WorldWideScience

Sample records for cause of death

  1. The Danish registers of causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1999-01-01

    In 1875 registration of causes of death in Denmark was established by the National Board of Health, and annual statistics of death have since been published. Until 1970 the national statistics were based upon punched cards with data collected from the death certificates. Since then the register h......, and the research based upon the registers, presenting some examples of research activities....

  2. Cause of Death Affects Racial Classification on Death Certificates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noymer, Andrew; Penner, Andrew M.; Saperstein, Aliya

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by cause of death. Cirrhosis decedents are more likely to be recorded as American Indian on their death certificates, and homicide victims are more likely to be recorded as Black; these results remain net of controls for followback survey racial classification, indicating that the relationship we reveal is not simply a restatement of the fact that these causes of death are more prevalent among certain groups. Our findings suggest that seemingly non-racial characteristics, such as cause of death, affect how people are racially perceived by others and thus shape U.S. official statistics. PMID:21298093

  3. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  4. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  5. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  6. Causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, T S; Juel, K; Bülow, S

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due...... to duodenal/periampullary cancer and desmoid tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the causes of death with special emphasis on duodenal/periampullary cancer....

  7. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment,...

  8. Cardiac Causes of Sudden Infant Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Aygün

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism and causes of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is still remains its mystery. The pathophysiology of SIDS is not clear. Sleeping in prone position is thought to contribute to pathophysiology. Schwartz was the first physician suggesting that SIDS can be associated with heart and autonomic nervous system. Congenital long QT syndrome may trigger SIDS by causing ventricular tachycardia. Normal cardiac rhythm is regulated by ion channels and specific proteins, but genetical analyses clearly demonstrated that 5 ion channel genes were responsible for rare arrhythmias. The infections, fever and sleeping in prone position can increase the risk of long QT syndrome in babies having mutations in cardiac ion channels. In this review we tried to draw attention to SIDS as an important cause of death in childhood period and association of SIDS with long QT syndrome which is not necessarily noticed by physicians. (The Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2014;1:37-42

  9. Differentiating cause-of-death terminology for deaths coded as sudden infant death syndrome, accidental suffocation, and unknown cause: an investigation using US death certificates, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Chu, Susan Y; Camperlengo, Lena T; Anderson, Robert N

    2012-03-01

    We compared written text on infant death certificates for deaths coded as sudden infant death syndrome (R95), unknown cause (R99), and accidental suffocation (W75). Using US mortality files supplemented with the death certifiers' written text for all infant deaths with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 assigned codes R95, R99, and W75, we formed cause-of-death subcategories from common themes identified from the written text. Among all infant deaths in 2003-2004, the underlying cause of death was listed as R99 for 2128 deaths, R95 for 4408 deaths, and W75 for 931 deaths. Among the postneonatal deaths, the differences in subcategories varied between assigned ICD-10 codes: for R99-coded deaths, 45.8% were categorized as "Unknown" and 48.6% as "Pending"; for R95-coded deaths, 67.7% were categorized as "sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)"; and for W75-coded deaths, 76.4% were categorized as "Suffocation." Examination of the written text on the death certificates demonstrates variability in the assigned ICD-10 codes which could have an important effect on the estimates of SIDS cases in the United States.

  10. Underlying cause of death in Danish patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Stenager, Egon

    1998-01-01

    To determine the underlying causes of death in a large population based register series of patients with multiple sclerosis.......To determine the underlying causes of death in a large population based register series of patients with multiple sclerosis....

  11. The Interpretation of Cause of Death 53 Among Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson, Magdalena

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies on mortality in 18th and 19th century Sweden have discussed the validity of cause of death information. The fact that the Swedish clergy historically were responsible for the stipulation and reporting of causes of death has initiated a discussion on the medical competence of the clergy. Other issues concern the level of accomplishment in medical science and the effects of instructions and regulations on cause of death registration. This paper argues that cause of death analyses are quite useful for the understanding of mortality transitions if cause of death information is placed in its proper context and are combined with other kinds of mortality analyses. An awareness of 1 the conditions under which causes of death were stipulated, 2 what regulations were in effect at the particular time, and 3 the environmental and epidemiological changes provides good prerequisites for successful use of cause of death information.

  12. Reliability of cause of death coding: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antini, Carmen; Rajs, Danuta; Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Mondaca, Boris Andrés Lucero; Heiss, Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates the agreement of nosologic coding of cardiovascular causes of death between a Chilean coder and one in the United States, in a stratified random sample of death certificates of persons aged ≥ 60, issued in 2008 in the Valparaíso and Metropolitan regions, Chile. All causes of death were converted to ICD-10 codes in parallel by both coders. Concordance was analyzed with inter-coder agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient by level of specification ICD-10 code for the underlying cause and the total causes of death coding. Inter-coder agreement was 76.4% for all causes of death and 80.6% for the underlying cause (agreement at the four-digit level), with differences by the level of specification of the ICD-10 code, by line of the death certificate, and by number of causes of death per certificate. Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.76 (95%CI: 0.68-0.84) for the underlying cause and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.74-0.77) for the total causes of death. In conclusion, causes of death coding and inter-coder agreement for cardiovascular diseases in two regions of Chile are comparable to an external benchmark and with reports from other countries.

  13. Deaths from heart failure: using coarsened exact matching to correct cause-of-death statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibuya Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incomplete information on death certificates makes recorded cause-of-death data less useful for public health monitoring and planning. Certifying physicians sometimes list only the mode of death without indicating the underlying disease or diseases that led to the death. Inconsistent cause-of-death assignment among cardiovascular causes of death is of particular concern. This can prevent valid epidemiologic comparisons across countries and over time. Methods We propose that coarsened exact matching be used to infer the underlying causes of death where only the mode of death is known. We focus on the case of heart failure in US, Mexican, and Brazilian death records. Results Redistribution algorithms derived using this method assign the largest proportion of heart failure deaths to ischemic heart disease in all three countries (53%, 26%, and 22% respectively, with larger proportions assigned to hypertensive heart disease and diabetes in Mexico and Brazil (16% and 23% vs. 7% for hypertensive heart disease, and 13% and 9% vs. 6% for diabetes. Reassigning these heart failure deaths increases the US ischemic heart disease mortality rate by 6%. Conclusions The frequency with which physicians list heart failure in the causal chain for various underlying causes of death allows for inference about how physicians use heart failure on the death certificate in different settings. This easy-to-use method has the potential to reduce bias and increase comparability in cause-of-death data, thereby improving the public health utility of death records.

  14. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low......- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0-4 years in China in the year 2010. METHODS: In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi-cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first...... published estimate of the causes of child deaths in China (for the year 2008). Only five of those studies identified specific causes of accidental deaths. Because of this, we searched the Chinese medical literature databases CNKI and WanFang for single-cause mortality studies that were focused on accidental...

  15. Potential misclassification of causes of death from COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henriette Hvide; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about causes of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the validity of mortality statistics in COPD. The present authors examined causes of death using data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Of the 12,979 subjects with sufficient data from the baseline...... COPD, CMH and smoking were predictors of COPD as underlying cause of death, ORs 2.3 (1.5-3.7) and 2.2 (1.4-3.6), respectively. It was concluded that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is underreported on death certificates, that biases in the use of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as cause...... of death can be assessed, and that possible "over-diagnosis" of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on death certificates in subjects unlikely to have significant disease should initiate caution when using causes of mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease epidemiology....

  16. Mortality and Causes of Death in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir;

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disease that causes frequent fractures. Little is known about causes of death and length of survival in OI. The objective of this work was to calculate the risk and cause of death, and the median survival time in patients with OI...

  17. Infectious causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the relation between seasonality and incidence of SIDS, which often showed a winter peak. These all may suggest an infectious aetiology of SIDS. In this review we have summarised the current literature on infectious aetiologies of SIDS by looking at viral, bacterial, genetic and environmental factors which are believed to be associated with SIDS.

  18. Local perceptions of causes of death in rural South Africa: a comparison of perceived and verbal autopsy causes of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Alkhateeb, Laith; Fottrell, Edward; Petzold, Max; Kahn, Kathleen; Byass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how lay people perceive the causes of mortality and their associated risk factors is important for public health. In resource-limited settings, where verbal autopsy (VA) is used as the most expedient method of determining cause of death, it is important to understand how pre-existing concepts of cause of death among VA-informants may influence their VA-responses and the consequential impact on cause of death assessment. This study describes the agreement between VA-derived causes of death and informant-perceived causes and associated influential factors, which also reflects lay health literacy in this setting. Method Using 20 years of VA data (n=11,228) from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in rural South Africa, we explored the agreement between the causes of death perceived by the VA-informants and those assigned by the automated Inter-VA tool. Kappa statistics and concordance correlation coefficients were applied to measure agreement at individual and population levels, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to explore factors associated with recognised lay perceptions of causes of mortality. Results Agreement between informant-perceived and VA-derived causes of death at the individual level was limited, but varied substantially by cause of death. However, agreement at the population level, comparing cause-specific mortality fractions was higher, with the notable exception of bewitchment as a cause. More recent deaths, those in adults aged 15–49 years, deaths outside the home, and those associated with external causes showed higher concordance with InterVA. Conclusion Overall, informant perception of causes of death was limited, but depended on informant characteristics and causes of death, and to some extent involved non-biomedical constructs. Understanding discordance between perceived and recognised causes of death is important for public health planning; low community

  19. Local perceptions of causes of death in rural South Africa: a comparison of perceived and verbal autopsy causes of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding how lay people perceive the causes of mortality and their associated risk factors is important for public health. In resource-limited settings, where verbal autopsy (VA is used as the most expedient method of determining cause of death, it is important to understand how pre-existing concepts of cause of death among VA-informants may influence their VA-responses and the consequential impact on cause of death assessment. This study describes the agreement between VA-derived causes of death and informant-perceived causes and associated influential factors, which also reflects lay health literacy in this setting. Method: Using 20 years of VA data (n=11,228 from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in rural South Africa, we explored the agreement between the causes of death perceived by the VA-informants and those assigned by the automated Inter-VA tool. Kappa statistics and concordance correlation coefficients were applied to measure agreement at individual and population levels, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to explore factors associated with recognised lay perceptions of causes of mortality. Results: Agreement between informant-perceived and VA-derived causes of death at the individual level was limited, but varied substantially by cause of death. However, agreement at the population level, comparing cause-specific mortality fractions was higher, with the notable exception of bewitchment as a cause. More recent deaths, those in adults aged 15–49 years, deaths outside the home, and those associated with external causes showed higher concordance with InterVA. Conclusion: Overall, informant perception of causes of death was limited, but depended on informant characteristics and causes of death, and to some extent involved non-biomedical constructs. Understanding discordance between perceived and recognised causes of death is important for public health planning; low

  20. Glucose sensor excludes hypoglycaemia as cause of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The cause of death can be difficult to verify post-mortem in unexpected deaths in patients with Type 1 diabetes. This report describes an unexpected death in a 44-year-old man with Type 1 diabetes treated with sensor-augmented pump therapy. Continuous glucose monitoring data proved useful...

  1. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1993-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an increased mortality in schizophrenic patients, the literature provides little information about mortality from specific causes in relation to age, gender, and duration of illness. This study examined mortality and causes of death in a total national sample...... of 9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...

  2. Medical examiner and medical toxicologist agreement on cause of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manini, Alex F.; Nelson, Lewis S.; Olsen, Dean; Vlahov, David; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Poisoning is a significant public health threat as the second leading cause of injury-related death in the US. Disagreements on cause of death determination may have widespread implications across several realms of public health including policy and prevention efforts, interpretation of the poisoning literature, epidemiologic data analysis, medical-legal case outcomes, and individualized autopsy interpretation. We aimed to test agreement between the cause of death determined by the medical examiner (ME) and a medical toxicologist (MT) adjudication panel (MTAP) in cases of poisoning. This retrospective 7-year study evaluated all deaths attributed to poisoning in one large urban catchment area. Cross-matched data were obtained from Department of Vital Statistics and the Poison Control Center (PCC). Out of >380,000 deaths in the catchment area over the study period, there were 7050 poisonings in the Vital Statistics database and 414 deaths reported to PCC. Cross-matching yielded 321 cases for analysis. The ME and MTAP concurred on cause of death in 66%, which was only fair agreement (κ 0.25, CI 0.14–0.38). Factors associated with the likelihood of agreement were peri-mortem fire exposures, prehospital cardiac arrest, and timing of drug toxicity (chronic versus acute). In conclusion, agreement for poisoning cause of death between specialties was much lower than expected. We recommend an improved formal process of information sharing and consultation between specialties to assure that all existing information is analyzed thoroughly to enhance cause of death certainty. PMID:20655675

  3. Top 10 Causes of Death in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke are the world’s biggest killers, accounting for a combined 15 million ... million. HIV/AIDS is no longer among the world’s top 10 causes of death, having killed 1. ...

  4. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On the performance of an autopsy, sudden deaths may be divided into 2 classifications: (1) sudden cardiac deaths and (2) sudden noncardiac deaths (SNCDs). Families of SNCD victims should not be followed up as a means of searching for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study...... was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify both clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with SNCD. RESULTS: We identified 1039 autopsied cases of sudden death, of which 286 (28%) were classified as SNCD...

  5. Cause of death conundrum with methadone use: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsky, Michael C; Zumwalt, Ross E; Seifert, Steven A; Benson, Blaine E

    2011-06-01

    Deaths caused by a methadone intoxication or overdose are becoming more frequent. We report a case involving a patient who had extremely high methadone blood concentrations but whose cause of death may have been unrelated to the drug. A 51-year-old woman was found deceased in bed by her daughter. At the scene were numerous bottles of methadone, with the chronic dosage of 240 mg 3 times a day. There was no history of prior suicide attempts, there were no reports of suicidal ideation having been voiced and there was no suicide note. At autopsy, there were no pills found in the stomach. Microscopic tissue examination revealed lobar pneumonia of the right lower lobe. Postmortem lung cultures grew out Streptococcus pneumoniae. Femoral blood contained methadone, 5.7 mg/L; EDDP, 2.1 mg/L; oxycodone, 0.017 mg/L; doxylamine, 0.022 mg/L; and ethanol, 13.0 mg/dL. The postmortem methadone concentration was consistent with her known dose, plausible pharmacokinetics and conditions of discovery. Various causes of death, such as a methadone-related arrhythmia from QTc prolongation or the contribution of methadone to the development of the pneumonia, cannot be ruled out and may well have caused or contributed to death, but the pneumonia was felt to be a competent cause of death. Ultimately, the most likely cause(s) of death, is a decision left to the individual medical examiner. This case is illustrative of the growing number of similar cases facing forensic pathologists. The cause of death cannot be solely based on drug concentrations and it may not be possible to come to a conclusion as to "the" cause of death and the forensic pathologist must be content with "a" cause of death.

  6. Causes of death behind low life expectancy of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The authors examined causes of death contributing to the relatively high mortality of Danish women born 1915-45, and evaluated the impact of smoking related causes of death. METHODS: Age-period-cohort analysis of mortality of Danish women aged 40-89 in 1960-98. Estimate of the negative curv...... explanation behind the relatively low life expectancy of Danish women born 1915-45....

  7. The Causes and Risk Factors of Tuberculosis Deaths in Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Seyed Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the 10 leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Understanding the cause and risk factors of TB death and lowering them can reduce its mortality rate. The aim of this study was to assess the cause and risk factors for death of tuberculosis. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in Khuzestan province in the south west of Iran, from 2002 to 2006. Medical records of tuberculosis cases over the 5-year period were reviewed and death data were analyzed. Including criteria were documented TB diagnosed based on National Tuberculosis Program (NTP. Extracted data were analyzed in SPSS 11.5 system and by chi squared test. One hundred and twenty five deaths (3.15% with mean age of 48.96±10.03 years were detected. Risk factors for death were: cigarette smoking, diabetes, chronic peritoneal dialysis, MDR-TB, imprisonment, AIDS and injection drug usage. 93 deaths (74.4% were directly attributed to tuberculosis. Overwhelming TB disease, hemoptysis, AIDS/HIV and MDR-TB were the cause of death with the rate of 69.9%, 11.8%, 9.7% and 8.6%, respectively. 32 (25.6% deaths were due to medical problems unrelated to TB, among which were cardiovascular diseases, bacterial super infection and cancers with the rate of 25%, 21.9% and 15.6%, respectively. The deaths of TB not only are directly related to TB, but also are caused due to comorbid conditions. Overwhelming TB disease, hemoptysis, cardiovascular diseases, bacterial super infection and cancers are the main cause of death. MDR-TB, imprisonment, AIDS and injection drug usage are the main risk factors for TB mortality.

  8. Validity of death certificates for injury-related causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, L A; Boyle, C A; Pollock, D A

    1989-11-01

    Exploration of the validity of death certificate information for classifying underlying causes of death has historically focused on "natural" or disease-related causes of death. Current interest in injury-related deaths has emphasized the need for proper certification and coding of these deaths. In this study, the authors compared agreement of the underlying cause of death as determined from death certificate information with that determined from an independent review of all relevant medical and legal documents of death by a panel of physicians. The study sample included all deaths (n = 446) occurring over an approximately 18-year follow-up period (1965-1983) in a randomly selected cohort of 18,313 US Army Veterans of the Vietnam era. Using the physician panel as the "gold standard," sensitivity and specificity were 90% or greater for broad groupings of motor vehicle crash deaths (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), codes E810-E825), suicides (codes E950-E959), and homicides (codes E960-E969). Agreement for deaths from unintentional poisonings (codes E850-E869), mostly drug- and alcohol-related, was poor (sensitivity, 50 percent); in general, the ICD-9 drug- and alcohol-specific nomenclature is difficult to apply. The specificity and sensitivity for the individual three-digit suicide and homicide codes were all greater than 90%, and although the specificity for three-digit motor vehicle crash deaths was also above 90%, the sensitivity was lower, from 29% to 83%. Agreement on the fourth digit of ICD-9--for example, the role of the decedent in a motor vehicle crash death--was generally poor. The lack of descriptive information on death certificates to allow detailed coding was chiefly responsible for the poor agreement.

  9. CDC WONDER: Compressed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979...

  10. CDC WONDER: Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are...

  11. Zika May Have Caused Death of Texas Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160325.html Zika May Have Caused Death of Texas Newborn Baby ... birth defect linked to fetal exposure to the Zika virus, state health officials say. According to a ...

  12. [Causes of the people death from drunkenness and alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, Iu A; Paukov, V S; Kirillov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed causes of 1008 people death, who abused by alcohol. Among them 2 groups were separated out: people died due to drunkenness and due to alcoholism. The structure of the death was similar in the both groups, however depended on alcoholism stages. The major cause of the death in group of drunkenness people was acute heart insufficiency, less commonly--lung pathology, and very rarely--brain vessels pathology and liver cirrhosis. In group of people, who died due to alcoholism, lung pathology was the major cause of these deaths, acute heart insufficiency was occurred less commonly, and very rare brain pathology because of delirium tremens or alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as so liver cirrhosis with complications. Hemorrhagic pancreonecrosis after alcoholic excess was found out in both groups, but it was more often in people, who died due to drunkenness. Obtained results show importance of chronic alcoholism identification as a disease with several stages including drunkenness and alcoholism.

  13. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) - a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froen, J. Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W.; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C.; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J.; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C.; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Torabi, Rozbeh

    2009-01-01

    A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose

  14. [What are the causes of death of patients with tuberculosis: multiple causes of death in a cohort of cases and a research proposal of presumed causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marli Souza; Oliveira, Gisele Pinto de; Aguiar, Fernanda Pinheiro; Saraceni, Valéria; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the multiple causes of death in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis (TB) and to introduce an investigation proposal death for TB from a list of presumable causes. We performed a probabilistic record linkage with the databases of the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) 2006 and the Mortality Information System (SIM) 2006-2008. There were 825 deaths, of which 23% for death for TB, deaths due to TB with 16% and 61% without mention of TB. Two hundred and fifteen (42.7%) deaths occurred within the period of treatment, whose profile differed from the pattern of causes when TB was an associated cause, with high frequency of respiratory diseases, AIDS and ill-defined causes. We elaborated a proposal for correction of associated causes of death and an investigation proposal death for TB from a list of presumable causes. According to the proposal, 26 deaths could have modified the underlying cause. This study highlights the importance of record linkage to TB surveillance and improvement of information the SIM and SINAN.

  15. Wernicke's encephalopathy: a preventable cause of maternal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedisinghe, Lilantha; Jayakody, Kaushadh; Arambage, Kirana

    2011-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a rare cause of maternal death. It is a difficult diagnosis to make but prevention and treatment is straightforward. Severe thiamine deficiency causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Correct diagnosis and treatment with thiamine will decrease the case fatality rate.

  16. Long-term prognosis and causes of death after spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Dahl, Benny;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term prognosis after spondylodiscitis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine long-term mortality and the causes of death after spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort study using national registries of patients diagnosed with non.......62), respiratory (MRR = 1.71), gastrointestinal (MRR = 3.35), musculoskeletal (MRR = 5.39) and genitourinary diseases (MRR = 3.37), but also due to trauma, poisoning and external causes (MRR = 2.78), alcohol abuse-related diseases (MRR = 5.59) and drug abuse-related diseases (6 vs 0 deaths, MRR not calculable...

  17. Reducing Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in the Rural United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Macarena C; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Bauer, Ursula E; Iademarco, Michael F

    2017-01-13

    In 2014, the all-cause age-adjusted death rate in the United States reached a historic low of 724.6 per 100,000 population (1). However, mortality in rural (nonmetropolitan) areas of the United States has decreased at a much slower pace, resulting in a widening gap between rural mortality rates (830.5) and urban mortality rates (704.3) (1). During 1999–2014, annual age-adjusted death rates for the five leading causes of death in the United States (heart disease, cancer, unintentional injury, chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD), and stroke) were higher in rural areas than in urban (metropolitan) areas (Figure 1). In most public health regions (Figure 2), the proportion of deaths among persons aged rural areas compared with urban areas (Figure 3). Several factors probably influence the rural-urban gap in potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes, many of which are associated with sociodemographic differences between rural and urban areas. Residents of rural areas in the United States tend to be older, poorer, and sicker than their urban counterparts (3). A higher proportion of the rural U.S. population reports limited physical activity because of chronic conditions than urban populations (4). Moreover, social circumstances and behaviors have an impact on mortality and potentially contribute to approximately half of the determining causes of potentially excess deaths (5).

  18. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, M; Thorvaldsen, P

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death...... after a first stroke and to compare them with those of the background population....

  19. Causes and prevention of sudden cardiac death in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Patricia; Albert, Christine M

    2013-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of mortality in elderly individuals owing to a high prevalence of coronary heart disease, systolic dysfunction, and congestive heart failure (CHF). Although the incidence of SCD increases with age, the proportion of cardiac deaths that are sudden decreases owing to high numbers of other cardiac causes of death in elderly individuals. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy has been demonstrated to improve survival and prevent SCD in selected patients with systolic dysfunction and CHF. However, ICD therapy in elderly patients might not be effective because of a greater rate of pulseless electrical activity underlying SCD and other competing nonarrhythmic causes of death in this population. Although under-represented in randomized trials of ICD use, elderly patients comprise a substantial proportion of the population that qualifies for and receives an ICD for primary prevention under current guidelines. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), which has been demonstrated to reduce mortality in selected populations with heart failure, is also more commonly used in this group of patients than in younger individuals. In this Review, we examine the causes of SCD in elderly individuals, and discuss the existing evidence for effectiveness of ICD therapy and CRT in this growing population.

  20. First assumptions and overlooking competing causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Andersen, Anh Thao Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    of cause of death, which was based on results from bacteriology tests, proved to be wrong when the results from the forensic toxicology testing became available. This case also illustrates how post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of radio opaque material in the stomach alerted the pathologist...

  1. Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Haensch

    Full Text Available From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.

  2. Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

    2010-10-07

    From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th) century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.

  3. Accuracy of Death Certificates and Assessment of Factors for Misclassification of Underlying Cause of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Naka Mieno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cause of death (COD information taken from death certificates is often inaccurate and incomplete. However, the accuracy of Underlying CODs (UCODs recorded on death certificates has not been comprehensively described when multiple diseases are present. Methods: A total of 450 consecutive autopsies performed at a geriatric hospital in Japan between February 2000 and August 2002 were studied. We evaluated the concordance rate, sensitivity, and specificity of major UCODs (cancer, heart disease, and pneumonia reported on death certificates compared with a reference standard of pathologist assessment based on autopsy data and clinical records. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of sex, age, comorbidity, and UCODs on misclassification. Results: The concordance rate was relatively high for cancer (81% but low for heart disease (55% and pneumonia (9%. The overall concordance rate was 48%. Sex and comorbidity did not affect UCOD misclassification rates, which tended to increase with patient age, although the association with age was also not significant. The strongest factor for misclassification was UCODs (P < 0.0001. Sensitivity and specificity for cancer were very high (80% and 96%, respectively, but sensitivity for heart disease and pneumonia was 60% and 46%, respectively. Specificity for each UCOD was more than 85%. Conclusions: Researchers should be aware of the accuracy of COD data from death certificates used as research resources, especially for cases of elderly patients with pneumonia.

  4. Dismemberment: cause of death in the Colombian armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo-Méndez, Maria Dolores; Campos, Isla Yolima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate major findings in the recovery and analysis of victims, where dismemberment is the cause of death, but also a manner of torture within the context of the armed conflict in Colombia. It is intended to provide useful analytical information and to contribute to the correct interpretation of forensic analyses in cases of dismemberment and/or in the examination of human remains within the context of the Colombian armed conflict. The importance of including dismemberment as an opinion in the forensic report by correlating the findings on the body, the grave and context of the information available, and the accounts on the facts is encouraged. Otherwise these cases will be recorded as undetermined cause of death, which does not reflect the brutality of the war.

  5. Mortality and Causes of Death in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir;

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disease that causes frequent fractures. Little is known about causes of death and length of survival in OI. The objective of this work was to calculate the risk and cause of death, and the median survival time in patients with OI...... five to one to the OI cohort. We calculated hazard ratios for all-cause mortality and subhazard ratios for cause-specific mortality in a comparison of the OI cohort and the reference population. We also calculated all-cause mortality hazard ratios for males, females, and age groups (0 to 17.99 years......, 18.00 to 34.99 years, 35.00 to 54.99 years, 55.00 to 74.99 years, and >75 years). We identified 687 cases of OI (379 women) and included 3435 reference persons (1895 women). A total of 112 patients with OI and 257 persons in the reference population died during the observation period. The all-cause...

  6. Rare cause of natural death in forensic setting: hemophagocytic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruschka, B; Habeck, J-O; Hädrich, C; Dreßler, J; Bayer, R

    2016-05-01

    We report about the case of a sudden unexpected death of a 25-year-old male suffering from infectious disease. An autopsy was ordered with no final premortem diagnosis. Microscopic and microbiological examination revealed a pneumococcal bronchopneumonia and hemophagocytic lesions in the bone marrow. After integrating clinical and autopsy reports as well as additional postmortem investigations, the cause of death was found to be infectious-triggered hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) with a final cytokine storm. This seems to be the first reported fatal case of a reactive form of HPS associated to Streptococcus pneumoniae to the best of our knowledge. HPS is a dangerous hyperinflammation with highly characteristic, but nonspecific, laboratory findings and symptoms. Autopsies in such cases must be carefully performed and include systematic tissue sampling done by an experienced pathologist.

  7. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...... disorders, accidents and suicide was increased, whereas mortality from cerebrovascular disorders was reduced. In the male patients cancer mortality was reduced whereas cancer mortality in the female patients was increased. Mortality from a number of causes that theoretically could be associated with side...... effects from neuroleptics was increased. Mortality from some causes of death used as a measurement of the quality of medical care was found to be slightly increased. Further studies of the quality of the medical care provided to schizophrenic patients and of the association between neuroleptic medication...

  8. NCHS - Age-adjusted Death Rates for the Top 10 Leading Causes of Death: United States, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Age-adjusted death rates for the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States, including mortality patterns from 1999 through 2013, and by state of residence...

  9. CAUSE OF IMMEDIATE DEATH BY LARGE DOSES OF BOTULINUS TOXIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J J; Schlesinger, M J; Orr, P F

    1924-06-30

    Parenteral introduction of amounts of the culture filtrate of Bacillus botulinus greatly in excess of the minimum lethal dose has been observed to cause the practically immediate death of mice. This result is due to the presence in the filtrates of a chemical poison possessing properties distinct from those of the contained botulinus toxin which itself acts only after a well defined period of incubation. This chemical poison is not neutralized by botulinus antitoxin; it is effective only when large amounts of the culture filtrate are given; it is thermostable, not being destroyed when heated in the autoclave in a sealed tube, though when it is heated in an open container its toxicity diminishes with a coincidental volatilization of basic material. The volatile substance can be identified as ammonia. Death resulting from the injection of comparatively large amounts of ammonium salts (0.1 gm.) is easily distinguished from that due to botulism, both through the character of the symptoms and the absence of an incubation period. However, when the amount of toxic salts injected is smaller (0.01 gm.), the symptoms of poisoning are not so characteristic and death may be delayed long enough to suggest a period of incubation similar to that observed in botulism (Table IV). This circumstance is of importance in connection with the examination of partly decomposed food products in which the presence of botulinus toxin is suspected. As a rule such suspected material is injected in massive doses (0.5 to 1 cc.) in mice. It is conceivable that such spoiled foods may be contaminated with common putrefactive bacteria yielding ammonia during their growth and thus may cause death of the test animals. If in such tests mice passively protected by the preliminary injection of an excess of antitoxin be used in addition to normal animals, the chances of an error in the interpretation of the results will be materially reduced, though not ruled out. Unfortunately for such a procedure

  10. CAUSES OF DEATH IN NEWBORN INFANTS ACCORDING TO AUTOPSY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh.- R. Walizadeh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Autopsy findings in 138 newborn infants which died in a university nursery during 3 years are reviewed and discussed. 80 per cent were premature and small- for- date newborns of up to 2500 g birth weight. Most of these cases showed in addition to general prematurely signs, respiratory tract diseases such as atelectasia, amniotic fluid aspiration and hyaline membrane disease. The full term infants died mostly of malformations. In post neonatal period the cause of death was almost entirely infections such as bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

  11. Late Maternal Deaths and Deaths from Sequelae of Obstetric Causes in the Americas from 1999 to 2013: A Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cosio, Federico G.; Sanhueza, Antonio; Soliz, Patricia N.; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on maternal deaths occurring after the 42 days postpartum reference time is scarce; the objective of this analysis is to explore the trend and magnitude of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes in the Americas between 1999 and 2013, and to recommend including these deaths in the monitoring of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Methods Exploratory data analysis enabled analyzing the magnitude and trend of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes for seven countries of the Americas: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico and the United States. A Poisson regression model was developed to compare trends of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes between two periods of time: 1999 to 2005 and 2006 to 2013; and to estimate the relative increase of these deaths in the two periods of time. Findings The proportion of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes ranged between 2.40% (CI 0.85% – 5.48%) and 18.68% (CI 17.06% – 20.47%) in the seven countries. The ratio of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes per 100,000 live births has increased by two times in the region of the Americas in the period 2006-2013 compared to the period 1999-2005. The regional relative increase of late maternal death was 2.46 (p<0.0001) times higher in the second period compared to the first. Interpretation Ascertainment of late maternal deaths and deaths from sequelae of obstetric causes has improved in the Americas since the early 2000’s due to improvements in the quality of information and the obstetric transition. Late and obstetric sequelae maternal deaths should be included in the monitoring of the SDGs as well as in the revision of the International Classification of Diseases’ 11th version (ICD-11). PMID:27626277

  12. Drug induced mortality: a multiple cause approach on Italian causes of death Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grippo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related mortality is a complex phenomenon that has several health, social and economic effects. In this paper trends of drug-induced mortality in Italy are analysed. Two approaches have been followed: the traditional analysis of the underlying cause of death (UC (data refers to the Istat mortality database from 1980 to 2011, and the multiple cause (MCanalysis, that is the analysis of all conditions reported on the death certificate (data for 2003-2011 period.Methods: Data presented in this paper are based on the Italian mortality register. The selection of Icd codes used for the analysis follows the definition of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Using different indicators (crude and standardized rates, ratio multiple to underlying, the results obtained from the two approaches (UC and MC have been compared. Moreover, as a measure of association between drug-related causes and specific conditions on the death certificate, an estimation of the age-standardized relative risk (RR has been used.Results: In the years 2009-2011, the total number of certificates whit mention of drug use was 1,293, 60% higher than the number UC based. The groups of conditions more strongly associated with drug-related causes are the mental and behavioral disorders (especially alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and fibrosis of liver, AIDS and endocarditis.Conclusions : The analysis based on multiple cause approach shows, for the first time, a more detailed picture of the drug related death; it allows to better describe the mortality profiles and to re-evaluate  the contribution of a specific cause to death.

  13. Ways To Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death Page Content Research shows that there are several ... SIDS and other sleep-related causes of infant death: The actions listed here and in Safe to ...

  14. Cause-of-death ascertainment for deaths that occur outside hospitals in Thailand: application of verbal autopsy methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattaraarchachai Junya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascertainment of cause for deaths that occur in the absence of medical attention is a significant problem in many countries, including Thailand, where more than 50% of such deaths are registered with ill-defined causes. Routine implementation of standardized, rigorous verbal autopsy methods is a potential solution. This paper reports findings from field research conducted to develop, test, and validate the use of verbal autopsy (VA methods in Thailand. Methods International verbal autopsy methods were first adapted to the Thai context and then implemented to ascertain causes of death for a nationally representative sample of 11,984 deaths that occurred in Thailand in 2005. Causes of death were derived from completed VA questionnaires by physicians trained in ICD-based cause-of-death certification. VA diagnoses were validated in the sample of hospital deaths for which reference diagnoses were available from medical record review. Validated study findings were used to adjust VA-based causes of death derived for deaths in the study sample that had occurred outside hospitals. Results were used to estimate cause-specific mortality patterns for deaths outside hospitals in Thailand in 2005. Results VA-based causes of death were derived for 6,328 out of 7,340 deaths in the study sample that had occurred outside hospitals, constituting the verification arm of the study. The use of VA resulted in large-scale reassignment of deaths from ill-defined categories to specific causes of death. The validation study identified that VA tends to overdiagnose important causes such as diabetes, liver cancer, and tuberculosis, while undercounting deaths from HIV/AIDS, liver diseases, genitourinary (essential renal, and digestive system disorders. Conclusions The use of standard VA methods adapted to Thailand enabled a plausible assessment of cause-specific mortality patterns and a substantial reduction of ill-defined diagnoses. Validation studies

  15. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón, Tomás J; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y.; Katcher, Brian S; Reiter, Randy; Katz, Mitchell H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death - an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death amo...

  16. Certified causes of death in patients with mesothelioma in South East England

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    Peto Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesothelioma is a highly fatal cancer that is caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. In many populations, the occurrence of mesothelioma is monitored with the use of mortality data from death certification. We examine certified causes of death of patients who have been diagnosed with mesothelioma, and assess the validity of death certification data as a proxy for mesothelioma incidence. Methods We extracted mesothelioma registrations in the South East of England area between 2000 and 2004 from the Thames Cancer Registry database. We retained for analysis 2200 patients who had died at the time of analysis, after having excluded seven dead cases where the causes of death were not known to the cancer registry. The 2200 deaths were classified hierarchically to identify (1 mesothelioma deaths, (2 deaths certified as lung cancer deaths or (3 deaths from unspecified cancer, and (4 deaths from other causes. Results 87% of the patients had mesothelioma mentioned on the death certificate. 6% had no mention of mesothelioma but included lung cancer as a cause of death. Another 6% had no mention of mesothelioma or lung cancer, but included an unspecified cancer as a cause of death. Lastly, 2% had other causes of death specified on the death certificate. Conclusion This analysis suggests that official mortality data may underestimate the true occurrence of mesothelioma by around 10%.

  17. Mortality from diabetes mellitus, 2004 to 2008: A multiple-cause-of-death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwee; Peters, Paul A

    2014-03-01

    Using multiple-cause-of-death data, this study examines diabetes mellitus as a cause of mortality. During the 2004-to-2008 period, diabetes mellitus was listed as either the underlying cause or a contributing cause of 119,617 deaths. It was more than twice as likely to be a contributing than the underlying cause of death. When it was identified as the underlying cause of death, diabetes mellitus was rarely the only cause. The diabetes mellitus mortality rate was relatively high among males, older individuals, and people living in lower-income neighbourhoods. Provincial/Territorial differences in rates of death from diabetes mellitus were considerable. When diabetes mellitus was the underlying cause of death, cardiovascular diseases were listed as a contributing cause most often, and when diabetes mellitus was a contributing cause, cardiovascular diseases were most likely to be the underlying cause.

  18. Causes of death in Tonga: quality of certification and implications for statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed cause of death data by age group and sex are critical to identify key public health issues and target interventions appropriately. In this study the quality of local routinely collected cause of death data from medical certification is reviewed, and a cause of death profile for Tonga based on amended data is presented. Methods Medical certificates of death for all deaths in Tonga for 2001 to 2008 and medical records for all deaths in the main island Tongatapu for 2008 were sought from the national hospital. Cause of death data for 2008 were reviewed for quality through (a a review of current tabulation procedures and (b a medical record review. Data from each medical record were extracted and provided to an independent medical doctor to assign cause of death, with underlying cause from the medical record tabulated against underlying cause from the medical certificate. Significant associations in reporting patterns were evaluated and final cause of death for each case in 2008 was assigned based on the best quality information from the medical certificate or medical record. Cause of death data from 2001 to 2007 were revised based on findings from the evaluation of certification of the 2008 data and added to the dataset. Proportional mortality was calculated and applied to age- and sex-specific mortality for all causes from 2001 to 2008. Cause of death was tabulated by age group and sex, and age-standardized (all ages mortality rates for each sex by cause were calculated. Results Reported tabulations of cause of death in Tonga are of immediate cause, with ischemic heart disease and diabetes underrepresented. In the majority of cases the reported (immediate cause fell within the same broad category as the underlying cause of death from the medical certificate. Underlying cause of death from the medical certificate, attributed to neoplasms, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were assigned to other underlying causes by

  19. Death by unnatural causes during childhood and early adulthood in offspring of psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, Andrew R.; Appleby, Louis

    2007-01-01

    -verdict deaths by poisoning were higher than for such deaths occurring by other means. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 99% of children studied survived to their mid-20s. However, they were more vulnerable to death from unnatural causes, notably, homicide during childhood and suicide in early adulthood. Further research...... is needed to establish how parental psychopathology contributes to increased risk of premature death in these offspring...

  20. Blinded and uniform cause of death verification in a lung cancer CT screening trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeweg, N.; van Klaveren, R. J.; Groen, H. J. M.; Lammers, J. -W. J.; Weenink, C.; Nackaerts, K.; Mali, W.; Oudkerk, M.; de Koning, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Disease-specific mortality is the final outcome of a lung cancer screening trial, therefore cause of death verification is crucial. The use of death certificates for this purpose is debated because of bias, inaccurate completion and incorrect ante mortem diagnoses. A cause of death evaluation proces

  1. Changes in causes of death among persons with AIDS: San Francisco, California, 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra K; Vu, Annie; Hsu, Ling Chin; Hessol, Nancy A

    2014-10-01

    The increased life expectancy among HIV-infected persons treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), risk behaviors, and co-morbidities associated with ART place HIV-infected persons at risk for non-HIV-related causes of death. We used the San Francisco HIV/AIDS registry to identify deaths that occurred from January 1996 through December 2011. Temporal trends in AIDS- and non-AIDS-related mortality rates, the proportion of underlying and contributory causes of death, and the ratio of observed deaths in the study population to expected number of deaths among California men aged 20-79 (standardized mortality ratio [SMR]) of underlying causes of death were examined. A total of 5338 deaths were identified. The annual AIDS-related death rate (per 100 deaths) declined from 10.8 in 1996 to 0.9 in 2011 (p<0.0001), while the annual death rate from non-AIDS-related causes declined from 2.1 in 1996 to 0.9 in 2011 (p<0.0001). The proportion of deaths due to all types of heart disease combined, all non-AIDS cancers combined, mental disorders resulting from substance abuse, drug overdose, suicide and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased significantly over time. The SMRs for liver diseased decreased significantly over time but remained elevated. Our data highlight the importance of age-related causes of death as well as deaths from causes that are, at least in part, preventable.

  2. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac – a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Catherine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes. We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions. The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies, two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy, a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal. For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured. The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions

  3. NCHS - Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://blogs.cdc.gov/nchs-data-visualization/?p=428 State Data Accompanying MMWR Surveillance Summary 66(No. SS-1):1-8: Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five...

  4. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

    OpenAIRE

    Katcher Brian S; Lichtensztajn Daphne Y; Aragón Tomás J; Reiter Randy; Katz Mitchell H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature d...

  5. Assessment of Medical Certificate of Cause of Death at a New Teaching Hospital in Vadodara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amul B. Patel, Hitesh Rathod, Himanshu Rana, Viren Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to find out errors in the medical certification of cause of death during July 2011 at a new teaching hospital in Vadodara. All certificates of in-hospital deaths in medical record department, from May 2010 to June 2011, were assessed for major and minor errors. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17 version software. The results revealed that out of 40 death certificates, not a single was free from any error. Major errors occurred in 23(57.5% cases with improper sequencing (55% as most frequent. Most common minor error was the absence of time interval between the onset of disease and death (92.5%. No significant association was found between major errors and factors like age, sex, ward and underlying cause of death. This study concluded that educational intervention is necessary to increase physicians' awareness regarding importance of medical certificate of cause of death and accuracy of death certificates.

  6. Gastrointestinal diseases of Napoleon in Saint Helena: causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Costanzo, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    The fact that Napoleon Ist died from gastric cancer seems to be well established. Arguments for the hypothesis of chronic arsenic poisoning have recently been developed in the literature. This study, focused on the gastrointestinal diseases of Napoleon in Saint Helena, is based on a confrontation between the clinical semiological anamnesis and the anatomical data in the autopsy report by F. Antommarchi. Napoleon presented several gastrointestinal diseases: gall-bladder lithiasis complicated with angiocholitis, chronic colitis and certainly a gastric cancer. Death was consecutive to perforation of the gastric lesion leading to haemorrhagic vomitis and multiorgan failure. The description of the gastric lesions during autopsy is consistent with the diagnosis of cancer. The course of the clinical events is closely correlated with the anatomic lesions. There is strong evidence that Napoleon died from an acute complication of his gastric disease.

  7. Causes of Death in a Contemporary Cohort of Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Garcia-Vidal; Maddalena Peghin; Carlos Cervera; Carlota Gudiol; Isabel Ruiz-Camps; Asunción Moreno; Cristina Royo-Cebrecos; Eva Roselló; Jordi Puig de la Bellacasa; Josefina Ayats; Jordi Carratalà

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the processes leading to death in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) is lacking. We sought to determine the causes of death in these patients, the role that IA played in the cause, and the timing of death. The factors associated with IA-related mortality are also analyzed. We conducted a multicenter study (2008-2011) of cases of proven and probable IA. The causes of death and whether mortality was judged to be IA-related or IA-unrelated were determined by consensu...

  8. Evaluation of Underlying Causes of Death in Patients with Dementia to Support Targeted Advance Care Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Vorst, Irene E.; Koek, Huiberdina L.; Bots, Michiel L.; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insight in causes of death in demented patients may help physicians in end-of-life care. Objectives: To investigate underlying causes of death (UCD) in demented patients stratified by age, sex, dementia subtype [Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD)] and to compare them with

  9. Cause of death and potentially avoidable deaths in Australian adults with intellectual disability using retrospective linked data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Xu, Han; Howlett, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate mortality and its causes in adults over the age of 20 years with intellectual disability (ID). Design, setting and participants Retrospective population-based standardised mortality of the ID and Comparison cohorts. The ID cohort comprised 42 204 individuals who registered for disability services with ID as a primary or secondary diagnosis from 2005 to 2011 in New South Wales (NSW). The Comparison cohort was obtained from published deaths in NSW from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from 2005 to 2011. Main outcome measures We measured and compared Age Standardised Mortality Rate (ASMR), Comparative Mortality Figure (CMF), years of productive life lost (YPLL) and proportion of deaths with potentially avoidable causes in an ID cohort with an NSW general population cohort. Results There were 19 362 adults in the ID cohort which experienced 732 (4%) deaths at a median age of 54 years. Age Standardised Mortality Rates increased with age for both cohorts. Overall comparative mortality figure was 1.3, but was substantially higher for the 20–44 (4.0) and 45–64 (2.3) age groups. YPLL was 137/1000 people in the ID cohort and 49 in the comparison cohort. Cause of death in ID cohort was dominated by respiratory, circulatory, neoplasm and nervous system. After recoding deaths previously attributed to the aetiology of the disability, 38% of deaths in the ID cohort and 17% in the comparison cohort were potentially avoidable. Conclusions Adults with ID experience premature mortality and over-representation of potentially avoidable deaths. A national system of reporting of deaths in adults with ID is required. Inclusion in health policy and services development and in health promotion programmes is urgently required to address premature deaths and health inequalities for adults with ID. PMID:28179413

  10. Estimated causes of death in Thailand, 2005: implications for health policy

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    Vos Theo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost 400,000 deaths are registered each year in Thailand. Their value for public health policy and planning is greatly diminished by incomplete registration of deaths and by concerns about the quality of cause-of-death information. This arises from misclassification of specified causes of death, particularly in hospitals, as well as from extensive use of ill-defined and vague codes to attribute the underlying cause of death. Detailed investigations of a sample of deaths in and out of hospital were carried out to identify misclassification of causes and thus derive a best estimate of national mortality patterns by age, sex, and cause of death. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11,984 deaths in 2005 was selected, and verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for almost 10,000 deaths. Verbal autopsy procedures were validated against 2,558 cases for which medical record review was possible. Misclassification matrices for leading causes of death, including ill-defined causes, were developed separately for deaths inside and outside of hospitals and proportionate mortality distributions constructed. Estimates of mortality undercount were derived from "capture-recapture" methods applied to the 2005-06 Survey of Population Change. Proportionate mortality distributions were applied to this mortality "envelope" and ill-defined causes redistributed according to Global Burden of Disease methods to yield final estimates of mortality levels and patterns in 2005. Results Estimated life expectancy in Thailand in 2005 was 68.5 years for males and 75.6 years for females, two years lower than vital registration data suggest. Upon correction, stroke is the leading cause of death in Thailand (10.7%, followed by ischemic heart disease (7.8% and HIV/AIDS (7.4%. Other leading causes are road traffic accidents (males and diabetes mellitus (females. In many cases, estimated mortality is at least twice what is estimated in vital

  11. Causes of death in intensive care patients with a low APACHE II score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, A. van; Lieshout, J.v.; Hellegering, J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the actual causes of death of patients with a low APACHE II score, but iatrogenic reasons may play a role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographics, course of disease, and causes of death in this specific group of ICU patients. Methods: For this retros

  12. The importance of microbiological testing for establishing cause of death in 42 forensic autopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    , microorganisms found, histological findings, antemortem information, C-reactive protein measurement and cause of death. Fiftyone different microorganisms were found distributed among 37 cases, bacteria being the most abundant. Nineteen of the cases were classified as having a microbiological related cause...... of death. C-reactive protein levels were raised in 14 cases of the 19 cases, histological findings either supported or were a decisive factor for the classification of microbiologically related cause of death in 14 cases. As a multitude of abundant microorganisms are able to cause infection under the right...

  13. Causes of deaths and influencing factors in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauchier, Laurent; Villejoubert, Olivier; Clementy, Nicolas;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is associated with a higher mortality, but causes of death of atrial fibrillation patients and their specific predictors have been less well defined. We aimed to identify the causes of death among atrial fibrillation patients and secondly, clinical predictors for t...

