WorldWideScience

Sample records for cause of death

  1. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Violence-Related Injury Deaths, United States - 2013 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age ...

  2. Cause of Death Affects Racial Classification on Death Certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Noymer; Penner, Andrew M.; Aliya Saperstein

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by...

  3. The Danish registers of causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1999-01-01

    In 1875 registration of causes of death in Denmark was established by the National Board of Health, and annual statistics of death have since been published. Until 1970 the national statistics were based upon punched cards with data collected from the death certificates. Since then the register has...... been fully computerized and includes individual based data of all deaths occurring among all residents in Denmark dying in Denmark. Furthermore, a microfilm of all death certificates from 1943 and onward is kept in the National Board of Health. The Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology (DICE) has...... established a computerized register of individual records of deaths in Denmark from 1943 and onwards. No other country covers computerized individual based data of death registration for such a long period, now 54 years. This paper describes the history of the registers, the data sources and access to data...

  4. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  5. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  6. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979....

  7. Causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sudden cardiac death in athletes is a growing problem, despite the huge existing knowledge in medicine and sports. Effects of vigorous physical activity In response to vigorous physical activity, the body undergoes profound morphologic and functional changes. These changes are usually healthy, but sometimes may gravitate to some cardiac diseases. But still, most sudden cardiac deaths are due to previous unknown diseases. Causes of sudden cardiac death The most common cause of sudden cardiac death in athletes is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other reasons are congenital coronary artery anomalies, myocarditis, dilatative cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy of the right ventricle, sarcoidosis, mitral valve prolapse, aortic valve stenosis, atherosclerosis, long QT syndrome, and blunt impact to the chest. Conclusion Bearing in mind the above mentioned, more frequent physical examinations of athletes are recommended.

  8. Causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, T S; Juel, K; Bülow, S

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due to du...... duodenal/periampullary cancer and desmoid tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the causes of death with special emphasis on duodenal/periampullary cancer....

  9. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment,...

  10. Deaths from heart failure: using coarsened exact matching to correct cause-of-death statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Shibuya Kenji; King Gary; Stevens Gretchen A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Incomplete information on death certificates makes recorded cause-of-death data less useful for public health monitoring and planning. Certifying physicians sometimes list only the mode of death without indicating the underlying disease or diseases that led to the death. Inconsistent cause-of-death assignment among cardiovascular causes of death is of particular concern. This can prevent valid epidemiologic comparisons across countries and over time. Methods We propose tha...

  11. Leading Causes of Death By ZIP Code 1989-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Deaths by Cause of Death, by Zip Code 1989-1998 (By Place of Residence): This dataset is for death of California residents, by cause of death, by Zip Code, for year...

  12. Leading Causes of Death by ZIP Code, 1999-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Deaths by Cause of Death, by Zip Code 1999-2013 (By Place of Residence): This dataset is for death of California residents, by cause of death, by Zip Code, for year...

  13. Underlying cause of death in Danish patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Stenager, Egon

    1998-01-01

    To determine the underlying causes of death in a large population based register series of patients with multiple sclerosis.......To determine the underlying causes of death in a large population based register series of patients with multiple sclerosis....

  14. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Leading Causes of Death in Males United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... leading causes of death in males in the United States. Please note information in previous listings may no ...

  15. Potential misclassification of causes of death from COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henriette Hvide; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about causes of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the validity of mortality statistics in COPD. The present authors examined causes of death using data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Of the 12,979 subjects with sufficient data from the baseline...... COPD, CMH and smoking were predictors of COPD as underlying cause of death, ORs 2.3 (1.5-3.7) and 2.2 (1.4-3.6), respectively. It was concluded that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is underreported on death certificates, that biases in the use of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as cause of...... death can be assessed, and that possible "over-diagnosis" of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on death certificates in subjects unlikely to have significant disease should initiate caution when using causes of mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease epidemiology....

  16. Glucose sensor excludes hypoglycaemia as cause of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The cause of death can be difficult to verify post-mortem in unexpected deaths in patients with Type 1 diabetes. This report describes an unexpected death in a 44-year-old man with Type 1 diabetes treated with sensor-augmented pump therapy. Continuous glucose monitoring data proved useful in...

  17. Local perceptions of causes of death in rural South Africa: a comparison of perceived and verbal autopsy causes of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding how lay people perceive the causes of mortality and their associated risk factors is important for public health. In resource-limited settings, where verbal autopsy (VA is used as the most expedient method of determining cause of death, it is important to understand how pre-existing concepts of cause of death among VA-informants may influence their VA-responses and the consequential impact on cause of death assessment. This study describes the agreement between VA-derived causes of death and informant-perceived causes and associated influential factors, which also reflects lay health literacy in this setting. Method: Using 20 years of VA data (n=11,228 from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in rural South Africa, we explored the agreement between the causes of death perceived by the VA-informants and those assigned by the automated Inter-VA tool. Kappa statistics and concordance correlation coefficients were applied to measure agreement at individual and population levels, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to explore factors associated with recognised lay perceptions of causes of mortality. Results: Agreement between informant-perceived and VA-derived causes of death at the individual level was limited, but varied substantially by cause of death. However, agreement at the population level, comparing cause-specific mortality fractions was higher, with the notable exception of bewitchment as a cause. More recent deaths, those in adults aged 15–49 years, deaths outside the home, and those associated with external causes showed higher concordance with InterVA. Conclusion: Overall, informant perception of causes of death was limited, but depended on informant characteristics and causes of death, and to some extent involved non-biomedical constructs. Understanding discordance between perceived and recognised causes of death is important for public health planning; low

  18. Causes of death in 2877 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtkamp, Kathrin; Stark, Romina; Strupp, Corinna; Kündgen, Andrea; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Aul, Carlo; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Haas, Rainer; Gattermann, Norbert; Germing, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes face a poor prognosis. The exact causes of death have not been described properly in the past. We performed a retrospective analysis of causes of death using data of 3792 patients in the Düsseldorf registry who have been followed up for a median time of 21 months. Medical files as well as death certificates were screened and primary care physicians were contacted. Death after AML evolution, infection, and bleeding was considered to be clearly disease-related. Further categories of causes of death were heart failure, other possibly disease-related reasons, such as hemochromatosis, disease-independent reasons as well as cases with unclear causes of death. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 71 years. At the time of analysis, 2877 patients (75.9 %) had deceased. In 1212 cases (42.1 %), the exact cause of death could not be ascertained. From 1665 patients with a clearly documented cause of death, 1388 patients (83.4 %) succumbed directly disease-related (AML (46.6 %), infection (27.0 %), bleeding (9.8 %)), whereas 277 patients (16.6 %) died for reasons not directly related with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including 132 patients with cardiac failure, 77 non-disease-related reasons, 23 patients with solid tumors, and 45 patients with possibly disease-related causes like hemochromatosis. Correlation with IPSS, IPSS-R, and WPSS categories showed a proportional increase of disease-related causes of death with increasing IPSS/IPSS-R/WPSS risk category. Likewise, therapy-related MDS were associated with a higher percentage of disease-related causes of death than primary MDS. This reflects the increasing influence of the underlying disease on the cause of death with increasing aggressiveness of the disease. PMID:27025507

  19. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    through review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify both clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with SNCD. RESULTS: We identified 1039 autopsied cases of sudden death, of which 286 (28%) were classified as SNCD...... was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases.......3-2.3; OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.4; and OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5-7.4, respectively). The most common cause of SNCD was pulmonary disease (n = 115 [40%]). CONCLUSION: Sudden death among individuals aged <50 years was caused by noncardiac diseases in 28% of cases. Risk factors were female sex, age, and the absence of...

  20. Foetal Autopsy-Categories and Causes of Death

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Uroos; Sherwani, Rana; Khan, Tamkin; Zaheer, Sufian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Intrauterine death(IUD)/ Stillbirth forms a major part of perinatal mortality which thereby is a good indicator of pregnancy wastage as well as quality of healthcare available. The key objectives of autopsy examination are to know the cause(s) of death, elucidation of pathogenic mechanism and quality control of clinical management. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalent causes of IUD, thereby taking appropriate measures to prevent them and decrease the perinatal mor...

  1. Causes of death behind low life expectancy of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The authors examined causes of death contributing to the relatively high mortality of Danish women born 1915-45, and evaluated the impact of smoking related causes of death. METHODS: Age-period-cohort analysis of mortality of Danish women aged 40-89 in 1960-98. Estimate of the negative...... explanation behind the relatively low life expectancy of Danish women born 1915-45....

  2. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng;

    2015-01-01

    middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0-4 years in China in the year 2010. METHODS: In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi-cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first...... deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. RESULTS: In 2010, we estimated 314 581 deaths in children 0......-4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post-neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1-4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to...

  3. Accuracy of Death Certificates and Assessment of Factors for Misclassification of Underlying Cause of Death

    OpenAIRE

    Makiko Naka Mieno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cause of death (COD) information taken from death certificates is often inaccurate and incomplete. However, the accuracy of Underlying CODs (UCODs) recorded on death certificates has not been comprehensively described when multiple diseases are present. Methods: A total of 450 consecutive autopsies performed at a geriatric hospital in Japan between February 2000 and August 2002 were studied. We evaluated the concordance rate, sensitivity, and specificity of major UCODs (cancer,...

  4. The shape of the global causes of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorling Danny

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World maps can provide an instant visual overview of the distribution of diseases and deaths. Results There is a particular geography to each type of death: in some places many thousands of deaths are caused by a particular condition, whilst other equally populous areas have few to no deaths from the same cause. Conclusion Physicians and other health professionals often specialise in the specifics of causes, symptoms and effects. For some practitioners gaining a worldview of disease burden complements smaller scale medical knowledge of where and how people are affected by each condition. Maps can make health related information much more accessible to planners and the general public than can tables, text, or even graphs. Ten cartograms based on World Health Organisation Burden of Disease data are introduced here; alongside seven based on data from other sources. The Burden of Disease cartograms are the latest in a much larger collection of social, economic and health world maps.

  5. CDC WONDER: Compressed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979...

  6. CDC WONDER: Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are...

  7. [Causes of the people death from drunkenness and alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, Iu A; Paukov, V S; Kirillov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed causes of 1008 people death, who abused by alcohol. Among them 2 groups were separated out: people died due to drunkenness and due to alcoholism. The structure of the death was similar in the both groups, however depended on alcoholism stages. The major cause of the death in group of drunkenness people was acute heart insufficiency, less commonly--lung pathology, and very rarely--brain vessels pathology and liver cirrhosis. In group of people, who died due to alcoholism, lung pathology was the major cause of these deaths, acute heart insufficiency was occurred less commonly, and very rare brain pathology because of delirium tremens or alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as so liver cirrhosis with complications. Hemorrhagic pancreonecrosis after alcoholic excess was found out in both groups, but it was more often in people, who died due to drunkenness. Obtained results show importance of chronic alcoholism identification as a disease with several stages including drunkenness and alcoholism. PMID:22937578

  8. Medico-legal study of intracranial causes of death

    OpenAIRE

    Muataz A. Al-Qazzaz; Mohammad Abdul-Mohsin Jabor

    2014-01-01

    Background: A lot of incidents related to the head region could lead to death, but for sim-plicity’s sake, these incidents are mainly of two broad categories: either non-traumatic (natural) or traumatic (violent). Objectives: To classify all intra-cranial lesions and injuries according to the mode and manner of death, gender, age and admission to hospital, and to evaluate these lesions and their role in the cause of death. Materials and methods: The study was performed on 119 cases refe...

  9. Violence and other reasons as cause of death in women

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Muhammet; Dokgöz, Halis; Turan, Nurşen; Sözen, Şevki; Bütün, Celal

    2009-01-01

    AbstractAim. Violence against women resulting in death is an important problem facing us in the society and community. This study aimed to determine the socio-economic, socio-cultural and demographical characteristics, compositions of committed violence and cause of death of the victims to display and interpret a profile of the assailants. Methods. Data of 40 women who underwent autopsy at the Department of Morgue Specialization, Forensic Medicine Institute were evaluated between the dates of...

  10. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1993-01-01

    9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...... risk during the first year of follow-up increased by 56%, with a 50% reduction on psychiatric in-patient facilities. The study confirms that mortality in schizophrenia is still markedly elevated, and the finding of an increasing suicide risk may be an indicator of some adverse effects of...

  11. Primary Causes of Death After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary causes of death in low-risk (low-risk), intermediate-risk (intermediate-risk), and high-risk (high-risk) patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through November 2004, a total of 1,354 consecutive patients underwent prostate brachytherapy. All patients underwent brachytherapy >3 years before analysis. Of the patients, 532 (39.3%) received androgen deprivation therapy and 703 (51.9%) received supplemental radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors of cause-specific, biochemical progression-free, and overall survival. Results: The 10-year cause-specific survival was 97.0% (99.7%, 99.0%, and 90.1% for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients). Overall survival was 76.7% (82.5%, 78.3%, and 67.6% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively). The cumulative death rate for cardiovascular disease was 11.5% (8.7%, 9.3%, and 19.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients). The death rate from second malignancies (nonprostate cancer) was 7.2% and was not substantially different when stratified by risk group. Death from all other causes was 6.5% for the entire cohort but 1.3%, 5.0%, and 10.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. In multivariate analysis, death from prostate cancer was best predicted by Gleason score and risk group, whereas death from cardiovascular disease, nonprostate cancer, and all other causes were most closely related to patient age and tobacco use. Conclusions: Although cardiovascular mortality was the predominant cause of death, prostate cancer was responsible for approximately 10% of all deaths. In particular, overall survival was poorest in the high-risk group. Although high-risk patients were most likely to die of prostate cancer, the divergence in overall survival between high-risk and lower-risk patients primarily

  12. Fatal Injuries in Light Vehicle Crashes - Time to Death and Cause of Death

    OpenAIRE

    Luchter, Stephen; Smith, Andrew; Wang, Jing

    1998-01-01

    FARS and NASS CDS data were analyzed to determine time and cause of occupant deaths resulting from light vehicle crashes in the early 1990s. The results shows 46 percent of the deaths occurred within half an hour, 24 percent between half an hour and an hour and a half and a total of 90 percent within 24 hours. Of the deaths occurring during the 1.5 hours following injury 52 percent were the result of head injuries and 36 percent were the result of thorax injuries. When compared with the class...

  13. First assumptions and overlooking competing causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Andersen, Anh Thao Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    of cause of death, which was based on results from bacteriology tests, proved to be wrong when the results from the forensic toxicology testing became available. This case also illustrates how post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of radio opaque material in the stomach alerted the...

  14. Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A.; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease. PMID:20949072

  15. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Quamrun; Arifeen, Shams El; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Method Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15–49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths t...

  16. Assessment of leukemia caused deaths due to internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem of finding the number of cancers, which are developed due to internal exposure to radioactive material, is not a trivial task. This problem is generally rather complex, because in case of protracted exposures, latency period may exceed the time of an individual's natural death, i.e. the age at death due to 'natural causes'. In this paper the model for calculating risk caused by an internal exposure (inhalation or ingestion of radioactive material) is modeled as a continuous irradiation till the end of an individual's life, taking into account natural deaths in the observed population. The basic tool in constructing the model were risk coefficients per unit dose, developed earlier [1]. Since an important role in radiation exposure of the people in South Serbia may play internal exposure to depleted uranium (DU), which was extensively used during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the leukemia was chosen as a stochastic effect which is to be considered. For this purpose, some different (artificial) amounts of DU intake were assumed. In order to present the continuous exposure of the whole population living on the contaminated area, the model separately considers those born after the environmental contamination. Therefore, the overall population is divided into two parts: the one which was alive at the time of the release, (LG-Living Generation), and the second one, born after that (FG- Following Generations). The paper primarily intends to present the model for risk calculation for the LG part of population. However, just for the purpose of demonstration of the overall risk model, the contribution of the FG is added to get an overall risk assessment for the case of leukaemia's deaths. Besides cumulative number of cases, which are usually calculated by other models, this model is able to assess differential values, what means it is able to predict the number of cases within a certain specified age and/or time intervals. According to results obtained by the

  17. NCHS - Age-adjusted Death Rates for the Top 10 Leading Causes of Death: United States, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Age-adjusted death rates for the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States, including mortality patterns from 1999 through 2013, and by state of residence...

  18. Pulmonary failure as a cause of death in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghiroli, A; Zaccaria, S; Ioli, F; Erbetta, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    Data on the outcome of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are limited. We know that the prognosis is poor when respiratory insufficiency develops, but we have little information on the actual cause of death. Epidemiological studies are suitable for the assessment of the prevalence of the disease, but give no details on the actual cause of death. Age and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) have been recognized as the best predictors of mortality in studies designed to quantify survival of COPD patients, particularly when the post-brochodilator value is used, as this provides a better estimate of airway and parenchymal damage. Data from Intensive Care Units on acute respiratory failure have several significant limitations. Firstly, it is probable that some patients elect not to undergo intensive treatment for a terminal bout of respiratory failure, particularly if it is not first episode. Secondly, the actual cause of death is often not described in adequate detail. Hypoxaemia and acidaemia are the main risk factors in acute exacerbation of the disease and the presence of pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiographs worsens the prognosis. A single bout of respiratory failure appears to have no effect on the prognosis of COPD patients after recovery, but there is a consistent increase in mortality after the second episode. It seems possible to manage the majority of episodes of acute respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation administered with noninvasive techniques. When endotracheal intubation is necessary, the prognosis is usually poor and the survival after 1 yr is usually lower than 40%. The role of long-term home mechanical ventilation is still unclear. Results from pivotal studies have been encouraging, although survival is far less impressive than in neuromuscular disorders. In patients with end-stage lung disease, lung transplantation can be considered the only possibility of increasing pulmonary functional capacity

  19. CAUSES OF DEATH IN NEWBORN INFANTS ACCORDING TO AUTOPSY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh.- R. Walizadeh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Autopsy findings in 138 newborn infants which died in a university nursery during 3 years are reviewed and discussed. 80 per cent were premature and small- for- date newborns of up to 2500 g birth weight. Most of these cases showed in addition to general prematurely signs, respiratory tract diseases such as atelectasia, amniotic fluid aspiration and hyaline membrane disease. The full term infants died mostly of malformations. In post neonatal period the cause of death was almost entirely infections such as bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

  20. Improving the usefulness of US mortality data: new methods for reclassification of underlying cause of death

    OpenAIRE

    Foreman, Kyle J.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality data are affected by miscertification of the medical cause of death deaths and changes to cause of death classification systems. We present both mappings of ICD9 and ICD10 to a unified list of causes, and a new statistical model for reducing the impact of misclassification of cause of death. Methods We propose a Bayesian mixed-effects multinomial logistic model that can be run on individual record level death certificates to reclassify “garbage-coded” deaths onto causes t...

  1. Assessing quality of medical death certification: Concordance between gold standard diagnosis and underlying cause of death in selected Mexican hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Charles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, the vital registration system relies on information collected from death certificates to generate official mortality figures. Although the death certificate has high coverage across the country, there is little information regarding its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the concordance between the underlying cause of death in official statistics obtained from death certificates and a gold standard diagnosis of the same deaths derived from medical records of hospitals. Methods The study sample consisted of 1,589 deaths that occurred in 34 public hospitals in the Federal District and the state of Morelos, Mexico in 2009. Neonatal, child, and adult cases were selected for causes of death that included infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, and injuries. We compared the underlying cause of death, obtained from medical death certificates, against a gold standard diagnosis derived from a review of medical records developed by the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium. We used chance-corrected concordance and accuracy as metrics to evaluate the quality of performance of the death certificate. Results Analysis considering only the underlying cause of death resulted in a median chance-corrected concordance between the cause of death in medical death certificates versus the gold standard of 54.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 52.2, 55.6 for neonates, 38.5% (37.0, 40.0 for children, and 66.5% (65.9, 66.9 for adults. The accuracy resulting from the same analysis was 0.756 (0.747, 0.769 for neonates, 0.683 (0.663, 0.701 for children, and 0.780 (0.774, 0.785 for adults. Median chance-corrected concordance and accuracy increased when considering the mention of any cause of death in the death certificate, not just the underlying cause. Concordance varied substantially depending on cause of death, and accuracy varied depending on the true cause-specific mortality fraction composition. Conclusions

  2. Drug induced mortality: a multiple cause approach on Italian causes of death Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grippo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related mortality is a complex phenomenon that has several health, social and economic effects. In this paper trends of drug-induced mortality in Italy are analysed. Two approaches have been followed: the traditional analysis of the underlying cause of death (UC (data refers to the Istat mortality database from 1980 to 2011, and the multiple cause (MCanalysis, that is the analysis of all conditions reported on the death certificate (data for 2003-2011 period.Methods: Data presented in this paper are based on the Italian mortality register. The selection of Icd codes used for the analysis follows the definition of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Using different indicators (crude and standardized rates, ratio multiple to underlying, the results obtained from the two approaches (UC and MC have been compared. Moreover, as a measure of association between drug-related causes and specific conditions on the death certificate, an estimation of the age-standardized relative risk (RR has been used.Results: In the years 2009-2011, the total number of certificates whit mention of drug use was 1,293, 60% higher than the number UC based. The groups of conditions more strongly associated with drug-related causes are the mental and behavioral disorders (especially alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and fibrosis of liver, AIDS and endocarditis.Conclusions : The analysis based on multiple cause approach shows, for the first time, a more detailed picture of the drug related death; it allows to better describe the mortality profiles and to re-evaluate  the contribution of a specific cause to death.

  3. Algorithms for enhancing public health utility of national causes-of-death data

    OpenAIRE

    Pourmalek Farshad; O'Brien Janaki; Foreman Kyle; Makela Susanna; Naghavi Mohsen; Lozano Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Coverage and quality of cause-of-death (CoD) data varies across countries and time. Valid, reliable, and comparable assessments of trends in causes of death from even the best systems are limited by three problems: a) changes in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) over time; b) the use of tabulation lists where substantial detail on causes of death is lost; and c) many deaths assigned to causes that cannot or should no...

  4. Cause-specific neonatal mortality: analysis of 3772 neonatal deaths in Nepal, Bangladesh, Malawi and India

    OpenAIRE

    Fottrell, E.; Osrin, D.; Alcock, G; Azad, K.; Bapat, U; Beard, J.; Bondo, A.; Colbourn, T; Das, S; King, C.; Manandhar, D.; S Manandhar; Morrison, J; Mwansambo, C; Nair, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding the causes of death is key to tackling the burden of three million annual neonatal deaths. Resource-poor settings lack effective vital registration systems for births, deaths and causes of death. We set out to describe cause-specific neonatal mortality in rural areas of Malawi, Bangladesh, Nepal and rural and urban India using verbal autopsy (VA) data. Design We prospectively recorded births, neonatal deaths and stillbirths in seven population surveillance sites. VAs w...

  5. Causes of death in a rural area of South Africa : an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Garenne, Michel; Kahn, K.; Tollman, S.; Gear, J.

    2000-01-01

    The study compares the cause of death profile in a rural area of South Africa (Agincourt), with that in a rural area of West Africa (Niakhar), and in a developed country with the same life expectancy (France, 1951) in order to determine causes with high and low mortality and priorities for future health interventions. In the two African sites, causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsies, whereas they were derived from regular cause of death registration in France. Age-standardized death...

  6. Long-term prognosis and causes of death after spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Dahl, Benny; Obel, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term prognosis after spondylodiscitis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine long-term mortality and the causes of death after spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort study using national registries of patients diagnosed with non......-post-operative pyogenic spondylodiscitis from 1994-2009, alive 1 year after diagnosis (n = 1505). A comparison cohort from the background population individually matched for sex and age was identified (n = 7525). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed and Poisson regression analyses used to estimate mortality rate......). CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality, mainly due to comorbidities, particularly substance abuse....

  7. Certified causes of death in patients with mesothelioma in South East England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesothelioma is a highly fatal cancer that is caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. In many populations, the occurrence of mesothelioma is monitored with the use of mortality data from death certification. We examine certified causes of death of patients who have been diagnosed with mesothelioma, and assess the validity of death certification data as a proxy for mesothelioma incidence. Methods We extracted mesothelioma registrations in the South East of England area between 2000 and 2004 from the Thames Cancer Registry database. We retained for analysis 2200 patients who had died at the time of analysis, after having excluded seven dead cases where the causes of death were not known to the cancer registry. The 2200 deaths were classified hierarchically to identify (1 mesothelioma deaths, (2 deaths certified as lung cancer deaths or (3 deaths from unspecified cancer, and (4 deaths from other causes. Results 87% of the patients had mesothelioma mentioned on the death certificate. 6% had no mention of mesothelioma but included lung cancer as a cause of death. Another 6% had no mention of mesothelioma or lung cancer, but included an unspecified cancer as a cause of death. Lastly, 2% had other causes of death specified on the death certificate. Conclusion This analysis suggests that official mortality data may underestimate the true occurrence of mesothelioma by around 10%.

  8. Causes of childhood deaths in Bangladesh: results of a nationwide verbal autopsy study.

    OpenAIRE

    Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S.E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; al Sabir, A.

    1998-01-01

    While knowledge of causes of deaths is important for health sector planning, little is known from conventional sources about the causes of deaths in Bangladesh. This is partly due to deficiencies in the registration system and partly because few deaths are attended by qualified physicians. The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh De...

  9. Cost–consequence analysis of cause of death investigation in Finland and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti; Baandrup, Ulrik; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Ehlers, Lars Holger; Bøggild, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Denmark with another cost profile. Data on cause of death investigation systems and costs were derived from Departments of Forensic Medicine, Departments of Pathology, and the National Police. Finnish and Danish autopsy rates were calculated in unnatural (accident, suicide, homicide and undetermined....... Only little is known about the possible differences between health economics of Finnish and Danish cause of death investigation systems. The aims of this article were to analyse costs and consequences of Finnish and Danish cause of death investigations, and to develop an alternative autopsy practice in...... demands that forensic autopsy be performed if causality between unnatural death and cause of death cannot be clarified or if cause of death remains unknown. The Danish Health and Medicines Authority should provide guidelines that request a medical autopsy in natural deaths where more information about...

  10. Causes of mortality for Indonesian Hajj Pilgrims: comparison between routine death certificate and verbal autopsy findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masdalina Pane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indonesia provides the largest single source of pilgrims for the Hajj (10%. In the last two decades, mortality rates for Indonesian pilgrims ranged between 200-380 deaths per 100,000 pilgrims over the 10-week Hajj period. Reasons for high mortality are not well understood. In 2008, verbal autopsy was introduced to complement routine death certificates to explore cause of death diagnoses. This study presents the patterns and causes of death for Indonesian pilgrims, and compares routine death certificates to verbal autopsy findings. METHODS: Public health surveillance was conducted by Indonesian public health authorities accompanying pilgrims to Saudi Arabia, with daily reporting of hospitalizations and deaths. Surveillance data from 2008 were analyzed for timing, geographic location and site of death. Percentages for each cause of death category from death certificates were compared to that from verbal autopsy. RESULTS: In 2008, 206,831 Indonesian undertook the Hajj. There were 446 deaths, equivalent to 1,968 deaths per 100,000 pilgrim years. Most pilgrims died in Mecca (68% and Medinah (24%. There was no statistically discernible difference in the total mortality risk for the two pilgrimage routes (Mecca or Medinah first, but the number of deaths peaked earlier for those traveling to Mecca first (p=0.002. Most deaths were due to cardiovascular (66% and respiratory (28% diseases. A greater proportion of deaths were attributed to cardiovascular disease by death certificate compared to the verbal autopsy method (p<0.001. Significantly more deaths had ill-defined cause based on verbal autopsy method (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Despite pre-departure health screening and other medical services, Indonesian pilgrim mortality rates were very high. Correct classification of cause of death is critical for the development of risk mitigation strategies. Since verbal autopsy classified causes of death differently to death certificates, further studies

  11. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac – a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Catherine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies, two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy, a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal. For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions

  12. Death by unnatural causes during childhood and early adulthood in offspring of psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, Andrew R.; Appleby, Louis;

    2007-01-01

    MEASURES: Deaths from all natural causes and all unnatural causes, specifically, accidents, homicides, suicides, and undetermined causes. RESULTS: The highest observed relative risk (RR) was for homicide in young and older children with affected mothers or fathers. Homicides were between 5 and 10 times......-verdict deaths by poisoning were higher than for such deaths occurring by other means. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 99% of children studied survived to their mid-20s. However, they were more vulnerable to death from unnatural causes, notably, homicide during childhood and suicide in early adulthood. Further research is...... needed to establish how parental psychopathology contributes to increased risk of premature death in these offspring...

  13. Death Certificates Underestimate Infections as Proximal Causes of Death in the U.S

    OpenAIRE

    Sushant Govindan; Letitia Shapiro; Langa, Kenneth M.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Death certificates are a primary data source for assessing the population burden of diseases; however, there are concerns regarding their accuracy. Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) coding of a terminal hospitalization may provide an alternative view. We analyzed the rate and patterns of disagreement between death certificate data and hospital claims for patients who died during an inpatient hospitalization. METHODS: We studied respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (a natio...

  14. Changes in Contribution of Causes of Death to Socioeconomic Mortality Inequalities in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze long-term trends in the contribution of each cause of death to socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality among Korean adults. Methods Data were collected from death certificates between 1990 and 2004 and from censuses in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Age-standardized death rates by gender were produced according to education as the socioeconomic position indicator, and the slope index of inequality was calculated to evaluate the contribution of each caus...

  15. Impact of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Causes of Death in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.; Goetz, Stephan J.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of diseases and accidents that lead to death is not uniform throughout the U.S. but rather varies widely among different regions. This study uses county-level data on numbers and causes of death for the entire U.S. in an effort to link these causes of death to various county-level social and economic variables. Examples of causes of death for which county-level data are available include cancer, heart disease, infectious diseases, motor vehicle accidents, and other causes such a...

  16. Depression and Increased Mortality in Diabetes: Unexpected Causes of Death

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Heckbert, Susan R; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Katon, Wayne J.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Ludman, Evette J.; Oliver, Malia; Young, Bessie A.; McCulloch, David K.; Von Korff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that depression is linked to increased mortality among patients with diabetes. This study examines the association of depression with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in diabetes.

  17. Bleeding to death because of hemorrhage into soft tissues as a cause of death in a beaten battered child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bleeding to death is one of the leading causes of death speaking about violent death in general. Bleeding to death mostly happens through hurt organs or blood vessels of thorax, abdomen and neck or because of destruction of extremities or the whole body. Bleeding to death is very often the consequence of blood pouring, rarely of simultaneous pouring and suffusing of blood, and it is extremely rarely the result of blood suffusing solely and especially due to subcutaneous, retoperitoneal and intramediastinal blood suffusing. Fatal bleeding into soft tissues solely is very rare. During a 10- year- period among 3 000 performed autopsies in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Podgorica, the presented case was the unique one. Case report. The paper presents a 5-year-old boy who was beaten to death by his mother and step-father and died because of massive bleeding into soft tissues. Conclusion. In order to establish a cause of death in cases of exsanguination in soft tissues, a series of postmortem diagnostic procedures should be performed, like those presented in this paper.

  18. Socioeconomic differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in 16 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kulhánová (Ivana); G. Menvielle (Gwenn); M. Bopp (Matthias); C. Borrell (Carme); P. Deboosere (Patrick); T.A. Eikemo (Terje); R. Hoffmann (Rasmus); M. Leinsalu (Mall); P. Martikainen (Pekka); E. Regidor (Enrique); M. Rodriguez-Sanz (Maica); J. Rychtǎŕikov́a (Jitka); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cause-of-death data linked to information on socioeconomic position form one of the most important sources of information about health inequalities in many countries. The proportion of deaths from ill-defined conditions is one of the indicators of the quality of cause-of-deat

  19. Verbal autopsy of 48 000 adult deaths attributable to medical causes in Chennai (formerly Madras, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaka Santhanakrishnan

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995–97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific mortality rates for Chennai. Methods Trained non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education interviewed the surviving family members or an associate of the deceased to write a report on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. The reliability was assessed by comparing deaths attributed to cancer by VA with records in Vital Statistics Department and Chennai Cancer Registry. Results The VA reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified medical causes and unknown causes from 37% to 7% in early adult life and middle age (25–69 yrs and has yielded fewer unspecified causes (only 10% than the death certificate. The sensitivity of VA to identify cancer was 94% in the age group 25–69. Conclusion VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age. A systematic program of VA of a representative sample of deaths could assign broad causes not only to deaths in childhood (as has previously been established but also to deaths in early adult life and middle age.

  20. Causes of death of Cogema active workers, 1980-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Populations exposed to risks at work show a deficit in deaths in comparison with the national population, the 'healthy worker effect'. This effect has been observed among former nuclear workers. The aim of our- cross-sectional study was to evaluate the mortality in a metallurgy worker population, and to study the impact of the choice of the reference population on the estimation of the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR). Methods: The studied population was the COGEMA Metallurgy Department workers, aged 25 years to 64, during the period 1980-1995 in two regions of France (North - La Hague; South - Cadarache, Marcoule, Miramas and Pierrelatte). In order to account for geographical variability and the difference in mortality between the working population and the non-working population, we used several reference populations: national population, regional population, 'working' national population (farmer snot present in COGEMA and non-workers excluded), and 'working' regional population. Results: All SMRs were increased when we used a 'working' regional reference compared with the national reference population. Among men, eight pathologies presented a significant deficit with a national reference, whereas only two pathologies showed a deficit with the 'working' regional reference. Conclusion: The use of a reference population close to the study population enabled us to reduce the Healthy Worker Effect among metallurgy workers at COGEMA plants. (author)

  1. Causes of death in children with insulin dependent diabetes 1990-96

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, J; Ford-Adams, M.; Dunger, D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Mortality rates in children with insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in the UK are unknown and the causes of death not well documented.
AIM—To determine the mortality rate and causes of death in children with IDDM.
METHODS—The Office of National Statistics (England and Wales) and the General Register Office (Scotland) notified all deaths under 20 years of age from 1990 to 1996 with diabetes on the certificate. Further details were provided by coroners, pathologists,...

  2. Who dies from what ? Determining cause of death in South Africa's rural North-East

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, K.; Tollman, S. M.; Garenne, Michel; Gear, J.S.S.

    1999-01-01

    Information on cause of death is essential for rational public health planning, yet mortality data in South Africa is limited. In the Agincourt subdistrict, verbal autopsies (VA) have been used to determine cause of death. A VA is conducted on all deaths recorded during annual demographic and health surveillance. Trained lay fieldworkers interview a close caregiver to elicit signs and symptoms of the terminal illness. Each questionnaire is reviewed by three medical practitioners blind to each...

  3. Short- and Long-Term Cause of Death in Patients Treated With Primary PCI for STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frants; Butrymovich, Vitalij; Kelbæk, Henning;

    2014-01-01

    describe the association between time and cause of death in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. METHODS: A centralized civil registration system, patient files, and public disease and death cause registries with an accurate record linkage were used to trace time and cause of death in 2...... cardiac arrest. Age, culprit vessel size and flow, and the presence of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of mortality. After 30 days, the annual cardiac mortality rate was <1.5%. Causes of death beyond 30 days were noncardiac in 65% of cases (mainly malignancies and pulmonary diseases......BACKGROUND: Short-term mortality has been studied thoroughly in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whereas long-term cause of death in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to...

  4. Trends in survival and cause of death in Danish patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon

    The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry contains information about all Danish patients in whom multiple sclerosis has been diagnosed since 1948. The purpose of this study was to analyse trends in survival and causes of death of these patients and to compare them with those of the general population...... and death, and 1 January 1999 for cause-specific deaths. Standardized mortality ratios and excess death rates were calculated for various causes of death and periods after multiple sclerosis onset, and time trends in survival probability were analysed by Cox regression. The study comprised 9881....... According to death certificates, more than half (56.4%) of the patients had died from multiple sclerosis. They also had excess mortality rates from other diseases, except cancer, and from accidents and suicide. The probability for survival improved significantly during the observation period. Thus, the 10...

  5. Redistribution of heart failure as the cause of death: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Michelle L.; Love, Shelly-Ann; Sorlie, Paul D.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Antini, Carmen; Metcalf, Patricia A.; Hardy, Shakia; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Shahar, Eyal; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure is sometimes incorrectly listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on death certificates, thus compromising the accuracy and comparability of mortality statistics. Statistical redistribution of the UCD has been used to examine the effect of misclassification of the UCD attributed to heart failure, but sex- and race-specific redistribution of deaths on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the United States has not been examined. Methods We used coarsened exact...

  6. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...

  7. Reproductive capability is associated with lifespan and cause of death in companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is a risky affair; a lifespan cost of maintaining reproductive capability, and of reproduction itself, has been demonstrated in a wide range of animal species. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Most cost-of-reproduction studies simply ask how reproduction influences age at death, but are blind to the subjects' actual causes of death. Lifespan is a composite variable of myriad causes of death and it has not been clear whether the consequences of reproduction or of reproductive capability influence all causes of death equally. To address this gap in understanding, we compared causes of death among over 40,000 sterilized and reproductively intact domestic dogs, Canis lupus familiaris. We found that sterilization was strongly associated with an increase in lifespan, and while it decreased risk of death from some causes, such as infectious disease, it actually increased risk of death from others, such as cancer. These findings suggest that to understand how reproduction affects lifespan, a shift in research focus is needed. Beyond the impact of reproduction on when individuals die, we must investigate its impact on why individuals die, and subsequently must identify the mechanisms by which these causes of death are influenced by the physiology associated with reproductive capability. Such an approach may also clarify the effects of reproduction on lifespan in people. PMID:23613790

  8. Gene expression analysis characterizes antemortem stress and has implications for establishing cause of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Leanne; Emond, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Within the field of forensic pathology, determination of the cause of death depends upon identifying physical changes in the corpse or finding diagnostic laboratory abnormalities. When such perturbations are absent, definitive assignment of a cause of death may be difficult or impossible. An example of such a problem is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), a common cause of neonatal mortality that does not produce physical findings or laboratory abnormalities. Although respiratory failure as a cause of SIDS represents the most widely held hypothesis, sudden cardiac death and hyperthermia have also been advanced as possible causes. We hypothesize that each of these physiological stresses would produce a different pattern of premortem gene expression and that these patterns of gene expression would remain evident in tissues collected postmortem. If these patterns were sufficiently distinctive, they could be used to identify the cause of death. Using an infant mouse model, we compared gene expression patterns in liver tissue after sudden death, lethal hyperthermia, and lethal hypoxia. Each of these conditions produced readily distinguishable differences in gene expression patterns. With the K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm, only 10 genes are necessary to correctly classify samples. If the liver tissue was not harvested immediately after death, additional alteration in gene expression patterns resulted; however, these alterations did not affect the group of genes used to classify the samples. Our findings suggest that gene expression analysis from tissues collected postmortem may provide useful clues about certain physiologic stresses that may precede death. PMID:21693618

  9. Changing Cause of Death Profile in Morocco: The Impact of Child-survival Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Garenne, Michel; Darkaoui, Nada; Braikat, Mhamed; Azelmat, Mustapha

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the trends in cause-specific mortality and the impact of child-survival programmes in Morocco. Two national surveys on causes and circumstances of child deaths were conducted in Morocco in 1988 and 1998 (ECCD-1 and ECCD-2 respectively). These surveys were based on a representative sample of deaths of children aged less than five years (432 and 866 respectively). Causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsy and were validated on a subsample of 94 cases...

  10. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Hastings

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups.We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%. Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

  11. Three cases of death caused by shots from blank cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovic, Miodrag; Milic, Miroslav; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Kostov, Milos

    2009-12-01

    The authors describe 3 cases of lethal injuries caused by 7.62 mm blank cartridge shots from military automatic rifle of domestic origin (AK 47, 7.62 mm). In 1 case, the cartridge was fired from a weapon that had been leaned on the head, with subsequent destruction of brain, and in other 2 cases, the weapon had been leaned on the chests, which led to destruction of heart parts. The injuries were caused by the action of striking wave of gunpowder explosion, the air blast type. The cases demonstrate that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall and the skull. PMID:19901805

  12. Cause of death among Ghanaian adolescents in Accra using autopsy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tettey Yao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on adolescent mortality particularly from developing countries with unreliable death registration systems. This calls for the use of other sources of data to ascertain cause of adolescent mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the causes of death among Ghanaian adolescents 10 to 19 years in Accra, Ghana utilizing data from autopsies conducted in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH. Findings Out of the 14,034 autopsies carried out from 2001 to 2003 in KBTH, 7% were among adolescents. Of the 882 deaths among adolescents analyzed, 402 (45.6% were females. There were 365 (41.4% deaths from communicable disease, pregnancy related conditions and nutritional disorders. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 362 (41% cases and the rest were attributable to injuries and external causes of morbidity and mortality. Intestinal infectious diseases and lower respiratory tract infections were the most common communicable causes of death collectively accounting for 20.5% of total deaths. Death from blood diseases was the largest (8.5% among the non-communicable conditions followed by neoplasms (7%. Males were more susceptible to injuries than females (χ2 = 13.45, p = .000. At least five out of ten specific causes of death were as a result of infections with pneumonia and typhoid being the most common. Sickle cell disease was among the top three specific causes of death. Among the females, 27 deaths (6.7% were pregnancy related with most of them being as a result of abortion. Conclusions The autopsy data from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital can serve as a useful source of information on adolescent mortality. Both communicable and non-communicable diseases accounted for most deaths highlighting the need for health care providers to avoid complacency in their management of adolescents presenting with these diseases.

  13. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  14. Postmortem computed tomography for diagnosis of cause of death in male prisoners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the utility of postmortem CT (PMCT) examination in establishing the cause of death among male prisoners dying in Karachi jails. A descriptive study was carried out from February 2006 to September 2007, CT Scan section, Civil Hospital Karachi and the Mortuary, Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. Adult male prisoners dying in the Karachi central prison and referred to the study setting for determining the cause of death for medico legal purpose were included. Female prisoners and those cases where the final report of cause of death was not available were excluded. CT scan of the vital body regions (head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis) was carried out in all cases. The scan was read and reported by two radiologists. Anatomical dissection based autopsy was carried out by the forensic expert. Final report regarding the cause of death was issued by the forensic expert based on the combined findings, histopathology, toxicology results and circumstantial evidence. The CT scan and autopsy findings were compared and percentage agreement was determined using kappa statistics. There were 14 cases in all with mean age of 41.2 +- 17 years. The alleged mode of death was custodial torture in all cases. CT scan determined the cause of death to be natural cardio-respiratory failure in 10, strangulation in 01, pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in 02 and trauma to spine in 01 case. The autopsy determined natural death in 11 and pulmonary TB in 02 and asphyxia in 01. The percentage agreement between CT and autopsy was 92% (k=0.92) and between CT and finalized cause of death was 100% (k=1.0). PMCT is as effective as dissection autopsy in identifying pulmonary infections and natural causes of death. It is more effective in identifying vertebral fractures which may exclude hanging and corroborate trauma to spine (JPMA 60:4; 2010). (author)

  15. Starvation as Cause of Death in the Croatian Quarnero and Hinterland between 1816 and 1825

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Višnja; Čulina, Tatjana; Škrobonja, Ante

    2010-01-01

    Our aim is to investigate starvation as cause of death and social and demographic consequences in the Croatian Quarnero and its hinterland between 1816 and 1825, paying particular attention to the infamous »year of famine« 1817. Our sources were: registers of births, marriages, and deaths from 21 parishes kept at the Croatian State Archives in Rijeka and Zagreb. We collected and processed data for statistical analysis according to the date of baptism (birth), marriage, and death, and accordin...

  16. Change in Causes of Injury-Related Deaths in South Korea, 1996–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Juhee; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to describe temporal patterns of injury-related mortality by sex, age group, and mechanism, and to identify changes in the leading causes of injury-related deaths in South Korea from 1996 through 2006. Methods This retrospective, descriptive study analyzed national data on all injury-related deaths reported in official death certificates from 1996–2006. Incidence rates of fatal injuries are presented as crude and age-standardized rates per 100 000 popula...

  17. Mortality and causes of death in children referred to a tertiary epilepsy center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Sabine; Uldall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with epilepsy, including children, have an increased mortality rate when compared to the general population. Only few studies on causes of mortality in childhood epilepsy exist and pediatric SUDEP rate is under continuous discussion. AIM: To describe general mortality......, incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), causes of death and age distribution in a pediatric epilepsy patient population. METHODS: The study retrospectively examined the mortality and causes of death in 1974 patients with childhood-onset epilepsy at a tertiary epilepsy center in Denmark...... over a period of 9 years. Cases of death were identified through their unique civil registration number. Information from death certificates, autopsy reports and medical notes were collected. RESULTS: 2.2% (n = 43) of the patient cohort died during the study period. This includes 9 patients with SUDEP...

  18. Mortality and causes of death of 344 Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Halberg, P; Ullman, S

    1998-01-01

    To determine survival, mortality and causes of death in Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), and to analyse how these parameters are influenced by demographic variables and the extent of skin involvement.......To determine survival, mortality and causes of death in Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), and to analyse how these parameters are influenced by demographic variables and the extent of skin involvement....

  19. Determination of the underlying cause of death in three multicenter international HIV clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lifson, Alan R; Lundgren, Jens; Belloso, Waldo H; Carey, Cate; Davey, Richard T; Duprez, Daniel; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Gatell, Jose M; Gey, Daniela C; Hoy, Jennifer F; Krum, Eric A; Nelson, Ray; Nixon, Daniel E; Paton, Nick; Pedersen, Court; Perez, George; Price, Richard W; Prineas, Ronald J; Rhame, Frank S; Sampson, James; Worley, John

    2008-01-01

    -defining diseases, 21% non-AIDS malignancies, 9% cardiac diseases, 9% liver disease, 8% non-AIDS-defining infections, 5% suicides, 5% other traumatic events/accidents, 4% drug overdoses/acute intoxications, 11% other causes, and 18% unknown. Major reasons for unknown classification were inadequate clinical......PURPOSE: Describe processes and challenges for an Endpoint Review Committee (ERC) in determining and adjudicating underlying causes of death in HIV clinical trials. METHOD: Three randomized HIV trials (two evaluating interleukin-2 and one treatment interruption) enrolled 11,593 persons from 36...... countries during 1999-2008. Three ERC members independently reviewed each death report and supporting source documentation to assign underlying cause of death; differences of opinion were adjudicated. RESULTS: Of 453 deaths reported through January 14, 2008, underlying causes were as follows: 10% AIDS...

  20. The risk and causes of death in childhoodonset epilepsy: A 4-study collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Anne T.; Nickels, K.; Wirrell, E.C.; Rios, C.; Geerts, A.T.; Callenbach, P.M.; Arts, W.F.; Camfield, P.R.; Camfield, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Young people with epilepsy experience high death rates compared to the general population. Understanding the magnitude of risk and the causes of death (CoD) is essential for counseling and for potential prevention. Methods: We combined the mortality experiences of four cohort studies of n

  1. Dementia in the National Cause of Death Registry in Norway 1969-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar Hjellvik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase markedly during the coming decades. Epidemiological studies involving the National Cause of Death Registry (NCDR may be useful for exploring the aetiology of dementia. We therefore wanted to study developments in the reporting of dementia in the NCDR over the last four decades.Methods: We calculated the age- and gender specific proportion of deaths with dementia reported in the NCDR (dementia deaths in the period 1969-2010, and the proportion of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease deaths in 1986-2010. Separate analyses were done for deaths occurring in nursing homes in 1996-2010. The proportion of dementia deaths where dementia was coded as underlying cause of death was also calculated.Results: The proportion of dementia deaths increased more than threefold in the period 1969-2010 among women (from 4% to 15%, and more than doubled among men (from 3% to 7%. In nursing homes the proportion increased from 17% to 26% for women and from 13% to 18% for men. The proportion of dementia deaths with Alzheimer’s disease reported in the NCDR increased from practically zero in 1986 to a maximum of 28% in 2005. The proportion of dementia deaths with dementia as underlying cause of death increased from a minimum of 6% in 1972 to a maximum of 51% in 2009.Conclusion: Although the reporting of dementia in the NCDR increased markedly from 1969 to 2010, dementia is still under-reported for old people and for deaths occurring in nursing homes when compared to prevalence estimates.

  2. Zika May Have Caused Death of Texas Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy because it can cause the birth defect microcephaly -- where babies are born with a small head ... The newborn was delivered in Harris County, had microcephaly, and died shortly after birth, state health officials ...

  3. Causes of childhood deaths in Bangladesh: results of a nationwide verbal autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S. E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; al Sabir, A.

