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Sample records for causap csar pedrocchi

  1. Application of the docking program SOL for CSAR benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimov, Alexey V; Kutov, Danil C; Oferkin, Igor V; Katkova, Ekaterina V; Sulimov, Vladimir B

    2013-08-26

    This paper is devoted to results obtained by the docking program SOL and the post-processing program DISCORE at the CSAR benchmark. SOL and DISCORE programs are described. SOL is the original docking program developed on the basis of the genetic algorithm, MMFF94 force field, rigid protein, precalculated energy grid including desolvation in the frame of simplified GB model, vdW, and electrostatic interactions and taking into account the ligand internal strain energy. An important SOL feature is the single- or multi-processor performance for up to hundreds of CPUs. DISCORE improves the binding energy scoring by the local energy optimization of the ligand docked pose and a simple linear regression on the base of available experimental data. The docking program SOL has demonstrated a good ability for correct ligand positioning in the active sites of the tested proteins in most cases of CSAR exercises. SOL and DISCORE have not demonstrated very exciting results on the protein-ligand binding free energy estimation. Nevertheless, for some target proteins, SOL and DISCORE were among the first in prediction of inhibition activity. Ways to improve SOL and DISCORE are discussed.

  2. CSAR-web: a web server of contig scaffolding using algebraic rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Tze; Lu, Chin Lung

    2018-05-04

    CSAR-web is a web-based tool that allows the users to efficiently and accurately scaffold (i.e. order and orient) the contigs of a target draft genome based on a complete or incomplete reference genome from a related organism. It takes as input a target genome in multi-FASTA format and a reference genome in FASTA or multi-FASTA format, depending on whether the reference genome is complete or incomplete, respectively. In addition, it requires the users to choose either 'NUCmer on nucleotides' or 'PROmer on translated amino acids' for CSAR-web to identify conserved genomic markers (i.e. matched sequence regions) between the target and reference genomes, which are used by the rearrangement-based scaffolding algorithm in CSAR-web to order and orient the contigs of the target genome based on the reference genome. In the output page, CSAR-web displays its scaffolding result in a graphical mode (i.e. scalable dotplot) allowing the users to visually validate the correctness of scaffolded contigs and in a tabular mode allowing the users to view the details of scaffolds. CSAR-web is available online at http://genome.cs.nthu.edu.tw/CSAR-web.

  3. CSAR 2014: A Benchmark Exercise Using Unpublished Data from Pharma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Heather A; Smith, Richard D; Damm-Ganamet, Kelly L; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Ahmed, Aqeel; Convery, Maire A; Somers, Donald O; Kranz, Michael; Elkins, Patricia A; Cui, Guanglei; Peishoff, Catherine E; Lambert, Millard H; Dunbar, James B

    2016-06-27

    The 2014 CSAR Benchmark Exercise was the last community-wide exercise that was conducted by the group at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. For this event, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) donated unpublished crystal structures and affinity data from in-house projects. Three targets were used: tRNA (m1G37) methyltransferase (TrmD), Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK), and Factor Xa (FXa). A particularly strong feature of the GSK data is its large size, which lends greater statistical significance to comparisons between different methods. In Phase 1 of the CSAR 2014 Exercise, participants were given several protein-ligand complexes and asked to identify the one near-native pose from among 200 decoys provided by CSAR. Though decoys were requested by the community, we found that they complicated our analysis. We could not discern whether poor predictions were failures of the chosen method or an incompatibility between the participant's method and the setup protocol we used. This problem is inherent to decoys, and we strongly advise against their use. In Phase 2, participants had to dock and rank/score a set of small molecules given only the SMILES strings of the ligands and a protein structure with a different ligand bound. Overall, docking was a success for most participants, much better in Phase 2 than in Phase 1. However, scoring was a greater challenge. No particular approach to docking and scoring had an edge, and successful methods included empirical, knowledge-based, machine-learning, shape-fitting, and even those with solvation and entropy terms. Several groups were successful in ranking TrmD and/or SYK, but ranking FXa ligands was intractable for all participants. Methods that were able to dock well across all submitted systems include MDock,1 Glide-XP,2 PLANTS,3 Wilma,4 Gold,5 SMINA,6 Glide-XP2/PELE,7 FlexX,8 and MedusaDock.9 In fact, the submission based on Glide-XP2/PELE7 cross-docked all ligands to many crystal structures, and it was particularly impressive to see

