogeneous quasilinear hyperbolic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, L.

    1994-01-01

    The emphasis is the influence to the qualitative behavior of solutions caused by the lower order term, which is certain dissipation, in quasilinear hyperbolic systems. Both classical solutions and discontinuous weak solutions are discussed. (author). 12 refs

  11. Determinants of Quit Behavior Among Managerial and Professional Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    to socialization or discrimination is the major cause of women’s over representation in crowded occupations. Some studies relate the amount of specific...c.l ^16 Arrowood Determinan ^t:^ of quit behavior aifiong managerial and professional women.

  12. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  13. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  14. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  15. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  16. Behavioral Assessment: Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Chrisman

    1980-01-01

    This is a general discussion of the validity, reliability, function, and format of questionnaires designed to measure problem behavior, noncompliance, anxiety, social interaction, hyperactivity, drug use, and sexual behavior. Commonly used questionnaires are cited. (CP)

  17. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  18. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  19. Unhealthy behaviors in adolescents: multibehavioral associations with psychosocial problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Robertus Josephus

    2014-06-01

    Several unhealthy behaviors are associated with psychosocial health in adolescents. Previous studies have shown that different adolescent health behaviors cluster, and, in order to understand these associations, it is important to investigate the relations between individual behaviors and psychosocial problems. This study addressed the research question "Are adolescent health behaviors associated with psychosocial problems, and to what extent do certain health behaviors confound the relations between other health behaviors and psychosocial problems in adolescents?" Self-reported questionnaire data on a broad range of health behaviors and demographics were collected from 2,690 high school students in the Netherlands in September 2012. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, nearly all unhealthy behaviors were found to be significantly associated with psychosocial problems. However, after correction for confounding by other behaviors, psychosocial problems were associated with fewer behaviors, namely compulsive internet use and videogame playing, smoking, cannabis use, and being bullied. These associations differed in boys and girls. In multibehavioral analyses adjusted for behavioral clustering, which can cause considerable interbehavioral confounding, several behaviors were associated with psychosocial problems in adolescents. This approach to behavior analysis provides a better insight into behaviors and psychosocial health, and the specific associations identified can be utilized when designing effective prevention programs, such as health-promoting school interventions.

  20. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; John A. List

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  1. Causes of unity and disunity in Psychology and Behaviorism: An encounter with Arthur W. Staats' Psychological Behaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Virués-Ortega

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio teórico se presenta la síntesis de varias entrevistas mantenidas con Arthur W. Staats. Durante los últimos cincuenta años A. W. Staats ha realizado relevantes contribuciones en psicología del desarrollo, psicología del aprendizaje, comportamiento emocional, lenguaje, teoría conductual y unificación teórica de la psicología, entre otras áreas. Su propuesta teórica, el conductismo Psicológico, se presenta como un marco no ecléctico de unificación entre conductismo y psicología. En el presente documento se discuten especialmente: (a aspectos históricos del desarrollo del conductismo, incluyendo las similitudes e influencias entre conductismos de primera, segunda y tercera generación, (b fragmentación teórica en Psicología, (c papel del eclecticismo como marco artificial para la unificación de la Psicología, (d unificación de la Psicología, (e distinciones entre conductismo radical y paradigmático con respecto a análisis funcional, conducta emocional, concepción teórica del vínculo entre investigación básica y aplicada, y (f conceptos clave del conductismo psicológico (e.g. repertorios básicos de conducta, teoría de las tres funciones del estímulo, teoría multinivel, método experimental-longitudinal, uso conductual de tests psicométricos, teoría paradigmático-conductista de la inteligencia.

  2. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jing; Zhi-cai, Juan; Lin-jie, Gao

    2014-01-01

    Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) to study the travel beh...

  3. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior...

  5. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...

  6. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to

  7. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  8. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  9. Influence of information on behavioral effects in decision processes

    OpenAIRE

    Angelarosa Longo; Viviana Ventre

    2015-01-01

    Rational models in decision processes are marked out by many anomalies, caused by behavioral issues. We point out the importance of information in causing inconsistent preferences in a decision process. In a single or multi agent decision process each mental model is influenced by the presence, the absence or false information about the problem or about other members of the decision making group. The difficulty in modeling these effects increases because behavioral biases influence also the m...