    1998-01-01

    While knowledge of causes of deaths is important for health sector planning, little is known from conventional sources about the causes of deaths in Bangladesh. This is partly due to deficiencies in the registration system and partly because few deaths are attended by qualified physicians. The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1993-94. About 25% of the deaths were associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and about 20% with diarrhoea. Neonatal tetanus and measles remained important causes of death, and drowning was a major cause for 1-4-year-olds. Research and programmes to enable mothers to identify ALRI cases, particularly pneumonia, and to encourage timely and appropriate care-seeking and strengthening of ALRI case management at the primary care facilities are important priorities. While promotion of oral rehydration for watery diarrhoea and antibiotic treatment for dysentery should continue, broader preventive interventions including provision of safe water and sanitation, and improvements in personal hygiene require more attention. Further intensification of immunization programmes and innovative experimental interventions to reduce childhood from drowning should be designed and tested. PMID:9648357

  4. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Katherine G.; Jose, Powell O.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Frank, Ariel T. H.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Thompson, Caroline A.; Karen Eggleston; Mark R Cullen; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-01-01

    Background Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. Methods and Findings We examined national mortality records for the six larg...

  5. Causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden, 1997–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wahlberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undocumented migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups in Swedish society, where they generally suffer from poor health and limited health care access. Due to their irregular status, such migrants are an under-researched group and are not included in the country's Cause of Death Register (CDR. Objective: To determine the causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden and to ascertain whether there are patterns in causes of death that differ between residents and undocumented migrants. Design: This is a cross-sectional study of death certificates issued from 1997 to 2010 but never included in the CDR from which we established our study sample of undocumented migrants. As age adjustments could not be performed due to lack of data, comparisons between residents and undocumented migrants were made at specific age intervals, based on the study sample's mean age at death±a half standard deviation. Results: Out of 7,925 individuals surveyed, 860 were classified as likely to have been undocumented migrants. External causes (49.8% were the most frequent cause of death, followed by circulatory system diseases, and then neoplasms. Undocumented migrants had a statistically significant increased risk of dying from external causes (odds ratio [OR] 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83–4.52 and circulatory system diseases (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.73–2.82 compared to residents, and a lower risk of dying from neoplasms (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04–0.14. Conclusions: We believe our study is the first to determine national figures on causes of death of undocumented migrants. We found inequity in health as substantial differences in causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents were seen. Legal ambiguities regarding health care provision must be addressed if equity in health is to be achieved in a country otherwise known for its universal health coverage.

  6. Sudden Death Caused by Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Artery During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Akira; Kuroyanagi, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Omura, Kazunobu; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Anomalous origin of the coronary artery (AOCA) is a rare, but important cause of sudden cardiac death among young athletes. Nine autopsy cases (8 male, 1 female; mean age, 17.9 years; age range, 11-31 years) of sudden death during or just after exercise caused by AOCA were reviewed. The exercises performed at the time of death were running (4 cases), soccer (2 cases), and baseball, swimming and kendo (Japanese swordsmanship) (1 case each). In 6 cases, the left coronary artery arose from the right sinus of Valsalva, and in 3, the right coronary artery from the left sinus. The coronary arteries passed between the pulmonary artery and the aorta with an acute angle takeoff from the orifice. Three cases had cardiovascular manifestations prior to death. In cases with cardiovascular manifestations, novel imaging methods should be considered to prevent sudden death. PMID:27404630

  7. Causes of death among people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Luiza Lage Fazito Rezende; Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos; Mauricio Gomes Pereira

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of the underlying causes of death in people living with HIV/AIDS is important so that actions to reduce morbidity and mortality can be taken. OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends of underlying causes of death among people living with HIV/AIDS between 2000 and 2007 in Brazil and to identify factors associated with it. METHODS: The Mortality Information System data for deaths occurred in Brazil between 2000 and 2007 that contained reference to HIV/AIDS in any of...

  8. [Causes of death and the relation between scientific and popular knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero Gil, E

    1993-01-01

    "The framework of this contribution is the nexus between scientific and popular knowledge, and their importance assessing diagnostical expressions when studying death causes in times prior to the setting of a standard for the definition of illness. By means of a particular example, the expression teething, we shall show some nuances concerning the loanwords and equivalences between popular and academic knowledge, and their deep, if sometimes hidden, influence upon the diagnostical expressions informing us about the death causes as shown in the records of life and death statistics." The geographical focus is on Spain. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12318740

  9. Mortality and causes of death among workers exposed to phosgene in 1943-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality and causes of death from death certificates were analyzed among workers exposed to phosgene while working at a uranium-processing plant in Tennessee in 1943-45. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by using death rates for U.S. white males. As of 1979, SMRs for all causes and for various selected causes were similar in 694 male chemical workers chronically exposed to low levels of phosgene in 1943-45 and in 9280 male controls who worked at the same plant. SMRs for diseases of the respiratory system were 107 (14 observed vs. 13.07 expected) in the chemical workers and 119 (292 observed vs. 245.75 expected) in the controls. In a group of 106 males who were acutely exposed to high levels of phosgene, there were 41 deaths observed vs. 33.87 expected (SMR = 121; 95% confidence limits = 86 and 165). One death, occurring within 24 hours of exposure, was from pulmonary edema due to phosgene poisoning (coded to accidental causes). Five deaths were coded to diseases of the respiratory system (SMR = 266; 95% CL = 86 and 622); in 2 of these 5 deaths, bronchitis due to phosgene exposure had been reported in 1945. Among 91 female workers with acute high-level phosgene exposure, frequencies of symptoms and early health effects (pneumonitis and bronchitis) differed from those reported for the 106 male cases; preliminary data on vital status of these females are too incomplete for analysis, and further follow-up is needed

  10. Survival and causes of death in systemic sclerosis patients: a single center registry report from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poormoghim, Hadi; Andalib, Elham; Jalali, Arash; Ghaderi, Afshin; Ghorbannia, Ali; Mojtabavi, Nazanin

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the study were to determine prognostic factors for survival and causes of death in a cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). This was a cohort study of SSc patients in single rheumatologic center from January 1998 to August 2012. They fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SSc or had calcinosis Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia or sine sclerosis. Causes of death were classified as SSc related and non-SSc related. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used in univariate and multivariate analysis to analyse survival in subgroups and determine prognostic factors of survival. The study includes 220 patients (192 female, 28 male). Out of thirty-two (14.5 %) who died, seventeen (53.1 %) deaths were SSc related and in nine (28.1 %) non-SSc-related causes, and in six (18.8 %) of patients causes of death were not defined. Overall survival rate was 92.6 % (95 % CI 87.5-95.7 %) after 5 years and 82.3 % (95 % CI 73.4-88.4 %) after 10 years. Pulmonary involvement was a major SSc-related cause of death, occurred in seven (41.1 %) patients. Cardiovascular events were leading cause of in overall death (11) 34.3 % and 6 in non-SSc-related death. Independent risk factors for mortality were age >50 at diagnosis (HR 5.10) advance pulmonary fibrosis (HR 11.5), tendon friction rub at entry (HR 6.39), arthritis (HR 3.56). In this first Middle Eastern series of SSc registry, pulmonary and cardiac involvements were the leading cause of SSc-related death. PMID:27061806

  11. Pathology and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (1999-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelo, Manuel; Los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa de; Herráez, Pedro; Andrada, Marisa; Sierra, Eva; Rodríguez, Francisco; Jepson, Paul D; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-03-26

    Between 1999 and 2005, 233 stranded cetaceans (comprising 19 species) were reported in the waters of the Canary Islands. Of these, 138/233 (59.2%) were subjected to a complete or partial standardized necropsy, including 4 Balaenopteridae, 9 Physeteridae, 8 Kogiidae, 27 Ziphiidae and 90 Delphinidae. Of these, 46/138 (33.3%) cetaceans were diagnosed with anthropogenic pathological categories (i.e. the cause of death was anthropogenic). These included fishing interaction (bycatch) (19 individuals), 'atypical' mass stranding events linked to naval exercises (13), ship collisions (8) and other anthropogenic-related pathology (6). 'Natural' (i.e. non-anthropogenic) causes of death accounted for another 82/138 (59.4%) cases, including infectious and non-infectious diseases (63), neonatal pathology (8), intra- and interspecific interactions (6) and mass strandings (5). The cause(s) of death could not be determined in 10/138 (7.3%) necropsied animals. The most common causes of death were ship collisions in 6/9 (66.6%) Physeteridae, 'atypical' mass stranding linked to naval exercises in 13/27 (48.1%) Ziphiidae, and 'natural' infectious and non-infectious diseases in 55/90 (61.1%) Delphinidae. Interaction with fishing activities was established as cause of death in 15/90 (16.7%) Delphinidae. These data show that a range of anthropogenic and natural single and mass mortality events occur in multiple cetacean species stranded in the Canary Islands. PMID:23548359

  12. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2015-01-01

    expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in...

  13. Defining the cause of death in hospitalised patients with acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Selby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high mortality rates that follow the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI are well recognised. However, the mode of death in patients with AKI remains relatively under-studied, particularly in general hospitalised populations who represent the majority of those affected. We sought to describe the primary cause of death in a large group of prospectively identified patients with AKI. METHODS: All patients sustaining AKI at our centre between 1(st October 2010 and 31(st October 2011 were identified by real-time, hospital-wide, electronic AKI reporting based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN diagnostic criteria. Using this system we are able to generate a prospective database of all AKI cases that includes demographic, outcome and hospital coding data. For those patients that died during hospital admission, cause of death was derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. RESULTS: During the study period there were 3,930 patients who sustained AKI; 62.0% had AKI stage 1, 20.6% had stage 2 and 17.4% stage 3. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (859 patients. Cause of death could be identified in 93.4% of cases. There were three main disease categories accounting for three quarters of all mortality; sepsis (41.1%, cardiovascular disease (19.2% and malignancy (12.9%. The major diagnosis leading to sepsis was pneumonia, whilst cardiovascular death was largely a result of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. AKI was the primary cause of death in only 3% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality associated with AKI remains high, although cause of death is usually concurrent illness. Specific strategies to improve outcomes may therefore need to target not just the management of AKI but also the most relevant co-existing conditions.

  14. Tabulador de causas múltiplas de morte Multiple causes- of-death tabulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto H. Santo

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de causas múltiplas de morte vem sendo atualmente preconizado para descrever e analisar os determinantes patológicos da mortalidade em populações, como complemento ao uso tradicional da causa básica de morte. O estudo das causas múltiplas pode realizar-se por meio da apresentação de todas as menções das causas básicas e associadas de morte e por meio de associações de causas. Um programa para microcomputador foi desenvolvido para processar bancos de dados contendo as causas de morte informadas no Modelo Internacional de Atestado Médico de Causa de Morte, denominado Tabulador de Causas Múltiplas, que gera uma tabela matriz a partir da qual podem ser derivadas as demais formas de apresentação e análise, além de poder ser usado como instrumento de crítica dos dados de mortalidade.The use of multiple-causes-of-death is currently being recommended in order to describe and analyze the pathological determinants of mortality in populations, as a supplement to the traditional use of the underlying cause of death. Multiple-causes-of-death can be studied by presenting all underlying and associated causes mentioned, and by means of associations of causes of death. Microcomputer software has been developed to process data files containing causes of death informed by physicians on the International Form of Medical Certificate of Causes of Death. The Multiple Cause of Death Tabulator software generates a matrix table from which the above forms of presentation and analysis can be achieved and mortality data be edited.

  15. Algorithms for enhancing public health utility of national causes-of-death data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmalek Farshad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coverage and quality of cause-of-death (CoD data varies across countries and time. Valid, reliable, and comparable assessments of trends in causes of death from even the best systems are limited by three problems: a changes in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD over time; b the use of tabulation lists where substantial detail on causes of death is lost; and c many deaths assigned to causes that cannot or should not be considered underlying causes of death, often called garbage codes (GCs. The Global Burden of Disease Study and the World Health Organization have developed various methods to enhance comparability of CoD data. In this study, we attempt to build on these approaches to enhance the utility of national cause-of-death data for public health analysis. Methods Based on careful consideration of 4,434 country-years of CoD data from 145 countries from 1901 to 2008, encompassing 743 million deaths in ICD versions 1 to 10 as well as country-specific cause lists, we have developed a public health-oriented cause-of-death list. These 56 causes are organized hierarchically and encompass all deaths. Each cause has been mapped from ICD-6 to ICD-10 and, where possible, they have also been mapped to the International List of Causes of Death 1-5. We developed a typology of different classes of GCs. In each ICD revision, GCs have been identified. Target causes to which these GCs should be redistributed have been identified based on certification practice and/or pathophysiology. Proportionate redistribution, statistical models, and expert algorithms have been developed to redistribute GCs to target codes for each age-sex group. Results The fraction of all deaths assigned to GCs varies tremendously across countries and revisions of the ICD. In general, across all country-years of data available, GCs have declined from more than 43% in ICD-7 to 24% in ICD-10. In some regions, such

  16. Social inequalities in causes of death amenable to health care in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Hem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate if there are educational inequalities in causes of death considered amenable to health care in Norway and compare this with non-amenable causes. Methods: The study used the concept of “amenable mortality”, which here includes 34 specific causes of death. A linked data file, with information from the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry and the Educational Registry was analyzed. The study population included the whole Norwegian population in two age groups of interest (25-49 and 50-74 years. Information on deaths was from the period 1990-2001. Education was recorded in 1990 and it was grouped in four categories as: basic, lower secondary, higher secondary and higher. In the study men and women were analysed seperately. The analysis was conducted for all amenable causes pooled with and without ischemic heart disease. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was fitted to estimate hazard rate ratios. Results: The study showed educational differences in mortality from causes of death considered amenable to health care, in both age groups and sexes. This was seen both when including and excluding ischemic heart disease. The effect sizes were comparable for amenable and non-amenable causes in both age groups and sexes. Conclusions: This study revealed systematic higher risk of death in lower educational groups in causes of death considered amenable to health care. This indicates potential weaknesses in equitable provision of health care for the Norwegian population. Additional research is needed to identify domains within the health care system of particular concern.

  17. Factors associated with specific causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Colette; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Weber, Rainer; Law, Matthew; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Kirk, Ole; Friis-Møller, Nina; Phillips, Andrew; Reiss, Peter; El Sadr, Wafaa; Pradier, Christian; Worm, Signe W

    2010-01-01

    To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death.......To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death....

  18. Gastro-intestinal complications as one of causes of death in patients with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Sorotskaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess frequency of gastro-intestinal (Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation as direct cause of death in pts with rheumatic diseases. Material and methods. Statistical analysis of Tula region patient care institutions documentation was performed to assess frequency and character of severe GI complications leading to death of pts. 300 cases of death which took place during 5 years (1996-2000 in 3 rheumatologic (105 cases and 10 therapeutic (195 cases departments of Tula region patient care institutions were studied. Results. Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation were the direct causes of death in 15 pts with rheumatic diseases i.e. in 5% from the whole number of died. GI complications caused death in 4 pts with chronic rheumatic heart disease (HRHD (1,7%, in 7 (15,2%with rheumatoid arthritis -, in 2 with ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (8,0 and 22,2% respectively. Pts with systemic sclerosis did not die because of GI damage. GI changes most frequently localized in duodenum (8 pts. 4 pts had complications connected with gastric ulcer and in 2 diffuse erosive damage of Gl mucosa was the source of bleeding. Conclusion. Severe Gl complications quite often lead to death of pts with rheumatic diseases in Tula region.

  19. Polytrauma in the elderly: predictors of the cause and time of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muwanga Cyrus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing age and significant pre-existing medical conditions (PMCs are independent risk factors associated with increased mortality after trauma. Our aim was to review all trauma deaths, identifying the cause and the relation to time from injury, ISS, age and PMCs. Methods A retrospective analysis of trauma deaths over a 6-year period at the study centre was conducted. Information was obtained from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN dataset, hospital records, death certificates and post-mortem reports. The time and cause of death, ISS, PMCs were analysed for two age groups ( Results Patients ≥ 65 years old were at an increased risk of death (OR 6.4, 95% CI 5.2-7.8, p 15 and died within the first 24 hours of admission, irrespective of age, from causes directly related to their injuries. Twelve patients with an ISS of Conclusion Elderly patients with minor injuries and PMCs have an increased risk of death relative to their younger counterparts and are more likely to die of medical complications late in their hospital admission.

  20. Cause of death--so-called designed event acclimaxing timed happenings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cause-of-death as an established global medical institution faces its greatest challenge in the commonplace observation that the healthy do not necessarily survive and the diseased do not necessarily die. A logical analysis of the assumed relationships between disease and death provides some insights that allow questioning the taken-for-granted relationship between defined disease/s and the final common parameter of death. Causalism as a paradigm has taken leave of all advanced sciences. In medicine, it is lingering on for anthropocentric reasons. Natural death does not come to pass because of some (replaceable missing element, but because the evolution of the individual from womb to tomb has arrived at its final destination. To accept death as a physiologic event is to advance thanatology and to disburden medical colleges and hospitals of a lot of avoidable thinking and doing.

  1. [Analysis on the causes of death of inhabitants at the inner and outer cities of Peking in late Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J

    1994-01-01

    Reports were made on the causes of death of Peking people inhabited in inner and outer cities within 2 days in 1908. Analysis showed that over 50% of the deaths were due to infectious diseases. The first 8 causes accounted for 70% of the total deaths, while the average expectancy of life at birth was 40.16 years of age. PMID:11615223

  2. Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lale Say, MD

    2014-06-01

    Funding: USAID, the US Fund for UNICEF through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to CHERG, and The UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/The World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP, Department of Reproductive Health and Research.

  3. Causes of Deaths in Portugal and Challenges in Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    George, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In Portugal, the hope of living, in terms of probability, either at birth or at 65 years old, has reached levels that represent huge gains and certainly reflect the successful initiatives developed in many sectors in the last 30 years. In 2008-2010, the average life expectancy at birth was 79.20 years for men and women. By contrast, in 1980, the average life expectancy at birth was 71.78 years. Furthermore, premature mortality, defined as occurring before 70 years of age, expressed as rate, r...

  4. J wave syndromes as a cause of sudden arrhythmic death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accentuated J waves have been associated with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF for nearly three decades. Prominent J waves characterize both Brugada and early repolarization syndromes leading to their designation as J wave syndromes. An early repolarization (ER pattern, characterized by J point elevation, slurring of the terminal part of the QRS and ST segment elevation was considered to be a totally benign electrocardiographic manifestation until a decade ago. Recent casecontrol and population-based association studies have advanced evidence that an ER pattern in the inferior or infero-lateral leads is associated with increased risk for life-threatening arrhythmias, named early repolarization syndrome (ERS. ERS and Brugada syndrome (BrS share similar electrocardiogram features, clinical outcomes, risk factors as well as a common arrhythmic platform related to amplification of Ito-mediated J waves. Although BrS and ERS differ with respect to the magnitude and lead location of abnormal J wave manifestation, they are thought to represent a continuous spectrum of phenotypic expression, termed J wave syndromes. A classification scheme for ERS has been proposed: type 1, displaying an ER pattern predominantly in the lateral precordial leads, is considered to be largely benign; type 2, displaying an ER pattern predominantly in inferior or infero-lateral leads, is associated with a higher level of risk; whereas type 3, displaying an ER pattern globally in inferior, lateral and right precordial leads, is associated with the highest level of risk for development of malignant arrhythmias and is often associated with VF storms.

  5. Causes of death in children diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma between 1974 and 1985.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, C M; Stiller, C A; Kingston, J E

    1992-01-01

    An investigation has been undertaken of 479 deaths occurring up to the end of 1990 among 883 patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from 1974 to 1985 who were included in the population based National Registry of Childhood Tumours. The objectives were to perform a descriptive analysis looking particularly at the deaths not directly due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, to determine the frequency of the different causes of death and to study the trends over time. Among the 476 patients with s...

  6. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for......Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries......, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey...

  7. Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, A. L.; L. Sacco; Hyder, A; Black, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent estimates suggest that malnutrition (measured as poor anthropometric status) is associated with about 50% of all deaths among children. Although the association between malnutrition and all-cause mortality is well documented, the malnutrition-related risk of death associated with specific diseases is less well described. We reviewed published literature to examine the evidence for a relation between malnutrition and child mortality from diarrhoea, acute respiratory illnes...

  8. The leading causes of death after burn injury in a single pediatric burn center

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felicia N.; Herndon, David N; Hawkins, Hal K.; Lee, Jong O; Cox, Robert A.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Chinkes, David L.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Severe thermal injury is characterized by profound morbidity and mortality. Advances in burn and critical care, including early excision and grafting, aggressive resuscitation and advances in antimicrobial therapy have made substantial contributions to decrease morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, death still occurs. Our aim was to determine the predominant causes of death in burned pediatric patients in order to develop new treatment avenues and future trajectories a...

  9. Inhibition of telomerase causes vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Toru; Nakatsu, Kanako; Shimamoto, Akira; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-08-26

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced cell death. ER stress-induced cell death was ameliorated in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) over-expressing MCF7 cells (MCF7-TERT cell). Telomerase specific inhibitor, BIBR1532, reversed the inhibitory effect of TERT on ER stress-induced cell death in MCF7-TERT cells. These findings suggest that BIBR1532 may specifically inhibit telomerase activity, thereby inducing cell death in ER stress-exposed cells. TERT was expressed in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. To analyze the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced neuronal cell death, we treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with BIBR1532 and analyzed ER stress-induced cell death. We found that BIBR1532 significantly enhanced the ER stress-induced neuronal cell death. These findings suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity may enhance vulnerability to neuronal cell death caused by ER stress. PMID:27443785

  10. Causes of death in the human immunodeficiency virus population in Western Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkiah Forbes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring the causes of death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in the era of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings has implications as more deaths are reported for reasons other than AIDS. Aims: To determine the causes of mortality in HIV-infected adults in Western Jamaica. Materials and Methods: Patients with HIV infection with a death certificate with a known cause of death between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Results: There were 189 patients. Co-morbidities were present in 25.3%. The mean age at death was 42.4 years. Early disease (World Health Organization [WHO] stages 1 or 2 was the presentation in 21.5% while 78.6% presented with advanced disease (WHO stages 3 or 4. The mean CD4 count at diagnosis was 95 cells/mm 3 . In patients presenting with early disease, 14.2% presented with sexually transmitted infections, 22.8% skin manifestations, and 14.2% lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting with late disease, 41.7% had Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP, 18.9% central nervous system (CNS toxoplasmosis, 11.3% HIV-associated nephropathy, and 5% cryptococcal meningitis. At death, 72.6% were in WHO class 4, and 21.2% class 3. The average CD4 count at death was 75.5 cells/mm 3 . Overall, 55.2% of the patients had received highly active antiretroviral therapy. PCP accounted for 42.9% of deaths, 27.3% had CNS opportunistic infections, HIV nephropathy 16.4%, and 4.6% had malignancies. About 52.3% of patients died within 1 year of diagnosis with HIV, while 68.3% died within 2 years. Conclusion: Patients with HIV are presenting with late disease and dying of conditions that are AIDS-related. Efforts to improve early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed in Jamaica.

  11. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyene, T.J.; Hoek, H.; Zhang, Y.; Vos, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countrie

  12. Causes of Death Data in the Global Burden of Disease Estimates for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Iversen, Helle K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke mortality estimates in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study are based on routine mortality statistics and redistribution of ill-defined codes that cannot be a cause of death, the so-called 'garbage codes' (GCs). This study describes the contribution of these codes to stroke......' and 'hypertension' with marked regional differences. Future advancements in stroke certification, data collections and statistical analyses may improve the estimation of the global stroke burden....... mortality estimates. METHODS: All available mortality data were compiled and non-specific cause codes were redistributed based on literature review and statistical methods. Ill-defined codes were redistributed to their specific cause of disease by age, sex, country and year. The reassignment was done based...... on the International Classification of Diseases and the pathology behind each code by checking multiple causes of death and literature review. RESULTS: Unspecified stroke and primary and secondary hypertension are leading contributing 'GCs' to stroke mortality estimates for hemorrhagic stroke (HS...

  13. Causes of death on antiretroviral therapy: a post-mortem study from South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality in the first months of antiretroviral therapy (ART is a significant clinical problem in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, no post-mortem study has investigated the causes of mortality in these patients. METHODS: HIV-positive adults who died as in-patients at a Johannesburg academic hospital underwent chart-review and ultrasound-guided needle autopsy for histological and microbiological examination of lung, liver, spleen, kidney, bone marrow, lymph node, skin and cerebrospinal fluid. A clinico-pathologic committee considered all available data and adjudicated immediate and contributing causes of death. RESULTS: Thirty-nine adults were enrolled: 14 pre-ART, 15 early-ART (7-90 days, and 10 late-ART (>90 days. Needle sampling yielded adequate specimen in 100% of kidney, skin, heart and cerebrospinal fluid samples, 97% of livers and lungs, 92% of bone marrows, 87% of spleens and 68% of lymph nodes. Mycobacterial infections were implicated in 69% of deaths (26 of 27 of these due to M. tuberculosis, bacterial infections in 33%, fungal infections in 21%, neoplasm in 26%, and non-infectious organ failure in 26%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS was implicated in 73% of early-ART deaths. Post-mortem investigations revealed previously undiagnosed causes of death in 49% of cases. Multiple pathologies were common with 62% of subjects with mycobacterial infection also having at least one other infectious or neoplastic cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Needle biopsy was efficient and yielded excellent pathology. The large majority of deaths in all three groups were caused by M. tuberculosis suggesting an urgent need for improved diagnosis and expedited treatment prior to and throughout the course of antiretroviral therapy. Complex, unrecognized co-morbidities pose an additional challenge.

  14. Evaluating the Cause of Death in Obese Individuals: A Ten-Year Medical Autopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Saab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is a growing public health problem associated with increased morbidity and rate of death. Postmortem examination is imperative to determine the cause of death, to detect clinically unsuspected disease entities, and consequently to determine the actual impact of obesity on patient mortality. Methods. A total of 849 adult autopsies were retrospectively reviewed. Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and nonobese patients were separately studied. The primary cause of death in each group was categorized into malignancy, infection, stroke, ischemic and nonischemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage, and primary nonneoplastic diseases of different organ systems. Results. Of 849 autopsies, 32.3% were obese. The leading causes of death in the obese population were malignancy (31.4%, infection (25.9%, ischemic heart disease (12.8%, and pulmonary embolism (6.2%. Obese individuals were statistically more likely to die from pulmonary embolism and liver disease and less likely to die from neurologic diseases and nonischemic heart disease. Conclusion. Autopsies on obese individuals constitute a third of all adult medical autopsies in our center. Increased death rates in the obese due to pulmonary embolism and liver disease should receive special clinical attention. Autopsy findings in the obese population should contribute to overall premortem disease detection, prevention, and management.

  15. Coding ill-defined and unknown cause of death is 13 times more frequent in Denmark than in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Sajantila, Annti; Lalu, Kaisa;

    2014-01-01

    to the death. Thus, the aim of the study was, firstly, to analyse the frequencies of R00-R99-coded deaths in mortality statistics in Finland and in Denmark and, secondly, to compare these and the methods used to investigate the cause of death. To do so, we extracted a random 90% sample of the Finnish death...... higher in Denmark than in Finland; OR 18.6 (95% CI 15.3-22.4; ptime of death. Forensic autopsy was performed...... autopsy. Our study suggests that if all deaths in all age groups with unclear cause of death were systematically investigated with a forensic autopsy, only 2-3/1000 deaths per year would be coded as an ill-defined and unknown cause of death in national mortality statistics. At the same time the risk...

  16. Age-related differences in mechanism, cause, and location of trauma deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Rikke; Thomsen, Annemarie Bondegaard; Theilade, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma death has traditionally been described as primarily occurring in young men exposed to penetrating trauma or road traffic accidents. The epidemiology of trauma fatalities in Europe may change as a result of the increasing proportion of elderly patients. The goal of this study was...... to describe age-related differences in trauma type, mechanism, cause and location of death in a well-defined European region. METHODS: We prospectively registered all trauma patients and severe burn patients in eastern Denmark over 12 consecutive months. We analyzed all trauma fatalities in our...... region regarding the trauma type, mechanism, cause and location of death. RESULTS: A total of 2923 patients were registered, of which 292 (9.9%) died within 30 days. Mortality increased with age, with a mortality of 46.1% in patients older than 80 years old. Blunt trauma was the most frequent trauma type...

  17. An unusual and rare case of burn: challenge to cause and manner of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad V. Kuchewar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the brought dead cases where the dead body is completely charred pose difficulty to autopsy surgeon in commenting cause and manner of death. Many a times, scene of incidence, the inquest report, history narrated by relatives and postmortem findings may not go hand-in-hand. Suicides by burning especially by females are very common in India, but charred (burn body without conflagration in which manner is suicidal is rarely occurred and reported. and ldquo;Char means to burn to charcoal and rdquo;. Investigation in this type of cases by police officer is again a matter of his knowledge and experience. Here we are reporting such case; a well built, 26 years old married but separated, mentally stressed female living with her mother and brother since 3 years, was found in bathroom in a charred condition on 03/01/2012 around 06:30 hours. As per inquest, manner of death is suicidal. The autopsy findings did not reveal exact cause of death but raised the suspicion of homicide. So the present case report will make everyone to think over not only importance of cause and manner of death in case of charred body but also to reinforce the investigating authority for thorough investigation in favor of justice to the victim. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1706-1709

  18. Comments on "Teen Suicide and Changing Cause-of-Death Certification, 1953-1987."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kim

    1991-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Males on teenage suicides and changing cause-of-death certification from 1953 through 1987. After closely examining Males' arguments, author comes to different conclusions concerning increase in teenage suicides during that time period. Concludes that increase in youth suicide is real and that increase is twice that…

  19. Comparing verbal autopsy cause of death findings as determined by physician coding and probabilistic modelling: a public health analysis of 54 000 deaths in Africa and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of civil registration and vital statistics varies globally, with most deaths in Africa and Asia remaining either unregistered or registered without cause of death. One important constraint has been a lack of fit–for–purpose tools for registering deaths and assigning causes in situations where no doctor is involved. Verbal autopsy (interviewing care–givers and witnesses to deaths and interpreting their information into causes of death is the only available solution. Automated interpretation of verbal autopsy data into cause of death information is essential for rapid, consistent and affordable processing. Methods: Verbal autopsy archives covering 54182 deaths from five African and Asian countries were sourced on the basis of their geographical, epidemiological and methodological diversity, with existing physician–coded causes of death attributed. These data were unified into the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy standard format, and processed using the InterVA–4 model. Cause–specific mortality fractions from InterVA–4 and physician codes were calculated for each of 60 WHO 2012 cause categories, by age group, sex and source. Results from the two approaches were assessed for concordance and ratios of fractions by cause category. As an alternative metric, the Wilcoxon matched–pairs signed ranks test with two one–sided tests for stochastic equivalence was used. Findings: The overall concordance correlation coefficient between InterVA–4 and physician codes was 0.83 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.91 and this increased to 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99 when HIV/AIDS and pulmonary TB deaths were combined into a single category. Over half (53% of the cause category ratios between InterVA–4 and physician codes by source were not significantly different from unity at the 99% level, increasing to 62% by age group. Wilcoxon tests for stochastic equivalence also demonstrated equivalence. Conclusions: These findings show strong concordance

  20. Notification of Huntington's disease as primary cause of death in Brazil from 1984 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, I P; Paiva, C L A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to conduct a retrospective observational study on reported deaths due to Huntington's disease (HD) in Brazil in the past 25 years (from 1984 to 2008). Data were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM/DATASUS), the official system of Brazilian Mortality Database. The data obtained included information regarding the gender of the deceased and the number of death notifications, which we stratified by demographic regions and states. HD mortality per 100,000 was calculated and plotted in a graph. Linear regression was calculated using ordinary least square technique. We observed that the mortality due to HD recorded by SIM/DATASUS from 1984 to 2008 had increased at much higher rates than the population in the same period. Also, some Brazilian regions still show very low rates of HD mortality compared to the national average of deaths due to HD. These findings suggest that HD mortality has been underestimated. Ignorance about the disease as well as the fact that death from HD can occur as a consequence of heart disease, pneumonia, or suicide can strongly contribute to the misguided notification of HD as the cause of death in the official reports. PMID:27421006

  1. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock. PMID:26966963

  2. Surveillance of potential associations between occupations and causes of death in Canada, 1965-91

    OpenAIRE

    Aronson, K.J.; Howe, G R; Carpenter, M.; Fair, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detect unsuspected associations between workplace situations and specific causes of death in Canada. METHODS: An occupational surveillance system was established consisting of a cohort of 457,224 men and 242,196 women employed between 1965 and 1971, constituting about 10% of the labour force in Canada at that time. Mortality between 1965 and 1991 has been determined by computerised record linkage with the Canadian mortality database. Through regression analysis, associatio...

  3. Discontinuation of antiplatelet treatment and risk of recurrent stroke and all-cause death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Kamilla; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Bak, Søren; dePont Christensen, René; Gaist, David

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wished to examine the impact of antiplatelet drug discontinuation on recurrent stroke and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We identified a cohort of incident ischaemic stroke patients in a Danish stroke registry, 2007-2011. Using population-based registries we assessed subjects' drug...... use and followed them up for stroke recurrence, or all-cause death. Person-time was classified by antiplatelet drug use into current use, recent use (≤150 days after last use), and non-use (>150 days after last use). Lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use was classified by the same rules. We used Cox...... proportional hazard models to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of recurrent stroke or death associated with discontinuation of antiplatelet or LLD drugs. RESULTS: Among 4,670 stroke patients followed up for up a median of 1.5 years, 237...

  4. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF CAUSES AND SOCIAL CORRELATES OF MATERNAL DEATHS AT ASSAM MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, DIBRUGARH, ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of maternal death to achieve MDG – 5 Target - 6 is a challenge for most of the developing countries of the world in spite of steady decline in maternal death. There is a great difference in MMR of developing and developed countries as well as within the countries, states, districts depending upon the socioeconomic and educational status. This study was conducted to estimate the MMR, evaluate the causes of maternal death and to formulate strategies for reduction of maternal death at Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of causes of maternal deaths from 1st January 2012 to 31st August 2015 at Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India. The records were collected from Maternal Death Register and analysis were made to find out the MMR, causes of maternal deaths and its contributing factors. OBSERVATIONS There were 279 maternal deaths out of 33833 live births giving MMR of 824.64. Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (37.63% was the leading direct cause followed by infections (14.69% and hemorrhage (12.90% and the anaemia (24.73% was the commonest indirect cause of maternal death. Contributory factors like age, locality, booking visit play a major rule in maternal death in our study.

  5. Deaths of obstructive lung disease in the Yangpu district of Shanghai from 2003 through 2011: a multiple cause analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yi; Han Xue; Luo Yong; Xu Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive lung disease (OLD,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma) is an important cause of death in older people.There has been no exhaustive population-based mortality study of this subject in Shanghai.The objective of this study was to use a multiple cause of death methodology in the analysis of OLD mortality trends in the Yangpu district of Shanghai,from 2003 through 2011.Methods We analyzed death data from the Shanghai Yangpu District Center for Disease Control and Prevention for Medical Cause of Death database,selecting all death certificates for individuals 40 years or older on which OLD was listed as a cause of death.Results From 2003 to 2011,there were 8 775 deaths with OLD listed,of which 6 005 (68%) were identified as the underlying cause of death.For the entire period,a significantly decreasing trend of age standardized rates of death from OLD was observed in men (-6.2% per year) and in women (-5.7% per year),similar trends were observed in deaths with OLD.The mean annual rates of deaths from OLD per 100 000 were 161.2 for men and 80.8 for women from 2003 to 2011.While,as the underlying cause of death,the main associated causes of death were as follows:cardiovascular diseases (70.7%),cerebrovascular diseases (13.3%),diabetes (8.6%),and cancer (4.3%).The associated causes and the principal overall underlying causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (37.0%),cancer (30.3%),and cerebrovascular disease (15.3%).A significant seasonal variation,with the highest frequency in winter,occurred in deaths identified with underlying causes of chronic bronchitis,other obstructive pulmonary diseases,and asthma.Conclusions Multiple cause mortality analysis provides a more accurate picture than underlying cause of total mortality attributed on death certificates to OLD.The major comorbidities associated with OLD were cardiovascular disease,cancer,and cerebrovascular disease.From 2003 to 2011,the mortality rate from OLD

  6. Causes of Deaths in Children under-Five Years Old at a Tertiary Hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Methods: Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through Decembe...

  7. Cause of death in 1144 patients with diabetes mellitus: an autopsy study.

    OpenAIRE

    Joron, G. E.; Laryea, E; Jaeger, D.; Macdonald, L

    1986-01-01

    The pathological reports for all patients over 13 years of age who had had an autopsy at one of three university-affiliated hospitals between 1967 and 1976 were reviewed to determine the principal cause of death. The clinical records of the patients with diabetes were reviewed to verify the diagnosis and to determine the known duration of diabetes. There were 1144 patients with diabetes mellitus and 5674 without. The sex distribution was similar in the two groups. The patients with diabetes w...

  8. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewden, Charlotte; Drabo, Youssoufou J; Zannou, Djimon M;

    2014-01-01

    %) and cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%). Overall, 315 (38%) patients died during hospitalization and the underlying cause of death was AIDS (63%), non-AIDS-defining infections (26%), other diseases (7%) and non-specific illness or unknown cause (4%). Among them, the most frequent fatal diseases were: tuberculosis (36......%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%), cryptococcosis (9%) and sepsis (7%). Older age, clinical WHO stage 3 and 4, low CD4 count, and AIDS-defining infectious diagnoses were associated with hospital fatality. CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-defining conditions, primarily tuberculosis, and bacterial infections were the most...

  9. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  10. Causes of death in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents in a real-world setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, MS; Canan, T; Perlowski, A; R Bhatia; Jurewitz, D; Tobis, JM

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports of stent thrombosis and death in patients who have received drug-eluting stents (DES) have provoked debate regarding their long-term safety. We investigated the specific causes of death in patients receiving DES at an academic tertiary-care center. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 1,023 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES from 2003 to 2006 at UCLA Medical Center was performed. Dates and cause of death were obtained by re...

  11. Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: a national multiple cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stack Steven

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician training deficits and a low and declining autopsy rate adversely impact the quality of death certificates in the United States. Self-report and records data for the general population indicate that proximate mental and physical health of minority suicides was at least as poor as that of white suicides. Methods This cross-sectional mortality study uses data from Multiple Cause-of-Death (MCOD public use files for 1999–2003 to describe and evaluate comorbidity among black, Hispanic, and white suicides. Unintentional injury decedents are the referent for multivariate analyses. Results One or more mentions of comorbid psychopathology are documented on the death certificates of 8% of white male suicides compared to 4% and 3% of black and Hispanic counterparts, respectively. Corresponding female figures are 10%, 8%, and 6%. Racial-ethnic discrepancies in the prevalence of comorbid physical disease are more attenuated. Cross-validation with National Violent Death Reporting System data reveals high relative underenumeration of comorbid depression/mood disorders and high relative overenumeration of schizophrenia on the death certificates of both minorities. In all three racial-ethnic groups, suicide is positively associated with depression/mood disorders [whites: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 31.9, 95% CI = 29.80–34.13; blacks: AOR = 60.9, 95% CI = 42.80–86.63; Hispanics: AOR = 34.7, 95% CI = 23.36–51.62] and schizophrenia [whites: AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.07–2.86; blacks: AOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.73–6.37; Hispanics: AOR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.01–8.22]. Suicide is positively associated with cancer in whites [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.69–1.93] and blacks [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.36–2.48], but not with HIV or alcohol and other substance use disorders in any group under review. Conclusion The multivariate analyses indicate high consistency in predicting suicide-associated comorbidities across racial-ethnic groups using MCOD data

  12. A placental cause of intra-uterine fetal death depends on the perinatal mortality classification system used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, F.J.; Gordijn, S.J.; Timmer, A.; Holm, J.P.; Ravise, J.M.; Erwich, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Different classification systems for the cause of intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD) are used internationally. About two thirds of these deaths are reported as unexplained and placental causes are often not addressed. Differences between systems could have consequences for the validity of vital statis

  13. Death of a scuba diver caused by vomiting and panic: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Nadan M; Stipancevic, Hrvoje; Sutlovic, Davorka; Gojanovic, Marija Definis

    2011-06-01

    Scuba diving fatalities are rare and sometimes extremely difficult to explain. A thorough forensic investigation, conducted by a qualified team, helps avoid possible later questions and doubts, family concerns and judicial matters, since a significant body of evidence is lost after the body of the victim is buried or the equipment is reused. We report about a death of a scuba diver who was drowned while diving to the depth of 30 meters. Before being assisted to the surface, the diver panicked and removed the regulator from his mouth. The technical expertise of the scuba gear and the chemical analysis of the air from the high-pressure cylinder revealed no irregularities. Homicide, suicide, nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, and regulator malfunction were ruled out as possible causes of death. The most probable cause that triggered the event was vomiting into the regulator, as confirmed nearly 4 years later by the toxicological analysis of the traces of matter found in the dry chamber of the breathing regulator. Such an analysis should be considered when investigating suspicious diving related deaths and could be undertaken even after a significant time delay if the equipment is kept properly stored. PMID:20190635

  14. [Causes of death, zoonoses, and reproduction in the European brown hare in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerer, G; Nicolet, J; Bacciarini, L; Gottstein, B; Giacometti, M

    2001-04-01

    To elucidate the importance of different causes of mortality which could explain the downward trend of the hare populations in Switzerland and for monitoring selected zoonoses, the health and reproductive status of 167 perished brown hares (Lepus europaeus) was assessed. Concerning causes of mortality, traumas were by far the most frequent diagnosis, 80% of the hares dying because of injuries. Animals killed by road traffic were highly represented. Predators (such as dogs, domestic cats, lynx, martens, buzzards, and golden eagles) killed 16% of the analysed animals. In juveniles, predation was significantly more frequent than in adults. Infectious diseases led to death in 15% of the animals, and cases of pasteurellosis, brucellosis, pseudotuberculosis, tularaemia, listeriosis, and toxoplasmosis were diagnosed. In 5% of the hares, the cause of death pertained to other categories or remained unclear. Reproductive performance was judged to be normal, since mean litter size was 2.5 per female and pregnancy rate in March-June was 74%. We conclude that neither a specific infectious disease, for which adult hares are particularly susceptible, nor an insufficient reproductive performance are responsible for the decline of brown hare populations in Switzerland. This phenomenon is rather a cause of a reduced survival rate in leverets. PMID:11344944

  15. Widening Rural–Urban Disparities in All-Cause Mortality and Mortality from Major Causes of Death in the USA, 1969–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study examined trends in rural–urban disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA between 1969 and 2009. A rural–urban continuum measure was linked to county-level mortality data. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by sex, race, cause-of-death, area-poverty, and urbanization level for 13 time periods between 1969 and 2009. Cause-of-death decomposition and log-linear and Poisson regression were used to analyze rural–urban differentials. Mortality rates increased ...

  16. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ann; Chan Carusone, Soo; To, Kent; Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole; Halman, Mark; Grimes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients. PMID:22666562

  17. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients.

  18. Potentially preventable premature deaths in women and men from the two leading causes of death in Austria, mortality statistics of the nine federal states 2010–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rásky, Éva; Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie Tatjana; Großschädl, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    Background In Austria, mortality from diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms is high and varies among the federal states. Lower mortality in some states indicates a preventive potential in those states with higher mortality. Methods We computed the number of premature deaths, for women and men separately, from the two leading causes of death, diseases of the circulatory system (ICD-10: I00-I09) and cancer (ICD-10: C00-C97), in the nine Austrian federal states between 2010-...

  19. [A longitudinal cause-of-death analysis of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Toshio; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Shinno, Susumu; Sakoda, Saburo

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and cardiac protective therapy have improved the prognosis and quality of life of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). To understand how these therapies have changed prognosis, we performed a cause-of-death analysis in DMD patients. Mean age at death before initiation of MV (January 1977-July 1984) was 18.9±4.1 years. After the introduction of MV, from August 1984 to December 1993 (1(st) term), it was 20.0±4.5 years, from January 1994 to December 2003 (2(nd) term), it was 25.2±4.6 years, and from January 2004 to December 2010 (3(rd) term), it was 31.1±5.4 years. Almost half of all deaths before MV were due to respiratory failure (RF). Because MV was performed by a tracheostomy in the initial stage, some patients were reluctant to use it, and as a result, RF accounted for 43% of deaths in the 1(st) term. Over time, patients started to accept non-invasive ventilation and home mechanical ventilation, which became available in the 1990s. Consequently, no DMD patients have died from RF since 2000. Respiratory physiotherapy and risk management became important tools, because many patients undergo decades of respiratory managements at home. Cardiac treatments for patients with DMD consisted mainly of diuretics and digitalis in the 1(st) term, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) in the 2(nd) term, and a combination of ACEIs and beta blockers in the 3(rd) term. Compared to the 2(nd) term, the ratios of severe cardiac dysfunction (fractional shortening 75mm, plasma brain natriuretic peptide >1,000pg/ml) were reduced in the 3(rd) term. In the 3(rd) term, 14% of patients died from renal failure nevertheless their cardiac indices remained mildly abnormal or normal. We should pay enough attention for cardio-renal association. PMID:22019865

  20. Late Mortality and Causes of Death among Long-Term Survivors after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuta, Yoshiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Nakasone, Hideki; Kurosawa, Saiko; Oshima, Kumi; Sakai, Rika; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mori, Takehiko; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kanamori, Heiwa; Morishima, Yasuo; Kato, Koji; Yabe, Hiromasa; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Yamashita, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    We sought to assess the late mortality risks and causes of death among long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The cases of 11,047 relapse-free survivors of a first HCT at least 2 years after HCT were analyzed. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated and specific causes of death were compared with those of the Japanese population. Among relapse-free survivors at 2 years, overall survival percentages at 10 and 15 years were 87% and 83%, respectively. The overall risk of mortality was significantly higher compared with that of the general population. The risk of mortality was significantly higher from infection (SMR = 57.0), new hematologic malignancies (SMR = 2.2), other new malignancies (SMR = 3.0), respiratory causes (SMR = 109.3), gastrointestinal causes (SMR = 3.8), liver dysfunction (SMR = 6.1), genitourinary dysfunction (SMR = 17.6), and external or accidental causes (SMR = 2.3). The overall annual mortality rate showed a steep decrease from 2 to 5 years after HCT; however, the decrease rate slowed after 10 years but was still higher than that of the general population at 20 years after HCT. SMRs in the earlier period of 2 to 4 years after HCT and 5 years or longer after HCT were 16.1 and 7.4, respectively. Long-term survivors after allogeneic HCT are at higher risk of mortality from various causes other than the underlying disease that led to HCT. Screening and preventive measures should be given a central role in reducing the morbidity and mortality of HCT recipients on long-term follow-up. PMID:27246369

  1. A standardized algorithm for determining the underlying cause of death in HIV infection as AIDS or non-AIDS related

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Analyzing changes in causes of death over time is essential for understanding the emerging trends in HIV population mortality, yet data on cause of death are often missing. This poses analytic limitations, as does the changing approach in data collection by longitudinal studies, which...... are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS...... or non-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the Co...

  2. Short- and long-term mortality and causes of death in HIV/tuberculosis patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria N; Panteleev, Alexander M; Grint, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    Mortality of HIV/tuberculosis (TB) patients in Eastern Europe is high. Little is known about their causes of death. This study aimed to assess and compare mortality rates and cause of death in HIV/TB patients across Eastern Europe and Western Europe and Argentina (WEA) in an international cohort...... study. Mortality rates and causes of death were analysed by time from TB diagnosis (12 months) in 1078 consecutive HIV/TB patients. Factors associated with TB-related death were examined in multivariate Poisson regression analysis. 347 patients died during 2625 person-years of follow-up. Mortality in...... Eastern Europe was three- to ninefold higher than in WEA. TB was the main cause of death in Eastern Europe in 80%, 66% and 61% of patients who died 12 months after TB diagnosis, compared to 50%, 0% and 15% in the same time periods in WEA (p...

  3. Right atrial myxoma as a possible cause of hemorrhagic stroke and sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Sabageh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Right atrial myxomas are rare primary tumors of the heart. They may remain asymptomatic or eventually cause constitutional signs and symptoms. Less frequently, obstruction of the tricuspid valve occurs, resulting in exertional dyspnea, syncope, or sudden death. Neurological manifestation as initial presentation of atrial myxomas is rarely, if ever, associated with right atrial myxomas and may be secondary to cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and, more rarely subarachnoid hemorrhage. We review the case of a previously unknown, middle-aged Nigerian man who presented to hospital with severe headache and sudden loss of consciousness. A clinical diagnosis of hypertensive hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident was made. The patient died suddenly a few hours after presentation. Post-mortem examination revealed a small intracerebral hemorrhage in the left superior temporal lobe as well as a large right atrial myxoma, a ventricular septal defect in the muscular septum, and right ventricular hypertrophy. The liver showed fatty change while the kidneys showed evidence of benign nephrosclerosis. Right atrial myxomas may, therefore, be remotely considered as a cause of intracranial hemorrhage, especially in the presence of predisposing cardiac anomalies such as a ventricular septal defect. Similarly, being a known cause of right heart failure, sudden death, and other constitutional derangements, it may contribute significantly to disease outcome. Hence, it should be given due consideration in the differential diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents.