  4. Observation of new satellites in Cs-Ar system using resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Young, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption line shape of Cs-Ar system is recorded using two-photon ionization of the system with Cs(7P) as an intermediate state. New satellite structures in the wings of Cs(7P) are observed which were not resolved in previous absorption measurements. Also the absolute absorption cross section in the blue wing is measured

  5. Blind Pose Prediction, Scoring, and Affinity Ranking of the CSAR 2014 Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Virginie Y; Martz, François; Selwa, Edithe; Iorga, Bogdan I

    2016-06-27

    The 2014 CSAR Benchmark Exercise was focused on three protein targets: coagulation factor Xa, spleen tyrosine kinase, and bacterial tRNA methyltransferase. Our protocol involved a preliminary analysis of the structural information available in the Protein Data Bank for the protein targets, which allowed the identification of the most appropriate docking software and scoring functions to be used for the rescoring of several docking conformations datasets, as well as for pose prediction and affinity ranking. The two key points of this study were (i) the prior evaluation of molecular modeling tools that are most adapted for each target and (ii) the increased search efficiency during the docking process to better explore the conformational space of big and flexible ligands.

  6. A 3D Reconstruction Strategy of Vehicle Outline Based on Single-Pass Single-Polarization CSAR Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leping Chen; Daoxiang An; Xiaotao Huang; Zhimin Zhou

    2017-11-01

    In the last few years, interest in circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) acquisitions has arisen as a consequence of the potential achievement of 3D reconstructions over 360° azimuth angle variation. In real-world scenarios, full 3D reconstructions of arbitrary targets need multi-pass data, which makes the processing complex, money-consuming, and time expending. In this paper, we propose a processing strategy for the 3D reconstruction of vehicle, which can avoid using multi-pass data by introducing a priori information of vehicle's shape. Besides, the proposed strategy just needs the single-pass single-polarization CSAR data to perform vehicle's 3D reconstruction, which makes the processing much more economic and efficient. First, an analysis of the distribution of attributed scattering centers from vehicle facet model is presented. And the analysis results show that a smooth and continuous basic outline of vehicle could be extracted from the peak curve of a noncoherent processing image. Second, the 3D location of vehicle roofline is inferred from layover with empirical insets of the basic outline. At last, the basic line and roofline of the vehicle are used to estimate the vehicle's 3D information and constitute the vehicle's 3D outline. The simulated and measured data processing results prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed strategy.

  7. Hepatobiliary transport kinetics of the conjugated bile acid tracer 11C-CSar quantified in healthy humans and patients by positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørntoft, Nikolaj Worm; Munk, Ole Lajord; Frisch, Kim; Ott, Peter; Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Hepatobiliary secretion of bile acids is an important liver function. Here, we quantified the hepatic transport kinetics of conjugated bile acids using the bile acid tracer [N-methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) and positron emission tomography (PET). Nine healthy participants and eight patients with varying degrees of cholestasis were examined with 11 C-CSar PET and measurement of arterial and hepatic venous blood concentrations of 11 C-CSar. Results are presented as median (range). The hepatic intrinsic clearance was 1.50 (1.20-1.76) ml blood/min/ml liver tissue in healthy participants and 0.46 (0.13-0.91) in patients. In healthy participants, the rate constant for secretion of 11 C-CSar from hepatocytes to bile was 0.36 (0.30-0.62)min -1 , 20 times higher than the rate constant for backflux from hepatocytes to blood (0.02, 0.005-0.07min -1 ). In the patients, rate constant for transport from hepatocyte to bile was reduced to 0.12 (0.006-0.27)min -1 , 2.3times higher than the rate constant for backflux to blood (0.05, 0.04-0.09). The increased backflux did not fully normalize exposure of the hepatocyte to bile acids as mean hepatocyte residence time of 11 C-CSar was 2.5 (1.6-3.1)min in healthy participants and 6.4 (3.1-23.7)min in patients. The rate constant for transport of 11 C-CSar from intrahepatic to extrahepatic bile was 0.057 (0.023-0.11)min -1 in healthy participants and only slightly reduced in patients 0.039 (0.017-0.066). This first in vivo quantification of individual steps involved in the hepatobiliary secretion of a conjugated bile acid in humans provided new insight into cholestatic disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) using the radiolabelled bile acid ( 11 C-CSar) enabled quantification of the individual steps of the hepatic transport of bile acids from blood to bile in man. Cholestasis reduced uptake and secretion and increased backflux to blood. These findings improve our understanding of cholestatic liver diseases and may support