  14. Causes of neonatal and maternal deaths in Dhaka slums: Implications for service delivery

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    Khatun Fatema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh has about 5.7 million people living in urban slums that are characterized by adverse living conditions, poor access to healthcare services and health outcomes. In an attempt to ensure safe maternal, neonatal and child health services in the slums BRAC started a programme, MANOSHI, in 2007. This paper reports the causes of maternal and neonatal deaths in slums and discusses the implications of those deaths for Maternal Neonatal and Child Health service delivery. Methods Slums in three areas of Dhaka city were selected purposively. Data on causes of deaths were collected during 2008-2009 using verbal autopsy form. Two trained physicians independently assigned the cause of deaths. Results A total of 260 newborn and 38 maternal deaths were identified between 2008 and 2009. The majority (75% of neonatal deaths occurred during 0-7 days. The main causes of deaths were birth asphyxia (42%, sepsis (20% and birth trauma (7%. Post partum hemorrhage (37% and eclampsia (16% were the major direct causes and hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis was the most prevalent indirect cause (11% of maternal deaths. Conclusion Delivery at a health facility with child assessment within a day of delivery and appropriate treatment could reduce neonatal deaths. Maternal mortality is unlikely to reduce without delivering at facilities with basic Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC and arrangements for timely referral to EOC. There is a need for a comprehensive package of services that includes control of infectious diseases during pregnancy, EOC and adequate after delivery care.

  15. Short- and Long-Term Cause of Death in Patients Treated With Primary PCI for STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frants; Butrymovich, Vitalij; Kelbæk, Henning

    2014-01-01

    ,804 consecutive patients with STEMI (age 63 ± 13 years, 72% males) treated with primary PCI. RESULTS: Patients were followed up for a median of 4.7 years. During a total of 13,447 patient-years, 717 patients died. Main causes of death within the first 30 days were cardiogenic shock and anoxic brain injury after......BACKGROUND: Short-term mortality has been studied thoroughly in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), whereas long-term cause of death in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study...... was to describe the association between time and cause of death in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. METHODS: A centralized civil registration system, patient files, and public disease and death cause registries with an accurate record linkage were used to trace time and cause of death in 2...

  16. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010: A systematic review and analysis

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    Kit Yee Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low– and middle–income country (LMIC settings In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0–4 years in China in the year 2010. Methods In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi–cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first published estimate of the causes of child deaths in China (for the year 2008. Only five of those studies identified specific causes of accidental deaths. Because of this, we searched the Chinese medical literature databases CNKI and WanFang for single–cause mortality studies that were focused on accidental deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. Results In 2010, we estimated 314 581 deaths in children 0–4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1% were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0% of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5% among all post–neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7% among children with 1–4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to establish the likely cause structure of accidental deaths in China. We estimated that asphyxia caused 9490 (95% confidence interval (CI 8224–11 072, drowning 5694 (95% CI 5061–6327, traffic accidents 3796 (95% CI3163–4745, poisoning 3163 (95% CI 2531–3796 and falls 2531 (95% CI 2214–3163 deaths. Based on medians from a few rare studies, we also predict 633 (95% CI 316–1265 deaths to be due to burns and 316 (95% CI 0–633 due to falling objects

  17. Trends in survival and cause of death in Danish patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon

    2004-01-01

    The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry contains information about all Danish patients in whom multiple sclerosis has been diagnosed since 1948. The purpose of this study was to analyse trends in survival and causes of death of these patients and to compare them with those of the general population....... The study comprised all patients with onset in the period 1949-1996. All case records were validated and classified according to standardized diagnostic criteria. Data on emigration and death were obtained by record linkage to official registers. The end of follow-up was 1 January 2000 for emigration...... and death, and 1 January 1999 for cause-specific deaths. Standardized mortality ratios and excess death rates were calculated for various causes of death and periods after multiple sclerosis onset, and time trends in survival probability were analysed by Cox regression. The study comprised 9881 patients...

  18. [Cardiac fibroma: A rare cause of sudden child death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humez, Sarah; Gibier, Jean-Baptiste; Recher, Morgan; Leteurtre, Stéphane; Leroy, Xavier; Devisme, Louise

    2015-10-01

    We report the case of a 3-year-old child who died from the consequences of a cardio-respiratory arrest despite reanimation procedures. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass of the free wall of the left ventricle. Autopsy confirmed the existence of a solitary myocardial tumor, well-circumscribed, firm, with a whitish and trabeculated cut surface. Histologically, the tumor consisted of bundles of spindle-shaped and regular cells mingling with collagen and elastic fibers, insinuating themselves between myocytes in periphery. Calcifications were present. After immunohistochemistry, the cells were highlighted by anti-actin smooth muscle antibody; but they were not highlighted by anti-desmin, anti-β catenin and anti-Ki67 antibodies. The diagnosis of cardiac fibroma was made. The primary cardiac tumors of child are rare and usually benign. They are essentially represented by rhabdomyoma and fibroma. Cardiac fibroma mostly occurs during the first year of life. It can be revealed by cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmia, chest pain or sudden death.

  19. Early repolarization syndrome: A cause of sudden cardiac death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdi; Ali; Nida; Butt; Azeem; S; Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Early repolarization syndrome(ERS), demonstrated as J-point elevation on an electrocardiograph, was formerly thought to be a benign entity, but the recent studies have demonstrated that it can be linked to a considerable risk of life- threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death(SCD). Early repolarization characteristics associated with SCD include high-amplitude J-point elevation, horizontal and/or downslopping ST segments, and inferior and/or lateral leads location. The prevalence of ERS varies between 3% and 24%, depending on age, sex and J-point elevation(0.05 m V vs 0.1 m V) being the main determinants.ERS patients are sporadic and they are at a higher risk of having recurrent cardiac events. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation and isoproterenol are the suggested therapies in this set of patients. On the other hand, asymptomatic patients with ERS are common and have a better prognosis. The risk stratification in asymptomatic patients with ERS still remains a grey area. This review provides an outline of the up-to-date evidence associated with ERS and the risk of life- threatening arrhythmias. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmogenesis in patients with ERS.

  20. Drowning as a Cause of Death in Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishmael, Holly A.; Begleiter, Michael L.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2002-01-01

    This study reports on a 9-year-old boy previously diagnosed with Angelman syndrome who died unexpectedly by drowning in a shallow backyard wading pool. The case illustrates the fascination with water by individuals with Angelman syndrome and highlights that this fascination may lead to death. The need for supervision is stressed. (Contains 5…

  1. The analysis of the structure of causes of violent death in Saratov (from 2011 to 2015

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    Efimov А.А.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the establishment changes in the structure of the causes of violent death in Saratov from 2011 till 2015. Material and Methods. The examination was based on analysis of the results of the forensic medical expert researches of corpses in the Saratov city office of forensic medical examination of corpses in the period from 2011 to 2015. Results. The structure of the causes of violent death was identical in Saratov in the last five years. The mechanical trauma was a leader, in second place — poisonings, then — mechanical asphyxia and external factors. There were two trends in the dynamics of components of each type of violent death: positive and negative. Positive trends were expressed as a decrease in the proportion of deaths from poisoning by ethanol and reducing the number of deaths from alcohol intoxication from other causes. Negative trends were expressed as the increase in the number of forensic medical expert examinations in the last two years, an increasing share of violent death of children in 2015, maintaining the leading position of automotive trauma among deaths from injuries by blunt objects. Conclusion. The number of forensic medical examinations of corpses was increased in Saratov for the studied period, but the proportion of fatal poisoning with ethanol was decreased. In 2015, the share of violent death of children aged under 14 was increased.

  2. Cause of death among Ghanaian adolescents in Accra using autopsy data

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    Tettey Yao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on adolescent mortality particularly from developing countries with unreliable death registration systems. This calls for the use of other sources of data to ascertain cause of adolescent mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the causes of death among Ghanaian adolescents 10 to 19 years in Accra, Ghana utilizing data from autopsies conducted in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH. Findings Out of the 14,034 autopsies carried out from 2001 to 2003 in KBTH, 7% were among adolescents. Of the 882 deaths among adolescents analyzed, 402 (45.6% were females. There were 365 (41.4% deaths from communicable disease, pregnancy related conditions and nutritional disorders. Non-communicable diseases accounted for 362 (41% cases and the rest were attributable to injuries and external causes of morbidity and mortality. Intestinal infectious diseases and lower respiratory tract infections were the most common communicable causes of death collectively accounting for 20.5% of total deaths. Death from blood diseases was the largest (8.5% among the non-communicable conditions followed by neoplasms (7%. Males were more susceptible to injuries than females (χ2 = 13.45, p = .000. At least five out of ten specific causes of death were as a result of infections with pneumonia and typhoid being the most common. Sickle cell disease was among the top three specific causes of death. Among the females, 27 deaths (6.7% were pregnancy related with most of them being as a result of abortion. Conclusions The autopsy data from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital can serve as a useful source of information on adolescent mortality. Both communicable and non-communicable diseases accounted for most deaths highlighting the need for health care providers to avoid complacency in their management of adolescents presenting with these diseases.

  3. Survival and cause of death after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Jørgensen, Torben; Davidsen, M;

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish WHO MONICA study, a register of patients with myocardial infarction was established in 1982, covering 11 municipalities in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. During the period 1982-91, all cases of myocardial infarction among citizens aged 25-74 years were...... registered and validated according to the criteria set up for the WHO MONICA project. Short-term (28 days) and long-term (up to 15 years) survival in three periods were compared. The rate of mortality after a non-fatal myocardial infarction was compared with that of the general population, and causes...

  4. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

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    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  5. Causes of death in a contemporary cohort of patients with invasive aspergillosis.

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    Carolina Garcia-Vidal

    Full Text Available Information regarding the processes leading to death in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA is lacking. We sought to determine the causes of death in these patients, the role that IA played in the cause, and the timing of death. The factors associated with IA-related mortality are also analyzed. We conducted a multicenter study (2008-2011 of cases of proven and probable IA. The causes of death and whether mortality was judged to be IA-related or IA-unrelated were determined by consensus using a six-member review panel. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors for IA-related death. Of 152 patients with IA, 92 (60.5% died. Mortality was judged to be IA-related in 62 cases and IA-unrelated in 30. The most common cause of IA-related death was respiratory failure (50/62 patients, caused primarily by Aspergillus infection, although also by concomitant infections or severe comorbidities. Progression of underlying disease and bacteremic shock were the most frequent causes of IA-unrelated death. IA-related mortality accounted for 98% and 87% of deaths within the first 14 and 21 days, respectively. Liver disease (HR 4.54; 95% CI, 1.69-12.23 was independently associated with IA-related mortality, whereas voriconazole treatment was associated with reduced risk of death (HR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.93. In conclusion, better management of lung injury after IA diagnosis is the main challenge for physicians to improve IA outcomes. There are significant differences in causes and timing between IA-related and IA-unrelated mortality and these should be considered in future research to assess the quality of IA care.

  6. The risk and causes of death in childhoodonset epilepsy: A 4-study collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Anne T.; Nickels, K.; Wirrell, E.C.; Rios, C.; Geerts, A.T.; Callenbach, P.M.; Arts, W.F.; Camfield, P.R.; Camfield, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Young people with epilepsy experience high death rates compared to the general population. Understanding the magnitude of risk and the causes of death (CoD) is essential for counseling and for potential prevention. Methods: We combined the mortality experiences of four cohort studies of n

  7. Verifying causes of death in Thailand: rationale and methods for empirical investigation

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    Polprasert Warangkana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cause-specific mortality statistics by age and sex are primary evidence for epidemiological research and health policy. Annual mortality statistics from vital registration systems in Thailand are of limited utility because about 40% of deaths are registered with unknown or nonspecific causes. This paper reports the rationale, methods, and broad results from a comprehensive study to verify registered causes in Thailand. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11,984 deaths was selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling approach, distributed across 28 districts located in nine provinces of Thailand. Registered causes were verified through medical record review for deaths in hospitals and standard verbal autopsy procedures for deaths outside hospitals, the results of which were used to measure validity and reliability of registration data. Study findings were used to develop descriptive estimates of cause-specific mortality by age and sex in Thailand. Results Causes of death were verified for a total of 9,644 deaths in the study sample, comprised of 3,316 deaths in hospitals and 6,328 deaths outside hospitals. Field studies yielded specific diagnoses in almost all deaths in the sample originally assigned an ill-defined cause of death at registration. Study findings suggest that the leading causes of death in Thailand among males are stroke (9.4%; transport accidents (8.1%; HIV/AIDS (7.9%; ischemic heart diseases (6.4%; and chronic obstructive lung diseases (5.7%. Among females, the leading causes are stroke (11.3%; diabetes (8%; ischemic heart disease (7.5%; HIV/AIDS (5.7%; and renal diseases (4%. Conclusions Empirical investigation of registered causes of death in the study sample yielded adequate information to enable estimation of cause-specific mortality patterns in Thailand. These findings will inform burden of disease estimation and economic evaluation of health policy choices in the country. The

  8. Dementia in the National Cause of Death Registry in Norway 1969-2010

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    Vidar Hjellvik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase markedly during the coming decades. Epidemiological studies involving the National Cause of Death Registry (NCDR may be useful for exploring the aetiology of dementia. We therefore wanted to study developments in the reporting of dementia in the NCDR over the last four decades.Methods: We calculated the age- and gender specific proportion of deaths with dementia reported in the NCDR (dementia deaths in the period 1969-2010, and the proportion of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease deaths in 1986-2010. Separate analyses were done for deaths occurring in nursing homes in 1996-2010. The proportion of dementia deaths where dementia was coded as underlying cause of death was also calculated.Results: The proportion of dementia deaths increased more than threefold in the period 1969-2010 among women (from 4% to 15%, and more than doubled among men (from 3% to 7%. In nursing homes the proportion increased from 17% to 26% for women and from 13% to 18% for men. The proportion of dementia deaths with Alzheimer’s disease reported in the NCDR increased from practically zero in 1986 to a maximum of 28% in 2005. The proportion of dementia deaths with dementia as underlying cause of death increased from a minimum of 6% in 1972 to a maximum of 51% in 2009.Conclusion: Although the reporting of dementia in the NCDR increased markedly from 1969 to 2010, dementia is still under-reported for old people and for deaths occurring in nursing homes when compared to prevalence estimates.

  9. Diabetes Mellitus, Fasting Glucose, and Risk of Cause-Specific Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Kaptoge, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Sarwar, Nadeem; Whincup, Peter H.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Gillum, Richard F.; Holme, Ingar; Njolstad, Inger; Fletcher, Astrid; Nilsson, Peter; Lewington, Sarah; Collins, Rory; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Thompson, Simon G.; Sattar, Naveed; Selvin, Elizabeth; Hu, Frank B.; Danesh, John

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain. METHODS We calculated hazard ratios for cause-specific death, according to baseline diabetes status or fasting glucose level, from individual-partic

  10. Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain. Methods We calculated hazard ratios for cause-specific death, according to baseline diabetes status or fasting glucose level, from individual-partic

  11. Years of life lost due to external causes of death in the lodz province, poland.

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    Malgorzata Pikala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is the analysis of years of life lost due to external causes of death, particularly due to traffic accidents and suicides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study material includes a database containing information gathered from 376,281 death certificates of inhabitants of the Lodz province who died between 1999 and 2010. The Lodz province is characterized by the highest mortality rates in Poland. The SEYLLp (Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person and the SEYLLd (per death indices were used to determine years of life lost. Joinpoint models were used to analyze time trends. RESULTS: In 2010, deaths due to external causes constituted 6.0% of the total number of deaths. The standardized death rate (SDR due to external causes was 110.0 per 100,000 males and was five times higher than for females (22.0 per 100,000 females. In 2010, the SEYLLp due to external causes was 3746 per 100,000 males and 721 per 100,000 females. Among males, suicides and traffic accidents were the most common causes of death (the values of the SEYLLp were: 1098 years and 887 years per 100,000 people, respectively. Among females, the SEYLLp values were 183 years due to traffic accidents and 143 years due to suicides (per 100,000 people. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in the number of years of life lost due to external causes is much higher among females. The authors observe that a growing number of suicides contribute to an increase in the value of the SEYLLp index. This directly contributes to over-mortality of males due to external causes. The analysis of the years of life lost focuses on the social and economic aspects of premature mortality due to external causes.

  12. Causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden, 1997–2010

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    Anna Wahlberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undocumented migrants are one of the most vulnerable groups in Swedish society, where they generally suffer from poor health and limited health care access. Due to their irregular status, such migrants are an under-researched group and are not included in the country's Cause of Death Register (CDR. Objective: To determine the causes of death among undocumented migrants in Sweden and to ascertain whether there are patterns in causes of death that differ between residents and undocumented migrants. Design: This is a cross-sectional study of death certificates issued from 1997 to 2010 but never included in the CDR from which we established our study sample of undocumented migrants. As age adjustments could not be performed due to lack of data, comparisons between residents and undocumented migrants were made at specific age intervals, based on the study sample's mean age at death±a half standard deviation. Results: Out of 7,925 individuals surveyed, 860 were classified as likely to have been undocumented migrants. External causes (49.8% were the most frequent cause of death, followed by circulatory system diseases, and then neoplasms. Undocumented migrants had a statistically significant increased risk of dying from external causes (odds ratio [OR] 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83–4.52 and circulatory system diseases (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.73–2.82 compared to residents, and a lower risk of dying from neoplasms (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04–0.14. Conclusions: We believe our study is the first to determine national figures on causes of death of undocumented migrants. We found inequity in health as substantial differences in causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents were seen. Legal ambiguities regarding health care provision must be addressed if equity in health is to be achieved in a country otherwise known for its universal health coverage.

  13. Sudden infant death syndrome caused by cardiac arrhythmias: only a matter of genes encoding ion channels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Campuzano, Oscar; Cesar, Sergi; Iglesias, Anna; Fernandez, Anna; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome is the unexpected demise of a child younger than 1 year of age which remains unexplained after a complete autopsy investigation. Usually, it occurs during sleep, in males, and during the first 12 weeks of life. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying the death is unknown, and the lethal episode is considered multifactorial. However, in cases without a conclusive post-mortem diagnosis, suspicious of cardiac arrhythmias may also be considered as a cause of death, especially in families suffering from any cardiac disease associated with sudden cardiac death. Here, we review current understanding of sudden infant death, focusing on genetic causes leading to lethal cardiac arrhythmias, considering both genes encoding ion channels as well as structural proteins due to recent association of channelopathies and desmosomal genes. We support a comprehensive analysis of all genes associated with sudden cardiac death in families suffering of infant death. It allows the identification of the most plausible cause of death but also of family members at risk, providing cardiologists with essential data to adopt therapeutic preventive measures in families affected with this lethal entity.

  14. Causes of death among people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

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    Erika Luiza Lage Fazito Rezende

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The monitoring of the underlying causes of death in people living with HIV/AIDS is important so that actions to reduce morbidity and mortality can be taken. OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends of underlying causes of death among people living with HIV/AIDS between 2000 and 2007 in Brazil and to identify factors associated with it. METHODS: The Mortality Information System data for deaths occurred in Brazil between 2000 and 2007 that contained reference to HIV/AIDS in any of the death certificate fields was analyzed. Temporal trends of the underlying cause of death were studied. Differences in the underlying cause of death according to gender, age, region of residence, level of education, certifying officer, race and year of death were verified. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2007 the percentage of deaths not related to HIV/AIDS among people living with HIV/AIDS increased from 2.5% to 7.0%. People with higher level of formal education, living in the South-East region of Brazil and aged under 13 or over 60 years old were more likely to have their underlying cause of death reported as not related to HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: The results suggest the importance of implementing actions aimed at improving the quality of life of PLWHA, and which could include behavioral changes, such as smoking and alcoholism cessation, early screening to detect neoplasms and the monitoring of chronic conditions, such as diabetes. That is to say, the need exists to integrate the actions of HIV/AIDS programs with other public health programs.

  15. Maternal mortality in Bahrain 1987-2004: an audit of causes of avoidable death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, A K; Mustafa, F E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report was to establish the national maternal mortality rate in Bahrain over the period 1987-2004, to identify preventable factors in maternal deaths and to make recommendations for safe motherhood. There were 60 maternal deaths out of 243 232 deliveries giving an average maternal mortality rate of 24.7 per 100 000 total births. The main causes of death were sickle-cell disease (25.0%), hypertension (18.3%), embolism (13.3%), haemorrhage (13.3%), heart disease (11.7%), infection (8.3%) and other (10.0%). In an audit of care, 17 (28.3%) out of 60 deaths were judged to be avoidable, nearly half of which were due to a shortage of intensive care beds. We recommend that a confidential enquiry of maternal deaths be conducted at the national level every 3 to 5 years.

  16. Pathology and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (1999-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbelo, Manuel; Los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa de; Herráez, Pedro; Andrada, Marisa; Sierra, Eva; Rodríguez, Francisco; Jepson, Paul D; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-03-26

    Between 1999 and 2005, 233 stranded cetaceans (comprising 19 species) were reported in the waters of the Canary Islands. Of these, 138/233 (59.2%) were subjected to a complete or partial standardized necropsy, including 4 Balaenopteridae, 9 Physeteridae, 8 Kogiidae, 27 Ziphiidae and 90 Delphinidae. Of these, 46/138 (33.3%) cetaceans were diagnosed with anthropogenic pathological categories (i.e. the cause of death was anthropogenic). These included fishing interaction (bycatch) (19 individuals), 'atypical' mass stranding events linked to naval exercises (13), ship collisions (8) and other anthropogenic-related pathology (6). 'Natural' (i.e. non-anthropogenic) causes of death accounted for another 82/138 (59.4%) cases, including infectious and non-infectious diseases (63), neonatal pathology (8), intra- and interspecific interactions (6) and mass strandings (5). The cause(s) of death could not be determined in 10/138 (7.3%) necropsied animals. The most common causes of death were ship collisions in 6/9 (66.6%) Physeteridae, 'atypical' mass stranding linked to naval exercises in 13/27 (48.1%) Ziphiidae, and 'natural' infectious and non-infectious diseases in 55/90 (61.1%) Delphinidae. Interaction with fishing activities was established as cause of death in 15/90 (16.7%) Delphinidae. These data show that a range of anthropogenic and natural single and mass mortality events occur in multiple cetacean species stranded in the Canary Islands.

  17. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2015-01-01

    disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus......BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries......, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were...

  18. Defining the cause of death in hospitalised patients with acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Selby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high mortality rates that follow the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI are well recognised. However, the mode of death in patients with AKI remains relatively under-studied, particularly in general hospitalised populations who represent the majority of those affected. We sought to describe the primary cause of death in a large group of prospectively identified patients with AKI. METHODS: All patients sustaining AKI at our centre between 1(st October 2010 and 31(st October 2011 were identified by real-time, hospital-wide, electronic AKI reporting based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN diagnostic criteria. Using this system we are able to generate a prospective database of all AKI cases that includes demographic, outcome and hospital coding data. For those patients that died during hospital admission, cause of death was derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. RESULTS: During the study period there were 3,930 patients who sustained AKI; 62.0% had AKI stage 1, 20.6% had stage 2 and 17.4% stage 3. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (859 patients. Cause of death could be identified in 93.4% of cases. There were three main disease categories accounting for three quarters of all mortality; sepsis (41.1%, cardiovascular disease (19.2% and malignancy (12.9%. The major diagnosis leading to sepsis was pneumonia, whilst cardiovascular death was largely a result of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. AKI was the primary cause of death in only 3% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality associated with AKI remains high, although cause of death is usually concurrent illness. Specific strategies to improve outcomes may therefore need to target not just the management of AKI but also the most relevant co-existing conditions.

  19. Update: Causes and symptoms of sudden cardiac death in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Irfan M; Yim, Eugene S; Hoffman, Jacob M; Froelicher, Vic

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death during exercise. While initial reports suggested that the most common cause of SCD in young athletes was due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a critical review of investigations in several populations (athletes, non-athletes, military, national, and international) supports that the most common finding at autopsy of young individuals with SCD is actually a structurally normal heart (SNH). This information is vital for sports medicine clinicians, especially with regard to the pre-participation evaluation (PPE) since cardiac death associated with a SNH is likely attributed to disorders such as arrhythmia or ion channel diseases. This comprehensive review explores the causes of SCD, along with the symptoms preceding death, which ultimately may help refine the PPE and maximize the ability to detect potentially lethal disease prior to competition.

  20. Asphyxia: a rare cause of death for motor vehicle crash occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Carol; Stanley, Christina; Eastman, A Brent; Vaughan, Teresa; Vilke, Gary M; Hoyt, David B; Pacyna, Sharon; Smith, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicle related trauma is one of the leading causes of traumatic death. Although most of these deaths are because of severe blunt force trauma, there are people without severe injury who die of asphyxia related to the motor vehicle collision. There were 37 deaths because of motor vehicle related asphyxia in San Diego County during 1995-2004. Almost half (48.6%) of these deaths were because of compression asphyxia, 29.7% were positional asphyxia deaths, and 16.2% died of a combination of compression and positional asphyxia. We were unable to classify the mechanism of asphyxia for the remaining 5.4% of asphyxia deaths. Almost all occupants dying from asphyxia were involved in rollover crashes and may have been incapacitated by obesity, drug or alcohol intoxication, or blunt force trauma. Compression asphyxia deaths occurred both from vehicle crush with intrusion into the passenger compartment and from ejection of the occupant and subsequent crushing by the vehicle. Positional asphyxia occurred in positions interfering with normal respiration, including inversion. None of the occupants had injury severe enough to result in death at the scene if they had not first died of asphyxia. This study suggests classifying the mechanism of asphyxia for these fatalities may be a challenge to forensic pathologists who seldom see these rare deaths.

  1. Algorithms for enhancing public health utility of national causes-of-death data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmalek Farshad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coverage and quality of cause-of-death (CoD data varies across countries and time. Valid, reliable, and comparable assessments of trends in causes of death from even the best systems are limited by three problems: a changes in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD over time; b the use of tabulation lists where substantial detail on causes of death is lost; and c many deaths assigned to causes that cannot or should not be considered underlying causes of death, often called garbage codes (GCs. The Global Burden of Disease Study and the World Health Organization have developed various methods to enhance comparability of CoD data. In this study, we attempt to build on these approaches to enhance the utility of national cause-of-death data for public health analysis. Methods Based on careful consideration of 4,434 country-years of CoD data from 145 countries from 1901 to 2008, encompassing 743 million deaths in ICD versions 1 to 10 as well as country-specific cause lists, we have developed a public health-oriented cause-of-death list. These 56 causes are organized hierarchically and encompass all deaths. Each cause has been mapped from ICD-6 to ICD-10 and, where possible, they have also been mapped to the International List of Causes of Death 1-5. We developed a typology of different classes of GCs. In each ICD revision, GCs have been identified. Target causes to which these GCs should be redistributed have been identified based on certification practice and/or pathophysiology. Proportionate redistribution, statistical models, and expert algorithms have been developed to redistribute GCs to target codes for each age-sex group. Results The fraction of all deaths assigned to GCs varies tremendously across countries and revisions of the ICD. In general, across all country-years of data available, GCs have declined from more than 43% in ICD-7 to 24% in ICD-10. In some regions, such

  2. Social inequalities in causes of death amenable to health care in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Hem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate if there are educational inequalities in causes of death considered amenable to health care in Norway and compare this with non-amenable causes. Methods: The study used the concept of “amenable mortality”, which here includes 34 specific causes of death. A linked data file, with information from the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry and the Educational Registry was analyzed. The study population included the whole Norwegian population in two age groups of interest (25-49 and 50-74 years. Information on deaths was from the period 1990-2001. Education was recorded in 1990 and it was grouped in four categories as: basic, lower secondary, higher secondary and higher. In the study men and women were analysed seperately. The analysis was conducted for all amenable causes pooled with and without ischemic heart disease. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was fitted to estimate hazard rate ratios. Results: The study showed educational differences in mortality from causes of death considered amenable to health care, in both age groups and sexes. This was seen both when including and excluding ischemic heart disease. The effect sizes were comparable for amenable and non-amenable causes in both age groups and sexes. Conclusions: This study revealed systematic higher risk of death in lower educational groups in causes of death considered amenable to health care. This indicates potential weaknesses in equitable provision of health care for the Norwegian population. Additional research is needed to identify domains within the health care system of particular concern.

  3. Factors associated with specific causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Colette; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death.......To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death....

  4. Gastro-intestinal complications as one of causes of death in patients with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Sorotskaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess frequency of gastro-intestinal (Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation as direct cause of death in pts with rheumatic diseases. Material and methods. Statistical analysis of Tula region patient care institutions documentation was performed to assess frequency and character of severe GI complications leading to death of pts. 300 cases of death which took place during 5 years (1996-2000 in 3 rheumatologic (105 cases and 10 therapeutic (195 cases departments of Tula region patient care institutions were studied. Results. Gl bleeding and ulcer perforation were the direct causes of death in 15 pts with rheumatic diseases i.e. in 5% from the whole number of died. GI complications caused death in 4 pts with chronic rheumatic heart disease (HRHD (1,7%, in 7 (15,2%with rheumatoid arthritis -, in 2 with ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (8,0 and 22,2% respectively. Pts with systemic sclerosis did not die because of GI damage. GI changes most frequently localized in duodenum (8 pts. 4 pts had complications connected with gastric ulcer and in 2 diffuse erosive damage of Gl mucosa was the source of bleeding. Conclusion. Severe Gl complications quite often lead to death of pts with rheumatic diseases in Tula region.

  5. Polytrauma in the elderly: predictors of the cause and time of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muwanga Cyrus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing age and significant pre-existing medical conditions (PMCs are independent risk factors associated with increased mortality after trauma. Our aim was to review all trauma deaths, identifying the cause and the relation to time from injury, ISS, age and PMCs. Methods A retrospective analysis of trauma deaths over a 6-year period at the study centre was conducted. Information was obtained from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN dataset, hospital records, death certificates and post-mortem reports. The time and cause of death, ISS, PMCs were analysed for two age groups ( Results Patients ≥ 65 years old were at an increased risk of death (OR 6.4, 95% CI 5.2-7.8, p 15 and died within the first 24 hours of admission, irrespective of age, from causes directly related to their injuries. Twelve patients with an ISS of Conclusion Elderly patients with minor injuries and PMCs have an increased risk of death relative to their younger counterparts and are more likely to die of medical complications late in their hospital admission.

  6. Cause of death--so-called designed event acclimaxing timed happenings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cause-of-death as an established global medical institution faces its greatest challenge in the commonplace observation that the healthy do not necessarily survive and the diseased do not necessarily die. A logical analysis of the assumed relationships between disease and death provides some insights that allow questioning the taken-for-granted relationship between defined disease/s and the final common parameter of death. Causalism as a paradigm has taken leave of all advanced sciences. In medicine, it is lingering on for anthropocentric reasons. Natural death does not come to pass because of some (replaceable missing element, but because the evolution of the individual from womb to tomb has arrived at its final destination. To accept death as a physiologic event is to advance thanatology and to disburden medical colleges and hospitals of a lot of avoidable thinking and doing.

  7. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men's Health National Health Observances Etapas de la vida CDC Office of Women's Health Health Equity Leading ... Men's Health National Health Observances Etapas de la vida CDC Office of Women's Health File Formats Help: ...

  8. Mortality and causes of death in children referred to a tertiary epilepsy center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Sabine; Uldall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with epilepsy, including children, have an increased mortality rate when compared to the general population. Only few studies on causes of mortality in childhood epilepsy exist and pediatric SUDEP rate is under continuous discussion. AIM: To describe general mortality......, incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), causes of death and age distribution in a pediatric epilepsy patient population. METHODS: The study retrospectively examined the mortality and causes of death in 1974 patients with childhood-onset epilepsy at a tertiary epilepsy center in Denmark...... (8 SUDEP cases per 10,000 patient years). 9 patients died in the course of neurodegenerative disease and 28 children died of various causes. Epilepsy was considered drug resistant in more than 95% of the deceased patients, 90% were diagnosed with intellectual disability. Mortality of patients...

  9. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine.

  10. Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lale Say, MD

    2014-06-01

    Funding: USAID, the US Fund for UNICEF through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to CHERG, and The UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/The World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP, Department of Reproductive Health and Research.

  11. Cause of Death in "John Doe & Jane Doe": A 5 year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Dasari, Harish; Singh, Amandeep

    2014-08-01

    Sometimes the opinion regarding the cause of death in "John Doe or Jane Doe" i.e. on unknown dead bodies is a test of ability of the forensic expert and on many occasions it yields little or no results. Here the identification of the body as such poses problems; rest aside the opinion regarding the cause/ manner of death. The present 5yr study was undertaken in the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh to find the patterns of cause of death in unknown dead bodies, as very little literature is available with regard to John Doe or Jane Doe cases as a group, in India. Unidentified bodies comprised 4 % of the total 3165 cases brought for post-mortem examination to the department. Maximum cases belonged to the age group 41 - 50 years, 30 %. Majority of the opinions regarding the cause of death were given as "no definite opinion" (31%), followed by "cranio-cerebral damage" (30 %) and coronary insufficiency/ Cardiac disease/ aortic aneurysm rupture, (8.9%). Following measures should be undertaken to increase the chances of getting these unknown bodies identified and thereby increasing the chances of arriving at a definite cause of death: drafting of additional legislation for the management of unidentified dead bodies along with streamlining of work on the part of police, use of active investigation and modern investigative techniques, fixing the accountability of the police. Internet based sites of the police like ZIPNET (Zonal Integrated Police Networking) in Northern India, should also be used.

  12. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    , and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey......, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were...

  13. Underlying cause of death as recorded for multiple sclerosis patients: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, R M; Valdiviezo, N L; Visscher, B R; Clark, V A; Detels, R; Fukumoto, M; Dudley, J P

    1983-01-01

    The coding of multiple sclerosis (MS) as underlying cause of death (UCD) on the death certificate provides an important epidemiologic resource for both descriptive and analytic studies. However, not all deaths among MS patients will be so coded. We investigated the effect on estimated occurrence of MS and on characteristics of MS patients when only UCD codes are used to identify cases. Of 2329 MS patients living in Los Angeles County (California) or King/Pierce Counties (Washington) in 1970, 438 had died by 1980. Only 53% of the deaths were coded to MS; 47% were attributed to other causes. Based on our comparisons, the use of only MS-coded deaths to describe decedents would: underestimate the age at MS onset; overestimate the female:male ratio; underestimate age at death; and underestimate duration of MS. Also, the percentage of MS-coded deaths decreased with lengthening duration of follow-up of these prevalent cases. The effect of using only UCD codes to report characteristics of decedents with other chronic diseases may well be similar.

  14. Clinical and Pathologic Characteristics of Myocarditis as a Cause of Sudden Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and Pathologic Characteristics of  Myocarditis  as a Cause of Sudden Death Lena Avedissian, Jennifer A. McNear, David A. Appel, Laudino M...00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Clinical and Pathologic Characteristics of Myocarditis as a Cause of Sudden Death 5a. CONTRACT...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18  Myocarditis  as a

  15. Maternal Mortality Ratio and Causes of Death in IRI Between 2009 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahiddastjerdy, Marzieh; Changizi, Nasrin; Habibollahi, Abas; Janani, Leila; Farahani, Zahra; Babaee, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Maternal Mortality Ratio is an important health indicator. We presented the distribution and causes of maternal mortality in Islamic Republic of Iran. Materials and methods: After provision of an electronic Registry system for date entry, a descriptive-retrospective data collection had been performed for all maternal Deaths in March 2009- March 2012. All maternal deaths and their demographic characteristic were identified by using medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) during pregnancy, labor, and 42 days after parturition. Results: During 3 years, there were 5094317 deliveries and 941 maternal deaths (MMR of 18.5 per 1000000 live births). We had access to pertained data of 896 cases (95.2%) for review in our study. Of 896 reported deaths, 549 were classified as direct, 302 as indirect and 45 as unknown. Hemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal mortality, followed by Preeclampsia, Eclampsia and sepsis. Among all indirect causes, cardio -vascular diseases were responsible for 10% of maternal deaths, followed by thromboembolism, HTN and renal diseases. Conclusion: Although maternal mortality ratio in IRI could be comparable with the developed countries but its pattern is following developing countries and with this study we had provided reliable data for other prospective studies. PMID:28101117

  16. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking. To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%–14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled

  17. An international delphi study of the causes of death and the criteria used to assign cause of death in bovine perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J F; Sanchez-Miguel, C; Doherty, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to elicit opinion from two groups of veterinarians [subject matter experts and non-subject matter experts] about the causes of bovine perinatal mortality and the criteria used to assign such causes. The subject matter experts were selected on the basis of their scientific publications or experience of working in a veterinary diagnostic or research laboratory in the area of bovine perinatal mortality. The non-subject matter experts were self-selected as cattle veterinarians without particular expertise in bovine perinatology. A total of 74 veterinarians (46 subject matter experts and 28 non-subject matter experts) from 23 countries responded. The study was conducted using Delphi methodology over seven rounds. Respondents were asked to agree the causes of bovine perinatal mortality and for each cause to agree the supporting diagnostic criteria. There was a close agreement between groups on 16 causes of death apart from intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) and micronutrient imbalances which were accepted by fewer subject matter experts. There was inter-group consensus on the criteria to diagnose accidents, congenital defects, dystocia, hyperthermia, infections, premature placental separation, prematurity and prolonged calving. There was inter-group consensus on the criteria to diagnose anoxia, apart from gingival cyanosis; on haemorrhage, apart from haemorrhagic anaemia; on IUGR, apart from organ weights; and on iodine imbalance, apart from goitre and thyroid iodine content. The results from this study highlighted the current lack of standardization of the criteria used to define the cause of death for bovine perinatal mortality and the need for such standardization.

  18. [Opinionating on the cause of poisoning and death in fire victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Teresa; Nowicka, Joanna; Kabiesz-Neniczka, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    In the years 1995-2005, 273 cases of fatalities resulting from a fire were investigated in the Chair of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice. To explain the circumstances and determine the cause of death, in each case, autopsies, as well as toxicological determinations of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide, were carried out. Alcohol intoxication status of the victims was also determined. Based on the obtained results, comprehensive toxicological and medico-legal opinions on the cause of death of all the examined fire-associated fatalities were done.

  19. Causes of death in the human immunodeficiency virus population in Western Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkiah Forbes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring the causes of death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in the era of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings has implications as more deaths are reported for reasons other than AIDS. Aims: To determine the causes of mortality in HIV-infected adults in Western Jamaica. Materials and Methods: Patients with HIV infection with a death certificate with a known cause of death between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Results: There were 189 patients. Co-morbidities were present in 25.3%. The mean age at death was 42.4 years. Early disease (World Health Organization [WHO] stages 1 or 2 was the presentation in 21.5% while 78.6% presented with advanced disease (WHO stages 3 or 4. The mean CD4 count at diagnosis was 95 cells/mm 3 . In patients presenting with early disease, 14.2% presented with sexually transmitted infections, 22.8% skin manifestations, and 14.2% lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting with late disease, 41.7% had Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP, 18.9% central nervous system (CNS toxoplasmosis, 11.3% HIV-associated nephropathy, and 5% cryptococcal meningitis. At death, 72.6% were in WHO class 4, and 21.2% class 3. The average CD4 count at death was 75.5 cells/mm 3 . Overall, 55.2% of the patients had received highly active antiretroviral therapy. PCP accounted for 42.9% of deaths, 27.3% had CNS opportunistic infections, HIV nephropathy 16.4%, and 4.6% had malignancies. About 52.3% of patients died within 1 year of diagnosis with HIV, while 68.3% died within 2 years. Conclusion: Patients with HIV are presenting with late disease and dying of conditions that are AIDS-related. Efforts to improve early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed in Jamaica.

  20. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countrie

  1. Causes of maternal deaths at Tezpur medical college AND hospital, Tezpur, Assam, India: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Chandra Boro

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: In our study it is observed that anaemia, haemorrhage and toxaemia are the three major causes of maternal deaths in TMCH, Tezpur. Obstructed labour, sepsis, unsafe abortions, etc. are the causes of the rest of the maternal deaths. It is seen from the study that illiteracy, ignorance, unawareness, poor socioeconomic conditions, lack of antenatal checkups, non-availability of quality care set ups, and drawbacks in referral systems were the major causative factors. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1006-1009

  2. Causes of Death Data in the Global Burden of Disease Estimates for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik; Iversen, Helle K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke mortality estimates in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study are based on routine mortality statistics and redistribution of ill-defined codes that cannot be a cause of death, the so-called 'garbage codes' (GCs). This study describes the contribution of these codes to stroke...... mortality estimates. METHODS: All available mortality data were compiled and non-specific cause codes were redistributed based on literature review and statistical methods. Ill-defined codes were redistributed to their specific cause of disease by age, sex, country and year. The reassignment was done based...... on the International Classification of Diseases and the pathology behind each code by checking multiple causes of death and literature review. RESULTS: Unspecified stroke and primary and secondary hypertension are leading contributing 'GCs' to stroke mortality estimates for hemorrhagic stroke (HS) and ischemic stroke...

  3. Causes of death in patients with long outliving period injured in traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micić Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As long as a direct chain of events can be traced from the injury to the death, then the initial injury must be considered to be the basic cause of death, and this fact may have profound legal implications for both civil compensation and criminal responsibility. Some of the most difficult problems in forensic pathology concern deaths from which posttraumatic complications are disputed as being fatal causative factors. The agony and dying are irreversible dynamic patho-physiological processes. By autopsy only the morphological consequences of these processes could be noted by dissector. The dynamics of dying, direct correlation between initial injury and death, as well as appearance and development of complications provoked by trauma could be established only by clinical medical data. Therefore medical clinical data are critical for forensic pathologists and for solving the problems about the mode and manner of death in cases with long outliving period. Microscopical findings have only academic and scientific importance and are less useful in daily practice. The authors suggest that all complications of injury must be generally involved in autopsy reports, and all severe injuries should separately be registrated both in medical data and autopsy reports. The finding of cause of death must include all observed severe injuries and not only one of the most severe injuries and its complications.

  4. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus...

  5. Causes of death in dogs in the province of Rome (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleni, Claudia; Scholl, Francesco; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Dogs share with humans several zoonotic diseases as well as some important determinants of degenerative syndromes and tumours. For this reason, systematic surveillance on small animal disease carried out through the collection and analysis of necropsy records could be helpful to public health. To describe the causes of death in dogs from the province of Rome (Italy) submitted to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana for necropsy during 2003-2007, a retrospective study was conducted on diagnostic data of 870 dogs. The final diagnosis was established by anatomo-histopathological examinations and, when needed, by ancillary laboratory tests. The most common causes of death were 'infectious disease' (23%) and 'poisoning' (17%). In 5% of the cases, the cause remained undetermined. The frequency of 'poisoning' was higher (39%) in stray dogs, while 'infectious disease' was more frequent (49%) in dogs from breeding farms. Parvovirosis was the most frequent infectious disease (33%) while anticoagulants accounted for 30% of the cases involving toxicity. Death by neoplastic lesions was quite infrequent (7%). Findings from this study provide veterinarians with an overview of the causes of death in dogs and it could provide public health authorities with new data about both novel and re-emerging threats.

  6. Impact of a Hospital-Level Intervention to Reduce Heart Disease Overreporting on Leading Causes of Death

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarrai, Teeb; Madsen, Ann; Zimmerman, Regina; Maduro, Gil; Li, Wenhui; Greene, Carolyn; Begier, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The quality of cause-of-death reporting on death certificates affects the usefulness of vital statistics for public health action. Heart disease deaths are overreported in the United States. We evaluated the impact of an intervention to reduce heart disease overreporting on other leading causes of death. Methods A multicomponent intervention comprising training and communication with hospital staff was implemented during July through December 2009 at 8 New York City hospitals rep...

  7. Evaluating the Cause of Death in Obese Individuals: A Ten-Year Medical Autopsy Study

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    Jad Saab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is a growing public health problem associated with increased morbidity and rate of death. Postmortem examination is imperative to determine the cause of death, to detect clinically unsuspected disease entities, and consequently to determine the actual impact of obesity on patient mortality. Methods. A total of 849 adult autopsies were retrospectively reviewed. Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and nonobese patients were separately studied. The primary cause of death in each group was categorized into malignancy, infection, stroke, ischemic and nonischemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage, and primary nonneoplastic diseases of different organ systems. Results. Of 849 autopsies, 32.3% were obese. The leading causes of death in the obese population were malignancy (31.4%, infection (25.9%, ischemic heart disease (12.8%, and pulmonary embolism (6.2%. Obese individuals were statistically more likely to die from pulmonary embolism and liver disease and less likely to die from neurologic diseases and nonischemic heart disease. Conclusion. Autopsies on obese individuals constitute a third of all adult medical autopsies in our center. Increased death rates in the obese due to pulmonary embolism and liver disease should receive special clinical attention. Autopsy findings in the obese population should contribute to overall premortem disease detection, prevention, and management.

  8. Age-related differences in mechanism, cause, and location of trauma deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Rikke; Thomsen, Annemarie Bondegaard; Theilade, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma death has traditionally been described as primarily occurring in young men exposed to penetrating trauma or road traffic accidents. The epidemiology of trauma fatalities in Europe may change as a result of the increasing proportion of elderly patients. The goal of this study...... was to describe age-related differences in trauma type, mechanism, cause and location of death in a well-defined European region. METHODS: We prospectively registered all trauma patients and severe burn patients in eastern Denmark over 12 consecutive months. We analyzed all trauma fatalities in our region...... regarding the trauma type, mechanism, cause and location of death. RESULTS: A total of 2923 patients were registered, of which 292 (9.9%) died within 30 days. Mortality increased with age, with a mortality of 46.1% in patients older than 80 years old. Blunt trauma was the most frequent trauma type at all...

  9. Coding ill-defined and unknown cause of death is 13 times more frequent in Denmark than in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Sajantila, Antti; Lalu, Kaisa; Bøggild, Henrik; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2014-11-01

    Exact cause and manner of death determination improves legislative safety for the individual and for society and guides aspects of national public health. In the International Classification of Diseases, codes R00-R99 are used for "symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified" designated as "ill-defined" or "with unknown etiology". The World Health Organisation recommends avoiding the use of ill-defined and unknown causes of death in the death certificate as this terminology does not give any information concerning the possible conditions that led to the death. Thus, the aim of the study was, firstly, to analyse the frequencies of R00-R99-coded deaths in mortality statistics in Finland and in Denmark and, secondly, to compare these and the methods used to investigate the cause of death. To do so, we extracted a random 90% sample of the Finnish death certificates and 100% of the Danish certificates from the national mortality registries for 2000, 2005 and 2010. Subsequently, we analysed the frequencies of forensic and medical autopsies and external clinical examinations of the bodies in R00-R99-coded deaths. The use of R00-R99 codes was significantly higher in Denmark than in Finland; OR 18.6 (95% CI 15.3-22.4; pFinland, all of these deaths were investigated with a forensic autopsy. Our study suggests that if all deaths in all age groups with unclear cause of death were systematically investigated with a forensic autopsy, only 2-3/1000 deaths per year would be coded as an ill-defined and unknown cause of death in national mortality statistics. At the same time the risk to overlook unnatural deaths is decreased to a minimum. To achieve this in Denmark requires that the existing legislation on cause of death investigation would need to be changed to ensure that all deaths with unknown cause of death are investigated with a forensic autopsy.

  10. Unexpected death caused by rupture of a dilated aorta in an adult male with aortic coarctation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2015-01-01

    Aortic coarctation (AC) is a congenital aortic narrowing. We describe for the first time the findings obtained by unenhanced post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in a case where the death was caused by cardiac tamponade from a ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic...