  10. Clustering of Unhealthy Behaviors in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. Objectives To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Methods Participants were ...

  11. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  12. Bad Behavior: Improving Reproducibility in Behavior Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Anne M; Cheng, Xinyi; Altieri, Stefanie C; Yang, Hongyan

    2018-01-24

    Systems neuroscience research is increasingly possible through the use of integrated molecular and circuit-level analyses. These studies depend on the use of animal models and, in many cases, molecular and circuit-level analyses. Associated with genetic, pharmacologic, epigenetic, and other types of environmental manipulations. We illustrate typical pitfalls resulting from poor validation of behavior tests. We describe experimental designs and enumerate controls needed to improve reproducibility in investigating and reporting of behavioral phenotypes.

  13. Root causes of corporal punishment of children: approaches and mechanisms to confront it

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Hasani; Isa Abedini; Ebrahim Ebrahimi; Kamal Kohi

    2011-01-01

    Adult behavior has a profound effect on the personality and habits developed in children. Corporal punishment means the use of physical force to cause pain without injury, to discipline - 'behavior correction or control’- children. Corporal punishment of children can both have short-term and long-term harmful effects on their body and mind. In general, parents’ frequent use of corporal punishment is likely to be due to the fact that they may have experienced depression, drug abuse, alcohol us...

  14. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  15. Does Marijuana Use Lead to Aggression and Violent Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…

  16. Medial Amygdala and Aggressive Behavior : Interaction Between Testosterone and Vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Roozendaal, B.; Boorsma, F.; Van Den Brink, T.H.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the functional significance of the testosterone-dependent vasopressinergic neurons of the medial amygdala (Ame) in intermale aggressive behavior of rats. Local microinfusion of vasopressin into the medial amygdala causes an increase in offensive behavior both in gonadally intact

  17. Common cause failures of reactor pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.

    1978-01-01

    The common cause failure is defined as a multiple failure event due to a common cause. The existence of common failure causes may ruin the potential advantages of applying redundancy for reliability improvement. Examples relevant to large mechanical components are presented. Preventive measures against common cause failures, such as physical separation, equipment diversity, quality assurance, and feedback from experience are discussed. Despite the large number of potential interdependencies, the analysis of common cause failures can be done within the framework of conventional reliability analysis, utilizing, for example, the method of deriving minimal cut sets from a system fault tree. Tools for the description and evaluation of dependencies between components are discussed: these include the model of conditional failure causes that are common to many components, and evaluation of the reliability of redundant components subjected to a common load. (author)

  18. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Aschemann-Witzel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  19. Unusual causes of spinal foraminal widening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibis, A.H.; Markonis, A.; Karantanas, A.H. [Dept. of CT and MRI, Larissa General Hospital (Greece)

    2000-01-01

    Spinal neural foraminal widening is usually caused by benign lesions, most commonly neurofibromas. Rare lesions can also cause spinal neural foraminal widening. Computed tomography and/or MRI are the modalities of choice for studying the spinal foraminal widening. The present pictorial review describes six rare lesions, namely a lateral thoracic meningocele, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, a tuberculous abscess, an osteoblastoma, a chondrosarcoma and a malignant tumour of the lung which caused spinal neural foraminal widening. (orig.)

  20. Oral Habits That Cause Malocclusion Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Joelijanto, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    Oral habits that place pressure on the teeth may slowly move the teeth out of place. The aim of this study was to review the literature for articles referring the most common oral habits that cause malocclusion. The oral bad habits that cause malocclussion problems include: Thumb sucking, It is a normal habit for babies, but causes serious orthodontic problems if it continues long after the eruption of permanent teeth. Prolonged thumb sucking can create crowded, crooked teeth, or bite problem...

  1. An unusual cause of anemia and encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors present here an interesting case of recent onset anemia that was associated with an encephalopathy of the unusual cause.Although severe anemia can theoretically result in anemic hypoxia and can then lead to hypoxic encephalopathy, it is not a primary cause of encephalopathy. More frequently anemia can contribute together with other multiple causes of encephalopathy, such as infections, metabolic abnormalities, trauma, hepatic dysfunction, hypertension, toxins.