  8. Using LiCSAR as a fast-response system for the detection and the monitoring of volcanic unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, F.; Biggs, J.; Hatton, E. L.; Spaans, K.; Gaddes, M.; McDougall, A.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the Smithsonian Institution volcano database, a total of 13256 volcanoes exist on Earth with 1273 having evidence of eruptive or unrest activity during the Holocene. InSAR techniques have proven their ability to detect and to quantify volcanic ground deformation on a case-by-case basis. However, the use of InSAR for the daily monitoring of every active volcano requires the development of automatic processing that can provide information in a couple of hours after a new radar acquisition. The LiCSAR system (http://comet.nerc.ac.uk/COMET-LiCS-portal/) answers this requirement by processing the vast amounts of data generated daily by the EU's Sentinel-1 satellite constellation. It provides now high-resolution deformation data for the entire Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt. The aim of our study is to extend LiCSAR system to the purpose of volcano monitoring. For each active volcano, the last Sentinel products calculated (phase, coherence and amplitude) will be available online in the COMET Volcano Deformation Database. To analyse this large amount of InSAR products, we develop an algorithm to automatically detect ground deformation signals as well as changes in coherence and amplitude in the time series. This toolbox could be a powerful fast-response system for helping volcanological observatories to manage new or ongoing volcanic crisis. Important information regarding the spatial and the temporal evolution of each ground deformation signal will also be added to the COMET database. This will benefit to better understand the conditions in which volcanic unrest leads to an eruption. Such worldwide survey enables us to establish a large catalogue of InSAR products, which will also be suitable for further studies (mapping of new lava flows, modelling of magmatic sources, evaluation of stress interactions).

  9. Addendum 6 to CSAR 79-038 out-of-hood plutonium storage (burial box)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Addendum considered an increase in the limit of fissile material in a stacked container array to 500 grams. In other words, the sum of fissile material in an array of containers is limited to 500 grams, regardless of whether the containers are stacked or not. The results of this evaluation indicates that with the modification of the fissile limits described, the system of a container array will stay sub-critical

  10. Addendum 3 to CSAR 80-027, Use of calorimeter 109B for fissile material measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1994-01-01

    This modification to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) calorimeter system involves removing current calorimeter No. 3 from the water bath and replacing it with a calorimeter that can accommodate larger diameter items (an oversize can). The inside diameters of both the sample and the reference cells will be increased to 5.835 inches at the top opening and to 5.22 inches at the bottom, the 8 inch high measurement zone. This Addendum 3 to Criticality Safety Analysis Report 80-027 examines criticality safety during the use of the modified calorimeter (Calorimeter 109B) with enlarged cell tube diameters to assure that an adequate margin of subcriticality is maintained for all normal and contingency conditions

  11. CSAR 81-001 addendum 2: Use of a plexiglass contamination barrier in HC-227-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) Engineering requested a criticality safety evaluation (Appendix 1) to support a revision of Criticality Prevention Specification CPS-Z-165-80601 allowing a plexiglass enclosure (PGE) to be placed inside the HC-227T hood as a contamination barrier. The HC-227T hood is the receiving/transfer enclosure for Pu nitrate solution contained in Product Removal containers (PR Cans), L10 Containers (L10, Fl-10, 10 L) or L-3 Containers. Within the HC-227T, a 1.349 square meter (15 square foot) enclosure, PGE, has been created to provide contamination control around the weighing scale. Two or more standard criticality drains shall be installed on this enclosure prior to beneficial usage. The evaluation considered the normal process, spillage scenarios, waste/container accumulations within the enclosure, and interactions of Pu within the enclosure as well as other containers external to the enclosure. The results from the criticality safety analysis by CRA shows that such as contamination barrier can be placed inside the HC-227T Hood if the PGE is equipped with adequate criticality drains. In addition, other limits as well as administrative controls listed in CPS-Z-165-80601 Rev./Mod. B/0 and CPS-Z-165-80010 Rev./Mod. C/1 shall also apply

  12. Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) With Current Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altieri, Jayson

    2003-01-01

    .... BACH-21 whipped his plane over into a left SAM break. As G-forces began to press against him, he felt his aircraft shake violently and continued to roll inverted as an SA-6 slammed into his right wing...