  11. Subvalvular aortic stenosis as a cause of sudden death: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Guven, Taner; Karayel, Ferah; Pakis, Isil; Gurpinar, Kagan; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2006-03-01

    Sudden death is defined as a death that occurs suddenly, develops during an unpredictable course, and is due to natural or unnatural causes. Although there is no universally standardized definition on how "sudden" a sudden death is, WHO defines sudden death as a death that occurs within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. The aim of this study is to present 2 rarely reported autopsy cases and to emphasize the importance of systemic autopsy at sudden death. On macroscopic examination, crescent-shaped, thick, fibrous membranes, located 5 mm and 3 mm away from the aortic valves, were detected. Fibrous membranes extended from the ventricular septum to the left ventricular outflow tract, thus apparently narrowing this region. Left ventricular wall and septum were slightly thickened, and there were scattered grayish-white areas of a small diameter. These became more intense in the septum and myocardium of the left ventricle on the anterior plane of the myocardial sections. In both cases, the aortic valves of were thickened and also markedly narrowed on one of them. In this case, the fibrous membrane adhered to the aortic valve and extended to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve at one side. Both aortic valves comprised 3 leaflets. Other valves and coronary arteries showed no macroscopic pathologic findings. Microscopic examination of both cases demonstrated that the fibrous membrane comprising abundant collagen fibers was situated on the ventricular septum. Hypertrophy, moderate to severe interstitial fibrosis, and focal areas of scarring were observed in the specimens taken from the septal and ventricular myocardium. No abnormality was found on the conduction system examinations. Toxicologic analysis results in blood were negative. Based on the findings, membranous-type (discrete type) subvalvular aortic stenosis, diagnosed during the autopsy, was considered as the cause of sudden death in both cases.

  12. Trends in the leading causes of death in Korea, 1983-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daroh; Ha, Mina; Song, Inmyung

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze trends in the 10 leading causes of death in Korea from 1983 to 2012. Death rates were derived from the Korean Statistics Information Service database and age-adjusted to the 2010 population. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify the points when statistically significant changes occurred in the trends. Between 1983 and 2012, the age-standardized death rate (ASR) from all causes decreased by 61.6% for men and 51.2% for women. ASRs from malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and transport accidents increased initially before decreasing. ASRs from hypertensive diseases, heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases and diseases of the liver showed favorable trends (ASR % change: -94.4%, -53.8%, -76.0%, and -78.9% for men, and -77.1%, -36.5%, -67.8%, and -79.9% for women, respectively). ASRs from pneumonia decreased until the mid-1990s and thereafter increased. ASRs from intentional self-harm increased persistently since around 1990 (ASR % change: 122.0% for men and 217.4% for women). In conclusion, death rates from all causes in Korea decreased significantly in the last three decades except in the late 1990s. Despite the great strides made in the overall mortality, temporal trends varied widely by cause. Mortality trends for malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, pneumonia and intentional self-harm were unfavorable.

  13. The "Annie hypothesis": did the death of his daughter cause Darwin to "give up Christianity"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyhe, John; Pallen, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines one of the most widely believed episodes in the life of Charles Darwin, that the death of his daughter Annie in 1851 caused the end of Darwin's belief in Christianity, and according to some versions, ended his attendance of church on Sundays. This hypothesis, it is argued, is commonly treated as a straightforward true account of Darwin's life, yet there is little or no supporting evidence. Furthermore, we argue, there is sufficient evidence that Darwin's loss of faith occurred before Annie's death.

  14. Comparing verbal autopsy cause of death findings as determined by physician coding and probabilistic modelling: a public health analysis of 54 000 deaths in Africa and Asia

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    Peter Byass

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of civil registration and vital statistics varies globally, with most deaths in Africa and Asia remaining either unregistered or registered without cause of death. One important constraint has been a lack of fit–for–purpose tools for registering deaths and assigning causes in situations where no doctor is involved. Verbal autopsy (interviewing care–givers and witnesses to deaths and interpreting their information into causes of death is the only available solution. Automated interpretation of verbal autopsy data into cause of death information is essential for rapid, consistent and affordable processing. Methods: Verbal autopsy archives covering 54182 deaths from five African and Asian countries were sourced on the basis of their geographical, epidemiological and methodological diversity, with existing physician–coded causes of death attributed. These data were unified into the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy standard format, and processed using the InterVA–4 model. Cause–specific mortality fractions from InterVA–4 and physician codes were calculated for each of 60 WHO 2012 cause categories, by age group, sex and source. Results from the two approaches were assessed for concordance and ratios of fractions by cause category. As an alternative metric, the Wilcoxon matched–pairs signed ranks test with two one–sided tests for stochastic equivalence was used. Findings: The overall concordance correlation coefficient between InterVA–4 and physician codes was 0.83 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.91 and this increased to 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99 when HIV/AIDS and pulmonary TB deaths were combined into a single category. Over half (53% of the cause category ratios between InterVA–4 and physician codes by source were not significantly different from unity at the 99% level, increasing to 62% by age group. Wilcoxon tests for stochastic equivalence also demonstrated equivalence. Conclusions: These findings show strong concordance

  15. The importance of microbiological testing for establishing cause of death in 42 forensic autopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, S

    2015-05-01

    Microorganisms have always been one of the great challenges of humankind, being responsible for both high morbidity and mortality throughout history. In a forensic setting microbiological information will always be difficult to interpret due to lack of antemortem information and changes in flora postmortem. With this study we aim to review the use of microbiological procedures at our forensic institute. In a retrospective study including 42 autopsies performed at our Institute, where microbiological test had been applied, analyses were made with regard to: type of microbiological tests performed, microorganisms found, histological findings, antemortem information, C-reactive protein measurement and cause of death. Fiftyone different microorganisms were found distributed among 37 cases, bacteria being the most abundant. Nineteen of the cases were classified as having a microbiological related cause of death. C-reactive protein levels were raised in 14 cases of the 19 cases, histological findings either supported or were a decisive factor for the classification of microbiologically related cause of death in 14 cases. As a multitude of abundant microorganisms are able to cause infection under the right circumstances, all findings should be compared to anamnestic antemortem information, before conclusions are drawn. A definite list of true pathogens is nearly impossible to compile.

  16. Nationwide population-based study of cause-specific death rates in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salahadeen, E; Torp-Pedersen, C; Gislason, G;

    2015-01-01

    with severe psoriasis. The age at time of death varied by psoriasis status, i.e. 76.5 ± 14.0, 74.4 ± 12.8 and 72.0 ± 13.4 years, for the general population, mild psoriasis and severe psoriasis respectively. In general, the highest death rates were observed in patients with severe psoriasis. Overall death...... and nationwide data have not been presented previously. METHODS: In a nationwide population-based cohort we evaluated all-cause and cause-specific death rates in patients with psoriasis as compared to the general population. RESULTS: The entire Danish population aged 18 and above, corresponding to a total of 5......,458,627 individuals (50.7% female, 40.9 years ± 19.7), including 94,069 with mild psoriasis (53% female, 42.0 ± 17.0 years) and 28,253 with severe psoriasis (53.4% female, 43.0 ± 16.5 years), was included. A total of 884,661 deaths were recorded, including 10 916 in patients with mild psoriasis and 3699 in patients...

  17. Heart Rate Distribution and Cause-specific Death in General Population of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoqing; Rao Xuxu; Mai Jinzhuang; Wu Yong; Guo Chenye; Shi Meiling; Gao Xiangmin; Deng Mulan; Lian Zibing

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To analyses heart rate (HR) distribution of healthy adults in the south China community and evaluate relative risk of HR to total cause of death and cardiac cerebral vascular death. Methods Analytical data come from the baseline survey and follow-up visits in the PRC-USA Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology in urban and rural samples of Guangzhou. The baseline survey was initiated in 1983 and 1984, and rescanned in 1987 and 1988. Since 1991 Follow-up visits for endpoint events were carried once every two years.Average follow-up year was 16.2 from baseline to 2000.People excluded from cardiac cerebral vascular disease, diabetes and other various chronic diseases were regarded as "healthy adults". Heart rates of these subjects were measured on resting electrocardiogram.Endpoint evens include: total cause of death, first attack of coronary disease and cerebral vascular events.SAS software was used for analysis. Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to evaluate the impact of HR on total death and cardiac cerebral vascular disease.Results A total of 4570 men and women aged 35-55years from urban and rural Guangzhou were investigated. 3493 healthy subjects were enrolled in the analysis, including 1694 men and 1799 women. Mean of theHRis (67.9±10.6) beats/min (bpm) in the whole population, ( 66.3 ± 10.7 ) bpm in men and (69.3 ±10.4) in women. The 5th percentile of the HR was 51 in men and 54 in women. The 95th percentile of the HR was 85 in men and 88 in women. Single correlation analysis showed there was negative relationship between age and HR, but it was only statistical significant in female. Analysis with Cox Proportional Hazards model show that HR < 50 bpm tops the risk of total causes of death (1.725)and HR 50-59 bpm decreased the risk of total causes of death (0.843).Relative risk of cardiac cerebral vascular events exceeds 1 when HR < 50 and >90 bpm (1.486 and 7.008 respectively). It was less than 1 in other groups but there was

  18. Psychosocial therapy and causes of death after deliberate self-harm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, J; Stuart, E A; Lind, B D;

    2016-01-01

    .9%) of 5678 patients in the psychosocial therapy group had died, compared with 1736 (10.2%) of 17 034 patients in the matched comparison group. Lower odds ratios of dying by mental or behavioural disorders [0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.79], alcohol-related causes (0.63, 95% CI 0.......5-448.4) for mental or behavioural disorders as a cause of death, 111.1 (95% CI 79.2-210.5) for alcohol-related causes and 96.8 (95% CI 69.1-161.8) for other diseases and medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that psychosocial therapy after deliberate self-harm might reduce long-term risk of death...

  19. Case report of death from falling: Did heart tumor cause syncope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takuma; Takasu, Kosho; Emoto, Yuko; Shikata, Nobuaki; Matoba, Ryoji

    2012-07-01

    A healthy man in his 30s was working on the balustrade of stairs on the second floor. He suddenly fell downstairs without saying anything. On emergency hospitalization, chest echogram showed left hemothorax. Cardiac echogram showed a floating mass from the mitral valve in the left ventricle and severe mitral regurgitation. Surgery for hemothorax and pulmonary contusion was immediately undertaken. However, bleeding from pulmonary contusion could not be controlled and he underwent cardiopulmonary arrest. Autopsy showed a white, elastic, pendulous mass in the left atrium and a white mass in the lower lobe of the left lung. Tumor histology showed a reticular pattern, Schiller-Duval bodies, eosinophilic hyaline globules, and positive staining for α-fetoprotein. We diagnosed primary lung yolk sac tumor with metastatic intracardiac yolk sac tumor, a rare and highly malignant germ cell tumor. It usually arises in the ovaries and testes, and intracardiac yolk sac tumor is rare. Intracavitary tumors induce obstruction of inflow into and outflow from the ventricular cavity. The most common clinical presentation is dyspnea and syncope. In the present case, metastatic cardiac yolk sac tumor might have disturbed cardiac outflow and affected hemodynamics, probably causing syncope. Unfortunately, he was in a high place at that time and fell to receive pulmonary contusion that led to death. Autopsy may sometimes reveal latent diseases which might be related to the cause of death. We should perform autopsy thoroughly to diagnose not only the cause of death but also the factors leading to death.

  20. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock.

  1. Establishing cause of maternal death in Malawi via facility-based review and application of the ICD-MM classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, H; Ameh, C A; Bar-Zeev, S; Adaji, S; Kachale, F; van den Broek, N

    2014-09-01

    Maternal death review (MDR) is an accepted process that is implemented across Malawi and 'underlying cause of death' is assigned by healthcare providers using a standard MDR form. Mixed-methods approach. Key informant interviews with eight stakeholders involved in MDR. Secondary analysis of MDR forms for 54 maternal deaths. Comparison of assigned cause of death by healthcare providers conducting MDR at health facility level with cause assigned by researchers using the International Classification of Diseases Maternal Mortality (ICD-MM) classification. MDR teams, analysts and policymakers reported facing challenges in completing the forms, analysing and using information. The concepts of underlying (primary) and contributing (secondary) causes of death are often misunderstood. Healthcare providers using only MDR forms reported cause of death as non-obstetric complications in 39.6% and pregnancy-related infection in 11.3% of cases. For 30.2% of cases, no clear clinical cause of death was recorded. The most commonly assigned underlying cause of death using ICD-MM was obstetric haemorrhage (32.1%), non-obstetric complications (24.5%) and pregnancy-related infection (22.6%). There was poor agreement between cause(s) of maternal death assigned by healthcare providers in the field and trained researchers using the new ICD-MM classification (κ statistic; 0.219). The majority of cases could be reclassified using the ICD-MM and this provided a more specific cause of death. A more structured and user-friendly MDR form is required. Accurate classification of cause of death is important. Dissemination of, and training in the use of the new ICD-MM classification system will be helpful to healthcare providers conducting MDR in Malawi.

  2. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF CAUSES AND SOCIAL CORRELATES OF MATERNAL DEATHS AT ASSAM MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, DIBRUGARH, ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of maternal death to achieve MDG – 5 Target - 6 is a challenge for most of the developing countries of the world in spite of steady decline in maternal death. There is a great difference in MMR of developing and developed countries as well as within the countries, states, districts depending upon the socioeconomic and educational status. This study was conducted to estimate the MMR, evaluate the causes of maternal death and to formulate strategies for reduction of maternal death at Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of causes of maternal deaths from 1st January 2012 to 31st August 2015 at Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India. The records were collected from Maternal Death Register and analysis were made to find out the MMR, causes of maternal deaths and its contributing factors. OBSERVATIONS There were 279 maternal deaths out of 33833 live births giving MMR of 824.64. Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (37.63% was the leading direct cause followed by infections (14.69% and hemorrhage (12.90% and the anaemia (24.73% was the commonest indirect cause of maternal death. Contributory factors like age, locality, booking visit play a major rule in maternal death in our study.

  3. Using the new ICD-MM classification system for attribution of cause of maternal death--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, C A; Adegoke, A; Pattinson, R C; van den Broek, N

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the causes of and factors contributing to maternal deaths is critically important for development of interventions that reduce the global burden of maternal mortality and morbidity. The International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality (ICD-MM) classification of cause of death during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium was applied to data obtained from maternal death reviews (MDR) for 4558 maternal deaths from five countries in sub-Saharan Africa. None of the data sets identified type of maternal death. Information obtained via MDR is generally sufficient to agree on classification of cause of death to the levels of type and group. The terms 'underlying cause of death' and 'contributing conditions' were used differently in different settings and a specific underlying cause of death was frequently not recorded. Application of ICD-MM resulted in the reclassification of 3.1% (9/285) of cases to the group 'unanticipated complications of management', previously recorded as obstetric haemorrhage or unknown. An increased number of cases were assigned to the groups pregnancy-related infection (5.6-10.2%) and pregnancies with abortive outcome (3.4-4.9%) when a clear distinction was made between women who died 'with' HIV/AIDS of obstetric causes (direct maternal death) and AIDS-related indirect maternal deaths (group 'non-obstetric complications'). Similarly, anaemia and obstructed labour were more frequently identified as contributing factors than underlying cause of death. It would be helpful if MDR forms could have explicitly stated variables called: type, group and underlying cause of death as well as a dedicated section to the most frequently occurring contributing conditions recognised in that setting.

  4. Deaths of obstructive lung disease in the Yangpu district of Shanghai from 2003 through 2011: a multiple cause analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yi; Han Xue; Luo Yong; Xu Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive lung disease (OLD,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma) is an important cause of death in older people.There has been no exhaustive population-based mortality study of this subject in Shanghai.The objective of this study was to use a multiple cause of death methodology in the analysis of OLD mortality trends in the Yangpu district of Shanghai,from 2003 through 2011.Methods We analyzed death data from the Shanghai Yangpu District Center for Disease Control and Prevention for Medical Cause of Death database,selecting all death certificates for individuals 40 years or older on which OLD was listed as a cause of death.Results From 2003 to 2011,there were 8 775 deaths with OLD listed,of which 6 005 (68%) were identified as the underlying cause of death.For the entire period,a significantly decreasing trend of age standardized rates of death from OLD was observed in men (-6.2% per year) and in women (-5.7% per year),similar trends were observed in deaths with OLD.The mean annual rates of deaths from OLD per 100 000 were 161.2 for men and 80.8 for women from 2003 to 2011.While,as the underlying cause of death,the main associated causes of death were as follows:cardiovascular diseases (70.7%),cerebrovascular diseases (13.3%),diabetes (8.6%),and cancer (4.3%).The associated causes and the principal overall underlying causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (37.0%),cancer (30.3%),and cerebrovascular disease (15.3%).A significant seasonal variation,with the highest frequency in winter,occurred in deaths identified with underlying causes of chronic bronchitis,other obstructive pulmonary diseases,and asthma.Conclusions Multiple cause mortality analysis provides a more accurate picture than underlying cause of total mortality attributed on death certificates to OLD.The major comorbidities associated with OLD were cardiovascular disease,cancer,and cerebrovascular disease.From 2003 to 2011,the mortality rate from OLD

  5. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Tamara C; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C

    2016-01-01

    Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12 cells, and caspase inhibition prevented phosphatidylserine exposur and decreased subsequent phagocytosis. Nitric oxide was necessary and sufficient to induce the reversible phosphatidylserine exposure and phagocytosis. The PC12 cells were not dead at the time they were phagocytised, and inhibition of their phagocytosis left viable cells. Cell loss was inhibited by blocking phagocytosis mediated by phosphatidylserine, MFG-E8, vitronectin receptors or P2Y6 receptors. Thus, activated microglia can induce reversible apoptosis of target cells, which is insufficient to cause apoptotic cell death, but sufficient to induce their phagocytosis and therefore cell death by phagoptosis.

  6. Assigning cause for sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carl E; Darnall, Robert A; McEntire, Betty L; Hyma, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    We have reached a conundrum in assigning cause of death for sudden unexpected infant deaths. We summarize the discordant perspectives and approaches and how they have occurred, and recommend a pathway toward improved consistency. This lack of consistency affects pediatricians and other health care professionals, scientific investigators, medical examiners and coroners, law enforcement agencies, families, and support or advocacy groups. We recommend that an interdisciplinary international committee be organized to review current approaches for assigning cause of death, and to identify a consensus strategy for improving consistency. This effort will need to encompass intrinsic risk factors or infant vulnerability in addition to known environmental risk factors including unsafe sleep settings, and must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate a progressively expanding knowledge base.

  7. Two modes of cell death caused by exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N Pakhomova

    Full Text Available High-amplitude electric pulses of nanosecond duration, also known as nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF, are a novel modality with promising applications for cell stimulation and tissue ablation. However, key mechanisms responsible for the cytotoxicity of nsPEF have not been established. We show that the principal cause of cell death induced by 60- or 300-ns pulses in U937 cells is the loss of the plasma membrane integrity ("nanoelectroporation", leading to water uptake, cell swelling, and eventual membrane rupture. Most of this early necrotic death occurs within 1-2 hr after nsPEF exposure. The uptake of water is driven by the presence of pore-impermeable solutes inside the cell, and can be counterbalanced by the presence of a pore-impermeable solute such as sucrose in the medium. Sucrose blocks swelling and prevents the early necrotic death; however the long-term cell survival (24 and 48 hr does not significantly change. Cells protected with sucrose demonstrate higher incidence of the delayed death (6-24 hr post nsPEF. These cells are more often positive for the uptake of an early apoptotic marker dye YO-PRO-1 while remaining impermeable to propidium iodide. Instead of swelling, these cells often develop apoptotic fragmentation of the cytoplasm. Caspase 3/7 activity increases already in 1 hr after nsPEF and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage is detected in 2 hr. Staurosporin-treated positive control cells develop these apoptotic signs only in 3 and 4 hr, respectively. We conclude that nsPEF exposure triggers both necrotic and apoptotic pathways. The early necrotic death prevails under standard cell culture conditions, but cells rescued from the necrosis nonetheless die later on by apoptosis. The balance between the two modes of cell death can be controlled by enabling or blocking cell swelling.

  8. Two modes of cell death caused by exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, Olga N; Gregory, Betsy W; Semenov, Iurii; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2013-01-01

    High-amplitude electric pulses of nanosecond duration, also known as nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF), are a novel modality with promising applications for cell stimulation and tissue ablation. However, key mechanisms responsible for the cytotoxicity of nsPEF have not been established. We show that the principal cause of cell death induced by 60- or 300-ns pulses in U937 cells is the loss of the plasma membrane integrity ("nanoelectroporation"), leading to water uptake, cell swelling, and eventual membrane rupture. Most of this early necrotic death occurs within 1-2 hr after nsPEF exposure. The uptake of water is driven by the presence of pore-impermeable solutes inside the cell, and can be counterbalanced by the presence of a pore-impermeable solute such as sucrose in the medium. Sucrose blocks swelling and prevents the early necrotic death; however the long-term cell survival (24 and 48 hr) does not significantly change. Cells protected with sucrose demonstrate higher incidence of the delayed death (6-24 hr post nsPEF). These cells are more often positive for the uptake of an early apoptotic marker dye YO-PRO-1 while remaining impermeable to propidium iodide. Instead of swelling, these cells often develop apoptotic fragmentation of the cytoplasm. Caspase 3/7 activity increases already in 1 hr after nsPEF and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage is detected in 2 hr. Staurosporin-treated positive control cells develop these apoptotic signs only in 3 and 4 hr, respectively. We conclude that nsPEF exposure triggers both necrotic and apoptotic pathways. The early necrotic death prevails under standard cell culture conditions, but cells rescued from the necrosis nonetheless die later on by apoptosis. The balance between the two modes of cell death can be controlled by enabling or blocking cell swelling.

  9. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  10. A placental cause of intra-uterine fetal death depends on the perinatal mortality classification system used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, F.J.; Gordijn, S.J.; Timmer, A.; Holm, J.P.; Ravise, J.M.; Erwich, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Different classification systems for the cause of intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD) are used internationally. About two thirds of these deaths are reported as unexplained and placental causes are often not addressed. Differences between systems could have consequences for the validity of vital statis

  11. Firearm Homicide and Other Causes of Death in Delinquents: A 16-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Jessica A.; Abram, Karen M.; Olson, Nichole D.; Stokes, Marquita L.; Welty, Leah J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delinquent youth are at risk for early violent death after release from detention. However, few studies have examined risk factors for mortality. Previous investigations studied only serious offenders (a fraction of the juvenile justice population) and provided little data on females. METHODS: The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a prospective longitudinal study of health needs and outcomes of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (657 females, 1172 males; 524 Hispanic, 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 4 other race/ethnicity) detained between 1995 and 1998. Data on risk factors were drawn from interviews; death records were obtained up to 16 years after detention. We compared all-cause mortality rates and causes of death with those of the general population. Survival analyses were used to examine risk factors for mortality after youth leave detention. RESULTS: Delinquent youth have higher mortality rates than the general population to age 29 years (P < .05), irrespective of gender or race/ethnicity. Females died at nearly 5 times the general population rate (P < .05); Hispanic males and females died at 5 and 9 times the general population rates, respectively (P < .05). Compared with the general population, significantly more delinquent youth died of homicide and its subcategory, homicide by firearm (P < .05). Among delinquent youth, racial/ethnic minorities were at increased risk of homicide compared with non-Hispanic whites (P < .05). Significant risk factors for external-cause mortality and homicide included drug dealing (up to 9 years later), alcohol use disorder, and gang membership (up to a decade later). CONCLUSIONS: Delinquent youth are an identifiable target population to reduce disparities in early violent death. PMID:24936005

  12. Common underlying diseases do not contribute in determining the causes of sudden unexplained death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhao-xing; L(U) Yan-yu; Chetan Rai Nugessur; YAN Wei; ZHAO Wen-kui; KONG Li-li; ZHENG Ya-an

    2013-01-01

    Background Underlying diseases have a statistically significant positive correlation to sudden death.However,sudden unexplained death (SUD) is different from sudden death,as there is no clinical evidence to support the sudden death due to the original underlying disease,nor a lethal pathological basis to be found during autopsy.In addition,SUD are more common in young,previously healthy individuals,usually without any signs of disease,with no positive lesions found after autopsy.Therefore,a causal relationship between SUD and the underlying disease needs to be further explored.This study aimed to explore the role that common underlying diseases play in patients with SUD and to reveal the correlation between them.Methods The medical records,history and case information of 208 patients with SUD were collected for the survey.All these SUD occurred in the emergency room of Peking University Third Hospital from January 2006 to December 2009.The patients were stratified by with and without common underlying diseases.To examine possible associations between the underlying diseases and the cause of unexplained sudden death,the chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used.Results Among the 208 patients,65 were diagnosed with common underlying diseases while 143 were not.Within these two groups,there were 45 patients for whom the clear cause of death was determined.However,there were no statistically significant differences or strong associations (x2=1.238,P >0.05) between the 11 patients with (16.90%) and 34 without (23.78%) common underlying disease among these 45 patients.We also found that occurrence of the common underlying diseases,such as neurological system,cardiovascular and pulmonary system diseases,are not statistically significant (P >0.05) in the diagnosis of the SUD.Conclusion Common underlying diseases make no obvious contributions to SUD and are not useful in diagnosing the underlying reasons for death.

  13. Long-term mortality and causes of death associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A matched cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotland, Nanja; Uhre, Marie-Louise; Mejer, N;

    2016-01-01

    respiratory disease, nervous system disease, unknown causes, psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease and senility. Over time, rates of death decreased or were stable for all disease categories except for musculoskeletal and skin disease where a trend towards an increase was seen. CONCLUSION: Long......-term mortality after SAB was high but decreased over time. SAB cases were more likely to die of eight specific causes of death and less likely to die of five other causes of death compared to controls. Causes of death decreased for most disease categories. Risk factors associated with long-term mortality were......OBJECTIVES: Data describing long-term mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is scarce. This study investigated risk factors, causes of death and temporal trends in long-term mortality associated with SAB. METHODS: Nationwide population-based matched cohort study...

  14. Prevalence of Parental Thrombophilic Defects After Fetal Death and Relation to Cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, F.J.; Erwich, J.J.H.M.; Folkeringa, N.; Timmer, A.; Veeger, N.J.G.M.; Ravise, J.M.; Holm, J.P.; van der Meer, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether parental thrombophilic defects after fetal death, either acquired or inherited, were more prevalent than in the normal population and to estimate associations between these thrombophilic defects and different fetal death causes. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective c

  15. Survival and causes of death among released brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778) in Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorowska, Magdalena; Wasilewski, Michał

    2012-10-01

    We describe the results of our research on population dynamics among brown hares reared in enclosures and then released into suitable natural habitat. Radio-tracking was used to follow the fate of 60 released brown hares over a 4-year period, extending between November 2005 and November 2009. The survival rate among these animals after 12 months was estimated to be 37 %, with 22 tagged individuals surviving beyond 1 year post-release. The highest (40 %) level of mortality characterised the first month after release, while a second period of enhanced mortality coincided with the breeding season (altogether accounting for a 20 % mortality rate). There was no significant relationship between body mass and mortality rate in the first month following release. A natural cause of death was predation by mammals, which accounted for some 31 % of all losses. Remaining causes were poaching (13 %), hits by vehicles (7 %) and unidentified causes (9 %). However, in at least 40 % of cases, it was not possible to determine the date when a released animal died, to say nothing of the cause of death.

  16. Survival and causes of death in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Jensen, Annette Møller; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    without vHL. vHL life expectancy was compared with the general population using a relative survival model. Results The estimated mean life expectancies for male and female patients born in 2000 were 67 and 60 years, respectively. Survival is influenced by the sex and genotype of the patient. Female......Background Historically, the survival of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) has been poorer than that of the general population. We aimed to determine whether the survival of VHL mutation carriers and their risk of vHL-related death has changed over time and how it has been affected...... by sex, genotype and surveillance attendance. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, we included all known Danish vHL families with a VHL mutation. We assessed the survival and causes of death for 143 VHL mutation carriers using Cox regression models and compared vHL survival with that of 137 siblings...

  17. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients.

  18. Discontinuation of antiplatelet treatment and risk of recurrent stroke and all-cause death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Kamilla; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    use and followed them up for stroke recurrence, or all-cause death. Person-time was classified by antiplatelet drug use into current use, recent use (≤150 days after last use), and non-use (>150 days after last use). Lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use was classified by the same rules. We used Cox...... proportional hazard models to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of recurrent stroke or death associated with discontinuation of antiplatelet or LLD drugs. RESULTS: Among 4,670 stroke patients followed up for up a median of 1.5 years, 237...... experienced a second stroke and 600 died. Compared with current antiplatelet drug use, both recent use (1.3 (0.8-2.0)), and non-use (1.3 (0.8-1.9)) were associated with increased recurrent stroke risk. The corresponding HRs of death were 1.9 (1.4-2.5) for recent and 1.8 (1.4-2.3) for non-use of antiplatelet...

  19. Short- and long-term mortality and causes of death in HIV/tuberculosis patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria N; Panteleev, Alexander M; Grint, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    study. Mortality rates and causes of death were analysed by time from TB diagnosis (12 months) in 1078 consecutive HIV/TB patients. Factors associated with TB-related death were examined in multivariate Poisson regression analysis. 347 patients died during 2625 person-years of follow-up. Mortality......Mortality of HIV/tuberculosis (TB) patients in Eastern Europe is high. Little is known about their causes of death. This study aimed to assess and compare mortality rates and cause of death in HIV/TB patients across Eastern Europe and Western Europe and Argentina (WEA) in an international cohort...... in Eastern Europe was three- to ninefold higher than in WEA. TB was the main cause of death in Eastern Europe in 80%, 66% and 61% of patients who died 12 months after TB diagnosis, compared to 50%, 0% and 15% in the same time periods in WEA (p...

  20. [A case of death due to mitral regurgitation caused by traumatic mitral valve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Y; Kojima, T; Yasui, W; Nagasawa, N; Yashiki, M

    1996-06-01

    A 51-year-old male, who had been driving a motor bicycle, was involved in a traffic accident with a trailer, and he died immediately after the accident. According to the external examination of the victim, no fatal injuries were found. The medico-legal autopsy revealed a rupture of the left side of the pericardium, and a tear of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. There were no injuries of the papillary muscles and chordae. The cause of death was due to traumatic mitral regurgitation.

  1. Classifying countries according to leading causes of death in the world at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cause mortality of a population is an important segment in the analysis of mortality, because it sums up all factors which influence death indicators on a certain territory in a direct way. At the beginning of the 21st century, the situation is not the same everywhere in the world and countries do not share a unique pattern of the causes of deaths. Infectious and parasitic diseases are still dominant in underdeveloped countries, while the leading causes of deaths in developed countries are circulatory disorders and neoplasm. Cardiovascular diseases are the cause of 29% of total mortality in the world, infectious cause 19%, tumors 13% and violent deaths about 9% (based on data from 2002. This paper gives an analysis of the spatial distribution of the leading causes of deaths using the geographic information system (Arc-View GIS, based on the ratio of total mortality and death rates of the population from a certain group of diseases. Based on data analysis, a hypothesis has been set on the significance of the regional factor in forming a picture of population mortality according to causes of death. A regional factor implies a set of physical geographical as well as general social specificities of a certain region which form a pattern of population behavior. Based on death rates, cardiovascular diseases are represented the most in the mortality rates of countries in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Infectious diseases imperil the population in the Sub-Saharan region of Africa; tumors are most common in Europe, North America and Japan. The highest rates of violent deaths are in countries of the former Soviet Union and the Sub- Saharan zone. Classifying death rates according to leading causes of death represents a prerequisite for forming a final picture of mortality according to causes of death in the world at the beginning of the 'new century'. The method of gathering together the causes of death is possible by applying a statistical model of

  2. Sex differential in life expectancy in Japan and Scotland: age and causes of death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi,Mahboob H

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of age groups and causes of death to the sex difference in life expectancy (SDLE at birth in Japan and Scotland was estimated for the period 1965-1990. The purpose was to determine the particular age groups and causes of death responsible for the opposite trend of SDLE in the two countries. SDLE has been widening and narrowing in Japan and Scotland, respectively. The availability of complete and reliable data for these two developed countries facilitated the study. A method of decomposing the total SDLE into age and cause of death components was employed. About 40-60% contribution to SDLE was observed for ages after 65 years. Marked increase in the contribution of the 75+ age group and marked decrease in the contribution of ages 45-64 for Japan and Scotland, respectively, had a major effect on the widening and narrowing of SDLE in the two countries, respectively. The contribution of diseases of the circulatory system was the maximum until 1980 in Japan (< or = 1.8 years or 33.6%; cerebrovascular disease alone < or = 23.4% and until 1990 in Scotland (< or = 3.1 years or 47.0%; ischemic heart disease alone < or = 42.0%. In Japan, the contribution of malignancy had a marked increased from 0.7 year (12.3% to 2.0 years (32.6%, particularly for the trachea, bronchus and lung, while there was only a small increase in Scotland from 1.0 year (16.6% to 1.2 years (19.8% with an increase in the negative contribution of female breast malignancy. In Japan, the contribution of diseases of the respiratory system increased considerably from 0.5 year (8.5% to 1.1 years (18.1% while it decreased in Scotland from 1.0 year (16.5% to 0.6 year (10.7%. About 60-75% of SDLE is due to the above three groups of causes of death. Malignancy and diseases of the respiratory system had a persistently increased contribution in Japan with resultant widening of SDLE by 0.9 year. Diseases of the circulatory system have always had a high contribution. On the

  3. Final report : Albuquerque Ecological Services, interpretation of cause of death of 3 golden eagles and 1 bald eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report was prepared by Environmental Contaminant Specialists on the cause of death of the 3 golden eagles and 1 bald eagle found near Folsom, New Mexico. This...

  4. Systemic Steroid Application Caused Sudden Death of a Patient with Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Ogino-Nishimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man, who was diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL, showed severe hypertension 10 hours after prednisolone administration. Subsequently, the patient suddenly died due to pulmonary edema. The autopsy indicated a pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland, and the cause of death was determined to be a pheochromocytoma crisis induced by systemic administration of prednisolone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life-threatening condition and can result from the use of corticosteroids. Physicians should consider the risk of a pheochromocytoma crisis due to systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  5. [The controversy regarding the cause of death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (28 January 1756-5 May 1791)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, R

    1991-09-01

    All since two hundred years closely contested hypotheses about the causes of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's death are to be verified and to be made credible by the same "original sources" in spite of considerable contrasts. In the present study it is tried to indicate the reasons for the multifariousness of the opinions and to represent Mozart's death as the consequence of a multifactorial process.

  6. Cancer: second cause of death among the elderly in Medellín, 2002-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz M. Bustamante A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the behavior of lung, stomach, andprostate cancer mortality among the elderly in the city of Medellinfrom 2002 to 2006. Methodology: a descriptive study with asecondary information source. The study was conducted basedon the analysis of 2809 records of deaths from lung, stomach,and prostate cancer in people over 65 years. The analysis wasunivariate and bivariate. Additionally, it was accompanied bystatistical tests and had a reliability of 95 %. The average andspecific mortality rates were calculated per ten thousand elderlyindividuals. Results: the risk of dying from lung cancer was at itshighest value in 2003, with a rate of 20.27; for stomach cancer, the greatest risk was observed in 2002, with 11.88; finally, 2006was the year with the highest risk for prostate cancer, with 9.35per ten thousand inhabitants. For the three types of cancer, theaverage mortality rate over time was 37.1. Thus, cancer is thesecond leading cause of death after acute myocardial infarction.Discussion: lung, stomach, and prostate cancer pose a risk to theelderly. Moreover, the risk increases as the individuals age. Thisstudy contributes to the state of the art of the research on causesof death among the elderly.

  7. Coding ill-defined and unknown cause of death is 13 times more frequent in Denmark than in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Sajantila, Annti; Lalu, Kaisa;

    2014-01-01

    to the death. Thus, the aim of the study was, firstly, to analyse the frequencies of R00-R99-coded deaths in mortality statistics in Finland and in Denmark and, secondly, to compare these and the methods used to investigate the cause of death. To do so, we extracted a random 90% sample of the Finnish death...... certificates and 100% of the Danish certificates from the national mortality registries for 2000, 2005 and 2010. Subsequently, we analysed the frequencies of forensic and medical autopsies and external clinical examinations of the bodies in R00-R99-coded deaths. The use of R00-R99 codes was significantly......Exact cause and manner of death determination improves legislative safety for the individual and for society and guides aspects of national public health. In the International Classification of Diseases, codes R00-R99 are used for "symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings...

  8. Changes in main causes of death in Macao residents from 1986-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN Man-si; CHEN Qing; LAM Christopher Wai-kei

    2013-01-01

    Background Since Macao's return of sovereignty to China in December 1999,the life style of Macao residents has changed.The aim of this study was to investigate changes of death patterns in Macao residents from 1986 to 2006 in order to identify the trends and patterns of major public health problems,which could provide the guidance for developing public health policies.Methods A retrospective study was conducted for this investigation.Research data were collected from official websites and statistical yearbooks and classified by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9.Results It was observed that mortality from the three major causes of (1) infectious,maternal and childhood diseases,(2) chronic non-communicable diseases,and (3) injury and poisoning were 17.7,298.2 and 26.0 per 100 000,respectively.The largest decrease in death rate over the 21-year study-period was from infectious,maternal and childhood diseases (62.5%).The highest mortality rate was ischemic heart diseases (37.0%).The largest increase in mortality rate was lung cancer (46.9%).Conclusions Mortality rate of Macao residents progressively decreased,but the constituent ratio of death from chronic non-communicable diseases was increasing.The mortality rate of lung cancer was clearly ascending,so emphasis should be put on tertiary prevention in future.

  9. Determination of the underlying cause of death in three multicenter international HIV clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lifson, Alan R; Lundgren, Jens; Belloso, Waldo H;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Describe processes and challenges for an Endpoint Review Committee (ERC) in determining and adjudicating underlying causes of death in HIV clinical trials. METHOD: Three randomized HIV trials (two evaluating interleukin-2 and one treatment interruption) enrolled 11,593 persons from 36......-defining diseases, 21% non-AIDS malignancies, 9% cardiac diseases, 9% liver disease, 8% non-AIDS-defining infections, 5% suicides, 5% other traumatic events/accidents, 4% drug overdoses/acute intoxications, 11% other causes, and 18% unknown. Major reasons for unknown classification were inadequate clinical...... in HIV clinical trials. Committees should include those familiar with AIDS and non-AIDS-defining diseases and have processes for adjudicating differences of opinion. Training for local investigators and procedure manuals should emphasize obtaining maximum possible documentation and follow-up information...

  10. Temporal trends in sudden infant death syndrome in Canada from 1991 to 2005: contribution of changes in cause of death assignment practices and in maternal and infant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Fell, Deshayne B; Joseph, K S; Liu, Shiliang; León, Juan Andrés; Sauve, Reg

    2012-03-01

    The rate of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) declined significantly in Canada and the US between the late 1980s and the early 2000s. In the US, this decline was shown to be due in part to a shift in diagnosis, as deaths from accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed and from other ill-defined and unspecified cause increased concurrently. This study was undertaken to determine whether there was such a shift in diagnosis from SIDS to other causes of death in Canada, and to quantify the true temporal decrease in SIDS. Cause-specific infant death rates were compared across three periods: 1991-95, 1996-2000 and 2001-05 using the Canadian linked livebirth-infant death file. The temporal decline in SIDS was estimated after adjustment for maternal and infant characteristics such as maternal age and small-for-gestational age using logistic regression. Deaths from SIDS decreased from 78.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 73.4, 83.4] per 100 000 livebirths in 1991-95, to 48.5 [95% CI 44.3, 52.7] in 1996-2000 and to 34.6 [95% CI 31.0, 38.3] in 2001-05. Mortality rates from other ill-defined and unspecified causes and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed remained stable. The temporal decline in SIDS between 1991-95 and 2001-05 did not change substantially after adjustment for maternal and infant factors. It is unlikely that the temporal decline of SIDS in Canada was due to changes in cause-of-death assignment practices or in maternal and infant characteristics.

  11. Drug Use Severity, Mortality, and Cause of Death in Primary Care Patients With Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Maynard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between drug use severity and mortality in primary care patients with substance use disorders. In 848 individuals with known vital status, severity was low in 32%, intermediate in 38%, or substantial/severe in 30%. Two-year survival was 93% in the low group, 96% in the medium group, and 92% in the high group (p = .19. The age-adjusted risk of death for the high-severity group was twice that of the medium-risk group (hazard ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval = [1.02, 3.93]. Individuals in the high group were more likely to die from accidents than those in the low- or medium-severity groups (50% vs. 20%, p = .021. Compared with low- and medium-severity groups, age at death was 5 years younger in the high-severity group (52 ± 9 vs. 57 ± 6, p = .017. Premature death due to accidental causes in persons with substance use disorders is a persistent yet complex problem.

  12. A case of child death caused by intestinal volvulus following magnetic toy ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Mieszko; Skrzypek, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    An 8-year boy was admitted to the ER of one of Warsaw's pediatric hospitals with a history of having bloody vomiting the day before. During admission the boy collapsed and lost consciousness. CPR was unsuccessful. On medico-legal autopsy, two foreign objects (small magnetic spheres--0.5 cm in diameter) were found in two different places in the small and large intestines and were notably attracted magnetically one to another. A loop of approximately 1-m length with features of small intestinal hemorrhagic necrosis and small intestinal mechanical obstruction was found. The cause of death was intestinal volvulus and small intestinal mechanical obstruction caused by ingestion of foreign objects (two neodymium magnets). Most likely these small magnetic spheres were part of a popular toy, the safety of which, lately, has been widely discussed.

  13. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  14. The First Cause of Traumatic Death in Children < 1 Year: A Review on Abusive Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Ferrara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT can be defined as an injury to the skull or intracranial contents of a child under the age of 5 due to inflicted blunt impact or violent shaking. Evidence Acquisition AHT is the most common cause of traumatic death in children younger than 1 year, and it is the leading cause of death due to child abuse. Clinical presentation observed in children with AHT depends on the type of AHT and accompanying injuries. History and physical examination are important for diagnosing AHT and for distinguishing it from other conditions that can mimic shaken baby syndrome, such as accidental trauma, cancer, metabolic diseases, and others. Results Progress in research on the medical diagnosis of AHT has been remarkable, while the development of treatment strategies has been limited. For these reasons, there is an urgent need to develop effective treatment strategies for AHT able to improve the outcomes. Conclusions The construction of a nationwide database that supports clinical studies is required in the future.

  15. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil

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    Rosely Sichieri

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality due to chronic diseases has been increasing in all regions of Brazil with corresponding decreases in mortality from infectious diseases. The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease. Linear regression analysis included as independent variables the % of illiteracy, % of whites, % of houses with piped water, mean income, age group, sex, and % of deaths caused by infectious disease. The dependent variables were the % of deaths due to each one of the chronic diseases studied by age-sex group. Chronic diseases were an important cause of death in all regions of Brazil. Ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and malignant neoplasms accounted for more than 34% of the mortality in each of the 17 capitals studied. Proportionate cause-specific mortality varied markedly among state capitals. Ranges were 6.3-19.5% for ischaemic heart diseases, 8.3-25.4% for stroke, 2.3-10.4% for infections and 12.2-21.5% for malignant neoplasm. Infectious disease mortality had the highest (p < 0.001 correlation with all the four socio-economic variables studied and ischaemic heart disease showed the second highest correlation (p < 0.05. Higher socio-economic level was related to a lower % of infectious diseases and a higher % of ischaemic heart diseases. Mortality due to breast cancer and stroke was not associated with socio-economic variables. Multivariate linear regression models explained 59% of the variance among state capitals for mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, 50% for stroke, 28% for lung cancer, 24% for breast cancer

  16. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri Rosely

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality due to chronic diseases has been increasing in all regions of Brazil with corresponding decreases in mortality from infectious diseases. The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease. Linear regression analysis included as independent variables the % of illiteracy, % of whites, % of houses with piped water, mean income, age group, sex, and % of deaths caused by infectious disease. The dependent variables were the % of deaths due to each one of the chronic diseases studied by age-sex group. Chronic diseases were an important cause of death in all regions of Brazil. Ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and malignant neoplasms accounted for more than 34% of the mortality in each of the 17 capitals studied. Proportionate cause-specific mortality varied markedly among state capitals. Ranges were 6.3-19.5% for ischaemic heart diseases, 8.3-25.4% for stroke, 2.3-10.4% for infections and 12.2-21.5% for malignant neoplasm. Infectious disease mortality had the highest (p < 0.001 correlation with all the four socio-economic variables studied and ischaemic heart disease showed the second highest correlation (p < 0.05. Higher socio-economic level was related to a lower % of infectious diseases and a higher % of ischaemic heart diseases. Mortality due to breast cancer and stroke was not associated with socio-economic variables. Multivariate linear regression models explained 59% of the variance among state capitals for mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, 50% for stroke, 28% for lung cancer, 24% for breast cancer

  17. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes.

  18. Fatty acid oxidation disorders as primary cause of sudden and unexpected death in infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N;

    1997-01-01

    Disorders of fatty acid metabolism are known to be responsible for cases of sudden and unexpected death in infancy. At least 14 disorders are known at present. 120 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) had been examined for a prevalent mutation (G985) causing medium chain acyl Co...

  19. Detection of diabetic metabolism disorders post-mortem--forensic case reports on cause of death hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, C; Wöllner, K; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic coma is the most severe form of hyperglycaemic metabolic disorders. The post-mortem diagnosis of this disorder of glucose metabolism can be difficult and vague due to a lack of characteristic morphological findings. Six death cases caused by diabetic coma are described with special focus on biochemical (and histological) findings. The possible glycaemia markers glucose, lactate, HbA1c, fructosamine, anhydroglucitol, and ketone bodies were measured and the usefulness of these parameters is evaluated and discussed. Estimations of glucose concentrations in vitreous humour or cerebrospinal fluid and of ketone bodies in blood or other matrices are obligatory while measurements of HbA1c, fructosamine, or anhydroglucitol can only provide additional information on the long-term adjustment of diabetes in the deceased. Lactate concentrations (addition of glucose and lactate levels to form the sum formula of Traub) do not give more information than the glucose concentration itself and can be therefore omitted.

  20. Years of Life Lost (YLL in Colombia 1998-2011: Overall and Avoidable Causes of Death Analysis.

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    Liliana Castillo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Estimate the Years of Life Lost (YLL for overall and avoidable causes of death (CoD in Colombia for the period 1998-2011.From the reported deaths to the Colombian mortality database during 1998-2011, we classified deaths from avoidable causes. With the reference life table of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2010 study, we estimated the overall YLL and YLL due to avoidable causes. Calculations were performed with the difference between life expectancy and the age of death. Results are reported by group of cause of death, events, sex, year and department. Comparative analysis between number of deaths and YLL was carried out.A total of 83,856,080 YLL were calculated in Colombia during period 1998-2011, 75.9% of them due to avoidable CoD. The year 2000 reported the highest number of missed YLL by both overall and avoidable CoD. The departments with the highest YLL rates were Caquetá, Guaviare, Arauca, Meta, and Risaralda. In men, intentional injuries and cardiovascular and circulatory diseases had the higher losses, while in women YLL were mainly due to cardiovascular and circulatory diseases.The public health priorities should focus on preventing the loss of YLL due to premature death and differentiated interventions by sex.