  2. Transcriptional dysregulation causes altered modulation of inhibition by haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Lillian J; Bartley, Aundrea F; Li, Qin; McMeekin, Laura J; Hablitz, John J; Cowell, Rita M; Dobrunz, Lynn E

    2016-12-01

    Many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism involve interneuron transcriptional dysregulation. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α regulates gene expression in GABAergic interneurons, which are important for regulating hippocampal network activity. Genetic deletion of PGC-1α causes a decrease in parvalbumin expression, similar to what is observed in schizophrenia postmortem tissue. Our lab has previously shown that PGC-1α -/- mice have enhanced GABAergic inhibition onto CA1 pyramidal cells, which increases the inhibition/excitation (I/E) ratio, alters hippocampal circuit function, and impairs hippocampal dependent behavior. The typical antipsychotic haloperidol, a dopamine receptor antagonist with selectivity for D2-like receptors, has previously been shown to increase excitation in the CA1 region of hippocampus. We therefore tested whether haloperidol could normalize the I/E balance in CA1 of PGC-1α -/- mice, potentially improving circuit function and behavior. Surprisingly, we discovered instead that interneuron transcriptional dysregulation caused by loss of PGC-1α alters the effects of haloperidol on hippocampal synaptic transmission and circuit function. Acute administration of haloperidol causes disinhibition in CA1 and decreases the I/E ratio onto CA1 pyramidal cells in slices from PGC-1α +/+ mice, but not PGC-1α -/- mice. The spread of activity in CA1, assessed by voltage sensitive dye imaging, is increased by haloperidol in slices from PGC-1α +/+ mice; however haloperidol decreases the spread of activity in slices from PGC-1α -/- mice. Haloperidol increased the power of hippocampal gamma oscillation in slices from PGC-1α +/+ mice but reduced the power of gamma oscillations in slices from PGC-1α -/- mice. Nest construction, an innate hippocampal-dependent behavior, is inhibited by haloperidol in PGC-1α +/+ mice, but not in PGC-1α -/- mice, which already have impaired nest building. The effects of

  3. Upslope agricultural expansion caused mammal range contractions in China over the past two millennia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Shuqing; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    Extinctions of large mammals characterize the Late Quaternary, spanning from the Late Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. As their causes, apart from climate change, researchers have proposed anthropogenic factors with focus on roles of early foraging behaviors (e.g. hunting and using fire) and indu......Extinctions of large mammals characterize the Late Quaternary, spanning from the Late Pleistocene to the Anthropocene. As their causes, apart from climate change, researchers have proposed anthropogenic factors with focus on roles of early foraging behaviors (e.g. hunting and using fire...

  4. Breakdown Cause and Effect Analysis. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biały, Witold; Ružbarský, Juraj

    2018-06-01

    Every company must ensure that the production process proceeds without interferences. Within this article, the author uses the term "interferences" in reference to unplanned stoppages caused by breakdowns. Unfortunately, usually due to machine operators' mistakes, machines break, which causes stoppages thus generating additional costs for the company. This article shows a cause and effect analysis of a breakdown in a production process. The FMEA as well as quality management tools: the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto chart were used for the analysis. Correction measures were presented which allowed for a significant reduction in the number of stoppages caused by breakdowns.

  5. Psychic trauma as cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, C; Snenghi, R; Thiene, G; Ferrara, S D

    2011-01-01

    of study Psychic trauma is described as the action of 'an emotionally overwhelming factor' capable of causing neurovegetative alterations leading to transitory or persisting bodily changes. The medico-legal concept of psychic trauma and its definition as a cause in penal cases is debated. The authors present three cases of death after psychic trauma, and discuss the definition of cause within the penal ambit of identified 'emotionally overwhelming factors'. The methodological approach to ascertainment and criterion-based assessment in each case involved the following phases: (1) examination of circumstantial evidence, clinical records and documentation; (2) autopsy; (3) ascertainment of cause of death; and (4) ascertainment of psychic trauma, and its coexisting relationship with the cause of death. The results and assessment of each of the three cases are discussed from the viewpoint of the causal connotation of psychic trauma. In the cases presented, psychic trauma caused death, as deduced from assessment of the type of externally caused emotional insult, the subjects' personal characteristics and the circumstances of the event causing death. In cases of death due to psychic trauma, careful methodological ascertainment is essential, with the double aim of defining 'emotionally overwhelming factors' as a significant cause of death from the penal point of view, and of identifying the responsibility of third parties involved in the death event and associated dynamics of homicide.