  13. Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) With Current Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altieri, Jayson

    2003-01-01

    0300 hours (Zulu) somewhere north of Baghdad Major Chris Foster, call sign BACH-21, was flying a CAP mission supporting two flights of Air Guard F-16s attacking an Iraqi armor division retreating south towards Baghdad...

  14. ChIP-seq Analysis in R (CSAR): An R package for the statistical detection of protein-bound genomic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muino, J.M.; Kaufmann, K.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.; Angenent, G.C.; Krajewski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background In vivo detection of protein-bound genomic regions can be achieved by combining chromatin-immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing technology (ChIP-seq). The large amount of sequence data produced by this method needs to be analyzed in a statistically proper and computationally

  15. Addendum 4 to CSAR 81-001, Installation of an Official Critical Drain on the Plexiglass Contamination Barrier in HC-227T Hood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report defines the maximum space allowed between the floor surface and the lower edge of an official criticality drain which is to be installed on the plexiglas contamination barrier in HC-227T Hood

  16. Three-dimensional Reconstruction Method Study Based on Interferometric Circular SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Liying

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR can acquire targets’ scattering information in all directions by a 360° observation, but a single-track CSAR cannot efficiently obtain height scattering information for a strong directive scatter. In this study, we examine the typical target of the three-dimensional circular SAR interferometry theoryand validate the theory in a darkroom experiment. We present a 3D reconstruction of the actual tank metal model of interferometric CSAR for the first time, verify the validity of the method, and demonstrate the important potential applications of combining 3D reconstruction with omnidirectional observation.

  17. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex response to intermedin microinjection into paraventricular nucleus is mediated by nitric oxide and γ-amino butyric acid in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Sun, Hai-jian; Chang, Jin-rui; Ding, Lei; Gao, Qing; Tang, Chao-shu; Zhu, Guo-qing; Zhou, Ye-bo

    2014-10-01

    Intermedin (IMD) is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and involves in the regulation of cardiovascular function in both peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS). Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus is an important site in the control of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which participates in sympathetic over-excitation of hypertension. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IMD in the PVN is involved in the inhibition of CSAR and its related mechanism in hypertension. Rats were subjected to two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) surgery to induce renovascular hypertension or sham-operation (Sham). Acute experiments were carried out four weeks later under anesthesia. The CSAR was evaluated with the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to the epicardial application of capsaicin. The RSNA and MAP were recorded in sinoaortic-denervated, cervical-vagotomized and anesthetized rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD (25 pmol) caused greater decrease in the CSAR in 2K1C rats than in Sham rats, which was prevented by pretreatment with adrenomedullin (AM) receptor antagonist AM22-52, non-selective nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME or γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)B receptor blocker CGP-35348. PVN pretreatment with CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37 or GABA(A) receptor blocker gabazine had no significant effect on the CSAR response to IMD. AM22-52, L-NAME and CGP-35348 in the PVN could increase CSAR in Sham and 2K1C rats. These data indicate that IMD in the PVN inhibits CSAR via AM receptor, and both NO and GABA in the PVN involve in the effect of IMD on CSAR in Sham and renovascular hypertensive rats. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  18. Superoxide Anions and NO in the Paraventricular Nucleus Modulate the Cardiac Sympathetic Afferent Reflex in Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Bo Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the hypothesis that the endogenous superoxide anions (O2− and nitric oxide (NO system of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN regulates the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR contributing to sympathoexcitation in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat for 12 weeks. CSAR was evaluated by monitoring the changes of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and the mean arterial pressure (MAP responses to the epicardial application of capsaicin (CAP in anaesthetized rats. In obese rats with hypertension (OH group or without hypertension (OB group, the levels of PVN O2−, angiotensinII (Ang II, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase were elevated, whereas neural NO synthase (nNOS and NO were significantly reduced. Moreover, CSAR was markedly enhanced, which promoted the elevation of plasma norepinephrine levels. The enhanced CSAR was attenuated by PVN application of the superoxide scavenger polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, and was strengthened by the superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETC and the nNOS inhibitor N(ω-propyl-l-arginine hydrochloride (PLA; conversely, there was a smaller CSAR response to PLA or SNP in rats that received a low-fat (12% kcal diet. Furthermore, PVN pretreatment with the AT1R antagonist losartan or with PEG-SOD, but not SNP, abolished Ang II-induced CSAR enhancement. These findings suggest that obesity alters the PVN O2− and NO system that modulates CSAR and promotes sympathoexcitation.