  1. Assessment of Traub formula and ketone bodies in cause of death investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltanen, Terhi; Sajantila, Antti; Palo, Jukka U; Partanen, Teija; Valonen, Tiina; Lindroos, Katarina

    2013-11-01

    Diabetes and alcohol abuse may cause severe metabolic disturbances that can be fatal. These may be difficult to diagnose in autopsies based solely on macroscopical and histological findings. In such cases, metabolic markers, such as postmortem glucose and ketone levels, can provide supporting information. Glucose or combined glucose and lactate, the Traub value, is often used to indicate hyperglycemia. The use of the Traub value, however, has been questioned by some, because the lactate levels are known to elevate in postmortem samples also due to other reasons than glycolysis of glucose molecules. Ketoacidosis can be detected by analyzing ketone body levels, especially beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB). Acetone is also elevated in severe cases of ketoacidosis. Here, we have evaluated the value of these biomarkers for postmortem determination of the metabolic disturbances. Retrospective data of 980 medico-legal autopsies performed in Finland, where glucose, lactate and ketone bodies were analyzed, was collected. Our findings show that the Traub value indicates hyperglycemia, even when glucose levels are low. For diagnosis, evaluation of complementing markers, e.g. ketone bodies and glycated hemoglobin is needed. Our results show that BHB can be used for screening and diagnosis of ketoacidosis. Acetone alone is not sufficient, since it is elevated only in the most severe cases. We also found that alcohol abuse rarely causes severe ketoacidosis. However, sporadic cases do exist where ketone body levels are extremely high. Despite this, alcoholic ketoacidosis is very rarely diagnosed as the cause of death.

  2. Cost-consequence analysis of cause of death investigation in Finland and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Lalu, Kaisa;

    2014-01-01

    The 1990s 12-16% total autopsy rate in Denmark has until now declined to 4%, while in Finland, it has remained between 25 and 30%. The decision to proceed with a forensic autopsy is based on national legislation, but it can be assumed that the financing of autopsies influences the decision process...... pathologists working at the National Institute for Health and Welfare are not included in the unit cost. The unit cost for one medical autopsy is also lower in Finland than in Denmark; €700 versus €1070. In our alternative practice in Denmark, the forensic autopsy rate was increased from 2.2% to 8...... in Denmark with another cost profile. Data on cause of death investigation systems and costs were derived from Departments of Forensic Medicine, Departments of Pathology, and the National Police. Finnish and Danish autopsy rates were calculated in unnatural (accident, suicide, homicide and undetermined...

  3. Changes in causes of death and mortality rates among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen-Larsen, Birger; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This study analysed the spontaneous trends in mortality among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99 and describes the changes in the causes of death, mortality rates, and variation between regions....

  4. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.

  5. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Rafael; Naghavi, Mohsen; Foreman, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21...... regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex....

  6. A standardized algorithm for determining the underlying cause of death in HIV infection as AIDS or non-AIDS related

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS or non......-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the CoDe procedures), local...

  7. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    and only the very youngest fossil deposits could be coeval with the earliest human arrivals. Therefore, anthropogenic causes cannot be implicated in most if not all of mass deaths at the site. Climatic and environmental changes were the main factors in site formation and megafauna deaths at Lancefield Swamp.

  8. A 20-year prospective study of mortality and causes of death among hospitalized opioid addicts in Oslo

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    Haldorsen Tor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study mortality rate and causes of death among all hospitalized opioid addicts treated for self-poisoning or admitted for voluntary detoxification in Oslo between 1980 and 1981, and to compare their mortality to that of the general population. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted on 185 opioid addicts from all medical departments in Oslo who were treated for either self-poisoning (n = 93, 1980, voluntary detoxification (n = 75, 1980/1981 or both (n = 17. Their median age was 24 years; with a range from 16 to 41, and 53% were males. All deaths that had occurred by the end of 2000 were identified from the Central Population Register. Causes of death were obtained from Statistics Norway. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs were computed for mortality, in general, and in particular, for different causes of death. Results During a period of 20 years, 70 opioid addicts died (37.8%, with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR equal to 23.6 (95% CI, 18.7–29.9. The SMR remained high during the whole period, ranging from 32.4 in the first five-year period, to 13.4 in the last five-year period. There were no significant differences in SMR between self-poisonings and those admitted for voluntarily detoxification. The registered causes of death were accidents (11.4%, suicide (7.1%, cancer (4.3%, cardiovascular disease (2.9%, other violent deaths (2.9%, other diseases (71.4%. Among the 50 deaths classified as other diseases, the category "drug dependence" was listed in the vast majority of cases (37 deaths, 52.9% of the total. SMRs increased significantly for all causes of death, with the other diseases group having the highest SMR; 65.8 (95% CI, 49.9–86.9. The SMR was 5.4 (95% CI, 1.3–21.5 for cardiovascular diseases, and 4.3 (95% CI, 1.4–13.5 for cancer. The SMR was 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6–26.4 for accidents, 10.7 (95% CI, 4.5–25.8 for suicides, and 28.6 (95% CI, 7.1–114.4 for other violent deaths. Conclusion The risk

  9. Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Kaptoge, Stephen; Thompson, Alexander;

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain.......The extent to which diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia is related to risk of death from cancer or other nonvascular conditions is uncertain....

  10. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

  11. Unexpected death caused by rupture of a dilated aorta in an adult male with aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Knudsen, Peter Thiis

    2015-09-01

    Aortic coarctation (AC) is a congenital aortic narrowing. We describe for the first time the findings obtained by unenhanced post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in a case where the death was caused by cardiac tamponade from a ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic arch without dissection combined with aortic coarctation. The patient, a 46-year-old man, was found dead at home. PMCT showed haemopericardium and dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. This appearance led to the mistaken interpretation that the images represented a dissecting aneurysm. The autopsy showed instead a thin-walled and floppy dilatation of the ascending aorta and aortic arch with a coarctation just proximal to the ligamentum arteriosum. A longitudinal tear was found in the posterior aortic wall just above the valves. Blood in the surrounding soft tissue intersected with a large haematoma (1000ml) in the pericardial sac. Cardiac hypertrophy (556g) was observed in the patient, though no other cardiovascular abnormalities were found. Histological analysis showed cystic medial necrosis of the ascending aortic wall. A ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic arch without aortic dissection associated with AC is an uncommon cause of haemopericardium that has only been described a few times before. The case is discussed in relation to other reported cases and in the context of the present understanding of this condition.

  12. Failure causes fear: the effect of self-esteem threat on death-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Clay

    2012-01-01

    According to terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, 1986), self-esteem protects people from anxiety associated with the knowledge of certain mortality. A number of studies provide evidence consistent with this assertion, but no studies have experimentally examined the effect of threatened self-esteem on death-anxiety. In the current study, self-esteem was manipulated and death-anxiety measured. A self-esteem threat increased death-anxiety relative to a self-esteem boost and non-self threat control condition.

  13. Short Term Patterns of Landslides Causing Death in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Among natural hazards, landslides represent a significant source of loss of life in mountainous terrains. Many regions of Latin America and the Caribbean are prone to landslide activity, due to strong topographic relief, high tectonic uplift rates, seismicity and/or climate. Further, vulnerable populations are often concentrated in deep valleys or mountain foothills susceptible to catastrophic landslides, with vulnerability further increased by dense urbanization and precarious settlements in some large cities. While historic extremely catastrophic events such as the 1999 Vargas flows in Venezuela or the 1970 Huascaran rock avalanche in Peru are commonly cited to characterize landslide hazards in this region, less known is the landslide activity in periods without such large disasters. This study assesses the occurrence of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2004 and 2013. Over this time period we recorded 611 landslides that caused 11,631 deaths in 25 countries, mostly as a result of rainfall triggers. The countries with the highest number of fatal landslides are Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru and Haiti. The highest death toll for a single event was ca.3000. The dataset has not captured a strong El Niño event or large earthquakes in landslide prone areas, thus the analysis is indicative of short term rather than long term spatial and temporal patterns. Results show that at continental scale, the spatial distribution of landslides in the 2004-2013 period correlates well with relief, precipitation and population density, while the temporal distribution reflects the regional annual rainfall patterns. In urban areas, the presence of informal settlements has a big impact on the number of fatalities, while at national level weaker correlations with gross income, human development and corruption indices can be found. This work was funded by the Durham International Fellowships for Research and Enterprise and Fondecyt project 1140317.

  14. Analyses of cardiac blood cells and serum proteins with regard to cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Yoshida, Chiemi; Chen, Jian-Hua; Komatsu, Ayumi; Azuma, Yoko; Sakoda, Shigeki; Zhu, Bao-Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    To investigate hematological and serum protein profiles of cadaveric heart blood with regard to the cause of death, serial forensic autopsy cases (n=308, >18 years of age, within 48 h postmortem) were examined. Red blood cells (Rbc), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (Plt), white blood cells (Wbc), total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) were examined in bilateral cardiac blood. Blood cell counts, collected after turning the bodies at autopsy, approximated to the clinical values. Postmortem changes were not significant for these markers. In non-head blunt injury cases, Rbc counts, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were lower in subacute deaths (survival time, 1-12 h) than in acute deaths (survival time blood were significantly higher for non-head injury than for head injury in subacute deaths. In fire fatality cases, Plt count was markedly higher with an automated hematology analyzer than by using a blood smear test, suggesting Rbc fragmentation caused by deep burns, while increases in Wbc count and decreases in Alb levels were seen for subacute deaths. For asphyxiation, Rbc count, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were higher than other groups, and TP and Alb levels in the right cardiac blood were higher for hanging than for strangulation. These findings suggest that analyses of blood cells and proteins are useful for investigating the cause of death.

  15. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

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    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  16. Mortality and causes of death of 513 Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Petersen, Jørgen; Ullman, S;

    1999-01-01

    A multicentre cohort of 513 clinic attenders with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was retrospectively identified, representing 4185 patient-years of follow-up. Expected numbers of death were calculated by means of age- and sex-specific mortality rates of the general Danish population. The obse......A multicentre cohort of 513 clinic attenders with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was retrospectively identified, representing 4185 patient-years of follow-up. Expected numbers of death were calculated by means of age- and sex-specific mortality rates of the general Danish population...

  17. Mortality and causes of death among incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in Finland 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, P; Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Pohjolainen, T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate mortality and causes of death in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Finland. Data for patients with SLE for the study were collected (2000-2007) from the nationwide register on decisions of special reimbursements for drugs, maintained by the Social Insurance Institution (SII) in Finland. Data on deaths of the patients were obtained from the official death certificate statistics of Statistics Finland until the end of 2008. Of the 566 incident SLE patients, median follow-up time was 5.4 (IQR 3.3, 7.1) years, and 30 patients (23 females, seven males) died in the years 2000 through 2008. Mean age at death was 67.8 ± 17.2 years for females and 62.3 ± 15.2 years for males. The 5-year survival rates were 94.8% (95%CI 92.0-96.6%) and 88.2% (95%CI 76.5-94.3%), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 1.48 (95%CI 1.01-2.12). Primary causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, malignancy and SLE itself. In conclusion, survival of the patients with SLE was inferior to that of the general population. Cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 37% of deaths.

  18. Watch out for malaria: still a leading cause of child death worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonsenso Danilo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the efforts in malaria control promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO, the reported malaria burden is being reduced throughout the world. Nevertheless, malaria remains a leading cause of child death worldwide. Aims purpose of the paper is to summarize the main historical steps in fighting malaria, from the first descriptions to the last ones. Results a case of probable autochthonous malaria has been recently described in Italy, raising concern over the possibility of resurgence of malaria in countries previously interested by this disease. Moreover, both the constant threat of the parasite and vector mosquito developing resistance to medicines and insecticides, and the on-going climate change make the challenge of eradicating malaria really difficult. Therefore, malaria is still an actual disease, requiring adequate programs of surveillance, stronger health systems in poor countries, and efforts in order to develop new and effective tools in malaria control. WHO has definitely demonstrated the effects of "social determinants" on health. So, eradication strategies cannot be based only on a scientific background, because culture, politics, power, resources and wars have a profound impact on health and disease. These elements should be introduced in all the programs of malaria control. Conclusions malaria is still an actual disease with great public health implications, and the approaches for control and prevention should have the appropriate social and political context in addition to the science involved in order to save lives of children at risk.

  19. Widening rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from major causes of death in the USA, 1969-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    This study examined trends in rural-urban disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA between 1969 and 2009. A rural-urban continuum measure was linked to county-level mortality data. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by sex, race, cause-of-death, area-poverty, and urbanization level for 13 time periods between 1969 and 2009. Cause-of-death decomposition and log-linear and Poisson regression were used to analyze rural-urban differentials. Mortality rates increased with increasing levels of rurality overall and for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Despite the declining mortality trends, mortality risks for both males and females and for blacks and whites have been increasingly higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas, particularly since 1990. In 2005-2009, mortality rates varied from 391.9 per 100,000 population for Asians/Pacific Islanders in rural areas to 1,063.2 for blacks in small-urban towns. Poverty gradients were steeper in rural areas, which maintained higher mortality than urban areas after adjustment for poverty level. Poor blacks in non-metropolitan areas experienced two to three times higher all-cause and premature mortality risks than affluent blacks and whites in metropolitan areas. Disparities widened over time; excess mortality from all causes combined and from several major causes of death in non-metropolitan areas was greater in 2005-2009 than in 1990-1992. Causes of death contributing most to the increasing rural-urban disparity and higher rural mortality include heart disease, unintentional injuries, COPD, lung cancer, stroke, suicide, diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Residents in metropolitan areas experienced larger mortality reductions during the past four decades than non-metropolitan residents, contributing to the widening gap.

  20. The unfolding counter-transition in rural South Africa: mortality and cause of death, 1994-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Houle

    Full Text Available The HIV pandemic has led to dramatic increases and inequalities in adult mortality, and the diffusion of antiretroviral treatment, together with demographic and socioeconomic shifts in sub-Saharan Africa, has further changed mortality patterns. We describe all-cause and cause-specific mortality patterns in rural South Africa, analyzing data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system from 1994 to 2009 for those aged 5 years and older. Mortality increased during that period, particularly after 2002 for ages 30-69. HIV/AIDS and TB deaths increased and recently plateaued at high levels in people under age 60. Noncommunicable disease deaths increased among those under 60, and recently also increased among those over 60. There was an inverse gradient between mortality and household SES, particularly for deaths due to HIV/AIDS and TB and noncommunicable diseases. A smaller and less consistent gradient emerged for deaths due to other communicable diseases. Deaths due to injuries remained an important mortality risk for males but did not vary by SES. Rural South Africa continues to have a high burden of HIV/AIDS and TB mortality while deaths from noncommunicable diseases have increased, and both of these cause-categories show social inequalities in mortality.

  1. Revealing the burden of maternal mortality: a probabilistic model for determining pregnancy-related causes of death from verbal autopsies

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    Desta Teklay

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial reductions in maternal mortality are called for in Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG-5, thus assuming that maternal mortality is measurable. A key difficulty is attributing causes of death for the many women who die unaided in developing countries. Verbal autopsy (VA can elicit circumstances of death, but data need to be interpreted reliably and consistently to serve as global indicators. Recent developments in probabilistic modelling of VA interpretation are adapted and assessed here for the specific circumstances of pregnancy-related death. Methods A preliminary version of the InterVA-M probabilistic VA interpretation model was developed and refined with adult female VA data from several sources, and then assessed against 258 additional VA interviews from Burkina Faso. Likely causes of death produced by the model were compared with causes previously determined by local physicians. Distinction was made between free-text and closed-question data in the VA interviews, to assess the added value of free-text material on the model's output. Results Following rationalisation between the model and physician interpretations, cause-specific mortality fractions were broadly similar. Case-by-case agreement between the model and any of the reviewing physicians reached approximately 60%, rising to approximately 80% when cases with a discrepancy were reviewed by an additional physician. Cardiovascular disease and malaria showed the largest differences between the methods, and the attribution of infections related to pregnancy also varied. The model estimated 30% of deaths to be pregnancy-related, of which half were due to direct causes. Data derived from free-text made no appreciable difference. Conclusion InterVA-M represents a potentially valuable new tool for measuring maternal mortality in an efficient, consistent and standardised way. Further development, refinement and validation are planned. It could become a routine

  2. Evaluation of Impact of Major Causes of Death on Life Expectancy Changes in China, 1990-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-HONG WANG; LI-MING LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of major causes of death on changes of life expectancy in China. Methods Life expectancy was calculated by standard life table techniques using mortality data from the national censuses in 1990 and 2000 and the 1% National Population Sampling Surveys in 1995 and 2005. Mortality data about the major causes of death from VR-MOH were used as reference values to estimate their death proportions of the specific age groups by sex and regions, as well as all-cause mortality and age-specific mortality rates of major causes of death. Decomposition method was used to quantitatively evaluate the impact. Results Three key findings were identified in our study. First, China's health challenge was shifted from diseases related to living conditions to those related to behavior and lifestyle, with rural areas relatively lagged behind urban areas. Second, the impacts of cardiovascular diseases and neoplasm on the middle aged and elderly population were stressed. Third, compared to the urban population, the rural population tended to have increasing mortality of neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases, especially in adults at the age of 15-39 years. Conclusion Further efforts should be made to reduce the incidence of neoplasm and cardiovascular diseases, especially in rural areas, by promoting healthy behavior and lifestyle and providing appropriate therapies for all patients in need.

  3. Detachment of esophageal carcinoma cells from extracellular matrix causes relocalization of death receptor 5 and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Chao Liu; Jun Zhang; Shi-Gui Liu; Rong Gao; Zhang-Fu Long; Ke Tao; Yuan-Fang Ma

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of detachment of esophageal cancer cells from extracellular matrix on the localization of death receptor 5 (DR5) and apoptosis.METHODS: Anchorage-dependent EC9706 cells of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were pretreated or not treated with brefeldin A. Detached cells were harvested by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid digestion. Expression and localization of DR5 in these cells were determined by immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence assays, as well as flow cytometry analysis. Apoptosis of EC9706 cells was detected by flow cytometry after stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled annexin V/propidium iodide. Activation of caspase 8 was detected by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: Immunocytochemical assay indicated that DR5 was predominantly perinuclear in adherent cells but was mainly localized in cell membrane in detached cells. In addition, immunofluorescence assay also confirmed the above-mentioned results, and further demonstrated that DR5 was present in the form of coarse granules in detached cells, but in the form of fine granules in adherent cells. Cytometry analysis revealed higher levels of DR5 expression on the surfaces of brefeldin-A-untreated cells than on the surfaces of brefeldin-A-treated cells, but brefeldin A treatment did not affect the total DR5 expression levels. Moreover, nocodazole did not influence the extracelluar DR5 expression levels in EC9706 cells. Apoptosis assay revealed that detached cells were more sensitive to DR5 antibody-induced apoptosis than adherent cells. Western blotting showed that caspase 8 was activated in temporarily detached cells 4 h earlier than in adherent cells.CONCLUSION: Progress from adhesion to detachment of EC9706 cells causes DR5 relocalization, and promotes cytoplasmic translocation of DR5 to cell surfaces via a Golgi-dependent pathway. Moreover, it might also result in DR5 aggregation to render apoptosis of detached cells.

  4. Analysis of injuries and causes of death in fatal farm-related incidents in Lower Silesia, Poland

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    Marta Rorat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Workers in the agriculture sector are among the groups at the highest risk of fatal occupational injuries. The aim of study is to show the most common causes of farm-related deaths in Poland, with the circumstances, injuries sustained and mechanisms of death. Materials and methods. There were 109 (90.8% males aged 19–81 and 11 females aged 19–73. 18.3% were over 60 years of age. There were 6 children (boys aged between 2–6. A retrospective review was undertaken of 16,140 medico-legal autopsy reports by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Wroclaw between 1991–2011, which included 120 fatal farm-related incidents. The study protocol included gender, age, date and cause of death, all injuries found, circumstances and mechanism of death, place of death and blood alcohol concentration. Results. The most common (33/120; 27.5% causes of death, both in men and women, were traffic accidents, the second being hit, crushed or buried by materials and falling objects. The most common injury was multi-organ damage (27/120; 22.5%, less common were cranio-cerebral injury (17/120; 14.2% and thoracic blunt trauma (11/120; 9.2%. In multi-organ and thoracic traumas the mechanism of death was almost always exsanguinations. 85.3% of victims died at the place found. 37.2% of victims were drunk. Conclusion. In Poland, fatal injuries occurring in agriculture are mostly related to the misuse of transport and machinery. The main efforts to prevent accidents are engineering improvements, use of personal protective equipment, alcohol intake prevention and appropriate education of the workforce. Special prevention programmes should take gender and age differences into account.

  5. Cause of Death and Predictors of All‐Cause Mortality in Anticoagulated Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Data From ROCKET AF

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorney, Sean D; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A A

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all‐cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose‐adjusted warfarin. Cox prop...

  6. Cause of Death and Predictors of All‐Cause Mortality in Anticoagulated Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Data From ROCKET AF

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorney, Sean D; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all‐cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results: In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose‐adjusted warfarin. Cox pr...

  7. Prostate Cancer, Prostate Cancer Death, and Death from Other Causes, Among Men with Metabolic Aberrations

    OpenAIRE

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. Methods: In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, ...

  8. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between cri

  9. [Cause of death of the working-age population of Ufa in relation to the area of residence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafutdinova, N Kh

    1997-01-01

    Two districts, one with developed oil-processing and petrochemical industries and administrative one, were selected in Ufa city for 20-year study of mortality among able-bodied population. Both districts demonstrated a decreasing share of able-bodied people in mortality structure. However, mortality of able-bodied population in the industrial district tended to increase, in the administrative one--to decrease. The main death causes were traumatism, cardiovascular diseases, malignancies. Mean age at death among the able-bodied population was lower in the industrial district, among the people engaged into oil-processing and petrochemical industries, transport and building sector.

  10. Physical and chemical injury as causes of sudden cardiac death: the forensic forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, L

    1994-01-01

    Physical and chemical injuries account for the largest number of sudden, unexpected cardiac deaths in persons between the ages of 1 and 44 years. Blunt-force injuries, lacerations, avulsions, and contusions of the heart and great vessels sustained during motor vehicle crashes constitute the most prevalent type of lethal physical trauma to the cardiovascular system. The second most prevalent type of trauma is from penetrating and perforating wounds inflicted by firearms. The mechanisms of these injuries are discussed, with emphasis placed on those factors contributing to lethality. The three most prevalent chemicals associated with sudden cardiac death-ethyl alcohol, cocaine, and tricylic antidepressants-are briefly mentioned.

  11. Causes of perinatal death at a tertiary care hospital in Northern Tanzania 2000–2010: a registry based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmbaga Blandina T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal mortality reflects maternal health as well as antenatal, intrapartum and newborn care, and is an important health indicator. This study aimed at classifying causes of perinatal death in order to identify categories of potentially preventable deaths. Methods We studied a total of 1958 stillbirths and early neonatal deaths above 500 g between July 2000 and October 2010 registered in the Medical Birth Registry and neonatal registry at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC in Northern Tanzania. The deaths were classified according to the Neonatal and Intrauterine deaths Classification according to Etiology (NICE. Results Overall perinatal mortality was 57.7/1000 (1958 out of 33 929, of which 1219 (35.9/1000 were stillbirths and 739 (21.8/1000 were early neonatal deaths. Major causes of perinatal mortality were unexplained asphyxia (n=425, 12.5/1000, obstetric complications (n=303, 8.9/1000, maternal disease (n=287, 8.5/1000, unexplained antepartum stillbirths after 37 weeks of gestation (n= 219, 6.5/1000, and unexplained antepartum stillbirths before 37 weeks of gestation (n=184, 5.4/1000. Obstructed/prolonged labour was the leading condition (251/303, 82.8% among the obstetric complications. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the leading cause (253/287, 88.2% among the maternal conditions. When we excluded women who were referred for delivery at KCMC due to medical reasons (19.1% of all births and 36.0% of all deaths, perinatal mortality was reduced to 45.6/1000. This reduction was mainly due to fewer deaths from obstetric complications (from 8.9 to 2.1/1000 and maternal conditions (from 8.5 to 5.5/1000. Conclusion The distribution of causes of death in this population suggests a great potential for prevention. Early identification of mothers at risk of pregnancy complications through antenatal care screening, teaching pregnant women to recognize signs of pregnancy complications, timely access to obstetric care

  12. Safe Sleep for Your Baby: Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent injury. In fact, crib bumpers can cause serious injuries and even death. Keeping them out of baby’s sleep area is the best way to avoid these dangers. • • To reduce the risk of SIDS, women should: Get regular health care during pregnancy, and Not smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal ...

  13. Temporal trends and gender differentials in causes of childhood deaths at Ballabgarh, India - Need for revisiting child survival strategies

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    Krishnan Anand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relating Information on causes of deaths to implementation of health interventions provides vital information for program planning and evaluation. This paper from Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in north India looks at temporal trends and gender differentials in the causes of death among under-five children. Methods Data on causes of death for 1972-74, 1982-84, 1992-94, 2002-04 were taken from existing HDSS publications and database. Physicians’ assigned causes of death were based on narratives by lay health worker till 1994 and later by verbal autopsy. Cause Specific Mortality Fractions (CSMF and Cause Specific Mortality Rates (CSMR per 1000 live births were calculated for neonatal ( Results The CSMF of prematurity and sepsis was 32% and 17.6% during neonatal period in 2002-04. The share of infections in all childhood deaths decreased from 55.2% in 1972-74 to 43.6% in 2002-04. All major causes of mortality (malnutrition, diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infection except injuries showed a steep decline among children and seem to have plateued in last decade. Most of disease specific public health interventions were launched in mid eighties. . Girls reported significantly higher mortality rates for prematurity (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01-2.29; diarrhea (2.29; 1.59 – 3.29, and malnutrition (3.37; 2.05 – 5.53. Conclusions The findings of the study point out to the need to move away from disease-specific to a comprehensive approach and to address gender inequity in child survival through socio-behavioural approaches.

  14. Age-related differences in mechanism, cause, and location of trauma deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Rikke; Thomsen, Annemarie Bondegaard; Theilade, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma death has traditionally been described as primarily occurring in young men exposed to penetrating trauma or road traffic accidents. The epidemiology of trauma fatalities in Europe may change as a result of the increasing proportion of elderly patients. The goal of this study wa...

  15. Blockage of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillation causes cell death in intraerythrocitic Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Masahiro Enomoto

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the world's most important infectious diseases and is responsible for enormous mortality and morbidity. Resistance to antimalarial drugs is a challenging problem in malaria control. Clinical malaria is associated with the proliferation and development of Plasmodium parasites in human erythrocytes. Especially, the development into the mature forms (trophozoite and schizont of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum causes severe malaria symptoms due to a distinctive property, sequestration which is not shared by any other human malaria. Ca(2+ is well known to be a highly versatile intracellular messenger that regulates many different cellular processes. Cytosolic Ca(2+ increases evoked by extracellular stimuli are often observed in the form of oscillating Ca(2+ spikes (Ca(2+ oscillation in eukaryotic cells. However, in lower eukaryotic and plant cells the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+ oscillation are poorly understood. Here, we showed the observation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphospate (IP(3-dependent spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in P. falciparum without any exogenous extracellular stimulation by using live cell fluorescence Ca(2+ imaging. Intraerythrocytic P. falciparum exhibited stage-specific Ca(2+ oscillations in ring form and trophozoite stages which were blocked by IP(3 receptor inhibitor, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB. Analyses of parasitaemia and parasite size and electron micrograph of 2-APB-treated P. falciparum revealed that 2-APB severely obstructed the intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in cell death of the parasites. Furthermore, we confirmed the similar lethal effect of 2-APB on the chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum. To our best knowledge, we for the first time showed the existence of the spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in Plasmodium species and clearly demonstrated that IP(3-dependent spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillation in P. falciparum is critical for the development

  16. Postoperative medical complications are the main cause of early death after emergency surgery for colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L.H.; Bulow, S.; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2008-01-01

    . The strongest risk factor for early death was postoperative medical complications (cardiopulmonary, renal, thromboembolic and infectious), with an odds ratio of 11.7 (95 percent confidence interval 8.8 to 15.5). Such complications occurred in 24.4 per cent of patients, of whom 57.8 per cent died. Other...

  17. Sudden cardiac death in multiple sclerosis caused by active demyelination of the medulla oblongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Kusters, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is not uncommon in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is related to the involvement of the vegetative areas of cardiac innervations in the medulla oblongata. It has been suggested that this may contribute to the occurrence of sudden death in MS. In this case report, we

  18. CONTRAST ENHANCED CT UNVEILED GIANT RASMUSSEN’S ANEURYSM: A RARE COMPLICATION AND CAUSE OF DEATH IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen’s aneurysm is a rare complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. Often the aneurysm ruptures in the bronchial tree causing massive hemoptysis resulting in death. We are reporting a case of partially thrombosed giant Rasmussen’s aneurysm which arose in the vicinity of a tuberculous cavity along with empyema necessitans. Unfortunately the patient died of massive hemoptysis within two days of his diagnosis.

  19. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; PIQUERO, ALEX R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between criminal conduct and mortality rates in the Netherlands using data from the Criminal Careers and Life Course Study, which traces the life course and criminal careers of 4,615 males and females convict...

  20. Suicides, homicides, accidents, and other external causes of death among blacks and whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Sonderman

    Full Text Available Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89, current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17, and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02 had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57 and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99. Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76; however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings

  1. Investigation of final causes of death in 5360 deceased patients within a teaching hospital in Isfahan, Iran

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    Zahra Tolou-Ghamari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To increase quality of care for critically ill patients admitted to hospitals, understanding various causes of death could provide better quality of care. In this study, medical records of 5360 deceased patientswere reviewed with reference to the mortality reports.A total of 2019 deceased females and 3341deceased males were studied from 2011 to 2013. Neurologic disorders could be categorized as the highest cause of mortality report (25%. Pulmonary, gastrointestinal and heart diseases could be expressed as 17%, 17% and 15% of death episodes respectively. Stroke caused mortality among neurologic disorders in 35% at the minimum age of 27 and maximum age of 94 years old. To prevent worse outcome in critically ill patients admitted to hospital, quality of care related to neurological, pulmonary, heart and gastrointestinal disorders was suggested to be upgrading. To avoid financial burden to the family of deceased related to population that stayed more than a month in hospital, further study is recommended in advance.

  2. Advantage of affinity histochemistry combined with histology to investigate death causes: indications from sample cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Stefano; DeFraia, Beatrice; Romagnoli, Paolo; Bonelli, Aurelio

    2011-11-01

    Mast cell histochemistry has been proposed in addition to classic histological methods to estimate the course of traumatic events before and after death. We have addressed the utility of this approach on nine victims of different types of trauma. Sections of wounded skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and with fluorescent avidin to tag mast cells. Mast cell numbers were evaluated by both direct and digitalized counts. Intact skin was used as control. The results on mast cells implemented the findings upon hematoxylin and eosin stain and helped to put the wounds and death in chronological sequence. Digitalized morphometry allowed to reduce intra- and inter-observer variation. We conclude that combined histological and histochemical analyses can be of practical use in forensic pathology, that a preliminary setting of the reference values is needed for each laboratory, and that image analysis can be of help for the quantification of the results.

  3. The cause of P.I. Tchaikovsky's (1840-1893) death: cholera, suicide, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, Pavle

    2010-01-01

    The death of P. I. Tchaikovsky (1840 - 1893) excites imagination even today. According to the "official scenario", Tchaikovsky had suffered from abdominal colic before being infected with cholera. On 2 November 1893, he drank a glass of unboiled water. A few hours later, he had diarrhoea and started vomiting. The following day anuria occured. He lost consciousness and died on 6 November (or on 25 Oktober according to the Russian Julian calendar). Soon after composer's death, rumors of forced suicide began to circulate. Based on the opinion of the musicologist Alexandra Orlova, the main reason for the composer's tragic fate lies in his homosexual inclination. The author of this article, after examining various sources and arguments, concludes that P. I. Tchaikovsky died of cholera.

  4. Death caused by heat stroke: Case report

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    Savić Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heat stroke is the most dangerous among numerous disorders caused by elevated environmental temperature. It is characterized by an increased body temperature of over 40°C, the dysfunction of the central nervous system and the development of multiple organ failure. The aim of this paper was to highlight problems in the clinical and post-mortal diagnosis of fatal heat stroke. Case Outline. A 20-year-old male was found unconscious on the street; on admission at the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, he was in a coma. The body temperature of 40°C was maintained despite the applied therapy, meningeal signs were negative, tachycardia with gallop rhythm, hypotension, bleeding from the nose and mouth, and presence of skin bruises. Laboratory findings: highly elevated LDH and creatine kinase, elevated serum creatinine, AST, and signs of DIC. Lethal outcome occurred 6 hours after admission, and the case remained clinically unsolved. Autopsy showed signs of hemorrhagic diathesis, brain and pulmonary edema, and microscopic examination revealed general congestion, internal bleeding in various organs, cerebral edema, massive blood aspiration and pulmonary edema. Toxicological and bacteriological examinations were negative. Based on these findings and subsequently obtained data on the conditions at the workplace where the young man had a part-time job, it was concluded that the violent death was caused by heat stroke. Conclusion. Since heat stroke is associated with a high mortality rate and high incidence of serious and permanent organ damage in survivors, it is important to make the diagnosis of heat stroke as quickly as possible and apply appropriate treatment. Misdiagnosis of heat stroke, and consequently inadequate treatment, with a potential fatal outcome for the patient, can be the reason for blaming doctors for the legal offense of medical malpractice in failing to administer first aid.

  5. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by

  6. Rupture of an ascending aortic aneurysm as a cause of sudden death

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Cristielle Peres; Petrini, Carla Andrade; Araújo, Ramon Souza Goes; Lima, Luiz Guilherme Cernaglia Aureliano; Picciarelli de Lima, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    An 84-year-old female patient was brought to the emergency department in cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers were performed but were unsuccessful. The patient had a past medical history of systemic arterial hypertension with target-organ lesions, including stroke and myocardial infarction. The autopsy was carried out, and the most striking finding was cardiac tamponade due to the rupture of an ascending aortic aneurysm at the site of a complex atheromatous plaque. Rupture is the most serious complication of a thoracic aneurysm and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of sudden death. PMID:27818955

  7. Causes of death in patients ≥75 years of age with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Nuccia; Savonitto, Stefano; Murena, Ernesto; Antonicelli, Roberto; Piovaccari, Giancarlo; Tucci, Daniele; Tamburino, Corrado; Fontanelli, Alessandro; Bolognese, Leonardo; Menozzi, Mila; Cavallini, Claudio; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Piscione, Federico; Steffenino, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano

    2013-07-01

    The causes of death within 1 year of hospital admission in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes are ill defined, particularly in patients aged ≥75 years. From January 2008 through May 2010, we enrolled 645 patients aged ≥75 years with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: 313 in a randomized trial comparing an early aggressive versus an initially conservative approach, and 332, excluded from the trial for specific reasons, in a parallel registry. Each death occurring during 1 year of follow-up was adjudicated by an independent committee. The mean age was 82 years in both study cohorts, and 53% were men. By the end of the follow-up period (median 369 days, interquartile range 345 to 391), 120 patients (18.6%) had died. The mortality was significantly greater in the registry (23.8% vs 13.1%, p = 0.001). The deaths were classified as cardiac in 94% of the cases during the index admission and 68% of the cases during the follow-up period. Eighty-six percent of the cardiac deaths were of ischemic origin. In a multivariate logistic regression model that included the variables present on admission in the whole study population, the ejection fraction (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 0.97; p segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, most deaths in patients aged ≥75 years have a cardiac origin, mostly owing to myocardial ischemia.

  8. Postmortem diagnosis of infectious heart diseases: A mystifying cause of Sudden Infant Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaloul, Imed; Riabi, Samira; Evans, Mark; Hunter, Timothy; Huber, Sally; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2016-05-01

    Sudden infant death (SID) is an unresolved problem of high relevance and previous studies have indicated a role of viral heart infections. The diagnosis remains difficult in clinical practice using routine diagnostic tests and must be substantially improved. A prospective study based on post-mortem samples from SID victims whose heart disease was not clinically recognized was conducted for 4 years in a Tunisian University Hospital. Pediatric cases of unnatural death served as controls. Both SID victims and controls were investigated for possible coxsackievirus-B (CV-B) infection in heart tissue. During the study period, 39 cases with a male predominance (77%) were reported. There was no positive family history of coronary artery disease among the victims. In 35 cases (90%), low birth weight and/or critical development period were reported. All SID victims had complained of mild fever and insomnia for a few days preceding death, which required infectious laboratory investigations marked with an elevated white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The cardiac biomarkers were also elevated. The histopathological investigations of the heart tissue samples revealed signs of myocardial and pericardial inflammation. Enterovirus was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR from myocardial samples from 6 cases (15.3%) having myocarditis and 3 cases (7.7%) having perimyocarditis. The current study is of great interest and is aimed at urging health professionals to adopt systematically long intensive heart care in infants with underlying vulnerability as well as new diagnostic approaches including histopathology complemented with IHC and molecular pathology.

  9. Swedish forensic data 1992-2009 suggest hydrogen cyanide as an important cause of death in fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamyr, Kristin; Thelander, Gunilla; Ernstgård, Lena; Ahlner, Johan; Johanson, Gunnar

    2012-02-01

    Between 60 and 80% of all deaths related to fire are attributed to toxic fumes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly thought to be the major cause. However, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is also formed. Still, the exact contribution of HCN to fire-related fatalities is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of HCN in relation to CO as a cause of death in fire victims. Data on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood cyanide from deceased fire victims in the period 1992-2009 were collected from two Swedish nationwide forensic databases (ToxBase and RättsBase). The databases contain data on COHb and/or cyanide from 2303 fire victims, whereof 816 on both COHb and cyanide. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Seventeen percent of the victims had lethal or life-threatening blood cyanide levels (>1 µg/g) and 32% had lethal COHb levels (>50% COHb). Over 31% had cyanide levels above 0.5 µg/g, an indication of significant HCN exposure. The percentages may be underestimates, as cyanide is quickly eliminated in blood also after death. Our results support the notion that HCN contributes more to the cause of death among fire victims than previously thought.

  10. Causes of death among Danish HIV patients compared with population controls in the period 1995-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kronborg, G; Larsen, carsten schade;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the mortality and causes of death in human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) patients with the background population. METHODS: All adult HIV patients treated in Danish HIV centers from 1995 to 2008 and 14 controls for each HIV patient were included. Age-adjusted mortality rates...... (MR) and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using direct standardization and Poisson regression analyses. Up to four contributory causes of death for each person were included in analyses of cause-specific MR. RESULTS: A total of 5,137 HIV patients and 71,918 controls were followed for 37...... did not change substantially from 6.9 (95 % CI 3.8-12.5) to 5.6 (95 % CI 3.6-8.8). The MR of unnatural causes declined from 6.9 (95 % CI 3.8-12.5) to 2.7 (95 % CI 1.4-5.1). The MRR of infections declined from 46.6 (95 % CI 19.6-110.9) to 3.3 (95 % CI 1.6-6.6). The MRR of other natural causes of death...

  11. Trends in Overall Mortality, and Timing and Cause of Death among Extremely Preterm Infants near the Limit of Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sein; Ahn, So Yoon; Park, Won Soon

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the trends in mortality, as well as in the timing and cause of death, among extremely preterm infants at the limit of viability, and thus to identify the clinical factors that contribute to decreased mortality. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 382 infants born at 23–26 weeks’ gestation; 124 of the infants were born between 2001 and 2005 (period I) and 258 were born between 2006 and 2011 (period II). We stratified the infants into two subgroups–“23–24 weeks” and “25–26 weeks”–and retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and mortality in each group, as well as the timing and cause of death. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify the clinical factors associated with mortality. Results The overall mortality rate in period II was 16.7% (43/258), which was significantly lower than that in period I (30.6%; 38/124). For overall cause of death, there were significantly fewer deaths due to sepsis (2.4% [6/258] vs. 8.1% [10/124], respectively) and air-leak syndrome (0.8% [2/258] vs. 4.8% (6/124), respectively) during period II than during period I. Among the clinical factors of time period, 1-and 5-min Apgar score, antenatal steroid identified significant by univariate analyses. 5-min Apgar score and antenatal steroid use were significantly associated with mortality in multivariate analyses. Conclusion Improved mortality rate attributable to fewer deaths due to sepsis and air leak syndrome in the infants with 23–26 weeks’ gestation was associated with higher 5-minute Apgar score and more antenatal steroid use. PMID:28114330

  12. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Wang, Haidong; Lozano, Rafael; Davis, Adrian; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Vollset, Stein Emil; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abdalla, Safa; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abuabara, Katrina E.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfi Na; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Aernlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Al Lami, Faris; Allebeck, Peter; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alviz-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asad, Majed Masoud; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed Omar; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borges, Guilherme; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bui, Linh Ngoc; Bukhman, Gene; Burch, Michael; Nonato, Ismael Ricardo Campos; Carabin, Helesne; Cardenas, Rosario; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catala-Lopez, Ferrn; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona C.; Che, Xuan; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yingyao; Chen, Jian Sheng; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh; Diaz-Ortega, Jose-Luis; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fuerst, Thomas; Fahimi, Saman; Fahrion, Anna S.; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Fra Paleo, Urbano; Franklin, Richard C.; Futran, Neal D.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco Armando; Garcia, Ana Cristina; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Gilmour, Stuart; Abdelmageem, Ibrahim; Ginawi, Mohamed; Giroud, Maurice; Glaser, Elizabeth L.; Goenka, Shifalika; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Guinovart, Caterina; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gowda, Hube N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Greenwell, K. Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harewood, Heather; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Pi, Ileana B. Heredia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huffman, Mark D.; Hughes, Andrew J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jassal, Simerjot; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Jonathan; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Sowarta; Kotagal, Meera; Kravchenko, Michael A.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Krueger, Hans; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Kwan, Gene F.; Kyu, Hmwe; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liddell, Chelsea; Lim, Stephen S.; de Lima, Graca Maria Ferreira; Lind, Maggie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Mackay, Mark T.; MacLachlan, Jennifer H.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad Taufi Q.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopolous, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGrath, John J.; Mckay, Abigail C.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh K.; Mock, Charles N.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Monis, Jonathan de la Cruz; Hernandez, Julio C. Montaez; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moore, Ami R.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E.; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Moyer, Madeline L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murray, Joseph; Mustapha, Adetoun; Naghavi, Paria; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nasher, Jamal; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G.; Neuhouser, Marian; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newcomb, Polly A.; Newman, Lori; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Nguyen, Grant; Nhung Thi Trang Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Odell, Shaun; O'Donnell, Martin; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ortblad, Katrina F.; Ortiz, Alberto; Otayza, Maria Lourdes K.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin; Panniyammakal, Jeemon; Papachristou, Christina; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris; Pearce, Neil; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Pereira, David M.; Peresson, Sophie C.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P.; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Bryan K.; Phillips, David E.; Phillips, Michael R.; Plass, Dietrich; Piel, Frederic Bernard; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rabito, Felicia; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad U. R.; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, Bayard; Roberts, D. Allen; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Rowley, Jane Tf; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sambandam, Sankar; Soreide, Kjetil; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sahle, Berhe Weldearegawi; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Samonte, Genesis May J.; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete; Scarborough, Peter; Schoettker, Ben; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schumacher, Austin E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shepard, Donald S.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Andrea P.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Sioson, Edgar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; So, Samuel; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stanaway, Jeff Rey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Steenland, Kyle; Stein, Claudia; Steiner, Caitlyn; Stevens, Antony; Stoeckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tan, Feng; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Ao, Braden Te; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Templin, Tara; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tirschwell, David L.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Trillini, Matias; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Ubeda, Clotilde; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vallely, Andrew J.; van de Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Vavilala, Monica S.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati Suryati; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Wenzhi, Wang; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan R.; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wong, John Q.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yang C.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zamakhshary, Mohammed Fouad; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiao Nong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specifi c all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries betwe

  13. Aplastic anemia as a cause of death in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopecky, Jindrich; Priester, Peter; Slovacek, Ladislav; Petera, Jiri; Macingova, Zuzana [Dept. of Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Charles Univ. Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Kopecky, Otakar [Clinical Oncology, Regional Hospital Nachod (Czech Republic)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Standard treatment of glioblastoma multiforme consists of postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide, followed by a 6-month chemotherapy. Serious hematologic complications are rarely reported. Case Report and Results: The authors present the case of a 61-year-old female patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with external-beam radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide. After completion of treatment, the patient developed symptoms of serious aplastic anemia that eventually led to death due to prolonged neutro- and thrombocytopenia followed by infectious complications. Conclusion: Lethal complications following temozolomide are, per se, extremely rare, however, a total of four other cases of aplastic anemia have been reported in the literature so far. (orig.)

  14. Place and cause of death in centenarians: a population-based observational study in England, 2001 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Evans

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Centenarians are a rapidly growing demographic group worldwide, yet their health and social care needs are seldom considered. This study aims to examine trends in place of death and associations for centenarians in England over 10 years to consider policy implications of extreme longevity.This is a population-based observational study using death registration data linked with area-level indices of multiple deprivations for people aged ≥100 years who died 2001 to 2010 in England, compared with those dying at ages 80-99. We used linear regression to examine the time trends in number of deaths and place of death, and Poisson regression to evaluate factors associated with centenarians' place of death. The cohort totalled 35,867 people with a median age at death of 101 years (range: 100-115 years. Centenarian deaths increased 56% (95% CI 53.8%-57.4% in 10 years. Most died in a care home with (26.7%, 95% CI 26.3%-27.2% or without nursing (34.5%, 95% CI 34.0%-35.0% or in hospital (27.2%, 95% CI 26.7%-27.6%. The proportion of deaths in nursing homes decreased over 10 years (-0.36% annually, 95% CI -0.63% to -0.09%, p = 0.014, while hospital deaths changed little (0.25% annually, 95% CI -0.06% to 0.57%, p = 0.09. Dying with frailty was common with "old age" stated in 75.6% of death certifications. Centenarians were more likely to die of pneumonia (e.g., 17.7% [95% CI 17.3%-18.1%] versus 6.0% [5.9%-6.0%] for those aged 80-84 years and old age/frailty (28.1% [27.6%-28.5%] versus 0.9% [0.9%-0.9%] for those aged 80-84 years and less likely to die of cancer (4.4% [4.2%-4.6%] versus 24.5% [24.6%-25.4%] for those aged 80-84 years and ischemic heart disease (8.6% [8.3%-8.9%] versus 19.0% [18.9%-19.0%] for those aged 80-84 years than were younger elderly patients. More care home beds available per 1,000 population were associated with fewer deaths in hospital (PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.98-0.99, p<0.001.Centenarians are more likely to have causes of death certified as

  15. [Induction mechanism of shock: applying the etiology in judgment of the cause of death in forensic practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriyuki

    2004-09-01

    In the field of forensic medicine, shock has been identified as a cause of death owing to various kinds of exogenous insults. The etiology and pathogenesis of shock cannot be explained well by the usual gross appearance in medicolegal autopsies, because it is now generally established that the shock is a functional reaction of the vascular system to bodily injury, and that several organs are secondarily impaired during shock. Thus it seemed to forensic pathologists that these morphological changes in several organs after shock did not reveal any significant differences among the causes of death. We approached to the induction mechanism of shock, and we investigated what etiology induced these morphological changes after shock in order to identify shock as the cause of death. It is now generally accepted that the kidney is a target organ of shock, so we mainly investigated the cause of kidney disorder in a case of burn shock and hemorrhagic shock. 1. Consequences of bacterial translocation (BT) in the shock. The concept of BT indicates that the beginning of shock is induced by the loss of gut barrier function and consequent translocation of bacteria. In general, impaired gut barrier function can be caused either during the shock period by decreased intestinal blood flow and reduced oxygen delivery, resulting during reperfusion in a stage of increased intestinal blood flow, or at a later stage again by reduced flow. A variety of physiological stresses, such as trauma, hemorrhage, thermal injury, surgical operation, various kinds of drags and mental stress, have been shown to cause failure of the gut mucosal barrier, with translocation of bacteria/endotoxin from the gastrointestinal into the mesenteric lymph nodes, and translocation into remote organs and systemic circulation. 2. Burn shock. We designed to evaluate the BT in a burn shock rat model (following 20% full-thickness scald injury). The p38 MAPK pathway is an important stress-responsive signal molecule

  16. CONTRAST ENHANCED CT UNVEILED GIANT RASMUSSEN’S ANEURYSM: A RARE COMPLICATION AND CAUSE OF DEATH IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen’s aneurysm is a rare complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. Often the aneurysm ruptures in the bronchial tree causing massive hemoptysis resulting in death. We are reporting a case of partially thrombosed giant Rasmussen’s aneurysm which arose in the vicinity of a tuberculous cavity along with empyema necessitans. Unfortunately the patient died of massive hemoptysis within two days of his diagnosis.