  6. PROBLEM MATING BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vasileviсh Malimonov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of preparation of student’s youth for creation of a family are consi-dered.Work purpose: studying of features of marriage behavior of student’s youth. Interest in a problem is actual and caused by an instability situation in society, lack of uniform system of values that can lead to disintegration of a family as social institute. Bases of fundamental value of a family and marriage for development and maintenance of stability in society and the state are analysed.Method of obtaining information: questioning (N=2260. It is shown that on marriage behavior of young people, first of all, such factors as have impact: the relations in a parental family, welfare features of society and their near environment (classmates, friends, values and which norms, lay the foundation of family and marriage installations. Comprehensively social parameters of city life of youth reveal: anonymity, short duration and superficiality of contacts in interpersonal communication; sharp expansion of degree of freedom of the person at simultaneous weakening of social control; disintegration of traditional ideology and system of values; reduction of the importance of a role of a family, etc.Results of research: priority of studying of marriage behavior of youth is proved; domination of independent strategy of premarital elections of youth is confirmed, various components of readiness for the family and marriage relations and the factors influencing motivation of a marriage choice are defined.

  7. Circadian Rhythm and Sleep Disruption: Causes, Metabolic Consequences, and Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Gregory D M; Skene, Debra J; Arendt, Josephine; Cade, Janet E; Grant, Peter J; Hardie, Laura J

    2016-12-01

    Circadian (∼24-hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life and temporally optimize behavior and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behavior and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these, too, are increasingly subject to disruption. A large proportion of the world's population is at increased risk of environmentally driven circadian rhythm and sleep disruption, and a minority of individuals are also genetically predisposed to circadian misalignment and sleep disorders. The consequences of disruption to the circadian system and sleep are profound and include myriad metabolic ramifications, some of which may be compounded by adverse effects on dietary choices. If not addressed, the deleterious effects of such disruption will continue to cause widespread health problems; therefore, implementation of the numerous behavioral and pharmaceutical interventions that can help restore circadian system alignment and enhance sleep will be important.

  8. Circadian Rhythm and Sleep Disruption: Causes, Metabolic Consequences, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Debra J.; Arendt, Josephine; Cade, Janet E.; Grant, Peter J.; Hardie, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian (∼24-hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life and temporally optimize behavior and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behavior and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these, too, are increasingly subject to disruption. A large proportion of the world's population is at increased risk of environmentally driven circadian rhythm and sleep disruption, and a minority of individuals are also genetically predisposed to circadian misalignment and sleep disorders. The consequences of disruption to the circadian system and sleep are profound and include myriad metabolic ramifications, some of which may be compounded by adverse effects on dietary choices. If not addressed, the deleterious effects of such disruption will continue to cause widespread health problems; therefore, implementation of the numerous behavioral and pharmaceutical interventions that can help restore circadian system alignment and enhance sleep will be important. PMID:27763782

  9. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experience as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the fourteenth in a series of 19 hearings dating…

  10. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the eighteenth in a series of 19 hearings dating…

  11. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior, of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science, Senate of Canada. This issue, the fifth in a series of 19…

  12. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science, Senate of Canada. This issue, the ninth in a series of 19…

  13. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior, of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science, Senate of Canada. This issue, the 17th in a series of 19…

  14. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977. Issue No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Cause of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the second in a series of 19 hearings dating from…

  15. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experience as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the sixteenth in a series of 19 hearings dating…

  16. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior, of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science, Senate of Canada. This issue, the seventh in a series of 19…

  17. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the last in a series of 19 hearings dating from…

  18. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the tenth in a series of 19 hearings dating from…

  19. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977. Issue No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the first in a series of 19 hearings dating from…