  19. Circular SAR Optimization Imaging Method of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian-feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR can obtain the entire scattering properties of targets because of its great ability of 360° observation. In this study, an optimal orientation of the CSAR imaging algorithm of buildings is proposed by applying a combination of coherent and incoherent processing techniques. FEKO software is used to construct the electromagnetic scattering modes and simulate the radar echo. The FEKO imaging results are compared with the isotropic scattering results. On comparison, the optimal azimuth coherent accumulation angle of CSAR imaging of buildings is obtained. Practically, the scattering directions of buildings are unknown; therefore, we divide the 360° echo of CSAR into many overlapped and few angle echoes corresponding to the sub-aperture and then perform an imaging procedure on each sub-aperture. Sub-aperture imaging results are applied to obtain the all-around image using incoherent fusion techniques. The polarimetry decomposition method is used to decompose the all-around image and further retrieve the edge information of buildings successfully. The proposed method is validated with P-band airborne CSAR data from Sichuan, China.

  20. Hybrid Scenario Development Methodology and Tool: An Arctic-Oriented Scenario Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Monitoring; Aid to Law Enforcement Authorities ( ALEA ); Environmental Response; Non-combatant Evacuation Operations (NEO) & Disaster Relief; Sea...Approach Doctrine & impact on type of expeditionary Military Mission: Surveillance & Monitoring ALEA Environmental Incident Response SAR (inc CSAR...symbols/abbreviations/acronyms/initialisms ALEA Aid to Law Enforcement Authorities C4ISTAR Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence

  1. GOTCHA experience report: three-dimensional SAR imaging with complete circular apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertin, Emre; Austin, Christian D.; Sharma, Samir; Moses, Randolph L.; Potter, Lee C.

    2007-04-01

    We study circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) systems collecting radar backscatter measurements over a complete circular aperture of 360 degrees. This study is motivated by the GOTCHA CSAR data collection experiment conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Circular SAR provides wide-angle information about the anisotropic reflectivity of the scattering centers in the scene, and also provides three dimensional information about the location of the scattering centers due to a non planar collection geometry. Three dimensional imaging results with single pass circular SAR data reveals that the 3D resolution of the system is poor due to the limited persistence of the reflectors in the scene. We present results on polarimetric processing of CSAR data and illustrate reasoning of three dimensional shape from multi-view layover using prior information about target scattering mechanisms. Next, we discuss processing of multipass (CSAR) data and present volumetric imaging results with IFSAR and three dimensional backprojection techniques on the GOTCHA data set. We observe that the volumetric imaging with GOTCHA data is degraded by aliasing and high sidelobes due to nonlinear flightpaths and sparse and unequal sampling in elevation. We conclude with a model based technique that resolves target features and enhances the volumetric imagery by extrapolating the phase history data using the estimated model.

  2. Norwegian Armed Forces Personnel Recovery Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    2010/07/72-villa-voisin.html. 2 In 1945, she was freed, and in 1946, she came to England to receive the George Medal from the King .2 The...DC: Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1988. Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) Atkinson, Rick. Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War. New York

  3. Initial Assessment, Nation Assistance Opportunities, Sula Valley, Honduras Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Trapero Comunicaciones , Obras Pdblicas y Transporte (Communications, Public Works and Transportation) Dr. C~sar Castellanos - Ministry of Salud Pablica y...Engineer, Sub-SecreLario de Comunicaciones y Transporte (Communications and Transportation) A-1 Mr. Mauro Membreho - Minister of Communications, Public

  4. Debugging systems-on-chip communication-centric and abstraction-based techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Bart