  4. Classifying countries according to leading causes of death in the world at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cause mortality of a population is an important segment in the analysis of mortality, because it sums up all factors which influence death indicators on a certain territory in a direct way. At the beginning of the 21st century, the situation is not the same everywhere in the world and countries do not share a unique pattern of the causes of deaths. Infectious and parasitic diseases are still dominant in underdeveloped countries, while the leading causes of deaths in developed countries are circulatory disorders and neoplasm. Cardiovascular diseases are the cause of 29% of total mortality in the world, infectious cause 19%, tumors 13% and violent deaths about 9% (based on data from 2002. This paper gives an analysis of the spatial distribution of the leading causes of deaths using the geographic information system (Arc-View GIS, based on the ratio of total mortality and death rates of the population from a certain group of diseases. Based on data analysis, a hypothesis has been set on the significance of the regional factor in forming a picture of population mortality according to causes of death. A regional factor implies a set of physical geographical as well as general social specificities of a certain region which form a pattern of population behavior. Based on death rates, cardiovascular diseases are represented the most in the mortality rates of countries in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Infectious diseases imperil the population in the Sub-Saharan region of Africa; tumors are most common in Europe, North America and Japan. The highest rates of violent deaths are in countries of the former Soviet Union and the Sub- Saharan zone. Classifying death rates according to leading causes of death represents a prerequisite for forming a final picture of mortality according to causes of death in the world at the beginning of the 'new century'. The method of gathering together the causes of death is possible by applying a statistical model of

  5. Final report : Albuquerque Ecological Services, interpretation of cause of death of 3 golden eagles and 1 bald eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report was prepared by Environmental Contaminant Specialists on the cause of death of the 3 golden eagles and 1 bald eagle found near Folsom, New Mexico. This...

  6. Mortality and causes of death in Crohn's disease. Review of 50 years' experience in Leiden University Hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Weterman, I T; Biemond, I; Peña, A S

    1990-01-01

    Six hundred and seventy one patients (52.5% women) with Crohn's disease seen at Leiden University Hospital between 1934 and 1984 were identified. Follow up was 98.2% complete. Sixty four (9.7%) of the 659 patients died. The cause of death was related to Crohn's disease in 34 patients, probably related to the disease in four, and unrelated, from incidental causes, in 25. The cause of death could not be identified in one patient. There was a significant decrease of deaths related to the disease...

  7. Changes in main causes of death in Macao residents from 1986-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN Man-si; CHEN Qing; LAM Christopher Wai-kei

    2013-01-01

    Background Since Macao's return of sovereignty to China in December 1999,the life style of Macao residents has changed.The aim of this study was to investigate changes of death patterns in Macao residents from 1986 to 2006 in order to identify the trends and patterns of major public health problems,which could provide the guidance for developing public health policies.Methods A retrospective study was conducted for this investigation.Research data were collected from official websites and statistical yearbooks and classified by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9.Results It was observed that mortality from the three major causes of (1) infectious,maternal and childhood diseases,(2) chronic non-communicable diseases,and (3) injury and poisoning were 17.7,298.2 and 26.0 per 100 000,respectively.The largest decrease in death rate over the 21-year study-period was from infectious,maternal and childhood diseases (62.5%).The highest mortality rate was ischemic heart diseases (37.0%).The largest increase in mortality rate was lung cancer (46.9%).Conclusions Mortality rate of Macao residents progressively decreased,but the constituent ratio of death from chronic non-communicable diseases was increasing.The mortality rate of lung cancer was clearly ascending,so emphasis should be put on tertiary prevention in future.

  8. Verbal Autopsy: Reliability and Validity Estimates for Causes of Death in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Khademi; Arash Etemadi; Farin Kamangar; Mehdi Nouraie; Ramin Shakeri; Behrooz Abaie; Akram Pourshams; Mohammad Bagheri; Afshin Hooshyar; Farhad Islami; Abnet, Christian C.; Paul Pharoah; Paul Brennan; Paolo Boffetta; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy (VA) is one method to obtain valid estimates of causes of death in the absence of valid medical records. We tested the reliability and validity of a VA questionnaire developed for a cohort study in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. METHOD: A modified version of the WHO adult verbal autopsy was used to assess the cause of death in the first 219 Golestan Cohort Study (GCS) subjects who died. The GCS cause of death was determined by two internists who independent...

  9. Capsaicinoids cause inflammation and epithelial cell death through activation of vanilloid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Christopher A; Taylor, Jack L; Lanza, Diane L; Carr, Brian A; Crouch, Dennis J; Yost, Garold S

    2003-05-01

    Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects using human bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation exposure of rats to pepper sprays (capsaicinoids) produced acute inflammation and damage to nasal, tracheal, bronchiolar, and alveolar cells in a dose-related manner. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that cultured human lung cells (BEAS-2B and A549) were more susceptible to necrotic cell death than liver (HepG2) cells. Transcription of the human vanilloid receptor type-1, VR1 or TRPV1, was demonstrated by RT-PCR in all of these cells, and the relative transcript levels were correlated to cellular susceptibility. TRPV1 receptor activation was presumably responsible for cellular cytotoxicity, but prototypical functional antagonists of this receptor were cytotoxic themselves, and did not ameliorate capsaicinoid-induced damage. Conversely, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, as well as calcium chelation by EGTA ablated cytokine (IL-6) production after capsaicin exposure. To address these seemingly contradictory results, recombinant human TRPV1 was cloned and overexpressed in BEAS-2B cells. These cells exhibited dramatically increased cellular susceptibility to capsaicinoids, measured using IL-6 production and cytotoxicity, and an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Surprisingly, the cytotoxic effects of capsaicin in TRPV1 overexpressing cells were also not inhibited by TRPV1 antagonists or by treatments that modified extracellular calcium. Thus, capsaicin interacted with TRPV1 expressed by BEAS-2B and other airway epithelial cells to cause the calcium-dependent production of cytokines and, conversely, calcium-independent cell death. These results

  10. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  11. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri Rosely

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality due to chronic diseases has been increasing in all regions of Brazil with corresponding decreases in mortality from infectious diseases. The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease. Linear regression analysis included as independent variables the % of illiteracy, % of whites, % of houses with piped water, mean income, age group, sex, and % of deaths caused by infectious disease. The dependent variables were the % of deaths due to each one of the chronic diseases studied by age-sex group. Chronic diseases were an important cause of death in all regions of Brazil. Ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and malignant neoplasms accounted for more than 34% of the mortality in each of the 17 capitals studied. Proportionate cause-specific mortality varied markedly among state capitals. Ranges were 6.3-19.5% for ischaemic heart diseases, 8.3-25.4% for stroke, 2.3-10.4% for infections and 12.2-21.5% for malignant neoplasm. Infectious disease mortality had the highest (p < 0.001 correlation with all the four socio-economic variables studied and ischaemic heart disease showed the second highest correlation (p < 0.05. Higher socio-economic level was related to a lower % of infectious diseases and a higher % of ischaemic heart diseases. Mortality due to breast cancer and stroke was not associated with socio-economic variables. Multivariate linear regression models explained 59% of the variance among state capitals for mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, 50% for stroke, 28% for lung cancer, 24% for breast cancer

  12. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality due to chronic diseases has been increasing in all regions of Brazil with corresponding decreases in mortality from infectious diseases. The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease. Linear regression analysis included as independent variables the % of illiteracy, % of whites, % of houses with piped water, mean income, age group, sex, and % of deaths caused by infectious disease. The dependent variables were the % of deaths due to each one of the chronic diseases studied by age-sex group. Chronic diseases were an important cause of death in all regions of Brazil. Ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and malignant neoplasms accounted for more than 34% of the mortality in each of the 17 capitals studied. Proportionate cause-specific mortality varied markedly among state capitals. Ranges were 6.3-19.5% for ischaemic heart diseases, 8.3-25.4% for stroke, 2.3-10.4% for infections and 12.2-21.5% for malignant neoplasm. Infectious disease mortality had the highest (p < 0.001 correlation with all the four socio-economic variables studied and ischaemic heart disease showed the second highest correlation (p < 0.05. Higher socio-economic level was related to a lower % of infectious diseases and a higher % of ischaemic heart diseases. Mortality due to breast cancer and stroke was not associated with socio-economic variables. Multivariate linear regression models explained 59% of the variance among state capitals for mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, 50% for stroke, 28% for lung cancer, 24% for breast cancer

  13. Causes of death in diarrhoeal diseases after rehydration therapy: an autopsy study of 140 patients in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    T. Butler; Islam, M; Azad, A K; M. R. Islam; Speelman, P

    1987-01-01

    The cause of death (besides dehydration) for 140 diarrhoeal patients who died in hospital following rehydration was determined by autopsy examination. Children under 5 years comprised 74% of the patients. Diarrhoeal pathogens were identified as Shigella spp. in 27%, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 17%, Entamoeba histolytica in 16%, Campylobacter jejuni in 12%, Salmonella spp. in 4%, Vibrio cholerae in 4%, and Giardia lambliain 4% of cases. The most frequent underlying causes of death were...

  14. Comorbidities and causes of death among Danish Tuberculosis patients 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Løkke, Anders; Ibsen, Rikke;

    causes of death in these groups. Material/methods: From the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR), we retrospectively identified all registered Danish TB-patients between 1998-2010. They were matched to controls (1:4) by age, gender, civil status and geography. Mortality data were obtained from Danish...... controls were followed for max. 12 (span: 0-12) years. Overall, 22.90% of cases and 9.12% of controls died during follow-up (HR 3.29, p<0.001). At baseline (TB-diagnosis or inclusion as control), 13.66% of cases had at least one comorbid diagnosis, vs. 6.01% of controls (p<0.001). For subjects with Deyo......-Charlson score up to 3, cases had significantly increased mortality; for higher Deyo-Charlson scores, an insignificant trend of higher mortality among controls was observed. The most common causes of death among TB cases were: Non-lung cancers (13.8%), COPD (13.48%), TB (11.7%) and Lung cancer (11.0 %). Among...

  15. Fatty acid oxidation disorders as primary cause of sudden and unexpected death in infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N;

    1997-01-01

    Disorders of fatty acid metabolism are known to be responsible for cases of sudden and unexpected death in infancy. At least 14 disorders are known at present. 120 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) had been examined for a prevalent mutation (G985) causing medium chain acyl Co...

  16. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Changsoo; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase ...

  17. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Rafael; Naghavi, Mohsen; Foreman, Kyle;

    2012-01-01

    Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 reg...

  18. Causes of death in a cohort of EDF-GDF employees: comparison between occupational medicine and official statistics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In an epidemiological study, medical causes of death may be obtained from different sources. In a study on French gas and electricity company (EDF-GDF) workers, they were obtained front the national INSERM database. Additionally, the causes collected by the EDF-GDF occupational physicians, were available for a subset of 1,330 deaths, which occurred between 1989 and 1994. The data from the two sources were compared with each other, in order to assess whether they were globally equivalent, and the potential impact of their differences on the results of epidemiological analyses. Methods: Concordance rates between causes of death in the INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians databases were calculated according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) ninth revision codes and for various causes groups. Causes of death records were also examined in order to clarify the observed divergences. SMRs were computed in order to evaluate the consequences of using each. database in epidemiological analyses. Finally, some SMRs were computed with the two sources and compared with each other. Results: INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians causes belonged to the same causes group in 81 % of cases, but the exact cause was different for- more than half of them. The concordance rate was high for the deaths by AIDS and by cancer, and low for deaths by respiratory system and digestive system diseases. More causes of death were coded as 'unknown' in EDF-GDF physicians data than in INSERM data. The SMRs varied widely depending on whether the INSERM or EDF-GDF physicians causes of death databases were used. Conclusions: Causes of death recorded in the INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians databases are very different. Therefore, using the national mortality rates computed by INSERM with the EDF-GDF physicians causes of death to calculate SMRs is not valid, and it is observed that they may be very different from those computed with INSERM data. In a general way, it should be better to use the

  19. Presumed cause of mass deaths of rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator) using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-nine wild birds were found dead in Ogata Village in northern Japan in March 2006. Eighty-eight of the birds were rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator), which are migratory birds. Since the use of rodenticide (thallium sulfide and zinc phosphide) in the area around where the birds had been found was revealed by a survey, etiological and pathological examinations including elemental analysis by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were conducted. Elemental analysis showed high concentrations (56-365 dry-μg/g) of thallium in the lungs, gastric contents, intestines, livers and kidneys. Histopathological examination revealed vacuolar degeneration of hepatic cells and granular and/or hyaline droplet degeneration of renal tubular epithelia. The results suggest that the mass deaths were caused by thallium poisoning. (author)

  20. Mortality ratios, life expectancy, and causes of death in patients with Turner's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, W H; Clayton, J F; Collyer, S; De Mey, R; Wilson, J.

    1986-01-01

    In a prospective study of 156 female patients with Turner's syndrome who had survived infancy and been followed up for an average of 17 years there were 15 deaths. The expected mortality was 3.6. Sixteen of the patients had a congenital heart anomaly and five of the deaths occurred in this group. The 10 deaths in the remaining 140 were three times as many as expected. The reduction in life expectation was 12.5 years at age 1 year, 11 years at age 20, and 10 years at age 40. Deaths were due to...

  1. Postmortem computed tomography for detecting causes of sudden death in infants and children. Retrospective review of cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) in detecting causes of sudden death in infants and children. Our subjects were 15 nontraumatically deceased patients (nine boys and six girls, ranging in age from 20 days after birth to 12 years old, mean age 1.6 years), who had been in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival at our hospital. PMCT was performed within 2 h after certification of death: head (15 cases), chest (11 cases), and abdomen (12 cases). Blood was collected from 11 of the patients at the time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An autopsy was conducted on two. PMCT did not show any traumatic changes indicating child abuse. It was difficult to presume the cause of death with PMCT alone, but the cause of death in 14 of 15 cases could be presumed by combining information from their medical history, clinical course before death, PMCT findings, laboratory data, and bacterial culture. The remaining subject was classified as cause unknown. The causes of sudden death in infants and children were detected at a high rate when we comprehensively investigated the PMCT and other examination findings. (author)

  2. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. PMID:26505283

  3. Changes in causes of death and mortality rates among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen-Larsen, Birger; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This study analysed the spontaneous trends in mortality among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99 and describes the changes in the causes of death, mortality rates, and variation between regions.......This study analysed the spontaneous trends in mortality among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99 and describes the changes in the causes of death, mortality rates, and variation between regions....

  4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy as a cause of sudden death in young people: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia is a progressive condition with right ventricular myocardium being replaced by fibro-fatty tissue. It is a hereditary disorder mostly caused by desmosome gene mutations. The prevalence of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is about 1/1000-5000. Clinical presentation is usually related to ventricular tachycardias, syncope or presyncopa, or ventricular fibrillation leading to cardiac arrest, mostly in young people and athletes. It may be difficult to make the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy due to several problems arising from the specificity of electrocardiograph abnormalities, different potential etiologies of ventricular arrhythmias with a left bundle branch morphology, the assessment of the right ventricular structure and function, and the interpretation of endomyocardial biopsy findings. Therefore, standardized diagnostic criteria have been proposed by the Study Group on arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy of the European Society of Cardiology. In order to make the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a number of clinical tests are employed, including the electrocardiogram, echocardiography, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, myocardial biopsy, right ventricular angiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing. The therapeutic options include beta blockers, antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the most effective safe-guard against arrhythmic sudden death. Preparticipation screening for sport eligibility has been proven to be effective in detecting asymptomatic patients and sport disqualification has been lifesaving, substantially declining sudden death in young athletes.

  5. Does proficiency creativity solve legal dilemmas? Experimental study of medical students' ideas about death-causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynöe, Niels; Juth, Niklas

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare and examine how medical students on term one and nine understand and adopt ideas and reasoning when estimating death-causes. Our hypothesis was that compared to students in the beginning of their medical curriculum, term nine students would be more inclined to adopt ideas about causality that allows physicians to alleviate an imminently dying patient, without being suspected for manslaughter--a practice referred to as proficiency creativity. We used a questionnaire containing two similar cases describing an imminently dying patient who receive a drug in order to treat seizures. The treatment has the foreseen effect of shortening the patient's life. In one version of the vignette the patient dies immediately and in the other one the patient dies 5 h after having received the drug. We asked medical students in their first term (n = 149) and ninth term (n = 106) to fill in the two randomly distributed questionnaires. We used a χ2 test to examine our hypothesis and choose as significance level 0.05. A majority of term-one students (53%) stated that the patient died because of the provided drugs when dying immediately after and 32% stated it when the patient died 5 h after providing the drug. The difference was significant (p = 0.007). A minority of term-nine students (20 vs. 16%) stated the patient died because of the provided drug. The difference was not significant. The study indicates that term-nine students have espoused the idea that death-causes in such cases should always be classified as the underlying disease--even though another straightforward explanation could be the drug provided. To clinicians this might be a proficiency-creative strategy for managing a difficult legal dilemma. As hypothetical explanation we suggest that experienced clinicians might have transformed a normative issue of shortening life into an empirical issue about death-causes and tacitly transferred this strategy to term-nine students. If our

  6. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Causes Apoptotic Death of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells via Death Receptor Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Itoh, Mari; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Morita, Kyoji

    2016-04-01

    Mixture of brown rice and rice bran fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, has been reported to reveal anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Then, to test its potential anti-cancer activity, the aqueous extract was prepared from FBRA powder, and the effect of this extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells was directly examined. The exposure to FBRA extract reduced the cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The reduction of the cell viability was accompanied by the DNA fragmentation, and partially restored by treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor. Further studies showed that FBRA extract induced the cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the expression of tBid, DR5, and Fas proteins was enhanced by FBRA extract, and the pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor, but not caspase-9 inhibitor, restored the reduction of the cell viability induced by FBRA extract. These findings suggested that FBRA extract could induce the apoptotic death of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells probably through mainly the death receptor-mediated pathway and supplementarily through the tBid-mediated mitochondrial pathway, proposing the possibility that FBRA was a potential functional food beneficial to patients with hematological cancer. PMID:26769704

  7. Verbal autopsy: reliability and validity estimates for causes of death in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Khademi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy (VA is one method to obtain valid estimates of causes of death in the absence of valid medical records. We tested the reliability and validity of a VA questionnaire developed for a cohort study in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. METHOD: A modified version of the WHO adult verbal autopsy was used to assess the cause of death in the first 219 Golestan Cohort Study (GCS subjects who died. The GCS cause of death was determined by two internists who independently reviewed all available medical records. Two other internists ("reviewers" independently reviewed only the VA answers and classified the cause of death into one of nine general categories; they repeated this evaluation one month later. The reliability of the VA was measured by calculating intra-reviewer and inter-reviewer kappa statistics. The validity of the VA was measured using the GCS cause of death as the gold standard. RESULTS: VA showed both good validity (sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV all above 0.81 and reliability (kappa>0.75 in determining the general cause of death independent of sex and place of residence. The overall multi-rater agreement across four reviews was 0.84 (95%CI: 0.78-0.89. The results for identifying specific cancer deaths were also promising, especially for upper GI cancers (kappa = 0.95. The multi-rater agreement in cancer subgroup was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.85-0.99. CONCLUSIONS: VA seems to have good reliability and validity for determining the cause of death in a large-scale adult follow up study in a predominantly rural area of a middle-income country.

  8. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    and only the very youngest fossil deposits could be coeval with the earliest human arrivals. Therefore, anthropogenic causes cannot be implicated in most if not all of mass deaths at the site. Climatic and environmental changes were the main factors in site formation and megafauna deaths at Lancefield Swamp.

  9. A 20-year prospective study of mortality and causes of death among hospitalized opioid addicts in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldorsen Tor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study mortality rate and causes of death among all hospitalized opioid addicts treated for self-poisoning or admitted for voluntary detoxification in Oslo between 1980 and 1981, and to compare their mortality to that of the general population. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted on 185 opioid addicts from all medical departments in Oslo who were treated for either self-poisoning (n = 93, 1980, voluntary detoxification (n = 75, 1980/1981 or both (n = 17. Their median age was 24 years; with a range from 16 to 41, and 53% were males. All deaths that had occurred by the end of 2000 were identified from the Central Population Register. Causes of death were obtained from Statistics Norway. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs were computed for mortality, in general, and in particular, for different causes of death. Results During a period of 20 years, 70 opioid addicts died (37.8%, with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR equal to 23.6 (95% CI, 18.7–29.9. The SMR remained high during the whole period, ranging from 32.4 in the first five-year period, to 13.4 in the last five-year period. There were no significant differences in SMR between self-poisonings and those admitted for voluntarily detoxification. The registered causes of death were accidents (11.4%, suicide (7.1%, cancer (4.3%, cardiovascular disease (2.9%, other violent deaths (2.9%, other diseases (71.4%. Among the 50 deaths classified as other diseases, the category "drug dependence" was listed in the vast majority of cases (37 deaths, 52.9% of the total. SMRs increased significantly for all causes of death, with the other diseases group having the highest SMR; 65.8 (95% CI, 49.9–86.9. The SMR was 5.4 (95% CI, 1.3–21.5 for cardiovascular diseases, and 4.3 (95% CI, 1.4–13.5 for cancer. The SMR was 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6–26.4 for accidents, 10.7 (95% CI, 4.5–25.8 for suicides, and 28.6 (95% CI, 7.1–114.4 for other violent deaths. Conclusion The risk

  10. Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Kaptoge, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander;

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain.......The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain....

  11. Validity of verbal autopsy method to determine causes of death among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganaw Awoke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy has been widely used to estimate causes of death in settings with inadequate vital registries, but little is known about its validity. This analysis was part of Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program to examine the validity of verbal autopsy for determining causes of death compared with hospital medical records among adults in the urban setting of Ethiopia. Methods This validation study consisted of comparison of verbal autopsy final diagnosis with hospital diagnosis taken as a “gold standard”. In public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, 20,152 adult deaths (15 years and above were recorded between 2007 and 2010. With the same period, a verbal autopsy was conducted for 4,776 adult deaths of which, 1,356 were deceased in any of Addis Ababa hospitals. Then, verbal autopsy and hospital data sets were merged using the variables; full name of the deceased, sex, address, age, place and date of death. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values with 95% confidence interval. Results After merging, a total of 335 adult deaths were captured. For communicable diseases, the values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of verbal autopsy diagnosis were 79%, 78% and 68% respectively. For non-communicable diseases, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 69%, specificity 78% and positive predictive value 79%. Regarding injury, sensitivity of the verbal autopsy diagnoses was 70%, specificity 98% and positive predictive value 83%. Higher sensitivity was achieved for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, but lower specificity with relatively more false positives. Conclusion These findings may indicate the potential of verbal autopsy to provide cost-effective information to guide policy on communicable and non communicable diseases double burden among adults in Ethiopia. Thus, a well structured verbal autopsy method, followed by qualified physician reviews could be capable of

  12. Late effects of whole- or partial-body X-irradiaton on mice. Causes of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aim of the present experiments was to compare the late effects of partial-body irradiaton with those of whole-body irradiation. A total of 578 ddY female mice of 10 weeks old were assigned to the following five groups: (1) Whole-body exposure of 600 R, (2) head exposure of 800 R, (3) trunk exposure of 800 R, (4) lower body exposure of 800 R, (5) unirradiated control. Mean after-survival times of the above five groups were as follows: 69.2 +- 1.9 weeks for control, 43.0 +- 1.7 weeks for the whole-body exposure, 66.1 +- 2.2 weeks for the head exposure, 59.7 +- 1.6 weeks for the trunk exposure, 62.7 +- 1.8 weeks for the lower body exposure. The life-shortenings expressed as a percentage of the life span in the control were: 6%/100 R with whole-body exposure, 2%/100 R with trunk exposure, and 1%/100 R with lower body exposure. The increases in incidence of all tumours and of malignant lymphomas were statistically significant in the group of whole-body exposure of 600 R. The head exposure to 800 R increases the incidence of pituitary tumours. In the trunk exposure, the incidence of ovarian tumours increased and malignant lymphomas decreased in incidence. Calculating the mean after-survival time of mice who died from the same cause of death, reveals that most of the causes of death in the irradiated groups appeared earlier than in the control group. In particular, the mean after-survival time of the mice with malignant lymphoma in the whole-body exposure was 35 weeks, which was much earlier than the corresponding 73 weeks in the control. The increased life-shortening in thewhole-body exposure was due to the high incidence of malignant lymphomas and toearlier appearance of malignant lymphomas, lung tumours and mammary tumours. The life-shortening by the partial-body exposure was much less than that by the whole-body exposure owing to the lack of induction of malignant lymphomas

  13. Estimating Benefits of Past, Current, and Future Reductions in Smoking Rates Using a Comprehensive Model With Competing Causes of Death

    OpenAIRE

    van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Despite years of declining smoking prevalence, tobacco use is still the leading preventable contributor to illness and death in the United States, and the effect of past tobacco-use control efforts has not fully translated into improvements in health outcomes. The objective of this study was to use a life course model with multiple competing causes of death to elucidate the ongoing benefits of tobacco-use control efforts on US death rates. Methods We used a continuous-time life c...

  14. Mortality due to systemic mycoses as a primary cause of death or in association with AIDS in Brazil: a review from 1996 to 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Prado; Marcelo Barbosa da Silva; Ruy Laurenti; Luiz R Travassos; Carlos P Taborda

    2009-01-01

    Deaths caused by systemic mycoses such as paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis and zygomycosis amounted to 3,583 between 1996-2006 in Brazil. When analysed as the underlying cause of death, paracoccidioidomycosis represented the most important cause of deaths among systemic mycoses (~ 51.2%). When considering AIDS as the underlying cause of death and the systemic mycoses as associated conditions, cryptococcosis (50.9%) appeared...

  15. [Which are the causes of death among Chileans today?. Long-term perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimano C, Giorgio; Mazzei P, Marinella

    2007-07-01

    During the last decades, Chile experienced substantial socioeconomic, epidemiological and demographic changes. These resulted, among other consequences, in a deceleration of population growth, a notorious decrease in fertility rates, and one of the most rapid and deepest drop in general and infant mortality rates in the Latin American region. These changes resulted in a sustained increase of life expectancy and a substantial ageing of the Chilean population. This process is also changing the disease burden of the population. Infectious and perinatal diseases lost relevance as major causes of mortality, and have been replaced by chronic non transmissible diseases, specifically cardiovascular conditions and cancer, that are becoming the main causes of death. High blood pressure, cardiovascular risk, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, overweight and obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and depression will have a great impact on health conditions during the XXI century. These factors and a persistent social inequity will hinder the efforts to reduce the impact and consequences of chronic non transmissible, diseases in the Chilean population. PMID:17914552

  16. An evaluation of the effects of long term cryopreservation, cause of death, and time between death and donation on heart valve leaflet viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protocol for cryopreservation of allograft heart valves at the Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria was based on validation studies on the viability of the heart valve leaflets at the time of processing. The heart block is removed within 24 hours of death and the aor-tic and pulmonary valves trimmed immediately following retrieval. Following this processing, the valves are incubated in antibiotics at 30 degree C for 6 to 8 hours before being frozen in 10% DMSO at a controlled rate. A sample of tricuspid valve leaflet is placed in Krebs solution at the time of trimfning and is used for viability studies. Leaflet viability studies have been perfon-ned on all heart valves retrieved from 1993 to the present day at the Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria. Viability involves a qualitative assessment of the cellular outgrowth by leaflet fibroblasts, this assessment ranging from '-' for no outgrowth to '++++' for maximum outgrowth. Surgeons do not request valves with any particular viability and will use them whether they are viable or not. This evaluation was to determine the effects of long-term cryopreservation, cause of death, and also time lapse of heart removal following death on the viability of the retrieved leaflets. The aim of investigating the effects of long-term cryopreservation was to determine whether there was any correlation between initial viability and viability following storage for several months to several years. It was also decided to investigate whether there was any correlation between time length between death and heart retrieval and the viability. It was also thought that the cause of death may have had an effect on the viability, for example, did death by carbon monoxide poisoning have an effect on the viability of heart valve cells. Heart valves, which had been cryopreserved but could not be transplanted for various reasons were used to study the effects of cryopreservation in this study. These were thawed according to protocol and a sample of the valve

  17. Short Term Patterns of Landslides Causing Death in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Among natural hazards, landslides represent a significant source of loss of life in mountainous terrains. Many regions of Latin America and the Caribbean are prone to landslide activity, due to strong topographic relief, high tectonic uplift rates, seismicity and/or climate. Further, vulnerable populations are often concentrated in deep valleys or mountain foothills susceptible to catastrophic landslides, with vulnerability further increased by dense urbanization and precarious settlements in some large cities. While historic extremely catastrophic events such as the 1999 Vargas flows in Venezuela or the 1970 Huascaran rock avalanche in Peru are commonly cited to characterize landslide hazards in this region, less known is the landslide activity in periods without such large disasters. This study assesses the occurrence of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2004 and 2013. Over this time period we recorded 611 landslides that caused 11,631 deaths in 25 countries, mostly as a result of rainfall triggers. The countries with the highest number of fatal landslides are Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru and Haiti. The highest death toll for a single event was ca.3000. The dataset has not captured a strong El Niño event or large earthquakes in landslide prone areas, thus the analysis is indicative of short term rather than long term spatial and temporal patterns. Results show that at continental scale, the spatial distribution of landslides in the 2004-2013 period correlates well with relief, precipitation and population density, while the temporal distribution reflects the regional annual rainfall patterns. In urban areas, the presence of informal settlements has a big impact on the number of fatalities, while at national level weaker correlations with gross income, human development and corruption indices can be found. This work was funded by the Durham International Fellowships for Research and Enterprise and Fondecyt project 1140317.

  18. Haemorrhagic pancreatitis--a cause of death in severe potassium permanganate poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, S J; Jacyna, M.; McClaren, D.; Robinson, R; Thomas, H C

    1990-01-01

    Severe potassium permanganate poisoning (more than 10 g of potassium permanganate) is invariably associated with massive systemic upset and death. Multiple organ damage has been recognized as an inevitable consequence of such an overdose, although pancreatitis has not been previously reported. Death due to cardiovascular collapse and profound hypotension is a common end point in those who reach hospital, but the pathogenesis is uncertain. We report a case of haemorrhagic pancreatitis followin...

  19. Combining diagnostic categories to improve agreement between death certificate and autopsy classifications of cause of death for atomic bomb survivors, 1950-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several investigators have observed less-than-desirable agreement between death certificate diagnoses and autopsy diagnoses for most specific causes of death, and even for some causes grouped by major disease category. Our results from data on 5130 autopsies of members of the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki conducted prior to September 1987 were equally discouraging. Among diseases with more than 10 cases observed, confirmation rates ranged from 13 % to 97 % and detection rates from 6 % to 90 %. Both rates were greater than 70 % for only 6 of 60 disease categories studied and for only 1 of 16 categories defined by major International Classification of Disease categories (neoplasms). This deficiency suggests cautious interpretation of results from studies based on death certificate diagnoses. To determine whether any groupings of diagnoses might meet acceptable accuracy requirements, we applied a hierarchical clustering method to data from these 5130 cohort members. The resulting classification system had 10 categories: breast cancer; other female cancers; cancers of the digestive organs; cancer of the larynx; leukemia; nasal, ear, or sinus cancer; tongue cancer; external causes; vascular disease; and all other causes. Confirmation and detection rates for each of these categories were at least 66 %. Although the categories are broad, particularly for nonneoplastic diseases, further divisions led to unacceptable accuracy rates for some of the resulting diagnostic groups. Using the derived classification system, there was 72 % agreement overall between death certificate and autopsy diagnoses compared to 53 % agreement for a second system obtained by grouping strictly by major disease category. Eighty-seven percent agreement was observed for a similar classification system with vascular disease grouped with all other nonneoplastic diseases. Further agglomeration achieved very little additional improvement. (J.P.N.)

  20. Gains in life expectancy after elimination of major causes of death: revised estimates taking into account the effect of competing causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A.E. Kunst (Anton); H. Lautenbach; Y.B. Oei; F. Bijlsma

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: It is generally acknowledged that conventional estimates of the potential number of life years to be gained by elimination of causes of death are too generous. This is because these estimates fail to take into account the fact that those who are

  1. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  2. High Israeli mortality rates from diabetes and renal failure - Can international comparison of multiple causes of death reflect differences in choice of underlying cause?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberger, Nehama; Applbaum, Yael; Meron, Jill; Haklai, Ziona

    2015-01-01

    Background The age-adjusted mortality rate in Israel is low compared to most Western countries although mortality rates from diabetes and renal failure in Israel are amongst the highest, while those from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are amongst the lowest. This study aims to assess validity of choice of underlying causes (UC) in Israel by analyzing Israeli and international data on the prevalence of these diseases as multiple causes of death (MCOD) compared to UC, and data on comorbidity (MC...

  3. Statistical studies on cause of death among a-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1976 in Nagasaki City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The death rate from malignant neoplasms in a-bomb survivors was higher than that in Japan through the whole period from 1970 to 1976. The death rate from malignant neoplasms was also high in a-bomb survivors in their thirties and fortieth exposed to a-bomb near the hypocenter. Seven thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight a-bomb survivors investigated this time were quivalent to 90% of all 8,334 a-bomb survivors who died during the period from 1970 to 1976. Therefore, the result obtained from this investigation seemed to indicate the cause of death correctly. Remaining 10% are now under investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Causes of death of thoroughbred racehorses at Octavio Dupont Veterinary Hospital, Brazilian Jockey Club, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsel C. Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies that approach the epidemiology of deaths in racehorses in a broad manner. The majority focus on a specific affection or procedure. Brazil does not have a program instituted for the monitoring of deaths of horses. By means of a descriptive study in association with a multivariate analysis method, an epidemiologic profile was determined for deaths related to musculoskeletal (MS, gastrointestinal (GI, respiratory (RES systems, neurologic origin (NEU and sudden death (SD for the years of 2002 to 2008, at the Octavio Dupont Veterinary Hospital-Rio de Janeiro (ODVH. Males comprised the majority of deaths and that deaths were related to, decreasing order, MS>GI>SD>NEU>RES, with respect to general mortality rate per large group of determined causes (TSPMr. The majority of deaths registered included horses aged four to five years (ID4-ID5. We observed the following correspondence relations: (3-year period = SM - ID>5 - SD; ID>5 - GI; ID4-5 - MS; SF - ID5 - GI; SF - ID5. The present study points out the importance and necessity of epidemiologic studies of lesions in horses, based on diagnosis for the recognition of predisposing factors and prevention.

  5. Mortality and causes of death of 513 Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Petersen, Jørgen; Ullman, S;

    1999-01-01

    A multicentre cohort of 513 clinic attenders with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was retrospectively identified, representing 4185 patient-years of follow-up. Expected numbers of death were calculated by means of age- and sex-specific mortality rates of the general Danish population. The...

  6. Liver-Specific Deletion of SRSF2 Caused Acute Liver Failure and Early Death in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanming; Luo, Chunling; Wu, Wenwu; Xie, Zhiqin; Fu, Xiangdong; Feng, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The liver performs a variety of unique functions critical for metabolic homeostasis. Here, we show that mice lacking the splicing factor SRSF2 but not SRSF1 in hepatocytes have severe liver pathology and biochemical abnormalities. Histological analyses revealed generalized hepatitis with the presence of ballooned hepatocytes and evidence of fibrosis. Molecular analysis demonstrated that SRSF2 governs splicing of multiple genes involved in the stress-induced cell death pathway in the liver. More importantly, SRSF2 also functions as a potent transcription activator, required for efficient expression of transcription factors mainly responsible for energy homeostasis and bile acid metabolism in the liver. Consistent with the effects of SRSF2 in gene regulation, accumulation of total cholesterol and bile acids was prominently observed in the mutant liver, followed by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased endoplasmic reticulum stress, as revealed by biochemical and ultrastructural analyses. Taking these observations together, inactivation of SRSF2 in liver caused dysregulated splicing events and hepatic metabolic disorders, which trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and finally liver failure. PMID:27022105

  7. Evaluation of Impact of Major Causes of Death on Life Expectancy Changes in China, 1990-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-HONG WANG; LI-MING LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of major causes of death on changes of life expectancy in China. Methods Life expectancy was calculated by standard life table techniques using mortality data from the national censuses in 1990 and 2000 and the 1% National Population Sampling Surveys in 1995 and 2005. Mortality data about the major causes of death from VR-MOH were used as reference values to estimate their death proportions of the specific age groups by sex and regions, as well as all-cause mortality and age-specific mortality rates of major causes of death. Decomposition method was used to quantitatively evaluate the impact. Results Three key findings were identified in our study. First, China's health challenge was shifted from diseases related to living conditions to those related to behavior and lifestyle, with rural areas relatively lagged behind urban areas. Second, the impacts of cardiovascular diseases and neoplasm on the middle aged and elderly population were stressed. Third, compared to the urban population, the rural population tended to have increasing mortality of neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases, especially in adults at the age of 15-39 years. Conclusion Further efforts should be made to reduce the incidence of neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases, especially in rural areas, by promoting healthy behavior and lifestyle and providing appropriate therapies for all patients in need.

  8. Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Colette J; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Weber, Rainer;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy for people with HIV is now approaching that seen in the general population. Consequently, the relative importance of other traditionally non-AIDS-related morbidities has increased. We investigated trends over...... time in all-cause mortality and for specific causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011. METHODS: Individuals from the Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study were followed up from March, 1999, until death, loss to follow-up, or Feb 1, 2011, whichever occurred first....... The D:A:D study is a collaboration of 11 cohort studies following HIV-1-positive individuals receiving care at 212 clinics in Europe, USA, and Australia. All fatal events were centrally validated at the D:A:D coordinating centre using coding causes of death in HIV (CoDe) methodology. We calculated...

  9. Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Jordana; Chandramohan, Daniel; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Choprapawon, Chanpen; de Savigny, Don; Fottrell, Edward; França, Elizabeth; Frøen, Frederik; Gewaifel, Gihan; Hodgson, Abraham; Hounton, Sennen; Kahn, Kathleen; Krishnan, Anand; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Masanja, Honorati; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Francis; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Sankoh, Osman; Spiegel, Paul; AbouZahr, Carla; Amexo, Marc; Kebede, Derege; Alley, William Soumbey; Marinho, Fatima; Ali, Mohamed; Loyola, Enrique; Chikersal, Jyotsna; Gao, Jun; Annunziata, Giuseppe; Bahl, Rajiv; Bartolomeus, Kidist; Boerma, Ties; Ustun, Bedirhan; Chou, Doris; Muhe, Lulu; Mathai, Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Objective Verbal autopsy (VA) is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD) in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems. Methods A literature review of existing VA instruments was undertaken. The World Health Organization (WHO) then facilitated an international consultation process to review experiences with existing VA instruments, including those from WHO, the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH) Network, InterVA, and the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). In an expert meeting, consideration was given to formulating a workable VA CoD list [with mapping to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) CoD] and to the viability and utility of existing VA interview questions, with a view to undertaking systematic simplification. Findings A revised VA CoD list was compiled enabling mapping of all ICD-10 CoD onto 62 VA cause categories, chosen on the grounds of public health significance as well as potential for ascertainment from VA. A set of 221 indicators for inclusion in the revised VA instrument was developed on the basis of accumulated experience, with appropriate skip patterns for various population sub-groups. The duration of a VA interview was reduced by about 40% with this new approach. Conclusions The revised VA instrument resulting from this consultation process is presented here as a means of making it available for widespread use and evaluation. It is envisaged that this will be used in conjunction with automated models for assigning CoD from VA data, rather than involving physicians. PMID

  10. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between cri

  11. RBE of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than myeloid leukemia in male CBA/H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causes of death were examined for 5,206 male CBA/H mice which had previously been treated with tritiated water or with X rays at comparable doses and comparable dose rates. Data on induced myeloid leukemia had been examined in detail in a previous report. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than mye-loid leukemia. However, no consistent values for the tritium relative biological effectiveness were obtained. The values were spread over a wide range for different endpoints and were generally less reliable than those for induction of myeloid leukemia. A surprising decrease in time to death of animals without tumours was observed in the irradiated groups of mice. This observation suggests that a detailed review of recent data on non-specific life shortening in irradiated animals and humans might be useful

  12. Death in Irish Prisons: An Examination of the Causes of Deaths and the Compliance of Investigations with the European Convention on Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Death is a tragic and unfortunately unavoidable aspect of life in a prison. The death of a prisoner raises significant questions in relation to the conditions of confinement and the conduct of the prison authorities. Robust investigations into these deaths can enhance accountability by shedding light on deficits in both institutional and systemic practices, as well as providing families of the deceased with a sense of closure. In Ireland, the investigative responses to prison deaths are neith...

  13. Investigation of final causes of death in 5360 deceased patients within a teaching hospital in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Tolou-Ghamari

    2016-01-01

    To increase quality of care for critically ill patients admitted to hospitals, understanding various causes of death could provide better quality of care. In this study, medical records of 5360 deceased patientswere reviewed with reference to the mortality reports.A total of 2019 deceased females and 3341deceased males were studied from 2011 to 2013. Neurologic disorders could be categorized as the highest cause of mortality report (25%). Pulmonary, gastrointestinal and heart diseases could b...

  14. A sexual comparative study on the death cause of the nuclear industry workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the analysis of nuclear industry workers death causation in sexual distribution, standardized management and relative risk, it indicated that crude mortality for male and female was 224.77 x 10-5 and 88.42 x 10-5 respectively; standardized mortality rate was 257.31 x 10-5 and 135.13 x 10-5 respectively, RR 1.90 (P female (P female, P < 0.01), it seemed that the death risk in radiation group was larger than that of control group and in male group was larger than that in female group

  15. Prognostic factors affecting the all-cause death and sudden cardiac death rates of post myocardial infarction patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shi-mo; ZHANG Shu; CHEN Ke-ping; HUA Wei; WANG Fang-zheng; CHEN Xin

    2009-01-01

    Background Post myocardial infarction (post-MI) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) have been candidates for an implantable cardioverter-deflbrillator (ICD) since the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trail II (MADIT II).However,due to the high costs of ICDs,widespread usage has not been accepted.Therefore,further risk stratification for post-MI patients with low LVEF may aid in the selection of patients that will benefit most from ICD treatment.Methods Four hundred and seventeen post-MI patients with low LVEF (≤35%) were enrolled in the study.All the patients received standard examination and proper treatment and were followed up to observe the all-cause death rate and sudden cardiac death (SCD) rate.Then COX proportional-hazards regression model was used to investigate the clinical factors which affect the all-cause death rate and SCD rate.Results Of 55 patients who died during (32±24) months of follow-up,37 (67%) died suddenly.After adjusting for baseline clinical characteristics,multivariate COX proportional-hazards regression model identified the following variables associated with death from all causes:New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure class ≥111 (Hazard ratio:2.361),LVEF ≤20% (Hazard ratio:2.514),sustained ventricular tachycardia (Hazard ratio:6.453),and age ≥70 years (Hazard ratio:3.116).The presence of sustained ventricular tachycardia (Hazard ratio:6.491) and age ≥70 years (Hazard ratio:2.694) were specifically associated with SCD.Conclusions In the post-MI patients with low LVEF,factors as LVEF ≤20%,age ≥70 years,presence of ventricular tachycardia,and NYHA heart failure class≥111 predict an adverse outcome.The presence of sustained ventricular tachycardia and age ≥70 years was associated with occurrence of SCD in these patients.

  16. Temporal trends and gender differentials in causes of childhood deaths at Ballabgarh, India - Need for revisiting child survival strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Anand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relating Information on causes of deaths to implementation of health interventions provides vital information for program planning and evaluation. This paper from Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in north India looks at temporal trends and gender differentials in the causes of death among under-five children. Methods Data on causes of death for 1972-74, 1982-84, 1992-94, 2002-04 were taken from existing HDSS publications and database. Physicians’ assigned causes of death were based on narratives by lay health worker till 1994 and later by verbal autopsy. Cause Specific Mortality Fractions (CSMF and Cause Specific Mortality Rates (CSMR per 1000 live births were calculated for neonatal ( Results The CSMF of prematurity and sepsis was 32% and 17.6% during neonatal period in 2002-04. The share of infections in all childhood deaths decreased from 55.2% in 1972-74 to 43.6% in 2002-04. All major causes of mortality (malnutrition, diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infection except injuries showed a steep decline among children and seem to have plateued in last decade. Most of disease specific public health interventions were launched in mid eighties. . Girls reported significantly higher mortality rates for prematurity (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01-2.29; diarrhea (2.29; 1.59 – 3.29, and malnutrition (3.37; 2.05 – 5.53. Conclusions The findings of the study point out to the need to move away from disease-specific to a comprehensive approach and to address gender inequity in child survival through socio-behavioural approaches.

  17. Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Yun, Sung-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 1...

  18. Age-related differences in mechanism, cause, and location of trauma deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Rikke; Thomsen, Annemarie Bondegaard; Theilade, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma death has traditionally been described as primarily occurring in young men exposed to penetrating trauma or road traffic accidents. The epidemiology of trauma fatalities in Europe may change as a result of the increasing proportion of elderly patients. The goal of this study was...

  19. Blockage of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillation causes cell death in intraerythrocitic Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Enomoto

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the world's most important infectious diseases and is responsible for enormous mortality and morbidity. Resistance to antimalarial drugs is a challenging problem in malaria control. Clinical malaria is associated with the proliferation and development of Plasmodium parasites in human erythrocytes. Especially, the development into the mature forms (trophozoite and schizont of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum causes severe malaria symptoms due to a distinctive property, sequestration which is not shared by any other human malaria. Ca(2+ is well known to be a highly versatile intracellular messenger that regulates many different cellular processes. Cytosolic Ca(2+ increases evoked by extracellular stimuli are often observed in the form of oscillating Ca(2+ spikes (Ca(2+ oscillation in eukaryotic cells. However, in lower eukaryotic and plant cells the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+ oscillation are poorly understood. Here, we showed the observation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphospate (IP(3-dependent spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in P. falciparum without any exogenous extracellular stimulation by using live cell fluorescence Ca(2+ imaging. Intraerythrocytic P. falciparum exhibited stage-specific Ca(2+ oscillations in ring form and trophozoite stages which were blocked by IP(3 receptor inhibitor, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB. Analyses of parasitaemia and parasite size and electron micrograph of 2-APB-treated P. falciparum revealed that 2-APB severely obstructed the intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in cell death of the parasites. Furthermore, we confirmed the similar lethal effect of 2-APB on the chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum. To our best knowledge, we for the first time showed the existence of the spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in Plasmodium species and clearly demonstrated that IP(3-dependent spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in P. falciparum is critical for the development

  20. Causas mal definidas de morte e óbitos sem assistência Ill-defined causes of death and unattended deaths, Brazil, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hasiak Santo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho estuda a distribuição dos óbitos por causas mal definidas no Brasil, no ano de 2003, entre as quais identifica a proporção de mortes sem assistência. MÉTODOS: Os dados provieram do Sistema de Informações Sobre Mortalidade, coordenado pelo Ministério da Saúde. As causas mal definidas de morte compreenderam as incluídas no "Capítulo XVIII - Sintomas, sinais e achados anormais de exames clínicos e de laboratório não classificados em outra parte" da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde, décima revisão, capítulo este no qual a categoria R98 identificava a "morte sem assistência". RESULTADOS: No Brasil, em 2003, a causa básica de 13,3% dos óbitos foi identificada como mal definida, sendo que as proporções maiores ocorreram nas Regiões Nordeste e Norte. Do total de causas mal definidas no país, 53,3% corresponderam a mortes sem assistência, proporção esta que superou 70% nos Estados do Maranhão, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, Bahia, Paraíba e Alagoas. CONCLUSÃO: Dada a estrutura descentralizada para o levantamento dos óbitos no país, identifica-se a maior responsabilidade dos municípios e, em seguida, dos Estados para o aprimoramento da qualidade das estatísticas de mortalidade.BACKGROUND: We studied the distribution of deaths from ill-defined causes that occurred in Brazil during 2003, from which was identified the proportion of unattended deaths. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System, coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Causes of death included in "Chapter XVIII - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not classified elsewhere" of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, tenth revision, were considered ill-defined, among which the category R98 identified "unattended deaths". RESULTS: In Brazil during 2003 the underlying causes of

  1. Suicides, homicides, accidents, and other external causes of death among blacks and whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Sonderman

    Full Text Available Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89, current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17, and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02 had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57 and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99. Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76; however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings

  2. Teen Suicide and Changing Cause-of-Death Certification, 1953-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Mike

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether tripling in teenage suicides since 1950s represents increase in suicides or in skill of medical examiners. Examined firearms and poisoning death from 1953-87. Concludes that increase in youth suicide is less dramatic than reported, and suicide increase indicated among youths and adults occurred from 1964-71 and has since…

  3. Association of body mass index with cause specific deaths in Chinese elderly hypertensive patients: Minhang community study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies have suggested that elevated body mass index (BMI was associated with the risk of death from all cause and from specific causes. However, there was little evidence illustrating the effect of BMI on the mortality in elderly hypertensive patients in Chinese population. METHODS: The information of 10,957 hypertensive patients at baseline not less than 60 years were from Xinzhuang, a town in Minhang district of Shanghai, was extracted from the Electronic Health Record (EHR system. All study participants were divided into eight categories of baseline BMI (with cut-points at 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28 and 30 kg/m(2. Relative hazard ratio of death from all cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular cause by baseline BMI groups were calculated, standardized for sex, age, smoking, drinking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disorders, serum lipid disturbance, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive drug treatment. RESULTS: DURING FOLLOW UP (MEDIAN: 3.7 years, 561 deaths occurred. Underweight (BMI<18 kg/m(2 was associated with significantly increased mortality from all cause mortality (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.43-2.79 and non cardiovascular mortality (OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.87-4.07, but not with cardiovascular mortality. For the cause specific analysis, the underweight was associated significantly with neoplasms (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.16-4.00 and respiratory disorders (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.64-7.06. The results for total mortality and specific cause mortality were not influenced by sex, age and smoking status. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed an association between underweight and increased mortality from non-cardiovascular disorders in elderly hypertensive patients in Chinese community. Overweight and obesity were not associated with all cause or cause specific death.