  20. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977. Issue No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science, Senate of Canada. This issue, the third in a series of 19…

  1. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experience as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the twelveth in a series of 19 hearings dating…

  2. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior, of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science, Senate of Canada. This issue, the sixth in a series of 19…

  3. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977. Issue No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science, Senate of Canada. This issue, the fourth in a series of 19…

  4. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the eleventh in a series of 19 hearings dating…

  5. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experience as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the fifteenth in a series of 19 hearings dating…

  6. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behavior, of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science, Senate of Canada. This issue, the eighth in a series of 19…

  7. Triple X Syndrome: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a variety of other issues, including: Work, school, social and relationship problems Anxiety and other emotional problems, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms Behavior problems Poor self- ...

  8. Methodological Behaviorism from the Standpoint of a Radical Behaviorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J

    2013-01-01

    Methodological behaviorism is the name for a prescriptive orientation to psychological science. Its first and original feature is that the terms and concepts deployed in psychological theories and explanations should be based on observable stimuli and behavior. I argue that the interpretation of the phrase "based on" has changed over the years because of the influence of operationism. Its second feature, which developed after the first and is prominent in contemporary psychology, is that research should emphasize formal testing of a theory that involves mediating theoretical entities from an nonbehavioral dimension according to the hypothetico-deductive method. I argue that for contemporary methodological behaviorism, explanations of the behavior of both participants and scientists appeal to the mediating entities as mental causes, if only indirectly. In contrast to methodological behaviorism is the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner. Unlike methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism conceives of verbal behavior in terms of an operant process that involves antecedent circumstances and reinforcing consequences, rather than in terms of a nonbehavioral process that involves reference and symbolism. In addition, radical behaviorism recognizes private behavioral events and subscribes to research and explanatory practices that do not include testing hypotheses about supposed mediating entities from another dimension. I conclude that methodological behaviorism is actually closer to mentalism than to Skinner's radical behaviorism.

  9. Competing causes of death: an analysis using multiple-cause-of-death data from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Lautenbach, H.; Bijlsma, F.; Oei, Y. B.

    1995-01-01

    The standard methodology for cause-elimination life tables assumes that the various causes of death are statistically unrelated to one another, so that the mortality risks of those who are saved from an eliminated cause equal the risks of dying from other causes which are observed for the general

  10. Women's attitudes toward practicing cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Thackeray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors. Data were collected from an online panel of 840 U.S. women 18–40 years of age, who had a child <5 years of age, and were pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next 12 months. Questions assessed CMV awareness, frequency of past behaviors that transmit CMV, and attitudes toward eight CMV prevention behaviors. Only 15.5% of women were somewhat or very familiar with CMV. Very few women (6.1% reported hearing from their provider about CMV. Women held positive attitudes toward the CMV prevention behaviors and perceived them as feasible. Least positive attitudes were toward not kissing a child on the lips and not sharing foods. Predictors of positive attitudes were CMV awareness, past behavior, talking to a healthcare provider, and perceived risk reduction. Healthcare providers and public health practitioners should collaborate to increase CMV awareness. Encouraging behaviors to reduce saliva sharing may result in greater gains in reducing CMV infection.

  11. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver, Anna M H; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Kant, Sarina G; Dekker, Friedo W; Wever, Capi C; Kunst, Henricus P M; Frijns, Johan H M; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported distribution of these causes. Population-based study and a systematic review. Inclusion criteria for population-based study: children born between 2003 and 2005, resident in The Netherlands at birth, known at an Audiology Center with PCHI at the age of 3-5 years. The causes of PCHI were determined prospectively by detection of congenital cytomegalovirus on dried blood spots and/or genetic diagnostic investigations in addition to reviewing data from medical records. A systematic review was carried out using three terms (hearing loss, infant, and etiology) and limited to articles published between January 1997 and July 2009. Main outcome measures were: the (weighted) proportions of the various causes of PCHI following diagnostic investigations. In the study-population (n = 185) a hereditary cause was found in 38.9%, acquired cause in 29.7%, miscellaneous cause in 7.1%, and the cause remained unknown in 24.3%. The systematic review of the literature (n = 9 articles) resulted in a weighted mean of 30.4% hereditary, 19.2% acquired, and 48.3% unknown causes of PCHI. The systematic review and the results of the population-based study provided little support for the generally accepted distribution of causes of PCHI. Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Measurement and understanding of single-molecule break junction rectification caused by asymmetric contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Hamill, Joseph M.; Xu, Bingqian