    2014-01-01

    This book describes an approach and supporting infrastructure to facilitate debugging the silicon implementation of a System-on-Chip (SOC), allowing its associated product to be introduced into the market more quickly.  Readers learn step-by-step the key requirements for debugging a modern, silicon SOC implementation, nine factors that complicate this debugging task, and a new debug approach that addresses these requirements and complicating factors.  The authors’ novel communication-centric, scan-based, abstraction-based, run/stop-based (CSAR) debug approach is discussed in detail, showing how it helps to meet debug requirements and address the nine, previously identified factors that complicate debugging silicon implementations of SOCs. The authors also derive the debug infrastructure requirements to support debugging of a silicon implementation of an SOC with their CSAR debug approach. This debug infrastructure consists of a generic on-chip debug architecture, a configurable automated design-for-debug ...

  5. A simple equilibrium theoretical model and predictions for a continuous wave exciplex pumped alkali laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    The exciplex pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, with and without ethane, by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). The blue satellites of the alkali D 2 lines provide an advantageous pathway for optically pumping atomic alkali lasers on the principal series (resonance) transitions with broad linewidth (>2 nm) semiconductor diode lasers. The development of a simple theoretical analysis of continuous-wave XPAL systems is presented along with predictions as a function of temperature and pump intensity. The model predicts that an optical-to-optical efficiency in the range of 40-50% can be achieved for XPAL.

  6. Comparing laser induced plasmas formed in diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markosyan, Aram H

    2018-01-08

    Lasing on the D 1 transition (6 2 P 1/2 → 6 2 S 1/2 ) of cesium can be reached in both diode and excimer pumped alkali lasers. The first uses D 2 transition (6 2 S 1/2 → 6 2 P 3/2 ) for pumping, whereas the second is pumped by photoexcitation of ground state Cs-Ar collisional pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically-excited CsAr molecules (excimers). Despite lasing on the same D 1 transition, differences in pumping schemes enables chemical pathways and characteristic timescales unique for each system. We investigate unavoidable plasma formation during operation of both systems side by side in Ar/C 2 H 6 /Cs.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study on chemically semi-amplified resist AR-P 6200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, I.; Vutova, K.; Andok, R.; Barak, V.; Bencurova, A.; Ritomsky, R.; Tanaka, T.

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and simulation results are presented and discussed on electron-beam lithography (EBL) nano-structuring using the positive chemically semi-amplified electron-beam resist AR-P 6200 (CSAR 62), which provides high sensitivity and allows achievement of high resolutions (sub-100 nm). The influence of the e-beam lithography process parameters, namely, exposure dose, development process conditions, and proximity effects on the obtained developed images was studied for the case of 40-keV electron energy.

  8. NATO and the Challenges of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    to the area west of Egypt and includes Morocco , Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, and Mauritania. xviii NATO and the Challenges of Austerity States would...takeoff but arrested recovery COIN counterinsurgency CROs Completion Reserve Officers CSAR combat search-and-rescue CSR Comprehensive Spending Review CTOL...2010, the Comprehensive Spending Review ( CSR ), part of the Strategic Defense and Security Review (SDSR), instructed the Ministry of Defence (MoD) to

  9. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage

  10. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  11. Quality control of JEOL JBX-9500FSZ e-beam lithography system in a multi-user laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Johansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    designed quality control procedure characterized using a scanning electron microscope. We inspect position accuracy, dynamic focus, and dynamic astigmatism, as well as single and multi-pixel lines in thin resist. Beam shape quality is inspected in the corners of the writing field at 6 different beam...... currents between 2 and 60 nA. We use positive-tone resist AR-P6200 (CSAR 62) from All Resist. With our quality control procedure, we routinely write 11 nm lines on a 40 nm pitch, and obtain a field stitching accuracy better than 3 nm and overlay accuracy less than 7 nm....