  17. Long-Term Follow-Up of Individuals Undergoing Sex-Reassignment Surgery: Somatic Morbidity and Cause of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Rikke Kildevæld; Hald, Gert Martin; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies of mortality and somatic well-being after sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) of transsexual individuals are equivocal. Accordingly, the present study investigated mortality and somatic morbidity using a sample of transsexual individuals who comprised 98% (n = 104) of all surgically reassigned transsexual individuals in Denmark. Aims To investigate somatic morbidity before and after SRS and cause of death and its relation to somatic morbidity after SRS in Danish individuals who underwent SRS from 1978 through 2010. Methods Somatic morbidity and mortality in 104 sex-reassigned individuals were identified retrospectively by data from the Danish National Health Register and the Cause of Death Register. Main Outcome Measures Somatic morbidity and cause of death. Results Overall, 19.2% of the sample were registered with somatic morbidity before SRS and 23.1% after SRS (P = not significant). In total, 8.6% had somatic morbidity before and after SRS. The most common diagnostic category was cardiovascular disease, affecting 18 individuals, 9 before and 14 after SRS, and 5 of those 14 who were affected after SRS had cardiovascular disease before and after SRS. Ten individuals died after SRS at an average age of 53.5 ± 7.9 years (male to female) and 53.5 ± 7.3 years (female to male). Conclusion Of 98% of all Danish transsexuals who officially underwent SRS from 1978 through 2010, one in three had somatic morbidity and approximately 1 in 10 had died. No significant differences in somatic morbidity or mortality were found between male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Despite the young average age at death and the relatively larger number of individuals with somatic morbidity, the present study design does not allow for determination of casual relations between, for example, specific types of hormonal or surgical treatment received and somatic morbidity and mortality. PMID:26944779

  18. Verbal autopsy interpretation: a comparative analysis of the InterVA model versus physician review in determining causes of death in the Nairobi DSS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Developing countries generally lack complete vital registration systems that can produce cause of death information for health planning in their populations. As an alternative, verbal autopsy (VA) - the process of interviewing family members or caregivers on the circumstances leading to death - is often used by Demographic Surveillance Systems to generate cause of death data. Physician review (PR) is the most common method of interpreting VA, but this method is a time- and...

  19. The pathology of embryo death caused by the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium in Drosophila nebulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraty Joseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited bacteria that kill male offspring, male-killers, are known to be common in insects, but little is understood about the mechanisms used by male-killing bacteria to kill males. In this paper we describe the tempo and changes that occur during male-killing by Spiroplasma bacteria in the host Drosophila nebulosa. Results Spiroplasma infected D. nebulosa males were developmentally retarded from 6–8 h into embryonic development at 25°C, and arrested at between stages 12 and 13 of embryogenesis (10–12 h. Dying males were characterized by a failure to form segments, and ultimately disintegration of the normal oval embryonic shape. Prior to death, dying males exhibited widespread apoptosis, as testified by TUNEL staining. Conclusion The Spiroplasma kills male Drosophila in a narrow developmental period, shortly after the formation of the host dosage compensation complex that is required for male-killing. Male death is preceded by widespread apoptosis, but it is uncertain if this is primary or secondary apoptosis.

  20. Cause of Death and the Quest for Meaning after the Loss of a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Currier, Joseph M.; Roberts, Kailey; Jordan, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns of making meaning among 155 parents whose children died from a variety of violent and non-violent causes. Findings indicated 53% of violent loss survivors could not make sense of their loss, as compared to 32% of non-violent loss survivors. Overall, there was overlap in sense-making strategies across different causes…

  1. Unusual cause of sudden cardiac death : Basophilic degeneration of coronary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessurun, GAJ; Tio, RA; Ribbert, LSM; Willemse, F; Boonstra, PW; Crijns, HJGM

    1996-01-01

    Basophilic or mucoid degeneration of the intima in the coronary arteries is an extremely rare cause of premature atherosclerosis. An unusual case of fatal basophilic degeneration of the coronary arteries 142 days after delivery is reported. (C) 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. GAMBARAN PENYEBAB KEMATIAN DI KABUPATEN GOWA PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN TAHUN 2011 (Description of Causes of Death in Gowa District South Sulawesi Province in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kristina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research of mortality was essential to provide basic information on the status of population health. Indonesia does not have a standart role for recording and reporting cause of death for every case that occurs in hospital or at home. Objective: determinan cause of death in MCCD in Gowa regency in 2011. Methods: Training and socialitation to medical doctors in every hospital how to fill the Information and Cause of Death Form ICD-10. The source information to fill MCCD was medical record and autopsi verbal questionnaire. Autopsi verbal was collected by nurse and paramedics then the doctors was resumed and cause of death code in MCCD. The analyses data was underlying causes of death based on ICD 10. Results: There are 2.813 mortality in Gowa regency in 2011 year. The place of mortality most at home (87,6% and 12,4% only in health facility. The mortality was rised by increasing of age. The most of mortality by age group is + 65 years (47,2%. The main of base on 6 groups cause of death in Gowa regency is non communicable deseases (54,1%. There are transition of epidemiology cause of death in Gowa regency from communicable disease to non communicable disease. The main casue of death is stroke (13,6%. Conclusions: Recording and reporting system on UCoD in Gowa regency is developed but not optimal, because the result was still underestimate of mortality rate. The most mortality by sex is man and by place of death is at home. The main cause of death in Gowa regency is stroke. Recommendations: need to increase non-communicable disease control programs, especially stroke to reduce deaths from stroke.

  3. Approximations for Estimating Change in Life Expectancy Attributable to Air Pollution in Relation to Multiple Causes of Death Using a Cause Modified Life Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, David M; Judek, Stan; Brand, Kevin; Burnett, Richard T; Shin, Hwashin H

    2015-08-01

    There is considerable debate as to the most appropriate metric for characterizing the mortality impacts of air pollution. Life expectancy has been advocated as an informative measure. Although the life-table calculus is relatively straightforward, it becomes increasingly cumbersome when repeated over large numbers of geographic areas and for multiple causes of death. Two simplifying assumptions were evaluated: linearity of the relation between excess rate ratio and change in life expectancy, and additivity of cause-specific life-table calculations. We employed excess rate ratios linking PM2.5 and mortality from cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, and lung cancer derived from a meta-analysis of worldwide cohort studies. As a sensitivity analysis, we employed an integrated exposure response function based on the observed risk of PM2.5 over a wide range of concentrations from ambient exposure, indoor exposure, second-hand smoke, and personal smoking. Impacts were estimated in relation to a change in PM2.5 from 19.5 μg/m(3) estimated for Toronto to an estimated natural background concentration of 1.8 μg/m(3) . Estimated changes in life expectancy varied linearly with excess rate ratios, but at higher values the relationship was more accurately represented as a nonlinear function. Changes in life expectancy attributed to specific causes of death were additive with maximum error of 10%. Results were sensitive to assumptions about the air pollution concentration below which effects on mortality were not quantified. We have demonstrated valid approximations comprising expression of change in life expectancy as a function of excess mortality and summation across multiple causes of death.

  4. [The cause of death of Theo van Gogh (1857-1891)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuil, Piet H A

    2009-01-01

    In 1992 Theo van Gogh's medical files from the Willem Arntsz Huis, a psychiatric centre in Utrecht, the Netherlands, were made available. A study based on two copies of these files was published in this journal earlier. While reviewing the archives, the author noticed a third copy which included an extra (last) page that was missing in the other two copies. This page provided medical information regarding Theo van Gogh's final days. Based on this new information the present article corrects some misconceptions about his death. For example, it is commonly thought that Theo had uraemia or, like his brother Vincent the painter (1853-1890), committed suicide. This new information demonstrates that this is not the case. The extra page, dated 26 January 1891, shows that on the two days before he died Theo suffered two epileptic fits, most probably symptomatic to his dementia paralytica. After the second fit he did not regain consciousness. Heartbeat and respiration gradually weakened and he passed away on January 25th at eleven thirty P.M. Other symptoms mentioned were vomiting, fever and early signs of decubitus. The family did not give permission for a post-mortem.

  5. 20-year follow-up study of Danish HHT patients-survival and causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anette; Aagaard, Katrine Saldern; Tørring, Pernille Mathiesen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inheritable disorder, with a wide variety of clinical manifestations due to presence of multiple arteriovenous manifestations. The most common mutations are found in HHT1 (ENG) and HHT2 (ACVRL1) patients, causing alterations...... patients with the whole spectrum of severity, independent of need for medical care. Our data also suggest that HHT patients to a lesser degree than the background population are affected by cancer....

  6. Sudden cardiac death in adults: causes, incidence and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    Many nurses will be familiar with the unexpected death of an adult patient following a sudden, life-threatening cardiac event. It is a situation that demands sensitive nursing care and skilled interventions to provide a foundation for recovery and promote healthy bereavement. This article examines the causes and incidence of sudden cardiac death in adults. Possible reactions of those who are suddenly bereaved are described and immediate care interventions aimed at dealing with the grief process are discussed. The article concludes by identifying ways in which the incidence of sudden cardiac death may be reduced.

  7. Cause-Specific Deaths in Non-Dialysis-Dependent CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Jolly, Stacey E; Nally, Joseph V

    2015-10-01

    CKD is associated with higher risk of death, but details regarding differences in cause-specific death in CKD are unclear. We examined the leading causes of death among a non-dialysis-dependent CKD population using an electronic medical record-based CKD registry in a large healthcare system and the Ohio Department of Health mortality files. We included 33,478 white and 5042 black patients with CKD who resided in Ohio between January 2005 and September 2009 and had two measurements of eGFRCauses of death (before ESRD) were classified into cardiovascular, malignancy, and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy diseases and non-disease-related causes. During a median follow-up of 2.3 years, 6661 of 38,520 patients (17%) with CKD died. Cardiovascular diseases (34.7%) and malignant neoplasms (31.8%) were the leading causes of death, with malignancy-related deaths more common among those with earlier stages of kidney disease. After adjusting for covariates, each 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) decline in eGFR was associated with higher risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 1.12) and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy diseases (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.14) but not to malignancy. In the adjusted models, blacks had overall-mortality hazard ratios similar to those of whites but higher hazard ratios for cardiovascular deaths. Further studies to confirm these findings and explain the mechanisms for differences are warranted. In addition to lowering cardiovascular burden in CKD, efforts to target known risk factors for cancer at the population level are needed.

  8. Study of causes and complications of intra uterine fetal death (IUFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Patel

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Anemia, PIH, accidental haemorrhage were leading causes of IUFD. Majority of women who had IUFD were emergency admission who had not received adequate antenatal care. A significant proportion of IUFD is preventable by health education to patients and community for regular antenatal care, about warning signs during antenatal period, hospital delivery and early referral. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 931-935

  9. Quill injury - cause od death of captive indian crested porcupine(Hystrix indica, Kerr, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Švara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica is a member of the family of Old World porcupines (Hystricidae. Its body is covered with multiple layers of quills, which serve for warning and attack if animal is threatened. However, the literature data on injuries caused by Indian crested porcupine are absent. We describe pathomorphological lesions in an Indian crested porcupine from the Ljubljana Zoo, which died after a fight with a younger male that caused a perforative quill injury of the thoracic wall, followed by septicaemia. Macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological findings were detailed

  10. Suicidal death caused by electrocution: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by electrocution are extremly rare in our country. In these cases, specific or characteristic external lesions caused through contact with conductors at the sites of entry and exit of the current, as well as general autopsy findings, and excluding the other possible causes of death, are important to elucidate them. Dilema if death was sucidal, homicidal or accidental in manner, could be solved through good police investigation, and properly explained circumstantial events. Herein, we reported two cases of suicidal deaths, caused by electrocution. In the first case, it was a male, age of 32, who wraped the electrical cord around his rists, and kiled himself by plugging it in. In second case, it was a female, age of 46, abused by her husband, who commited suicide by putting the switched hear-dryer into the water in bathtube.

  11. Systematization of the Mechanism by Which Plasma Irradiation Causes Cell Growth and Tumor Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    New methods and technologies have improved minimally invasive surgical treatment and saved numerous patients. Recently, plasma irradiation has been demonstrated that might be useful in medical field and the plasma irradiation device is expected to become practically applicable. Mild plasma coagulator showed some advantages such as hemostasis and adhesion reduction in experimental animal model, but the mechanism of plasma irradiation remains unclear. Our study group aim to clarify the mechanism of plasma irradiation effects, mainly focusing on oxidative stress using cultured cell lines and small animal model. First, a study using cultured cell lines showed that the culture medium that was activated by plasma irradiation (we called this kind of medium as ``PAM'' -plasma activated medium-) induced tumor cell death. Although this effect was mainly found to be due to hydrogen peroxide, the remaining portion was considered as the specific effect of the plasma irradiation and we are now studying focusing on this effect. Second, we established a mouse intra-peritoneal adhesion model and checked biological reaction that occurred in the adhesion part. Histopathological study showed inflammatory cells infiltration into adhesion part and the expression of PTX3 that might involve tissue repair around adhesion part. We also confirmed that cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 might be useful as a marker of adhesion formation in this model. Applying ``PAM'' or mild plasma irradiation in this model, we examine the effects of plasma on inflamed cells. The samples in these experiments would be applied to targeted proteomics analysis, and we aim to demonstrate the systematization of the cell's reaction by plasma irradiation.

  12. Mortality by Cause of Death Among Immigrants and Natives in a South European Country: The Case of Greece, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine for the first time in Greece mortality by cause of death among immigrants. The analysis makes use of vital registration statistics for 2010-2012 and census data for 2011; standardised mortality ratios are estimated for four distinct groups: natives, migrants from EU-27 (excluding Greece), other Europeans (mainly Albanians) and those from all other countries (mainly Asia/Africa). All immigrants seem to experience favourable mortality from neoplasms but higher mortality from external causes in comparison to Greeks. The results regarding cardiovascular diseases are mixed. Persons originating in Asian/African regions exhibit higher mortality from infectious diseases and TB. The findings highlight the specificities of immigrant mortality which stem from pre-existing conditions in the country of origin as well as from the adverse socio-economic environment in the country of destination. As immigrants experience some excessive 'avoidable' mortality implementation of appropriate measures should be a social policy priority.

  13. Congenital infantile myofibroma causing intrauterine death in a twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Yi Ling; Gould, Steve; Akinsola, S Adeyemi

    2011-12-01

    While infantile myofibromatosis is the most common mesenchymal tumour of infancy, only around 300 cases have been reported. The authors report a 33-year-old para 1 with an uncomplicated, dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy who was diagnosed with an intrauterine death of one twin at 36+5 weeks gestation. At caesarean section, a macerated male stillborn weighing 2.72 kg was delivered. Postmortem examination revealed a pedunculated lesion attached to the left shoulder and underlying muscle consistent with a congenital myofibroma. The cause of death was postulated to be haemorrhage from the tumour surface causing fetal anaemia.

  14. Survival and cause of death after traumatic spinal cord injury. A long-term epidemiological survey from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M;

    1997-01-01

    treatment and were rehabilitated at the centre for Spinal Cord Injured in Hornbaek, Denmark. At the end of the follow-up, 31st December 1992, 236 (197 men and 39 women) had died. The commonest causes of death were lung diseases, particularly pneumonia; suicide; and ischaemic heart disease. Among......Life expectancy among individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has remained lower than in the normal population, even with optimal medical management. But significant improvement has been achieved, as will be illustrated in this retrospective study of an unselected group of traumatic survivors...

  15. Expanded polyglutamines in Caenorhabditis elegans cause axonal abnormalities and severe dysfunction of PLM mechanosensory neurons without cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J A; Connolly, J B; Wellington, C; Hayden, M; Dausset, J; Neri, C

    2001-11-06

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the protein huntingtin (htt). HD pathogenesis appears to involve the production of mutated N-terminal htt, cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregation of htt, and abnormal activity of htt interactor proteins essential to neuronal survival. Before cell death, neuronal dysfunction may be an important step of HD pathogenesis. To explore polyQ-mediated neuronal toxicity, we expressed the first 57 amino acids of human htt containing normal [19 Gln residues (Glns)] and expanded (88 or 128 Glns) polyQ fused to fluorescent marker proteins in the six touch receptor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Expanded polyQ produced touch insensitivity in young adults. Noticeably, only 28 +/- 6% of animals with 128 Glns were touch sensitive in the tail, as mediated by the PLM neurons. Similar perinuclear deposits and faint nuclear accumulation of fusion proteins with 19, 88, and 128 Glns were observed. In contrast, significant deposits and morphological abnormalities in PLM cell axons were observed with expanded polyQ (128 Glns) and partially correlated with touch insensitivity. PLM cell death was not detected in young or old adults. These animals indicate that significant neuronal dysfunction without cell death may be induced by expanded polyQ and may correlate with axonal insults, and not cell body aggregates. These animals also provide a suitable model to perform in vivo suppression of polyQ-mediated neuronal dysfunction.

  16. [Sudden death of outdoor housed pigs caused by Clostridium novyi. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandowsky, A; Bodenthin, A; Seyboldt, C; Frölich, K

    2013-01-01

    In an outdoor pig-breeding unit of the Tierpark Arche Warder e. V. (Germany), 16 pigs of different age and sex died in October 2011. Necropsy findings revealed tympany, liver emphysema, subcutaneous oedema, haemopericardium, haemothorax, and intense gas bubble infiltrations in muscles. The stomachs were filled. The initial anaerobic bacteriological investigations gave negative results. In further analyses of tissue samples, the flagellin gene of C. novyi types A and B was detected using PCR. Based on the anatomical-pathological and bacteriological findings as well as PCR testing, a C. novyi infection was assumed to be the cause of the pig mortality.

  17. To Analyze the Old Hospitalization' s Disease and Cause of Death%老年住院患者病种和死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾颖婕; 刘芳; 孙莉; 王峰; 冯永林; 何敏慧

    2002-01-01

    Objective To know the old people's disease and cause of death at present. MethodCollected and analyzed 329 examples of old hospitalizations' main disease, and the 251 examples of oldhospitalizations' cause of the death in our hospital during 1999 ~ 2001. Result The main disease of oldhospitalization is the Alzheimers disease, brain blood- vascular system disease and cardiorascular systemdisease; the main cause of death of old patient is respiratory system disease, cardiovascular system diseaseand brain blood-vascular system disease, most of them are lunged infection. Conclusion It is an impor-tant task to strength on the work of the medical treatment and life nursing about the old people.

  18. Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varnik, Airi

    2011-01-29

    Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64) and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69) and intentional self-injury (X70-84). Methods Data for 2000-04\\/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000) or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland) was wide. \\'Other and unspecified drugs\\' (X64) were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61) ranked second. The X63 category (\\'other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system\\') was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 (\\'narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified\\') for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  19. Drug suicide: a sex-equal cause of death in 16 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheerder Gert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of international research on suicide by drug overdose as a preventable suicide method. Sex- and age-specific rates of suicide by drug self-poisoning (ICD-10, X60-64 and the distribution of drug types used in 16 European countries were studied, and compared with other self-poisoning methods (X65-69 and intentional self-injury (X70-84. Methods Data for 2000-04/05 were collected from national statistical offices. Age-adjusted suicide rates, and age and sex distributions, were calculated. Results No pronounced sex differences in drug self-poisoning rates were found, either in the aggregate data (males 1.6 and females 1.5 per 100,000 or within individual countries. Among the 16 countries, the range (from some 0.3 in Portugal to 5.0 in Finland was wide. 'Other and unspecified drugs' (X64 were recorded most frequently, with a range of 0.2-1.9, and accounted for more than 70% of deaths by drug overdose in France, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. Psychotropic drugs (X61 ranked second. The X63 category ('other drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system' was least frequently used. Finland showed low X64 and high X61 figures, Scotland had high levels of X62 ('narcotics and hallucinogens, not elsewhere classified' for both sexes, while England exceeded other countries in category X60. Risk was highest among the middle-aged everywhere except in Switzerland, where the elderly were most at risk. Conclusions Suicide by drug overdose is preventable. Intentional self-poisoning with drugs kills as many males as females. The considerable differences in patterns of self-poisoning found in the various European countries are relevant to national efforts to improve diagnostics of suicide and appropriate specific prevention. The fact that vast majority of drug-overdose suicides came under the category X64 refers to the need of more detailed ICD coding system for overdose suicides is needed to permit better design of suicide

  20. Causes of death after therapy for early stage Hodgkin's disease entered on EORTC protocols. EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Amar, M; Hayat, M; Meerwaldt, J H; Burgers, M; Carde, P; Somers, R; Noordijk, E M; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; Cosset, J M

    1990-11-01

    The risk of dying from different causes after Hodgkin's disease (HD) therapy has been quantified from a series of 1,449 patients with early stages included in four successive clinical trials conducted by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Lymphoma Cooperative Group since 1963. Overall, 240 patients died and the 15-year survival rate was 69% whereas the expected rate was 95%. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) technique was used to quantify excess deaths as a function of time since first therapy. At each interval, SMR was significantly increased, giving: 0-3 year, 8.86 (p less than 0.001); 4-6 year, 9.25 (p less than 0.001); 7-9 year, 7.08 (p less than 0.001); 10-12 year, 9.53 (p less than 0.001); 13-15 year, 4.37 (p less than 0.01); and 16+ years, 3.80 (p less than 0.05). While the proportion of deaths as a consequence of HD progression, treatment side-effect, and intercurrent disease decreased with time, that of second cancer and cardiac failure peaked during the 10-12 year post-treatment interval. After 15 years of follow-up, the risk of dying from causes other than HD continued to increase. These findings indicate that although probably cured from HD, patients are at higher risk for death than expected, a risk that might be a consequence of therapy.

  1. Verbal autopsy completion rate and factors associated with undetermined cause of death in a rural resource-poor setting of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliti Deodatus V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used tool to assign probable cause of death in areas with inadequate vital registration systems. Its uses in priority setting and health planning are well documented in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. However, there is a lack of data related to VA processing and completion rates in assigning causes of death in a community. There is also a lack of data on factors associated with undetermined causes of death documented in SSA. There is a need for such information for understanding the gaps in VA processing and better estimating disease burden. Objective The study's intent was to determine the completion rate of VA and factors associated with assigning undetermined causes of death in rural Tanzania. Methods A database of deaths reported from the Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2002 to 2007 was used. Completion rates were determined at the following stages of processing: 1 death identified; 2 VA interviews conducted; 3 VA forms submitted to physicians; 4 coding and assigning of cause of death. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with deaths coded as "undetermined." Results The completion rate of VA after identification of death and the VA interview ranged from 83% in 2002 and 89% in 2007. Ninety-four percent of deaths submitted to physicians were assigned a specific cause, with 31% of the causes coded as undetermined. Neonates and child deaths that occurred outside health facilities were associated with a high rate of undetermined classification (33%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.05, 1.67, p = 0.016. Respondents reporting high education levels were less likely to be associated with deaths that were classified as undetermined (24%, OR = 0.76, 95% CI (0.60, -0.96, p = 0.023. Being a child of the deceased compared to a partner (husband or wife was more likely to be associated with undetermined cause of death classification

  2. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  3. Audit of maternal mortality ratio and causes of maternal deaths in the largest maternity hospital in Cairo, Egypt (Kasr Al Aini) in 2008 and 2009: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Wael F; Ragab, Wael S; Aboulgheit, Samah S

    2013-09-01

    This study examined maternal deaths at Cairo University Maternity Hospital between January 2008 and December 2009. The aim was to calculate Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) as well as identify the causes and predisposing factors to maternal deaths. Data were collected from the files of the hospitalized pregnant women in the hospital. There were 38 maternal deaths and MMR was 79 per 100,000 live births for the two years examined. The main causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and cardiac arrest. Substandard medical care and the delay in seeking of medical advice were two contributing factors to maternal deaths recorded. The need for audit and publication of all obstetric hospitals MMR to compare and identify areas of improvements is recommended.

  4. What did Sun Yat-sen really die of? A re-assessment of his illness and the cause of his death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolf F Barth; Jie Chen

    2016-01-01

    This year is the 150th anniversary of the birth of Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866) and the 91st year following his death (March 12, 1925). It generally has been believed that the cause of his death was“liver cancer.”However, as indicated in the ofcial autopsy report, dated March 13, 1925, of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in Beijing, the cause of his death in reality was an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with direct extension to the liver and diaphragm as well as widespread metastases to the peritoneal cavity. This important piece of information seems to have never been reported in the English language literature, and it was only in 2013 that the true cause of his death was stated in a one-line sentence in a non-medical Chinese online source. It had been mistakenly believed that the cause of Dr. Sun’s death was liver cancer, based on the observations made following an exploratory laparotomy, which had been performed at PUMCH on January 26, 1925. The purpose of this short report is to provide more details relating to his terminal illness and to correct the historical record for a medical audience as to the cause of the death of Sun Yat-sen, a very important figure in the history of 20th century China.

  5. The "blob of death", or how warm air advection causes rapid ice melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernström, Michael; Shupe, Matthew; Achtert, Peggy; Brooks, Barbara; Brooks, Ian; Johnston, Paul; Persson, Ola; Prytherch, John; Salisbury, Dominic; Sedlar, Joseph; Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Wolfe, Dan

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) program obtained measurements of surface energy fluxes, boundary-layer structure, cloud macro- and micro-physical structure, and upper-ocean thermal and salinity structure from pack-ice and open-water regions in the eastern Arctic from early July to early October 2014. ACSE was divided into two legs. The first took a route from Tromsö, Norway, to Barrow, Alaska, during late summer (early July to late August) mostly on the Siberian Shelf, while the second leg was from traversed back mostly north of the shelf during September and early October. This paper will present ACSE and show examples of some results. Energy fluxes at the surface determine the annual summer melt and autumn freeze-up of Arctic sea ice, but are strongly modulated by interactions between atmospheric, ocean, and sea-ice processes. ACSE summer measurements showed energy flux surpluses leading to significant surface melt, while late August and September measurements showed deficits, leading to freeze-up of sea ice and the ocean surface. A weeklong episode with intensive melt resulting from warm air advection from continental Russia will be presented and discussed. During this episode, temperatures up to 20 °C was observed aloft while near surface temperatures over the ice remained near melting. In the surface inversion dense fog formed that enhanced the downward longwave radiation. Together with a downward turbulent sensible heat flux this caused a rapid melt in this area.

  6. STUDY THE CAUSE OF DEATH & ITS SOME FACTORS AMONG HOSPITALIZED PAEDIATRIC CASES AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF RURAL DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Reaching the MDG on reducing child mortality will require universal coverage with key effective and affordable interventions. Records of vital events like death constitute an important component of publi c health information system. In - depth analysis of death of children provides valuable information. Aim of the study wa s to describe the causes of deaths among hospitalized pediatric patient and contributing factors associated with it. METHODS AND MATERIALS : This was a r etrospective re cord based study. Total pediatric deaths were identified & segregated through admission records from medical record section under PSM department of Government Medical College , during January 2010 to December 2010. Variables lik e age , sex , birth weight and cause of death were collected from death records. WHO Child Growth Standards (z score separate for boys & girls were used for comparing weight of child at the time of admission. Data was entered , cleaned and analyzed using MS excel. RESULTS : An overall 313 (13.1% death occurred among 2380 hospitalized pediatric cases.56.4% were male child and 43.8% female child. Maximum deaths (67.8% were among early neonates. 175(60% were severely underweight a t the time of admission. Time interval between admission and death i.e. hospital stay revealed that 134 (42.8% of deaths occurred within 24 h of ad mission. 180 (77% deaths were in low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg. Infection (35% was the leading cause of death among all pediatric age groups followed by birth asphyxia (29% , prematurity (22% nutritional (4% and congenital (6%.Viral encephalitis was found to be the most common cause of death in more than 5 yrs. age group. CONCLUSION : Monitoring the mo rtality pattern among hospitalized cases is important strategy to address public health issues at community level as well as to strengthen the hospital services. Strategies like antenatal care about nutrition to avoid LBW , timely treatment of

  7. Trends in aortic aneurysm- and dissection-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985–2009: multiple-cause-of-death analysis

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    Santo Augusto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. Methods We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7% were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3% as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the

  8. Increase in non-AIDS related conditions as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in the HAART era in Brazil.

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    Antonio G Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM and other conditions generally not associated with HIV-infection among persons with and without HIV infection in Brazil between 1999 and 2004. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Odds ratios were used to compare causes of death in individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate with those who did not. Logistic regression models were fitted with generalized estimating equations to account for spatial correlation; co-variables were added to the models to control for potential confounding. Of 5,856,056 deaths reported in Brazil between 1999 and 2004 67,249 (1.15% had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and non-HIV-related conditions were listed on 16.3% in 1999, increasing to 24.1% by 2004 (p<0.001. The adjusted average yearly increases were 8% and 0.8% for CVD (p<0.001, and 12% and 2.8% for DM (p<0.001, for those who had and did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate, respectively. Similar results were found for these conditions as underlying causes of death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In Brazil between 1999 and 2004 conditions usually considered not to be related to HIV-infection appeared to become more likely causes of death over time than reported causes of death among individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate than in those who did not. This observation has important programmatic implications for developing countries that are scaling-up access to antiretroviral therapy.

  9. Comorbidities and causes of death among Danish Tuberculosis patients 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Løkke, Anders; Ibsen, Rikke

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Even in low-incidence countries, the disease is a considerable problem among high-risk, socially marginalized citizens. Little is known about co-morbidities and their influence on mortality, as well as the actual...

  10. Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful.

  11. Causes of Death among AIDS Patients after Introduction of Free Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART in Three Chinese Provinces, 2010-2011.

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    Liyan Wang

    Full Text Available Although AIDS-related deaths have had significant economic and social impact following an increased disease burden internationally, few studies have evaluated the cause of AIDS-related deaths among patients with AIDS on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART in China. This study examines the causes of death among AIDS-patients in China and uses a methodology to increase data accuracy compared to the previous studies on AIDS-related mortality in China, that have taken the reported cause of death in the National HIV Registry at face-value.Death certificates/medical records were examined and a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three provinces to verify the causes of death among AIDS patients who died between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Chi-square analysis was conducted to examine the categorical variables by causes of death and by ART status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate factors associated with AIDS-related death versus non-AIDS related death.This study used a sample of 1,109 subjects. The average age at death was 44.5 years. AIDS-related deaths were significantly higher than non-AIDS and injury-related deaths. In the sample, 41.9% (465/1109 were deceased within a year of HIV diagnosis and 52.7% (584/1109 of the deceased AIDS patients were not on cART. For AIDS-related deaths (n = 798, statistically significant factors included CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at the time of cART initiation (AOR 1.94, 95%CI 1.24-3.05, ART naïve (AOR 1.69, 95%CI 1.09-2.61; p = 0.019 and age <39 years (AOR 2.96, 95%CI 1.77-4.96.For the AIDS patients that were deceased, only those who initiated cART while at a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 were less likely to die from AIDS-related causes compared to those who didn't initiate ART at all.

  12. Early mortality and primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

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    Jenny Fairthorne

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. METHODS: The study population comprised all mothers of live-born children in Western Australia from 1983-2005. We accessed state-wide databases which enabled us to link socio-demographic details, birth dates, diagnoses of intellectual disability or ASD in the children and dates and causes of death for all mothers who had died prior to 2011. Using Cox Regression with death by any cause and death by each of the three primary causes as the event of interest, we calculated hazard ratios for death for mothers of children intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the study period, mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD had more than twice the risk of death. Mothers of children with intellectual disability were 40% more likely to die of cancer; 150% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease and nearly 200% more likely to die from misadventure than other mothers. Due to small numbers, only hazard ratios for cancer were calculated for mothers of children with ASD. These mothers were about 50% more likely to die from cancer than other mothers. Possible causes and implications of our results are discussed. CONCLUSION: Similar studies, pooling data from registries elsewhere, would improve our understanding of factors increasing the mortality of mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD. This would allow the implementation of informed services and interventions to improve these mothers' longevity.

  13. Insight into the Female Longevity Puzzle: Using Register Data to Analyse Mortality and Cause of Death Behaviour Across Socio-economic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    been driving the standstill for Danish women and within each socio-economic group we further analyse the cause of death pattern. Further, we compare the forecast performance of the Lee-Carter model with the multi-population Li and Lee model. The decline in life expectancy for Danish women is present...... for all subgroups, however with particular large decreases for the low-middle and middle affluence groups. We find that causes of deaths related to smoking partly contribute to the slowdown in female longevity. However the lack of improvements in deaths relating to ischemic heart diseases is dominant...

  14. Intrahepatic infiltrating NK and CD8 T cells cause liver cell death in different phases of dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jui-Min; Lee, Chien-Kuo; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A

    2012-01-01

    Elevated liver enzyme level is an outstanding feature in patients with dengue. However, the pathogenic mechanism of liver injury has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, employing a mouse model we aimed to investigate the immunopathogenic mechanism of dengue liver injury. Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenously with dengue virus strain 16681. Infected mice had transient viremia, detectable viral capsid gene and cleaved caspase 3 in the liver. In the mean time, NK cell and T cell infiltrations peaked at days 1 and 5, respectively. Neutralizing CXCL10 or depletion of Asialo GM1(+) cells reduced cleaved caspase 3 and TUNEL(+) cells in the liver at day 1 after infection. CD8(+) T cells infiltrated into the liver at later time point and at which time intrahepatic leukocytes (IHL) exhibited cytotoxicity against DENV-infected targets. Cleaved caspase 3 and TUNEL(+) cells were diminished in mice with TCRβ deficiency and in those depleted of CD8(+) T cells, respectively, at day 5 after infection. Moreover, intrahepatic CD8(+) T cells were like their splenic counterparts recognized DENV NS4B(99-107) peptide. Together, these results show that infiltrating NK and CD8(+) T cells cause liver cell death. While NK cells were responsible for cell death at early time point of infection, CD8(+) T cells were for later. CD8(+) T cells that recognize NS4B(99-107) constitute at least one of the major intrahepatic cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell populations.

  15. Intrahepatic infiltrating NK and CD8 T cells cause liver cell death in different phases of dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Min Sung

    Full Text Available Elevated liver enzyme level is an outstanding feature in patients with dengue. However, the pathogenic mechanism of liver injury has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, employing a mouse model we aimed to investigate the immunopathogenic mechanism of dengue liver injury. Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenously with dengue virus strain 16681. Infected mice had transient viremia, detectable viral capsid gene and cleaved caspase 3 in the liver. In the mean time, NK cell and T cell infiltrations peaked at days 1 and 5, respectively. Neutralizing CXCL10 or depletion of Asialo GM1(+ cells reduced cleaved caspase 3 and TUNEL(+ cells in the liver at day 1 after infection. CD8(+ T cells infiltrated into the liver at later time point and at which time intrahepatic leukocytes (IHL exhibited cytotoxicity against DENV-infected targets. Cleaved caspase 3 and TUNEL(+ cells were diminished in mice with TCRβ deficiency and in those depleted of CD8(+ T cells, respectively, at day 5 after infection. Moreover, intrahepatic CD8(+ T cells were like their splenic counterparts recognized DENV NS4B(99-107 peptide. Together, these results show that infiltrating NK and CD8(+ T cells cause liver cell death. While NK cells were responsible for cell death at early time point of infection, CD8(+ T cells were for later. CD8(+ T cells that recognize NS4B(99-107 constitute at least one of the major intrahepatic cytotoxic CD8(+ T cell populations.

  16. Gender-related traumatic deaths in Transkei: incidence and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, B L

    2003-07-01

    This study is unique in that it strives to unfold, perhaps for the first time, the problem of female mortality due to trauma in the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study was carried out in the Umtata and Ngqeleni magisterial districts which have a combined population of about 400,000. Most of the people have very few resources and have historically relied on money repatriated by migrant workers. The objective was to establish the incidence and the causes of deaths due to gender-related trauma and to formulate recommendations which could probably help prevent or reduce these deaths. The study reviewed cases of female traumatic death during the period January 1993 to December 1999 that were brought to the mortuary in Umtata General Hospital (UGH). There were 1,054 (23%) traumatic deaths recorded in females between 1993 and 1999. Of these 486 (28%) were related to motor vehicle collisions, 219 (18%) due to gunshot injuries, 152 (19%) due to stab wounds and 139 (21%) as a result of blunt trauma. The male to female ratio was 3.3:1 in traumatic deaths. In homicides the male:female ratio was 4.4:1, gunshot 4.5:1, stab 4.2:1 and blunt injuries 3.7:1. In motor vehicle collisions (MVC's) the ratio was 2.5:1. There is an increasing incidence of traumatic deaths in women. Gun shot injuries are the commonest among traumatic deaths in females. This article recommends stricter measures to protect women in the form of legislation. Social uplifting and economic support should be carried out as part of the process of social change. In this case educating the entire community is necessary to safeguard women and their future survival.

  17. Second Malignant Neoplasms and Cause of Death in Patients With Germ Cell Cancer: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kier, Maria G; Hansen, Merete K; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    radiotherapy (RT); bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP); or more than 1 line of treatment (MTOL). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for SMN and death calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model were compared with those of age-matched controls. Results: The study...... population comprised 2804 patients with seminoma and 2386 with nonseminoma. The median follow-up was 14.4 years (interquartile range, 8.6-20.5 years). The 20-year cumulative incidence of SMN with death as a competing risk was 7.8% (surveillance), 7.6% (BEP), 13.5% (RT), 9.2% (MTOL), and 7.0% (controls). We...... found no increased risk for SMN after surveillance, while the HRs were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.0), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3), and 3.7 (95% CI, 2.5-5.5), respectively, after BEP, RT, and MTOL. Mortality owing to non-GCC causes was decreased after surveillance, but increased by 1.3 times after BEP and RT and by 2...

  18. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 1.117 years in life expectancy for black males. Lower death rates for black males due to suicide, unintentional ... of 0.995 years in life expectancy for black females. Lower death rates for black females due to Chronic lower ...

  19. HIV and hepatitis C mortality in Massachusetts, 2002-2011: spatial cluster and trend analysis of HIV and HCV using multiple cause of death.

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    David J Meyers

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases, while associated with a much smaller proportion of deaths than they were 50 years ago, still play a significant role in mortality across the state of Massachusetts. Most analysis of infectious disease mortality in the state only take into account the underlying cause of death, rather than contributing causes of death, which may not capture the full extent of mortality trends for infectious diseases such as HIV and the Hepatitis C virus (HCV.In this study we sought to evaluate current trends in infectious disease mortality across the state using a multiple cause of death methodology. We performed a mortality trend analysis, identified spatial clusters of disease using a 5-step geoprocessing approach and examined spatial-temporal clustering trends in infectious disease mortality in Massachusetts from 2002-2011, with a focus on HIV/AIDS and HCV.Significant clusters of high infectious disease mortality in space and time throughout the state were detected through both spatial and space time cluster analysis. The most significant clusters occurred in Springfield, Worcester, South Boston, the Merrimack Valley, and New Bedford with other smaller clusters detected across the state. Multiple cause of death mortality rates were much higher than underlying cause mortality alone, and significant disparities existed across race and age groups.We found that our multi-method analyses, which focused on contributing causes of death, were more robust than analyses that focused on underlying cause of death alone. Our results may be used to inform public health resource allocation for infectious disease prevention and treatment programs, provide novel insight into the current state of infectious disease mortality throughout the state, and benefited from approaches that may more accurately document mortality trends.

  20. Rural Americans at Higher Risk of 5 Preventable Causes of Death: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use seatbelts than people who live in urban regions, the study authors said. Rural Americans also have higher rates of poverty, less ... accidental injuries were about 50 percent higher in rural areas than in urban ... 13 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . ...

  1. Causes of cell death following ultraviolet B and C exposures and the role of carotenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda-Olmedo, Enrique; Martin-Rojas, Virginia; Cubero, Beatriz [Seville Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Genetica

    1996-09-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (wavelength 290-310 nm) does not induce any specific lethal effects in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus, according to a heterokaryon test that responds to the nature of the lethal damage. This agent is about 10 times less lethal than UVC radiation from germicidal lamps (254 nm), but it kills cells through the same photoreactivable lesions, due to the UV absorption of DNA. Carotenes do not protect Phycomyces against UV damage, either B or C, lethal or not. This was shown by Darwinian competition experiments between strains containing very different carotene concentrations and between strains containing similar concentrations of different carotenes (phytoene, lycopene, {beta}-carotene). A shading effect of carotenes against UV radiation is likely, but it was insignificant under the conditions of the experiments. (Author).

  2. Death due to obstruction of the upper airways caused by edema of the laryngeal mucosa in the course of hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkuszewski, Piotr; Meissner, Ewa; Szram, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    A rare case of death of a young man due to airway obstruction in the course of angioedema (Quincke's edema). Type I hereditary angioedema due to C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency had been diagnosed in the man while he was alive. The information concerning the man's health state was given in the Public Prosecutor's decision ordering medico legal autopsy, which was extremely helpful in recognizing the cause of death.

  3. Lactobacillus zeae protects Caenorhabditis elegans from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-caused death by inhibiting enterotoxin gene expression of the pathogen.

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    Mengzhou Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become increasingly used for screening antimicrobials and probiotics for pathogen control. It also provides a useful tool for studying microbe-host interactions. This study has established a C. elegans life-span assay to preselect probiotic bacteria for controlling K88(+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, a pathogen causing pig diarrhea, and has determined a potential mechanism underlying the protection provided by Lactobacillus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Life-span of C. elegans was used to measure the response of worms to ETEC infection and protection provided by lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB. Among 13 LAB isolates that varied in their ability to protect C. elegans from death induced by ETEC strain JG280, Lactobacillus zeae LB1 offered the highest level of protection (86%. The treatment with Lactobacillus did not reduce ETEC JG280 colonization in the nematode intestine. Feeding E. coli strain JFF4 (K88(+ but lacking enterotoxin genes of estA, estB, and elt did not cause death of worms. There was a significant increase in gene expression of estA, estB, and elt during ETEC JG280 infection, which was remarkably inhibited by isolate LB1. The clone with either estA or estB expressed in E. coli DH5α was as effective as ETEC JG280 in killing the nematode. However, the elt clone killed only approximately 40% of worms. The killing by the clones could also be prevented by isolate LB1. The same isolate only partially inhibited the gene expression of enterotoxins in both ETEC JG280 and E. coli DH5α in-vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The established life-span assay can be used for studies of probiotics to control ETEC (for effective selection and mechanistic studies. Heat-stable enterotoxins appeared to be the main factors responsible for the death of C. elegans. Inhibition of ETEC enterotoxin production, rather than interference of its intestinal colonization, appears to be the

  4. The Experience of ICD Utilization on Verbal Autopsy Data to Obtain Trend of Cause of Death in Indonesian Population (1992–2007

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    Sarimawar Djaja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cause of death data is necessary for arranging health programs. The needs of these data is not fulfill yet through reporting and recording system from health facilities only,therefore national health survei should be conducted regularly. Objective: To obtain cause of death trends in the populations from VA data. Methods: Material taken from Nasional Health Survey 1992, 1995, 2001, 2007 covering 65,664 households (HH, 206,240 HH, 211,168 HH, 258,366 HH respectively, selected by stratified random sampling technique using core and module sample of Socio Economic National Survey (Susenas and taken with a Probability Proportional to Size method. Cause of death data was collected by structured questionnaire using verbal autopsy (VA technique and was classified based on ICD 9 and ICD 10. Results: The disease patterns of cause of death from 1992 to 2007 showed the non-communicable disease is increasing continuously while communicable disease (infectious, maternal and perinatal, nutritional deficiencies is decreasing; however the burden of disease is still present on both groups of diseases. Conclusions: The little bit less accurate VA data (1992–2007 collected is able to produce national statistic data of cause of death and could be used to suggest health planning program managers in Indonesia

  5. Common TLR1 genetic variation is not associated with death from melioidosis, a common cause of sepsis in rural Thailand.

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    Narisara Chantratita

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, infection caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a common cause of sepsis in northeast Thailand. In white North Americans, common functional genetic variation in TLR1 is associated with organ failure and death from sepsis. We hypothesized that TLR1 variants would be associated with outcomes in Thais with melioidosis. We collated the global frequencies of three TLR1 variants that are common in white North American populations: rs5743551 (-7202A/G, rs4833095 (742A/G, and rs5743618 (1804G/T. We noted a reversal of the minor allele from white North American subjects to Asian populations that was particularly pronounced for rs5743618. In the Utah residents of European ancestry, the frequency of the rs5743618 T allele was 17% whereas in Vietnamese subjects the frequency was >99%. We conducted a genetic association study in 427 patients with melioidosis to determine the association of TLR1 variation with organ failure or death. We genotyped rs5743551 and rs4833095. The variants were in high linkage disequilibrium but neither variant was associated with organ failure or in-hospital death. In 300 healthy Thai individuals we further tested the association of TLR1 variation with ex vivo blood responses to Pam3CSK4, a TLR1 agonist. Neither variant was robustly associated with blood cytokine responses induced by Pam3CSK4. We identified additional common variation in TLR1 by searching public databases and the published literature and screened three additional TLR1 variants for associations with Pam3CSK4-induced responses but found none. We conclude that the genetic architecture of TLR1 variation differs substantially in southeast Asians compared to other populations and common variation in TLR1 in Thais is not associated with outcome from melioidosis or with altered blood responses to Pam3CSK4. Our findings highlight the need for additional studies of TLR1 and other innate immune genetic modulators of the inflammatory

  6. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewden, Charlotte; Drabo, Youssoufou J; Zannou, Djimon M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the morbidity and mortality patterns in HIV-positive adults hospitalized in West Africa. METHOD: We conducted a six-month prospective multicentre survey within the IeDEA West Africa collaboration in six adult medical wards of teaching hospitals in Abidjan...... definitions. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were studied with a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 823 hospitalized HIV-positive adults (median age 40 years, 58% women), 24% discovered their HIV infection during the hospitalization, median CD4 count was 75/mm(3) (IQR: 25-177) and 48% had......%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%), cryptococcosis (9%) and sepsis (7%). Older age, clinical WHO stage 3 and 4, low CD4 count, and AIDS-defining infectious diagnoses were associated with hospital fatality. CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-defining conditions, primarily tuberculosis, and bacterial infections were the most...