  4. Air pollution and mortality: Effect modification by personal characteristics and specific cause of death in a case-only study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. Less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to air pollution. We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the potential effect modification by personal characteristics and specific causes of death. Individual information of 402,184 deaths of non-external causes and daily mean concentrations of air pollution were collected from 2001 to 2011. For a 10 μg/m3 increase of pollution concentration, people aged ≥∇65 years (compared with younger ages) had a 0.9–1.8% additional increase in mortality related to PM, NO2, and SO2. People dying from cardiorespiratory diseases (compared with other non-external causes) had a 1.6–2.3% additional increase in PM and NO2 related mortality. Other subgroups that were particularly susceptible were females and those economically inactive. Lower socioeconomic status and causes of cardiorespiratory diseases would increase the likelihood of death associated with air pollution. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-only study in Hong Kong to examine the effect modification. • We identified the subpopulations particularly vulnerable to air pollution related death. • Elderly, female and those economically inactive would increase the risk of air pollution. • Specific causes of cardiorespiratory death showed vulnerability to air pollution. - We conducted a case-only study to identify several personal characteristics and specific cardiorespiratory causes that vulnerable to air pollution related mortality

  5. A population-based study relevant to seasonal variations in causes of death in children undergoing surgery for congenital cardiac malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Eskedal, Leif T.; Hagemo, Petter S.; Eskild, Anne; Frøslie, Kathrine F; Seiler, Stephen; Thaulow, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Our objectives were, first, to study seasonal distribution of perioperative deaths within 30 days after surgery, and late death, in children undergoing surgery for congenitally malformed hearts, and second, to study the causes of late death. Methods: We analysed a retrospective cohort of 1,753 children with congenital cardiac malformations born and undergoing surgery in the period from 1990 through 2002 with a special focus on the causes of late death. The data was obtained from the...

  6. Multiple causes of asphyxia in infants at high risk for sudden infant death.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, H E; Rahilly, P; Read, D J

    1983-01-01

    A wide range of clinical findings was present in 58 near-miss sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants and 6 surviving twins of SIDS siblings. Specific investigations included: studies of gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration (24-hour oesophageal pH recordings, barium swallow, radionuclide 'milk-scan'); polygraphic studies of breathing, reflux, and sleep state; studies of upper airways disease (lateral airways radiography and endoscopy); detection of seizure activity by electroencephalo...

  7. Vascular disease as a cause of death in patients with severe disability due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ann Marie; Lingard, Liz; Heslop, Peta; Gray, Janine; Walker, David J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The mechanism of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains uncertain. We had the opportunity to compare the causes and ages of death in a population of osteoarthritis (OA) and RA patients who had had similar lower limb disability. Methods Death certificates were sought for a population of OA and RA patients who had had knee joint replacements performed by a single orthopaedic surgeon over a 10 year period with a minimum follow up period of 18...

  8. The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Ding, Eric L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Taylor, Ben; Rehm, Jürgen; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US) using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight–obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood), and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. Methods and Findings We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i) for major potential confounders, and (ii) where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000–500,000) and 395,000 (372,000–414,000) deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight–obesity (216,000; 188,000–237,000) and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000–222,000) were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000–107,000), low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000–96,000), and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000–97,000) were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000–40,000) deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were

  9. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by

  10. Death caused by heat stroke: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heat stroke is the most dangerous among numerous disorders caused by elevated environmental temperature. It is characterized by an increased body temperature of over 40°C, the dysfunction of the central nervous system and the development of multiple organ failure. The aim of this paper was to highlight problems in the clinical and post-mortal diagnosis of fatal heat stroke. Case Outline. A 20-year-old male was found unconscious on the street; on admission at the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, he was in a coma. The body temperature of 40°C was maintained despite the applied therapy, meningeal signs were negative, tachycardia with gallop rhythm, hypotension, bleeding from the nose and mouth, and presence of skin bruises. Laboratory findings: highly elevated LDH and creatine kinase, elevated serum creatinine, AST, and signs of DIC. Lethal outcome occurred 6 hours after admission, and the case remained clinically unsolved. Autopsy showed signs of hemorrhagic diathesis, brain and pulmonary edema, and microscopic examination revealed general congestion, internal bleeding in various organs, cerebral edema, massive blood aspiration and pulmonary edema. Toxicological and bacteriological examinations were negative. Based on these findings and subsequently obtained data on the conditions at the workplace where the young man had a part-time job, it was concluded that the violent death was caused by heat stroke. Conclusion. Since heat stroke is associated with a high mortality rate and high incidence of serious and permanent organ damage in survivors, it is important to make the diagnosis of heat stroke as quickly as possible and apply appropriate treatment. Misdiagnosis of heat stroke, and consequently inadequate treatment, with a potential fatal outcome for the patient, can be the reason for blaming doctors for the legal offense of medical malpractice in failing to administer first aid.

  11. Postmortem diagnosis of infectious heart diseases: A mystifying cause of Sudden Infant Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaloul, Imed; Riabi, Samira; Evans, Mark; Hunter, Timothy; Huber, Sally; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2016-05-01

    Sudden infant death (SID) is an unresolved problem of high relevance and previous studies have indicated a role of viral heart infections. The diagnosis remains difficult in clinical practice using routine diagnostic tests and must be substantially improved. A prospective study based on post-mortem samples from SID victims whose heart disease was not clinically recognized was conducted for 4 years in a Tunisian University Hospital. Pediatric cases of unnatural death served as controls. Both SID victims and controls were investigated for possible coxsackievirus-B (CV-B) infection in heart tissue. During the study period, 39 cases with a male predominance (77%) were reported. There was no positive family history of coronary artery disease among the victims. In 35 cases (90%), low birth weight and/or critical development period were reported. All SID victims had complained of mild fever and insomnia for a few days preceding death, which required infectious laboratory investigations marked with an elevated white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The cardiac biomarkers were also elevated. The histopathological investigations of the heart tissue samples revealed signs of myocardial and pericardial inflammation. Enterovirus was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR from myocardial samples from 6 cases (15.3%) having myocarditis and 3 cases (7.7%) having perimyocarditis. The current study is of great interest and is aimed at urging health professionals to adopt systematically long intensive heart care in infants with underlying vulnerability as well as new diagnostic approaches including histopathology complemented with IHC and molecular pathology. PMID:27016640

  12. Clinico-pathological discrepancies in the diagnosis of causes of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa: retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Ordi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is a major public-health problem in developing countries. Extreme differences in maternal mortality rates between developed and developing countries indicate that most of these deaths are preventable. Most information on the causes of maternal death in these areas is based on clinical records and verbal autopsies. Clinical diagnostic errors may play a significant role in this problem and might also have major implications for the evaluation of current estimations of causes of maternal death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective analysis of clinico-pathologic correlation was carried out, using necropsy as the gold standard for diagnosis. All maternal autopsies (n = 139 during the period from October 2002 to December 2004 at the Maputo Central Hospital, Mozambique were included and major diagnostic discrepancies were analyzed (i.e., those involving the cause of death. Major diagnostic errors were detected in 56 (40.3% maternal deaths. A high rate of false negative diagnoses was observed for infectious diseases, which showed sensitivities under 50%: HIV/AIDS-related conditions (33.3%, pyogenic bronchopneumonia (35.3%, pyogenic meningitis (40.0%, and puerperal septicemia (50.0%. Eclampsia, was the main source of false positive diagnoses, showing a low predictive positive value (42.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Clinico-pathological discrepancies may have a significant impact on maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and question the validity of reports based on clinical data or verbal autopsies. Increasing clinical awareness of the impact of obstetric and nonobstetric infections with their inclusion in the differential diagnosis, together with a thorough evaluation of cases clinically thought to be eclampsia, could have a significant impact on the reduction of maternal mortality.

  13. Capsaicinoids Cause Inflammation and Epithelial Cell Death through Activation of Vanilloid Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Christopher A.; Taylor, Jack L.; Lanza, Diane L.; Carr, Brian A.; Crouch, Dennis J.; Yost, Garold S.

    2003-01-01

    Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects using human bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation exposure of rats to pepper sprays (capsaicinoids) produced acute inflammatio...

  14. Development of post-hospital mortality indicators at different timeframes taking into account the causes of death

    OpenAIRE

    Mechinaud Lamarche - Vadel, Agathe

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this PhD work was to investigate different methodological options for the elaboration of post hospital mortality indicators aiming at reflecting quality of care, in particular to identify the most relevant timeframes and to assess the contribution of the causes of death information.In a first phase, the hospital discharge data of the French General health insurance scheme beneficiaries who died during the year following an hospital stay in 2008 or 2009 were linked to the...

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up of Individuals Undergoing Sex-Reassignment Surgery: Somatic Morbidity and Cause of Death

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Rikke Kildevæld; Hald, Gert Martin; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies of mortality and somatic well-being after sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) of transsexual individuals are equivocal. Accordingly, the present study investigated mortality and somatic morbidity using a sample of transsexual individuals who comprised 98% (n = 104) of all surgically reassigned transsexual individuals in Denmark. Aims To investigate somatic morbidity before and after SRS and cause of death and its relation to somatic morbidity after SRS in Danish individuals wh...

  16. Aplastic anemia as a cause of death in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopecky, Jindrich; Priester, Peter; Slovacek, Ladislav; Petera, Jiri; Macingova, Zuzana [Dept. of Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Charles Univ. Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Kopecky, Otakar [Clinical Oncology, Regional Hospital Nachod (Czech Republic)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Standard treatment of glioblastoma multiforme consists of postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide, followed by a 6-month chemotherapy. Serious hematologic complications are rarely reported. Case Report and Results: The authors present the case of a 61-year-old female patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with external-beam radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide. After completion of treatment, the patient developed symptoms of serious aplastic anemia that eventually led to death due to prolonged neutro- and thrombocytopenia followed by infectious complications. Conclusion: Lethal complications following temozolomide are, per se, extremely rare, however, a total of four other cases of aplastic anemia have been reported in the literature so far. (orig.)

  17. Aplastic anemia as a cause of death in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with temozolomide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Standard treatment of glioblastoma multiforme consists of postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide, followed by a 6-month chemotherapy. Serious hematologic complications are rarely reported. Case Report and Results: The authors present the case of a 61-year-old female patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with external-beam radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide. After completion of treatment, the patient developed symptoms of serious aplastic anemia that eventually led to death due to prolonged neutro- and thrombocytopenia followed by infectious complications. Conclusion: Lethal complications following temozolomide are, per se, extremely rare, however, a total of four other cases of aplastic anemia have been reported in the literature so far. (orig.)

  18. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Wang, Haidong; Lozano, Rafael; Davis, Adrian; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Vollset, Stein Emil; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abdalla, Safa; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abuabara, Katrina E.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfi Na; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Aernlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Al Lami, Faris; Allebeck, Peter; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alviz-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asad, Majed Masoud; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed Omar; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borges, Guilherme; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bui, Linh Ngoc; Bukhman, Gene; Burch, Michael; Nonato, Ismael Ricardo Campos; Carabin, Helesne; Cardenas, Rosario; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catala-Lopez, Ferrn; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona C.; Che, Xuan; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yingyao; Chen, Jian Sheng; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh; Diaz-Ortega, Jose-Luis; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fuerst, Thomas; Fahimi, Saman; Fahrion, Anna S.; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Fra Paleo, Urbano; Franklin, Richard C.; Futran, Neal D.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco Armando; Garcia, Ana Cristina; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Gilmour, Stuart; Abdelmageem, Ibrahim; Ginawi, Mohamed; Giroud, Maurice; Glaser, Elizabeth L.; Goenka, Shifalika; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Guinovart, Caterina; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gowda, Hube N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Greenwell, K. Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harewood, Heather; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Pi, Ileana B. Heredia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huffman, Mark D.; Hughes, Andrew J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jassal, Simerjot; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Jonathan; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Sowarta; Kotagal, Meera; Kravchenko, Michael A.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Krueger, Hans; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Kwan, Gene F.; Kyu, Hmwe; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liddell, Chelsea; Lim, Stephen S.; de Lima, Graca Maria Ferreira; Lind, Maggie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Mackay, Mark T.; MacLachlan, Jennifer H.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad Taufi Q.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopolous, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGrath, John J.; Mckay, Abigail C.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh K.; Mock, Charles N.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Monis, Jonathan de la Cruz; Hernandez, Julio C. Montaez; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moore, Ami R.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E.; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Moyer, Madeline L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murray, Joseph; Mustapha, Adetoun; Naghavi, Paria; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nasher, Jamal; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G.; Neuhouser, Marian; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newcomb, Polly A.; Newman, Lori; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Nguyen, Grant; Nhung Thi Trang Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Odell, Shaun; O'Donnell, Martin; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ortblad, Katrina F.; Ortiz, Alberto; Otayza, Maria Lourdes K.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin; Panniyammakal, Jeemon; Papachristou, Christina; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris; Pearce, Neil; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Pereira, David M.; Peresson, Sophie C.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P.; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Bryan K.; Phillips, David E.; Phillips, Michael R.; Plass, Dietrich; Piel, Frederic Bernard; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rabito, Felicia; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad U. R.; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, Bayard; Roberts, D. Allen; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Rowley, Jane Tf; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sambandam, Sankar; Soreide, Kjetil; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sahle, Berhe Weldearegawi; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Samonte, Genesis May J.; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete; Scarborough, Peter; Schoettker, Ben; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schumacher, Austin E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shepard, Donald S.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Andrea P.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Sioson, Edgar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; So, Samuel; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stanaway, Jeff Rey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Steenland, Kyle; Stein, Claudia; Steiner, Caitlyn; Stevens, Antony; Stoeckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tan, Feng; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Ao, Braden Te; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Templin, Tara; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tirschwell, David L.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Trillini, Matias; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Ubeda, Clotilde; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vallely, Andrew J.; van de Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Vavilala, Monica S.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati Suryati; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Wenzhi, Wang; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan R.; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wong, John Q.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yang C.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zamakhshary, Mohammed Fouad; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiao Nong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specifi c all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries betwe

  19. Diseases of comfort: primary cause of death in the 22nd century

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, B. C. K.; Hunter, D. J.; Tsou, W.; Sainsbury, P.

    2005-01-01

    Context: The world has started to feel the impact of a global chronic disease epidemic, which is putting pressure on our health care systems. If uncurbed, a new generation of "diseases of comfort" (such as those chronic diseases caused by obesity and physical inactivity) will become a major public health problem in this and the next century. Objective: To describe the concept, causes, and prevention and control strategies of diseases of comfort. Methods: Brokered by a senior researc...

  20. Selective inhibition of apicoplast tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase causes delayed death in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Cheung, Vanessa; Kennedy, Kit; Lim, Erin E; Baell, Jonathan B; Griffin, Michael D W; Ralph, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum relies on efficient protein translation. An essential component of translation is the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) that charges tRNA(trp). Here we characterise two isoforms of TrpRS in Plasmodium; one eukaryotic type localises to the cytosol and a bacterial type localises to the remnant plastid (apicoplast). We show that the apicoplast TrpRS aminoacylates bacterial tRNA(trp) while the cytosolic TrpRS charges eukaryotic tRNA(trp). An inhibitor of bacterial TrpRSs, indolmycin, specifically inhibits aminoacylation by the apicoplast TrpRS in vitro, and inhibits ex vivo Plasmodium parasite growth, killing parasites with a delayed death effect characteristic of apicoplast inhibitors. Indolmycin treatment ablates apicoplast inheritance and is rescuable by addition of the apicoplast metabolite isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). These data establish that inhibition of an apicoplast housekeeping enzyme leads to loss of the apicoplast and this is sufficient for delayed death. Apicoplast TrpRS is essential for protein translation and is a promising, specific antimalarial target. PMID:27277538

  1. Early Mortality and Primary Causes of Death in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Fairthorne; Geoff Hammond; Jenny Bourke; Peter Jacoby; Helen Leonard

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. METHODS: The study population comprised all mothe...

  2. Early Mortality and Primary Causes of Death in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. Methods The study population comprised all mothers...

  3. Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martie van der Walt; Joey Lancaster; Karen Shean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR) is an indicator that specifically reports on deaths due to TB. Aim The aim of this paper was to investigate causes of death among...

  4. The pathology of embryo death caused by the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium in Drosophila nebulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraty Joseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited bacteria that kill male offspring, male-killers, are known to be common in insects, but little is understood about the mechanisms used by male-killing bacteria to kill males. In this paper we describe the tempo and changes that occur during male-killing by Spiroplasma bacteria in the host Drosophila nebulosa. Results Spiroplasma infected D. nebulosa males were developmentally retarded from 6–8 h into embryonic development at 25°C, and arrested at between stages 12 and 13 of embryogenesis (10–12 h. Dying males were characterized by a failure to form segments, and ultimately disintegration of the normal oval embryonic shape. Prior to death, dying males exhibited widespread apoptosis, as testified by TUNEL staining. Conclusion The Spiroplasma kills male Drosophila in a narrow developmental period, shortly after the formation of the host dosage compensation complex that is required for male-killing. Male death is preceded by widespread apoptosis, but it is uncertain if this is primary or secondary apoptosis.

  5. Cause of Death and the Quest for Meaning after the Loss of a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Currier, Joseph M.; Roberts, Kailey; Jordan, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns of making meaning among 155 parents whose children died from a variety of violent and non-violent causes. Findings indicated 53% of violent loss survivors could not make sense of their loss, as compared to 32% of non-violent loss survivors. Overall, there was overlap in sense-making strategies across different causes…

  6. Certification of deaths attributable to epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Langan, Y.; Nashef, L; Sander, J

    2002-01-01

    Methods: All 1997 death entries mentioning epilepsy as a cause of death in those 16–50 years were examined and classified as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), other epilepsy related deaths, or non-epilepsy deaths.

  7. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  8. Tobacco consumption in relation to causes of death in an urban population of north India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ram B; Singh, Surendra; Chattopadhya, Pronobesh; Singh, Kalpana; Singh, Vijender; Kulshrestha, Shallendra K; Tomar, Rukam S.; Kumar, Rajeev; Singh, Garima; Mechirova, Viola; Pella, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases have become a public heath problem in India concomitant with economic development, leading to increases in tobacco consumption, obesity, and changes in diet and lifestyle. Although observation suggests that tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for deaths due to circulatory, pulmonary, and malignant diseases, such studies are not available from most populations in developing countries. Subjects and methods: For the period 1999–2001, we studied the ran...

  9. Whether to report diabetes as the underlying cause-of-death? a survey of internists of different sub-specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Ching-Fai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cause-specific mortality is a commonly used endpoint of clinical trials or prospective studies. However, it is sometimes difficult for physician to determine the underlying-cause-of-death (UCD, especially for diabetic patients coexisted with cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The aim of this survey was to examine whether internists with different specialties have different opinions on the reporting of diabetes as the UCD. Methods A total of 549 physicians completed the questionnaire in Taiwan, which comprised seven hypothetical case scenarios, each indicating a different level of contribution of diabetes in initiating the chain of events leading to death. Results As a whole, endocrinologists were more likely than cardiologists and nephrologists to report diabetes as the UCD. The differences were more prominent when the diabetic patient had a coexisting CVD. In scenario 3 (a diabetic patient with hypertension who died from acute myocardial infarction, the percentage was 56% in endocrinologists, which was significantly higher than in cardiologists (42% and nephrologists (41%. In scenario 4 (a diabetic patient with hypertension who died from cerebrovascular infarction, the percentage was 45% in endocrinologists, and only 31% in cardiologists and 36% in nephrologists. Conclusions Internists of different sub-specialties do have different opinions on the reporting of diabetes as the UCD, especially when the diabetic patient has a coexisting CVD.

  10. Brain metastases from breast cancer: prognostic significance of HER-2 overexpression, effect of trastuzumab and cause of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To access the prognostic significance of HER-2 overexpression, the effect of trastuzumab and the cause of death in patients with brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer (BC). We analyzed the outcome of 130 patients with BM from BC who received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (without surgery or radiosurgery) between January 1998 and April 2006. Demographic data, tumor characteristics, and treatments were prospectively recorded. The impact of HER-2 overexpression and trastuzumab-based therapy on overall survival (OS) and the cause of death were evaluated. The median follow-up for the whole population was 6.25 months (mean: 9.15; range: 0.23-53). The median survival time and 1-year survival rates after BM diagnosis were 7.43 months and 35.8% (95% CI: 28-45.7) respectively. The median survival time for HER-2 negative patients (n = 78), HER-2 positive patients not treated with trastuzumab (n = 20) and HER-2 positive patients treated with trastuzumab (n = 32) were 5.9 months, 5.6 months and 19.53 months, respectively. The 1-year survival rates were 26.1%, 29.2% and 62.6% respectively, (p < 0.004). Among the 18 HER-2 positive patients treated with trastuzumab who died, 11 (61%) apparently succumbed from CNS progression, in the face of stable or responsive non-CNS disease. Trastuzumab-based therapy was associated with a 51% reduction in the risk of death (multiadjusted hazard ratio: 0.49; 95% CI, 0.29-0.83). In our experience, trastuzumab-based therapy for HER-overexpressing tumors was associated with improved survival in BM BC patients. This subgroup of patients may benefit from innovative approaches, in order to obtain better intra cerebral control

  11. Suicidal death caused by electrocution: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by electrocution are extremly rare in our country. In these cases, specific or characteristic external lesions caused through contact with conductors at the sites of entry and exit of the current, as well as general autopsy findings, and excluding the other possible causes of death, are important to elucidate them. Dilema if death was sucidal, homicidal or accidental in manner, could be solved through good police investigation, and properly explained circumstantial events. Herein, we reported two cases of suicidal deaths, caused by electrocution. In the first case, it was a male, age of 32, who wraped the electrical cord around his rists, and kiled himself by plugging it in. In second case, it was a female, age of 46, abused by her husband, who commited suicide by putting the switched hear-dryer into the water in bathtube.

  12. Mortality Statistics of Major Causes of Death among Atomic Bomb Survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka,Hiroshi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cere...

  13. Systematization of the Mechanism by Which Plasma Irradiation Causes Cell Growth and Tumor Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    New methods and technologies have improved minimally invasive surgical treatment and saved numerous patients. Recently, plasma irradiation has been demonstrated that might be useful in medical field and the plasma irradiation device is expected to become practically applicable. Mild plasma coagulator showed some advantages such as hemostasis and adhesion reduction in experimental animal model, but the mechanism of plasma irradiation remains unclear. Our study group aim to clarify the mechanism of plasma irradiation effects, mainly focusing on oxidative stress using cultured cell lines and small animal model. First, a study using cultured cell lines showed that the culture medium that was activated by plasma irradiation (we called this kind of medium as ``PAM'' -plasma activated medium-) induced tumor cell death. Although this effect was mainly found to be due to hydrogen peroxide, the remaining portion was considered as the specific effect of the plasma irradiation and we are now studying focusing on this effect. Second, we established a mouse intra-peritoneal adhesion model and checked biological reaction that occurred in the adhesion part. Histopathological study showed inflammatory cells infiltration into adhesion part and the expression of PTX3 that might involve tissue repair around adhesion part. We also confirmed that cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 might be useful as a marker of adhesion formation in this model. Applying ``PAM'' or mild plasma irradiation in this model, we examine the effects of plasma on inflamed cells. The samples in these experiments would be applied to targeted proteomics analysis, and we aim to demonstrate the systematization of the cell's reaction by plasma irradiation.

  14. Lead poisoning as possible cause of deaths at the Swedish House at Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, winter 1872-3

    OpenAIRE

    Aasebø, Ulf; Kjær, Kjell G

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate cause of death in 17 sealers who died in the Swedish house in Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, during the winter of 1872-3. Design Analysis of skeletal samples from one sealer’s grave. Setting Field trip to Spitsbergen to exhume skeletal remains. Subjects One of 17 sailors who died in 1872-3. Results No objective signs of scurvy were found. The concentration of lead in the bone samples was 102.05 µg/g. Conclusions The high concentrations of lead indicate that this man died...

  15. Mortality by Cause of Death Among Immigrants and Natives in a South European Country: The Case of Greece, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine for the first time in Greece mortality by cause of death among immigrants. The analysis makes use of vital registration statistics for 2010-2012 and census data for 2011; standardised mortality ratios are estimated for four distinct groups: natives, migrants from EU-27 (excluding Greece), other Europeans (mainly Albanians) and those from all other countries (mainly Asia/Africa). All immigrants seem to experience favourable mortality from neoplasms but higher mortality from external causes in comparison to Greeks. The results regarding cardiovascular diseases are mixed. Persons originating in Asian/African regions exhibit higher mortality from infectious diseases and TB. The findings highlight the specificities of immigrant mortality which stem from pre-existing conditions in the country of origin as well as from the adverse socio-economic environment in the country of destination. As immigrants experience some excessive 'avoidable' mortality implementation of appropriate measures should be a social policy priority. PMID:25784141

  16. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy as a cause of sudden death in young people: Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mazić Sanja; Lazović Biljana; Đelić Marina

    2012-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia is a progressive condition with right ventricular myocardium being replaced by fibro-fatty tissue. It is a hereditary disorder mostly caused by desmosome gene mutations. The prevalence of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is about 1/1000-5000. Clinical presentation is usually related to ventricular tachycardias, syncope or presyncopa, or ventricular fibrillation leading to cardiac arrest, mostly in young people and ...

  17. Most common causes of natural and injury-related deaths in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T. Dianne

    2009-01-01

    In Ethopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include sparse pathological diagnoses. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia in 2006, 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathologica...

  18. Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varnik, Airi

    2011-01-29

    Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64) and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69) and intentional self-injury (X70-84). Methods Data for 2000-04\\/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000) or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland) was wide. \\'Other and unspecified drugs\\' (X64) were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61) ranked second. The X63 category (\\'other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system\\') was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 (\\'narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified\\') for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  19. Statistical test of a null hypothesis: Taser shocks have not caused or contributed to subsequent in-custody deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2009-03-01

    Since 1999 over 425 in-custody deaths have occurred in the USA after law enforcement officers (LEOs) used an M26 or X26 Taser, causing Amnesty International and the ACLU to call for a moratorium on Taser use until its physiological effects on people have been better studied. A person's Taser dose is defined as the total duration (in seconds) of all Taser shocks received by that person during a given incident. Utilizing the concept of Taser dose for these deaths, TASER International's claim of Taser safety can be treated as a null hypothesis and its validity scientifically tested. Such a test using chi-square as the test statistic is presented. It shows that the null hypothesis should be rejected; i.e., model M26 and X26 Tasers are capable of producing lethal effects non-electrically and so have played a causal or contributory role in a great many of the in-custody deaths following their use. This implies that the Taser is a lethal weapon, and that LEOs have not been adequately trained in its safe use!

  20. POLA PENYEBAB KEMATIAN DI KOTA AMBON TAHUN 2010–2012 (Pattern of Cause of Death (COD in Ambon 2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sulistiowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cause of death statistics is one of the key indicators to describe the health status of a population and it is important for health planners or policy makers of a country. Cause of Death Information Form we called FKPK is an instrument for recording causes of death using the criteria of the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10 which can be used directly by the examining or a treating physician deceased before dying and recommended by WHO. The purpose of writing this article to see the pattern of causes of death in Ambon during 2010–2012 and saw the cause of the trend pattern of deaths each year. Methods:The methods is a descriptive research using cause of death (COD data collected in Ambon 2010-2012 using tools FKPK collected from 22 health centers and 9 hospitals. The population was residents who died in Ambon at 2010–2012. The research sample included all deaths that occurred in the population of Ambon in 2010–2012. Results: the pattern of causes of death in Ambon City is dominated by non-communicable diseases (NCD and the highest infectious diseases death is pulmonary tuberculosis. The high non-communicable occurs in many early age and the elderly, so it is necessary to establish posbindu elderly or posbindu NCD in Ambon city, as well as the need to increase the emphasis on health promotion Clean and Healthy Behavior.

  1. Comparing causes of death between formal and informal neighborhoods in urban Africa: evidence from Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdramane Bassiahi Soura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The probable coexistence of two or more epidemiological profiles in urban Africa is poorly documented. In particular, very few studies have focused on the comparison of cause-specific mortality between two types of neighborhoods that characterize contemporary southern cities: formal neighborhoods, that is, structured or delineated settlements (planned estates that have full access to public utilities (electricity and water services, and the informal neighborhoods, that is, spontaneous and unplanned peri-urban settlements where people live in slum-like conditions, often with little or no access to public utilities. Objective: To compare the causes of death between the formal and informal neighborhoods covered by the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS. Design: The data used come from the INDEPTH pooled dataset which includes the contribution of Ouagadougou HDSS and are compiled for the INDEPTH Network Data repository. The data were collected between 2009 and 2011 using verbal autopsy (VA questionnaires completed by four fieldworkers well trained in the conduction of VAs. The VA data were then interpreted using the InterVA-4 program (version 4.02 to arrive at the causes of death. Results: Communicable diseases are the leading cause of death among children (aged between 29 days and 14 years in both formal and informal neighborhoods, contributing more than 75% to the mortality rate. Mortality rates from non-communicable diseases (NCDs are very low before age 15 but are the leading causes from age 50, especially in formal neighborhoods. Mortality from injuries is very low, with no significant difference between the two neighborhoods. Conclusions: The fact that mortality from NCDs is higher among adults in formal neighborhoods seems consistent with the idea of a correlation between modern life and epidemiological transition. However, NCDs do affect informal neighborhoods as well. They consist mainly of

  2. Inappropriate mediastinal baroreceptor reflex as a possible cause of sudden infant death syndrome - Is thorough burping before sleep protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaig, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Despite extensive research, a link between the assumed mechanisms of death and known risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has not yet been established. Modifiable risk factors such as prone sleeping position, nicotine exposure and thermal stress and non-avoidable risk factors like male gender and some risky socio-economic conditions could be detected, but the etiology of SIDS remains unknown. In many SIDS cases histopathological findings suggest an involvement of vital autonomic control functions and unidentified trigger factors seem to play a role. From a hypothetical point of view, a developmental sympatheticovagal imbalance of the cardiovascular reflex control could cause a predisposition for SIDS. An assumed gastroesophageal trigger impulse is possibly developed during the first weeks of life and could lead to the infant's vagal reflex death. Air swallowed during feeding escapes through the esophagus while the infant is sleeping. The temporarily bloated esophagus exerts pressure on neighboring mediastinal baroreceptors, which is potentially misinterpreted as a rise in arterial pressure. The following cardiodepressoric baroreceptor reflex could lead to arterial hypotension, bradycardia and cardiac arrest. Sleeping in prone position may create an increased thoracic pressure on mediastinal baroreceptors, causing a more pronounced vagal reflex and an increased likelihood of SIDS. Prone position in connection with soft objects in the infant's sleeping environment potentially generates an increased oculobulbar pressure, resulting in an additional cardiodepressoric condition (Aschner-Dagnini phenomenon). From the sixth month of life onwards the sympatheticovagal balance seems to have matured sufficiently to compensate the life-threatening challenges in most infants. Insufficient postprandial burping could either create another independent modifiable risk factor or present the missing link to a common trigger mechanism for SIDS. Further investigations

  3. Early death in active professional athletes: Trends and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, S; Wattie, N; Baker, J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to examine mortality trends and causes of death among professional athletes from the four major sports in North America who died during their playing careers. 205 deceased athletes who were registered as active when they died from the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) were examined. Results were compared with the Canadian and U.S. general population. The leading causes of death in players reflected the leading causes of death in the Canadian and U.S. general population (i.e., car accidents). Descriptively, NFL and NBA players had a higher likelihood of dying in a car accident (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.91-3.36) compared with NHL and MLB players. In addition, NFL and NBA players had a significantly higher likelihood of dying from a cardiac-related illness (OR 4.44, 95% CI: 1.59-12.43). Mortality trends were disproportionate to team size. Overall, death in active athletes is low. Out of 53 400 athletes who have historically played in the four leagues, only 205 died while active (0.38%). Future examinations into the trends and causes of mortality in elite athlete populations will create a better understanding of health-related risks in elite sport. PMID:25996659

  4. Suicide Mortality in Comparison to Traffic Accidents and Homicides as Causes of Unnatural Death. An Analysis of 14,441 Cases in Germany in the Year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Lukaschek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL due to these unnatural deaths. Methods: Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. Results: A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic accidents, homicide were reported in 2010 in Germany. Of those, 10,021 subjects (69.4% committed suicide, 3,942 (27.3% died in traffic accidents, 478 (3.3% were murdered. Suicide death rates were by far the highest, with rates for men (18.6 three times higher than for women (6.1. For both sexes, suicide rates increased with age, whereas suicide as a proportion of all causes of death was higher in younger age groups. In both sexes, suicide was the leading cause of YLL (men: 314 YLL, women: 90 YLL. Conclusions: Suicide is the leading cause of unnatural death and YLL. The sex- and age- specific patterns in suicide mortality call for different action plans to target high risk groups.

  5. STUDY THE CAUSE OF DEATH & ITS SOME FACTORS AMONG HOSPITALIZED PAEDIATRIC CASES AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF RURAL DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Reaching the MDG on reducing child mortality will require universal coverage with key effective and affordable interventions. Records of vital events like death constitute an important component of publi c health information system. In - depth analysis of death of children provides valuable information. Aim of the study wa s to describe the causes of deaths among hospitalized pediatric patient and contributing factors associated with it. METHODS AND MATERIALS : This was a r etrospective re cord based study. Total pediatric deaths were identified & segregated through admission records from medical record section under PSM department of Government Medical College , during January 2010 to December 2010. Variables lik e age , sex , birth weight and cause of death were collected from death records. WHO Child Growth Standards (z score separate for boys & girls were used for comparing weight of child at the time of admission. Data was entered , cleaned and analyzed using MS excel. RESULTS : An overall 313 (13.1% death occurred among 2380 hospitalized pediatric cases.56.4% were male child and 43.8% female child. Maximum deaths (67.8% were among early neonates. 175(60% were severely underweight a t the time of admission. Time interval between admission and death i.e. hospital stay revealed that 134 (42.8% of deaths occurred within 24 h of ad mission. 180 (77% deaths were in low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg. Infection (35% was the leading cause of death among all pediatric age groups followed by birth asphyxia (29% , prematurity (22% nutritional (4% and congenital (6%.Viral encephalitis was found to be the most common cause of death in more than 5 yrs. age group. CONCLUSION : Monitoring the mo rtality pattern among hospitalized cases is important strategy to address public health issues at community level as well as to strengthen the hospital services. Strategies like antenatal care about nutrition to avoid LBW , timely treatment of

  6. INCODE-DK 2014. Classification of cause of intrauterine fetal death – a new approach to perinatal audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Ramsing, Mette; Olsen, Tina Elisabeth;

    Introduction Evaluating the cause of intrauterine fetal death (C- IUFD) is important to comfort the parents, as a quality control and feed-back for the medical staff, as well as for guidance in future pregnancies. An extensive work-up including autopsy and placental examination is recommended on a...... intention of improving the evaluation process for IUFD a working group of fetal pathologists and obstetricians was established in 2013 by the Danish Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecology (DSOG) and the Danish Pathology Society (DPAS). Two selected modern international classification systems (CODAC and...... developed by translation and adaptation to Danish conditions on the basis of updated literature. The section on placental pathology was adapted to the recent Danish guideline for placental examination 2013. In addition a new perinatal audit scheme (INCODE perinatal audittabel 2014) was created based on the...

  7. Trends in aortic aneurysm- and dissection-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985–2009: multiple-cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Augusto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. Methods We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7% were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3% as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the

  8. Increase in non-AIDS related conditions as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in the HAART era in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM and other conditions generally not associated with HIV-infection among persons with and without HIV infection in Brazil between 1999 and 2004. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Odds ratios were used to compare causes of death in individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate with those who did not. Logistic regression models were fitted with generalized estimating equations to account for spatial correlation; co-variables were added to the models to control for potential confounding. Of 5,856,056 deaths reported in Brazil between 1999 and 2004 67,249 (1.15% had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and non-HIV-related conditions were listed on 16.3% in 1999, increasing to 24.1% by 2004 (p<0.001. The adjusted average yearly increases were 8% and 0.8% for CVD (p<0.001, and 12% and 2.8% for DM (p<0.001, for those who had and did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate, respectively. Similar results were found for these conditions as underlying causes of death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Brazil between 1999 and 2004 conditions usually considered not to be related to HIV-infection appeared to become more likely causes of death over time than reported causes of death among individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate than in those who did not. This observation has important programmatic implications for developing countries that are scaling-up access to antiretroviral therapy.

  9. Death of an Adult Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  10. Causes of Death among AIDS Patients after Introduction of Free Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART in Three Chinese Provinces, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Wang

    Full Text Available Although AIDS-related deaths have had significant economic and social impact following an increased disease burden internationally, few studies have evaluated the cause of AIDS-related deaths among patients with AIDS on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART in China. This study examines the causes of death among AIDS-patients in China and uses a methodology to increase data accuracy compared to the previous studies on AIDS-related mortality in China, that have taken the reported cause of death in the National HIV Registry at face-value.Death certificates/medical records were examined and a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three provinces to verify the causes of death among AIDS patients who died between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Chi-square analysis was conducted to examine the categorical variables by causes of death and by ART status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate factors associated with AIDS-related death versus non-AIDS related death.This study used a sample of 1,109 subjects. The average age at death was 44.5 years. AIDS-related deaths were significantly higher than non-AIDS and injury-related deaths. In the sample, 41.9% (465/1109 were deceased within a year of HIV diagnosis and 52.7% (584/1109 of the deceased AIDS patients were not on cART. For AIDS-related deaths (n = 798, statistically significant factors included CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at the time of cART initiation (AOR 1.94, 95%CI 1.24-3.05, ART naïve (AOR 1.69, 95%CI 1.09-2.61; p = 0.019 and age <39 years (AOR 2.96, 95%CI 1.77-4.96.For the AIDS patients that were deceased, only those who initiated cART while at a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 were less likely to die from AIDS-related causes compared to those who didn't initiate ART at all.

  11. Early mortality and primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fairthorne

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. METHODS: The study population comprised all mothers of live-born children in Western Australia from 1983-2005. We accessed state-wide databases which enabled us to link socio-demographic details, birth dates, diagnoses of intellectual disability or ASD in the children and dates and causes of death for all mothers who had died prior to 2011. Using Cox Regression with death by any cause and death by each of the three primary causes as the event of interest, we calculated hazard ratios for death for mothers of children intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the study period, mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD had more than twice the risk of death. Mothers of children with intellectual disability were 40% more likely to die of cancer; 150% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease and nearly 200% more likely to die from misadventure than other mothers. Due to small numbers, only hazard ratios for cancer were calculated for mothers of children with ASD. These mothers were about 50% more likely to die from cancer than other mothers. Possible causes and implications of our results are discussed. CONCLUSION: Similar studies, pooling data from registries elsewhere, would improve our understanding of factors increasing the mortality of mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD. This would allow the implementation of informed services and interventions to improve these mothers' longevity.

  12. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Siaka; Fürst, Thomas; Jaeger, Fabienne N.; Esso, Emmanuel L. J. C.; Baïkoro, Nahoua; Kouadio, Kouamé A.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I.; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Dao, Daouda; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current vital statistics from governmental institutions in Côte d'Ivoire are incomplete. This problem is particularly notable for remote rural areas that have limited access to the health system. Objective To record all deaths from 2009 to 2011 and to identify the leading causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Design Deaths recorded in the first 3 years of operation of the Taabo HDSS were investigated by verbal autopsy (VA), using the InterVA-4 model. InterVA-4 is based on the World Health Organization 2012 VA tool in terms of input indicators and categories of causes of death. Results Overall, 948 deaths were recorded, of which 236 (24.9%) had incomplete VA data. Among the 712 deaths analyzed, communicable diseases represented the leading causes (58.9%), with most deaths attributed to malaria (n=129), acute respiratory tract infections (n=110), HIV/AIDS (n=80), and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=46). Non-communicable diseases accounted for 18.9% of the deaths and included mainly acute abdomen (n=38), unspecified cardiac diseases (n=15), and digestive neoplasms (n=13). Maternal and neonatal conditions accounted for 8.3% of deaths, primarily pneumonia (n=19) and birth asphyxia (n=16) in newborns. Among the 3.8% of deaths linked to trauma and injury, the main causes were assault (n=6), accidental drowning (n=4), contact with venomous plants/animals (n=4), and traffic-related accidents (n=4). No clear causes were determined in 10.0% of the analyzed deaths. Conclusions Communicable diseases remain the predominant cause of death in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Based on these findings, measures are now being implemented in the Taabo HDSS. It will be interesting to monitor patterns of mortality and causes of death in the face of rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions in this part of West Africa. PMID:25959772

  13. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Koné

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current vital statistics from governmental institutions in Côte d'Ivoire are incomplete. This problem is particularly notable for remote rural areas that have limited access to the health system. Objective: To record all deaths from 2009 to 2011 and to identify the leading causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Design: Deaths recorded in the first 3 years of operation of the Taabo HDSS were investigated by verbal autopsy (VA, using the InterVA-4 model. InterVA-4 is based on the World Health Organization 2012 VA tool in terms of input indicators and categories of causes of death. Results: Overall, 948 deaths were recorded, of which 236 (24.9% had incomplete VA data. Among the 712 deaths analyzed, communicable diseases represented the leading causes (58.9%, with most deaths attributed to malaria (n=129, acute respiratory tract infections (n=110, HIV/AIDS (n=80, and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=46. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 18.9% of the deaths and included mainly acute abdomen (n=38, unspecified cardiac diseases (n=15, and digestive neoplasms (n=13. Maternal and neonatal conditions accounted for 8.3% of deaths, primarily pneumonia (n=19 and birth asphyxia (n=16 in newborns. Among the 3.8% of deaths linked to trauma and injury, the main causes were assault (n=6, accidental drowning (n=4, contact with venomous plants/animals (n=4, and traffic-related accidents (n=4. No clear causes were determined in 10.0% of the analyzed deaths. Conclusions: Communicable diseases remain the predominant cause of death in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Based on these findings, measures are now being implemented in the Taabo HDSS. It will be interesting to monitor patterns of mortality and causes of death in the face of rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions in this part of West Africa.

  14. Death caused by heat stroke: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Slobodan; Pavlekić Snežana; Alempijević Đorđe; Ječmenica Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Heat stroke is the most dangerous among numerous disorders caused by elevated environmental temperature. It is characterized by an increased body temperature of over 40°C, the dysfunction of the central nervous system and the development of multiple organ failure. The aim of this paper was to highlight problems in the clinical and post-mortal diagnosis of fatal heat stroke. Case Outline. A 20-year-old male was found unconscious on the street; ...

  15. Trends of potential years of life lost due to main causes of deaths in urban and rural population in Poland, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżak, Michalina; Maślach, Dominik; Szpak, Andrzej; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Florczyk, Katarzyna; Skrodzka, Martyna; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the level and the trends of Potential Years of Life Lost due to main causes of deaths in Poland in 2002-2011, with consideration of place of residence, urban-rural. The material for the study was the number of deaths due to main causes in Poland in years 2002-2011, based on data from the Central Statistical Office. Premature mortality analysis was conducted with the use of PYLL indicator (PYLL - Potential Years of Life Lost). PYLL rate was calculated according to the method proposed by J. Romeder, according to which the premature mortality was defined as death before the age of 70. Time trends of PYLL rate and the annual percent change (APC) were assessed using the Joinpoint Regression Programme. Rural/urban ratio was used to presented the differences in premature mortality between rural and urban areas . In years2002-2011, the PYLL rate for all-cause deaths decreased by 13.2% among men and 16.0% among women in rural areas, whereas in urban decreased it decreased by 15.7% among men and 14.9% among women. In 2011, the main causes of PYLL among men in rural areas were: external causes (32.3%), cardiovascular diseases (23.5%) and cancers (19.4%); in urban areas: cardiovascular diseases (24.7%), external causes (24.3%) and cancers (20.9%). Among women in rural areas, the leading causes were: cancers (39.9%), cardiovascular diseases (20.1%) and external causes (15.1%). The main causes of premature mortality among women in urban areas were: cancers (41.7%), cardiovascular diseases (19.6%) and external causes (11.1%). Premature mortality among men in rural areas was significantly higher than in urban for all analysed causes of death, with the exception of ischaemic heart diseases and colorectal cancer. Premature mortality among women in rural areas was significantly lower than in urban for all analysed cause of deaths, except of cerebrovascular diseases, external causes, suicides and traffic accidents. The presented epidemiological

  16. The importance of microbiological testing for establishing cause of death in 42 forensic autopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms have always been one of the great challenges of humankind, being responsible for both high morbidity and mortality throughout history. In a forensic setting microbiological information will always be difficult to interpret due to lack of antemortem information and changes in flora...... circumstances, all findings should be compared to anamnestic antemortem information, before conclusions are drawn. A definite list of true pathogens is nearly impossible to compile....

  17. HIV and hepatitis C mortality in Massachusetts, 2002-2011: spatial cluster and trend analysis of HIV and HCV using multiple cause of death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Meyers

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases, while associated with a much smaller proportion of deaths than they were 50 years ago, still play a significant role in mortality across the state of Massachusetts. Most analysis of infectious disease mortality in the state only take into account the underlying cause of death, rather than contributing causes of death, which may not capture the full extent of mortality trends for infectious diseases such as HIV and the Hepatitis C virus (HCV.In this study we sought to evaluate current trends in infectious disease mortality across the state using a multiple cause of death methodology. We performed a mortality trend analysis, identified spatial clusters of disease using a 5-step geoprocessing approach and examined spatial-temporal clustering trends in infectious disease mortality in Massachusetts from 2002-2011, with a focus on HIV/AIDS and HCV.Significant clusters of high infectious disease mortality in space and time throughout the state were detected through both spatial and space time cluster analysis. The most significant clusters occurred in Springfield, Worcester, South Boston, the Merrimack Valley, and New Bedford with other smaller clusters detected across the state. Multiple cause of death mortality rates were much higher than underlying cause mortality alone, and significant disparities existed across race and age groups.We found that our multi-method analyses, which focused on contributing causes of death, were more robust than analyses that focused on underlying cause of death alone. Our results may be used to inform public health resource allocation for infectious disease prevention and treatment programs, provide novel insight into the current state of infectious disease mortality throughout the state, and benefited from approaches that may more accurately document mortality trends.