    2014-01-01

    The contact effects of single-molecule break junctions on rectification behaviors were experimentally explored by a systematic control of anchoring groups of 1,4-disubstituted benzene molecular junctions. Single-molecule conductance and I-V characteristic measurements reveal a strong correlation between rectifying effects and the asymmetry in contacts. Analysis using energy band models and I-V calculations suggested that the rectification behavior is mainly caused by asymmetric coupling strengths at the two contact interfaces. Fitting of the rectification ratio by a modified Simmons model we developed suggests asymmetry in potential drop across the asymmetric anchoring groups as the mechanism of rectifying I-V behavior. This study provides direct experimental evidence and sheds light on the mechanisms of rectification behavior induced simply by contact asymmetry, which serves as an aid to interpret future single-molecule electronic behavior involved with asymmetric contact conformation

  13. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  14. FastStats: Leading Causes of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Leading Causes of Death Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Number of deaths for leading causes of death Heart disease: 633,842 • Cancer: 595,930 • Chronic ...

  15. Model of transition between causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Aubenque, M

    1975-06-01

    This paper describes an attempt to estimate the probabilities of transition between various major causes of death during the period 1954-1962. The regression coefficients have been estimated from French département death rates for ten main or typical causes of death, assessed by sex for the age group 45-64 years.

  16. How does climate change cause extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Abigail E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Fisher-Reid, M Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Ryu, Hae Yeong; Sbeglia, Gena C; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J

    2013-01-07

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies.

  17. A rare cause of Cushing's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg

    2014-01-01

    Excess glucocorticoid levels cause Cushing's syndrome (CS) and may be due to pituitary, adrenal or ectopic tumours. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels are useful in identifying adrenal tumours. In rare cases, ACTH-producing phaeochromocytomas are the cause of CS. We present two cases of ACTH...

  18. Ecthyma gangrenosum caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecthyma gangrenosum caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in a neutropenic leukaemic infant: A case report. D K Das, S Shukla. Abstract. Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous lesion, mostly caused by pseudomonas in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been ...

  19. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; von Maravić, P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different

  20. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  1. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  2. Systemic causes of heavy menstrual bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in fertile women. In addition to local factors, such as a polyp or a uterine fibroid, systemic causes may lead to HMB. These systemic causes are discussed in this thesis. For years, women with HMB were tested underlying thyroid disorder, but our

  3. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, Anna M. H.; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Kant, Sarina G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Wever, Capi C.; Kunst, Henricus P. M.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Oudesluys-Murphy, A. M.; Korver, A. M. H.; Frijns, J. H. M.; Wever, C. C.; Konings, S.; Beers, W.; Dekker, F. W.; de Vries, J. J. C.; Vossen, A. C. T. M.; Kant, S. G.; van den Akker-van Marle, M. E.; Rieffe, C.; Ens-Dokkum, M. H.; van Straaten, H. L. M.; Uilenburg, N. N.; Elvers, B.; Loeber, G.; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, J.; Maré, M. J.; Van Zanten, G. A.; Goedegebure, A.; Coster, F.; Goverts, S. T.; Admiraal, R. J. C.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.; Kunst, H. P. M.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkhuizen, J.; Scharloo, M.; Hoeben, D.; Rijpma, G.; Graef, W.; Linschoten, D.; Kuijper, J.; Hof, N. J.; Pans, D.; Jorritsma, F.; van Beurden, M.; ter Huurne, C. T.; Brienesse, P.; Koldewijn, G. J.; Letourneur, K. G.

    2011-01-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported

  4. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Kant, S.G.; Dekker, F.W.; Wever, C.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Frijns, J.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the

  5. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  6. Irreversible brain damage caused by methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Moeller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine is an addictive scene substance usage of which is increasing rapidly. While methamphetamine often causes neuropsychiatric symptoms like anxiety, psychosis and hallucinations, reports of structural ongoing cerebral alterations are rare. We here report a case of this kind of damage caused through methamphetamine use.