  7. Analysis of causes of death among HIV-infected patients of Kiev Regional AIDS Center during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Stepchenkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine is a leader in Europe in the prevalence of HIV infection. There are up to 270 thousand people, who are living with HIV. Since 1987, in Ukraine, 33,149 HIV-infected people died. During the first six months of 2013, of all the dead, who were suffering from HIV and in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART at the time of death, 41% received treatment and only 5.7% received ART for more than one year. Specialists of Kiev Regional AIDS Center analyzed mortality among the patients of the centre, in order to determine the most frequent cause of death, set the group most at risk and to develop effective measures to reduce mortality among HIV-infected patients. In Kiev AIDS Center, 10,000 people are under medical observation and 4004 of them are taking ART. During 2013, 305 persons died: 217 were women and 88 were men which included 3 children under 14 years. Most of the dead – 272 (89% were aged 25–49. Among the total number of the dead, 125 people (41% were receiving ART, 53 of them (17% were receiving ART for at least one year and 39 of them (13% were receiving ART for less than one month. Hundred and fifty-eight people (52% required ART and 22 (7% did not need therapy. Hundred and ninety-two patients (63% were in four clinical stage of HIV infection. Hundred and ten of them had HIV+TB co-infection. Twenty patients died due to TB and 12 patients died due to hepatitis b virus/hepatitis c virus (HBV/HCV. Among these patients, 87 people (39% were taking ART and 136 persons (61% were in need of ART, but did not get it. Nineteen patients were diagnosed with cancer. Sixteen patients, who were co-infected HIV+TB had a CD4 cell count of more than 300. Based on this analysis, we can conclude that the main causes of high mortality among HIV-infected patients in 2013 were late diagnosis of HIV, besides a large number (52% of patients, who were in need of ART did not take it. A large number (40% among those who died were patients co-infected with HIV

  8. Causes of death in two rural demographic surveillance sites in Bangladesh, 2004–2010: automated coding of verbal autopsies using InterVA-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Population-based information on causes of death (CoD by age, sex, and area is critical for countries with limited resources to identify and address key public health issues. This study analysed the demographic surveillance and verbal autopsy (VA data to estimate age- and sex-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions in two well-defined rural populations within the demographic surveillance system in Abhoynagar and Mirsarai subdistricts, located in different climatic zones. Design: During 2004–2010, the sample demographic surveillance system registered 1,384 deaths in Abhoynagar and 1,847 deaths in Mirsarai. Trained interviewers interviewed the main caretaker of the deceased with standard VA questionnaires to record signs and symptoms of diseases or conditions that led to death and health care experiences before death. The computer-automated InterVA-4 method was used to analyse VAs to determine probable CoD. Results: Age- and sex-specific death rates revealed a higher neonatal mortality rate in Abhoynagar than Mirsarai, and death rates and sex ratios of male to female death rates were higher in the ages after infancy. Communicable diseases (CDs accounted for 16.7% of all deaths in Abhoynagar and 21.2% in Mirsarai – the difference was due mostly to more deaths from acute respiratory infections, pneumonia, and tuberculosis in Mirsarai. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs accounted for 56.2 and 55.3% of deaths in each subdistrict, respectively, with leading causes being stroke (16.5–19.3%, neoplasms (13.2% each, cardiac diseases (8.9–11.6%, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (5.1–6.3%, diseases of the digestive system (3.1–4.1%, and diabetes (2.8–3.5%, together accounting for 49.2–51.2% points of the NCD deaths in the two subdistricts. Injury and other external causes accounted for another 7.5–7.7% deaths, with self-harm being higher among females in Abhoynagar. Conclusions: The computer

  9. Inhibition of Autophagy via Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway Contributes to the Protection of Ginsenoside Rb1 against Neuronal Death Caused by Ischemic Insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfei Luo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lethal autophagy is a pathway leading to neuronal death caused by transient global ischemia. In this study, we examined the effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1 on ischemia/reperfusion-induced autophagic neuronal death and investigated the role of PI3K/Akt. Ischemic neuronal death in vitro was induced by using oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD in SH-SY5Y cells, and transient global ischemia was produced by using two vessels occlusion in rats. Cellular viability of SH-SY5Y cells was assessed by MTT assay, and CA1 neuronal death was evaluated by Hematoxylin-eosin staining. Autophagic vacuoles were detected by using both fluorescent microscopy in combination with acridine orange (AO and Monodansylcadaverine (MDC staining and transmission electronic microscopy. Protein levels of LC3II, Beclin1, total Akt and phosphor-Akt at Ser473 were examined by western blotting analysis. GRb1 inhibited both OGD and transient ischemia-induced neuronal death and mitigated OGD-induced autophagic vacuoles in SH-SY5Y cells. By contrast, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 counteracted the protection of GRb1 against neuronal death caused by either OGD or transient ischemia. LY294002 not only mitigated the up-regulated protein level of phosphor Akt at Ser473 caused by GRb1, but also reversed the inhibitory effect of GRb1 on OGD and transient ischemia-induced elevation in protein levels of LC3II and Beclin1.

  10. Changes in causes of death and risk of cancer in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney didease and end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Bjarne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo Friis; Strandgaard, Svend Valdemar;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31...... December 2008. Methods. Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular...... (HR) 0.65, P = 0.008] and deaths from cerebrovascular disease decreased by 69% (HR 0.31, P = 0.0003) from the first to the second time period. There were no significant changes between the time periods in death from cancer, infection, other or unknown. From the first to the second 8-year interval...

  11. Comparison of cerebral blood flow pattern by transcranial Doppler in patients with diffuse and focal causes of brain death

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    Alireza Vakilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to assess the cerebral vessels flow in brain death patients with different causes, including focal and diffuse lesions and comparison of flows according to the underlying causes. Materials and Methods: Two groups of 15 brain-dead patients one with focal and the other with diffuse brain lesions were compared according to their cerebral blood flow pattern 48 h passed brain death certification. Results: Bilateral absence of flow in middle cerebral artery (MCA was found in 54.5% of brain-dead patients with diffuse lesion and 50.33% of those with focal lesions. Systolic spike pattern in MCA flow was found in 46.2% of patients with focal lesion and 16.65% of patients with diffuse lesion. Diastole-systole separation pattern in MCA was seen in 16.65% of patients with the diffuse lesions. This pattern in MCA was not seen in patients with the focal lesion group. In carotid arteries, we did not find the absence of flow in any cases. Thirty percent of all patients in both groups had a normal flow pattern (36.6% of patients with focal lesions and 23.3% of patients with diffuse lesion. Patients with focal lesion had 33.3% systolic spike pattern flow and had 23.35% diastole-systole separation flow pattern. In intra-cranial vessels, systolic spike pattern was more common among patients with focal lesions than patients with diffuse lesion, however, this difference was not statistically significant (46.2% of patients with focal lesion and 16.65% of patients with diffuse lesion (P value = 0.244-0.09. Diastole-systole separation flow was more common in patients with diffuse lesions than those with the focal lesions although this could not reach the significant level as the previous pattern (20% of patients with diffuse lesion versus no case in patients with focal lesion (P value = 0.181. Conclusion: Absence of flow was the most common brain flow pattern in the focal and diffuse group lesions. There was no difference in flow pattern

  12. Who died of what in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cause of death analysis using InterVA-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Mossong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: For public health purposes, it is important to see whether men and women in different age groups die of the same causes in South Africa. Objective: We explored sex- and age-specific patterns of causes of deaths in a rural demographic surveillance site in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa over the period 2000–2011. Design: Deaths reported through the demographic surveillance were followed up by a verbal autopsy (VA interview using a standardised questionnaire. Causes of death were assigned likelihoods using the publicly available tool InterVA-4. Cause-specific mortality fractions were determined by age and sex. Results: Over the study period, a total of 5,416 (47% and 6,081 (53% deaths were recorded in men and women, respectively. Major causes of death proportionally affecting more women than men were (all p<0.0001: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS (20.1% vs. 13.6%, other and unspecified cardiac disease (5.9% vs. 3.2%, stroke (4.5% vs. 2.7%, reproductive neoplasms (1.7% vs. 0.4%, diabetes (2.4% vs. 1.2%, and breast neoplasms (0.4% vs. 0%. Major causes of deaths proportionally affecting more men than women were (all p<0.0001 assault (6.1% vs. 1.7%, pulmonary tuberculosis (34.5% vs. 30.2%, road traffic accidents (3.0% vs. 1.0%, intentional self-harm (1.3% vs. 0.3%, and respiratory neoplasms (2.5% vs. 1.5%. Causes of death due to communicable diseases predominated in all age groups except in older persons. Conclusions: While mortality during the 2000s was dominated by tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, we found substantial sex-specific differences both for communicable and non-communicable causes of death, some which can be explained by a differing sex-specific age structure. InterVA-4 is likely to be a valuable tool for investigating causes of death patterns in other similar Southern African settings.

  13. Trends of potential years of life lost due to main causes of deaths in urban and rural population in Poland, 2002–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Michalina Krzyżak; Dominik Maślach; Andrzej Szpak; Katarzyna Piotrowska; Katarzyna Florczyk; Martyna Skrodzka; Alfred Owoc; Iwona Bojar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the level and the trends of Potential Years of Life Lost due to main causes of deaths in Poland in 2002–2011, with consideration of place of residence, urban-rural. The material for the study was the number of deaths due to main causes in Poland in years 2002–2011, based on data from the Central Statistical Office. Premature mortality analysis was conducted with the use of PYLL indicator (PYLL – Potential Years of Life Lost). PYLL rate was calculated accord...

  14. Mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders: An update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rich, Bente

    2008-01-01

    This study compared mortality among Danish citizens with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with that of the general population. A clinical cohort of 341 Danish individuals with variants of ASD, previously followed over the period 1960-93, now on average 43 years of age, were updated with respect...

  15. Mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders - An update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Hansen, H.B.; Rich, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared mortality among Danish citizens with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with that of the general population. A clinical cohort of 341 Danish individuals with variants of ASD, previously followed over the period 1960-93, now on average 43 years of age, were updated with respect...

  16. Non-cell autonomous cell death caused by transmission of Huntingtin aggregates in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Daniel T; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that protein aggregates can spread between neurons in several neurodegenerative diseases but much remains unknown regarding the underlying mechanisms responsible for this spreading and its role in disease progression. We recently demonstrated that mutant Huntingtin aggregates spread between cells within the Drosophila brain resulting in non-cell autonomous loss of a pair of large neurons in the posterior protocerebrum. However, the full extent of neuronal loss throughout the brain was not determined. Here we examine the effects of driving expression of mutant Huntingtin in Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs) by using a marker for cleaved caspase activity to monitor neuronal apoptosis as a function of age. We find widespread caspase activity in various brain regions over time, demonstrating that non-cell autonomous damage is widespread. Improved understanding of which neurons are most vulnerable and why should be useful in developing treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases that involve transcellular spreading of aggregates.

  17. Avian influenza A virus H5N1 causes autophagy-mediated cell death through suppression of mTOR signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Ma; Qian Sun; Ruifang Mi; Hongbing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Of the few avian influenza viruses that have crossed the species barrier to infect humans,the highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) strain has claimed the lives of more than half of the infected patients.With largely unknown mechanism of lung injury by H5N1 infection,acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the major cause of death among the victims.Here we present the fact that H5N1 caused autophagic cell death through suppression of mTOR signaling.Inhibition of autophagy,either by depletion of autophagy gene Beclinl or by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA),significantly reduced H5N1 mediated cell death.We suggest that autophagic cell death may contribute to the development of ARDS in H5N1 influenza patients and inhibition of autophagy could therefore become a novel strategy for the treatment of H5N1 infection.

  18. Fungal infections as a contributing cause of death: An autopsy study

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    Megha S Uppin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With the continuing rise in the number of immunocompromised patients, the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased. Various studies have reported the trends of fungal infections in autopsies. Because of limitations in antemortem clinical diagnosis owing to lack of sensitive diagnostic tools, information regarding frequency and pathogenesis of fungal infections is largely dependent on autopsy studies. Aim: To study the prevalence of fungal infections at autopsy spanning a period of 20 years and to document recent trends, prevalence of various fungi over decades along with underlying predisposing factors and pathological findings. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods:All autopsies between 1988 and 2007 were reviewed and all cases showing fungal infections were analyzed. The clinical details and demographic data were retrieved from medical records. Representative sections from all organs were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and special stains including Gomori′s silver methenamine (GMS and per-iodic acid Schiff (PAS. Culture details were noted, wherever available. Results: A total of 401 autopsies were performed during the study period. Fungal infections were identified in 35 (8.7% of these cases. Leukemia was the commonest risk factor. The commonest pathogen in the present study was Aspergillus sp. The commonest single organ involved was brain (n = 18. Culture positivity was seen in 23.8% cases. Conclusion: The study highlights various predisposing factors and organisms in autopsy series. Existing diagnostic modalities are not sensitive to ensure antemortem diagnosis of fungal infections.

  19. Resuscitation of sudden cardiac death caused by acute epileptic seizures:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dana-Oliviana Geavlete; Oana Ionita; Leonard Mandes; Iulia Kulcsar; Emanuel Stoica; Radu Ciudin; Cezar Macarie; Ovidiu Chioncel

    2016-01-01

    Symptomatic long QT syndrome in pediatric patients is a life-threatening condition. Sometimes, this pathology can be misdiagnosed and erroneously managed as generalized epilepsy due to similar clinical manifestations. The presented case discusses a 13-year-old female patient with generalized epilepsy since the age of 4, admitted for two episodes of resuscitated cardiac arrest due to torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. The final diagnosis of congenital long QT was established and due to the patient's high-risk profile for future cardiac events, implantable cardiac defibrillator was subsequently indicated. Early recognition of congenital long QT and timing of cardiac therapy were crucial and potentially lower the incidence of fatal dysrhythmias commonly associated this condition. In high-risk patients, both medical and interventional therapy can be life-saving.

  20. A case report of a pregnancy-related death caused by primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yingjian Sun,1 Manhua Cui,1 Wanan Zhu,2 Weiling Xu,2 Na Li2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People's Republic of China Abstract: Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS is a rare clinical event in the People's Republic of China. As APS is easily neglected or misdiagnosed, a delayed treatment can result. The patient reported here was a 32-year-old female who died by systemic venous thrombosis on day 11 after a cesarean section delivery. Luckily, the baby survived. A blood test demonstrated that the patient's platelets were decreased at 19 weeks of gestation. Anti-cardolipin antibody and antiß2GP1 (anti-ß2-glycoprotein-I antibody were positive at 36 weeks and 2 days of gestation. This patient was diagnosed with APS. Unfortunately, as physicians, we could not provide proper treatment as the patient's relatives were concerned that the proposed treatment would have negative effects on the infant's health. This clinical case strongly suggests that physicians need to appreciate that APS is a very serious condition, especially for pregnant women, and that proper treatment should be provided as early as possible to avoid a bad outcome, despite the fact that a cure for this disease is not currently available. Keywords: APS, thrombosis, Hughes syndrome

  1. Major causes of death during the past 25 years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xue-jun; SHI Huan-zhong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Life expectancy in China doubled from 35 to 71 years between 1949 and 2001.China's human development index has been rising steadily,and it ranked 85th among countries with an index of 0.755 in 2003.

  2. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger's beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yuko; Maeda, Kaori; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger's beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger's beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger's beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases.

  3. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  4. A case report of a pregnancy-related death caused by primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingjian; Cui, Manhua; Zhu, Wanan; Xu, Weiling; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a rare clinical event in the People's Republic of China. As APS is easily neglected or misdiagnosed, a delayed treatment can result. The patient reported here was a 32-year-old female who died by systemic venous thrombosis on day 11 after a cesarean section delivery. Luckily, the baby survived. A blood test demonstrated that the patient's platelets were decreased at 19 weeks of gestation. Anti-cardolipin antibody and antiβ2GP1 (anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibody) were positive at 36 weeks and 2 days of gestation. This patient was diagnosed with APS. Unfortunately, as physicians, we could not provide proper treatment as the patient's relatives were concerned that the proposed treatment would have negative effects on the infant's health. This clinical case strongly suggests that physicians need to appreciate that APS is a very serious condition, especially for pregnant women, and that proper treatment should be provided as early as possible to avoid a bad outcome, despite the fact that a cure for this disease is not currently available.

  5. Histopathological changes in lungs of the mountain snow avalanche victims and its potential usefulness in determination of cause and mechanism of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kobek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On 28 January 2003 snow avalanche in the Polish Tatras happened, in which 8 people died and 5 were injured. We tried to determine cause and manner of death in 6 fatal victims instead of advanced late post mortem changes in internal organs. Taking into consideration the circumstances of death, we paid special attention to histopathological examination of lungs, extended by Gomori’s and AZAN staining. Pattern of the changes was similar to those observed in forensic medicine in cases of asphyxia due to airway obstruction and/or immobilization of chest and abdomen (Perthes’ syndrome. Histopathological study with the use of more specific staining methods has a significant diagnostic value during establishing the cause and mechanism of death of the deceased snow avalanche victims with advanced post mortem changes.

  6. [Histopathological changes in lungs of the mountain snow avalanche victims and its potential usefulness in determination of cause and mechanism of death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobek, Mariusz; Skowronek, Rafał; Jabłoński, Christian; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Pałasz, Artur

    On 28 January 2003 snow avalanche in the Polish Tatras happened, in which 8 people died and 5 were injured. We tried to determine cause and manner of death in 6 fatal victims instead of advanced late post mortem changes in internal organs. Taking into consideration the circumstances of death, we paid special attention to histopathological examination of lungs, extended by Gomori's and AZAN staining. Pattern of the changes was similar to those observed in forensic medicine in cases of asphyxia due to airway obstruction and/or immobilization of chest and abdomen (Perthes' syndrome). Histopathological study with the use of more specific staining methods has a significant diagnostic value during establishing the cause and mechanism of death of the deceased snow avalanche victims with advanced post mortem changes.

  7. 出院后精神病患者死亡资料原因分析%Mental Patients after Discharge Data Analysis of the Causes of Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪群

    2015-01-01

    目的对精神病患者出院后的死亡原因进行分析调查。方法选择我院2012年4月~2014年4月29例出院后死亡的精神病患者的临床资料进行分析,了解患者的死亡原因。结果29例患者中有13例患者死亡原因为躯体疾病,占比例的44.8%;8例患者死亡原因为药物治疗导致死亡,占比例的27.6%;7例患者死亡原因为自杀,占比例的24.2%;另1例为意外死亡,占比例的3.4%。结论身体并发症是导致患者出院后死亡的主要原因,其次为药物并发症和自杀,因此有效控制患者疾病发生、加强看护是降低患者死亡率的主要手段。%Objective Analyzes the cause of death for psychiatric patients after discharge.Methods Choose our hospital in April 2012,2014~April 29 patients who died after hospital discharge of psychiatric patients clinical data were analyzed,and understand the cause of death of patients.Results 29 cases with 13 patients were the cause of death for the body disease,accounting for 44.8%of the proportion;8 patients were the cause of death cause of death for drug treatment,accounting for 27.6% of the proportion;The cause of death as suicide,7 cases accounted for 24.2% of proportion; The other 1 case for accidental death,accounting for 3.4%of the proportion.Conclusion Body complications is a major cause of death in patients after discharge,fol owed by drug complications and suicide,ef ective control of diseases, strengthening the nursing for the patient is to reduce the mortality of patients with primary means.

  8. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  9. Mueller-matrix mapping of optically anisotropic fluorophores of molecular biological tissues in the diagnosis of death causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Ushenko, V. A.; Ushenko, Yu. A.; Pidkamin, L. Y.; Soltys, I. V.; Zhytaryuk, V. G.; Pavlyukovich, N.

    2016-09-01

    A model of generalized optical anisotropy of polycrystalline networks of albumin and globulin of human brain liquor has been suggested. The polarization-phase method of spatial and frequency differentiation of linear and circular birefringence coordinate distributions have been analytically substantiated. A set of criteria of the dynamics of necrotic changes of polarization-phase images of liquor polycrystalline films for determination of death coming prescription has been detected and substantiated.

  10. The evidence of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus induced nonsuppurative encephalitis as the cause of death in piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yungang; Zhao, Kui; Lv, Xiaoling; Lu, Huijun; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Junchao; Shan, Changjian

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) infection in piglets, characterized with neurological symptoms, vomiting, diarrhea, and wasting, occurred in China. Coronavirus-like particles were observed in the homogenized tissue suspensions of the brain of dead piglets by electron microscopy, and a wild PHEV strain was isolated, characterized, and designated as PHEV-CC14. Histopathologic examinations of the dead piglets showed characteristics of non-suppurative encephalitis, and some neurons in the cerebral cortex were degenerated and necrotic, and neuronophagia. Similarly, mice inoculated with PHEV-CC14 were found to have central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, with symptoms of depression, arched waists, standing and vellicating front claws. Furthmore, PHEV-positive labeling of neurons in cortices of dead piglets and infected mice supported the viral infections of the nervous system. Then, the major structural genes of PHEV-CC14 were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed, and the strain shared 95%–99.2% nt identity with the other PHEV strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis clearly proved that the wild strain clustered into a subclass with a HEV-JT06 strain. These findings suggested that the virus had a strong tropism for CNS, in this way, inducing nonsuppurative encephalitis as the cause of death in piglets. Simultaneously, the predicted risk of widespread transmission showed a certain variation among the PHEV strains currently circulating around the world. Above all, the information presented in this study can not only provide good reference for the experimental diagnosis of PHEV infection for pig breeding, but also promote its new effective vaccine development. PMID:27672502

  11. The evidence of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus induced nonsuppurative encephalitis as the cause of death in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An acute outbreak of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV infection in piglets, characterized with neurological symptoms, vomiting, diarrhea, and wasting, occurred in China. Coronavirus-like particles were observed in the homogenized tissue suspensions of the brain of dead piglets by electron microscopy, and a wild PHEV strain was isolated, characterized, and designated as PHEV-CC14. Histopathologic examinations of the dead piglets showed characteristics of non-suppurative encephalitis, and some neurons in the cerebral cortex were degenerated and necrotic, and neuronophagia. Similarly, mice inoculated with PHEV-CC14 were found to have central nervous system (CNS dysfunction, with symptoms of depression, arched waists, standing and vellicating front claws. Furthmore, PHEV-positive labeling of neurons in cortices of dead piglets and infected mice supported the viral infections of the nervous system. Then, the major structural genes of PHEV-CC14 were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed, and the strain shared 95%–99.2% nt identity with the other PHEV strains available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis clearly proved that the wild strain clustered into a subclass with a HEV-JT06 strain. These findings suggested that the virus had a strong tropism for CNS, in this way, inducing nonsuppurative encephalitis as the cause of death in piglets. Simultaneously, the predicted risk of widespread transmission showed a certain variation among the PHEV strains currently circulating around the world. Above all, the information presented in this study can not only provide good reference for the experimental diagnosis of PHEV infection for pig breeding, but also promote its new effective vaccine development.

  12. Evaluating tetanus neonatorum as a child survival risk in rural Egypt in the absence of reliable cause-of-death registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, A B; Kielmann, A A; van der Most van Spijk, M; Hammamy, M T; Nagaty, A A

    1985-12-01

    The principal finding of the investigation is that neonatal tenanus is, indeed an important cause of infant death in rural Egypt even though the normal cause-of-death reporting system had not altered health authorities to the problem. The finding is based on a comparison of registration statistics with (anthropological) reconstruction of pregnancies and child survival using the case-history rather than the epidemiological method. The histories go back ten years and refer to 102 women in two villages of Egypt. An incidental finding is confirmation of the known deficiency of infant death reporting, and associated births, with the extra dividend of showing how serious this may be in the neonatal period. Another incidental finding is the identification of induced abortion as a health problem.

  13. [Death of Napoleon Bonaparte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camici, M

    2003-06-01

    The causa mortis of Napoleon Bonaparte has been vexata quaestio for a long time. The author tries to outline a picture of Napoleon from a sanitary point of view. From the report of doctor Francesco Antonmarchi who performed the autopsy, the author tries to understans the cause of death: gastric perforation due to malignant ulcer and subsequent peritonitis with pulmonary tubercolosis.

  14. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  15. Cause analysis of 158 cases of perinatal death%158例围产儿死亡原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽欣; 张爱青; 高素红; 赵银珠; 周钰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To make related intervention measures to reduce perinatal mortality rate through analyzing causes and factors of 158 cases of perinatal mortality in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital .Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on perinatal data of 158 cases delivered and evaluated with death discussion in the hospital from April 2010 to December 2013.Results Perinatal mortality rate of the hospital was 3.24‰.The common death causes were the followings:birth defects (32.28%), umbilical cord factors (27.85%), unexplained stillbirth (9.50%), premature (8.86%), placental abruption (6.96%) and early-onset preeclampsia (5.06%).Conclusion In order to reduce perinatal mortality rate , health education for fertile and pregnant women should be strengthened so as to improve their self-care consciousness and basic perinatal care knowledge .Pregnancy management , screening and diagnosis should also be enhanced and intervention measures should be taken to reduce perinatal defects .The management of high-risk pregnant women should be strengthened to prevent and cure complications effectively .%目的:分析北京市海淀区妇幼保健院158例围产儿死亡原因及相关因素,制订相应的干预措施,降低围产儿死亡率。方法对2010年4月至2013年12月于北京市海淀区妇幼保健院分娩并经死亡评审讨论的158例围产儿资料进行回顾性分析。结果围产儿死亡率为3.24‰。常见死亡原因依次为出生缺陷(32.28%)、脐带因素(27.85%)、不明原因死胎(9.50%)、早产(8.86%)、胎盘早剥(6.96%)、早发型子痫前期(5.06%)。结论要降低围产儿死亡率,必须加强健康教育,提高孕产妇孕前以及孕期保健意识;严格孕期管理,加强产前筛查与诊断,采取干预措施,降低围产儿出生缺陷的发生;加强高危孕妇管理,积极有效防治妊娠并发症和合并症。

  16. The effectiveness of postmortem multidetector computed tomography in the detection of fatal findings related to cause of non-traumatic death in the emergency department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Higuchi, Takeshi; Shiotani, Motoi [Niigata City General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Hirose, Yasuo [Niigata City General Hospital, Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Niigata (Japan); Shibuya, Hiroyuki; Hashidate, Hideki [Niigata City General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Niigata (Japan); Yamanouchi, Haruo; Funayama, Kazuhisa [Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Community Preventive Medicine, Division of Legal Medicine, Niigata (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of postmortem multidetector computed tomography (PMMDCT) for the detection of fatal findings related to causes of non-traumatic death in the emergency department (ED). 494 consecutive cases of clinically diagnosed non-traumatic death in ED involving PMMDCT were enrolled. The fatal findings were detected on PMMDCT and classified as definite or possible findings. These findings were confirmed by autopsy in 20 cases. The fatal findings were detected in 188 subjects (38.1%) including 122 with definite (24.7%) and 66 with possible finding (13.4%). Definite findings included 21 cases of intracranial vascular lesions, 84 with intra-thoracic haemorrhage, 13 with retroperitoneal haemorrhage and one with oesophagogastric haemorrhage. In three patients who had initially been diagnosed with non-traumatic death, PMMDCT revealed fatal traumatic findings. Two definite findings (two haemopericardiums) and seven possible findings (two intestinal obstructions, one each of multiple liver tumours central pulmonary artery dilatation, pulmonary congestion, peritoneal haematoma, and brain oedema) were confirmed by autopsy. The causes of death were not determined in cases with possible findings without autopsy. PMMDCT is a feasible tool for detecting morphological fatal findings in non-traumatic death in ED. It is important to know the ability and limitation of PMMDCT. (orig.)

  17. Specific deletion of NaV1.1 sodium channels in inhibitory interneurons causes seizures and premature death in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Christine S.; Yu, Frank H.; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Kalume, Franck K.; Oakley, John C; Potter, Gregory B.; Rubenstein, John L.; Catterall, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the brain sodium channel NaV1.1 cause Dravet syndrome (DS), a pharmacoresistant infantile-onset epilepsy syndrome with comorbidities of cognitive impairment and premature death. Previous studies using a mouse model of DS revealed reduced sodium currents and impaired excitability in GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus, leading to the hypothesis that impaired excitability of GABAergic inhibitory neurons is the cause of epilepsy and premature deat...

  18. Causes of death among people living with AIDS in the pre- and post-HAART Eras in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Silvia Bruniera Domingues

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We examine the trend in causes of death among people living with AIDS in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the periods before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, and we investigate potential disparities across districts of residence. METHODS: Descriptive study of three periods: pre-HAART (1991-1996; early post-HAART (1997-1999; and late post-HAART (2000-2006. The data source was the São Paulo State STD/AIDS Program and São Paulo State Data Analysis Foundation. Causes of death were classified by the ICD-9 (1991-1995 and ICD-10 (1996-2006. We estimated age-adjusted mortality rates for leading underlying causes of death and described underlying and associated causes of death according to sociodemographic characteristics and area of residence. We used Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical variables. Areas of residence were categorized using a socioeconomic index. To analyze trends we apply generalized linear model with Poisson regression. RESULTS: We evaluated 32,808 AIDS-related deaths. Between the pre- and late post-HAART periods, the proportion of deaths whose underlying causes were non-AIDS-related diseases increased from 0.2% to 9.6% (p<0.001: from 0.01% to 1.67% (p<0.001 for cardiovascular diseases; 0.01% to 1.62% (p<0.001 for bacterial/unspecified pneumonia; and 0.03% to 1.46% (p<0.001 for non-AIDS-defining cancers. In the late post-HAART period, the most common associated causes of death were bacterial/unspecified pneumonia (35.94%, septicemia (33.46%, cardiovascular diseases (10.11% and liver diseases (8.0%; and common underlying causes, besides AIDS disease, included non-AIDS-defining cancers in high-income areas, cardiovascular diseases in middle-income areas and assault in low-income areas. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of HAART has shifted the mortality profile away from AIDS-related conditions, suggesting changes in the pattern of morbidity, but

  19. Aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death of inner ear organs causes functional deficits in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M Uribe

    Full Text Available Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, kill inner ear sensory hair cells in a variety of species including chickens, mice, and humans. The zebrafish (Danio rerio has been used to study hair cell cytotoxicity in the lateral line organs of larval and adult animals. Little is known about whether aminoglycosides kill the hair cells within the inner ear of adult zebrafish. We report here the ototoxic effects of gentamicin on hair cells in the saccule, the putative hearing organ, and utricle of zebrafish. First, adult zebrafish received a single 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR to determine the distribution of gentamicin within inner ear sensory epithelia. After 4 hours, GTTR was observed in hair cells throughout the saccular and utriclar sensory epithelia. To assess the ototoxic effects of gentamicin, adult zebrafish received a single 250 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin and, 24 hours later, auditory evoked potential recordings (AEPs revealed significant shifts in auditory thresholds compared to untreated controls. Zebrafish were then euthanized, the inner ear fixed, and labeled for apoptotic cells (TUNEL reaction, and the stereociliary bundles of hair cells labeled with fluorescently-tagged phalloidin. Whole mounts of the saccule and utricle were imaged and cells counted. There were significantly more TUNEL-labeled cells found in both organs 4 hours after gentamicin injection compared to vehicle-injected controls. As expected, significantly fewer hair cell bundles were found along the rostral-caudal axis of the saccule and in the extrastriolar and striolar regions of the utricle in gentamicin-treated animals compared to untreated controls. Therefore, as in other species, gentamicin causes significant inner ear sensory hair cell death and auditory dysfunction in zebrafish.

  20. Denied their ‘natural nourishment’: religion, causes of death and infant mortality in the Netherlands, 1875-1899

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, N.; Ekamper, P.

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, infant mortality rates started to fall rapidly in the Netherlands. Unfortunately, not all regions benefited from this development. High infant death in the Roman Catholic provinces of North-Brabant and Limburg has often been ascribed to a growing reluctance of C

  1. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom compon

  2. Gaucher disease causing sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Saleh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male patient with Gaucher disease was presented to our institution complaining of rapid irregular palpitations. Echocardiography showed the presence of critical aortic stenosis due to Gaucher disease.

  3. Automatic ICD-10 multi-class classification of cause of death from plaintext autopsy reports through expert-driven feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Ghulam; Shuib, Liyana; Raj, Ram Gopal; Rajandram, Retnagowri; Shaikh, Khairunisa; Al-Garadi, Mohammed Ali

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Widespread implementation of electronic databases has improved the accessibility of plaintext clinical information for supplementary use. Numerous machine learning techniques, such as supervised machine learning approaches or ontology-based approaches, have been employed to obtain useful information from plaintext clinical data. This study proposes an automatic multi-class classification system to predict accident-related causes of death from plaintext autopsy reports through expert-driven feature selection with supervised automatic text classification decision models. Methods Accident-related autopsy reports were obtained from one of the largest hospital in Kuala Lumpur. These reports belong to nine different accident-related causes of death. Master feature vector was prepared by extracting features from the collected autopsy reports by using unigram with lexical categorization. This master feature vector was used to detect cause of death [according to internal classification of disease version 10 (ICD-10) classification system] through five automated feature selection schemes, proposed expert-driven approach, five subset sizes of features, and five machine learning classifiers. Model performance was evaluated using precisionM, recallM, F-measureM, accuracy, and area under ROC curve. Four baselines were used to compare the results with the proposed system. Results Random forest and J48 decision models parameterized using expert-driven feature selection yielded the highest evaluation measure approaching (85% to 90%) for most metrics by using a feature subset size of 30. The proposed system also showed approximately 14% to 16% improvement in the overall accuracy compared with the existing techniques and four baselines. Conclusion The proposed system is feasible and practical to use for automatic classification of ICD-10-related cause of death from autopsy reports. The proposed system assists pathologists to accurately and rapidly determine underlying

  4. Knockout of Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death11 encoding a sphingosine transfer protein causes activation of programmed cell death and defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Peter; Petersen, Morten; Pike, Helen M

    2002-01-01

    by avirulent pathogens. Global transcriptional changes during programmed cell death (PCD) and defense activation in acd11 were monitored by cDNA microarray hybridization. The PCD and defense pathways activated in acd11 are salicylic acid (SA) dependent, but do not require intact jasmonic acid or ethylene...

  5. The frequency of a disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S

    1993-01-01

    syndrome is still a matter of controversy. The present study investigated 120 well-defined cases of sudden infant death syndrome in order to detect the frequency of the most common disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (G985) compared with the frequency...

  6. Danger: electric shock. Overhead power line masts as the cause of death of large birds; Vorsicht: Stromschlag. Strommasten als Todesursache fuer bedrohte Grossvoegel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, A.; Heynen, D.

    2007-07-01

    This short article takes a look at the masts of power lines running at 1 kV to 36 kV that pose a great danger for large birds. For white storks and owls, electric shock is the most frequent cause of death. The types of mast and the fittings which are particularly dangerous for these large birds are described. The effects noted on their population are discussed. Simple measures that can be taken to prevent theses deaths are looked at, including simple ones such the insulation of the wires near to the masts.

  7. Postmortem volumetric CT data analysis of pulmonary air/gas content with regard to the cause of death for investigating terminal respiratory function in forensic autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Postmortem CT (PMCT) is useful to investigate air/gas distribution and content in body cavities and viscera. The present study investigated the procedure to estimate total lung air/gas content and aeration ratio as possible indices of terminal respiratory function, using three-dimensional (3-D) PMCT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases without putrefactive gas formation (within 3 days postmortem, n=75), and analyzed the volumetric data with regard to the cause of death. When 3-D bilateral lung images were reconstructed using an image analyzer, combined lung volume was larger in drowning (n=12) than in alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8) and sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10), and intermediate in other cases, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), fire fatalities due to burns (n=6) and carbon monoxide intoxication (n=7), fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=7), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=7). Air/gas content of the lung as detected using HU interval between -2000 and -400 ('effective' lung aeration areas) and between -2000 and -191 (total lung aeration areas) as well as the ratios to total lung volume ('effective' and total lung aeration ratios, respectively) was higher in mechanical asphyxiation, drowning, fatal burns and hypothermia (cold exposure) than in SCD, and was intermediate in other cases. 'Effective' and total lung aeration ratios may be useful for comparisons between specific causes of death to discriminate between hypothermia (cold exposure) and drug intoxication, and between SCD and other causes of death, respectively. These findings provide interesting insights into potential efficacy of PMCT data analyses of lung volume and CT density as well as lung air/gas content and aeration ratio with regard to the cause of death, as possible indicators of terminal respiratory function, as part of virtual autopsy of the viscera in situ.

  8. Potential Gains in Life Expectancy from Reductions in Leading Causes of Death, Los Angeles County: a Quantitative Approach to Identify Candidate Diseases for Prevention and Burden Disparities Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alex; Hameed, Heena; Lee, Alice W; Shih, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Despite overall gains in life expectancy at birth among Los Angeles County residents, significant disparities persist across population subgroups. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potential sex- and race/ethnicity-specific gains in life expectancy had we been able to fully or partially eliminate the leading causes of death in Los Angeles County. Complete annual life tables for local residents were generated by applying the same method used for the National Center of Health Statistics US life tables published in 1999. Based on 2010 Los Angeles County mortality records, sex- and race/ethnicity-specific potential gains in life expectancy were calculated using scenarios of 10, 20, 50, and 100 % elimination of 12 major causes of death. Coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death, was found to be most impactful on life expectancy. Its hypothetical full elimination would result in life expectancy gains ranging from 2.2 years among white females to 3.7 years among black males. Gains from complete elimination of lung cancer and stroke ranked second, with almost an additional year of life for each gender. However, marked disparities across racial/ethnic groups were noted from the elimination of several other causes of death, such as homicide, from which the gain among black males exceeded 13 times more than their white counterparts. By differentially targeting specific causes of death in disease prevention, not only can findings of this study aid in efficiently narrowing racial/ethnic disparities, they can also provide a quantitative means to identify and rank priorities in local health policymaking.

  9. Excess mortality, causes of death and life expectancy in 270,770 patients with recent onset of mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Nordentoft

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excess mortality among patients with severe mental disorders has not previously been investigated in detail in large complete national populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the excess mortality in different diagnostic categories due to suicide and other external causes of death, and due to specific causes in connection with diseases and medical conditions. METHODS: In longitudinal national psychiatric case registers from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, a cohort of 270,770 recent-onset patients, who at least once during the period 2000 to 2006 were admitted due to a psychiatric disorder, were followed until death or the end of 2006. They were followed for 912,279 person years, and 28,088 deaths were analyzed. Life expectancy and standardized cause-specific mortality rates were estimated in each diagnostic group in all three countries. RESULTS: The life expectancy was generally approximately 15 years shorter for women and 20 years shorter for men, compared to the general population. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was increased two- to three-fold, while excess mortality from external causes ranged from three- to 77-fold. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was generally lowest in patients with affective disorders and highest in patients with substance abuse and personality disorders, while mortality due to suicide was highest in patients with affective disorders and personality disorders, and mortality due to other external causes was highest in patients with substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS: These alarming figures call for action in order to prevent the high mortality.

  10. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R., E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  11. Long-Term Follow-Up of Individuals Undergoing Sex-Reassignment Surgery: Somatic Morbidity and Cause of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Kildevæld Simonsen, MA

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Of 98% of all Danish transsexuals who officially underwent SRS from 1978 through 2010, one in three had somatic morbidity and approximately 1 in 10 had died. No significant differences in somatic morbidity or mortality were found between male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Despite the young average age at death and the relatively larger number of individuals with somatic morbidity, the present study design does not allow for determination of casual relations between, for example, specific types of hormonal or surgical treatment received and somatic morbidity and mortality.

  12. The Fated Death of Tess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2012-01-01

      The theme of this essay is about the fated deaths of Tess.The emphasis is‘inevitability’. Tess’s Death is mainly due to the social influence and man-made factors. Because of the low social status and moral conceptions, there is no living room left for Tess. Her parents push her get closer to her tragedy as well. Alec and Angel are the two persons who directly and indirectly cause Tess’s death. In addition, there are also some subjective causes for her doom. The symbolic red in the novel intentionally indicates the’inevitability’of her death.

  13. Cause of death during 2009–2012, using a probabilistic model (InterVA-4: an experience from Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to estimate the age and cause-specific mortality in Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site for the years 2009 to 2012, using a probabilistic model (InterVA-4. Methods: All Deaths in Ballabgarh HDSS from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012, were included in the study. InterVA-4 model (version 4.02 was used for assigning cause of death (COD. Data from the verbal autopsy (VA tool were extracted and processed with the InterVA-4 model. Cause-specific mortality rate (CSMR per 1,000 person-years was calculated. Results: A total of 2,459 deaths occurred in the HDSS during the year 2009 to 2012. Among them, 2,174 (88.4% valid VA interviews were conducted. Crude death rate ranged from 7.1 (2009 to 6.4 (2012 per 1,000 population. The CSMR per 1,000 person-years over the years (2009–2012 for non-communicable diseases, communicable diseases, trauma, neoplasm, and maternal and neonatal diseases were 1.78, 1.68, 0.68, 0.49, and 0.48, respectively. The most common causes of death among children, adults, and the elderly were infectious diseases, trauma, and non-communicable diseases, respectively. Conclusions: Overall, non-communicable diseases constituted the largest proportion of mortality, whereas trauma was the most common COD among adults at Ballabgarh HDSS. Policy-makers ought to focus on prevention of premature CODs, especially prevention of infectious diseases in children, and intentional self-harm and road traffic accidents in the adult population.

  14. The role of respiratory failure caused by congenital central nervous system abnormalities and the effect of β-casomorphins in sudden infant death syndrome pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sumińska-Ziemann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of respiratory failure caused by endogenous (both structural and functional abnormalities in the central nervous system and exogenous food-derived opioid-like peptides in the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. By stimulating μ-opioid receptors, opioid-like peptides may suppress the tonic activity of the respiratory centre in the brain stem.

  15. Pathological fear of cot death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weightman, H; Dalal, B M; Brockington, I F

    1998-01-01

    Cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) is one of the most common causes of death in the first year of life. Four cases with a pathological fear of cot death are presented. All the patients were depressed and in 2 cases the fear of cot death had an obsessional quality. In all cases there were complications during pregnancy (miscarriage, threatened abortion, recurrent vomiting in last trimester). In 1 case, the patient knew 3 mothers who had suffered cot deaths; in another, the infant was gravely ill in the neonatal period. Pathological fear of cot death can be recognised by the presence of two central features - overvigilance and excessive nocturnal checking of the baby's breathing. Therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  16. Leading Causes of Death Contributing to Decrease in Life Expectancy Gap Between Black and White Populations: United States, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Anderson, Robert N; Arias, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Life expectancy at birth has increased steadily since 1900 to a record 78.8 years in 2013. But differences in life expectancy between the white and black populations still exist, despite a decrease in the life expectancy gap from 5.9 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2013. Differences in the change over time in the leading causes of death for the black and white populations have contributed to this decrease in the gap in life expectancy. Between 1999 and 2013, the decrease in the life expectancy gap between the black and white populations was mostly due to greater decreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, HIV disease, unintentional injuries, and perinatal conditions among the black population. Similarly, the decrease in the gap between black and white male life expectancy was due to greater decreases in death rates for HIV disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, heart disease, and perinatal conditions in black males. For black females, greater decreases in diabetes death rates, combined with decreased rates for heart disease and HIV disease, were the major causes contributing to the decrease in the life expectancy gap with white females. The decrease in the gap in life expectancy between the white and black populations would have been larger than 3.6 years if not for increases in death rates for the black population for aortic aneurysm, Alzheimer’s disease, and maternal conditions. For black males, the causes that showed increases in death rates over white males were hypertension, aortic aneurysm, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease, while the causes that showed increases in death rates for black females were Alzheimer’s disease, maternal conditions, and atherosclerosis. This NCHS Data Brief is the second in a series of data briefs that explore the causes of death contributing to differences in life expectancy between detailed ethnic and racial populations in the United States. The first data brief focused on the racial differences in life

  17. 北京市1965-1974年居民死因分析%Analysis on causes of death of residents in Beijing, 1965-1974

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦再华; 谢学勤; 刘菲; 王苹; 王晶; 高燕琳; 苏健婷; 杜婧; 刘庆萍

    2016-01-01

    目的 填补1965-1974年北京市居民死亡资料的历史空白,为其他地区死亡数据的补充提供参考.方法 通过专家咨询了解北京市居民死亡资料保存情况,采用分层抽样方法采集北京市城区该期间死亡居民户个案信息.应用死亡率、死亡构成、死因顺位等指标进行描述性分析.结果 收集1965-1974年北京市城区10个派出所保存的死亡居民户个案信息11 668条.该时期北京市城区居民前十位死亡原因依次为心脏病、肿瘤、脑血管病、意外伤害、呼吸系统疾病、消化系统疾病、传染病和寄生虫病、神经系统疾病、泌尿生殖系统疾病、内分泌、营养代谢类疾病,占全死因的84.19%.意外伤害占总死亡的13.22%,高于1964年与1975年水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),自杀占全部意外伤害死亡的54.47%,位居意外伤害死亡的首位.男性前三位死因分别为意外伤害、肿瘤和心脏病,女性为心脏病、肿瘤和脑血管病.结论 1965-1974年北京市城区居民死亡的主要疾病从传染病向慢性非传染性疾病过渡.受历史原因影响,意外伤害成为该时期影响人群健康的主要原因之一.%Objective To fill up the absence of data on causes of death of urban residents in Beijing during 1965-1974 and provide evidence for the similar study in other areas.Methods All possible sources for death data during 1965-1974 were identified through expert consultations and record search.Stratified sampling was conducted to collect the death data of urban residents during this period in Beijing.The mortality rate,death cause constituent and rank of death causes were used in this descriptive analysis.Results A total of 11 668 records of deaths from 1965 to 1974 were collected from 10 local police stations in urban area of Beijing.The top 10 death causes in the urban residents were heart disease,tumor,cerebrovascular disease,accidental injury,respiratory system disease

  18. Increasing RpoS expression causes cell death in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available RpoS, one of the two alternative σ factors in Borrelia burgdorferi, is tightly controlled by multiple regulators and, in turn, determines expression of many critical virulence factors. Here we show that increasing RpoS expression causes cell death. The immediate effect of increasing RpoS expression was to promote bacterial division and as a consequence result in a rapid increase in cell number before causing bacterial death. No DNA fragmentation or degradation was observed during this induced cell death. Cryo-electron microscopy showed induced cells first formed blebs, which were eventually released from dying cells. Apparently blebbing initiated cell disintegration leading to cell death. These findings led us to hypothesize that increasing RpoS expression triggers intracellular programs and/or pathways that cause spirochete death. The potential biological significance of induced cell death may help B. burgdorferi regulate its population to maintain its life cycle in nature.

  19. Investigating the Potential Influence of Cause of Death and Cocaine Levels on the Differential Expression of Genes Associated with Cocaine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Michael J.; Savonen, Candace L.; Hartley, Zachary J.; Johnson, Magen M.; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of complex brain disorders such as drug addiction is likely to be advanced by a more complete understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiology. Although the study of postmortem human brain represents a unique resource in this regard, it can be challenging to disentangle the relative contribution of chronic pathological processes versus perimortem events to the observed changes in gene expression. To begin to unravel this issue, we analyzed by quantitative PCR the midbrain expression of numerous candidate genes previously associated with cocaine abuse. Data obtained from chronic cocaine abusers (and matched control subjects) dying of gunshot wounds were compared with a prior study of subjects with deaths directly attributable to cocaine abuse. Most of the genes studied (i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, forkhead box A2, histone variant H3 family 3B, nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible beta) were found to be differentially expressed in chronic cocaine abusers irrespective of immediate cause of death or perimortem levels of cocaine, suggesting that these may represent core pathophysiological changes arising with chronic drug abuse. On the other hand, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 and jun proto-oncogene expression were unaffected in cocaine-abusing subjects dying of gunshot wounds, in contrast to the differential expression previously reported in cocaine-related fatalities. The possible influence of cause of death and other factors on the cocaine-responsiveness of these genes is discussed. PMID:25658879

  20. Depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish causes growth retardation due to mitotic delay and p53-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Hyunsook

    2013-03-01

    Aurora-A is a serine/threonine mitotic kinase that is required for centrosome maturation. Many cancer cells over-express Aurora-A, and several reports have suggested that Aurora-A has prognostic value in the clinical treatment of cancer. Therefore, inhibitors for Aurora-A kinase have been developed. However, studies on Aurora-A are largely performed in cancer cell lines and are sometimes controversial. For effective evaluation of Aurora-A inhibitors in cancer treatment, it is essential to understand its function at the organism level. Here, we report the crucial functions of Aurora-A in homeostasis of spindle organization in mitosis using zebrafish embryogenesis as a model system. Using morpholino technology, we show that depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish embryogenesis results in short bent trunks, accompanied by growth retardation and eventual cell death. Live-imaging and immunofluorescence analyses of the embryos revealed that the developmental defects are due to problems in mitosis, manifested through monopolar and disorganized spindle formation. Aurora-A-depleted cells exhibited mitotic arrest with congression failure, leading to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Cell death in the absence of Aurora-A was partially rescued by co-injection of the p53 morpholino, suggesting that apoptosis after Aurora-A depletion is p53-dependent. The clinical implications of these results relate to the indication that Aurora-A inhibitors may be effective towards cancers with intact p53.