  18. Causes of cell death following ultraviolet B and C exposures and the role of carotenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet B radiation (wavelength 290-310 nm) does not induce any specific lethal effects in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus, according to a heterokaryon test that responds to the nature of the lethal damage. This agent is about 10 times less lethal than UVC radiation from germicidal lamps (254 nm), but it kills cells through the same photoreactivable lesions, due to the UV absorption of DNA. Carotenes do not protect Phycomyces against UV damage, either B or C, lethal or not. This was shown by Darwinian competition experiments between strains containing very different carotene concentrations and between strains containing similar concentrations of different carotenes (phytoene, lycopene, β-carotene). A shading effect of carotenes against UV radiation is likely, but it was insignificant under the conditions of the experiments. (Author)

  19. Lick of death: Capnocytophaga canimorsus is an important cause of sepsis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James P; Kafetz, Kalman; Fink, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old Caucasian woman was treated for Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicaemia. The source of bacteraemia was very likely to be her household pet, an Italian greyhound. The patient presented with a presumed complex partial seizure but deteriorated rapidly with sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction. Neither scratch nor bite was established, although close petting including licks was reported. Blood cultures grew Gram-negative rods, identified by molecular techniques as C. canimorsus-a bacterium frequently isolated in the oral cavities of dogs and cats. A full recovery was made following 2 weeks of intensive care support and broad-spectrum antibiotics. No underlying immune dysfunction was found. PMID:27364692

  20. Mortality during a Large-Scale Heat Wave by Place, Demographic Group, Internal and External Causes of Death, and Building Climate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Joe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mortality increases during periods of elevated heat. Identification of vulnerable subgroups by demographics, causes of death, and geographic regions, including deaths occurring at home, is needed to inform public health prevention efforts. We calculated mortality relative risks (RRs and excess deaths associated with a large-scale California heat wave in 2006, comparing deaths during the heat wave with reference days. For total (all-place and at-home mortality, we examined risks by demographic factors, internal and external causes of death, and building climate zones. During the heat wave, 582 excess deaths occurred, a 5% increase over expected (RR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03–1.08. Sixty-six percent of excess deaths were at home (RR = 1.12, CI 1.07–1.16. Total mortality risk was higher among those aged 35–44 years than ≥65, and among Hispanics than whites. Deaths from external causes increased more sharply (RR = 1.18, CI 1.10–1.27 than from internal causes (RR = 1.04, CI 1.02–1.07. Geographically, risk varied by building climate zone; the highest risks of at-home death occurred in the northernmost coastal zone (RR = 1.58, CI 1.01–2.48 and the southernmost zone of California’s Central Valley (RR = 1.43, CI 1.21–1.68. Heat wave mortality risk varied across subpopulations, and some patterns of vulnerability differed from those previously identified. Public health efforts should also address at-home mortality, non-elderly adults, external causes, and at-risk geographic regions.

  1. The Experience of ICD Utilization on Verbal Autopsy Data to Obtain Trend of Cause of Death in Indonesian Population (1992–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarimawar Djaja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cause of death data is necessary for arranging health programs. The needs of these data is not fulfill yet through reporting and recording system from health facilities only,therefore national health survei should be conducted regularly. Objective: To obtain cause of death trends in the populations from VA data. Methods: Material taken from Nasional Health Survey 1992, 1995, 2001, 2007 covering 65,664 households (HH, 206,240 HH, 211,168 HH, 258,366 HH respectively, selected by stratified random sampling technique using core and module sample of Socio Economic National Survey (Susenas and taken with a Probability Proportional to Size method. Cause of death data was collected by structured questionnaire using verbal autopsy (VA technique and was classified based on ICD 9 and ICD 10. Results: The disease patterns of cause of death from 1992 to 2007 showed the non-communicable disease is increasing continuously while communicable disease (infectious, maternal and perinatal, nutritional deficiencies is decreasing; however the burden of disease is still present on both groups of diseases. Conclusions: The little bit less accurate VA data (1992–2007 collected is able to produce national statistic data of cause of death and could be used to suggest health planning program managers in Indonesia

  2. Analysis of causes of death among HIV-infected patients of Kiev Regional AIDS Center during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Stepchenkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine is a leader in Europe in the prevalence of HIV infection. There are up to 270 thousand people, who are living with HIV. Since 1987, in Ukraine, 33,149 HIV-infected people died. During the first six months of 2013, of all the dead, who were suffering from HIV and in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART at the time of death, 41% received treatment and only 5.7% received ART for more than one year. Specialists of Kiev Regional AIDS Center analyzed mortality among the patients of the centre, in order to determine the most frequent cause of death, set the group most at risk and to develop effective measures to reduce mortality among HIV-infected patients. In Kiev AIDS Center, 10,000 people are under medical observation and 4004 of them are taking ART. During 2013, 305 persons died: 217 were women and 88 were men which included 3 children under 14 years. Most of the dead – 272 (89% were aged 25–49. Among the total number of the dead, 125 people (41% were receiving ART, 53 of them (17% were receiving ART for at least one year and 39 of them (13% were receiving ART for less than one month. Hundred and fifty-eight people (52% required ART and 22 (7% did not need therapy. Hundred and ninety-two patients (63% were in four clinical stage of HIV infection. Hundred and ten of them had HIV+TB co-infection. Twenty patients died due to TB and 12 patients died due to hepatitis b virus/hepatitis c virus (HBV/HCV. Among these patients, 87 people (39% were taking ART and 136 persons (61% were in need of ART, but did not get it. Nineteen patients were diagnosed with cancer. Sixteen patients, who were co-infected HIV+TB had a CD4 cell count of more than 300. Based on this analysis, we can conclude that the main causes of high mortality among HIV-infected patients in 2013 were late diagnosis of HIV, besides a large number (52% of patients, who were in need of ART did not take it. A large number (40% among those who died were patients co-infected with HIV

  3. Causes of death in two rural demographic surveillance sites in Bangladesh, 2004–2010: automated coding of verbal autopsies using InterVA-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Population-based information on causes of death (CoD by age, sex, and area is critical for countries with limited resources to identify and address key public health issues. This study analysed the demographic surveillance and verbal autopsy (VA data to estimate age- and sex-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions in two well-defined rural populations within the demographic surveillance system in Abhoynagar and Mirsarai subdistricts, located in different climatic zones. Design: During 2004–2010, the sample demographic surveillance system registered 1,384 deaths in Abhoynagar and 1,847 deaths in Mirsarai. Trained interviewers interviewed the main caretaker of the deceased with standard VA questionnaires to record signs and symptoms of diseases or conditions that led to death and health care experiences before death. The computer-automated InterVA-4 method was used to analyse VAs to determine probable CoD. Results: Age- and sex-specific death rates revealed a higher neonatal mortality rate in Abhoynagar than Mirsarai, and death rates and sex ratios of male to female death rates were higher in the ages after infancy. Communicable diseases (CDs accounted for 16.7% of all deaths in Abhoynagar and 21.2% in Mirsarai – the difference was due mostly to more deaths from acute respiratory infections, pneumonia, and tuberculosis in Mirsarai. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs accounted for 56.2 and 55.3% of deaths in each subdistrict, respectively, with leading causes being stroke (16.5–19.3%, neoplasms (13.2% each, cardiac diseases (8.9–11.6%, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (5.1–6.3%, diseases of the digestive system (3.1–4.1%, and diabetes (2.8–3.5%, together accounting for 49.2–51.2% points of the NCD deaths in the two subdistricts. Injury and other external causes accounted for another 7.5–7.7% deaths, with self-harm being higher among females in Abhoynagar. Conclusions: The computer

  4. Electricity-caused deathly accidents in households and their misinterpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkrath, K.D.; Weiler, G.

    1982-12-17

    In this report results are presented which indicate the problems which are connected with the primary diagnosis and to which the emergency physician finds himself confronted. Comparable with a wrong diagnosis in the case of a fatal CO intoxication, the source of danger remains also in case of an undetected fatal accidents due to electricity which occured in the household, and consequently the physician might one day be accused of manslaughter caused by criminal negligence, if another fatal accident occurs. This article gives five selected examples which shall help the emergency physician and the coroner to consider the death due to electric shock as a possible cause of death when a fatal accident occurs in a household. Between 1974 and 1981 autopsy was made in 40 persons, who had died in accidents due to electric shock, in the Institut fuer Rechtsmedizin des Universitaetsklinikums Essen. Of these cases 26 were identified as accidents which had occurred in the household.

  5. The relative risks and etiologic fractions of different causes of death and disease attributable to alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Single, E; Rehm, J.; Robson, L; Truong, M V

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1996 the number of deaths and admissions to hospital in Canada that could be attributed to the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs were estimated from 1992 data. In this paper we update these estimates to the year 1995. METHODS: On the basis of pooled estimates of relative risk, etiologic fractions were calculated by age, sex and province for 90 causes of disease or death attributable to alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs; the etiologic fractions were then applied to natio...

  6. Pneumolysin causes neuronal cell death through mitochondrial damage

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Johann S.; Hoffmann, Olaf; Schickhaus, Miriam; Freyer, Dorette; Dagand, Emilie; Bermpohl, Daniela; Mitchell, Tim J.; Bechmann, Ingo; Weber, Joerg R.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial toxins such as pneumolysin are key mediators of cytotoxicity in infections. Pneumolysin is a pore-forming toxin released by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the major cause of bacterial meningitis. We found that pneumolysin is the pneumococcal factor that accounts for the cell death pathways induced by live bacteria in primary neurons. The pore-forming activity of pneumolysin is essential for the induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Pneumolysin colocalized with mitochondrial me...

  7. Relationships of survival time, productivity and cause of death with telomere lengths of cows produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kazuyuki; Yonai, Miharu; Kaneyama, Kanako; Ito, Satoshi; Matsuda, Hideo; Yoshioka, Hajime; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2011-10-01

    The reproductive ability, milk-producing capacity, survival time and relationships of these parameters with telomere length were investigated in 4 groups of cows produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Each group was produced using the same donor cells (6 Holstein (1H), 3 Holstein (2H), 4 Jersey (1J) and 5 Japanese Black (1B) cows). As controls, 47 Holstein cows produced by artificial insemination were used. The SCNT cows were artificially inseminated, and multiple deliveries were performed after successive rounds of breeding and conception. No correlation was observed between the telomere length and survival time in the SCNT cows. Causes of death of SCNT cows included accidents, accident-associated infections, inappropriate management, acute mastitis and hypocalcemia. The lifetime productivity of SCNT cows was superior to those of the controls and cell donor cows. All SCNT beef cows with a relatively light burden of lactation remained alive and showed significantly prolonged survival time compared with the cows in the SCNT dairy breeds. These results suggest that the lifetime productivity of SCNT cows was favorable, and their survival time was more strongly influenced by environmental burdens, such as pregnancy, delivery, lactation and feeding management, than by the telomere length. PMID:21666348

  8. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney didease and end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Bjarne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo Friis; Strandgaard, Svend Valdemar; Sørensen, Vibeke Rømming

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31...... December 2008. Methods. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular...... (HR) 0.65, P = 0.008] and deaths from cerebrovascular disease decreased by 69% (HR 0.31, P = 0.0003) from the first to the second time period. There were no significant changes between the time periods in death from cancer, infection, other or unknown. From the first to the second 8-year interval, the...

  9. Who died of what in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cause of death analysis using InterVA-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Mossong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: For public health purposes, it is important to see whether men and women in different age groups die of the same causes in South Africa. Objective: We explored sex- and age-specific patterns of causes of deaths in a rural demographic surveillance site in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa over the period 2000–2011. Design: Deaths reported through the demographic surveillance were followed up by a verbal autopsy (VA interview using a standardised questionnaire. Causes of death were assigned likelihoods using the publicly available tool InterVA-4. Cause-specific mortality fractions were determined by age and sex. Results: Over the study period, a total of 5,416 (47% and 6,081 (53% deaths were recorded in men and women, respectively. Major causes of death proportionally affecting more women than men were (all p<0.0001: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS (20.1% vs. 13.6%, other and unspecified cardiac disease (5.9% vs. 3.2%, stroke (4.5% vs. 2.7%, reproductive neoplasms (1.7% vs. 0.4%, diabetes (2.4% vs. 1.2%, and breast neoplasms (0.4% vs. 0%. Major causes of deaths proportionally affecting more men than women were (all p<0.0001 assault (6.1% vs. 1.7%, pulmonary tuberculosis (34.5% vs. 30.2%, road traffic accidents (3.0% vs. 1.0%, intentional self-harm (1.3% vs. 0.3%, and respiratory neoplasms (2.5% vs. 1.5%. Causes of death due to communicable diseases predominated in all age groups except in older persons. Conclusions: While mortality during the 2000s was dominated by tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, we found substantial sex-specific differences both for communicable and non-communicable causes of death, some which can be explained by a differing sex-specific age structure. InterVA-4 is likely to be a valuable tool for investigating causes of death patterns in other similar Southern African settings.

  10. Absence of the peroxiredoxin Pmp20 causes peroxisomal protein leakage and necrotic cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksam, Eda Bener; Jungwirth, Helmut; Kohlwein, Sepp D.; Ring, Julia; Madeo, Frank; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the role of the peroxisomal peroxiredoxin Pmp20 of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Cells of a PMP20 disruption strain (pmp20) grew normally on substrates that are not metabolized by peroxisomal enzymes, but showed a severe growth defect on methanol, the metabolism of which involves a hyd

  11. Children and adolescents deaths from trauma-related causes in a Brazilian City

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga, Andrea Melo; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim; Fernandez, Thais; Fraga, Gustavo; Reis, Marcelo; Baracat, Emilio Carlos; Coimbra, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Injury is the first cause of death worldwide in the population aged 1 to 44. In developed countries, the most common trauma-related injuries resulting in death during childhood are traffic accidents, followed by drowning. Methods This retrospective study based on autopsy examinations describes the epidemiology profile of deaths by trauma-related causes in individuals you...

  12. Infestation by Pyemotes tritici (Acari, Pyemotidae) causes death of stingless bee colonies (Hymenoptera: Meliponina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, C; Coletto-Silva, A; Gazeta, G S; Kerr, W E

    2009-01-01

    We report the infestation of stingless bee nests by the mite Pyemotes tritici, which killed four colonies of Tetragonisca angustula and one colony of Frieseomelitta varia in Brazil. The first infected colony, a colony of T. angustula, came from an area between Uberlândia and Araguari, Minas Gerais. The transfer of the mites to the other colonies occurred through the transfer of infected combs and subsequent manipulations. Other colonies in the same meliponary, which had not been manipulated, were not infected. The infestation was terminated by isolating the dead colonies from the meliponary. PMID:19554756

  13. Fungal infections as a contributing cause of death: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha S Uppin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With the continuing rise in the number of immunocompromised patients, the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased. Various studies have reported the trends of fungal infections in autopsies. Because of limitations in antemortem clinical diagnosis owing to lack of sensitive diagnostic tools, information regarding frequency and pathogenesis of fungal infections is largely dependent on autopsy studies. Aim: To study the prevalence of fungal infections at autopsy spanning a period of 20 years and to document recent trends, prevalence of various fungi over decades along with underlying predisposing factors and pathological findings. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods:All autopsies between 1988 and 2007 were reviewed and all cases showing fungal infections were analyzed. The clinical details and demographic data were retrieved from medical records. Representative sections from all organs were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and special stains including Gomori′s silver methenamine (GMS and per-iodic acid Schiff (PAS. Culture details were noted, wherever available. Results: A total of 401 autopsies were performed during the study period. Fungal infections were identified in 35 (8.7% of these cases. Leukemia was the commonest risk factor. The commonest pathogen in the present study was Aspergillus sp. The commonest single organ involved was brain (n = 18. Culture positivity was seen in 23.8% cases. Conclusion: The study highlights various predisposing factors and organisms in autopsy series. Existing diagnostic modalities are not sensitive to ensure antemortem diagnosis of fungal infections.

  14. Simulated production losses in reindeer herds caused by accidental death of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Petersson

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic age-structured model was used to simulate the consequences on herd production if an extra animal from a particular age class and season was lost. Herd size was adjusted to 1000 animals and a sex ratio of .75/.25 via slaughter in late autumn. Three harvest strategies were applied, ranging from extreme calf to adult harvest. Equilibrium herd structure was disturbed with the loss of an extra animal and the consequences in terms of the number of animals slaughtered and kilogram of carcasses produced were followed over a simulation period of 15 years. The loss of a male corresponded largely to 0.70 to 0.90 times its own carcass weight. Loss of a female decreased herd production by 1.2 to 1.7 times the carcass weight of the lost animal. The highest losses were observed for 4-6 year old females. Loss of a calf reduced herd production by 0.3 to 1.6 times the calf's carcass weight, depending on season of loss and harvest strategy. In general, a loss during winter decreased herd production 10 to 20 percent more than a loss during autumn.

  15. Death of a classified worker probably caused by overexposure to γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the case of an industrial radiographer who was seriously overexposed to γ radiation. The exact circumstances of his exposure were not established but it was concluded that he was repeatedly irradiated probably to a total average whole body dose of at least 10 Gy over several years. Also, a much larger dose to a hand required its partial amputation. He developed myelodysplasia, which progressed to acute myeloid leukaemia from which he died. Karyotypic examination of the leukaemic blasts showed changes very similar to those associated with secondary leukaemia that may develop after radio or chemotherapy. The paper describes his medical case history, the investigation of his workplace, and the attempts to estimate his radiation dose by chromosomal analysis of blood lymphocytes and electron spin resonance of dental enamel and bone. (author)

  16. Avian influenza A virus H5N1 causes autophagy-mediated cell death through suppression of mTOR signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Ma; Qian Sun; Ruifang Mi; Hongbing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Of the few avian influenza viruses that have crossed the species barrier to infect humans,the highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) strain has claimed the lives of more than half of the infected patients.With largely unknown mechanism of lung injury by H5N1 infection,acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the major cause of death among the victims.Here we present the fact that H5N1 caused autophagic cell death through suppression of mTOR signaling.Inhibition of autophagy,either by depletion of autophagy gene Beclinl or by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA),significantly reduced H5N1 mediated cell death.We suggest that autophagic cell death may contribute to the development of ARDS in H5N1 influenza patients and inhibition of autophagy could therefore become a novel strategy for the treatment of H5N1 infection.

  17. Resuscitation of sudden cardiac death caused by acute epileptic seizures:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dana-Oliviana Geavlete; Oana Ionita; Leonard Mandes; Iulia Kulcsar; Emanuel Stoica; Radu Ciudin; Cezar Macarie; Ovidiu Chioncel

    2016-01-01

    Symptomatic long QT syndrome in pediatric patients is a life-threatening condition. Sometimes, this pathology can be misdiagnosed and erroneously managed as generalized epilepsy due to similar clinical manifestations. The presented case discusses a 13-year-old female patient with generalized epilepsy since the age of 4, admitted for two episodes of resuscitated cardiac arrest due to torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. The final diagnosis of congenital long QT was established and due to the patient's high-risk profile for future cardiac events, implantable cardiac defibrillator was subsequently indicated. Early recognition of congenital long QT and timing of cardiac therapy were crucial and potentially lower the incidence of fatal dysrhythmias commonly associated this condition. In high-risk patients, both medical and interventional therapy can be life-saving.

  18. Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Scheerder Gert; Van Audenhove Chantal; Gusmão Ricardo; Reisch Thomas; Maxwell Margareth; Arensman Ella; Kõlves Kairi; Wu Jing; Värnik Peeter; Sisask Merike; Värnik Airi; van der Feltz-Cornelis Christina M; Coffey Claire; Kopp Maria; Szekely Andras

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64) and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69) and intentional self-injury (X70-84). Methods Data for 2000-04/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex ...

  19. Mortality statistics by causes of death among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture, 1973 - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standardized mortality ratios of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture between 1973 and 1977 were compared with those of non-exposed population in this prefecture. In the malignant neoplasms, the ratios for leukemia, liver, breast, lung, larynx, brain, bone, skin, uterus, bladder and colon were higher than non-exposed. Other than the neoplasms, the ratios for cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, hypertensive diseases and blood and blood-forming organs were higher than nonexposed, while those for heart diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, senility, gastro-enteritis and accidents were lower than non-exposed. (author)

  20. Facts about Diabetes: A Leading Cause of Death in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Provides data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. Urologic Diseases ​Urologic Diseases in America Compendium 2012 Provides epidemiological data covering benign prostatic ...

  1. Failure of Amino Acid Homeostasis Causes Cell Death following Proteasome Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Suraweera, Amila; Münch, Christian; Hanssum, Ariane; Bertolotti, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets many cellular proteins for degradation and thereby controls most cellular processes. Although it is well established that proteasome inhibition is lethal, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition results in a lethal amino acid shortage. In yeast, mammalian cells, and flies, the deleterious consequences of proteasome inhibition are rescued by amino acid supplementation. In all three systems, this rescuing effe...

  2. Causes of death after fluid bolus resuscitation: new insights from FEAST

    OpenAIRE

    Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST study) was an extremely well conducted study that gave unexpected results. The investigators had reported that febrile children with impaired perfusion treated in low-income countries without access to intensive care are more likely to die if they receive bolus resuscitation with albumin or saline compared with no bolus resuscitation at all. In a secondary analysis of the trial, published in BMC Medicine, the authors found that increased mortal...

  3. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  4. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods: THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. ...

  5. Putting the terror in terror management theory: evidence that the awareness of death does cause anxiety and undermine psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Jacob; Routledge, Clay

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the writings of existentialists, terror management theory states that the awareness of death has the potential to create debilitating anxiety and compromise psychological well-being and that psychological buffers (e.g., self-worth) protect against these aversive effects. Hundreds of studies have supported the theory. However, until recently, little work has focused on the central assertion that the awareness of death causes anxiety and undermines well-being. We review a recent p...

  6. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1989-06-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  7. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kurihara, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology) (and others)

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic romb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the site showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency ws observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  8. Effect of age on survival and causes of death after primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchier, Laurent; Marijon, Eloi; Defaye, Pascal; Piot, Olivier; Sadoul, Nicolas; Perier, Marie-Cecile; Gras, Daniel; Klug, Didier; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Bordachar, Pierre; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Babuty, Dominique; Boveda, Serge

    2015-05-15

    The benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) remains controversial in elderly patients and may be attenuated by a greater risk of nonarrhythmic death. We examined the effect of age on outcomes after prophylactic ICD implantation. All patients with coronary artery disease or dilated cardiomyopathy implanted with an ICD for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in 12 French medical centers were included in a retrospective observational study. The 5,534 ICD recipients were divided according to age: 18 to 59 years (n = 2,139), 60 to 74 years (n = 2,693), and ≥75 years (n = 702). Greater prevalences of coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation at the time of implant were observed with increasing age (both p 75 years). Proportions of cardiac deaths (55.2%, 57.6%, and 57.0%, p = 0.84), including ICD-unresponsive sudden death (9.9%, 6.0%, and 10.6%, p = 0.08), and rates of appropriate ICD therapies were similar in the 3 age groups. Older age was independently associated with a higher rate of early complications and a lower rate of inappropriate therapies. In conclusion, older patients exhibited higher global mortality after ICD implantation for primary prevention, whereas rates of sudden deaths and of appropriate device therapies were similar across age groups. PMID:25784518

  9. Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt

    OpenAIRE

    Hadley Mary B; Tuba Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007) while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to avert further dea...

  10. IARS mutation causes prenatal death in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takashi; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Takeda, Kenji; Hara, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Kita, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Hanzawa, Kei

    2016-09-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS) c.235G > C (p.V79L) is a causative mutation for a recessive disease called IARS disorder in Japanese black cattle. The disease is involved in weak calf syndrome and is characterized by low birth weight, weakness and poor suckling. The gestation period is often slightly extended, implying that intrauterine growth is retarded. In a previous analysis of 2597 artificial insemination (AI) procedures, we suggested that the IARS mutation might contribute toward an increase in the incidence of prenatal death. In this study, we extended this analysis to better clarify the association between the IARS mutation and prenatal death. The IARS genotypes of 92 animals resulting from crosses between carrier (G/C) × G/C were 27 normal (G/G), 55 G/C and 10 affected animals (C/C) (expected numbers: 23, 46 and 23, respectively). Compared to the expected numbers, there were significantly fewer affected animals in this population (P insemination after G/C × G/C insemination was significantly higher at 61-140 days (P < 0.001). The findings suggested that the homozygous IARS mutation not only causes calf death, but also embryonic or fetal death. PMID:27229878

  11. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  12. Impact of Risk Factors for Specific Causes of Death in the First and Subsequent Years of Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ingle, S. M.; May, M.T.; Gill, M J; Mugavero, M J; Lewden, C.; Abgrall, S; Fätkenheuer, G; Reiss, P.; Saag, M S; Manzardo, C.; Grabar, S; Bruyand, M.; Moore, D; Mocroft, A.; Sterling, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Patterns of cause-specific mortality in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are changing dramatically in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods.  Sixteen cohorts from Europe and North America contributed data on adult patients followed from the start of ART. Procedures for coding causes of death were standardized. Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for transmission risk group, sex, age, year of ART initiation, baseline CD4 coun...

  13. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Adam D; Rigby, Francesca L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-08-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual's first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span. PMID:27457937

  14. Repeated stimuli for axonal growth causes motoneuron death in adult rats: the effect of botulinum toxin followed by partial denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C M; Greensmith, L; Vrbová, G

    2000-01-01

    Axons of motoneurons to tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles of adult rats were induced to sprout by injecting botulinum toxin into them, by partial denervation or by a combination of the two procedures. Ten weeks later, the number of motoneurons innervating the control and operated tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles was established by retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. In the same preparations, the motoneurons were also stained with a Nissl stain (gallocyanin) to reveal motoneurons in the sciatic pool. Examination of the spinal cords from animals treated with botulinum toxin showed that the number of retrogradely labelled cells and those stained with gallocyanin in the ventral horn on the treated compared to the control side was unchanged. In rats that had their L4 spinal nerve sectioned on one side, the number of retrogradely labelled cells on the operated side was 48+/-3% (n = 5) of that present in the control unoperated ventral horn. Thus, just over half the innervation was removed by cutting the L4 spinal nerve. Counts made from gallocyanin-stained sections showed that 94+/-4% (n = 5) of motoneurons were present in the ventral horn on the operated side. Thus, section of the L4 spinal nerve did not lead to any death of motoneurons. In rats that had their muscles injected with botulinum toxin three weeks prior to partial denervation, the number of retrogradely labelled cells was reduced from 48+/-3% (n = 5) to 35+/-4% (n = 5). Moreover, only 67+/-5% (n = 5) of motoneurons stained with gallocyanin, suggesting that a proportion of motoneurons died after this combined procedure. This result was supported by experiments in which motor unit numbers in extensor digitorum longus muscles were determined by measurements of stepwise increments of force in response to stimulation of the motor nerve with increasing stimulus intensity. In partially denervated extensor digitorum longus muscles, 16.6+/-0.7 (n = 5) motor

  15. Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, David; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wood, Angela M; Gao, Pei; Sun, Qi; Walldius, Göran; Selmer, Randi; Verschuren, WM Monique; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Engström, Gunnar; Ridker, Paul M; Njølstad, Inger; Iso, Hiroyasu; Holme, Ingar; Giampaoli, Simona; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Gaziano, J Michael; Brunner, Eric; Kee, Frank; Tosetto, Alberto; Meisinger, Christa; Brenner, Hermann; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Whincup, Peter H; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Ian; Cremer, Peter; Hofman, Albert; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Clarke, Robert; de Boer, Ian H; Jukema, J Wouter; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín; Lawlor, Debbie A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Casiglia, Edoardo; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Simons, Leon A; Nietert, Paul J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Björkelund, Cecilia; Strandberg, Timo E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Blazer, Dan G; Meade, Tom W; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Woodward, Mark; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kromhout, Daan; Jørgensen, Torben; Tilvis, Reijo S; Guralnik, Jack M; Rosengren, Annika; Taylor, James O; Kiechl, Stefan; Dagenais, Gilles R; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Wallace, Robert B; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Visser, Marjolein; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kitamura, Akihiko; Sundström, Johan; Wennberg, Patrik; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Daimon, Makoto; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Cooper, Jackie A; Onat, Altan; Devereux, Richard; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Dankner, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew W; Crespo, Carlos J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Goldbourt, Uri; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Shaw, Jonathan E; Mussolino, Michael; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Fletcher, Astrid; Kuller, Lewis H; Gillum, Richard F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Assmann, Gerd; Wald, Nicholas; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Greenland, Philip; Trevisan, Maurizio; Ulmer, Hanno; Butterworth, Adam S; Folsom, Aaron R; Davey-Smith, George; Hu, Frank B; Danesh, John; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Charles E; Simpson, Lara M; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Folsom, Aaron R; Demerath, Ellen W; Franceschini, Nora; Lutsey, Pamela L; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Shaw, Jonathan E; Atkins, Robert; Zimmet, Paul Z; Barr, Elizabeth LM; Knuiman, Matthew W; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Morris, Richard W; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan; Weger, Siegfried; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Wald, Nicholas; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Yarnell, John WG; Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Greenland, Philip; Shay, Christina M; Garside, Daniel B; Nietert, Paul J; Sutherland, Susan E; Bachman, David L; Keil, Julian E; de Boer, Ian H; Kizer, Jorge R; Psaty, Bruce M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B; Schnohr, Peter; Giampaoli, Simona; Palmieri, Luigi; Panico, Salvatore; Pilotto, Lorenza; Vanuzzo, Diego; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Simons, Leon A; Simons, Judith; McCallum, John; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Price, Jackie F; Lee, Amanda J; Taylor, James O; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Wallace, Robert B; Kohout, Frank J; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan C; Guralnik, Jack M; Blazer, Dan G; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Phillips, Caroline L; Guralnik, Jack M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Wennberg, Patrik; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Nissinen, Aulikki; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Giampaoli, Simona; Woodward, Mark; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Harald, Kennet; Salomaa, Veikko; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; Daimon, Makoto; Oizumi, Toshihide; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Møller, Lars; Jespersen, Jørgen; Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Lubin, Flora; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Welin, Lennart; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Lappas, Georgios; Bengtsson, Calle; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Cremer, Peter; Nagel, Dorothea; Strandberg, Timo E; Salomaa, Veikko; Tilvis, Reijo S; Miettinen, Tatu A; Tilvis, Reijo S; Strandberg, Timo E; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Arima, Hisatomi; Doi, Yasufumi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Noda, Hiroyuki; Goldbourt, Uri; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Harald, Kennet; Salomaa, Veikko; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Poppelaars, Jan L; Deeg, Dorly JH; Visser, Marjolein; Meade, Tom W; De Stavola, Bianca Lucia; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Verschuren, WM Monique; Blokstra, Anneke; de Boer, Ian H; Shea, Steven J; Meisinger, Christa; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Döring, Angela; Verschuren, WM Monique; Blokstra, Anneke; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Fletcher, Astrid; Nitsch, Dorothea; Kuller, Lewis H; Grandits, Greg; Tverdal, Aage; Selmer, Randi; Nystad, Wenche; Mussolino, Michael; Gillum, Richard F; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi; Manson, JoAnn E; Rimm, Eric B; Hankinson, Susan E; Meade, Tom W; De Stavola, Bianca Lucia; Cooper, Jackie A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Davidson, Karina W; Kirkland, Susan; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Shimbo, Daichi; Kitamura, Akihiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sato, Shinichi; Holme, Ingar; Selmer, Randi; Tverdal, Aage; Nystad, Wenche; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Miura, Katsuyuki; Sakurai, Masaru; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Jouven, Xavier; Bakker, Stephan JL; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L; Crespo, Carlos J; Garcia-Palmieri, Mario R; Kee, Frank; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrières, Jean; Schulte, Helmut; Assmann, Gerd; Jukema, J Wouter; de Craen, Anton JM; Sattar, Naveed; Stott, David J; Cantin, Bernard; Lamarche, Benoît; Després, Jean-Pierre; Dagenais, Gilles R; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Bettencourt, Richele R; Buisson, Catherine; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Aspelund, Thor; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Thorsson, Bolli; Trevisan, Maurizio; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; Tiemeier, Henning; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Tavendale, Roger; Lowe, Gordon DO; Woodward, Mark; Devereux, Richard; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Ali, Tauqeer; Calhoun, Darren; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey-Smith, George; Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Morikawa, Yuko; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Wilsgaard, Tom; Sundström, Johan; Ingelsson, Erik; Michaëlsson, Karl; Cederholm, Tommy; Gaziano, J Michael; Buring, Julie; Ridker, Paul M; Gaziano, J Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Ulmer, Hanno; Diem, Günter; Concin, Hans; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Tosetto, Alberto; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Manson, JoAnn E; Marmot, Michael; Clarke, Robert; Fletcher, Astrid; Brunner, Eric; Shipley, Martin; Kivimaki, Mika; Ridker, Paul M; Buring, Julie; Ford, Ian; Robertson, Michele; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín; Feskens, Edith; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kromhout, Daan; Walker, Matthew; Watson, Sarah; Alexander, Myriam; Butterworth, Adam S; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Franco, Oscar H; Gao, Pei; Gobin, Reeta; Haycock, Philip; Kaptoge, Stephen; Seshasai, Sreenivasa R Kondapally; Lewington, Sarah; Pennells, Lisa; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Sarwar, Nadeem; Thompson, Alexander; Thompson, Simon G; Walker, Matthew; Watson, Sarah; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M; Wormser, David; Zhao, Xiaohui; Danesh, John

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain. Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies. Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators. Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases. PMID:22825588

  16. Increasing Rates of Brain Tumours in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Causes of Death Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Hardell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz–300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., “possibly”, carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR and Causes of Death Register (CDR to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998–2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007–2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008–2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk.

  17. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  18. The effectiveness of postmortem multidetector computed tomography in the detection of fatal findings related to cause of non-traumatic death in the emergency department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Higuchi, Takeshi; Shiotani, Motoi [Niigata City General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Hirose, Yasuo [Niigata City General Hospital, Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Niigata (Japan); Shibuya, Hiroyuki; Hashidate, Hideki [Niigata City General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Niigata (Japan); Yamanouchi, Haruo; Funayama, Kazuhisa [Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Community Preventive Medicine, Division of Legal Medicine, Niigata (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of postmortem multidetector computed tomography (PMMDCT) for the detection of fatal findings related to causes of non-traumatic death in the emergency department (ED). 494 consecutive cases of clinically diagnosed non-traumatic death in ED involving PMMDCT were enrolled. The fatal findings were detected on PMMDCT and classified as definite or possible findings. These findings were confirmed by autopsy in 20 cases. The fatal findings were detected in 188 subjects (38.1%) including 122 with definite (24.7%) and 66 with possible finding (13.4%). Definite findings included 21 cases of intracranial vascular lesions, 84 with intra-thoracic haemorrhage, 13 with retroperitoneal haemorrhage and one with oesophagogastric haemorrhage. In three patients who had initially been diagnosed with non-traumatic death, PMMDCT revealed fatal traumatic findings. Two definite findings (two haemopericardiums) and seven possible findings (two intestinal obstructions, one each of multiple liver tumours central pulmonary artery dilatation, pulmonary congestion, peritoneal haematoma, and brain oedema) were confirmed by autopsy. The causes of death were not determined in cases with possible findings without autopsy. PMMDCT is a feasible tool for detecting morphological fatal findings in non-traumatic death in ED. It is important to know the ability and limitation of PMMDCT. (orig.)

  19. Continuous increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and non-HIV related cancers as causes of death in HIV-infected individuals in Brazil: an analysis of nationwide data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelzon A Paula

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After antiretroviral therapy (ART became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: We describe temporal trends in causes of death among adults who had HIV/AIDS listed in the death certificate to those who did not. All death certificates issued in Brazil from 1999 to 2011 and listed in the national mortality database were included. Generalized linear mixed-effects logistic models were used to study temporal trends in proportions. RESULTS: In the HIV-infected population, there was an annual adjusted average increase of 6.0%, 12.0%, 4.0% and 4.1% for cancer, external causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, respectively, compared to 3.0%, 4.0%, 1.0% and 3.9%, in the non-HIV group. For tuberculosis (TB, there was an adjusted average increase of 0.3%/year and a decrease of 3.0%/year in the HIV and the non-HIV groups, respectively. Compared to 1999, the odds ratio (OR for cancer, external causes, CVD, DM, or TB in the HIV group were, respectively, 2.31, 4.17, 1.76, 2.27 and 1.02, while for the non-HIV group, the corresponding OR were 1.31, 1.63, 1.14, 1.62 and 0.67. Interactions between year as a continuous or categorical variable and HIV were significant (p<0.001 for all conditions, except for DM when year was considered as a continuous variable (p = 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: Non HIV-related co-morbidities continue to increase more rapidly as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in those without HIV infection, highlighting the need for targeting prevention measures and surveillance for chronic diseases among those patients.

  20. Lysosomal storage of heparan sulfate causes mitochondrial defects, altered autophagy, and neuronal death in the mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2016-06-01

    The genetic metabolic disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C (MPS IIIC, Sanfilippo disease type C) causes progressive neurodegeneration in infants and children, leading to dementia and death before adulthood. MPS IIIC stands out among lysosomal diseases because it is the only one caused by a deficiency not of a hydrolase but of HGSNAT (heparan--glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase), which catalyzes acetylation of glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS) prior to its hydrolysis. PMID:25998837

  1. Death Caused by Malignant Hyperthermia: Two Case Reports+

    OpenAIRE

    Erkol, Zerrin; Ertan, Ayşegül; Hüseyin ÖZ; ERKOL, Hayri; Şeker, Ali; Altınok, Ayfer; Süner, Çiğdem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present two cases of death caused by malignant hyperthermia and discuss their properties according to the literature data. First case: a 24-year-old-male was taken to the operating room for lombar disc hernia operation. At the 30th minute of the operation, tachycardia (120/min) was observed followed by bradycardia and cardiac arrest occurred at the 45th minute of the operation. After resuscitation, his fever was 39.5°C (103.1°F), then the fever rised to 4...

  2. Denied their ‘natural nourishment’: religion, causes of death and infant mortality in the Netherlands, 1875-1899

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, N.; Ekamper, P.

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, infant mortality rates started to fall rapidly in the Netherlands. Unfortunately, not all regions benefited from this development. High infant death in the Roman Catholic provinces of North-Brabant and Limburg has often been ascribed to a growing reluctance of C

  3. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mortality for the black population accounted for a loss of 1.007 years in life expectancy. The difference was reduced somewhat by lower ... disadvantage ( Figure 4 ). Heart disease accounted for a loss of 1.117 years in life expectancy for black males. Lower death rates for ...

  4. Survival and cause of death after traumatic spinal cord injury. A long-term epidemiological survey from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M;

    1997-01-01

    of SCI, dead or still living. There has been a complete follow-up over 4 decades, information being obtained from available medical records, death certificates, and post mortem records. The survey included a total of 888 individuals (713 men and 175 women) who had survived the injury and primary...

  5. Knockout of Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death11 encoding a sphingosine transfer protein causes activation of programmed cell death and defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Peter; Petersen, Morten; Pike, Helen M;

    2002-01-01

    by avirulent pathogens. Global transcriptional changes during programmed cell death (PCD) and defense activation in acd11 were monitored by cDNA microarray hybridization. The PCD and defense pathways activated in acd11 are salicylic acid (SA) dependent, but do not require intact jasmonic acid or ethylene...

  6. The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Goodarz Danaei; Ding, Eric L.; Dariush Mozaffarian; Ben Taylor; Jürgen Rehm; Murray, Christopher J L; Majid Ezzati

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background A number of modifiable factors are responsible for many premature or preventable deaths. For example, being overweight or obese shortens life expectancy, while half of all long-term tobacco smokers in Western populations will die prematurely from a disease directly related to smoking. Modifiable risk factors fall into three main groups. First, there are lifestyle risk factors. These include tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol use (small amou...

  7. Mortality pattern and cause of death in a long-term follow-up of patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI

    OpenAIRE

    Doost Hosseiny, Ataollah; Moloi, Soniah; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Farshid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the pattern of mortality and cause of death in a cohort of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI during 2006–2013 were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (1–8.4 years). We used hospital and general practice records and mortality data from The Australian National Death Index. Results Among 1313 patients...

  8. Deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene is sufficient to cause oxidative stress, delayed differentiation and neuronal death in mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Ahlemeyer; Magdalena Gottwald; Eveline Baumgart-Vogt

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired neuronal migration and cell death are commonly observed in patients with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs), and in mouse models of this diseases. In Pex11β-deficient mice, we observed that the deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene (Pex11β+/− heterozygous mice) caused cell death in primary neuronal cultures prepared from the neocortex and cerebellum, although to a lesser extent as compared with the homozygous-null animals (Pex11β−/− mice). In corresponding br...

  9. Genetic architecture and evolution of the mating type locus in fusaria that cause soybean sudden death syndrome and bean root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium tucumaniae is the only known sexually reproducing species among the seven closely related fusaria that cause soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) or bean root rot (BRR). Laboratory mating of F. tucumaniae required two mating-compatible strains, indicating that it is heterothallic. To assess ...

  10. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Sondergaard, M.T.; Vranas, Marta; Behr, Elijah R.; Hildebrandt, L.L.; Lund, J.; Hedley, Paula L.; Camm, A. John; Wettrell, Göran; Fosdal, Inger; Christiansen, Michael; Borglum, Anders D.

    2012-01-01

    substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe......Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause a...... calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac...

  11. Postmortem volumetric CT data analysis of pulmonary air/gas content with regard to the cause of death for investigating terminal respiratory function in forensic autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Postmortem CT (PMCT) is useful to investigate air/gas distribution and content in body cavities and viscera. The present study investigated the procedure to estimate total lung air/gas content and aeration ratio as possible indices of terminal respiratory function, using three-dimensional (3-D) PMCT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases without putrefactive gas formation (within 3 days postmortem, n=75), and analyzed the volumetric data with regard to the cause of death. When 3-D bilateral lung images were reconstructed using an image analyzer, combined lung volume was larger in drowning (n=12) than in alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8) and sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10), and intermediate in other cases, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), fire fatalities due to burns (n=6) and carbon monoxide intoxication (n=7), fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=7), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=7). Air/gas content of the lung as detected using HU interval between -2000 and -400 ('effective' lung aeration areas) and between -2000 and -191 (total lung aeration areas) as well as the ratios to total lung volume ('effective' and total lung aeration ratios, respectively) was higher in mechanical asphyxiation, drowning, fatal burns and hypothermia (cold exposure) than in SCD, and was intermediate in other cases. 'Effective' and total lung aeration ratios may be useful for comparisons between specific causes of death to discriminate between hypothermia (cold exposure) and drug intoxication, and between SCD and other causes of death, respectively. These findings provide interesting insights into potential efficacy of PMCT data analyses of lung volume and CT density as well as lung air/gas content and aeration ratio with regard to the cause of death, as possible indicators of terminal respiratory function, as part of virtual autopsy of the viscera in situ. PMID:24905153

  12. WtsE, an AvrE-family type III effector protein of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, causes cell death in non-host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris; Ewert, Sophie; Sreerekha, Mysore-Venkatarau; Mackey, David; Coplin, David

    2008-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss) causes Stewart's bacterial wilt of sweet corn and leaf blight of maize. The pathogenicity of Pnss depends on synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide and an Hrp type III secretion system. WtsE, a type III secreted effector protein, is essential for the virulence of Pnss on corn. It belongs to the AvrE family of effectors, which includes DspA/E from Erwinia amylovora and AvrE1 from Pseudomonas syringae. Previously, WtsE was shown to cause disease-associated cell death in its host plant, sweet corn. Here, we examine the biological activity of WtsE in several non-host plants. WtsE induced cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, tobacco, beet and Arabidopsis thaliana when it was transiently produced in plant cells following agroinfiltration or translocated into plant cells from Pnss, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph). WtsE-induced cell death in N. benthamiana, tobacco and beet resembled a hypersensitive response and in N. benthamiana it was delayed by cycloheximide. Interestingly, WtsE strongly promoted the growth of Pnss in N. benthamiana prior to the onset of cell death. Deletion derivatives of WtsE that failed to induce cell death in N. benthamiana and tobacco also did not complement wtsE mutants of Pnss for virulence in sweet corn, indicating a correlation between the two activities. WtsE also induced cell death in A. thaliana, where it suppressed basal defences induced by Pph. Thus, WtsE has growth-promoting, defence-suppressing and cell death-inducing activities in non-host plants. Expression of WtsE also prevented the growth of yeast, possibly due to an innate toxicity to eukaryotic cells. PMID:19018993

  13. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD50) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD50 in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals

  14. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R., E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  15. Specific causes of death among 381 AIDS patients who died in hospitals%381例艾滋病住院患者死亡原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞芳; 马烨; 刘中夫; 张福杰; 杨燕; 黄绍标; 何浩岚; 陆娟; 雷素云

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解中国部分艾滋病抗病毒治疗定点医院住院艾滋病患者的死亡原因及其相关影响因素.方法 在7所省级艾滋病抗病毒治疗定点医院收集2009-2010年艾滋病住院死亡患者的死因及相关医疗信息,采用CoDe编码系统归类,应用logistic回归分析患者是否死于艾滋病相关原因的影响因素.结果 7所医院共收集381例艾滋病患者的临床医疗及死因信息,患者以男性为主(82.4%),30~ 45岁占多数,生前曾接受抗病毒治疗(ART)者占32.3%.252例(66.1%)死于艾滋病相关原因,其中机会性感染占92.4%,以结核菌、肺孢子菌、马尔尼菲青霉菌感染为主.在非艾滋病相关死亡原因中,前三位依次是非艾滋病相关感染、肝炎、非艾滋病相关肿瘤,分别占29.5%、22.5%、10.1%.患者死亡前一年内有注射吸毒行为、未接受ART、合并机会性感染、未合并肝炎及死亡前最近一次CD4+T淋巴细胞计数水平较低的病例,死于艾滋病相关原因的风险较高.结论 机会性感染、非艾滋病相关感染、肝炎是艾滋病患者最主要的前三位死因,接受ART的患者死于非艾滋病相关原因的风险低于未接受ART者,且治疗时间越长,死于非艾滋病相关原因的比例越低.%Objective In this study,researchers investigated the demographic and clinical characteristics of AIDS patients who died in hospitals,analyzed the specific causes of death,and looked for the correlation between specific cause of death and their clinical characteristics.Methods Data of clinical characteristics of patients and their specific causes AIDS of death who died in the seven hospitals from 2009 to 2010 were collected retrospectively.All the specific causes of death were classified according to the Cause of Death (CoDe) project protocol.Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to find the association between some categorical variables and the risk

  16. Distemper virus as a cause of central nervous disease and death in badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, H. H.; Andersen, T. H.; Nielsen, L.; Blixenkrone-Møller, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002 a distemper-like disease was observed in the free-ranging badger population in Denmark. It was characterised by grand seizures, abnormal behaviour and death; the badgers all had severe chronic pneumonia and some had non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. in this study, eight...... of the affected badgers were examined by gross pathological, histological, immunohistological, bacteriological, parasitological and virological methods, and were diagnosed with distemper; canine distemper virus was identified.......During the summer of 2002 a distemper-like disease was observed in the free-ranging badger population in Denmark. It was characterised by grand seizures, abnormal behaviour and death; the badgers all had severe chronic pneumonia and some had non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. in this study, eight...

  17. The Fated Death of Tess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2012-01-01

      The theme of this essay is about the fated deaths of Tess.The emphasis is‘inevitability’. Tess’s Death is mainly due to the social influence and man-made factors. Because of the low social status and moral conceptions, there is no living room left for Tess. Her parents push her get closer to her tragedy as well. Alec and Angel are the two persons who directly and indirectly cause Tess’s death. In addition, there are also some subjective causes for her doom. The symbolic red in the novel intentionally indicates the’inevitability’of her death.

  18. Distemper virus as a cause of central nervous disease and death in badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, H. H.; Andersen, T. H.;

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002 a distemper-like disease was observed in the free-ranging badger population in Denmark. It was characterised by grand seizures, abnormal behaviour and death; the badgers all had severe chronic pneumonia and some had non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. in this study, eight...... of the affected badgers were examined by gross pathological, histological, immunohistological, bacteriological, parasitological and virological methods, and were diagnosed with distemper; canine distemper virus was identified....

  19. Long-Term Follow-Up of Individuals Undergoing Sex-Reassignment Surgery: Somatic Morbidity and Cause of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Kildevæld Simonsen, MA

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Of 98% of all Danish transsexuals who officially underwent SRS from 1978 through 2010, one in three had somatic morbidity and approximately 1 in 10 had died. No significant differences in somatic morbidity or mortality were found between male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Despite the young average age at death and the relatively larger number of individuals with somatic morbidity, the present study design does not allow for determination of casual relations between, for example, specific types of hormonal or surgical treatment received and somatic morbidity and mortality.

  20. Surveillance of Caging and Poultry Separation Behavior in Relation Toward Poultry Death Rate Caused by Avian Influenza at Bandung District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Roostita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There are four priorities i.e., report, cook, separate and wash for preventing Avian Influenza (A I virus transmission from poultry-to-poultry, poultry-to-animal, and poultry to human at the community level. Unfortunately, caging and separating poultry were still rarely performed by poultry owners at Indonesia. Therefore, survey of poultry caging and poultry separation conducted in Bandung district where highest incidence and prevalence of human cases of AI occur. The objectives of this survey were to determine how poultry death rate influenced by caging and poultry separation behaviors (separate between different species and ages, segregation during restocking. This research uses survey methods with household who kept poultry and household where sick or died poultry found as unit of analysis. Data obtained by in-depth interview by using the interview guidelines covering aspects: issues related to sick or death of poultry, caging habits, separation of different poultry species and age and also segregation during restocking. Result showed that poultry owners in the area by high poultry death rate; Panyirapan (13.19% and Soreang (9.52%; tend to free ranging the birds; Panyirapan (54.54%, Soreang (72.72%. In addition, only 9.09% poultry owners in Panyirapan doing separation between different species, age and segregation during restocking, while poultry owners in Soreang unfortunately never separate among them (0%.