  7. Root cause analysis with enriched process logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriadi, S.; Ouyang, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    n the field of process mining, the use of event logs for the purpose of root cause analysis is increasingly studied. In such an analysis, the availability of attributes/features that may explain the root cause of some phenomena is crucial. Currently, the process of obtaining these attributes from

  8. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less

  9. Influence of information on behavioral effects in decision processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelarosa Longo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rational models in decision processes are marked out by many anomalies, caused by behavioral issues. We point out the importance of information in causing inconsistent preferences in a decision process. In a single or multi agent decision process each mental model is influenced by the presence, the absence or false information about the problem or about other members of the decision making group. The difficulty in modeling these effects increases because behavioral biases influence also the modeler. Behavioral Operational Research (BOR studies these influences to create efficient models to define choices in similar decision processes.

  10. The cause multiplicity and the multiple cause style of adverse events in Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Takamasa

    2008-01-01

    An adverse event in a nuclear power plant occurs due to either one cause or multiple causes. To consider ways of preventing adverse events, it is useful to clarify whether events are caused by single or multiple causes. In this study, the multiple causes is expressed using the cause multiplicity and the multiple cause style. Classified causes of adverse events in Japanese nuclear power plants were analyzed, with the following results: the cause multiplicity of serious adverse events is higher than that of minor adverse events, and the multiple cause style can be expressed by combining two styles: series type and parallel type. Also, for a multiple cause event, a new method of displaying the event is presented as a cause-chain chart where the cause items are arranged in a sequential way and are connected considering the mutual relations among the causes. This new display method shows the whole flow of issues concerning the event more simply than the conventional display method of the chain of phenomena, and would be useful for considering the terminating point of the chain of causes. (author)

  11. The causes of the Chernobyl event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, J.

    2000-11-01

    The Chernobylsk event has two components, the explosion of the RBMK type nuclear reactor number 4 and the sanitary damages that resulted. The causes of the explosion are of three kinds: conception error, management fault, exploitation personnel mistakes and political causes. For the sanitary damages there are the immediate causes and the deep causes. No emergency planning to answer to a such disaster and no iodinated tablets delivery to protect the thyroid for the direct causes. The secret culture made that the knowledge developed by the Soviet researchers was not diffused to the medical and nuclear communities of USSR. The civil authorities were not aware of it or they neglected it. (N.C.)

  12. CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Karambin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nThere is a lack of large, prospective epidemiologic studies concerning acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in pediatric population. To determine the different causes of respiratory distress in children, we prepared a retrospective study and included the whole 567 children with respiratory distress referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, and causes of respiratory distress were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. Pneumonia, asthma, and croup were the major causes of ARDS in children with a rate of 38.4, 19.04, and 16.5 percent, respectively. It seems that infectious factors are at the top of the list of ARDS causing factors which can be helpful to approach and manage such patients. We suggest vaccinating these at risk groups against common infectious factors such as H. Influenza and RSV which can cause either pneumonia or inducing asthma.

  13. Causes of Death Associated With Prolonged TV Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah K.; Moore, Steven C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Xiao, Qian; Albanes, Demetrius; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TV viewing is the most prevalent sedentary behavior and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality, but the association with other leading causes of death is unknown. This study examined the association between TV viewing and leading causes of death in the U.S. Methods A prospective cohort of 221,426 individuals (57% male) aged 50–71 years who were free of chronic disease at baseline (1995–1996), 93% white, with an average BMI of 26.7 (SD=4.4) kg/m2 were included. Participants self-reported TV viewing at baseline and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for TV viewing and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, adjusted mortality risk for a 2-hour/day increase in TV viewing was significantly higher for the following causes of death (HR [95% CI]): cancer (1.07 [1.03, 1.11); heart disease (1.23 [1.17, 1.29]); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.28 [1.14, 1.43]); diabetes (1.56 [1.33, 1.83]); influenza/pneumonia (1.24 [1.02, 1.50]); Parkinson disease (1.35 [1.11, 1.65]); liver disease (1.33 [1.05, 1.67]); and suicide (1.43 [1.10, 1.85]. Mortality associations persisted in stratified analyses with important potential confounders, reducing causation concerns. Conclusions This study shows the breadth of mortality outcomes associated with prolonged TV viewing, and identifies novel associations for several leading causes of death. TV viewing is a prevalent discretionary behavior that may be a more important target for public health intervention than previously recognized. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015 PMID:26215832