  1. Validação de variáveis de declarações de óbito por causas externas, Recife, PE, Brasil Validity of death certificate variables in cases of death from external causes, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma de A Barros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Validar, nas declarações de óbitos por causas externas de menores de 20 anos residentes no Recife em 1995, outras variáveis que não a causa básica dos óbitos. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se os documentos existentes no Instituto de Medicina Legal de Recife para validar variáveis das declarações de óbitos constantes nos dados oficiais de mortalidade. Analisou-se a concordância pelos índices de Kappa e da sensibilidade. Tendo em vista a metodologia utilizada, os dados da pesquisa foram considerados mais exatos e, como tais, tomados como padrão. RESULTADOS: Para as variáveis que os peritos do Instituto de Medicina Legal entenderam como de sua responsabilidade direta, os resultados mostraram concordância ótima -- sexo, idade e tipo de violência -- ou boa -- tipo de acidente. Porém, para as entendidas como de sua responsabilidade indireta ou como não sendo de sua responsabilidade, importantes discordâncias foram observadas -- local e município de ocorrência do óbito, assistência médica e local do acidente. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados revelam a dissociação entre o objetivo da inclusão das variáveis nas declarações de óbito e seu uso social e a estratégia para obtê-las.OBJECTIVE: To validate variables other than the basic cause of death on death certificates from external causes of residents younger than 20 years old living in Recife, Brazil, in 1995. METHODS: A survey of death records of the Institute of Forensic in Recife was carried out in order to validate death certificate variables included in official mortality registries. Agreement analysis was performed using Kappa indexes and sensitivity. As a result of the methodology used, the study data was considered to be more consistent and therefore regarded as standard. RESULTS: Those variables forensic specialists indicated as their direct responsibility showed an excellent (gender, age, and category of violence and good (type of accident agreement. However, there were

  2. Diagnosis of brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD should be understood as the ultimate clinical expression of a brain catastrophe characterized by a complete and irreversible neurological stoppage, recognized by irreversible coma, absent brainstem reflexes, and apnea. The most common pattern is manifested by an elevation of intracranial pressure to a point beyond the mean arterial pressure, and hence cerebral perfusion pressure falls and, as a result, no net cerebral blood flow is present, in due course leading to permanent cytotoxic injury of the intracranial neuronal tissue. A second mechanism is an intrinsic injury affecting the nervous tissue at a cellular level which, if extensive and unremitting, can also lead to BD. We review here the methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the signs of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can cause death only when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of such loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed.

  3. Global network for women’s and children’s health research: a system for low-resource areas to determine probable causes of stillbirth, neonatal, and maternal death

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Elizabeth M; Bose, Carl L.; Garces, Ana; Esamai, Fabian; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Patel, Archana; Chomba, Elwyn; Pasha, Omrana; Tshefu, Antoinette; Kodkany, Bhalchandra S.; Saleem, Sarah; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Derman, Richard J.; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Liechty, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Background Determining cause of death is needed to develop strategies to reduce maternal death, stillbirth, and newborn death, especially for low-resource settings where 98% of deaths occur. Most existing classification systems are designed for high income settings where extensive testing is available. Verbal autopsy or audits, developed as an alternative, are time-intensive and not generally feasible for population-based evaluation. Furthermore, because most classification is user-dependent,...

  4. Estimating risks of perinatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S

    2005-01-01

    The relative and absolute risks of perinatal death that are estimated from observational studies are used frequently in counseling about obstetric intervention. The statistical basis for these estimates therefore is crucial, but many studies are seriously flawed. In this review, a number of aspects of the approach to the estimation of the risk of perinatal death are addressed. Key factors in the analysis include (1) the definition of the cause of the death, (2) differentiation between antepartum and intrapartum events, (3) the use of the appropriate denominator for the given cause of death, (4) the assessment of the cumulative risk where appropriate, (5) the use of appropriate statistical tests, (6) the stratification of analysis of delivery-related deaths by gestational age, and (7) the specific features of multiple pregnancy, which include the correct determination of the timing of antepartum stillbirth and the use of paired statistical tests when outcomes are compared in relation to the birth order of twin pairs.

  5. Forensic relevance of post-mortem CT imaging of the haemopericardium in determining the cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograna, Laura; Thali, Michael J; Marchetti, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    The post-mortem diagnosis of pericardial tamponade is associated with several medical legal problems. Thus, we explored whether post-mortem computed tomography might provide useful and reliable information for the diagnosis of this relevant disease in combination with autopsy data. We retrospectively reviewed the post-mortem computed tomography and autopsy reports of 15 autopsy cases with haemopericardium detected at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Berne from July 2005 to February 2010. Two computer tomography findings were examined in combination with autopsy results. The first was the "hyperdense armoured heart," which has been previously described as post-mortem evidence of heart beating for a time after the initiation of intrapericardial bleeding. The second was the "flattening of the anterior surface" of the heart which has been previously observed in vivo as a sign of the compression effect of the haemopericardium on the heart. Our retrospective analysis showed the combined presence of both of these findings in all cases of autopsy evidence of pericardial tamponade with the exception of one case. In contrast, the concomitance of both of them was never observed in cases of autopsy death due to haemorrhage in which neither the flattening of the anterior surface of the heart was detected except for one case. In conclusion, these results should be considered a first step toward the potentially using post-mortem computed tomography in combination with autopsy data in the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade especially considering the possibility to detect sign as the flattened heart signal which cannot be assessed after opening the pericardium at autopsy.

  6. Death certification in cancer of the breast.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The cause of death entered on the death certificates of 193 patients originally diagnosed as having cancer of the breast was compared with information obtained from clinical records, cancer registry records, and necropsy findings to determine the accuracy of death certification and the proportion of patients who, though dying from another cause, still had overt signs of cancer of the breast. It was found that the overall error in certifying cause of death as breast cancer was small, being an ...

  7. The role of population change in the increased economic differences in mortality: a study of premature death from all causes and major groups of causes of death in Spain, 1980-2010

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ, DAVID; Giráldez García, Carolina; Miqueleiz Autor, Estrella; Calle, María; Santos, Juana M.; Regidor, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background: An increase has been observed in differences in mortality between the richest and poorest areas of rich countries. This study assesses whether one of the proposed explanations, i.e., population change, might be responsible for this increase in Spain. Methods: Observational study based on average income, population change and mortality at provincial level. The premature mortality rate (ages 0-74 years) was estimated for all causes and for cancer, cardiovascular disease and external...

  8. 肾移植受者死亡原因分析%Analysis of the death causes of renal transplantation recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林衔亮; 周浩; 吴琳; 谌泰春; 唐敏英; 尚乐乐; 江昌仁; 谭建明

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析肾移植受者死亡原因,为提高肾移植受者长期生存率提供参考.方法 回顾性分析1990年1月至2010年12月间进行的2656例同种异体肾移植手术,共死亡285例,按肾移植时的年份分为1990~1995年(A)、1996~2000年(B)、2001~2005(C)、2006~2010年(D)4组,分析比较各组死亡率变化趋势.统计不同时间段死亡例数及各死亡原因构成比,并将其分为移植肾失功能死亡组(n=181)和移植肾带功能死亡组(n=104),对两组死亡原因进行比较分析.结果 4组肾移植受者死亡率分别为:A组28.21%;B组15.57%;C组8.14%、D组3.41%,B、C、D组与A组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).27.72%(79例)患者于肾移植术后3个月内死亡,该期死亡的主要原因是慢性充血性心力衰竭、感染;15.79%(45例)患者于术后3~5年死亡,死亡的原因主要为感染、慢性充血性心力衰竭.前3位死亡原因分别是,失功能组:慢性充血性心力衰竭(74例,40.88%)、肺部感染(26例,14.36%)、药物性肝衰竭(18例,9.94%);带功能组:肺部感染(46例,44.23%)、药物性肝衰竭(21例,20.19%)、心血管意外(2例,占1.92%).结论 肾移植受者死亡率随时间的发展呈明显下降趋势,患者死亡有两个高峰期:第一个是术后3个月,第二个是术后3~5年,感染是移植肾带功能组死亡的最主要原因,因心血管疾病死亡的风险在移植肾失功的受者中显著增加,加强对肺部感染及慢性充血性心力衰竭等并发症的防治十分关键.%Objective To analysis the causes of death in recipients after kidney transplantation ,so as to provide reference to the improvement of long -term survival after kidney transplantation . Methods A retrospective analysis between January 1990 and December 2010 was performed on 2656 cases of renal transplantation operation in our hospital, a total of 285 cases of death, which were divided into four groups : 19904995 ( A) , 1996^000 ( B) ,2001 -2005(C) ,2006-2010(D

  9. Performance of InterVA for assigning causes of death to verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaxman Abraham D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background InterVA is a widely disseminated tool for cause of death attribution using information from verbal autopsies. Several studies have attempted to validate the concordance and accuracy of the tool, but the main limitation of these studies is that they compare cause of death as ascertained through hospital record review or hospital discharge diagnosis with the results of InterVA. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the performance of InterVA compared to physician-certified verbal autopsies (PCVA and alternative automated methods for analysis. Methods Using clinical diagnostic gold standards to select 12,542 verbal autopsy cases, we assessed the performance of InterVA on both an individual and population level and compared the results to PCVA, conducting analyses separately for adults, children, and neonates. Following the recommendation of Murray et al., we randomly varied the cause composition over 500 test datasets to understand the performance of the tool in different settings. We also contrasted InterVA with an alternative Bayesian method, Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP, to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the tool. Results Across all age groups, InterVA performs worse than PCVA, both on an individual and population level. On an individual level, InterVA achieved a chance-corrected concordance of 24.2% for adults, 24.9% for children, and 6.3% for neonates (excluding free text, considering one cause selection. On a population level, InterVA achieved a cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy of 0.546 for adults, 0.504 for children, and 0.404 for neonates. The comparison to SSP revealed four specific characteristics that lead to superior performance of SSP. Increases in chance-corrected concordance are attained by developing cause-by-cause models (2%, using all items as opposed to only the ones that mapped to InterVA items (7%, assigning probabilities to clusters of symptoms (6%, and using empirical

  10. 某医院3945份死亡病例死因分析%An Analysis on the cause of 3945 Death Cases in the Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文军; 谢建福; 于永; 孟岳良; 刘彬

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨地处四川境内某医院3945例住院病人的死亡原因及其分布特征.方法:对2000年~2010年经某医院3945份死亡病例资料进行分析.结果:住院死亡病例主要死因为:恶性肿瘤、呼吸系统疾病、脑血管疾病、肝脏疾病、心血管疾病、消化道疾病、意外死亡、肾病、骨病变.男性死亡病例均明显高于女性,45岁以上年龄组占3/4主体比重.结论:交通事故仍然是主要意外死因,值得警惕;西南地区人们喜辛辣食物、酗酒、熬夜等不良生活习惯增大了引发致死疾病的几率;政府应加大综合预防保健与健康生活方式的引导力度;医院也应开展主要致死疾病针对性研究,加强收治工作.%Objective: To investigate the cause of death and its distributive characteristics in 3945 death cases of the hospital located in sichuan province. Methods: We analyzed 3945 cases of death material of the hospital from 2000 to 2010. Results: We know the main causes of death: malignant tumor, respiratory system disease, cerebrovascular disease, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, accidental death, kidney, bone lesions. Male death cases are significantly higher than that in female, Above 45 years of age group accounts for 3 / 4 body proportion. Conclusion: The traffic accident is still the main accidental death, be worth vigilance. The bad habits of the people Located in the southwest region Eating spicy food, alcohol, staying up late increase triggered lethal disease risk. The government should increase the preventive health care and health lifestyle guide strength.The hospitals should also carry out the targeted research of the main lethal diseases.and strengthen the treatment work.

  11. Dreams of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Deirdre

    1989-01-01

    Examined frequency and characteristics of overt dreams of dying among healthy young adults. Dreams of dying were found to be rare but distinctive content category, representing overwhelmingly pleasant dreams. Over one-half of death dreams involved lengthy afterlife sequence, remainder focused on process of death. Death dreams of these healthy…

  12. 大鼠脊髓损伤后死亡原因分析%Analysis of death cause in rats with spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南国新; 覃佳强; 廖维宏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes for death in rats after spinal cord injury.Methods A total of 120 adult Wister rats were selected for the study. The animal model with acute spinal injury at T10 was established by using Allen' s combat (25 g · cm). The dissection analysis was performed in death rats. Results Of all, 25 patients died, with mortality rate of 21%. Of death rats, five rats were died before awakening, with no abnormal anatomy; 12 rats died within three days after injury and three died of injuries 3-7days injury. Anatomy found pulmonary bleeding and edema, even hematocele bladder in some rats. There were three rats died within 1-2 weeks, one died of injury only after 2-3 weeks, with lung infection and urinary tract infection. There was no death after three weeks. Conclusions The early causes for death of rats with spinal cord injury is mainly due to lung congestion and pulmonary edema, whereas the leading cause of late death of rats is pulmonary and urinary tract infection.%目的 探讨大鼠Allen脊髓损伤模型动物死亡的原因.方法 选用120只Wistar成年大鼠,采用Allen打击模型(25 g·cm),在T10段造成急性脊髓损伤,对损伤后死亡动物进行统计和解剖.结果 死亡25例,死亡率为21%,其中5只死于苏醒前,解剖未发现异常;12只死于损伤后3 d内,3只死于损伤后3~7 d,解剖发现肺部均有出血、水肿.部分动物有膀胱积血;3只死于8~14 d,1只死于损伤后15~21 d,解剖发现分别有肺部感染和泌尿系感染.3周后无死亡.结论大鼠Allen脊髓损伤模型动物早期死亡的主要原因是肺淤血和肺水肿,晚期死亡的主要原因是肺部和泌尿系感染.

  13. A hospital-based estimate of major causes of death among under-five children from a health facility in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria: possible indicators of health inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Bamgboye M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Current evidence on the root-causes of deaths among children younger than 5years is critical to direct international efforts to improve child survival, focus on health promotion and achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. We report a hospital-based estimate for 2005-2007 of the major causes of death in children in this age-group in south-west Nigeria. Methods We used retrospective data from the intensive care unit of a second-tier health facility to extract the presenting complaints, clinical diagnosis, treatment courses, prognosis and outcome among children aged 6—59months. SPSS-19 was used for data analysis. Results Of the 301 children (58% males, 42% females admitted into the ICU within the period of study, 173 (26% presented with complaints related to the gastrointestinal system, 138 (21% with respiratory symptoms and 196 (29% with complaints of fever. Overall, 708 investigations were requested for among which were full blood count (215, 30% and blood slides for malaria parasite (166, 23%. Infection ranked highest (181, 31% in clinicians’ diagnosis, followed by haematological health problems (109, 19% and respiratory illnesses (101, 17%. There were negative correlations between outcome of the illness and patient’s weight (r=-0.195, p=0.001 and a strong positive correlation between prognosis and outcome of admission (r=0.196, p=0.001. Of the 59 (20% children that died, presentation of respiratory tract illnesses were significantly higher in females (75% than in males (39% (χ²=7.06; p=0.008 and diagnoses related to gastrointestinal pathology were significantly higher in males (18% than in females (0% (χ²=4.07; p=0.05. Majority of the deaths (21% occurred among children aged 1.0 to 1.9years old and among weight group of 5.1-15.0kg. Conclusion The major causes of deaths among under-five years old originate from respiratory, gastrointestinal and infectious diseases – diseases that were recognized as major causes

  14. Approach to indicators of avoidable cause of death among infants in Sichuan province%四川省婴儿可避免死亡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋迎佳; 吴方银; 曹静; 赵梓伶; 熊庆

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To determine avoidable death indication among infants in Sichuan province and reduce mortality of infants.[Method]Relative risk(RR) of mortality in infants between USA and Sichuan, rural and urban areas of Sichuan were measured to determine avoidable death indicators among Sichuan province.[Results]Septicemia, pneumonia, diarrhea, tetanus, neonatal scleredema, intracerebral hemorrhage, Down's syndrome, birth asphyxia, accident suffocation, drowning, accident falling were considered as avoidable death causes of Sichuan province.[Conclusion]Avoidable causes of death mortality among infants in Sichuan should be controlled by medical intervention.%[目的]明确四川省婴儿可避免死亡指标,为制定该省婴儿死亡率的卫生政策和医疗保健措施提供一定的理论依据.[方法]根据Rutstein等提出的可避免死亡指标,采用四川省与美国、本省城乡婴儿死因死亡率对比,计算相对危险度.[结果]四川省婴儿可避免死因为:败血症、肺炎、腹泻、新生儿破伤风、新生儿硬肿症、颅内出血、先天愚型、出生窒息、意外窒息、溺水和意外跌落.[结论]要降低本省婴儿死亡率,应加强可避免死因疾病的控制.

  15. Analysis of the cause of death in 31 severe organophosphorus poisoning%重症有机磷中毒31例致死原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙陟中

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore cause of death and the lessons learned in critically ill patients with organophosphate poisoning.Methods The clinical manifestations,treatment,cause of death in 31 patients with severe organophosphate poisoning deaths were retrospectively analyzed.Results 31 deaths of patients,12 patients died of cholinergic crisis(38.70%),16 patients died of respiratory failure(51.61%),2 patients died of atropine intoxication (6.45%),1 patient died of the solution be excessive phosphorus(3.23%).6.01% incidence of intermediate syndrome,mortality was 16.94%.Conclusion Poison not completely clear,atropine and cholinesterase agents applied inappropriately,patients with mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure improper treatment,the merger is an important organ of the original basis of disease leading cause of death,accurately determine the condition is the key to reducing mortality.%目的 分析探讨重症有机磷中毒患者的致死原因及经验教训.方法 对31例重症有机磷中毒死亡病例的临床表现、治疗方法、致死原因进行回顾性分析.结果 31例死亡患者中,12例死于胆碱危象(38.70%),16例死于呼吸衰竭(51.61%),2例死于阿托品中毒(6.45%),1例死于解磷定过量(3.23%).中间综合征发生率为6.01%,病死率为16.94%.结论 毒物清除不彻底,阿托品与胆碱酯酶复能剂应用不当,对呼吸衰竭患者机械通气治疗方法不当,合并重要脏器原有基础病变是导致死亡的主要原因,准确判断病情是降低病死率的关键.

  16. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W

    2012-03-01

    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids.

  17. Plant programmed cell death caused by an autoactive form of Prf is suppressed by co-expression of the Prf LRR domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinran; Miao, Min; Ma, Xinrong; Liu, Yongsheng; Kuhl, Joseph C; Martin, Gregory B; Xiao, Fangming

    2012-09-01

    In tomato, the NBARC-LRR resistance (R) protein Prf acts in concert with the Pto or Fen kinase to determine immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Prf-mediated defense signaling is initiated by the recognition of two sequence-unrelated Pst-secreted effector proteins, AvrPto and AvrPtoB, by tomato Pto or Fen. Prf detects these interactions and activates signaling leading to host defense responses including localized programmed cell death (PCD) that is associated with the arrest of Pst growth. We found that Prf variants with single amino acid substitutions at D1416 in the IHD motif (isoleucine-histidine-aspartic acid) in the NBARC domain cause effector-independent PCD when transiently expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, suggesting D1416 plays an important role in activation of Prf. The N-terminal region of Prf (NPrf) and the LRR domain are required for this autoactive Prf cell death signaling but dispensable for accumulation of the Prf(D1416V) protein. Significantly, co-expression of the Prf LRR but not NPrf, with Prf(D1416V), AvrPto/Pto, AvrPtoB/Pto, an autoactive form of Pto (Pto(Y207D)), or Fen completely suppresses PCD. However, the Prf LRR does not interfere with PCD caused by Rpi-blb1(D475V), a distinct R protein-mediated PCD signaling event, or that caused by overexpression of MAPKKKα, a protein acting downstream of Prf. Furthermore, we found the Prf(D1416V) protein is unable to accumulate in plant cells when co-expressed with the Prf LRR domain, likely explaining the cell death suppression. The mechanism for the LRR-induced degradation of Prf(D1416V) is unknown but may involve interference in the intramolecular interactions of Prf or to binding of the unattached LRR to other host proteins that are needed for Prf stability.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Cronobacter turicensis LMG 23827, a Food-Borne Pathogen Causing Deaths in Neonates ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of Cronobacter turicensis, an opportunistic food-borne pathogen, which is known as a rare but important cause of life-threatening neonatal infections. Among all proteins of C. turicensis, 223 have been annotated as virulence- and disease-related proteins.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Cronobacter turicensis LMG 23827, a food-borne pathogen causing deaths in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Roger; Lehner, Angelika; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of Cronobacter turicensis, an opportunistic food-borne pathogen, which is known as a rare but important cause of life-threatening neonatal infections. Among all proteins of C. turicensis, 223 have been annotated as virulence- and disease-related proteins.

  20. 离休干部172例在院死亡疾病谱分析%Death causes of hospitalized retired military veterans:172 cases analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 拓西平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes of death of retired military veterans in who died in Changhai Hospital. Methods Causes of death were analyzed and sequenced based on the medical records of 172 inpatients who died in Changhai Hospital from March 1985 to January 2013. Results The five leading causes of death were Tumor (41.9%), nervous system (16.9%), circulatory system (15.7%), respiratory system (10.5%), and endocrine and metabolic diseases (7.6%). The five leading disease entities of death were tumor (42.4%), coronary heart disease (12.8%), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (8.7%), cerebral infarction (8.1%) and diabetes (7.6%). The eight leading causes of death in tumor due to tumors were lung cancer (35.6%), pancreatic cancer (9.6%), colorectal cancer and gastric cancer (both 8.2%), prostate cancer and liver cancer (both 5.5%), lymphoma and multiple myeloma (both 4.1%). Conclusion Tumor is the leading cause of death in hospitalized retired military veterans. And cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are also the primary causes of death in these elderly patients. So we should continue to strengthen the prevention and treatment of tumor and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.%目的:探讨在长海医院住院去世的上海军队离休干部的死亡原因及其变化趋势。方法选取1985年3月至2013年1月上海军队干休所死亡离休干部172例及其死亡登记表,分析死因顺位及死因构成比。结果1985年1月~2013年1月,该队列人群前5位死因构成比分别为:肿瘤(41.9%),神经系统疾病(16.9%),循环系统疾病(15.7%),呼吸系统疾病(10.5%)和内分泌、营养与代谢疾病(7.6%)。前5位死亡病种分类构成比分别为:肿瘤(42.4%),冠心病(12.8%),慢性阻塞性肺疾病(8.7%),脑梗死(8.1%)和2型糖尿病(7.6%)。肿瘤死亡顺位及构成比前8位分别为:肺癌(35.6%),胰腺癌(9.6%),

  1. [Death certificates of women in childbearing age: search for maternal deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana Marcos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flavia Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, there is a lack of complete records on death certificates, and its reliability is questioned, especially for causes attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. We investigated, based on death certificates of women in reproductive age, any fields for identifying maternal deaths. Documentary research, conducted in hospital records. We analyzed in death certificates, maternal and no maternal deaths, inconclusive deaths and hidden deaths. To analyze the underlying causes of death we used ICD 10th Revision. Of the 301 death certificates reviewed, 60% had the fields 43/44 completed, and 40% had these fields blank and/or ignored. We found 58.5% of no maternal deaths, 2% of maternal deaths and 39.5% inconclusive. The analysis of inconclusive deaths allowed us to classify 4.3% as hidden deaths. To overcome the incompletitudes of civil registries, it is necessary that all health professionals be committed to the reliability of the information, so the priority target could be reached.

  2. Multiple Analysis on the Death of Socrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽丽

    2015-01-01

    The death of Socrates is often associated with the death of Jesus, in order to highlight the important role of the death in the whole human civilization. people's thinking about the causes and meaning of the death has never stopped since Socrates was sentenced to death by the public trial court of Athens, with the majority of 361 to 140 in 399 BC. Many of the ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign philosophers, statesmen, ethicists, legistes have expressed their views on this affair.

  3. Survey of death causes of rubber workers in Hainan Province%海南省九个农场橡胶工人死因回顾性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕萍; 姚中吉; 何海武; 郑冰冰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨引起海南橡胶工人死亡的主要疾病及其影响因素,为橡胶行业职业防护提供依据.方法 本文对海南省橡胶行业2005~2010年海南9个橡胶厂工作时间满1年的在册职工采用流行病学回顾性队列研究方法进行调查.结果 6年间橡胶工人的前4位死因依次为恶性肿瘤(25.61%)、脑血管疾病(23.16%)、呼吸系疾病(19.33%)、心血管疾病(14.57%);男性前4位的恶性肿瘤为:肺癌、肝癌、胃癌、结直肠癌;女性前4位的恶性肿瘤为:乳腺癌、肺癌、肝癌、胃癌.结论 橡胶行业恶性肿瘤死亡有高发的趋势.%Objective To survey the leading diseases causing deaths in rubber workers in Hainan Province and provide evidence to occupational protection of rubber workers. Methods A retrospective cohort study on the death causes among ruber workers with the working age over a year in 9 rubber factories in Hainan Province in 2005-2010 was conducted and the results were analayzed. Results The leading death causes in rubber workers were in the descending order of malignant tumor (25.61% ),cerebrovascular disease (23.16% ),respiratory disorders (19.33% ),cardiovascular disease (14.57%). The 4 top death causes for males were in the descending order of lung cancer,liver cancer,stomach caner, colorectal cancer,while that for the female were breast cancer,lung cancer,liver cancer,stomach caner. Conclusions The mortality of malignant tumor in rubber workers in this province shows an increasing bend.

  4. Sudden unexpected infant death: differentiating natural from abusive causes in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Kirsten

    2012-10-01

    Sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) are deaths in infants younger than 12 months that occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and without obvious cause in the emergency department (ED). Sudden infant death syndrome, the leading cause of SUID in the United States, is much more common, but fatal child abuse and neglect have been sometimes mistaken for sudden infant death syndrome. The distinction between these 2 entities can only be made after a thorough investigation of the scene, interview of caregivers, and a complete forensic autopsy. Development of ED guidelines for the reporting and evaluation of SUID, in collaboration with the local medical examiner and child death review teams, will enable ED practitioners to collect important information in a compassionate manner that will be valuable to the investigating personnel.

  5. [Fetal death caused by myocarditis and isolated congenital auriculoventricular block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, G; Ferme, I; Morel, S; Batisse, J; Vuon, N P; Meyer, O

    1985-09-07

    A 26-year old woman gave birth, at term, to a child with isolated complete heart block. A second pregnancy was interrupted by foetal death. Among other immunological abnormalities, this young woman had an antibody resembling the anti-SS-B antibody. At pathological examination the foetus' heart was found to be free of malformation but presented with subacute myocarditis associated with microcalcifications of the conductive tissue. Such findings suggest that an incipient myocarditis may either result in foetal death or lead to fibrosis of conduction pathways with isolated complete heart block.

  6. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Zian; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fraser, Maya S.; Pullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hay, Simon I.; Huynh, Chantal; Johnson, Catherine; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Kutz, Michael; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Larson, Heidi J.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lind, Margaret; Lozano, Rafael; Marquez, Neal; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Roth, Gregory A.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Silpakit, Naris; Sligar, Amber; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Christopher; VanderZanden, Amelia; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wolock, Timothy; Zoeckler, Leo; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abreu, Daisy M. X.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akanda, All Shafqat; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alabed, Samer; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Aldridge, Robert William; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alexander, Lily T.; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anderson, Benjamin; Anderson, Gregory M.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aregay, Atsede Fantahun; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Arthur Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.; Awasthi, Ashish; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Belay, Haileeyesus Adamu; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Bello, Aminu K.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Biroscak, Brian J.; Biryukov, Stan; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Blosser, Christopher D.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borschmann, Rohan; Bose, Dipan; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Brewer, Jerry D.; Brown, Alexandria; Brown, Jonathan; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey Colin; Butt, Zahid A.; Calabria, Bianca; Campos-Novato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Oquela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cercy, Kelly; Cerda, Jorge; Chen, Wanqing; Chew, Adrienne; Chiang, Peggy Pei -Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Cohen, Aaron J.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cortinovis, Monica; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Crump, John A.; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Rakhi; Daoud, Farah; Darby, Sarah C.; Dargan, Paul I.; das Neves, Jose; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C.; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; de Castro, E. Filipa; de Jager, Pieter; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Ding, Eric L.; dos Santos, Kadine Priscila Bender; Dossou, Edem; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Bartholow, Bruce; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Lycke, Christian; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Fahimi, Saman; Jose, Emerito; Farid, Talha A.; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia e; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Flaxman, Abraham; Foigt, Nataliya; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franca, Elisabeth Barboza; Franklin, Richard C.; Friedman, Joseph; Frostad, Joseph; Hirst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gall, Seana L.; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Ganguly, Parthasarathi; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Gebre, Teshome; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tsewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Gilmour, Stuart; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Giussani, Giorgia; Glaser, Elizabeth; Godwin, William W.; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Greaves, Felix; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hancock, Jamie; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Heckbert, Susan R.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hilderink, Henk B. M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Hogg, Robert S.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Htet, Aung Soe; Than Htike, Maung Maung; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, Hsiang; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huybrechts, Inge; Huynh, Grace; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Iyer, Veena J.; Jacobs, Troy A.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; James, Peter; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jonas, Jost B.; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Kabir, Zubair; Karnak, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Kant, Surya; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Karletsos, Dimitris; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kasaeian, Amir; Katibeh, Marzieh; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khera, Sahil; Muthafer Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kissela, Brett M.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kudom, Andreas A.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lal, Aparna; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lam, Jennifer O.; Langan, Sinead M.; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Latif, Asma Abdul; Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz; Leigh, James; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yongmei; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lo, Loon-Tzian; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ma, Stefan; Pedro Machado, Vasco Manuel; Mackay, Mark T.; MacLachlan, Jennifer H.; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ayele Manamo, Wondimu Ayele; Mandisarisa, John; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David Joel; Martin, Gerard Robert; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Massano, Joao; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McGarvey, Stephen Theodore; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; McMahon, Brian J.; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mena-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Misganaw, Awoke; Mock, Charles N.; Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Karzan; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mola, Glen Liddell D.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Montero, Pablo; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Morawska, Lidia; Morgan, Katherine; Mori, Rintaro; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich; Satyanarayana Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata; Murthy, Srinivas; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naik, Nitish; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Subas; Newton, Charles R.; Newton, John N.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nkamedjie Pete, Patrick Martial; Nomura, Marika; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Paul E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Osman, Majdi; Ota, Erika; Ozdemir, Raziye; Pa, Mahesh; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Pant, Puspa Raj; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Park, Jae-Hyun; Parry, Charles D.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pearce, Neil; Pedro, Joao Mario; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frederic B.; Pillay, Julian David; Plass, Dietrich; Platts-Mills, James A.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, C. Arden; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajavi, Zhale; Rajsic, Sasa; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranabhat, Chhabi L.; Rangaswamy, Thara; Rao, Puja; Rao, Sowmya R.; Refaat, Amany H.; Rehm, Jurgen; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikofff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Blancas, Maria Jesus Rios; Roberts, Bayard; Roca, Anna; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Roy, Nawal K.; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Sagar, Rajesh; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Santos, Itamar S.; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Schaub, Michael P.; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schottker, Ben; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Shaddick, Gavin; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Shen, Ziyan; Shepard, Donald S.; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shetty, Balakrishna P.; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simard, Edgar P.; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Virendra; Soneji, Samir; Soreide, Kjetil; Soriano, Joan B.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stranges, Saverio; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Takala, Jukka S.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tandon, Nikhil; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tefera, Worku Mekonnen; Ten Have, Margreet; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tirschwell, David L.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Nx, Jeffrey Allen Towb; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach Xuan; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Tura, Abera Kenay; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Van Dingenen, Rita; Van Donkelaar, Aaron; Vasankari, Tommi; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vidavalur, Ramesh; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Watkins, David A.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; White, Richard A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Wong, John Q.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Xavier, Denis; Xiao, Qingyang; Xu, Gelin; Yakob, Bereket; Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yip, Paul; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yonga, Gerald; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Shicheng; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zannad, Faiez; Zavala, Diego E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Zeleke, Berihun M.; Zhang, Hao; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes

  7. 运动猝死和运动性晕厥的原因及防治%Causes and Prevention of Exercise-related Sudden Death and Syncope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常晓燕

    2011-01-01

    Exercise-related sudden death and syncope is a hot topic in recent years. There are many causes of the exercise-related sudden death, among which cardiovascular disease is the major cause; there are many causes of the exercise-related syncope,including sharp blood pressure drop,insufficient blood supply to brain due to reduced cardiac output and neural regulation dysfunction,which can be references for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Prevention, such as periodical health check,strengthening health assessment and approporiate excercises, may reduce the occurrence of such incidents.%运动猝死及运动性晕厥事件是近年讨论的热点话题.运动猝死的病因很多,其中心血管系统疾病是运动猝死的主要原因,运动性晕厥的原因很多,一般是由于包括心排血量降低、神经调节功能障碍等引起的血压急剧下降、脑供血不足,为临床诊疗提供一定的参考依据.通过预防会减少这类事件的发生,比如定期体检,加强健康评估,适当运动等.

  8. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality...

  9. Distinct CPT-induced deaths in lung cancer cells caused by clathrin-mediated internalization of CP micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Ru-You; Lo, Yu-Lun; Hsu, Chin; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-02-01

    We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of poly(ε-caprolactone) (18.7 mol%), which self-assembled in water into a rod-like micelle to encapsulate hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT) in the core (micelle/CPT) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. As a result of the recognition of the micelle by CD44, the micelle/CPT entered CRL-5802 cells efficiently and released CPT efficaciously, resulting in higher tumor suppression than commercial CPT-11. In this study, H1299 cells were found to have a higher CD44 expression than CRL-5802 cells. However, the lower CD44-expressing CRL-5802 cells had a higher percentage of cell death and higher cellular uptake of the micelle/CPT than the higher CD44-expressing H1299 cells. Examination of the internalization pathway of the micelle/CPT in the presence of different endocytic chemical inhibitors showed that the CRL-5802 cells involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was not found in the H1299 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle of the two cell lines exposed to the micelle/CPT revealed that the CRL-5802 cells arrested mainly in the S phase and the H1299 cells arrested mainly in the G2-M phase. A consistent result was also found in the evaluation of γ-H2AX expression, which was about three-fold higher in the CRL-5802 cells than in the H1299 cells. A near-infrared dye, IR780, was encapsulated into the micelle to observe the in vivo biodistribution of the micelle/IR780 in tumor-bearing mice. The CRL-5802 tumor showed a higher fluorescence intensity than the H1299 tumor at any tracing time after 1 h. Thus we tentatively concluded that CRL-5802 cells utilized the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway and arrested in the S phase on exposure to the micelle/CPT; all are possible reasons for the better therapeutic outcome in CRL-5802 cells than in H1299 cells.We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of

  10. 重型颅脑损伤死亡原因分析%Causes of death in severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红雨

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨重型颅脑损伤患者的死亡原因.方法 回顾分析本院2004年2月至2009年6月60例重型颅脑损伤患者的临床资料.结果 入院后1d内死亡15例.1~3d 18例,4~7d 22例,超过7d 5例,最短30min,最长115d.脑损伤过重致中枢性呼吸循环衰竭死亡49例,严重合并伤伴休克死亡4例,急性神经源性肺水肿死亡2例,水、电解质酸碱平衡紊乱死亡2例,严重肺部感染死亡2例,长期消耗衰竭死亡1例.结论 对于重型颅脑损伤者应积极救治,及时纠正休克,减少继发性损伤,对症支持治疗,积极防治并发症,重视营养支持,以降低重型颅脑损伤患者的死亡率.%Objective To explore patients with severe head injury the cause of death. Methods Retrospective analysis of our hospital from February 2004 to June 2009 totally 60 patients with severe traumatic brain injury clinical data. Results At admission 15 patients died within 1 day, 1 day to 3 days in 18 cases, 4 days to 7 days in 22 cases, more than 7 days in 5 cases, the shortest 30min, the longest 115 days. Brain damage caused by excessive death of central respiratory and circulatory failure, 49 patients with severe shock and death associated injuries, 4 cases of acute neurogenic pulmonary edema, 2 patients died, water, electrolyte acid - base balance disorders 2 deaths, 2 serious lung infection death cases, long- term consumption of failure, 1 died. Conclusions For severe brain injury treatment should be actively and promptly to correct shock and reduce secondary injury, symptomatic and supportive treatment, and actively prevent complications, attention to nutritional support to reduce mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

  11. HIV感染者/AIDS病人死亡原因的研究进展%Analysis of the causes of death of HIV infectors/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞芳; 刘中夫

    2013-01-01

    近年来,随着越来越多的艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者进入艾滋病(AIDS)发病期,越来越多的感染者死于AIDS相关疾病.另外,随着抗病毒治疗的覆盖率不断扩大,HIV感染者/AIDS病人死于AIDS相关疾病的比例不断降低,而死于其他非AIDS相关疾病的比例却不断升高.文章就当前国内外对HIV感染者/AIDS病人死亡原因的有关研究进展进行综述,为医疗机构加强和提高对重点疾病的诊疗技术水平提供理论支持,也为中国AIDS死因监测的建立提供理论依据.%In recent years, an increasing number of HIV infectors died of AIDS related diseases because more and more HIV infections are progressing into AIDS stage. Furthermore, along with the expanding of antiretroviral therapy coverage, the proportion of HIV infectors/AIDS patients who died of AIDS related diseases was decreasing while the proportion of deaths of non-AIDS related diseases was rising continuously. This paper reviews domestic and oversea reports about progress in researches on the causes of death of HIV infectors/AIDS patients. Hopefully it could provide theoretical support and evidence for medical care facilities to strengthen and enhance their diagnostic and therapeutic ability and also for the establishment of AIDS related death monitoring system in China.

  12. Scintigraphic evaluation of brain death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A law recognizing brain death is a life saving legal measure in patients suffering from badly diseased organs such as kidney, liver, heart, and lung. Such law is being discussed for legalization at the Korean National Assembly. There are various criteria used for brain death in western world and brain scintiscan is one of them. However, the scintiscan is not considered in establishing brain death in the draft of the law. The purpose of this report is to spread this technique in nuclear medicine society as well as in other medical societies. We evaluated 7 patients with clinical suspicion of brain death by various causes. The patient's age ranged from 5 to 39 years. We used 5-20mCi {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (d.1-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) or ECD (Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer), lipophilic agents that cross BBB (blood brain barrier). A dynamic study followed by static or SPECT (single photon emission tomography) was performed. Interpretive criteria used for brain death were 1) no intracranial circulation 2) no brain uptake. The second criteria is heavily used. Five of 7 patients were scintigraphically brain dead and the remaining 2 had some brain uptake excluding the diagnosis of scintigraphic brain death. In conclusion, cerebral perfusion study using a lipophilic brain tracer offers a noninvasive, rapid, easy, accurate and reliable mean in the diagnosis of brain death. We believe that this modality should be included in the criteria of brain death in the draft of the proposed Korean law.

  13. The politics of underdevelopment: metered to death-how a water experiment caused riots and a cholera epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Water privatization programs in South Africa, part of a government policy aimed at making people pay for the full cost of running water ("total cost recovery"), was developed by private water companies and the World Bank to finance improved water supplies and build the country's economy. Instead the programs are causing more misery than development. Millions of poor people have had their water supply cut off because of inability to pay, forcing them to get their water from polluted rivers and lakes and leading to South Africa's worst cholera outbreak--which the government paid millions of dollars to control. Residents in some townships are rebelling, and many of the private multinational water companies are reassessing their involvement in South Africa.

  14. Expression analysis of programmed death ligand 2 in tumors caused by the avian oncovirus Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama-Kato, Ayumi; Murata, Shiro; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Takasaki, Sarah; Kano, Rika; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-08-01

    PD-L2 is a ligand of the immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1. Here, we report functional and expression analyses of PD-L2 in tumor lesions and spleens from chickens infected with gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, Marek's disease virus), which induces malignant lymphomas in chickens. We show that the expression of IFN-γ protein was decreased in PBMCs and splenocytes co-cultured with PD-L2-expressing cells and that the expression of PD-L2 mRNA was significantly higher in the spleens of infected chickens in the latent phase and in tumor lesions caused by GaHV-2. These results suggest that chicken PD-L2 has an immunoinhibitory function and is involved in the establishment of latency and tumor formation by GaHV-2.

  15. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  16. The Effects of Death Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Carl B.; Hassler, Shawn David

    Although fear of death is recorded in the writings of the oldest major religions, the study of death and the fear of death have only occurred for the last few decades. Death education courses have grown in number since the early 1970's. College students participated in an investigation of the effects of death education on death anxiety by…

  17. Cytokine response during non-cerebral and cerebral malaria: evidence of a failure to control inflammation as a cause of death in African adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhya Dieye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. With 214 million cases and 438,000 deaths in 2015, malaria remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases in tropical countries. Several species of the protozoan Plasmodium cause malaria. However, almost all the fatalities are due to Plasmodium falciparum, a species responsible for the severest cases including cerebral malaria. Immune response to Plasmodium falciparum infection is mediated by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors whose actions are crucial for the control of the parasites. Following this response, the induction of anti-inflammatory immune mediators downregulates the inflammation thus preventing its adverse effects such as damages to various organs and death. Methods. We performed a retrospective, nonprobability sampling study using clinical data and sera samples from patients, mainly adults, suffering of non-cerebral or cerebral malaria in Dakar, Sénégal. Healthy individuals residing in the same area were included as controls. We measured the serum levels of 29 biomarkers including growth factors, chemokines, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Results. We found an induction of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators during malaria. The levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers were higher in the cerebral malaria than in the non-cerebral malaria patients. In contrast, the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines were comparable in these two groups or lower in CM patients. Additionally, four pro-inflammatory biomarkers were significantly increased in the deceased of cerebral malaria compared to the survivors. Regarding organ damage, kidney failure was significantly associated with death in adults suffering of cerebral malaria. Conclusions. Our results suggest that a poorly controlled inflammatory response determines a bad outcome in African adults suffering of cerebral malaria.

  18. Plant Programmed Cell Death Caused by an Autoactive Form of Prf Is Suppressed by Co-Expression of the Prf LRR Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinran Du; Min Miao; Xinrong Ma; Yongsheng Liu; Joseph C.Kuhl; Gregory B.Martin; Fangming Xiao

    2012-01-01

    In tomato,the NBARC-LRR resistance (R) protein Prf acts in concert with the Pto or Fen kinase to determine immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato (Pst).Prf-mediated defense signaling is initiated by the recognition of two sequence-unrelated Pst-secreted effector proteins,AvrPto and AvrPtoB,by tomato Pto or Fen.Prf detects these interactions and activates signaling leading to host defense responses including localized programmed cell death (PCD) that is associated with the arrest of Pst growth.We found that Prf variants with single amino acid substitutions at D1416 in the IHD motif (isoleucine-histidine-aspartic acid) in the NBARC domain cause effector-independent PCD when transiently expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana,suggesting D1416 plays an important role in activation of Prf.The N-terminal region of Prf (NPrf) and the LRR domain are required for this autoactive Prf cell death signaling but dispensable for accumulation of the PrfD1416V protein.Significantly,co-expression of the Prf LRR but not NPrf,with PrfD1416V,AvrPto/Pto,AvrPtoB/Pto,an autoactive form of Pto (PtoY207D),or Fen completely suppresses PCD.However,the Prf LRR does not interfere with PCD caused by Rpi-blb1D475V,a distinct R protein-mediated PCD signaling event,or that caused by overexpression of MAPKKKα,a protein acting downstream of Prf.Furthermore,we found the PrfD1416V protein is unable to accumulate in plant cells when co-expressed with the Prf LRR domain,likely explaining the cell death suppression.The mechanism for the LRR-induced degradation of PrfD1416V is unknown but may involve interference in the intramolecular interactions of Prf or to binding of the unattached LRR to other host proteins that are needed for Prf stability.

  19. A elaboração de estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas múltiplas Mortality statistics according to multiple causes of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das possibilidades permitidas pelo avanço tecnológico é o estudo da mortalidade por causas múltiplas em contraposição à estatística feita por uma única causa, a chamada causa básica de morte. O conhecimento das várias doenças que contribuem para uma morte permite que seja avaliada a importância das causas que normalmente não estariam privilegiadas nas estatísticas porque são doenças não caracterizadas como causa básica. Um exemplo é a mortalidade por infarto do miocárdio em pessoas com diabetes mellitus. Este último, neste caso e em outros semelhantes, poderá não ser considerado nas estatísticas, enquanto o infarto o será. Desta forma, no exemplo citado, analisando apenas a causa básica, perde-se a informação sobre a magnitude do diabetes e sua relação com as complicações que levam à morte. A idéia da elaboração de estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas múltiplas não é nova. No entanto não é realizada de forma sistemática, ainda que vários estudos mostrem suas vantagens. Entre essas vantagens estão a possibilidade de descobrir novas associações de doenças; conhecer informações sobre a natureza das lesões em casos de morte por causas externas (acidentes e violências, entre outras. A existência de computadores e de programas específicos para a elaboração das estatísticas de mortalidade, atualmente em uso, deve permitir que essa idéia seja colocada em prática e que, a partir das estatísticas de mortalidade por causas múltiplas, possibilite melhores e mais específicas ações de saúde.The introduction of new technology has made it possible to study multiple causes of death as opposed to mortality statistics based only on the underlying cause of death. The knowledge of all diseases that contribute to one death allows the assessment of the importance of causes that frequently do not appear in mortality statistics, because of those diseases that are not characterized as the

  20. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  1. 老年公寓老年人死亡原因分析%Analysis on the death causes of elderly people in nursing home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽梅; 郝惠云; 李青

    2012-01-01

      目的:调查分析入住老年公寓的老年人死亡的主要原因,促进社会化养老的发展.方法:对2008年1月至2011年12月入住我院老年公寓老年人用自制一般情况调查表、《日常生活能力量表》(ADL)进行调查,对死亡前的表现及导致死亡的主要原因进行统计分析.结果:死亡组:平均年龄(79.97±6.79)岁,较总体平均年龄无明显差异;ADL评分明显增高,为(45.00±10.32)分.导致死亡的主要原因是:多脏器功能衰竭(19例)、心力衰竭(9例)、癌症(4例)、猝死(3例).慢性衰竭患者濒死的主要表现是:四肢皮肤湿冷、腕处脉搏上移、额纹舒展、潮式呼吸等.结论:入住我院老年公寓的老年人患病种类多,主要死亡原因是各种疾病导致的脏器(特别是心脏)功能衰竭,应加强养老机构的医疗服务(特别是抢救)能力.%  Objective:To investigate the main causes of death of elderly people in nursing home,promote the development of the social pen-sion.Methods: With a general survey table designed by ourselves and ADL, a survey was made on the elderly people who lived in the nursing home affili-ated to our hospital during the time between January 2008 and December 2011,then we made a statistic analysis on the behavior or character of the dying and the main causes to the death.Results:The average age of the dead group is (79.97 ±6.79) years old, which has no obvious difference compared to the general age of all the elderly people in the nursing home.ADL score of the dead group is up to (45.00 ±10.23) points, while the general score is (32.97 ±11.46)points.The main causes for the death are multiple organ failure(19 cases), heart failure(9 cases), cancer(4 cases),sudden death(3 cases).The main performance of dying patients with chronic organ failure is usually in the state of clammy arms and legs ,wrist pulse shift,flattening fore-head wrinkles and tidal breathing.Conclusion:The elderly

  2. Undetermined Manner of Death: An Autopsy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advenier, Anne-Sophie; Guillard, Nadege; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Martrille, Laurent; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2016-01-01

    A manner of death may be ruled undetermined by the forensic pathologist when there is insufficient information about the circumstances surrounding the death to make a ruling. The aim of our study was to retrospectively analyze a series of autopsy cases that were classified as undetermined manner of death after complete investigations. In all, 48 cases were examined. In 23 cases (48%), the cause of death was determined. The most frequent cause of death was toxic death (n = 11). More than one manner of death was deemed conceivable for most cases (n = 39). The most frequent and the most probable manner of death was accident (n = 37). Homicide was not excluded in about 23% of the cases. Our study showed that the manner of death may remain undetermined despite an established cause of death, and even when two or more conceivable causes of death are considered. Our study pointed out that undetermined manner of death covers a wide range of situations and that homicide may be underestimated.