  1. Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: Upshaw-Schulman syndrome: a cause of neonatal death and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Pandita, Aakash; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-06-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disorder in children characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and thrombocytopenia. The classic Moschcowitz Pentads of TTP include hemolytic anemia, with fragmentation of erythrocytes, thrombocytopenia, diffuse and non-focal neurologic findings, decrease renal function and fever. We report a newborn who was diagnosed with congenital TTP. The newborn was admitted at age of 40 h, in our hospital, in view of respiratory distress with impending respiratory failure and red colored urine. On examination, the newborn was febrile, tachypneic, had deep icterus, pallor and no hepatosplenomegaly. Family history was significant with one unexplained neonatal death at age of 24 with symptoms of red colored urine. Examination of peripheral smear was diagnostic with the presence of fragmented RBCS, giant but fewer platelets consistent with a diagnosis of MAHA. The diagnosis of TTP was confirmed with low ADAMTS activity and gene analysis showed c 2203 G > T-p.Glu735X (domain TSP1-2) mutation in exon 18 of ADAMTS 13 gene. The newborn had rapid deterioration, with respiratory distress and refractory shock leading to death. Post-mortem bone marrow done showed marrow hyperplasia. PMID:26365135

  2. Analysis of Direct Cause of Death about Dead Cases%住院死亡病例直接死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莛; 卢仲毅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the trends in the change of spectra of cause of death among hospitalized children,analyze and discuss how to seek direct cause of death and how to regulate death case discussions. Methods A retrospective analysis was reviewed of 227 dead cases in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Of which, these were analyzed for seeking direct cause of death according to the original medical records. Results Of the total 227 cases,70% patients were infants whose age ≤3 years old; 157 children(69. 2% ) were dead in pediatric intensive care unit. The three most frequent primary diseases were nervous system diseases including infection, tumor, bleeding and trauma(55 cases ,24.2% ) , congenital malformation including congenital heart disease and alimentary tract malformation(53 cases, 23.3% ) ,and respiratory system diseases(47 cases,20. 7% ) ; Furthermore, among 227 patients, 67 cases (29. 5% ) could be found direct cause of death, the top three direct cause of death were asphyxia (21 cases) , cerebral hernia (17 cases) , and uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (8 cases). Conclusions Disease of the nervous system is a serious danger to critically ill children, which needs further study. Meanwhile death case discussions is an important part in hospital core system, the aim is to look for direct cause of death, which requires related departments and physicians who participated in rescue and treatment and all of doctors master correct and effective methods. The key to look for direct cause of death is catching hold of the patient's deteriorating time.%目的 分析住院患儿死亡原发疾病谱,探讨如何寻求患儿直接死亡原因及如何规范死亡病例讨论.方法 对本院227例死亡病例进行回顾性分析,根据死亡病例的原始病历资料及死亡病例讨论,分析推断直接死因.结果 227例死亡病例中,婴幼儿占总数的70%;PICU 157例(69.2%);原发疾病中前3位是神经系统疾病(颅内感

  3. Cause of death during 2009–2012, using a probabilistic model (InterVA-4: an experience from Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to estimate the age and cause-specific mortality in Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site for the years 2009 to 2012, using a probabilistic model (InterVA-4. Methods: All Deaths in Ballabgarh HDSS from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012, were included in the study. InterVA-4 model (version 4.02 was used for assigning cause of death (COD. Data from the verbal autopsy (VA tool were extracted and processed with the InterVA-4 model. Cause-specific mortality rate (CSMR per 1,000 person-years was calculated. Results: A total of 2,459 deaths occurred in the HDSS during the year 2009 to 2012. Among them, 2,174 (88.4% valid VA interviews were conducted. Crude death rate ranged from 7.1 (2009 to 6.4 (2012 per 1,000 population. The CSMR per 1,000 person-years over the years (2009–2012 for non-communicable diseases, communicable diseases, trauma, neoplasm, and maternal and neonatal diseases were 1.78, 1.68, 0.68, 0.49, and 0.48, respectively. The most common causes of death among children, adults, and the elderly were infectious diseases, trauma, and non-communicable diseases, respectively. Conclusions: Overall, non-communicable diseases constituted the largest proportion of mortality, whereas trauma was the most common COD among adults at Ballabgarh HDSS. Policy-makers ought to focus on prevention of premature CODs, especially prevention of infectious diseases in children, and intentional self-harm and road traffic accidents in the adult population.

  4. Suicide Mortality in Comparison to Traffic Accidents and Homicides as Causes of Unnatural Death. An Analysis of 14,441 Cases in Germany in the Year 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Karoline Lukaschek; Natalia Erazo; Karl-Heinz Ladwig; Jens Baumert

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess suicide mortality in comparison to traffic accidents and homicide deaths in Germany in the year 2010 and to compare years of life lost (YLL) due to these unnatural deaths. Methods: Mortality data were provided by the Federal Statistical Office giving death rates (related to 100,000 inhabitants) and proportions (related to 100 deaths of individuals) for suicide, traffic accidents and homicide as well as YLL data. Results: A total of 14,441 unnatural deaths (suicide, traffic acci...

  5. Increasing RpoS expression causes cell death in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available RpoS, one of the two alternative σ factors in Borrelia burgdorferi, is tightly controlled by multiple regulators and, in turn, determines expression of many critical virulence factors. Here we show that increasing RpoS expression causes cell death. The immediate effect of increasing RpoS expression was to promote bacterial division and as a consequence result in a rapid increase in cell number before causing bacterial death. No DNA fragmentation or degradation was observed during this induced cell death. Cryo-electron microscopy showed induced cells first formed blebs, which were eventually released from dying cells. Apparently blebbing initiated cell disintegration leading to cell death. These findings led us to hypothesize that increasing RpoS expression triggers intracellular programs and/or pathways that cause spirochete death. The potential biological significance of induced cell death may help B. burgdorferi regulate its population to maintain its life cycle in nature.

  6. Causes of Death among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years Old from 2008 to 2013 in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS), Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dedefo, Melkamu; Zelalem, Desalew; Eskinder, Biniyam; Assefa, Nega; Ashenafi, Wondimye; Baraki, Negga; Damena Tesfatsion, Melake; Oljira, Lemessa; Haile, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Background The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of...

  7. Investigating the potential influence of cause of death and cocaine levels on the differential expression of genes associated with cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Michael J; Savonen, Candace L; Hartley, Zachary J; Johnson, Magen M; Schmidt, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  8. Oxidised low density lipoprotein causes human macrophage cell death through oxidant generation and inhibition of key catabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouah, Hanadi; Chen, Alpha; Othman, Izani; Gieseg, Steven P

    2015-10-01

    Oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is thought to be a significant contributor to the death of macrophage cells observed in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Using human-derived U937 cells we have examined the effect of cytotoxic oxLDL on oxidative stress and cellular catabolism. Within 3h of the addition of oxLDL, there was a rapid, concentration dependent rise in cellular reactive oxygen species followed by the loss of cellular GSH, and the enzyme activity of both glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and aconitase. The loss of these catabolic enzymes was accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP and lower lactate generation. Addition of the macrophage antioxidant 7,8-dihydroneopterin inhibited the ROS generation, glutathione loss and catabolic inactivation. NOX was shown to be activated by oxLDL addition while apocynin inhibited the loss of GSH and cell viability. The data suggests that oxLDL triggers an excess of ROS production through NOX activation, and catabolic failure through thiol oxidation resulting in cell death. PMID:26255116

  9. Diagnosis of brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD should be understood as the ultimate clinical expression of a brain catastrophe characterized by a complete and irreversible neurological stoppage, recognized by irreversible coma, absent brainstem reflexes, and apnea. The most common pattern is manifested by an elevation of intracranial pressure to a point beyond the mean arterial pressure, and hence cerebral perfusion pressure falls and, as a result, no net cerebral blood flow is present, in due course leading to permanent cytotoxic injury of the intracranial neuronal tissue. A second mechanism is an intrinsic injury affecting the nervous tissue at a cellular level which, if extensive and unremitting, can also lead to BD. We review here the methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the signs of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can cause death only when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of such loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed.

  10. Congruencies in Increased Mortality Rates, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Causes of Death Among Public Mental Health Clients in Eight States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Colton, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mortality rates are used as global measures of a population’s health status and as indicators for public health efforts and medical treatments. Elevated mortality rates among individuals with mental illness have been reported in various studies, but very little focus has been placed on interstate comparisons and congruency of mortality and causes of death among public mental health clients. Methods Using age-adjusted death rates, standardized mortality ratios, and years of potential life lost, we compared the mortality of public mental health clients in eight states with the mortality of their state general populations. The data used in our study were submitted by public mental health agencies in eight states (Arizona, Missouri, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and Virginia for 1997 through 2000 during the Sixteen-State Study on Mental Health Performance Measures, a multistate study federally funded by the Center for Mental Health Services in collaboration with the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. Results In all eight states, we found that public mental health clients had a higher relative risk of death than the general populations of their states. Deceased public mental health clients had died at much younger ages and lost decades of potential life when compared with their living cohorts nationwide. Clients with major mental illness diagnoses died at younger ages and lost more years of life than people with non-major mental illness diagnoses. Most mental health clients died of natural causes similar to the leading causes of death found nationwide, including heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular, respiratory, and lung diseases. Conclusion Mental health and physical health are intertwined; both types of care should be provided and linked together within health care delivery systems. Research to track mortality and primary care should be increased to provide information for additional

  11. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... your baby. What are common causes of neonatal death? The most common causes of neonatal death are: ...

  12. Comprehensive investigation of postmortem glucose levels in blood and body fluids with regard to the cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Michiue, Tomomi; Inamori-Kawamoto, Osamu; Ikeda, Sayuko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The serum glucose level is regulated within a narrow range by multiple factors under physiological conditions, but is greatly modified in the death process and after death. The present study comprehensively investigated glucose levels in blood and body fluids, including pericardial fluid (PCF), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and vitreous humor, reviewing forensic autopsy cases (n=672). Right heart blood glucose level was often higher than at other sites, and the CSF glucose level was the lowest, showing greater dissociation in acute/subacute death cases. The glucose level was higher in the diabetic (high HbA1c) than in the non-diabetic (low HbA1c) group at each site (pdeath due to ischemic heart disease. Fatal methamphetamine (MA) abuse, sepsis, malnutrition (starvation) and hypoglycemia due to antidiabetics showed markedly lower blood glucose levels. Ketones in bilateral cardiac blood and PCF were increased in diabetic ketoacidosis and fatal alcohol abuse as well as in most cases of hyperthermia (heatstroke), hypothermia (cold exposure) and malnutrition. These findings suggest that combined analysis of glucose, HbA1c and ketones in blood and body fluids is useful to investigate not only fatal diabetic metabolic disorders but also death processes due to other causes, including alcohol and MA abuse, as well as thermal disorders, sepsis and malnutrition. PMID:26593993

  13. (210)Po poisoning as possible cause of death: forensic investigations and toxicological analysis of the remains of Yasser Arafat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, Pascal; Bochud, François; Baechler, Sébastien; Castella, Vincent; Augsburger, Marc; Bailat, Claude; Michaud, Katarzyna; Straub, Marietta; Pecchia, Marco; Jenk, Theo M; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    The late president of the Palestinian Authority, Yasser Arafat, died in November 2004 in Percy Hospital, one month after having experienced a sudden onset of symptoms that included severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain and which were followed by multiple organ failure. In spite of numerous investigations performed in France, the pathophysiological mechanisms at the origin of the symptoms could not be identified. In 2011, we found abnormal levels of polonium-210 ((210)Po) in some of Arafat's belongings that were worn during his final hospital stay and which were stained with biological fluids. This finding led to the exhumation of Arafat's remains in 2012. Significantly higher (up to 20 times) activities of (210)Po and lead-210 ((210)Pb) were found in the ribs, iliac crest and sternum specimens compared to reference samples from the literature (p-value <1%). In all specimens from the tomb, (210)Po activity was supported by a similar activity of (210)Pb. Biokinetic calculations demonstrated that a (210)Pb impurity, as identified in a commercial source of 3MBq of (210)Po, may be responsible for the activities measured in Arafat's belongings and remains 8 years after his death. The absence of myelosuppression and hair loss in Mr Arafat's case compared to Mr Litvinenko's, the only known case of malicious poisoning with (210)Po, could be explained by differences in the time delivery-scheme of intake. In conclusion, statistical Bayesian analysis combining all the evidence gathered in our forensic expert report moderately supports the proposition that Mr Arafat was poisoned by (210)Po. PMID:26707208

  14. Long-term exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy and risk of death from specific causes: no evidence for any previously unidentified increased risk due to antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2012-01-01

    . In the first two years on cART the risk of non-AIDS death was significantly lower, but no significant difference in the rate of non-AIDS-related deaths between 2-3.99 years and longer exposure to cART was observed. CONCLUSIONS:: In conclusion, we found no evidence of an increased risk of both all......BACKGROUND:: Despite the known substantial benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), cumulative adverse effects could still limit the overall long-term treatment benefit. Therefore we investigated changes in the rate of death with increasing exposure to cART. METHODS:: 12069 patients...... exposure to cART (=3 antiretrovirals): 8 years. Duration of cART exposure was the cumulative time actually receiving cART. Poisson regression models were fitted for each cause of death separately. RESULTS:: 1297 patients died during 70613 PYFU (IR 18.3 per 1000 PYFU, 95%CI: 17.4-19.4), 413 due to AIDS (5...

  15. An empirical comparative study of approximate methods for binary graphical models; application to the search of associations among causes of death in French death certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Viallon, Vivian; Banerjee, Onureena; Rey, Gregoire; Jougla, Eric; Coste, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Looking for associations among multiple variables is a topical issue in statistics due to the increasing amount of data encountered in biology, medicine and many other domains involving statistical applications. Graphical models have recently gained popularity for this purpose in the statistical literature. Following the ideas of the LASSO procedure designed for the linear regression framework, recent developments dealing with graphical model selection have been based on $\\ell_1$-penalization...

  16. Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter are both associated with increased mortality but differ with respect to the cause of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2013-01-01

    nonhyperthyroid controls with respect to age and sex. The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. All analyses were adjusted for comorbidity using the Charlson score. Results: Both GD (HR=1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.60]) and TNG (HR=1.22 [CI 1.07-1.40]) were...... hospital setting, are associated with increased all-cause mortality. The causes of death differ between the two phenotypes, with cardiovascular mortality being significantly higher in GD....

  17. 某医院3945份死亡病例死因分析%An Analysis on the cause of 3945 Death Cases in the Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文军; 谢建福; 于永; 孟岳良; 刘彬

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨地处四川境内某医院3945例住院病人的死亡原因及其分布特征.方法:对2000年~2010年经某医院3945份死亡病例资料进行分析.结果:住院死亡病例主要死因为:恶性肿瘤、呼吸系统疾病、脑血管疾病、肝脏疾病、心血管疾病、消化道疾病、意外死亡、肾病、骨病变.男性死亡病例均明显高于女性,45岁以上年龄组占3/4主体比重.结论:交通事故仍然是主要意外死因,值得警惕;西南地区人们喜辛辣食物、酗酒、熬夜等不良生活习惯增大了引发致死疾病的几率;政府应加大综合预防保健与健康生活方式的引导力度;医院也应开展主要致死疾病针对性研究,加强收治工作.%Objective: To investigate the cause of death and its distributive characteristics in 3945 death cases of the hospital located in sichuan province. Methods: We analyzed 3945 cases of death material of the hospital from 2000 to 2010. Results: We know the main causes of death: malignant tumor, respiratory system disease, cerebrovascular disease, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, accidental death, kidney, bone lesions. Male death cases are significantly higher than that in female, Above 45 years of age group accounts for 3 / 4 body proportion. Conclusion: The traffic accident is still the main accidental death, be worth vigilance. The bad habits of the people Located in the southwest region Eating spicy food, alcohol, staying up late increase triggered lethal disease risk. The government should increase the preventive health care and health lifestyle guide strength.The hospitals should also carry out the targeted research of the main lethal diseases.and strengthen the treatment work.

  18. Performance of InterVA for assigning causes of death to verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaxman Abraham D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background InterVA is a widely disseminated tool for cause of death attribution using information from verbal autopsies. Several studies have attempted to validate the concordance and accuracy of the tool, but the main limitation of these studies is that they compare cause of death as ascertained through hospital record review or hospital discharge diagnosis with the results of InterVA. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the performance of InterVA compared to physician-certified verbal autopsies (PCVA and alternative automated methods for analysis. Methods Using clinical diagnostic gold standards to select 12,542 verbal autopsy cases, we assessed the performance of InterVA on both an individual and population level and compared the results to PCVA, conducting analyses separately for adults, children, and neonates. Following the recommendation of Murray et al., we randomly varied the cause composition over 500 test datasets to understand the performance of the tool in different settings. We also contrasted InterVA with an alternative Bayesian method, Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP, to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the tool. Results Across all age groups, InterVA performs worse than PCVA, both on an individual and population level. On an individual level, InterVA achieved a chance-corrected concordance of 24.2% for adults, 24.9% for children, and 6.3% for neonates (excluding free text, considering one cause selection. On a population level, InterVA achieved a cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.546 for adults, 0.504 for children, and 0.404 for neonates. The comparison to SSP revealed four specific characteristics that lead to superior performance of SSP. Increases in chance-corrected concordance are attained by developing cause-by-cause models (2%, using all items as opposed to only the ones that mapped to InterVA items (7%, assigning probabilities to clusters of symptoms (6%, and using empirical

  19. Deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene is sufficient to cause oxidative stress, delayed differentiation and neuronal death in mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ahlemeyer

    2012-01-01

    Impaired neuronal migration and cell death are commonly observed in patients with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs, and in mouse models of this diseases. In Pex11β-deficient mice, we observed that the deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene (Pex11β+/− heterozygous mice caused cell death in primary neuronal cultures prepared from the neocortex and cerebellum, although to a lesser extent as compared with the homozygous-null animals (Pex11β−/− mice. In corresponding brain sections, cell death was rare, but differences between the genotypes were similar to those found in vitro. Because PEX11β has been implicated in peroxisomal proliferation, we searched for alterations in peroxisomal abundance in the brain of heterozygous and homozygous Pex11β-null mice compared with wild-type animals. Deletion of one allele of the Pex11β gene slightly increased the abundance of peroxisomes, whereas the deletion of both alleles caused a 30% reduction in peroxisome number. The size of the peroxisomal compartment did not correlate with neuronal death. Similar to cell death, neuronal development was delayed in Pex11β+/− mice, and to a further extent in Pex11β−/− mice, as measured by a reduced mRNA and protein level of synaptophysin and a reduced protein level of the mature isoform of MAP2. Moreover, a gradual increase in oxidative stress was found in brain sections and primary neuronal cultures from wild-type to heterozygous to homozygous Pex11β-deficient mice. SOD2 was upregulated in neurons from Pex11β+/− mice, but not from Pex11β−/− animals, whereas the level of catalase remained unchanged in neurons from Pex11β+/− mice and was reduced in those from Pex11β−/− mice, suggesting a partial compensation of oxidative stress in the heterozygotes, but a failure thereof in the homozygous Pex11β−/− brain. In conclusion, we report the alterations in the brain caused by the deletion of a single allele of the Pex11β gene. Our data might lead

  20. Multiple Analysis on the Death of Socrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽丽

    2015-01-01

    The death of Socrates is often associated with the death of Jesus, in order to highlight the important role of the death in the whole human civilization. people's thinking about the causes and meaning of the death has never stopped since Socrates was sentenced to death by the public trial court of Athens, with the majority of 361 to 140 in 399 BC. Many of the ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign philosophers, statesmen, ethicists, legistes have expressed their views on this affair.

  1. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R.; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas.Design: Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS ma...

  2. Deaths in Custody: A 25-Year Review of Jail Deaths in Bexar County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Jason G; Molina, D Kimberley

    2015-12-01

    Although deaths in custody are an expected occurrence, they are often subjected to increased scrutiny and raise many questions as to circumstances surrounding the death as well as the cause and manner of death. It is usually the responsibility of the medical examiner to answer these questions. Relatively few studies have reviewed the causes and manners of death that occur while in custody and even fewer specific to jail populations. This study reviews the cause and manner of death of persons in custody in an urban county from 1985 to 2010. A retrospective review of death investigations, including death certificates and autopsy reports, was conducted on all deaths that occurred in custody during the period. The age and sex of the decedent as well as the place of death were also recorded. Most deaths were attributed to natural disease followed by suicide, and most deaths occurred either in the emergency department or in the hospital. Regarding the cause of death, cardiovascular disease followed by suicide by hanging accounted for the most number of deaths (25% and 20% of all deaths, respectively). It is recommended that all deaths in custody be reported to the medical examiner and that a thorough death investigation be conducted to properly define and document the cause and manner of death. This is particularly important given the increased scrutiny to which deaths in custody are often subjected. PMID:26196271

  3. Antipsychotic polypharmacy and risk of death from natural causes in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Gasse, Christiane; Jensen, Vibeke;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Concomitant prescription of more than 1 antipsychotic agent (antipsychotic polypharmacy) in the treatment of schizophrenia is prevalent, although monotherapy is generally recommended. Mortality from natural causes is markedly increased in schizophrenia, and the role of polypharmacy...... remains controversial. The objective was to investigate if antipsychotic polypharmacy is associated with the excess mortality from natural causes among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted using patient data from January 1, 1996, to December 31...... hours) was associated with increased risk of natural death in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics (OR = 1.78 [95% CI, 1.25-2.52]). CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotic polypharmacy did not contribute to the excess mortality from natural causes in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia. The...

  4. Proteomic analysis of novel targets associated with the enhancement of TrkA-induced SK-N-MC cancer cell death caused by NGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Joo; Chung, Ky Hyun; Bae, Dong-Won; Kim, Choong Won

    2016-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to regulate both cancer cell survival and death signaling, depending on the cellular circumstances, in various cell types. In this study, we showed that NGF strongly upregulated the protein level of tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) in TrkA-inducible SK-N-MC cancer cells, resulting in increases in various TrkA-dependent cellular processes, including the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-8 cleavage. In addition, NGF enhanced TrkA-induced morphological changes and cell death, and this effect was significantly suppressed by the JNK inhibitor SP600125, but not by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin. To investigate novel targets associated with the enhancement of TrkA-induced SK-N-MC cell death caused by NGF, we performed Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and two-dimensional (2D) proteomic analysis in TrkA-inducible SK-N-MC cells. We identified 31 protein spots that were either greatly upregulated or downregulated by TrkA during NGF treatment using matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry, and we analyzed the effects of SP600125 and wortmannin on the spots. Interestingly, 11 protein spots, including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), lamin B1 and TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP43), were significantly influenced by SP600125, but not by wortmannin. Moreover, the NGF/TrkA-dependent inhibition of cell viability was significantly enhanced by knockdown of hnRNP K using small interfering RNA, demonstrating that hnRNP K is a novel target associated with the regulation of TrkA-dependent SK-N-MC cancer cell death enhanced by NGF. PMID:27229480

  5. 尿毒症患者死因及其危险因素%Death causes and risk factors of uremia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖寒; 甘华; 李革; 杨德香

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the death causes and risk factors of uremia patients in order to improve the prognosis of uremia patients.Methods Clinical data of 247 uremia inpatients and outpatients from 2001 to 2011 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed.Dead patients were served as death group (n=124) and survival patients as control group (n=123).Death causes and primary disease were studied.Frequency of hemodialysis,prealbumin,albumin,natremia and pulmonary infection were compared between two groups.Results Age and gender were not associated with the death of uremia patients.The most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease followed by respiratory failure,uremic encephalopathy,cerebral hemorrhage,gastrointestinal hemorrhage,etc.Hemodialysis frequency,prealbumin,albumin and natremia of dead patients were obviously lower than those of control group.More patients in death group suffered from pulmonary infection.Logistic multivariate analysis revealed that death risk increased by 40.7% when reducing 1 time per week of hemodialysis; death risk increased by 53.4% when reducing 50 mg/L of prealbumin; death risk increased by 14.6% when reducing 5 mmol/L of blood sodium; death risk of patients with pulmonary infection increased by 15.06 times of patients without pulmonary infection;death risk of diabetes mellitus increased by 4.26 times of patients without diabetes mellitus.Conclusions Cardiovascular disease,respiratory failure,uremic encephalopathy,cerebral hemorrhage,and gastrointestinal hemorrhage are common causes of death in uremia patients.Hemodialysis frequency,prealbumin,hyponatremia,pulmonary infection and diabetes can be regarded as risk factors for death of uremia patients.%目的 探讨尿毒症患者的死因及其危险因素,从而改善尿毒症患者的预后.方法 回顾性分析我院2001年至2011年住院及门 诊尿毒症患者247例的临床资料.以死亡患者为死亡组(n=124),存活患者为对照组(n=123).对死因、原

  6. Use of death certificates for mesothelioma surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    L K Davis; Martin, T R; Kligler, B

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Massachusetts Cancer Registry and death certificates were linked for mesothelioma cases reported to the registry from 1982 through 1987 to determine the extent to which the cause of death information that is given on the death certificate is useful in identifying mesothelioma cases for disease surveillance. Only 12 percent of all persons reported with mesothelioma who had died were detected using underlying cause of death codes for cancers of the peritoneum and pleura, which are...

  7. Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenbacka Marlene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most previous studies on mortality in violent offenders or victims are based on prison or hospital samples, while this study analyzed overall and cause specific mortality among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims in a general sample of 48,834 18-20 year-old men conscripted for military service in 1969/70 in Sweden. Methods Each person completed two non-anonymous questionnaires concerning family, psychological, and behavioral factors. The cohort was followed for 35 years through official registers regarding violent offenses, victimization, and mortality. The impact of violence, victimization, early risk factors and hospitalization for psychiatric diagnosis or alcohol and drug misuse during follow up on mortality was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results Repeat violent offenses were associated with an eleven fold higher hazard of dying from a substance-related cause and nearly fourfold higher hazard of dying from suicide. These figures remained significantly elevated also in multivariate analyses, with a 3.03 and 2.39 hazard ratio (HR, respectively. Participants with experience of violence and inpatient care for substance abuse or psychiatric disorder had about a two to threefold higher risk of dying compared to participants with no substance use or psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Violent offending and being victimized are associated with excess mortality and a risk of dying from an alcohol or drug-related cause or suicide. Consequently, prevention of violent behavior might have an effect on overall mortality and suicide rates. Prevention of alcohol and drug use is also warranted.

  8. Causes of Death in Men With Prevalent Diabetes and Newly Diagnosed High- Versus Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether prevalent diabetes mellitus (pDM) affects the presentation, extent of radiotherapy, or prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality (PCSM) and whether PCa aggressiveness affects the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality in men with pDM. Methods: Between October 1997 and July 2907, 5,279 men treated at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center with radiotherapy for PCa were included in the study. Logistic and competing risk regression analyses were performed to assess whether pDM was associated with high-grade PCa, less aggressive radiotherapy, and an increased risk of PCSM. Competing risks and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess whether PCa aggressiveness described by risk group in men with pDM was associated with the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Analyses were adjusted for predictors of high-grade PCa and factors that could affect treatment extent and mortality. Results: Men with pDM were more likely (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; p = .002) to present with high-grade PCa but were not treated less aggressively (p = .33) and did not have an increased risk of PCSM (p = .58) compared to men without pDM. Among the men with pDM, high-risk PCa was associated with a greater risk of non-PCSM (AHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = .035), DM-related mortality (AHR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.0-14.0; p = .001), and all-cause mortality (AHR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7; p = .01) compared to favorable-risk PCa. Conclusion: Aggressive management of pDM is warranted in men with high-risk PCa.

  9. Disruption of the novel gene fad104 causes rapid postnatal death and attenuation of cell proliferation, adhesion, spreading and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular mechanisms at the beginning of adipogenesis remain unknown. Previously, we identified a novel gene, fad104 (factor for adipocyte differentiation 104), transiently expressed at the early stage of adipocyte differentiation. Since the knockdown of the expression of fad104 dramatically repressed adipogenesis, it is clear that fad104 plays important roles in adipocyte differentiation. However, the physiological roles of fad104 are still unknown. In this study, we generated fad104-deficient mice by gene targeting. Although the mice were born in the expected Mendelian ratios, all died within 1 day of birth, suggesting fad104 to be crucial for survival after birth. Furthermore, analyses of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) prepared from fad104-deficient mice provided new insights into the functions of fad104. Disruption of fad104 inhibited adipocyte differentiation and cell proliferation. In addition, cell adhesion and wound healing assays using fad104-deficient MEFs revealed that loss of fad104 expression caused a reduction in stress fiber formation, and notably delayed cell adhesion, spreading and migration. These results indicate that fad104 is essential for the survival of newborns just after birth and important for cell proliferation, adhesion, spreading and migration

  10. Distinct CPT-induced deaths in lung cancer cells caused by clathrin-mediated internalization of CP micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Ru-You; Lo, Yu-Lun; Hsu, Chin; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-02-01

    We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of poly(ε-caprolactone) (18.7 mol%), which self-assembled in water into a rod-like micelle to encapsulate hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT) in the core (micelle/CPT) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. As a result of the recognition of the micelle by CD44, the micelle/CPT entered CRL-5802 cells efficiently and released CPT efficaciously, resulting in higher tumor suppression than commercial CPT-11. In this study, H1299 cells were found to have a higher CD44 expression than CRL-5802 cells. However, the lower CD44-expressing CRL-5802 cells had a higher percentage of cell death and higher cellular uptake of the micelle/CPT than the higher CD44-expressing H1299 cells. Examination of the internalization pathway of the micelle/CPT in the presence of different endocytic chemical inhibitors showed that the CRL-5802 cells involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was not found in the H1299 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle of the two cell lines exposed to the micelle/CPT revealed that the CRL-5802 cells arrested mainly in the S phase and the H1299 cells arrested mainly in the G2-M phase. A consistent result was also found in the evaluation of γ-H2AX expression, which was about three-fold higher in the CRL-5802 cells than in the H1299 cells. A near-infrared dye, IR780, was encapsulated into the micelle to observe the in vivo biodistribution of the micelle/IR780 in tumor-bearing mice. The CRL-5802 tumor showed a higher fluorescence intensity than the H1299 tumor at any tracing time after 1 h. Thus we tentatively concluded that CRL-5802 cells utilized the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway and arrested in the S phase on exposure to the micelle/CPT; all are possible reasons for the better therapeutic outcome in CRL-5802 cells than in H1299 cells.We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of

  11. HIV感染者/AIDS病人死亡原因的研究进展%Analysis of the causes of death of HIV infectors/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞芳; 刘中夫

    2013-01-01

    近年来,随着越来越多的艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者进入艾滋病(AIDS)发病期,越来越多的感染者死于AIDS相关疾病.另外,随着抗病毒治疗的覆盖率不断扩大,HIV感染者/AIDS病人死于AIDS相关疾病的比例不断降低,而死于其他非AIDS相关疾病的比例却不断升高.文章就当前国内外对HIV感染者/AIDS病人死亡原因的有关研究进展进行综述,为医疗机构加强和提高对重点疾病的诊疗技术水平提供理论支持,也为中国AIDS死因监测的建立提供理论依据.%In recent years, an increasing number of HIV infectors died of AIDS related diseases because more and more HIV infections are progressing into AIDS stage. Furthermore, along with the expanding of antiretroviral therapy coverage, the proportion of HIV infectors/AIDS patients who died of AIDS related diseases was decreasing while the proportion of deaths of non-AIDS related diseases was rising continuously. This paper reviews domestic and oversea reports about progress in researches on the causes of death of HIV infectors/AIDS patients. Hopefully it could provide theoretical support and evidence for medical care facilities to strengthen and enhance their diagnostic and therapeutic ability and also for the establishment of AIDS related death monitoring system in China.

  12. The Effect of Early Detection of Occult Brain Metastases in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients on Survival and Cause of Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate disease-free survival, survival from the detection of brain metastases, overall survival, and cause of death in patients with occult brain metastases (Group I) vs. patients with symptomatic brain metastases (Group II). Methods and Materials: In 80 HER2-positive breast cancer patients, treated with trastuzumab and cytostatic agents for metastatic disease, magnetic resonance imaging screening of the brain was performed, and in 29 patients (36%) occult brain metastasis was detected (Group I). Whole-brain radiotherapy was delivered to Group I. This first group was compared with 52 patients who had symptomatic brain metastases (Group II) and was treated the same way, at the same clinic, during the same time period. Results: Median disease-free survival was 17 months in Group I and 19.9 months in Group II (p = 0.58). The median time interval between the dissemination of the disease and the detection of occult or symptomatic brain metastases was 9 and 15 months, respectively (p = 0.11). When the brain metastases were detected, the median survival was 9 and 8.78 months, respectively (p = 0.80). The median overall survival was 53 and 51 months, respectively (p = 0.94). In the group with occult brain metastases (Group I) 16% of patients died because of progression within the brain. In the group with symptomatic brain metastases (Group II) the rate of cerebral death was 48% (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Whole-brain radiotherapy of occult brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer patients with visceral dissemination produces a three-fold decrease in cerebral deaths but does not prolong survival.

  13. The politics of underdevelopment: metered to death-how a water experiment caused riots and a cholera epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Water privatization programs in South Africa, part of a government policy aimed at making people pay for the full cost of running water ("total cost recovery"), was developed by private water companies and the World Bank to finance improved water supplies and build the country's economy. Instead the programs are causing more misery than development. Millions of poor people have had their water supply cut off because of inability to pay, forcing them to get their water from polluted rivers and lakes and leading to South Africa's worst cholera outbreak--which the government paid millions of dollars to control. Residents in some townships are rebelling, and many of the private multinational water companies are reassessing their involvement in South Africa. PMID:14758861

  14. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  15. Cytokine response during non-cerebral and cerebral malaria: evidence of a failure to control inflammation as a cause of death in African adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbengue, Babacar; Dagamajalu, Shobha; Fall, Mouhamadou Mansour; Loke, Mun Fai; Nguer, Cheikh Momar; Thiam, Alassane; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Dieye, Alioune

    2016-01-01

    Background. With 214 million cases and 438,000 deaths in 2015, malaria remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases in tropical countries. Several species of the protozoan Plasmodium cause malaria. However, almost all the fatalities are due to Plasmodium falciparum, a species responsible for the severest cases including cerebral malaria. Immune response to Plasmodium falciparum infection is mediated by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors whose actions are crucial for the control of the parasites. Following this response, the induction of anti-inflammatory immune mediators downregulates the inflammation thus preventing its adverse effects such as damages to various organs and death. Methods. We performed a retrospective, nonprobability sampling study using clinical data and sera samples from patients, mainly adults, suffering of non-cerebral or cerebral malaria in Dakar, Sénégal. Healthy individuals residing in the same area were included as controls. We measured the serum levels of 29 biomarkers including growth factors, chemokines, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Results. We found an induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators during malaria. The levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers were higher in the cerebral malaria than in the non-cerebral malaria patients. In contrast, the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines were comparable in these two groups or lower in CM patients. Additionally, four pro-inflammatory biomarkers were significantly increased in the deceased of cerebral malaria compared to the survivors. Regarding organ damage, kidney failure was significantly associated with death in adults suffering of cerebral malaria. Conclusions. Our results suggest that a poorly controlled inflammatory response determines a bad outcome in African adults suffering of cerebral malaria.

  16. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  17. Mortalidade por causas violentas no município de São Paulo, Brasil: III - mortes intencionais Causes of violent, deaths in the municipal region of S. Paulo, Brazil: III - intentional deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena P. de Mello Jorge

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados óbitos por causas violentas - estando descritas as mortes intencionais: suicídios e homicídios - no município de São Paulo (Brasil, com o objetivo de caracterizar essa mortalidade segundo as reais causas de morte, relacionando-as com variáveis consideradas importantes do ponto de vista epidemiológico. Os resultados evidenciaram um declínio das taxas de mortalidade por suicídio, entre 1960 e 1975, enquanto que, para os homicídios, os coeficientes cresceram de 5,18 a 9,35 por cem mil habitantes. Quanto à distribuição segundo sexo e idade, os coeficientes de mortalidade por suicídio foram crescentes com a idade no sexo masculino, sendo que entre as mulheres houve um pico no grupo etário de 20 a 29 anos. Nos homicídios, os coeficientes do sexo masculino foram maiores que os do feminino, numa relação aproximada de 7:1, em qualquer dos anos analisados. Foram estudados ainda os meios utilizados para a realização desses eventos, sendo que, com relação aos homicídios, a arma de fogo foi sempre o meio preferido: seus coeficientes cresceram 268% do início para o fim do período estudado. O trabalho mostra ainda o comportamento dos suicídios e homicídios segundo dias da semana, meses do ano e hora e local de sua realização.Deaths resulting from violent causes, specifically those due to suicide and homicide, in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, are described by classifying them in terms of their real causes and by establishing the relationship between these causes and the variables considered important from the epidemiological standpoint. The results show a decline in the suicide rate between 1960 and 1975; during the same period, however, the rate for homicides increased from 5.18 to 9.35 per hundred thousand inhabitants. The mortality rate for suicides among men increased in the older age brackets, contrary to that for women which peaked in the 20-29 bracket. The statistics on homicides showed that the death rate for

  18. Suicidal Behaviors in Surviving Monozygotic and Dizygotic Co-Twins: Is the Nature of the Co-Twin's Cause of Death a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Genetically informative samples can address hereditary and experiential influences on suicide-related behaviors. The frequency of suicide-related behaviors was compared in twins from two survivor groups: (1) those whose co-twins' deaths were suicides (monozygotic [MZ]: n = 47; dizygotic [DZ]: n = 31), and (2) those whose co-twins' deaths were…

  19. Cellular calcium deficiency plays a role in neuronal death caused by proteasome inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shengzhou; Hyrc, Krzysztof L.; Moulder, Krista L.; Lin, Ying; Warmke, Timothy; Snider, B. Joy

    2009-01-01

    Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) is reduced in cultured neurons undergoing neuronal death caused by inhibitors of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Activation of calcium entry via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels restores cytosolic Ca2+ levels and reduces this neuronal death (Snider et al. 2002). We now show that this reduction in [Ca2+]i is transient and occurs early in the cell death process, before activation of caspase-3. Agents that increase Ca2+ influx such as activation of voltage-gate...

  20. Death Cause Analysis and Intervention Measures of Children%儿童死亡原因分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓洁; 毕珍; 李明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the mortality of children under 5 years of age and the main cause of death,the intervention measures, reduce the mortality of children under 5 years of age. Methods from 2008 to 2012 in Kunming city hospital for children below 5 years old the cause of death and mortality were analyzed. Results the mortality rate of children under 5 years old in 2012 (169 cases) than in 2008 (262 cases) fel 35.50% in 449 cases,accounting for 43.76%; 1 years old the fol owing 335, accounting for 32.65%,5 years old the fol owing 242 accounting for 23.59%;wherein the pre-hospital death in 442 cases,accounting for 43.78%. The main disease caused the death of children under the age of 5 asphyxia,pneumonia,infection of central nerve system,premature delivery or low birth weight,congenital anomalies,accounting for 89.96% of the total number of deaths. Conclusion the key to reduce the mortality of children under the age of 5 is to reduce the neonatal mortality and hospital. Strengthen maternal and neonatal care,improve the quality of Obstetrics,early intervention,strengthening the construction of grass-roots health institutions,publicity through various channels and in various forms, so that the grass-roots medical staf and parents do early prevention,early diagnosis and early treatment of diseases of children and children under 5 years old from reduced mortality.%目的:分析5岁以下儿童死亡率及主要死亡原因,提出干预措施,降低5岁以下儿童死亡率。方法对2008~2012年昆明市儿童医院5岁以下儿童死亡原因及病死率进行分析。结果5岁以下儿童病死率2012年(169例)比2008年(262例)下降了35.50%,新生儿449例,占43.76%;1岁以下335例,占32.65%,5岁以下242例,占23.59%;其中院前死亡442例,占43.78%。导致5岁以下儿童死亡的主要疾病为窒息、肺炎、中枢感染、早产或低出生体重和先天异常,占死亡总数的89.96%。结论降低5岁以下儿童死

  1. Discovery of Small-Molecule Enhancers of Reactive Oxygen Species That are Nontoxic or Cause Genotype-Selective Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Drew J.; Boskovic, Zarko; Theriault, Jimmy R.; Wang, Alex J.; Stern, Andrew M.; Wagner, Bridget K.; Shamji, Alykhan Farid; Schreiber, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels has been observed in many cancer cells relative to nontransformed cells, and recent reports have suggested that small-molecule enhancers of ROS may selectively kill cancer cells in various in vitro and in vivo models. We used a high-throughput screening approach to identify several hundred small-molecule enhancers of ROS in a human osteosarcoma cell line. A minority of these compounds diminished the viability of cancer cell lines, indicating t...

  2. Molecular identification of bacteria by total sequence screening: determining the cause of death in ancient human subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Ben; Thèves, Catherine; Senescau, Alice; Vanin, Stefano; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François Xavier; Alekseev, Anatoly N; Dabernat, Henri; Ludes, Bertrand; Fabre, Richard; Crubézy, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. Using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in easter...

  3. [The (in)salubrity of prison life and other causes of death in Porto Alegre Prison, 1855-1888].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Tiago da Silva

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the flow of penal sensitivities in relation to medical and health care provided to prisoners in Porto Alegre Prison between 1855 and 1888. The internalization and the instrumentalization of concepts such as "humanity" and "civilization," especially by those individuals involved directly or with strong chances of influencing changes pertaining to penal issues, are observed. Indeed, in addition to generating favorable public opinion, the concerns of governing authorities and leading lights led to the development of concrete measures and practices that increased the minimum subsistence offered to the imprisoned class. This process, however, was far from linear and harmonic as witnessed by the diseases and the precariousness of prison life. PMID:26331647

  4. 2010年成都市户籍人口主要死因%Major Causes of Death of Residents in Chengdu, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖江; 冯曦兮; 何燕; 姚思君

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析居民死因顺位、减寿顺位居前列的死亡原因在城乡、性别的分布差异.方法 利用2010年成都市死因监测资料,和成都市公安局公布的同期户籍人口数,编制寿命表和去死因寿命表,采用直接标化法计算城乡、性别标化死亡率后,比较其差异.结果 居民死因顺位前5位、减寿前5位、去死因期望寿命增加最多前5位疾病是恶性肿瘤、呼吸系统疾病、脑血管病、心脏病和损伤和中毒.恶性肿瘤以肺癌、肝癌、胃癌为首,死亡率男性高于女性,肺癌死亡率城市高于农村,肝癌、胃癌死亡率农村高于城市.慢性下呼吸道疾病、脑血管病死亡率都是农村高于城市,男性高于女性.心脏病死亡率城市高于农村,男性高于女性.损伤和中毒死亡率男性高于女性,农村高于城市,在顺位和构成上农村和城市、男性和女性有差异.结论 成都市居民影响期望寿命的主要疾病为恶性肿瘤、呼吸系统疾病、脑血管病、心脏病和损伤和中毒,不同地区和性别人群应对不同的重点疾病采取的措施,降低死亡率,提高期望寿命.%Objective To analyze the difference between causes of death which were forfrount in the rank of death cause and years of life lost in urban and rural areas, and between males and females. Methods Used of death cause monitoring data in 2010 of Chengdu, and the household population announced by Chengdu Public Security Bureau earlier, established the life tables and cause eliminated life table, calculated the urban and rural, sexual standardized death rate by using direct method of standardization, then compared the differences. Results The top 5 causes of death, years of life lost and cause eliminated life expectancy increasing were cancer, respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, injury and poisoning. Cancer was mainly in lung, liver, stomach, and the mortality rate of males was higher than females, lung

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF FORENSIC PATHOLOGY OF CEREBROVAS CULAR MALFORMATIONS CAUSING SUDDEN DEATH%脑血管畸形致猝死的法医病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萨日娜; 苏丽娟; 贾富全; 武彦

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We aim to study the forensic pathological characteristics of sudden death caused by cerebral vascular malformation. Methods: We analyzed 39 cases of cerebral vascular malformation. The samples were collected from Inner Mongolia Medical College between 1998 and 2010. Results:34 cases were young men in our samples(91. 89% ). Thus young men were the major people died of the lesion. Fight and wound was the main remote cause of the lesion. 24 cases (61. 54% ) belonged to this situation. Vascular rupture and bleeding was the most death cause of subjected people. Arteriovenous malformation was the most common pathological type of cerebral vascular malformation. The malformation type occupied 92.30% ( 36cases ). Cerebral vascular malformation often occurred in brain bottom, subarachnoid, lateral ventricles, cerebellum and brain stem. The subarachnoid was the most bleeding position which wasl6cases(41. 00% ). Conclusion:The identification of cerebral vascular malformation was very difficult. It was probably to make the objective,comprehensive and accurate identification conclusions combining forensic pathological characteristics with other examinations ( MRI, cerebral angiography and so on).%目的:探讨脑血管畸形致猝死的法医病理学特点.方法:对1998 ~2010年间内蒙古医学院法医学教研室39例脑血管畸形案例进行分析.结果:脑血管畸形猝死以青壮年男性为主,有34例(占91.9%),斗殴外伤为明显诱因,有24例(61.54%),破裂出血是主要死因.脑血管畸形的病理类型以脑动静脉畸形最为常见,有36例(92.3%),常发生于脑底部、蛛网膜下腔、侧脑室、小脑及脑干.出血类型以蛛网膜下腔出血最为常见,有16例(41%).结论:脑血管畸形的鉴定比较困难,根据其法医病理学特点,结合其他检查方法(如头部MRI,脑血管造影),才能做出客观、全面、准确的鉴定结论.

  6. Impact of the AD 79 explosive eruption on Pompeii, II. Causes of death of the inhabitants inferred by stratigraphic analysis and areal distribution of the human casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; De Carolis, Ernesto; Patricelli, Giovanni; Ciarallo, Annamaria

    2003-08-01

    Detailed descriptions of the effects of explosive eruptions on urban settlements available to volcanologists are relatively rare. Apart from disease and starvation, the largest number of human deaths caused by explosive eruptions in the twentieth century are due to pyroclastic flows. The relationship between the number of victims related to a specific hazard and the presence of urban settlements in the area covered by the eruption has been shown. However, pyroclastic falls are also extremely dangerous under certain conditions. These conclusions are based on archaeological and volcanological studies carried out on the victims of the well-known AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed and buried the Roman city of Pompeii. The stratigraphic level in the pyroclastic deposit and the location of all the casualties found are described and discussed. The total number of victims recovered during the archaeological excavations amounts to 1150. Of these, 1044 well recognisable bodies plus an additional group of 100 individuals were identified based on the analysis of several groups of scattered bones. Of the former, 394 were found in the lower pumice lapilli fall deposit and 650 in the upper stratified ash and pumice lapilli pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) deposits. In addition, a tentative evaluation suggests that 464 corpses may still be buried in the unexcavated part of the city. According to the reconstruction presented in this paper, during the first phase of the eruption (August 24, AD 79) a huge quantity of pumice lapilli fell on Pompeii burying the city under 3 m of pyroclastic material. During this eruptive phase, most of the inhabitants managed to leave the city. However, 38% of the known victims were killed during this phase mainly as a consequence of roofs and walls collapsing under the increasing weight of the pumice lapilli deposit. During the second phase of the eruption (August 25, AD 79) 49% of the total victims were on the roadways and 51% inside

  7. Causes of death in patients with asthma and asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Harada T; Yamasaki A.; Fukushima T; Hashimoto K; Takata M; Kodani M; Okazaki R; Takeda K; Watanabe M; Kurai J; Shimizu E

    2015-01-01

    Tomoya Harada, Akira Yamasaki, Takehito Fukushima, Kiyoshi Hashimoto, Miki Takata, Masahiro Kodani, Ryota Okazaki, Kenichi Takeda, Masanari Watanabe, Jun Kurai, Eiji Shimizu Division of Medical Oncology and Molecular Respirology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan Background: The administration of inhaled corticosteroids and worldwide usage of several asthma guidelines have improved asthma mortality. Elderly patients with asthma show high mo...

  8. Epilepsy and risk of death and sudden unexpected death in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature death from all causes and likely also from sudden unexplained death (SUD). Many patients with epilepsy have significant comorbidity, and it is unclear how much of the increased risk can be explained by epilepsy itself. We aimed to chart the...... incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and estimate the risk of death from all causes and SUD conferred by epilepsy independently....

  9. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Di Sabatino

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3 from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  10. Place and Cause of Death in Centenarians: A Population-Based Observational Study in England, 2001 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Catherine J; Yuen Ho; Daveson, Barbara A.; Sue Hall; Higginson, Irene J; Wei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Editors’ Summary Background People who live to be more than 100 years old—centenarians—are congratulated and honored in many countries. In the UK, for example, the Queen sends a personal greeting to individuals on their 100th birthday. The number of UK residents who reach this notable milestone is increasing steadily, roughly doubling every 10 years. The latest Office of National Statistics (ONS) figures indicate that 13,350 centenarians were living in the UK in 2012 (20 centenarians per 100,...