  14. Percepção de causas e risco oncológico, história familiar e comportamentos preventivos de usuários em aconselhamento oncogenético Percepción de causas y riesgo oncológico, historia familiar y comportamientos preventivos de pacientes en asesoramiento oncogenético Perception of cancer causes and risk, family history and preventive behaviors of users in oncogenetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Barreto de Castro e Silva

    2013-04-01

    los componentes esenciales para el cuidado de enfermería en oncogenética.The aims of the present study were to describe cancer causes and risk perception, and to associate behaviors adopted for the prevention of tumors and cancer family history in individuals with suspect of hereditary cancer syndromes. A convenience sample of 51 individuals was selected from an oncogenetic counseling outpatient clinic in a university hospital in the countryside of the state of São Paulo. An instrument adapted to Brazilian culture was used. The respondents considered their own risk as being the same as the population's risk, and family history was not statistically associated with the performing of preventive exams. These findings highlight the need for intervention by health professionals, especially nurses, who may conduct health education activities for this population, which is an essential component of nursing care in oncogenetics.

  15. Fetal behavioral teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Gerard H A; Mulder, Eduard J H; Tessa Ververs, F F

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct – in vivo – insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quantity of movements and disturbances in the development of fetal behavioral states in case of endogenous malfunctions, maternal diseases and exogenous behavioral teratogens.

  16. About Teleological Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Misconceptions abound about teleological behaviorism (TB). Because very few people other than the author publicly call themselves teleological behaviorists, the fault must be mine. The present article is an attempt to clear up those misconceptions. First I will try to indicate what teleological behaviorism is not. Then, in the form of six fables (loosely connected stories, allegories, analogies, fairy tales, and arguments), I will try to give the reader an understanding of what teleological behaviorism actually is.

  17. Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping is a very much developed phenomena in Scandinavian countries. Different online factors impact online consumers’ behavior differently depending on the environment of different regions. Sweden is one of the developed and technologically advanced countries. To see the impact of different factors on consumers’ online shopping behavior, the purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence consumers’ online shopping behavior in Sweden’s context. One of the objectives o...

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  19. Ionization waves caused by the effects of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kosuke; Imazu, Shingo

    1980-01-01

    The self-excited ionization waves was observed in the Ne positive column. The experiments were made for Ne gas from 0.07 to 1.0 Torr, with the magnetic field from 0 to 3.33 kG. The discharge current were 10 to 300 mA. The longitudinal magnetic field was made by an air-core solenoid coil. The axial electric field was measured by two wall probes. The frequency, wave length and amplitude of waves were measured with a photo multiplier. It was found that the longitudinal magnetic field caused new self-excited ionization waves. The frequency of these waves decreased monotonously with increasing field. The behaviors of the wave length and amplitude were complicate, and the cause of these phenomena is related to the ionization waves due to the spatial resonance of electron gas, namely s-waves, p-waves and fluid γ-waves. The threshold of the magnetic field to cause the ionization waves increased with increasing gas pressure, and with decreasing discharge current in the range 0.07 to 0.44 Torr. The frequency of the self-excited ionization waves occurred at zero field was almost constant in the field-frequency relation. A simple dispersion equation was derived, and the Novak constant can be introduced. (J.P.N.)

  20. Teachers' Assumptions Regarding the Severity, Causes, and Outcomes of Behavioral Problems in Preschoolers: Implications for Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elaine; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Asked preschool teachers (N=100) to rate severity, long-term outcome, stability, and importance of constitutional and environmental determinants for case vignettes describing three syndromes: aggression, hyperactivity, and withdrawal, and to judge the need for referral. Results indicated little evidence of sex bias in teachers' evaluations of the…