  3. Analysis on Death Causes of Malignant Tumors in Jinhua Death Surveillance Area from 2006 -2010%金华市监测区居民恶性肿瘤死因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2006-2010年金华市居民恶性肿瘤死亡水平及其变化趋势,为恶性肿瘤的防治决策提供科学依据.方法 对2006-2010年金华市3个死因监测区死因监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2006-2010年金华市居民恶性肿瘤平均死亡率为160.23/10万,标化死亡率为128.54/10万;男性死亡率为209.48/10万,女性死亡率为108.96/10万.恶性肿瘤排名前5位是肺癌、肝癌、胃癌、结肠直肠肛门癌和食管癌.不同类别恶性肿瘤变化趋势不同,肺癌和结肠直肠肛门癌呈上升趋势,而肝癌和胃癌死亡率基本维持在稳定水平,食管癌则呈下降趋势.不同年龄组恶性肿瘤死因不同,且死亡率随着年龄增长而升高.结论 恶性肿瘤已成为疾病负担加重的主要疾病,严重危害金华市居民的生命和健康.今后要从加强健康教育,建立良好生活方式,提高居民整体健康水平.%Objective To analyze the death causes of malignant tumors in the death surveillance area of Jinhua and provide the basis for the prevention and control of malignant tumors. Methods Mortality rate, standardized mortality rate were used to analyze death cause of malignant tumors. Results The annual average mortality of malignant tumors was 160. 23/105 , and the standardized mortality rate was 128. 54/105. The mortality of malignant tumors was 209. 48/105 in males and 108.96/10' in females, respectively. The top five death causes of malignant tumors were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, colon and recta cancer, and esophagus cancer. From 2006 to 2010, the mortality rates of lung cancer and colon and rectal cancer increased while liver cancer and stomach cancer remained stable, and the esophagus cancer was reduced. The mortality varied in different age groups. Conclusion Malignant tumors has become a burdensome common disease which occurs frequently and threatens people' s health in Jinhua area.

  4. Mortalidade por causas violentas no município de São Paulo, Brasil: III - mortes intencionais Causes of violent, deaths in the municipal region of S. Paulo, Brazil: III - intentional deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena P. de Mello Jorge

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados óbitos por causas violentas - estando descritas as mortes intencionais: suicídios e homicídios - no município de São Paulo (Brasil, com o objetivo de caracterizar essa mortalidade segundo as reais causas de morte, relacionando-as com variáveis consideradas importantes do ponto de vista epidemiológico. Os resultados evidenciaram um declínio das taxas de mortalidade por suicídio, entre 1960 e 1975, enquanto que, para os homicídios, os coeficientes cresceram de 5,18 a 9,35 por cem mil habitantes. Quanto à distribuição segundo sexo e idade, os coeficientes de mortalidade por suicídio foram crescentes com a idade no sexo masculino, sendo que entre as mulheres houve um pico no grupo etário de 20 a 29 anos. Nos homicídios, os coeficientes do sexo masculino foram maiores que os do feminino, numa relação aproximada de 7:1, em qualquer dos anos analisados. Foram estudados ainda os meios utilizados para a realização desses eventos, sendo que, com relação aos homicídios, a arma de fogo foi sempre o meio preferido: seus coeficientes cresceram 268% do início para o fim do período estudado. O trabalho mostra ainda o comportamento dos suicídios e homicídios segundo dias da semana, meses do ano e hora e local de sua realização.Deaths resulting from violent causes, specifically those due to suicide and homicide, in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, are described by classifying them in terms of their real causes and by establishing the relationship between these causes and the variables considered important from the epidemiological standpoint. The results show a decline in the suicide rate between 1960 and 1975; during the same period, however, the rate for homicides increased from 5.18 to 9.35 per hundred thousand inhabitants. The mortality rate for suicides among men increased in the older age brackets, contrary to that for women which peaked in the 20-29 bracket. The statistics on homicides showed that the death rate for

  5. Deletion of apolipoprotein E receptor-2 in mice lowers brain selenium and causes severe neurological dysfunction and death when a low-selenium diet is fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Raymond F; Hill, Kristina E; Olson, Gary E; Weeber, Edwin J; Motley, Amy K; Winfrey, Virginia P; Austin, Lori M

    2007-06-01

    Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is a plasma and extracellular protein that is rich in selenium. Deletion of Sepp1 results in sharp decreases of selenium levels in the brain and testis with dysfunction of those organs. Deletion of Sepp1 also causes increased urinary selenium excretion, leading to moderate depletion of whole-body selenium. The lipoprotein receptor apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (apoER2) binds Sepp1 and facilitates its uptake by Sertoli cells, thus providing selenium for spermatogenesis. Experiments were performed to assess the effect of apoER2 on the concentration and function of selenium in the brain and on whole-body selenium. ApoER2-/- and apoER2+/+ male mice were fed a semipurified diet with selenite added as the source of selenium. ApoER2-/- mice had depressed brain and testis selenium, but normal levels in liver, kidney, muscle, and the whole body. Feeding a selenium-deficient diet to apoER2-/- mice led to neurological dysfunction and death, with some of the characteristics exhibited by Sepp1-/- mice fed the same diet. Thus, although it does not affect whole-body selenium, apoER2 is necessary for maintenance of brain selenium and for prevention of neurological dysfunction and death under conditions of selenium deficiency, suggesting an interaction of apoER2 with Sepp1 in the brain.

  6. Death Cause Analysis and Intervention Measures of Children%儿童死亡原因分析及干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓洁; 毕珍; 李明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the mortality of children under 5 years of age and the main cause of death,the intervention measures, reduce the mortality of children under 5 years of age. Methods from 2008 to 2012 in Kunming city hospital for children below 5 years old the cause of death and mortality were analyzed. Results the mortality rate of children under 5 years old in 2012 (169 cases) than in 2008 (262 cases) fel 35.50% in 449 cases,accounting for 43.76%; 1 years old the fol owing 335, accounting for 32.65%,5 years old the fol owing 242 accounting for 23.59%;wherein the pre-hospital death in 442 cases,accounting for 43.78%. The main disease caused the death of children under the age of 5 asphyxia,pneumonia,infection of central nerve system,premature delivery or low birth weight,congenital anomalies,accounting for 89.96% of the total number of deaths. Conclusion the key to reduce the mortality of children under the age of 5 is to reduce the neonatal mortality and hospital. Strengthen maternal and neonatal care,improve the quality of Obstetrics,early intervention,strengthening the construction of grass-roots health institutions,publicity through various channels and in various forms, so that the grass-roots medical staf and parents do early prevention,early diagnosis and early treatment of diseases of children and children under 5 years old from reduced mortality.%目的:分析5岁以下儿童死亡率及主要死亡原因,提出干预措施,降低5岁以下儿童死亡率。方法对2008~2012年昆明市儿童医院5岁以下儿童死亡原因及病死率进行分析。结果5岁以下儿童病死率2012年(169例)比2008年(262例)下降了35.50%,新生儿449例,占43.76%;1岁以下335例,占32.65%,5岁以下242例,占23.59%;其中院前死亡442例,占43.78%。导致5岁以下儿童死亡的主要疾病为窒息、肺炎、中枢感染、早产或低出生体重和先天异常,占死亡总数的89.96%。结论降低5岁以下儿童死

  7. 2008年浙江省金华市居民死亡原因分析%Death causes of residents in Jinhua city in Zhejiang province,2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申屠平平; 郭莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the health status and deaths caused by major diseases of the residents in Iinhua, and provide scientific evidence for the development of health regulation and disease prevention and control strategy. Methods The analysis was conduaed on the data of resident death and demography surveillance in 2008 in Jinhua. The death causes were classified according to International Classification of Diseases. lOth edition (ICD - l0). The standardization of mortality was conducted on the basis of the age constituent of national population census in 2000 , and the rates of years of potential life lost (YPLL) of diseases were calculated. Results The crude mortality of the residents was 647.26/lakh in 2008 , the standardized mortality was 393. 05/lakh and the male to female ratio of the deaths was 1. 34∶ 1. The first five death causes were malignant tumor (167. 31/lakh) , cerebrovascular disease ( 124.98/lakh ) , respiratory diseases ( 105.O1/lakh) ,injury/poisoning ( 80.27/lakh) and heart disease ( 68.19/lakh). YPLL analysis showed that malignant tumor , injury/poisoning and cerebrovascular disease were the major factors to reduce life expectancy of residents in Jinhua.Conclusion Chronic non-communicable diseases and injury/poisoning have become the serious risk factors to affect the health of the residents in Jinhua. It is necessary to carry out health education and health promotion to strengthen self-care awareness of the residents and reduce the incidence of chronic disease and poisoning.%目的 了解金华市居民的健康状况和主要疾病死亡原因,为政府相关部门制定卫生规划和疾病预防控制策略提供参考依据.方法 对2008年金华市居民死亡及人口监测资料进行统计分析,采用国际疾病分类法(ICD-10)进行编码,以2000年全国人口普查年龄构成标准进行死亡率的标化,进一步计算各种死亡疾病的减寿率.结果 2008年金华市人群粗死亡率为647.26/10

  8. 宜兴市310例围产儿死亡原因分析%Analysis on the causes of 310 perinatal deaths in Yixing city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓玲; 王晓珂; 蒋利伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To research the related causes of perinatal death , put forward intervention measures , improve the quality of perinatal health care and reduce perinatal mortality. Methods : 310 perinatal deaths in Yixing city from 2007 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively . Results : The average perinatal mortality was 5.165‰ during the 6 years . Among them ,there were 196 cases of at least 28 weeks stil birth , the proportion of it was 63.33% . Next there were 93 cases of neonatal deaths and 21 cases of stil birth , the proportion of them were 30% and 6.77% . In order of priority, the main reasons of perinatal death are birth defects , umbilical factors and preterm low birth weight. Conclusion: The measures to decrease perinatal mortality include strengthening caring during pregnancy , managing high-risk puerpera wel , taking interventional measures , making the best of pregestational check-up , obviating premature delivery , preventing pregnant complications and combinations .%目的研究围产儿死亡相关原因,推出相应干预对策,提高围产保健工作,降低围产儿死亡率。方法对宜兴市2007~2012年310例围产儿死亡病例资料进行回顾性分析。结果6年内围产儿平均死亡率5.165‰,其中满28周死胎有196例,占63.33%,其次是新生儿死亡有93例,占30%,死产21例,占6.77%,导致围产儿死亡的主要原因依次为出生缺陷、脐带因素及早产低出生体重。结论加强孕期保健,做好高危孕产妇管理,采取干预措施,做好产前筛查,避免早产,防止妊娠并发症和合并症的发生,降低围产儿死亡率。

  9. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suerialoasan Navanesan

    Full Text Available Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae, locally known as 'Senna makki' is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1 were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299 using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death.

  10. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa: a multicountry survey in the antiretroviral treatment era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lewden

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to describe the morbidity and mortality patterns in HIV-positive adults hospitalized in West Africa. Method: We conducted a six-month prospective multicentre survey within the IeDEA West Africa collaboration in six adult medical wards of teaching hospitals in Abidjan, Ouagadougou, Cotonou, Dakar and Bamako. From April to October 2010, all newly hospitalized HIV-positive patients were eligible. Baseline and follow-up information until hospital discharge was recorded using standardized forms. Diagnoses were reviewed by a local event validation committee using reference definitions. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were studied with a logistic regression model. Results: Among 823 hospitalized HIV-positive adults (median age 40 years, 58% women, 24% discovered their HIV infection during the hospitalization, median CD4 count was 75/mm3 (IQR: 25–177 and 48% had previously received antiretroviral treatment (ART. The underlying causes of hospitalization were AIDS-defining conditions (54%, other infections (32%, other diseases (8% and non-specific illness (6%. The most frequent diseases diagnosed were: tuberculosis (29%, pneumonia (15%, malaria (10% and cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%. Overall, 315 (38% patients died during hospitalization and the underlying cause of death was AIDS (63%, non-AIDS-defining infections (26%, other diseases (7% and non-specific illness or unknown cause (4%. Among them, the most frequent fatal diseases were: tuberculosis (36%, cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%, cryptococcosis (9% and sepsis (7%. Older age, clinical WHO stage 3 and 4, low CD4 count, and AIDS-defining infectious diagnoses were associated with hospital fatality. Conclusions: AIDS-defining conditions, primarily tuberculosis, and bacterial infections were the most frequent causes of hospitalization in HIV-positive adults in West Africa and resulted in high in-hospital fatality. Sustained efforts are needed to integrate care of these

  11. Molecular identification of bacteria by total sequence screening: determining the cause of death in ancient human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thèves

    Full Text Available Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. Using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern Siberia, dating from the end of 17(th to the 19(th century, we propose a methodology that includes the: 1 amplification of all 16S rDNA gene sequences present in each sample; 2 identification of all bacterial DNA sequences with a degree of identity ≥ 95%, according to quality criteria; 3 identification and confirmation of bacterial pathogens by the amplification of the rpoB gene; and 4 establishment of authenticity criteria for ancient DNA. This study demonstrates that from teeth samples originating from ancient human subjects, we can realise: 1 the correct identification of bacterial molecular sequence signatures by quality criteria; 2 the separation of environmental and pathogenic bacterial 16S rDNA sequences; 3 the distribution of bacterial species for each subject and for each burial; and 4 the characterisation of bacteria specific to the permafrost. Moreover, we identified three pathogens in different teeth samples by 16S rDNA sequence amplification: Bordetella sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae. We tested for the presence of these pathogens by amplifying the rpoB gene. For the first time, we confirmed sequences from Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of an ancient male Siberian subject, whose grave dated from the end of the 17(th century to the early 18(th century.

  12. INCODE-DK 2014. Classification of cause of intrauterine fetal death – a new approach to perinatal audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Ramsing, Mette; Olsen, Tina Elisabeth

    on a national level as described in the national guideline for IUFD. Multidisciplinary perinatal audit is an important tool in the evaluation of stillbirth, however, the establishment of the C-IUFD has until now been hampered by the lack of a recommended classification system. Material and methods...... With the intention of improving the evaluation process for IUFD a working group of fetal pathologists and obstetricians was established in 2013 by the Danish Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecology (DSOG) and the Danish Pathology Society (DPAS). Two selected modern international classification systems (CODAC......) was developed by translation and adaptation to Danish conditions on the basis of updated literature. The section on placental pathology was adapted to the recent Danish guideline for placental examination 2013. In addition a new perinatal audit scheme (INCODE perinatal audittabel 2014) was created based...

  13. 2010年成都市户籍人口主要死因%Major Causes of Death of Residents in Chengdu, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖江; 冯曦兮; 何燕; 姚思君

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析居民死因顺位、减寿顺位居前列的死亡原因在城乡、性别的分布差异.方法 利用2010年成都市死因监测资料,和成都市公安局公布的同期户籍人口数,编制寿命表和去死因寿命表,采用直接标化法计算城乡、性别标化死亡率后,比较其差异.结果 居民死因顺位前5位、减寿前5位、去死因期望寿命增加最多前5位疾病是恶性肿瘤、呼吸系统疾病、脑血管病、心脏病和损伤和中毒.恶性肿瘤以肺癌、肝癌、胃癌为首,死亡率男性高于女性,肺癌死亡率城市高于农村,肝癌、胃癌死亡率农村高于城市.慢性下呼吸道疾病、脑血管病死亡率都是农村高于城市,男性高于女性.心脏病死亡率城市高于农村,男性高于女性.损伤和中毒死亡率男性高于女性,农村高于城市,在顺位和构成上农村和城市、男性和女性有差异.结论 成都市居民影响期望寿命的主要疾病为恶性肿瘤、呼吸系统疾病、脑血管病、心脏病和损伤和中毒,不同地区和性别人群应对不同的重点疾病采取的措施,降低死亡率,提高期望寿命.%Objective To analyze the difference between causes of death which were forfrount in the rank of death cause and years of life lost in urban and rural areas, and between males and females. Methods Used of death cause monitoring data in 2010 of Chengdu, and the household population announced by Chengdu Public Security Bureau earlier, established the life tables and cause eliminated life table, calculated the urban and rural, sexual standardized death rate by using direct method of standardization, then compared the differences. Results The top 5 causes of death, years of life lost and cause eliminated life expectancy increasing were cancer, respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, injury and poisoning. Cancer was mainly in lung, liver, stomach, and the mortality rate of males was higher than females, lung

  14. Brain death is not death: a critique of the concept, criterion, and tests of brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests that there are insurmountable problems for brain death as a criterion of death. The following are argued: (1) brain death does not meet an accepted concept of death, and is not the loss of integration of the organism as a whole; (2) brain death does not meet the criterion of brain death itself; brain death is not the irreversible loss of all critical functions of the entire brain; and (3) brain death may, however rarely, be reversible. I conclude that brain death, while a devastating neurological state with a dismal prognosis, is not death.

  15. Impact of the AD 79 explosive eruption on Pompeii, II. Causes of death of the inhabitants inferred by stratigraphic analysis and areal distribution of the human casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; De Carolis, Ernesto; Patricelli, Giovanni; Ciarallo, Annamaria

    2003-08-01

    Detailed descriptions of the effects of explosive eruptions on urban settlements available to volcanologists are relatively rare. Apart from disease and starvation, the largest number of human deaths caused by explosive eruptions in the twentieth century are due to pyroclastic flows. The relationship between the number of victims related to a specific hazard and the presence of urban settlements in the area covered by the eruption has been shown. However, pyroclastic falls are also extremely dangerous under certain conditions. These conclusions are based on archaeological and volcanological studies carried out on the victims of the well-known AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed and buried the Roman city of Pompeii. The stratigraphic level in the pyroclastic deposit and the location of all the casualties found are described and discussed. The total number of victims recovered during the archaeological excavations amounts to 1150. Of these, 1044 well recognisable bodies plus an additional group of 100 individuals were identified based on the analysis of several groups of scattered bones. Of the former, 394 were found in the lower pumice lapilli fall deposit and 650 in the upper stratified ash and pumice lapilli pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) deposits. In addition, a tentative evaluation suggests that 464 corpses may still be buried in the unexcavated part of the city. According to the reconstruction presented in this paper, during the first phase of the eruption (August 24, AD 79) a huge quantity of pumice lapilli fell on Pompeii burying the city under 3 m of pyroclastic material. During this eruptive phase, most of the inhabitants managed to leave the city. However, 38% of the known victims were killed during this phase mainly as a consequence of roofs and walls collapsing under the increasing weight of the pumice lapilli deposit. During the second phase of the eruption (August 25, AD 79) 49% of the total victims were on the roadways and 51% inside

  16. Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe : Results from the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, David C.; Murphy, Neil; Johansson, Mattias; Ferrari, Pietro; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel, Francoise; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, M. Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Altzibar, Jone M.; Cirera, Lluís; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, W. M Monique; Struijk, Ellen A.; Peeters, Petra H.; Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk

  17. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Di Sabatino

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3 from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  18. Cataract-causing mutation of human connexin 46 impairs gap junction, but increases hemichannel function and cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ren

    Full Text Available Connexin channels play a critical role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and transparency of the lens. Mutations in connexin genes are linked to congenital cataracts in humans. The G143R missense mutation on connexin (Cx 46 was recently reported to be associated with congenital Coppock cataracts. Here, we showed that the G143R mutation decreased Cx46 gap junctional coupling in a dominant negative manner; however, it significantly increased gap junctional plaques. The G143R mutant also increased hemichannel activity, inversely correlated with the level of Cx46 protein on the cell surface. The interaction between cytoplasmic loop domain and C-terminus has been shown to be involved in gating of connexin channels. Interestingly, the G143R mutation enhanced the interaction between intracellular loop and Cx46. Furthermore, this mutation decreased cell viability and the resistance of the cells to oxidative stress, primarily due to the increased hemichannel function. Together, these results suggest that mutation of this highly conserved residue on the cytoplasmic loop domain of Cx46 enhances its interaction with the C-terminus, resulting in a reduction of gap junction channel function, but increased hemichannel function. This combination leads to the development of human congenital cataracts.

  19. El Niæo linked to increase in childhood diarrheal disease, a leading cause of premature death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    William Checkley recalled plotting into his computer the data for the number of hospital admissions and the time of year.When we did the analysis and started looking at the relative increase, thats when it hit us, said Checkley, a medical student at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland.

  20. Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Colette J; Ryom, Lene; Weber, Rainer;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy for people with HIV is now approaching that seen in the general population. Consequently, the relative importance of other traditionally non-AIDS-related morbidities has increased. We investigated trends over t...... Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, ViiV Healthcare, Merck, Pfizer, F Hoffmann-La Roche, and Janssen Pharmaceuticals....

  1. Intrahepatic Infiltrating NK and CD8 T Cells Cause Liver Cell Death in Different Phases of Dengue Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Min Sung; Chien-Kuo Lee; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated liver enzyme level is an outstanding feature in patients with dengue. However, the pathogenic mechanism of liver injury has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, employing a mouse model we aimed to investigate the immunopathogenic mechanism of dengue liver injury. Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenously with dengue virus strain 16681. Infected mice had transient viremia, detectable viral capsid gene and cleaved caspase 3 in the liver. In the mean time, NK cel...

  2. Intragenotypic JFH1 based recombinant hepatitis C virus produces high levels of infectious particles but causes increased cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateu, Guaniri; Donis, Ruben O; Wakita, Takaji;

    2008-01-01

    into the JFH1 infectious clone. All genomes produced high levels of intracellular HCV RNA and NS3 protein in Huh-7.5 transfected cells. However, JFH1 genomes containing J6 sequences from C to E2 (CE2) or C to p7 (Cp7) secreted up to 100-fold more infectious HCV particles than the parental JFH1 clone...... of the chimeric junction. Moreover, NTRNS2 a chimeric virus equivalent to the previously reported FL-J6/JFH chimera, showed a 10-fold enhancement of virus titers compared to CNS2. NTRNS2 differs from CNS2 by three nucleotide differences residing in the 5' NTR and core coding sequence and all three nucleotide...

  3. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Søndergaard, Mads

    2012-01-01

    a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe...... dominantly inherited form of CPVT-like arrhythmias, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 14q31-32. Sequencing CALM1 encoding calmodulin revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.161A>T [p.Asn53Ile]) segregating with the disease. A second, de novo, missense mutation (c.293A>G [p.Asn97Ser......]) was subsequently identified in an individual of Iraqi origin; this individual was diagnosed with CPVT from a screening of 61 arrhythmia samples with no identified RYR2 mutations. Both CALM1 substitutions demonstrated compromised calcium binding, and p.Asn97Ser displayed an aberrant interaction with the RYR2...

  4. Second Cancers and Richter’s Transformation are the Leading Causes of Death in Patients with Trisomy 12 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Trisomy 12 (+12) is detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis in up to 20% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients with +12 are known to have unique features and to carry an intermediate prognosis. In order to better define this large group, we reviewed the characteristics of 250 untreated patients with +12. When compared to 516 untreated patients negative for +12 by FISH, patients with +12 showed a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia, Richter Transformation (RT) and second malignant neoplasms (SMN), in addition to the expected increased rate of CD38 positivity and atypical immunophenotype. At a median follow-up of 51 months, 57% of patients needed first-line treatment; median time-to-first-treatment was 38 months and on multivariate analysis (MVA) it was shorter in patients with advanced Rai stage, palpable splenomegaly, and deletion 14q by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The overall response rate with first-line treatment was 94%. The median failure-free survival has not been reached, but on MVA it was shorter in patients who achieved a response other than complete remission or with FISH negativity for deletion 13q. The median overall survival for the entire group has not been reached, but on MVA it was shorter in patients with an absolute lymphocyte count >30×109/L or who developed SMN. Eighteen deaths have been observed so far, and RT and SMN were the leading causes of death (3 and 6, respectively). In conclusion, patients with +12 CLL show characteristic clinical and biological features, and may benefit from increased surveillance for second cancers. PMID:25800543

  5. Causes of Rapid Carrion Beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) Death in Flooded Pitfall Traps, Response to Soil Flooding, Immersion Tolerance, and Swimming Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Michael C; Barnhart, M Christopher; Hoback, W Wyatt

    2017-01-24

    Terrestrial insects in water can often delay or escape drowning by floating and swimming. However, we observed that flooding of pitfall traps baited with rotting carrion results in high overnight mortality of captured beetles and reasoned that this risk may be enhanced by microbial respiration. By assessing carrion beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) response to flooding, tolerance to immersion, and swimming behavior, we offer insights to this cause of death and beetle behavioral physiology. Response of buried Nicrophorus orbicollis Say to soil flooding resulted in beetles moving to the soil surface. The lethal time to 50% mortality (LT50 (immersion); mean ± 95% CI) for Nicrophorus investigator Zetterstedt, Nicrophorus marginatus F., Necrodes surinamensis F., and Thanatophilus lapponicus Herbst was 14.8 ± 2.3, 9.0 ± 3.3, 3.2 ± 1.1, and 12.1 ± 2.5 h, respectively. Swimming behavior and survival time of N. investigator was tested using yeast:sucrose (Y:S) solutions to create a eutrophic, severely hypoxic aqueous environment. LT50 (swimming) for N. investigator was 7.5 ± 1.4, 6.0 ± 1.7, and 4.2 ± 1.2 h for the low, medium, and high Y:S solutions, respectively, and >24.0 h in control treatments. Nicrophorus investigator survived nearly twice as long when completely immersed in deoxygenated water, as might occur in flooded burrows, than when swimming on the surface. We document for the first time, the rapid induction of hypoxic coma and death for a terrestrial insect from enhanced microbial activity and CO2 production of an aqueous environment, as well as suggestions on trapping protocols related to the federally endangered Nicrophorus americanus Olivier.

  6. Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ursula E; Briss, Peter A; Goodman, Richard A; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-07-01

    With non-communicable conditions accounting for nearly two-thirds of deaths worldwide, the emergence of chronic diseases as the predominant challenge to global health is undisputed. In the USA, chronic diseases are the main causes of poor health, disability, and death, and account for most of health-care expenditures. The chronic disease burden in the USA largely results from a short list of risk factors--including tobacco use, poor diet and physical inactivity (both strongly associated with obesity), excessive alcohol consumption, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and hyperlipidaemia--that can be effectively addressed for individuals and populations. Increases in the burden of chronic diseases are attributable to incidence and prevalence of leading chronic conditions and risk factors (which occur individually and in combination), and population demographics, including ageing and health disparities. To effectively and equitably address the chronic disease burden, public health and health-care systems need to deploy integrated approaches that bundle strategies and interventions, address many risk factors and conditions simultaneously, create population-wide changes, help the population subgroups most affected, and rely on implementation by many sectors, including public-private partnerships and involvement from all stakeholders. To help to meet the chronic disease burden, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses four cross-cutting strategies: (1) epidemiology and surveillance to monitor trends and inform programmes; (2) environmental approaches that promote health and support healthy behaviours; (3) health system interventions to improve the effective use of clinical and other preventive services; and (4) community resources linked to clinical services that sustain improved management of chronic conditions. Establishment of community conditions to support healthy behaviours and promote effective management of chronic conditions will deliver

  7. Norwegian Wood is Analysed in the Chain of Life and Death and Its Cause of Death%浅析《挪威的森林》中的生死链条及其死亡原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞华

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian wood is made up of a series of death and even the chain of life and death between the construction of the whole novel.Death is a narrative clues,narrative power and content,the death of the novel concept is both under the influence of existentialism and the shadow of the Japanese traditional culture,not only can be regarded as a Haruki Murakami of Japanese traditional culture heritage,but also his deeper understanding of beauty and deep thinking of life.%《挪威的森林》由一系列依靠死亡而连接成的生死链条构筑了整篇小说。死亡是叙事线索、叙事动力以及叙事内容,小说的死亡观既深受存在主义的影响也有日本传统文化的影子,不仅可以看作是村上春树对日本传统文化的传承,更是他对美的更深层次理解以及对人生的深刻思考。

  8. Impairment of the tRNA-splicing endonuclease subunit 54 (tsen54) gene causes neurological abnormalities and larval death in zebrafish models of pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasher, Paul R; Namavar, Yasmin; van Tijn, Paula; Fluiter, Kees; Sizarov, Aleksander; Kamermans, Maarten; Grierson, Andrew J; Zivkovic, Danica; Baas, Frank

    2011-04-15

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) represents a group (PCH1-6) of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders characterized by hypoplasia and/or atrophy of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, progressive microcephaly and variable neocortical atrophy. The majority of PCH2 and PCH4 cases are caused by mutations in the TSEN54 gene; one of the four subunits comprising the tRNA-splicing endonuclease (TSEN) complex. We hypothesized that TSEN54 mutations act through a loss of function mechanism. At 8 weeks of gestation, human TSEN54 is expressed ubiquitously in the brain, yet strong expression is seen within the telencephalon and metencephalon. Comparable expression patterns for tsen54 are observed in zebrafish embryos. Morpholino (MO) knockdown of tsen54 in zebrafish embryos results in loss of structural definition in the brain. This phenotype was partially rescued by co-injecting the MO with human TSEN54 mRNA. A developmental patterning defect was not associated with tsen54 knockdown; however, an increase in cell death within the brain was observed, thus bearing resemblance to PCH pathophysiology. Additionally, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea mutant zebrafish homozygous for a tsen54 premature stop-codon mutation die within 9 days post-fertilization. To determine whether a common disease pathway exists between TSEN54 and other PCH-related genes, we also monitored the effects of mitochondrial arginyl-tRNA synthetase (rars2; PCH1 and PCH6) knockdown in zebrafish. Comparable brain phenotypes were observed following the inhibition of both genes. These data strongly support the hypothesis that TSEN54 mutations cause PCH through a loss of function mechanism. Also we suggest that a common disease pathway may exist between TSEN54- and RARS2-related PCH, which may involve a tRNA processing-related mechanism.

  9. Tendencias recientes de las principales causas de muerte en Navarra: 1995-2004 Recent trends of the main causes of death in Navarre: 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Moreno-Iribas

    2006-12-01

    statistics for mortality in Navarre for the 1995-2004 period by sex, age and cause of death. Methods. The data proceeds from the statistical bulletins on death. The 1995-1999 period is compared with the 2000-2004 period, using adjusted rates to the population of Navarre for the year 2001 and the rate of potential years of life lost between 0-70 years adjusted to the European population. Results. Life expectancy at birth in the 2000-2004 period was 77.9 years in men and 85 years in women, the latter being one of the highest registered at the world level. Infant mortality fell to 3.3 per 1,000 living newborn infants. The risk of death has fallen in practically all age groups, with a notable fall in mortality of 40% in the 25-34 group at the cost of AIDS. There has been a significant increase of mortality due to lung cancer amongst women under 65 years of age (46% in the 2000-2004 period with respect to the previous five year period and a sharp fall in mortality due to breast cancer (45.4%. In both sexes there has been a continued fall of mortality due to cerebrovascular diseases, ischaemic heart diseases, cardiac failure and arteriosclerosis and of mortality due to ulcer and cirrhosis. The rates of mortality in Navarre in all the main groups of causes are lower than those of Europe, except for the rate of mortality due to external causes. Conclusions. The increase of mortality due to lung cancer and other cancers related to smoking, due to the spread of consumption in recent decades, could have a negative influence on the life expectancy of women in Navarre in coming years. The prevention of mortality due to external causes and the prevention of deaths linked to tobacco consumption are the two priorities that emerge from the data on mortality in this autonomous community.

  10. Forensic Analysis of Parachute Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael Philip; Chitty, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Deaths associated with parachuting are very uncommon. However, these deaths do tend to be "high profile" in the traditional and social media. When forensic pathologists examine the deceased after a fatal parachuting incident, the anatomical cause of death is usually not in question. For most forensic pathologists, it is usually the case that we will have very limited knowledge of parachuting equipment or the mechanics of a typical successful parachute jump. As such, the investigation of the death should involve a multidisciplinary approach with an appropriate expert providing the formal forensic examination of the parachuting equipment. We have endeavored to describe, in simple terms, the usual components of a typical parachute rig, a précis of the sequence of events in a routine skydive and BASE jump, and the various types of malfunctions that may occur. Last, we present a case report of a BASE jump fatality to illustrate how an expert examination of the BASE jumper's gear aided the medicolegal investigation of the death with some important aspects in the forensic examination of the jumper's equipment.

  11. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause nonrandom cell death in genital disc and can induce tumours in genitals in response to decapentaplegic (dppdisk) mutations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. N. chatterjee; P. Chatterjee; S. Kuthe; M. Acharyya-Ari; R. Chatterjee

    2015-06-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSXF) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. This study on the effect of different intersex mutations on genital disc development provides the following major results: (i) similar range of a characteristic array of morphological structures (from almost double sex terminalia to extreme reduction of terminal appendages) was displayed by the terminalia of XX ix1/ix1, XX ix2/ix2 and XX ix5/ix5 individuals; (ii) an increased number of apoptotic cells were found to occur in a localized manner in mature third instar larval genital discs of ix individuals; (iii) ix mutations can induce high frequency of neoplastic tumours in genitals in the presence of decapentaplegic (dppdisk) mutations; and (iv) heteroallelic combinations of dppdisk mutations can also induce tumours in intersex genitals with variable expressivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that: (i) loss of function of ix causes massive cell death in both male and female genital primordia of genital discs, resulting phenotype mimicking in male and female characteristics in genitals; and (ii) at the discs, the apoptotic cells persist as ‘undead’ cells that can induce oncogenic transformation in the neighbouring disc cells when dpp signalling is blocked or reduced by dppdisk mutations.

  12. Methylmercury causes neuronal cell death through the suppression of the TrkA pathway: In vitro and in vivo effects of TrkA pathway activators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Masatake, E-mail: fujimura@nimd.go.jp [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Usuki, Fusako [Department of Clinical Medicine, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxin which induces cell death specific for the nervous systems. Here we show that MeHg causes neuronal cell death through the suppression of the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) pathway, and that compounds activating the TrkA pathway prevent MeHg-induced nerve damage in vitro and in vivo. We first investigated the mechanism of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity in differentiating neurons using PC12 cells. Exposure to 100 nM MeHg for 1 day induced apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells. Further, MeHg-induced apoptosis was preceded by inhibition of neurite extension, as determined by ELISA analyses of the neurite-specific protein neurofilament triplet H protein (NF-H). To determine the mechanism of MeHg-induced apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of MeHg on the TrkA pathway, which is known to regulate neuronal differentiation and viability. Western blot analysis demonstrated that, like the TrkA phosphorylation inhibitor K252a, MeHg inhibited phosphorylation of TrkA and its downstream effectors. Furthermore, GM1 ganglioside and its analog MCC-257, which enhance TrkA phosphorylation, overcame the effect of MeHg in neurons, supporting the involvement of the TrkA pathway in MeHg-induced nerve damage. Finally, we demonstrated that MCC-257 rescued the clinical sign and pathological changes in MeHg-exposed rats. These findings indicate that MeHg-induced apoptosis in neuron is triggered by inhibition of the TrkA pathway, and that GM1 ganglioside and MCC-257 effectively prevent MeHg-induced nerve damage. - Highlights: • Exposure to 100 nM MeHg for 1 day induced apoptosis in differentiating PC12 cells. • Inhibition of neurite extension was involved in MeHg-induced apoptosis. • Like the TrkA phosphorylation inhibitor, MeHg inhibited phosphorylation of TrkA. • GM1 ganglioside and its analog effectively prevented MeHg-induced nerve damage.

  13. Extinction. Histories of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Żychliński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the last great novels of José Saramago, Death with Interruptions, begins with an epigraph taken from Ludwig Wittgenstein: “If, for example, you were to think more deeply about death, then it would be truly strange if, in so doing, you did not encounter new images, new linguistic fields”. The aim of my paper is to ponder on what kind of a new language game the Portuguese writer is offering us in his book and how to interpret his investigations from the angle of another contemporary literary and philosophical thanatological discourses.

  14. [The death of Cleopatra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemain, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The image of a queen bitten by a snake is controversial and the facts, such as the swiftness of her death and her servants, and scientific experiments are in favour of a deadly poisoning. The author reminds that in the ancient texts the snake had sacred virtues and it was a symbolic image to embellish the suicide of the one who was sentenced to death by the Romans. Octaves set up the myth of a fatal bite which became an iconographic image for the cinema.

  15. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, Lucilia B; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Scavone, Critoforo

    2015-01-01

    To study cocaine's toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN) staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine.

  16. Cocaine Causes Apoptotic Death in Rat Mesencephalon and Striatum Primary Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilia B. Lepsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study cocaine’s toxic effects in vitro, we have used primary mesencephalic and striatal cultures from rat embryonic brain. Treatment with cocaine causes a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation in both primary cultures. The toxicity induced by cocaine was paralleled with a concomitant decrease in the microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2 and/or neuronal nucleus protein (NeuN staining. We also observed in both cultures that the cell death caused by cocaine was induced by an apoptotic mechanism, confirmed by TUNEL assay. Therefore, the present paper shows that cocaine causes apoptotic cell death and inhibition of the neurite prolongation in striatal and mesencephalic cell culture. These data suggest that if similar neuronal damage could be produced in the developing human brain, it could account for the qualitative or quantitative defects in neuronal pathways that cause a major handicap in brain function following prenatal exposure to cocaine.

  17. 产科出血致71例孕产妇死亡分析%The analysis of 71 case of maternal death caused by obstetric hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春华

    2009-01-01

    目的 寻找产科出血致孕产妇死亡的影响因素,制定切实可行的干预措施,降低茂名市孕产妇死亡率.方法对茂名市2001-2008年产科出血致孕产妇死亡个案及评审结果资料进行分析.结果8年来茂名市孕产妇死亡157例,孕产妇死亡率为24.40/10万,产科出血在孕产妇死亡构成比中占45.22%,子宫收缩乏力性产后出血占产后出血首位,占63.38%.结论应严历打击非法接生,提高住院分娩率;加强高危妊娠的管理和孕产妇的三级转诊,提高孕产妇系统管理质量;提高产科危重症抢救能力,降低产科出血的发生率.%Objective Find out the maternal mortality obstetric hemorrhage causes of ob-stetric hemorrhage, make the practical interventions,in order to reduce the rate maternal mortality in Maoming city.Methdos Investigate the assessment results of the maternal mortality caused by obstetric hemorrhage of Maoming city during 2008 to 2009.Results Among 8 years,there were 157 cases of maternal mortality, the maternal mortality rate were 24.40/100000, of which obstetric hemorrhage in the constituent ratio of maternal deaths accounted for 45.22%.Weak uterine contraction was the major factor causing postpartum hemorrhage, it accounts 63.38%.Conclusions It should be harsh against illegal midwifery,increase the rate of hospital delivery,to strengthen the management of high-risk pregnancies and maternal tertiary referral, to improve the quality of management systems for the pregnant, to improve the ability of emergency obstetric, to reduce the incidence of obstetric hemorrhage.

  18. The Death of Shankar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2013-01-01

    ) in Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Orissa. The chapter explores the heterogeneous and hierarchical composition of the basti and unfolds the case of the social exclusion and ultimate death of a patient with tuberculosis who belonged to the poorest section of the basti, called Pradhan sahi. The case of both...

  19. Reenactment of circumstances in deaths related to restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Ronald L

    2004-09-01

    Reenactment of the circumstances in deaths associated with restraint, utilizing participants and witnesses while memories are fresh, may help death investigators more accurately determine the cause of death. Two recent deaths in Ventura County that occurred during restraint are discussed. Within a day of the autopsies the restrainers agreed to participate in reenactments of the restraint process, utilizing live volunteers as subjects. They allowed videotaping. Deaths associated with restraint often have nonspecific autopsy findings. Timely reenactment of the circumstances of deaths associated with restraint can help death investigators more accurately determine the probable cause of death in these difficult cases.

  20. The Causes of Paul's Death in "The Rocking-horse Winner"%《木马赢家》中保罗之死的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小英

    2012-01-01

    The protagonist Paul died because he was mentally and physically exhausted for crazy bet on the horses.There are some reasons for Paul's early death.Firstly the money consciousness caused by capitalism industrial civilization distorted and aliened the relationship of the human being;Secondly the irresponsibility of his father,the coldness of the mother,opportunism of his uncle made Paul to be a profitable tool;Lastly Paul himself tried to maintain the peace of the family and get his mother's love after satisfying his mother's material comfort,not considering his young age and weakness.%《木马赢家》中保罗之死的原因是多方面的。一是英国资本主义工业文明带来的金钱意识对人与人之间关系的扭曲与异化;二是家庭中父亲的缺席,母亲的贪婪,舅舅的投机对保罗精神的摧残;三是保罗不顾自己年幼、无力,却试图维持家庭的宁静,满足母亲的物质享受而导致心力交瘁离世。

  1. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, tumor subtypes, and causes of death after non-metastatic invasive breast cancer diagnosis: a multilevel competing-risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Min; Pérez, Maria; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Frisse, Ann; Foldes, Ellen; Jeffe, Donna B

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype with causes of death [breast cancer (BC)-specific and non-BC-specific] among non-metastatic invasive BC patients. We identified 3,312 patients younger than 75 years (mean age 53.5 years; 621 [18.8 %] TNBC) with first primary BC treated at an academic medical center from 1999 to 2010. We constructed a census-tract-level socioeconomic deprivation index using the 2000 U.S. Census data and performed a multilevel competing-risk analysis to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of BC-specific and non-BC-specific mortality associated with neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and TNBC subtype. The adjusted models controlled for patient sociodemographics, health behaviors, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, and cancer treatment. With a median 62-month follow-up, 349 (10.5 %) patients died; 233 died from BC. In the multivariate models, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (the most- vs. the least-deprived quartile: HR = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.33-6.66); in contrast, its association with BC-specific mortality was explained by the aforementioned patient-level covariates, particularly sociodemographic factors (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.71-1.87). TNBC subtype was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (HR = 2.15; 95 % CI = 1.20-3.84), while the association between TNBC and BC-specific mortality approached significance (HR = 1.42; 95 % CI = 0.99-2.03, P = 0.057). Non-metastatic invasive BC patients who lived in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods were more likely to die as a result of causes other than BC compared with those living in the least socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. TNBC was associated with non-BC-specific mortality but not BC-specific mortality.

  2. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy causing maternal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hae Rin; Kim, Suk Young; Cho, Yoon Jin; Chon, Seung Joo

    2016-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is rare and occurs in approximately 3 in 10,000 pregnancies. It rarely complicates pregnancy, and can occur during any trimester, however over half (52%) of cases occur during the third trimester and during the post-partum period. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, acute pancreatitis caused by hypertriglyceridemia due to increase of estrogen during the gestational period is very unusual, but complication carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality for both the mother and the fetus. We experienced a case of pregnant woman who died of acute exacerbation of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis at 23 weeks of gestation. We report on progress and management of this case along with literature reviews.

  3. 如皋市出生缺陷病因与死亡原因分析%Analysis of the causes of birth defects and death in Rugao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁燕; 顾建明; 陆平; 黄文美; 李鸿斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the causes of birth defects and death at present .Methods The data of birth defects from 2007 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed and periodically compared .Results The incidence rate of birth defects was 6.04‰from 2007 to 2012, and the average annual decline rate was 0.21‰.The top ten causes of birth defects were cleft lip and cleft palate , polydactyly and syndactyly , congenital malformations of cardiac septa , talipes equinovarus , congenital stenosis and atresia of the colon , congenital absence atresia and stricture of (external) auditory canal, microtia, congenital hydrocephalus, hypospadias, and bifid spine.They accounted for 79.14% of the total number of birth defects , and the surface defects of musculoskeletal system and digestive system were the majority .The top ten causes of death of birth defects were congenital malformations of cardiac septa , cleft lip and cleft palate , other congenital malformations of heart, congenital hydrocephalus , congenital stenosis and atresia of the colon , other shortage deformities of brain , congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital hydronephrosis , gastroschisis, and spina bifida.They accounted for 76.58% of death cases of birth defects and 20.38%of birth defects.Among them diseases of circulatory system and nervous system were the majority .The perinatal mortality rate of birth defects was 1.45‰,and the infant mortality rate of birth defects was 0.74‰.Folic acid supplementary items could not reduce the incidence of neural tube malformation in Rugao obviously (χ2 =0.21,P>0.05).The incidence of birth defects in boys was higher than girls(χ2 =6.12,P<0.05), and that of maternal age ≥30 was higher(χ2 =6.87,P<0.05).Conclusion Increased incidence of birth defects has been corrected , and comprehensive intervention measures play a role .It is suggested that the monitor of birth defects in nervous system and circulatory system should be promoted to explore the relationship between the

  4. Oxygen metabolism and reactive oxygen species cause chromosomal rearrangements and cell death

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The absence of Tsa1, a key peroxiredoxin that functions to scavenge H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes the accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations including gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs). Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD6 and several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. In the present study we investigated the causes of GCRs and cell death in these mutants. tsa1-associated GCRs were independent of the ...

  5. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfa Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005. To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002 but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089 level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents.

  6. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changfa; Kahn, Clare; Wang, Jinfeng; Liao, Yilan; Chen, Wanqing; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-01-01

    To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005). To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR) for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002) but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089) level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest) and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents. PMID:27690073

  7. THE INVESTIGATION OF OBSCURE DEATHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMPSON, K

    1964-10-17

    Unexpected death from obscure causes places a responsibility on the coroner which is delegated to the police, the pathologist and the laboratory. Important insurance and civil litigation issues may be at stake and crime must not be overlooked. This article stresses the importance of (a) powers of observation, (b) awareness of possibilities, (c) a flexible mind and (d) competence in forensic pathology. Cases quoted and illustrated show mistakes which have caused error-and injustice.The importance of discussion with clinical colleagues is emphasized; painstaking autopsy and meticulous laboratory examinations are vital. Poisoning is particularly easily overlooked.

  8. Death caused by severe acute pancreatitis:an anlaysis of 144 cases%重症胰腺炎病死原因分析:附144例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何满西; 李建水; 张肇达; 刘续宝; 田伯乐; 胡伟明; 李耿; 姚有贵; 蒲道深; 陆慧敏

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the main causes for death due to severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. Methods The clinical data of 1162 SAP cases treated in our hospital from June 1997 to May 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Among which, 144patients (12. 39%) died, 82(7.06%)abandoned treatment and 936(80.55%)were cured. Results the APACHE Ⅱ scores and pancreas Balthazar CT scores of the death group were higher than that of the survival group. The percentage of single one organ dysfunction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was significantly higher in the death group than in the survival group. The mortality rate of SAP without obvious inducing factors was significantly higher than that of SAP with inducing factors. Conclusion Integrated traditional and western non-surgical treatment is effective for SAP.The treatment for SAP without obvious inducing factors is a challenge. The mortality rate of SAP is prima