  11. Intragenotypic JFH1 based recombinant hepatitis C virus produces high levels of infectious particles but causes increased cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateu, Guaniri; Donis, Ruben O; Wakita, Takaji;

    2008-01-01

    into the JFH1 infectious clone. All genomes produced high levels of intracellular HCV RNA and NS3 protein in Huh-7.5 transfected cells. However, JFH1 genomes containing J6 sequences from C to E2 (CE2) or C to p7 (Cp7) secreted up to 100-fold more infectious HCV particles than the parental JFH1 clone......The full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) JFH1 genome (genotype 2a) produces moderate titers of infectious particles in cell culture but the optimal determinants required for virion production are unclear. It has been shown that intragenotypic recombinants encoding core to NS2 from J6CF in the...... of the chimeric junction. Moreover, NTRNS2 a chimeric virus equivalent to the previously reported FL-J6/JFH chimera, showed a 10-fold enhancement of virus titers compared to CNS2. NTRNS2 differs from CNS2 by three nucleotide differences residing in the 5' NTR and core coding sequence and all three...

  12. [Congenital long QT-syndrome: the cause of recurrent syncope and sudden death at a young age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerhuis, J.M.; Baars, H.F.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Akkerhuis, K.M.; Wilde, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Congenital long QT-syndrome (LQTS) was diagnosed in three patients. The first patient, a 10-year-old girl, presented with recurrent episodes of syncope during swimming and was diagnosed with type 1 LQTS. The second patient, a 36-year-old asymptomatic man, was accidentally diagnosed with type 2 LQTS.

  13. Cataract-Causing Mutation of Human Connexin 46 Impairs Gap Junction, but Increases Hemichannel Function and Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Qian; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Xu, Ji; Yan, Xiang; Nicholson, Bruce J; Gu, Sumin; Jiang, Jean X.

    2013-01-01

    Connexin channels play a critical role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and transparency of the lens. Mutations in connexin genes are linked to congenital cataracts in humans. The G143R missense mutation on connexin (Cx) 46 was recently reported to be associated with congenital Coppock cataracts. Here, we showed that the G143R mutation decreased Cx46 gap junctional coupling in a dominant negative manner; however, it significantly increased gap junctional plaques. The G143R mutant also inc...

  14. 老年维持性血液透析患者死亡原因分析%Analysis on Causes of Death in Elderly Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚云霄; 王明晓; 王慧娟

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the causes of death in elderly maintenance hemodialysis(MHD) patients. And to analyse the variation of the concentration of C-reactive protein(CRP) and serum albumin(ALB) in those patients.Methods:There were 21 patients [14 men, 7 women ,mean age (70.17±10.05)]recruited in this study. They died in our Blood purification Center from Aug 2009 to Jun 2012.And we chose 20 patients [12 men,8 women,mean age (68.61±11.42)]randomly as the control group treated at the same period. We compared the concentration of CRP and ALB at the time of 3 and 6 month before they died, and compared these items between the two groups.Results:Cardiocerebral vascular disease are the top 1 cause to the death of MHD patients. Infection disease was next it. Most people died in five years after dialysis treatment. The concentration of CRP in death group was higher than that in control group(15.75±4.74 VS 7.64±4.87,P<0.05). And the ALB concentration was just the reverse(37.65±7.91 VS 35.89±4.39,P<0.05).Conclusion:The death rate was high in elderly MHD patients.Chronic inflammation and malnutrition were prevalent in these patients.%目的:分析老年维持性血液透析(maintenance hemodialysis,MHD)患者主要死亡原因及C-反应蛋白(C-reactive protein,CRP)、血浆白蛋白(serum albumin,ALB)变化情况。方法:本研究纳入2009年8月至2012年6月在我院死亡,且60岁以上老年MHD患者21例[其中男性14例,女性7例。平均年龄(70.17±10.05岁)],回顾分析其一般资料及死亡前3个月、6个月CRP、ALB水平及随机选取同期非死亡老年MHD患者20例(男12例,女8例,平均年龄68.61±11.42岁)调查其相应化验指标并做对比分析。结果:心、脑血管病为第一位死因,感染性疾患占第二位。多数患者透析生存年限小于5年。死亡患者CRP水平高于非死亡患者[15.75±4.74 VS 7.64±4.87),P<0.05],ALB低于非死亡患者[(37.65±7.91 VS 35.89±4.39),P<0.05]。结论:老年MHD患

  15. Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ursula E; Briss, Peter A; Goodman, Richard A; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-07-01

    With non-communicable conditions accounting for nearly two-thirds of deaths worldwide, the emergence of chronic diseases as the predominant challenge to global health is undisputed. In the USA, chronic diseases are the main causes of poor health, disability, and death, and account for most of health-care expenditures. The chronic disease burden in the USA largely results from a short list of risk factors--including tobacco use, poor diet and physical inactivity (both strongly associated with obesity), excessive alcohol consumption, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and hyperlipidaemia--that can be effectively addressed for individuals and populations. Increases in the burden of chronic diseases are attributable to incidence and prevalence of leading chronic conditions and risk factors (which occur individually and in combination), and population demographics, including ageing and health disparities. To effectively and equitably address the chronic disease burden, public health and health-care systems need to deploy integrated approaches that bundle strategies and interventions, address many risk factors and conditions simultaneously, create population-wide changes, help the population subgroups most affected, and rely on implementation by many sectors, including public-private partnerships and involvement from all stakeholders. To help to meet the chronic disease burden, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses four cross-cutting strategies: (1) epidemiology and surveillance to monitor trends and inform programmes; (2) environmental approaches that promote health and support healthy behaviours; (3) health system interventions to improve the effective use of clinical and other preventive services; and (4) community resources linked to clinical services that sustain improved management of chronic conditions. Establishment of community conditions to support healthy behaviours and promote effective management of chronic conditions will deliver

  16. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy causing maternal death

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Hae Rin; Kim, Suk Young; Cho, Yoon Jin; Chon, Seung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is rare and occurs in approximately 3 in 10,000 pregnancies. It rarely complicates pregnancy, and can occur during any trimester, however over half (52%) of cases occur during the third trimester and during the post-partum period. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, acute pancreatitis caused by hypertriglyceridemia due to increase of estrogen during the gestational period is very unusual, but complication carries a hig...

  17. Clinically overt hereditary hemochromatosis in Denmark 1948-1985: epidemiology, factors of significance for long-term survival, and causes of death in 179 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, N; Pedersen, P; á Steig, T; Byg, K E; Graudal, N; Fenger, K

    2001-12-01

    The object was to analyze, in a nationwide survey, the incidence and course of hereditary hemochromatosis in relation to the degree of iron overload and the presence of organ damage. The study included 179 Danish Caucasian patients with clinically overt hemochromatosis diagnosed between 1948 and 1985. A cohort of 158 patients was followed for a median of 8.5 years (range: 0.2-29.5). From 1951 to 1975, the yearly relative incidence rate was constant: 0.58/100,000 persons >20 years of age. From 1981 to 1985, the yearly relative incidence rate rose to 1.40/100,000 persons >20 years of age. Survival was reduced in the entire series when compared with a matched control population ( p<0.0001). There was a steady increase in survival from 1948 to 1985 ( p<0.002). Survival was significantly reduced in patients with liver cirrhosis and/or diabetes mellitus ( p<0.01). In contrast, survival in patients without cirrhosis or diabetes was similar to rates expected. Survival in patients with arthropathy was higher than in patients without joint affection ( p<0.004). Patients adequately treated with phlebotomy ( n=66) had a higher survival than inadequately treated patients ( n=62; p<0.0001). Adequately treated patients with cirrhosis and/or diabetes had better survival than inadequately treated patients with similar organ damage ( p<0.001). The main causes of death were hepatic failure due to cirrhosis (32.0%) and cirrhosis with liver cancer (23.1%). Sharpened diagnostic awareness has improved early diagnosis and increased the diagnostic frequency of clinical hemochromatosis. Adequate phlebotomy treatment was the major determinant of survival and markedly improved prognosis. Early detection and treatment of this common iron overload disorder is crucial and can completely prevent any excess mortality caused by hemochromatosis. PMID:11797115

  18. Causas básicas e associadas de morte por Aids, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1998 Aids as underlying and associated causes of death, State of S. Paulo, Brazil, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hasiak Santo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o padrão da mortalidade devida a Aids segundo causas básica e associadas de morte no Estado de São Paulo, em 1998. MÉTODOS: Os dados sobre a mortalidade e a população residente no Estado de São Paulo, SP, para 1998, foram obtidos na Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (Seade. As causas de morte foram codificadas pelas disposições da Décima Revisão da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde. Os registros de Aids como causa básica e associada de morte foram recuperados e revistos. RESULTADOS: A Aids foi a causa básica em 4.619 mortes, correspondendo à décima causa (2,0% e ao coeficiente de mortalidade de 13,1 por 100.000 habitantes. As razões das mortes e os respectivos coeficientes entre homens e mulheres foram de 2,4 e 2,5. A Aids foi a segunda causa entre os homens de 20 a 34 anos de idade e entre as mulheres de 25 a 34. A idade média ao morrer entre as mulheres (34,1±12,2 anos foi estatisticamente menor que a dos homens (36,4±10,7 anos -- pOBJECTIVES: To describe the Aids mortality according to its underlying and associated causes of death in the State of S. Paulo in 1998. METHODS: Mortality and population data for 1998 were obtained from the State Data Analysis System Department (Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados - Seade. Causes of death were coded according to the Tenth Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. RESULTS: Aids was the underlying cause in 4,619 deaths, corresponding to the 10th leading cause of death (2.0% and a mortality rate of 13.1/100,000 population. Male/female death ratio and rate ratios were respectively 2.4 and 2.5. Aids was the second leading cause of death among men aged 20--34 and women aged 25--34 years. Median age at death for women (34.1±12.2 years old was lower than men (36.4±10.7 years old -- p<0,001. The main associated causes of Aids

  19. Tendencias recientes de las principales causas de muerte en Navarra: 1995-2004 Recent trends of the main causes of death in Navarre: 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Moreno-Iribas

    2006-12-01

    statistics for mortality in Navarre for the 1995-2004 period by sex, age and cause of death. Methods. The data proceeds from the statistical bulletins on death. The 1995-1999 period is compared with the 2000-2004 period, using adjusted rates to the population of Navarre for the year 2001 and the rate of potential years of life lost between 0-70 years adjusted to the European population. Results. Life expectancy at birth in the 2000-2004 period was 77.9 years in men and 85 years in women, the latter being one of the highest registered at the world level. Infant mortality fell to 3.3 per 1,000 living newborn infants. The risk of death has fallen in practically all age groups, with a notable fall in mortality of 40% in the 25-34 group at the cost of AIDS. There has been a significant increase of mortality due to lung cancer amongst women under 65 years of age (46% in the 2000-2004 period with respect to the previous five year period and a sharp fall in mortality due to breast cancer (45.4%. In both sexes there has been a continued fall of mortality due to cerebrovascular diseases, ischaemic heart diseases, cardiac failure and arteriosclerosis and of mortality due to ulcer and cirrhosis. The rates of mortality in Navarre in all the main groups of causes are lower than those of Europe, except for the rate of mortality due to external causes. Conclusions. The increase of mortality due to lung cancer and other cancers related to smoking, due to the spread of consumption in recent decades, could have a negative influence on the life expectancy of women in Navarre in coming years. The prevention of mortality due to external causes and the prevention of deaths linked to tobacco consumption are the two priorities that emerge from the data on mortality in this autonomous community.

  20. Deaths from natural causes in peole with mental illness: A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiroeh, Urara; Kapur, N.; Webb, Roger;

    2008-01-01

    range of psychiatric illnesses in both sexes. We observed SMRs greater than 200 in men and women with alcoholism, drug abuse, organic psychoses, dementia, and learning difficulties. Alcoholism and drug misuse in particular were important causes of premature mortality. The highest cause-specific SMRs...... likely to die at any age, and also prematurely, from natural causes. The consistency of elevated risk across psychiatric diagnoses and causes of death indicates an important health inequality. Those involved in planning and providing mental health services should address the heightened need for physical...

  1. The "moment of death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The "moment of death," once a dominant concept in preparing for a "good death", has been eclipsed by a focus on the wider concept of the "dying trajectory". However, findings from interviews with 25 bereaved individuals suggest that dying loved ones' final moments may still be experienced as highly significant in their own right. In some accounts the dying individual's final moments did not feature or made little impression, either because the survivor was not present, or there was no obviously definable moment, or because other, usually medical factors, such as whether to resuscitate the person, took precedence. However, in six cases such moments were constructed as profound, special, and memorable occasions. These constructions are explored in relation to achieving a good death, the dying trajectory as a whole, and making sense of the bereavement experience. Their implications for sociological theories of identity and embodiment are also considered. PMID:18214069

  2. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause nonrandom cell death in genital disc and can induce tumours in genitals in response to decapentaplegic (dppdisk) mutations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. N. chatterjee; P. Chatterjee; S. Kuthe; M. Acharyya-Ari; R. Chatterjee

    2015-06-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSXF) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. This study on the effect of different intersex mutations on genital disc development provides the following major results: (i) similar range of a characteristic array of morphological structures (from almost double sex terminalia to extreme reduction of terminal appendages) was displayed by the terminalia of XX ix1/ix1, XX ix2/ix2 and XX ix5/ix5 individuals; (ii) an increased number of apoptotic cells were found to occur in a localized manner in mature third instar larval genital discs of ix individuals; (iii) ix mutations can induce high frequency of neoplastic tumours in genitals in the presence of decapentaplegic (dppdisk) mutations; and (iv) heteroallelic combinations of dppdisk mutations can also induce tumours in intersex genitals with variable expressivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that: (i) loss of function of ix causes massive cell death in both male and female genital primordia of genital discs, resulting phenotype mimicking in male and female characteristics in genitals; and (ii) at the discs, the apoptotic cells persist as ‘undead’ cells that can induce oncogenic transformation in the neighbouring disc cells when dpp signalling is blocked or reduced by dppdisk mutations.

  3. Methylmercury causes neuronal cell death through the suppression of the TrkA pathway: In vitro and in vivo effects of TrkA pathway activators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Masatake, E-mail: fujimura@nimd.go.jp [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Usuki, Fusako [Department of Clinical Medicine, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxin which induces cell death specific for the nervous systems. Here we show that MeHg causes neuronal cell death through the suppression of the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) pathway, and that compounds activating the TrkA pathway prevent MeHg-induced nerve damage in vitro and in vivo. We first investigated the mechanism of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in differentiating neurons using PC12 cells. Exposure to 100 nM MeHg for 1 day induced apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells. Further, MeHg-induced apoptosis was preceded by inhibition of neurite extension, as determined by ELISA analyses of the neurite-specific protein neurofilament triplet H protein (NF-H). To determine the mechanism of MeHg-induced apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of MeHg on the TrkA pathway, which is known to regulate neuronal differentiation and viability. Western blot analysis demonstrated that, like the TrkA phosphorylation inhibitor K252a, MeHg inhibited phosphorylation of TrkA and its downstream effectors. Furthermore, GM1 ganglioside and its analog MCC-257, which enhance TrkA phosphorylation, overcame the effect of MeHg in neurons, supporting the involvement of the TrkA pathway in MeHg-induced nerve damage. Finally, we demonstrated that MCC-257 rescued the clinical sign and pathological changes in MeHg-exposed rats. These findings indicate that MeHg-induced apoptosis in neuron is triggered by inhibition of the TrkA pathway, and that GM1 ganglioside and MCC-257 effectively prevent MeHg-induced nerve damage. - Highlights: • Exposure to 100 nM MeHg for 1 day induced apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells. • Inhibition of neurite extension was involved in MeHg-induced apoptosis. • Like the TrkA phosphorylation inhibitor, MeHg inhibited phosphorylation of TrkA. • GM1 ganglioside and its analog effectively prevented MeHg-induced nerve damage.

  4. Methylmercury causes neuronal cell death through the suppression of the TrkA pathway: In vitro and in vivo effects of TrkA pathway activators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxin which induces cell death specific for the nervous systems. Here we show that MeHg causes neuronal cell death through the suppression of the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) pathway, and that compounds activating the TrkA pathway prevent MeHg-induced nerve damage in vitro and in vivo. We first investigated the mechanism of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in differentiating neurons using PC12 cells. Exposure to 100 nM MeHg for 1 day induced apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells. Further, MeHg-induced apoptosis was preceded by inhibition of neurite extension, as determined by ELISA analyses of the neurite-specific protein neurofilament triplet H protein (NF-H). To determine the mechanism of MeHg-induced apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of MeHg on the TrkA pathway, which is known to regulate neuronal differentiation and viability. Western blot analysis demonstrated that, like the TrkA phosphorylation inhibitor K252a, MeHg inhibited phosphorylation of TrkA and its downstream effectors. Furthermore, GM1 ganglioside and its analog MCC-257, which enhance TrkA phosphorylation, overcame the effect of MeHg in neurons, supporting the involvement of the TrkA pathway in MeHg-induced nerve damage. Finally, we demonstrated that MCC-257 rescued the clinical sign and pathological changes in MeHg-exposed rats. These findings indicate that MeHg-induced apoptosis in neuron is triggered by inhibition of the TrkA pathway, and that GM1 ganglioside and MCC-257 effectively prevent MeHg-induced nerve damage. - Highlights: • Exposure to 100 nM MeHg for 1 day induced apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells. • Inhibition of neurite extension was involved in MeHg-induced apoptosis. • Like the TrkA phosphorylation inhibitor, MeHg inhibited phosphorylation of TrkA. • GM1 ganglioside and its analog effectively prevented MeHg-induced nerve damage

  5. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilia B. Lepsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study cocaine’s toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2 and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine.

  6. The Death of Shankar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2013-01-01

    ) in Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Orissa. The chapter explores the heterogeneous and hierarchical composition of the basti and unfolds the case of the social exclusion and ultimate death of a patient with tuberculosis who belonged to the poorest section of the basti, called Pradhan sahi. The case...

  7. 产科出血致71例孕产妇死亡分析%The analysis of 71 case of maternal death caused by obstetric hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春华

    2009-01-01

    目的 寻找产科出血致孕产妇死亡的影响因素,制定切实可行的干预措施,降低茂名市孕产妇死亡率.方法对茂名市2001-2008年产科出血致孕产妇死亡个案及评审结果资料进行分析.结果8年来茂名市孕产妇死亡157例,孕产妇死亡率为24.40/10万,产科出血在孕产妇死亡构成比中占45.22%,子宫收缩乏力性产后出血占产后出血首位,占63.38%.结论应严历打击非法接生,提高住院分娩率;加强高危妊娠的管理和孕产妇的三级转诊,提高孕产妇系统管理质量;提高产科危重症抢救能力,降低产科出血的发生率.%Objective Find out the maternal mortality obstetric hemorrhage causes of ob-stetric hemorrhage, make the practical interventions,in order to reduce the rate maternal mortality in Maoming city.Methdos Investigate the assessment results of the maternal mortality caused by obstetric hemorrhage of Maoming city during 2008 to 2009.Results Among 8 years,there were 157 cases of maternal mortality, the maternal mortality rate were 24.40/100000, of which obstetric hemorrhage in the constituent ratio of maternal deaths accounted for 45.22%.Weak uterine contraction was the major factor causing postpartum hemorrhage, it accounts 63.38%.Conclusions It should be harsh against illegal midwifery,increase the rate of hospital delivery,to strengthen the management of high-risk pregnancies and maternal tertiary referral, to improve the quality of management systems for the pregnant, to improve the ability of emergency obstetric, to reduce the incidence of obstetric hemorrhage.

  8. Causes of death in preweaned northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866), Año Nuevo State Reserve, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraker, Terry R; Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tift, Michael S; Raverty, Stephen; Jaggi, Nicole; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    During an ongoing physiological ecology study on pups and adult female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866) on the mainland rookery at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California), an opportunity was afforded to collect fresh dead pups for parasitology and necropsy. The investigation was undertaken to delineate the causes of death of northern elephant seals recovered from Año Nuevo State Reserve. Prior to this study, there was no evidence of increased mortality or health problems on this rookery. Necropsies, histology, and ancillary diagnostic studies were conducted on 21 fresh dead preweaned pups. Ages ranged from 1 stillbirth to pups approximately 2 weeks of age. Gross lesions included varying degrees of bruising, hemorrhage, lacerations, and fractures attributed to blunt force trauma to the head, chest, and/or abdomen in 16 pups; starvation in 6 pups; bite wounds in 2 pups; generalized icterus in 2 pups; presumptive drowning in 2 pups; and 1 stillbirth. Most pups had multiple gross lesions. Following light microscopic examination, pups could be assigned into 4 general diagnostic categories: 1) trauma, 2) nutritional status, 3) infectious conditions, and 4) congenital anomalies. This investigation of preweaned pup mortality of northern elephant seals in California further refines diagnostic categories for perinatal pup mortality. PMID:24590664

  9. Death of a child.

    OpenAIRE

    Goertzen, J

    1993-01-01

    The death of a small child from a terminal illness is an uncommon but influential event in a family physician's career. Through dialogue with colleagues and friends, self-reflection, and acknowledgment of some of the difficulties, this experience can stimulate personal growth.

  10. Causes of death in a cohort of EDF-GDF employees: comparison between occupational medicine and official statistics data; Causes de deces dans une cohorte de travailleurs EDF-GDF: comparaison des donnees de la medecine du travail et de la statistique nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, J.L.; Imbernon, E.; Goldberg, M. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Dept. Sante-Travail, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)

    2003-10-01

    Background: In an epidemiological study, medical causes of death may be obtained from different sources. In a study on French gas and electricity company (EDF-GDF) workers, they were obtained front the national INSERM database. Additionally, the causes collected by the EDF-GDF occupational physicians, were available for a subset of 1,330 deaths, which occurred between 1989 and 1994. The data from the two sources were compared with each other, in order to assess whether they were globally equivalent, and the potential impact of their differences on the results of epidemiological analyses. Methods: Concordance rates between causes of death in the INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians databases were calculated according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) ninth revision codes and for various causes groups. Causes of death records were also examined in order to clarify the observed divergences. SMRs were computed in order to evaluate the consequences of using each. database in epidemiological analyses. Finally, some SMRs were computed with the two sources and compared with each other. Results: INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians causes belonged to the same causes group in 81 % of cases, but the exact cause was different for- more than half of them. The concordance rate was high for the deaths by AIDS and by cancer, and low for deaths by respiratory system and digestive system diseases. More causes of death were coded as 'unknown' in EDF-GDF physicians data than in INSERM data. The SMRs varied widely depending on whether the INSERM or EDF-GDF physicians causes of death databases were used. Conclusions: Causes of death recorded in the INSERM and EDF-GDF physicians databases are very different. Therefore, using the national mortality rates computed by INSERM with the EDF-GDF physicians causes of death to calculate SMRs is not valid, and it is observed that they may be very different from those computed with INSERM data. In a general way, it should be better

  11. 159例艾滋病死亡病例的临床分析%Clinical analysis of causes of death of 159 AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 张艳云; 张双梅; 汪习成; 李余仙; 陈兴琼

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病(Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)病人的主要死亡原因,以改进防治措施,降低病人的病死率.方法 收集2006年9月-2011年9月间159例AIDS死亡住院病人的临床资料,并进行回顾性分析.结果 AIDS死亡病人中,男性121例,女性38例.静脉吸毒感染占57.3%,性接触感染占39.6%,母婴传播感染占3.1%.17例接受了高效抗反转录病毒治疗(Highly active anti-retroviral therapy,HAART),平均生存时间(448.37±236.29)d;未接受HAART治疗的142例,平均生存时间(97.38±197.65)d,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).病人中86%就诊时已为晚期,其中87.4%出现机会性感染,12.6%为非机会性感染(包括机会性肿瘤),近90%病人CD4+T淋巴细胞计数<200个/μL,临床表现复杂多样,主要死亡原因依次为呼吸功能衰竭(54.7%)、循环功能衰竭(14.5%)、多脏器功能衰竭(12.6%)和感染性休克(12.6%).结论 AIDS晚期病死率极高,肺部感染是造成病人死亡的最主要原因,早期诊断和及时HAART是降低AIDS病人机会性感染或机会性肿瘤的发生率和死亡率的关键.%Objective To explore the main cause of death of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in order to improve the prevention and control measures to reduce the AIDS mortality. Methods Clinical data of 159 AIDS cases who died during their hospitalization between September 2006 and September 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The data of 121 male patients and 38 female patients who died with AIDS were collected. Of them the rate of transmission via intravenous drug use accounted for 57. 3%, that of via sexual contact accounted for 39. 6%, and that of via mother-to-child route accounted for 3. 1%. Seventeen cases had received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and their average survival was (448.37 + 236.29) days; among the 142 cases without having HAART, the average survival was (97. 38 + 197. 65

  12. Docetaxel induced-JNK2/PHD1 signaling pathway increases degradation of HIF-1α and causes cancer cell death under hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eun-Taex; Kim, Chan Woo; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Jae-Seon; Hong, Soon-Sun; Park, Heon Joo

    2016-01-01

    HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) regulates the expression of more than 70 genes involved in angiogenesis, tumor growth, metastasis, chemoresistance, and radioresistance. Thus, there is growing interest in using HIF-1 inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Docetaxel, a Food and Drug Administration-approved anticancer drug, is reported to enhance HIF-1α degradation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying docetaxel-induced HIF-1α degradation and cancer cell death under hypoxic conditions. Docetaxel pretreatment enhanced the polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of HIF-1α, and increased cancer cell death under hypoxic conditions. Docetaxel also activated the prolyl hydroxylase, PHD1, in hypoxia, and pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PHD1 prevented docetaxel-induced HIF-1α degradation and cancer cell death. Additionally, siRNA-mediated JNK2 knockdown blocked docetaxel-induced HIF-1α degradation and cancer cell death by inhibiting PHD1 activation. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that inhibition of the JNK2/PHD1 signaling pathway significantly increased the transcriptional activity of HIF-1 in docetaxel-treated cancer cells under hypoxia. Consistent with these results, docetaxel-treated JNK2-knockdown tumors grew much faster than control tumors through inhibition of docetaxel-induced PHD1 activation and degradation of HIF-1α. Our results collectively show that, under hypoxic conditions, docetaxel induces apoptotic cell death through JNK2/PHD1 signaling-mediated HIF-1α degradation. PMID:27263528

  13. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF) aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Obayashi, Masato; Ishiguro, Taro; Sato, Nozomu; Niimi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Kokoro; Mogushi, Kaoru; Mahmut, Yasen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; Yamada, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takeo; Mori, Osamu; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishikawa, Kinya

    2013-01-01

    The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1) is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C)-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q) tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF) containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (r)CTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range) than with Q13 (normal-length). Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei. PMID:23505410

  14. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takahashi

    Full Text Available The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1 is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6. A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (rCTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range than with Q13 (normal-length. Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei.

  15. Analysis of the death causes in patients treated with hemodialysis%血液透析患者死亡原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文律; 滕杰; 钟一红; 邹建洲; 王一梅; 汤颖; 龚邵敏; 丁小强

    2011-01-01

    GFR较低、充血性心力衰竭史、CCI≥5是HD 3个月内死亡的危险因素。结论:HD患者主要死亡原因为心、脑血管疾病和感染。在HD开始3月内死亡风险较高,尤其是透析前血白蛋白较低、有充血性心力衰竭病史、CCI≥5和开始透析时机较晚的患者。积极改善患者的营养状况、防治心脑血管疾病、感染等并发症、适时开始HD可能有助于提高患者的早期生存率。%Objective; To analyze the death causes in patients with hemodialysis, explore the risk factors affecting survival and provide some way to improve the survival of hemodialysis patients. Methodology: The causes of death in patients with hemodialysis were retrospectively analyzed during the periods Jan. 1998 to Dec. 2008. Results;Two hundred and thirty seven cases in total eighty hundred eleven hemodialysis patients were died in the study period. Their average age at the beginning of hemodialysis was 63 (19 - 87 ) years old and men accounted for 60. 8% . The median survival time was 9. 6 ( 0. 1 - 96. 6 ) months. The main causes of death in our patients were cardiovascular disease (20. 3% ) , infection (24. 9% ) and cerebrovascular disease ( 16. 5% ).[ The proportion offemales (43.1% vs 36. 7% , P < 0. 05 ) and diabetic nephropathy as the underlying disease ( 25. 0% vs 11. 1% , P <0. 05 ) was significantly higher and more patients had the history of left ventricular hypertrophy (9.6% vs 4.7% , P < 0. 05 ) and congestive heart failure ( 23. 3% vs 13. 4% , P < 0. 05 ) before hemodialysis in patients died due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases whose BMI (21. 1 vs 23. 6 kg/m2, P<0. 05) and eGFR (7. 6 us 10. 0 ml/min 1. 72m2 , P < 0. 05 ) before hemodialysis were lower]. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower BMI, the history of left ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure before hemodialysis were the risk factors of dying due to cardiovascular and eerebrovascular diseases. The patients died

  16. 80例艾滋病患者死因分析%Analysis of Death Causes in 80 Cases of AIDS Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努力比亚·阿不都克尤木; 买买提艾力·吾布力; 胡利萍; 张跃新

    2015-01-01

    also one of the main cause of death.Should be carried out promptly HARRT, if necessary, to carry out psychological counseling.

  17. On Tolstoy's Philosophy from the Cause of Anna's Death%从安娜的死因看托尔斯泰的人生观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林曦

    2013-01-01

    In the novel"Anna Karenina", Anna, a pretty woman, finally ended her young life in a brutal way. On the one hand, her personality inevitably led to her suicide. On the other hand, the cruel social forces, composed of the following three aspects:the hypocrisy of the bourgeois aristocratic class,"no name, no consciousness"murdering clique, her cruel selfish husband and lover, are The main causes of her death. By analyzing the inevitability of Anna’ suicide, we can conclude that Tolstoy’s arrangements for such an outcome embodied his outlook on life:"It is mine to avenge, I will repay and Living for God and for the soul%  在《安娜·卡列尼娜》中,美丽的安娜最终以残忍的方式结束了自己年轻的生命。安娜的自杀一方面是是自身的性格导致的,另一方面则是由虚伪的资产阶级上流社会贵族阶层,“无主名、无意识”杀人团以及自私冷酷的丈夫和情人所合成的残酷的社会势力造成的。从安娜自杀背后的必然性我们可以看到,安排这样的结局正是托尔斯泰“伸冤在我,我必报应”及“为上帝、为灵魂活着”的人生观的体现。

  18. ANALYSIS ON THE DEATH CAUSES OF REPRODUCTIVE WOMMEN IN RUDONG COUNTY FROM1994 TO 1998%如东县1994~1998年育龄妇女死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊扬

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨如东县育龄妇女死亡原因。方法:对如东县1994~1998年的5年间1423例育龄妇女死亡资料进行分析。结果:育龄妇女死亡占女性总死亡的77.98%,育龄妇女死亡率为86.26/10万;损伤与中毒和恶性肿瘤是如东县育龄妇女的主要死因,分别占死因构成的35.28%和29.86%。结论:自杀与机动车辆交通事故为损伤与中毒的主要原因,肝癌、肺癌、胃癌、乳腺癌是导致育龄妇女死亡的主要恶性肿瘤。%Objective: To explore the death cause of reproductive age women in Rudong County. Methods: Analyzed the death causes of reproductive age women 1423 cases in Rudong county from 1994 to 1998. Rusults :The death rate was 86.26/ 105 and proportion was 7. 98% among all the death women. The major death causes were injured. Poisoning and carinoma which occupied 35.28% and 29.86%. Conclusion:Suicide and motor-vehicle traffic accident were major causes of poisoning and injured ,liver ,lung ,gastric and mammary cancer were major carcinomas which led the reproductive age women to death.

  19. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 Causes Dopaminergic Neuronal Death through Nox1-Regenerated Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Hee Choi; Ji-Hye Kim; Joo-Ha Seo; Jongmin Lee; Wahn Soo Choi; Yoon-Seong Kim

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the interplay between matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) in the process of dopamine (DA) neuronal death. We found that MMP3 activation causes the induction of Nox1 via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and subsequently Rac1 activation, eventually leading to Nox1-derived superoxide generation in a rat DA neuronal N27 cells exposed to 6-OHDA. While a MMP3 inhibitor, NNGH, largely attenuated mitochondrial ROS and...

  20. Risk Factors and Causes of Syncope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a common cause of sudden and unexplained death in children and young adults. It may occur in as ... 000 individuals and causes up to 4,000 deaths in children and young adults each year in the United ...

  1. Maternal Deaths in NSW (2000–2006 from Nonmedical Causes (Suicide and Trauma in the First Year following Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Trauma, including suicide, accidental injury, motor traffic accidents, and homicides, accounts for 73% of all maternal deaths (early and late in NSW annually. Late maternal deaths are underreported and are not as well documented or acknowledged as early deaths. Methods. Linked population datasets from births, hospital admissions, and death registrations were analysed for the period from 1 July 2000 to 31 December 2007. Results. There were 552 901 births and a total of 129 maternal deaths. Of these deaths, 37 were early deaths (early MMR of 6.7/100 000 and 92 occurred late (late MMR of 16.6/100 000. Sixty-seven percent of deceased women had a mental health diagnosis and/or a mental health issue related to substance abuse noted. A notable peak in deaths appeared to occur from 9 to 12 months following birth with the odds ratio of a woman dying of nonmedical causes within 9–12 months of birth being 3.8 (95% CI 1.55–9.01 when compared to dying within the first 3 months following birth. Conclusion. Perinatal services are often constructed to provide short-term support. Long-term identification and support of women at particular risk of maternal death due to suicide and trauma in the first year following birth may help lower the incidence of late maternal deaths.

  2. The Merchant of Death

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Benjamin Cieza is a death merchant, having spent the last thirty years globetrotting from one global hot spot to another, working for a shadow company of expats who cross borders and the law with impunity. With his mother's suicide shortly after his brothers, he now finds himself obligated to fulfill his father's wish to be buried in the ancestral lands along the coast of latitude zero, where the roads end and the jungle devours both men and time. Finding his father's diary, a tale of two liv...

  3. Validación de "infarto de miocardio" como causa de muerte en certificados de defunción, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela Validation of "myocardial infarction" as cause of death on death certificates in Barquisimeto, Lara state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Granero

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Las tasas de mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica (CI han sido utilizadas ampliamente en el diagnóstico de la salud cardiovascular de regiones y países. Sin embargo, su validez ha sido cuestionada fundamentalmente por lo que le da origen: el certificado de defunción (CDD. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de establecer la validez del diagnóstico "infarto de miocardio (IM" como causa de muerte en los CDD de muertes intra-hospitalarias en la ciudad de Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela. Entre julio de 1991 y junio de 1992, se identificaron todos los CDD con las características mencionadas, se trató de ubicar la historia clínica correspondiente a cada caso y cualquier otra información clínica pertinente. Se registraron 247 CDD elegibles y se ubicó información clínica adecuada en 136 casos (55%. Aplicando los criterios del Proyecto MONICA, se encontraron M-definitivo en 62 casos (45,6%, IM-probable en 31 casos (22,8% y No-IM en 43 casos (31,6%. Los resultados indican que existe un sobre registro de casos de muerte por IM del 32% (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 23,8-39,4. A la luz de estos resultados es necesario estudiar los factores que inciden en la exactitud de los diagnósticos IM en los CDD. Con esto tendríamos elementos para revisar las normas y los procedimientos empleados en la producción y manejo de los CDD, así como preparar un programa de educación para mejorar la precisión de los mismos.Death rates due to Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD are widely used to assess regional and national cardiovascular health status. However, their validity is questionable, essentially because they are based on death certificates (DCs. The present study was conducted in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Barquisimeto (Lara State, Venezuela, from June 1991 to July 1992. The purpose was to establish the validity of the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in DCs of intrahospital deaths. Efforts were made to locate all clinical charts and any

  4. Death Sentences: A Content Analysis of Children's Death Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Devereaux A.; Hupp, Julie M.

    2008-01-01

    A multidimensional concept of death must include biological, sociocultural, and emotional components. Children glean information about death in many ways, one of which is through books. In this study, the authors compared the 3 dimensions of death-related information (irreversibility, inevitability, nonfunctionality) in 24 young children's picture…

  5. Notification of brain death in the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2% within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%. There was a greater proportion (71.8% of causes of death related to Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident and Traumatic Brain Injury caused by motorcycle accident, showing statistically significant difference (p<0.05 regarding the gender, age and location. Conclusion: the Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident was the most prevalent cause of notification of brain death and the Intensive Therapy Unit was the most notified venue.

  6. Approach to Indicators of Avoidable Causes of Death among Children under Five in Jiangsu Province%江苏省5岁以下儿童可避免死因的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓南; 邓静云; 徐柏荣; 巴凌昊

    2001-01-01

    【目的】明确江苏省儿童可避免死亡指标,为制定我省儿童死亡率的卫生政策和医疗保健措施提供 一定的理论依据。【方法】根据Rutstein等提出的可避免死亡指标,采用江苏省与美国、本省农村和城市儿童死因 死亡率对比,计算相对危险度。【结果】江苏省儿童可避免主要死因为败血症、肺炎、腹泻、脑膜炎、营养不良、意外 窒息。可避免死因占全省总死亡的51.6%。【结论】要降低我省儿童死亡率,应加强可避免死因疾病的控制。%【 Objective】 In order to determine avoidable death indication among of Jiangsu Province and to reduce mortality of children under five. 【Methods】 We measured relative risk(RR) of mortality in children between the US and Jiangsu,rural and urban areas of Jiangsu to determine avoidable death indicators among Jiangsu Province. 【 Results】 Septicemia, pneumonia, diar rhea,meningitis,malnutrition,accident suffocation, drowing were considered as avoidable death causes of children in Jiangsu, which ac count for 51.6% of all death causes of children under five. 【 Conclusions】 Avoidable causes of death mortality among children under five in Jiangsu should be controlled by medical intervention.

  7. DEATH CAUSES ANALYSIS OF CASES IN HOSPITALS IN NANCHANG CITY OF JIANGXI PROVINCE IN 2009%2009年南昌市县级以上医疗机构报告死亡病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付仁龙; 范义兵; 熊文艳; 赵萍萍; 杨树

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study was conducted to describe the characteristics of network-reporting death cases among country and medical institutions above levels in Nanchang city of Jiangxi in 2009, in order to provide scientific basis in setting down policy and measure of disease control and prevention, and improve their health care. [Methods] Coded by international disease classification ICD-10, the relevant statistical indicators were analyzed by using SPSS (15.0). [Results] In 2009, the total number of network-reporting death cases in medical institutions of Nanchang was 3 934, among which 2 616 were males, 1 318 were females (the sexual ratio was 1.98 : 1). People over the age of 60 years old were the main population, accounting to 64.62% of the death cause proportion. Accounting for 77.61% of the death cause proportion, chronic non-communicable disease was the leading death cause in hospitals with tumor (1 205 cases, 30.63%) ranking first in the death causes order, followed by cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (1 114 cases, 28.32%). Injury death was on the second of sequence of death causes (426 cases, 10.83%). Lung cancer was the leading death cause of tumor, followed by carcinoma of liver, colon and rectum cancer. With comparison of these various ages, it came to the conclusion that deaths in males were more than females. Cerebrovascular disease was the main death cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, followed by ischemic heart disease and hypertension. From the age of 15-19, the number of people who died of tumor or cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease reached the highest point at the age of 70-79, which was increasing with increase of age. Traffic accidents was the main cause for injury, followed by accidental fall and drowning. The peak period of injury was in the age group of 30-59. [Conclusion] Chronic non-communicable diseases is the main death cause among the medical institutions in Nanchang city, injury is on the second of

  8. On social death: ostracism and the accessibility of death thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social death (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make death more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of death-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced death-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of death-related thoughts. PMID:24592875

  9. Analysis on level and causes of maternal death in Ningxiang county from 1981 to 2005%宁乡县1981~2005年孕产妇死亡水平及原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊小兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the data of maternal death in Ningxiang county from 1981 to 2005, analyze the level and change regularity of maternal death in Ningxiang county, provide a scientific basis for improving the quality of maternal and child health and making better intervention measures of maternal death. Methods: An epidemiological retrospective survey analysis was used to collect the report cards of maternal death, case reports of maternal death and women and children health care annual reports of 240 dead pregnant women in Ningxiang county from 1981 to 2005; SPSS13.0 software was used for statistical description and related analysis. Results: The number of live births was 367 260, the maternal mortality was 65.35/100 000 (240 cases), showing a gradual decreasing trend; the first three death causes were obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP) and amniotic fluid embolism; the proportion of direct obstetric causes accounted for 88.8% of total deaths; obstetric hemorrhage was the first cause of maternal death at each stage; the places of maternal death changed obviously, the proportions of maternal death at home or on the way to hospital decreased gradually, the proportions of maternal death at township hospitals and hospitals at county level increased gradually; the number of maternal death adopting vaginal aid delivery decreased gradually, the proportion of cesarean section induced maternal death of total maternal death showed a increasing trend year by year; the maternal death centralized within 24 hours after delivery; the risk of perinatal infants of dead pregnant women was high. Conclusion: The maternal mortality shows a gradual decreasing trend from 1981 to 2005; the first three death causes are obstetric hemorrhage, HDCP and amniotic fluid embolism, which are coincidence with rank order of causes of maternal death in China; the proportion of obstetric hemorrhage decreases gradually, but obstetric hemorrhage is also the

  10. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  11. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who ... a medical ID card and wear a Medic-Alert bracelet to tell emergency workers that you lack ...

  12. Aspergillosis Superinfection as a Cause of Death of Crizotinib-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease Successfully Treated with High-Dose Corticosteroid Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Deiana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crizotinib is an efficacious and well-tolerated drug in the management of ALK-positive lung cancer. Crizotinib treatment, however, is rarely complicated by the occurrence of acute interstitial lung disease (ILD that is often fatal. There is no treatment for this serious adverse event. We report a female non-small cell lung cancer patient who developed ILD after a few days of crizotinib therapy. She showed a significant improvement after a high dose of pulse corticosteroid therapy, both radiologically and clinically. Unfortunately, the patient subsequently developed an aspergillosis superinfection leading to death. Our experience suggests that high-dose steroid therapy may be efficacious in the management of a severe complication of crizotinib therapy. However, potent antifungal therapy should be considered to prevent the risk of severe aspergillosis.

  13. 中国人不愿身后捐献器官的原因分析%Cause Analysis on Chinese People's Unwillingness of Organ Donation after Their Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏宁; 任华玉; 王萍

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese traditional concept of death has long been recognized as an important factor leading to Chinese people's unwillingness of organ donation after their death and the difficulties in promoting body organ donation work in our country. Based on empirical research of some research institutions and the news media, we found that the real reason is not the traditional concept but the distrust for the system of organ donation in China.%中国人传统的死亡观念一直被公认为是导致中国人不愿身后捐献器官、我国遗体器官捐献工作难以推进的最重要因素。但通过一些研究机构和新闻媒体的实证调研却发现,导致中国人不愿死后捐献器官的真正原因不是受传统观念的影响,而是民众对我国器官捐献体系不信任。

  14. The length of unemployment predicts mortality, differently in men and women, and by cause of death: a six year mortality follow-up of the Swedish 1992-1996 recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcy, Anthony M; Vågerö, Denny

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between the total amount of accumulated unemployment during the deep Swedish recession of 1992-1996 and mortality in the following 6 years. Nearly 3.4 million Swedish men and women, born between 1931 and 1965 who were gainfully employed at the time of the 1990 census were included. Almost 23% of these individuals were unemployed at some point during the recession. We conduct a prospective cohort study utilizing Cox proportional hazard regression with a mortality follow-up from January 1997 to December 2002. We adjust for health status (1982-1991), baseline (1991) social, family, and employer characteristics of individuals before the recession. The findings suggest that long-term unemployment is related to elevated all-cause mortality for men and women. The excess mortality effects were small for women and attributable to a positive, linear increase in the hazard of alcohol disease-related mortality and external causes-of-death not classified as suicides or transport accidents. For men, the excess hazard of all-cause mortality was best represented by a cubic, non-linear shape. The predicted hazard increases rapidly with the shortest and longest accumulated levels of unemployment. However, the underlying pattern differed by cause-of-death. The cancer, circulatory, and alcohol disease-related analyses suggest that mortality peaks with mid-levels of accumulated unemployment and then declines with longer duration unemployment. For men, we observed a positive, linear increase in the hazard ratios associated with transport and suicide mortality, and a very steep non-linear increase in the excess hazard ratio associated with other external causes of death that were not classified as suicide or transport accidents. In conclusion, mortality risk increases with the duration of unemployment among men and women. This was best described by a cubic function for men and a linear function for women. Behind this pattern, different causes-of-death

  15. Lateral fluid percussion injury in the developing rat causes an acute, mild behavioral dysfunction in the absence of significant cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkoff, Gene G; Giza, Christopher C; Hovda, David A

    2006-03-10

    Lateral fluid percussion injury (LFP), a model of mild-moderate concussion, leads to the temporary loss of the capacity for experience-dependent plasticity in developing rats. To determine if this injury-induced loss in capacity for plasticity is due to cell death, we conducted stereological measurements within the cerebral cortex and CA3 of the hippocampus 2 weeks following mild, moderate or severe LFP in the post-natal day 19 (P19) rat. Results indicated that there was no significant change in the absolute number of neurons, regardless of injury severity, in either the ipsilateral cortex (sham = 10.6 +/- 1.7, mild = 11.5 +/- 2.1, moderate = 10.0 +/- 1.0, severe = 10.9 +/- 1.3 million neurons) or CA3 region of the hippocampus (sham = 251 +/- 38, mild = 289 +/- 2, moderate = 245 +/- 48, severe = 255 +/- 62 thousand neurons). Even though there was no evidence of a significant degree of injury-induced cell death, animals exhibited cognitive deficits as revealed in a Morris water maze task (MWM). The MWM results indicated that regardless of injury severity, P19-injured rats exhibited a significant increase in escape latency compared to age-matched shams (injury by day; P < 0.001) and a significant increase in the number of trials needed to reach criterion (P < 0.05). Analysis of a probe trial one week post-MWM training, however, indicated that there was no deficit in storage or recall of the learned behavior as analyzed by platform hits (sham = 2.9 +/- 0.37, mild = 2.0 +/- 0.40, moderate = 1 +/- 0, severe = 2.8 +/- 0.62) or percent time spent in, or immediately surrounding, the platform area (sham = 13.5 +/- 1.71, mild = 10.8 +/- 2.32, moderate = 12.7 +/- 0, severe = 13.5 +/- 1.69). Taken together, these results indicate that while LFP in P19-injured animals does not lead to significant cell death, it does generate acute, mild deficits in MWM performance. PMID:16490184

  16. Starvation induced cell death in autophagy-defective yeast mutants is caused by mitochondria dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho W Suzuki

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly-conserved cellular degradation and recycling system that is essential for cell survival during nutrient starvation. The loss of viability had been used as an initial screen to identify autophagy-defective (atg mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the mechanism of cell death in these mutants has remained unclear. When cells grown in a rich medium were transferred to a synthetic nitrogen starvation media, secreted metabolites lowered the extracellular pH below 3.0 and autophagy-defective mutants mostly died. We found that buffering of the starvation medium dramatically restored the viability of atg mutants. In response to starvation, wild-type (WT cells were able to upregulate components of the respiratory pathway and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, but atg mutants lacked this synthetic capacity. Consequently, autophagy-defective mutants accumulated the high level of ROS, leading to deficient respiratory function, resulting in the loss of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA. We also showed that mtDNA deficient cells are subject to cell death under low pH starvation conditions. Taken together, under starvation conditions non-selective autophagy, rather than mitophagy, plays an essential role in preventing ROS accumulation, and thus in maintaining mitochondria function. The failure of response to starvation is the major cause of cell death in atg mutants.

  17. Parthanatos, a messenger of death

    OpenAIRE

    David, Karen Kate; Andrabi, Shaida Ahmad; Dawson, Ted Murray; Dawson, Valina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1)'s multiple roles in the cell span from maintaining life to inducing death. The processes PARP-1 is involved in include, but are not limited to DNA repair, DNA transcription, mitosis, and cell death. Of PARP-1's different cellular functions, its active role in cell death is of particular interest to designing therapies for diseases. Genetic deletion of PARP-1 revealed that PARP-1 over activation underlies cell death in experimental models of stroke, diabet...

  18. Hydrocephalus and Pressure on Brain Stem Cause Death in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khazaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an inherited autosomal dominant syndrome, charac-terized by multiple neoplasms of the central and peripheral nervous system associated with ocular abnormalities. The most common tumor associated with the disease is the vestibulo-cochlear and in later stages are meningioma and other brain tumors. Case Report: The patient was a 35 year old woman admitted to the Farshchian hospital in Hamadan due to unconciousness and respiratory distress She had sensorineural hearing loss and inability to see due to decrease visulal acuity. In addition, due to lower extremity paresis she has been unable to walk and wheelchair-dependent for many years. Brain CT scan and MRI showed multiple tumors in the posterior fossa causing obstructive hydrocephalus even-tually caused the patient's death . Conclusion: Brain tumors, especially in the posterior fossa can cause death in Neurofibroma-tosis type 2. Early surgery can be life saving. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:167-170

  19. Death and injury caused by land mines in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Petersen, H D; Lykke, J;

    2000-01-01

    eight and 68 years, and all except one had been injured between 1986 and 1997. Fifteen of the 23 were civilians, eight were guerilla soldiers who were injured either in battle or while deploying or disarming land mines. Those who had stepped on land mines were all crus or femur amputated and had several...

  20. Genetics of sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Marwan M; Hotait, Mostafa; London, Barry

    2015-07-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as death within 1 h of symptom onset (witnessed) or within 24 h of being observed alive and symptom free (unwitnessed). It affects more than 3 million people annually worldwide and affects approximately 1/1000 people each year in the USA. Familial studies of syndromes with Mendelian inheritance, candidate genes analyses, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have helped our understanding of the genetics of SCD. We will review the genetics of arrhythmogenic hereditary syndromes with Mendelian inheritance from familial studies with structural heart disease (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) as well as primary electrical causes (long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and short QT syndrome). In addition, we will review the genetics of intermediate phenotypes for SCD such as coronary artery disease and electrocardiographic variables (QT interval, QRS duration, and RR interval). Finally, we will review rare and common variants that are associated with SCD in the general population and were identified from candidate gene analyses and GWAS. Our understanding of the genetics of SCD will improve by the use of next-generation sequencing/whole-exome sequencing as well as whole-genome sequencing which have the potential to discover unsuspected common and rare genetic variants that might be associated with SCD. PMID:26026997

  1. The Quality Analysis of Cause of Death Registration Information in Foshan Medical Institutions in 2010%2010年佛山市医疗机构死因信息登记质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳容; 黄嘉殷; 古冠斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyse the quality of monitoring network and assess the cause of death in order to find the solution and improve data accuracy and provide the scientific basis for health decision-making.Methods:Data from China’s cause of death monitoring network which was used to establish a database by EXCEL 2010 and also used SPSS 19.0 to evaluate the index of death cause.Results:The crude mortality reported the Foshan district was 96.10/105.It was far not reaching the crude mortality rate of 600/105,which was the requirements of the national cause of death monitoring.The compliance rate of reporting in general hospital was lower than hospital in the town of street,while the reporting rate needs to be raised in the underdeveloped areas.The DC timely audit needs to be strengthened.The main cause of death in the report which was inconsistent with the ICD10 coding requirement was 5.85%.While the index of evaluation the cause of death including cardiovascular disease lacked of diagnostic significance,the proportion of cause of death was unknown etc was at low level,it fited the requirements of coding evaluation meets quality.Conclusion:It’s necessary to strengthen leadership and the implementation of the performance appraisal assessment.We should improve coding of cause of death information reporting timeliness,audit timeliness and the quality of the report.Strengthen training and learning to fill the requirements of the encoding rules of cause of death,coroner’s chain fill method and the underlying cause of death.Improve the ability of coders coding as soon as possible.%  目的:通过分析佛山市2010年死因监测网络直报中网络报告质量情况和评价根本死因质量,找出解决办法和途径,从而提高数据信息准确性,为卫生决策提供科学依据。方法:数据来源于国家死因监测网络直报系统,使用EXCEL 2010建立数据库,各指标的数据分析使用SPSS 19.0统计

  2. A cor da morte: causas de óbito segundo características de raça no Estado de São Paulo, 1999 a 2001 The color of death: causes of death according to race in the State of Sao Paulo, 1999 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Batista

    2004-10-01

    represent vulnerability to sickness, this study attempts to verify whether race or ethnic origin have an effect on mortality patterns. METHODS: The Sao Paulo State death register was examined from 1999 to 2001 in a contingence table of causes according to the 10th ICD and race or skin-color categories (White, Black, Mulatto and others. Chi-square test was used to check the association between skin-color and cause of death; residual analysis was used to elicit statistically significant excessive occurrences when each category of cause of death and skin color was combined; and correspondence analysis was used to examine overall relations among all categories considered. RESULTS: A total of 647,321 valid death registers were analyzed, among which 77.7% were of Whites, 5.4% of Blacks, 14.3% of Mulattoes and 2.6% of others. A significant association between skin color or race and cause of death was found. It may be observed that, although Blacks and Mulattoes present a similar death profile, on the contrary of Whites and others, which could be aggregated into a single category, the former appear in distinct positions on the multidimensional map presented. Except for mal defined causes, which characterize only the deaths of Blacks, the other causes of death within this group are common to both Blacks and Mulattoes, varying however, in intensity and as to the order in which they appear death. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of mortality according to race or color revealed that death has a color. There is a White death, which has, among its causes, sicknesses, which, although variable, are nothing more than sicknesses. There's a Black death, which is not caused by sicknesses but by external causes, complications in labor and delivery, mental disorders and ill- defined causes.

  3. Death: A Part of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, George G.; Harris, Zoanne

    This two-part curriculum unit includes 20 slides depicting Days of the Dead in Mexico and the United States. The unit is designed to help middle school students compare customs and practices associated with death throughout the world in a way that promotes understanding of the values and needs that produce and are reinforced by death rituals and…

  4. Parthanatos, a messenger of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Karen Kate; Andrabi, Shaida Ahmad; Dawson, Ted Murray; Dawson, Valina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1)'s roles in the cell span from maintaining life to inducing death. The processes PARP-1 is involved in include DNA repair, DNA transcription, mitosis, and cell death. Of PARP-1's different cellular functions, its role in cell death is of particular interest to designing therapies for diseases. Genetic deletion of PARP-1 revealed that PARP-1 overactivation underlies cell death in models of stroke, diabetes, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Since interfering with PARP-1 mediated cell death will be clinically beneficial, great effort has been invested into understanding mechanisms downstream of PARP-1 overactivation. Recent evidence shows that poly-ADP ribose (PAR) polymer itself can act as a cell death effector downstream of PARP-1. We coined the term parthanatos after Thanatos, the personification of death in Greek mythology, to refer to PAR-mediated cell death. In this review, we will present evidence and questions raised by these recent findings, and summarize the proposed mechanisms by which PARP-1 overactivation kills. It is evident that further understanding of parthanatos opens up new avenues for therapy in ameliorating diseases related to PARP-1 overactivation. PMID:19273119

  5. Analysis on death cause constituent of Chongqing children in 2012 and analysis on potential life lost situation%2012年重庆儿童夭折的死因构成及潜在减寿情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦艳; 陈立书; 丁贤斌; 毛德强; 张春华; 漆莉; 吕晓燕; 李洪; 沈卓之

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨造成重庆市儿童夭折的主要死因及其对寿命的损失。方法利用重庆市2012年儿童死亡调查资料,分析不同死因的死亡率和潜在寿命损失。结果2012年重庆市儿童死亡率为61.77/10万,主要死因排名前三的依次是伤害(39.48%)、起源于围生期的某些情况(15.85%)和先天性畸形及染色体异常(13.11%);重庆市儿童的潜在减寿率为106.93‰,该指标由高到低依次是起源于围生期的某些情况、先天性畸形和染色体异常、呼吸系统疾病。结论重庆市儿童夭折的主要死因是伤害,其中以意外溺水为主;男童的死亡率高于女童;而造成儿童寿命损失的最主要死因则是起源于围生期的某些情况。%Objective To find out the major causes leading to young children′s death in Chongqing and their life loss.Methods The death rate of the different death causes and the potential years of life lost rate (PYLLR)were analyzed by using the survey da-ta of children death during 2012 in Chongqing.Results The death rate of children in Chongqing during 2012 was 617.7 per million. The top three causes were injury (39.48%),some conditions originated from the perinatal period (15.85%)and congenital malfor-mation and chromosomal variation (13.11%);PYLLR of children in Chongqing was 106.93‰,this index from high to low was some conditions originated from the perinatal period,congenital malformation and chromosomal variation and the respiratory system diseases.Conclusion The leading cause of children′s death in Chongqing is inj ury,among which the accidental drowning is predom-inant;the death rate of boys is higher than that of girls;the mainest death cause leading to the life lost is some conditions originated from the perinatal period.

  6. Deaths among women of reproductive age: a forensic autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Menezes, Ritesh G; Pant, Sadip; Shetty, Soumya B

    2013-08-01

    Unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age (range 12-49 years) have a serious psychological and social impact on the family and community. Deaths among women of reproductive age reported as medico-legal cases were investigated to see the trend in terms of cause and manner of death. The study group consisted of a series of 328 consecutive forensic autopsies on women in the reproductive age group, performed between 2009 and 2011 at the Government Wenlock District Hospital, Mangalore, India by qualified specialist forensic medicine experts. Unnatural deaths formed 93.6% of the cohort. The top three causes of death included burns, poisoning and hanging forming 69.5% of the cases. The manner of death was suicide in 45.4% cases, accident in 43.6% cases and homicide in 4.6% cases. The circumstances of death were related to alleged medical negligence in 2.4% cases. Death in 4% cases was natural mannered with a disease being the cause of death. Three-fourths of the victims were married. Married women formed 63.1% of the suicidal victims. Homicidal deaths were not reported among unmarried women. The preponderant method of suicide was by poisoning at 42.3% (63 cases), followed by hanging (34.9%), burns (11.4%) and drowning (9.4%). These four methods comprised 98% of the total suicidal deaths in this study cohort. Accidental deaths were predominantly caused by burns (62.2%) and road traffic accident (23.1%). Two-thirds of the homicidal deaths were due to assault caused by blunt-force trauma, ligature strangulation and sharp-force trauma. One-third of the homicidal victims died due to burns. With a clear understanding of the cause and manner of death, it may be possible to predict, and hopefully prevent, future cases of unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age who form a very important group of society. PMID:23910855

  7. Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo, 1998 Multiple-causes-of-death related to tuberculosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hasiak Santo

    2003-12-01

    , southeastern Brazil, according to multiple causes of death and their interrelation with other underlying causes. METHODS: The study investigated deaths related to tuberculosis that occurred in the state of São Paulo in 1998. Data were obtained from the Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (State System for Data Analysis Foundation - SEADE database. Causes of death by clinical forms of TB were coded in block A15-A19, and by its sequelae in category B90, according to the guidelines proposed by the Tenth Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Tabulador de Causas Múltiplas (Multiple Cause Tabulator - TCM software was used for processing associated causes of death. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, Student's t -distribution, and chi-squared tests. RESULTS: TB was the underlying cause of 1,644 deaths, a 4.6/100,000 population mortality rate. Main associated causes were respiratory failure (46,9%, pneumonias (16.5%, other specified symptoms and signs involving circulatory and respiratory systems (13.9%, cachexia (12.9%, diseases of the circulatory system (10.3%, conditions due to alcohol use (8.4%, septicemias (7.2% and malnutrition (7.1%. Tuberculosis occurred as an associated cause in another 1,388 deaths. The mortality rate including TB as a both underlying and associated cause was 8.9/100,000 population, practically twice the classical rate. Deaths whose associated cause was reported as being TB had as underlying causes: AIDS (65.3%, diseases of the circulatory system (8.9%, neoplasms (7.5%, and diseases of the digestive system (4.8%. Clinical forms of nervous system and miliary TB were more frequent as a cause associated with AIDS than with other underlying causes (p<0,001. CONCLUSIONS: Total reports of TB-related death practically doubled its mortality rate as an underlying cause. The increase in TB mortality was demonstrated to be influenced by the AIDS epidemic.

  8. Development of a cyclometalated iridium complex with specific intramolecular hydrogen-bonding that acts as a fluorescent marker for the endoplasmic reticulum and causes photoinduced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Soumik; Poria, Dipak K; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Ray, Partho Sarothi; Gupta, Parna

    2014-12-14

    Cyclometalated iridium complexes have important applications as phosphorescent probes for cellular imaging due to their photophysical properties. Moreover, these properties also make them potential candidates as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors and skin diseases. Treatment of MCF7 breast carcinoma cells with a heteroleptic phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex C2 followed by confocal imaging indicates that the complex selectively localizes and exhibits high fluorescence in the endoplasmic reticulum. In an unprecedented approach, systematic alteration of functional groups or the metal core in C2 to synthesize a series of iridium(III) complexes (C1–C10) and an organometallic rhenium complex C11 with an imidazolyl modified phenanthroline ligand has indicated the functional groups and their interactions that are responsible for this selective localization. Remarkably, the exposure of the cells treated with C2 to irradiation at 405 nm for one hour led to membrane blebbing and cell death, demonstrating a photosensitizing property of the compound. PMID:25341053

  9. A City From 2010 to 2012 Three Diseases Cause of Death Analysis%某市2010-2012年三大类疾病死亡原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志刚; 田齐; 夏丽传; 宿涌涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of mortality Zibo City three categories of disease, death and the age and sex distribution of the mor-tality level change, develop treatment measures for the prevention and control of science to provide a reference. Methods Zibo City from 2010 to 2012, the death of the three diseases constitute the distribution of descriptive epidemiological analysis.Three cate-gories of cause of death to be in accordance with the World Health Organization classification criteria categories: the first category of infectious diseases and maternal and child malnutrition, the second largest category of chronic non-communicable diseases, the third largest category of injury and poisoning. Results Zibo City, infectious diseases and maternal and child malnutrition mortality 11.34/10 million, or chronic non-communicable disease mortality was 593.92/10 million and injury and poisoning mortality 54.62/10 Wan;major 0~4 age group maternal death is infectious and nutritional deficiency diseases;leading cause of death from 5 to 14 age group are injury and poisoning;while the main cause of death in 15 to 44, 45 to 64 and over-65 age group are chronic non-com-municable diseases;maternal nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases, injuries and deaths caused by poisoning deaths con-stituted males than females constitute women, leading to chronic non-communicable diseases than men. Conclusion Chronic non-communicable diseases have become serious harm to life and health of Zibo City residents disease.%目的:分析淄博市三大类疾病的死亡率、死亡年龄性别分布以及死亡水平变化,为科学制定防控救治措施提供参考依据。方法对淄博市2010~2012年三大类疾病的死因构成分布进行描述性流行病学分析。三大类死因按照世界卫生组织(WHO)的分类标准[1]予以分类:第一大类为传染性和母婴营养缺乏疾病,第二大类为慢性非传染性疾病,第三大类为伤害和中毒。

  10. Analysis of Forensic Injury Characteristics on Death Caused by Motorcycle Traffic Accident%摩托车交通事故所致死亡的法医学损伤特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬先; 洪仕君; 赵丽萍; 李利华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究摩托车交通事故所致死亡案件的特点,探讨分析伤亡人员的损伤特征.方法 抽取摩托车交通事故鉴定案件资料365例,对其损伤类型、特征、部位分布、死亡原因进行统计分析.结果 死亡原因以颅脑损伤居多,现场死亡占大部分,头颈部、胸部、背部、腹盆部、会阴部损伤在伤亡分组中的发生率有统计学差异(P<0.05),颅骨骨折、胸廓骨折和下肢骨折在伤亡分组中的发生率有统计学差异(P<0.05),锁骨骨折在摩托车驾驶员与摩托车乘员相比有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 摩托车交通事故所致死亡的死亡原因以颅脑损伤居多,且大部分在现场死亡;损伤部位主要分布在四肢和头颈部;摩托车驾驶员锁骨骨折的发生率明显高于摩托车乘员.%0bjective To study the feature of the dead cases caused by motorcycle traffic accident, and discuss the characteristics of the death and the injured. Methods We collected 365 cases about motorcycle traffic accident judicial expertise to analyse the injury type, characteristics, distribution and the causes of death. Results Craniocerebral injury was the common cause leading to death. Death on accident scene was the most. The incidence rate about injury of head and neck, injury of chest, injury of back, injury of abdominal and pelvic part, injury of perineal region had obvious statistical difference between the death group and the injured group. The incidence rate of craniocerebral fracture, thoracic cage fracture, lower limb fracture had statistical difference between the death group and the injured group. The incidence rate of clavicle fracture had statistical difference between motor-cyclist group and motor-passenger group. Conclusions Craniocerebral injury is the most common cause leading to death in motorcycle traffic accident, and most cases of death took place on the accident scene. Injuries are most localized on extremities, head and neck. The

  11. The diagnosis of brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goila Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians, health care workers, members of the clergy, and laypeople throughout the world have accepted fully that a person is dead when his or her brain is dead. Although the widespread use of mechanical ventilators and other advanced critical care services have transformed the course of terminal neurologic disorders. Vital functions can now be maintained artificially for a long period of time after the brain has ceased to function. There is a need to diagnose brain death with utmost accuracy and urgency because of an increased awareness amongst the masses for an early diagnosis of brain death and the requirements of organ retrieval for transplantation. Physicians need not be, or consult with, a neurologist or neurosurgeon in order to determine brain death. The purpose of this review article is to provide health care providers in India with requirements for determining brain death, increase knowledge amongst health care practitioners about the clinical evaluation of brain death, and reduce the potential for variations in brain death determination policies and practices amongst facilities and practitioners. Process for brain death certification has been discussed under the following: 1. Identification of history or physical examination findings that provide a clear etiology of brain dysfunction. 2. Exclusion of any condition that might confound the subsequent examination of cortical or brain stem function. 3. Performance of a complete neurological examination including the standard apnea test and 10 minute apnea test. 4. Assessment of brainstem reflexes. 5. Clinical observations compatible with the diagnosis of brain death. 6. Responsibilities of physicians. 7. Notify next of kin. 8. Interval observation period. 9. Repeat clinical assessment of brain stem reflexes. 10. Confirmatory testing as indicated. 11. Certification and brain death documentation.

  12. 广东省五华县2008~2010年居民死因监测分析%Analysis of death causes surveillance of residents in Wuhua County of Guangdong Province during 2008-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青山; 周荣群; 沈超华

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解五华县居民健康状况,确定严重影响居民健康的主要疾病,分析重要疾病的死亡率及主要死因构成情况,为制定预防控制策略提供科学依据.方法 对全县各医疗机构按国际疾病分类法ICD-10编码后,通过数据录入中国疾病预防控制信息系统的死因信息登记报告系统,按国家卫统统计表编码、分类审核统计.结果 五华县2008~2010年年均死亡率为636.90/10万,男性死亡率为761.33/10万,女性死亡率为513.33/10万.排列前5位的死因顺位是恶性肿瘤、脑血管病、心脏病、呼吸系统疾病、伤害,占全死因的86.89%.全人群中慢性病死亡所占比例最高,达90.08%,其次是伤害死亡占5.80%.结论 慢性非传染性疾病死亡是五华县居民的主要死亡原因;恶性肿瘤依然较严重,交通事故是居民伤害死亡的主要危险因素,今后应加强和重视慢性非传染性疾病和伤害的预防控制工作,对提高居民生存质量和延长寿命具有重要意义.%OBJECTIVE To know health situation of residents in Wuhua surveillance counties, to determine major diseases of influencing the population' s health severely, to analyse the mortality rate of major diseases and the proportion of the main death causes and to provide scientific bases for making the preventive measures. METHODS All the medical institutions in the county were encoded by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), data were logged into Death Registration and Reporting System of Information Systems for Center for Disease Control and Prevention and were statistically encoded and classified by the national health statistical graph. RESULTS The annual average mortality was 636.90/100 000 in Wuhua surveillance counties from 2008 to 2010. The mortality of the male was 761.33/100 000 while that of female was 513.33/100 000. The five leading causes of death were malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease

  13. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  14. 渭南市2006至2010年5岁以下儿童死因分析%Analysis of death cause of children under age 5 from 2006 to 2010 in Weinan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽萍; 曹敏辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To master the death status of children under 5 from 2006 to 2010 in Weinan City so as to explore effective intervention measures. Methods All death report cards from 2006 to 2010 were subjected to statistical analysis of death of children under 5. Results Neonatal mortality, infant mortality, mortality of children under 5 was 10. 79%c, 13. 13 %c and 14. 77 %c, respectively. The constituent ratio of neonatal death, infant death and death of children aged 1-4 in death of children aged 1-5 was 68. 16% , 88. 94% and 11.06% , respectively. The death analysis of children under 5 in Weinan from 2006 to 2008 showed that χ2tuend was 38. 18 ( P = 0. 0001 < 0.01 ), and the mortality decreased year after year. The first death cause of children under 5 was asphyxia, followed by premature and low birth weight, pneumonia, other congenital anomalies and congenital heart disease in turn. Conclusion Reducing neonatal mortality and infant mortality is the key to reduce the mortality of children under 5. Preventing preterm birth and low birth weight, birth defects and birth asphyxia is the necessary tideway of the situation.%目的 掌握渭南市2006至2010年5岁以下儿童死亡状况,探讨有效的干预措施.方法 对2006至2010年渭南市5岁以下儿童死亡报告卡进行整理统计分析.结果 新生儿死亡率、婴儿死亡率、5岁以下儿童死亡率分别为10.79‰、13.13‰、14.77‰.新生儿死亡、婴儿死亡、1~4岁儿童死亡占5岁以下儿童死亡构成比的68.16%、88.94%和11.06%.2006至2008年渭南市5岁以下儿童死亡率经分析,χ2趋势=38.18,P=0.0001<0.01,具有逐年下降趋势.5岁以下儿童死因顺位依次为出生窒息、早产低出生体重、肺炎、其他先天异常、先天性心脏病.结论 预防早产、低出生体重、出生缺陷和出生窒息,降低新生儿、婴儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡的关键.

  15. Study on smoking-attributed mortality by using all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin%天津市利用全死因监测系统开展吸烟归因死亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江国虹; 张辉; 李威; 王德征; 徐忠良; 宋桂德; 张颖; 沈成凤; 郑文龙

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the smoking-attributed mortality by inclusion of smoking information into all causes of death surveillance.Methods Since 2010,the information about smoking status,smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily had been added in death surveillance system.The measures of training,supervision,check,sampling survey and telephone verifying were taken to increase death reporting rate and reduce data missing rate and underreporting rate.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for smoking-attributed mortality.Results During the study period (2010-2014),the annual death reporting rates ranged from 6.5‰ to 7.0‰.The reporting rates of smoking status,smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily were 95.53%,98.63% and 98.58%,respectively.Compared with the non-smokers,the RR of males was 1.38(1.33-1.43) for all causes of death and 3.07 (2.91-3.24) for lung cancer due to smoking,the RR of females was 1.46 (1.39-1.54) for all causes of death and 4.07(3.81-4.35) for lung cancer due to smoking,respectively.Conclusion The study of smoking attributed mortality can be developed with less investment by using the stable and effective all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin.%目的 将吸烟信息纳入全死因监测系统,开展吸烟归因死亡的研究.方法 将吸烟情况、吸烟年限、每日吸烟量等信息纳入天津市死因监测系统,通过培训、督导、考核、医院内、外抽样调查和电话复核等提高死亡报告率,降低数据缺失率和漏报率,应用多元logistic回归计算吸烟归因死亡风险.结果 2010-2014年天津市的死亡报告率为6.5‰~7.0‰,逝者吸烟信息的填报率为95.53%,其中吸烟年限填报率为98.63%,每日吸烟量填报率为98.58%.与未吸烟者相比,男性吸烟与总死亡的RR=1.38(1.33~1.43)、肺癌死亡的RR=3.07(2.91~3.24);女性吸烟与总死亡的RR=1.46(1.39~ 1.54)

  16. Analysis of Death Cause of Children Under the Age of Five in a District from 2006 to 2010%城东区2006年-2010年5岁以下儿童死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐灵

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解城东区2006年-2010年5岁以下儿童死亡情况及主要死亡原因,为制定降低儿童死亡率的干预措施提供科学依据.方法 按照,对2006年-2010年城东区171例0岁~5岁儿童死亡情况、死因构成及相关因素,根据及进行回顾性分析.结果 2006年-2010年城东区活产数为6731例,要儿死亡151例,新生儿死亡131例,5岁以下儿童死亡171例,死亡率分别22.43‰、19.46‰、25.40‰.城东区5岁以下儿童死亡率逐年降低,5岁以下儿童死因顺位前三位依次是新生儿窒息、肺炎、早产(低出生体重).结论 加强三级保健网络建设,做好围生保健,提高产儿科技术水平和服务质量,重点做好新生儿窒息的抢救,加大健康教育力度,提高住院分娩率.%Objective To understand situation and the m ain cause of death of children under the age of five during 2006 and 2010 in E ast D istrict.T o provide the scientific basis for the intervening m easure of reducing m ortality.M ethods D eath situation,death structure and related factors of 171 children under the age of five during 2006 and 2010 in E ast D istrict w ere retrospectively analyzed according to the “C hinese children under 5 years death m onitoring program ”,“m aternaland child health annual report” and “children under 5 years death report cards ”.R esults T he num ber of live births is 6731,the infant deaths is 151,the neonatal deaths is 131,and the m ortality rates w ere 22.43‰,19.46‰,25.40‰. T he m ortality rate w ere reduced year by year.T he top three causes of death is asphyxia,pneum onia,prem ature birth (low birth w eight).C onclusion Som e m easures should be taken to reduce the m ortality rate such as strengthening the construction of three health netw orks,doing perinatalcare,im proving the technologicallevel and service quality of obstetrics,m aking the rescue of neonatal asphyxia,increasing health education efforts and im proving the rate of hospital

  17. Significant contributing causes of cancer deaths among Hispanics in Colorado, USA, 1983-1992 Causas que contribuem para óbitos por câncer em latinos no Colorado, EUA, 1983-92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Sweitzer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer deaths in the state of Colorado, U.S.A., totaled 53,921 between 1983 and 1992. Death certificates for this period were used to evaluate Hispanic cancer deaths by contributing causes of death and primary occupation of the decedent. The relative risks for diabetes and liver disease as contributing causes of death were significantly higher among Hispanics when compared to non-Hispanics who had also died of cancer (RR for diabetes = 1.90; 95% C.I. (1.64,2.19 and RR for liver disease = 1.44; 95% C.I. (1.23,1.68. Hispanics who had died of cancer were significantly less likely to have drug abuse as a contributing cause of death when compared to non-Hispanics (RR for drug abuse = 0.69; 95% C.I. (0.52,0.91. Laborers, service workers, and clerical workers who were Hispanic, were significantly more likely to die of cancer with either diabetes or liver disease as a contributing cause of death than were non-Hispanics in the same occupational category (pEntre 1983 e 1997, ocorreram 53.921 óbitos por câncer no Estado do Colorado, EUA. Os atestados de óbito para este período foram utilizados para avaliar as causas que contribuíram para a morte e a ocupação principal dos óbitos por câncer ocorridos em latinos neste período. Os riscos relativos para diabetes e doença hepática como causas associadas ao óbito foram significativamente maiores em latinos, comparativamente com não latinos que também faleceram com câncer (diabetes RR = 1,90; I.C. 95% 1,64-2,19; doença hepática RR = 1,44; I.C. 95% 1,23-1,68. O consumo de drogas como causa associada à morte entre latinos que faleceram por câncer aparentou ser significativamente menor que em não latinos (RR = 0,69; I.C. 95% 0,52-0,91. Operários, servidores públicos e trabalhadores de escritório de origem latina tenderam a apresentar diabetes e doença hepática como causas associadas à morte por câncer em maior freqüência, estatisticamente significativa, que não latinos nos mesmos ramos

  18. Major causes of death in children less than 5 years of age in Fujian, China, 2007-2010%福建省2007-2010年5岁以下儿童死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文龙; 吴生根; 秦维霞; 洪荣涛; 谢忠杭; 欧剑鸣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze major causes of death in children under 5 years of age in Fujian, China, and to provide scientific evidence for the protection of infants and young children. Methods The data of 2007-2010 death cases were collected from China Disease Report Information System for children under 5 years of age in Fujian. Microsoft Excel and SPSS 15. 0 packages were respectively used to establish the database and to analyze the data. Results A total of 6 166 death cases were reported from 2007 to 2010 for children less than 5 years of age. Death rate was 62. 8 /lakh on average. The death rates of children under 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years of age were 448. 9, 54. 8, 32. 8, 23. 8 and 17. 6/lakh, respectively. The number of infant death accounted for 78.74% of cases. 64.33% of infant death occurred in newborn babies. There was no seasonal difference for the cases of death. Most cases of death (63. 87%) occurred in hospital. The top five causes of death were periparturient diseases, congenital malformations, injuries, influenza and following pneumonia, infectious and parasitic diseases, respectively, together of which accounted for 69. 45 % of death cases. Conclusion Newborn babies and infants were high risk groups for the death of children under 5 years of age in Fujian. The increasing trend of congenital malformation related death suggests the importance of prenatal screening testing.%目的 分析福建省2007-2010年5岁以下儿童主要死亡原因情况及特征,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法 分析死因登记信息网络报告系统上报的福建省2007-2010年5岁以下儿童死因及特征.结果 2007-2010年福建省共报告6 166例5岁以下儿童死亡病例,年平均死亡率为6.28/万,各年龄组即0~岁、1~岁、2~岁、3~岁、4~5岁的死亡率分别为44.89/万、5.48/万、3.28/万、2.38/万、1.76/万.1岁以下占78.74%,1岁以下死亡儿童出生28d内死亡的占64.33%;病例的

  19. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  20. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke; Holst, Anders G; Nielsen, Jonas B; Glinge, Charlotte; Engstrøm, Thomas; Bundgaard, Henning; Svendsen, Jesper H; Haunsø, Stig; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  1. Child homicide or natural death? A case report of unexpected death of unusual asymptomatic acute laryngotracheobronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Luo; Liu, Liang; Ren, Liang; Liu, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Cases involving the unexpected deaths of children are always a concern for the police and medical examiners alike. In particular, unexpected deaths due to asphyxia without obvious injuries sometimes make decisions regarding the manner of death more difficult. In the present case, a 2-year-old boy was found dead at home, and his mother was initially believed to have killed him. A complete autopsy and forensic investigation were performed, and no injuries were found on the body; however, marked laryngeal edema was observed. Histology showed extensive inflammatory infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. The cause of death was given as respiratory failure due to acute laryngotracheobronchitis; thus, the manner of death was natural. This case helps to remind the forensic community to keep an open mind and consider a broad differential diagnosis when approaching a case rather than jumping to a conclusion based solely on a preliminary investigation. PMID:26101441

  2. Birth and death of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars is summarized, giving emphasis to the phenomena related with their formation (birth) and their late stages (death). We also remark the basic physical concepts that regulate stellar evolution

  3. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Lepsch, Lucilia B; Planeta, Cleopatra S.; Critoforo Scavone

    2015-01-01

    To study cocaine’s toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN) staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mec...

  4. La causa y la manera de la muerte indeterminada: a propósito de un caso de muerte súbita en adolescente, portador de una tumoración quística intestinal, descubierta durante la autopsia Cause and Manner of Death Undetermined: regarding a case of sudden death in an adolescent with an intestinal cystic tumour, discovered during autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garfia

    2002-04-01

    and death. During the forensic autopsy the existence of a mesenteric tumour was discovered in the distal ileum. The corpse gave off a peculiar smell which reminded the pathologist of the typical smell of some organophosphorous pesticides. The following diagnoses for the cause of death were put forward in the pathologists report: 1 Septic shock due to intestinal abscess. 2 Mortal poisoning by pesticides. 3 Sudden cardiac death. The chemical-toxicological investigation resulted negative. The histopathologic study did not show cardiac lesions which could justify the death, and the study of the mesenteric tumour showed that it was a cystic intestinal duplication, with discreet chronic inflammation of the wall; ulcerations, haemorrhage, vascular or ischaemic intestinal lesions which could have justified sudden death with digestive causes, were not seen. The cause and manner of death were considered undetermined.

  5. Psychosocial Aspects of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome ("Cot Death").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluglass, Kerry

    1981-01-01

    Reviews literature on reactions of parents and siblings to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The prospects for prolonged, adverse reactions are considered, and professional concerns regarding abnormal adaptation are noted. (Author/DB)

  6. Confiabilidade e validade das Declarações de Óbito por câncer de boca no Município de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil, no período de 2004 e 2005 Reliability and validity of death certificates specifying oral cancer as cause of death in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tolstenko Nogueira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A política de saúde brasileira depende da precisão dos dados contidos no sistema de informação em saúde. Com objetivo de avaliar a confiabilidade e validade da causa básica de morte por uma neoplasia específica, no Município de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil, foram utilizadas todas as Declarações de Óbito (DO que possuíam como causa básica de morte o câncer de boca nos anos de 2004 e 2005, contabilizando um total de 23 DO. Elas foram submetidas à nova codificação da causa básica mediante utilização de formulário direcionado à coleta de dados clínicos e de exames complementares para a confirmação do diagnóstico nos prontuários médicos. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame histopatológico e história clínica. Observou-se uma concordância simples de 91,3% e coeficiente kappa de 0,84. O valor preditivo positivo correspondeu a 90,9%. Assim, pode-se afirmar que as referidas estatísticas de mortalidade são válidas e confiáveis. Este estudo teve como limitação possíveis sub-registros de casos que tiveram como causa básica de morte a referida patologia, visto que tais dados não constam no sistema de informação em mortalidade de Teresina.Brazilian health policy depends on the accuracy of data in the health information system. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of data on underlying cause of death due to a specific neoplasm in the Municipality of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, based on all the death certificates from 2004 and 2005 that reported oral cancer as the underlying cause of death (total of 23 death certificates. The death certificates were recoded for underlying cause of death by using a form targeted at collecting clinical and laboratory data to confirm the medical diagnosis on patient charts. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination and clinical history. Simple agreement was 91.3%, kappa coefficient 0.84, and positive predictive value 90.9%. Based on the findings, the

  7. Retinal Cell Death Caused by Sodium Iodate Involves Multiple Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Cell-Death Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Balmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we have investigated retinal cell-death pathways in response to the retina toxin sodium iodate (NaIO3 both in vivo and in vitro. C57/BL6 mice were treated with a single intravenous injection of NaIO3 (35 mg/kg. Morphological changes in the retina post NaIO3 injection in comparison to untreated controls were assessed using electron microscopy. Cell death was determined by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. The activation of caspases and calpain was measured using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, primary retinal cells, and the cone photoreceptor (PRC cell line 661W were assessed in vitro after NaIO3 treatment using the ApoToxGlo™ assay. The 7-AAD/Annexin-V staining was performed and necrostatin (Nec-1 was administered to the NaIO3-treated cells to confirm the results. In vivo, degenerating RPE cells displayed a rounded shape and retracted microvilli, whereas PRCs featured apoptotic nuclei. Caspase and calpain activity was significantly upregulated in retinal sections and protein samples from NaIO3-treated animals. In vitro, NaIO3 induced necrosis in RPE cells and apoptosis in PRCs. Furthermore, Nec-1 significantly decreased NaIO3-induced RPE cell death, but had no rescue effect on treated PRCs. In summary, several different cell-death pathways are activated in retinal cells as a result of NaIO3.

  8. Analysis of death causes of reproductive women in Liwan District Guangzhou City 2009 to 2014%2009~2014年广州市荔湾区育龄妇女死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯桂芬; 农蔚娟; 肖金松; 唐敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the primary death causes of reproductive women in Liwan District Guangzhou City from 2009 to 2014, in order to provide evidence for the discussion of correlative intervention measures.Methods To retrospectively analyze the mortality data of reproductive women of resident population in Liwan District from 2009 to 2014. Results The mortality rate of reproductive women in Liwan District during the 6 years was 60.64/0.1million, the differences of which was no statistical significance among each years(P<0.05). The primary death cause was malignant tumor which was caused by the first three of breast cancer, lung cancer, and liver cancer. More than half of the reproductive women, who were 30 years or older, were died from malignant tumor. ConclusionThe primary death cause of reproductive women in Liwan District during the 6 years is malignant tumor. It is better to positively study the effective intervention measures to reduce the mortality of reproductive women.%目的:分析荔湾区2009~2014年间育龄妇女死亡的主要原因,为探讨相关干预措施提供依据。方法对荔湾区2009~2014年户籍人口的育龄妇女死亡资料进行回顾性分析。结果6年间荔湾区育龄妇女死亡率60.64/10万,各年度间育龄妇女死亡率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。死因的首位是恶性肿瘤。恶性肿瘤死因构成的前三位是乳腺癌、肺癌、肝癌。30岁以上死亡的育龄妇女人群中超过一半均因为恶性肿瘤而死亡。结论6年间荔湾区育龄妇女死亡的主要原因是恶性肿瘤,应积极探讨有效的干预措施,减少育龄妇女死亡。

  9. Traumatismo abdominal como causa de muerte en el maltrato infantil: descripción de un caso Abdominal traumatism as cause of death in child abuse: report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Miró

    2009-04-01

    was a case of violent death caused, in medico-legal aetiology, by homicide. The immediate cause of death was an intra-abdominal haemorrhage and its fundamental cause was multiple abdominal traumas through compression. The situation described fully matches that found in the bibliography reviewed concerning abdominal wounds caused by child abuse.

  10. El trauma cráneo encefálico como causa de muerte violenta en Costa Rica en el año 2004 Head injury as a cause of violent death in Costa Rica in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Es bien sabido que el trauma cráneo encefálico es un importante contribuyente dentro de las causas de muertes traumáticas, sin embargo en Costa Rica no existen estadísticas actualizadas al respecto. En este trabajo se analizaron las muertes provocadas por este tipo de trauma en el año 2004 para determinar sus características demográficas, ubicación temporal y geográfica, etiología médico legal y las lesiones específicas que provocaron la muerte. Se concluyó, después del análisis de los datos obtenidos, que la mayoría de muertes son prevenibles (accidentes de tránsito, heridas por proyectil de arma de fuego, que las lesiones más frecuentes son las producidas por traumatismos sin objeto animado (non missile injuries, que las lesiones anotadas como causa ulterior de muerte son predominantemente la contusión y laceración cerebral, pero que existe un subdiagnóstico de lesiones letales como el daño axonal difuso, por dificultades técnicas. No obstante el resto del perfil epidemiológico de las víctimas (masculino, de edad laboralmente productiva y habitante de ciudad coinciden con la bibliografía más reciente revisada.It’s a well-known fact the importance of head injury as causes of death on violent deaths around the world; however in Costa Rica there’re not current statistics about this phenomenon. In this paper we analyzed this kind of violent deaths in 2004 for to define its demographic, geographic and chronological characteristics. Also, for analyzing its medico-legal etiology and its specific lethal injury. The conclusions of this paper were: in most cases lethal injury was subject to prevention, because they were caused by traffic accidents or gunshots. The non missile injury, the head experiments a suddenly acceleration, it was the main mechanism involved in lethal injuries. Principal injuries notated as main cause of death in the final autopsy report were brain contusion and lacerations, however there were a sub

  11. Estimation of cancer deaths in Korea for the upcoming years.

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo

    2002-01-01

    Since the cancer has been the leading cause of deaths in Korea, estimation of the cancer deaths for the upcoming years in the population using the vital statistics is considered to be necessary. The aim of this study was to estimate the number and trends of cancer deaths in Korea. The expected numbers of cancer deaths were calculated by a time series model fitting the actual numbers of cancer deaths for each of the years 1983 through 2000 reported by Korea National Statistical Office. The opt...

  12. 珠海市户籍人群死亡水平及死因构成特征%Mortality and Constitutions of Causes of Death in Registered Population in Zhuhai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚思红; 李德云; 梁小冬; 龚志荣

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the mortality level and its epidemic characteristics in the registered population in Zhuhai. Methods According to the requirements of root cause of death in the International Classification of Diseases (10th revision, ICD- 10), a retrospective survey was performed on the causes of the death in the registered population in Zhuhai during 2009-2010. The death rate and the constitutions of causes of death by chronic diseases were analyzed. Results During 2009 -2010, the death toll in the registered population in Zhuhai were 7,541. The crude death rate and standardized mortality rate (SMR) were 368.2/100,000 and 325.3/100,000, respectively. The SMR in males (398.0/100,000) was significantly higher than in females (252.9/100,000, P<0.05). The SMRs in Xiangzhou, Doumen and Jinwan District were 293.3/100,000, 382.2/100,000 and 319.5/100,000, respectively. And the SMR in rural areas was higher than in urban areas (P<0.05). The top five causes of death were malignant tumors, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and injury and poisoning. Their SMRs were 92.6/100,000, 66.1/100,000, 64.4/100,000, 33.5/100,000 and 25.0/100,000, respectively, accounting for 26.3 %, 21.5%, 21.0%, 11.2% and6.8% of the total death, respectively. The top five diseases interpreted 86.7% of the total death. Conclusions Chronic diseases like cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, malignant tumors and respiratory diseases, and injury as well have become common and frequently -occurring diseases severely harming the life and health of the registered population in Zhuhai. Timely and effective prevention and control measures should be taken to target these diseases.%目的 掌握珠海市户籍人群死亡水平及流行特征. 方法 按照国际疾病分类ICD-10根本死因分类要求,对2009-2010年珠海市户籍人群死亡病例开展死因回顾性调查,分析珠海市户籍人群主要慢性病死亡率和死因构成特征.

  13. 2003~2008年住院儿童死因及变化趋势%Causes and change trend of hospitalized children death in a hospital within 6 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑞良; 方孝梅; 鲍喜明; 朱洁; 丁淑萍; 吕琴

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对某院住院儿童死亡病例进行分析,研究该地区儿童死亡的主要死因及变化趋势,改善干预措施,降低该地区的儿童死亡率.方法:对某院165例死亡儿童病例进行同顾性分析,采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计处理.结果:该院6年来住院儿童病死率比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).该地区儿童的主要死因依次为新生儿疾病、呼吸系统疾病、损伤与中毒、先天畸形.新生儿疾病是主要死因,先天畸形的死亡构成有上升的趋势,感染性疾病的死亡构成呈下降趋势,其中传染病总体呈下降趋势.各年龄组的病死率有明显统计学差异(P<0.05).男女性别各年龄组死亡构成无统计学差异(P>0.05),但城乡之间有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:加强高危孕女的保健及监测工作,尤其是围生期及新生儿期的保健工作,搞好产前诊断和缺陷胎儿筛查,把握抢救时机,提高抢救水平,可明显降低儿童死亡人数.%Objective: To study the main causes and change trend of children death in the region by analyzing the dead children in a hospital, improve the interventional measures, reduce children mortality in the region. Methods: 165 dead children from a hospital were analyzed retrospectively, SPSS13. 0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results; There was no significant difference in the fatality rate of hospitalized children within 6 years (P >0. 05) . The main causes of children death in the region included neonatal diseases, respiratory system diseases, injury and toxicosis, congenital malformations. Neonatal disease was the main cause of children death, the proportion of children death induced by congenital diseases showed a increasing trend, while the proportion of children death induced by infectious diseases showed a decreasing trend. There was significant difference in mortality of children among different age groups ( P 0. 05) , but there was significant difference between urban

  14. A sericin-derived peptide protects sf9 insect cells from death caused by acute serum deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masakazu; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Kato, Youichi; Yamada, Hideyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Shigeru

    2005-07-01

    Sericin is the silk protein enveloping fibroin fibers in cocoons. Sericin hydrolysate protects cultured Sf9 insect cells from death caused by serum deprivation; the activity depends on the repeats of 38 amino acids. A partial peptide from the 38 residues, SGGSSTYGYS, inhibited serum-deprivation death as well. Cell viabilities in the presence of 10% (v/v) foetal calf serum, no additives and 1 mM: SGGSSTYGYS were 96, 12 and 31% on the third day after inoculation, respectively. Aromatic residues seemed to be important because SGGSSTWGWS had the same activity as SGGSSTYGYS but SGGSSTAGAS had no activity. PMID:16091882

  15. 某县2006~2011年育龄妇女死因分析%Analysis of Cause Death with Women of Childbearing Age in A County during 2006 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德友

    2012-01-01

      Objective To provide the basis for the formulation of prevention and control strategies through the analysis of 2006-2011, women of childbearing age in Hanyuan leading cause of death. Methods the Hanyuan 2006-2011 report on the cause of death information, according to the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10 standard classification and coding, the use of the China Disease Prevention and Control Center"cause of death registration reporting information system"are input, the with Deathreg 2005 version of the software analysis. Results The from Hanyuan 2006 to the 2011 crude death rate of women of childbearing age 107.47/100,000 population according to the system classification statistics, the top five causes of death were accidental death, cancer, circulatory system, digestive system, respiratory system, and the top five were killed accounted for 85.93%of the total number of potential years of life lost 85.15 percent of the total potential years of life lost. Conclusion Accidental deaths (suicide, traffic accidents), cancer (leukemia, stomach cancer, liver cancer), circulatory system (heart, cerebrovascular disease), digestive, respiratory disease is an important public health problem in the region. Prompt us to strengthen the health promotion work and actively promote healthy lifestyles and improve the living environment, strengthen the love of the crowd, the establishment of a harmonious community.%  目的 通过分析汉源县2006~2011年育龄妇女主要死亡原因,为预防控制策略的制定提供依据.方法 对汉源县2006~2011年报告死因资料,按国际疾病ICD-10标准进行分类编码,运用中国疾病预防控制中心《死因登记报告信息系统》进行录入,用Deathreg 2005版软件进行分析.结果 汉源县2006

  16. 中山市5岁以下儿童死亡原因的调查与分析%The survey and analysis of death causes of children under the five years in Zhongshan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓光来; 周可雄

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the death causes of the children under the five years in our city and put forward inter-vention strategy in order to reduce mortality. Methods The data of under five years old death children from July 2008 to July 2012 in our city were retrospectively analyzed. Results It was total surveyed of 92416 cases of live births.Chil-dren under five years to death were 378 cases,accounted for 4.09 ‰,among them,212 cases of neonatal to death were accounted for 56.08%(212/378).84 cases of infants to death(not included newborns) were accounted for 22.22%(84/378). 82 cases of 1 to 4 years old children’s to death were accounted for 21.69%(82/378).Children mortality of different years in different age was compared,with statistical difference(χ²=11.79,P=0.003).Premature,congenital anomaly,birth asphyxi-a,pneumonia and drowning is an independent risk factor for children under 5 years old to death respectively. Conclu-sion Reduce the neonatal and infant mortality is an important link to reduce the mortality of children under 5 years old, should strengthen the health care in pregnancy and prenatal evaluation.%目的:探讨本市5岁以下儿童死亡的原因,并提出干预对策,以降低死亡率。方法对本市2008年7月~2012年7月5岁以下死亡儿童的资料进行回顾性分析。结果本市活产数92416例,5岁以下儿童死亡378例,占4.09‰,其中新生儿死亡212例,占56.08%(212/378);婴儿(不包括新生儿)死亡84例,占22.22%(84/378);1~4岁儿童死亡82例,占21.69%(82/378)。不同年间不同年龄儿童死亡率比较差异有统计学意义(χ²=11.79,P=0.003)。早产、先天异常、出生窒息、肺炎、溺水是5岁以下儿童死亡的独立危险因素(P<0.05)。结论降低新生儿和婴儿死亡率是降低5岁以下儿童死亡率的重要环节,应加强孕期保健与产前评估。

  17. Death cause analysis and intervention measures of pregnant women in Tongren city in 2012%铜仁市2012年孕产妇死亡原因分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2014-01-01

    Objective :the main reason of maternal death review can find out the influence of reducing maternal mortality ,reduce maternal death in order to develop interventions feasible .Methods :statistical analysis was carried out in Tongren city in 2011 October -2012 year in September of 15 death cases of maternal death review data .Results :the maternal the top three causes of death were obstetrical hemorrhage ,hypertensive disorder com-plicating pregnancy ,puerperal infection .Conclusion:to improve the quality of maternal health service ,provide the specification ,quality health care services ,standardize the management of high -risk referral ,strengthen the rural medical and health institutions obstetric emergency obstetric medical personnel training ,improve their theoretical knowledge and operational skills ,improve the hospitalization rate delivery is an effective measure to re-duce the maternal mortality rate .%目的:通过孕产妇死亡评审可找出影响降低孕产妇死亡率的主要原因,以便制定切实可行的降低孕产妇死亡的干预措施。方法:对铜仁市2011年10月-2012年9月死亡的15例孕产妇死亡的评审资料进行统计分析。结果:孕产妇死因前三位依次是产科出血、妊娠高血压疾病、产褥感染。结论:提高孕产期保健服务质量,提供规范、优质的保健服务,规范高危转诊管理,加强县乡医疗保健机构产科医护人员产科急救能力培训,提高他们的理论知识和操作技能,提高住院分娩率等是降低孕产妇死亡率的有效措施。

  18. The importance of child and youth death review

    OpenAIRE

    Ornstein, Amy; Bowes, Matthew; Shouldice, Michelle; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2013-01-01

    The mandate of a formal child death review (CDR) system is to advance understanding