  12. The boson expansion theory as the nuclear structure theory for the heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    Sometime sago, Kishimoto and Tamura developed a formalism of boson expansion theory (BET), and then Weeks and Tamura showed that it fitted many experimental data of collective nuclei. This formalism has recently been simplified significantly be Pedrocchi, Jamaluddin and Tamura. The new and old theories are very closely related but are not exactly the same. It has thus been desired to see whether the new theory can also fit data, and to show that it indeed works well constitutes a major part of this thesis. It is in fact seen that a number of data of Sm, Os and Pt isotopes are explained nicely. Since the new form of the theory is rather simple, it permits us to take into account easily the effects of noncollective states to the behavior of collective states. This thesis shows that are remarkably improved fit to data of magnetic moments of SM isotopes is achieved in this way. The thesis discusses one additional subject. It is a result of an effort made to improve the BET by removing as much as possible the error due to the use of the BCS theory. This was done by applying a method developed by Li to the Dyson form of BET. A way to develop this work further is suggested

  13. Towards a physical interpretation of substituent effect: Quantum chemical interpretation of Hammett substituent constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaksin, Konstantin S.; Szatylowicz, Halina; Krygowski, Tadeusz M.

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative description of substituent effects is of a great importance especially in organic chemistry and QSAR-type treatments. The proposed approaches: substituent effect stabilization energy (SESE) and charge of the substituent active region (cSAR) provide substituent effect characteristics, physically independent of the Hammett's substituent constants, σ. To document abilities of these descriptors the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method is employed to examine changes in properties of a reaction center Y (Y = COOH or COO- groups) and a transmitting moiety (benzene ring) due to substituent effects in a series of meta- and para-X-substituted benzoic acid and benzoate anion derivatives (X = NMe2, NH2, OH, OMe, CH3, H, F, Cl, CF3, CN, CHO, COMe, CONH2, COOH, NO2, NO). The transmitting moiety is described by aromaticity indices HOMA and NICS(1). Furthermore, an advantage of the cSAR characteristic is the ability to use it to describe both electron donating/accepting properties of a substituent as well as a reaction center. It allows demonstration of the reverse substituent effects of COOH and COO- groups on substituent X.

  14. Support vector regression scoring of receptor-ligand complexes for rank-ordering and virtual screening of chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Wang, Bo; Meroueh, Samy O

    2011-09-26

    The community structure-activity resource (CSAR) data sets are used to develop and test a support vector machine-based scoring function in regression mode (SVR). Two scoring functions (SVR-KB and SVR-EP) are derived with the objective of reproducing the trend of the experimental binding affinities provided within the two CSAR data sets. The features used to train SVR-KB are knowledge-based pairwise potentials, while SVR-EP is based on physicochemical properties. SVR-KB and SVR-EP were compared to seven other widely used scoring functions, including Glide, X-score, GoldScore, ChemScore, Vina, Dock, and PMF. Results showed that SVR-KB trained with features obtained from three-dimensional complexes of the PDBbind data set outperformed all other scoring functions, including best performing X-score, by nearly 0.1 using three correlation coefficients, namely Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall. It was interesting that higher performance in rank ordering did not translate into greater enrichment in virtual screening assessed using the 40 targets of the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). To remedy this situation, a variant of SVR-KB (SVR-KBD) was developed by following a target-specific tailoring strategy that we had previously employed to derive SVM-SP. SVR-KBD showed a much higher enrichment, outperforming all other scoring functions tested, and was comparable in performance to our previously derived scoring function SVM-SP.

  15. Standard review plan for reviewing safety analysis reports for dry metallic spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Cask Standard Review Plan (CSRP) has been prepared as guidance to be used in the review of Cask Safety Analysis Reports (CSARs) for storage packages. The principal purpose of the CSRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of storage cask reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The CSRP also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the NRC staff in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a CSAR does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the CSRP. However, applicants should recognize that the NRC staff has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches

  16. High-fidelity modelling of an exciplex pumped alkali laser with radiative transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, Andrew D; Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T; Heaven, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The exciplex-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, and ethane by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). Because of the addition of atomic collision pairs and exciplex states, modelling of the XPAL system is far more complicated than the modelling of the classic diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL). In this paper, we discuss BLAZE-V time-dependent multi-dimensional modelling of this new laser system including radiative transport and parasitic loss effects. A two-dimensional, time-dependent baseline simulation of a pulsed XPAL is presented and compared to data. Good agreement is achieved on a laser pulse full width at half-maximum and laser pulse rise time. Parametric simulations of pulsed XPAL system configurations similar to that of the baseline case, given both four- and five-level laser operation, are presented in which good agreement is obtained with outcoupled laser energy as a function of absorbed pump energy data. The potential impact of parasitic losses on modelled system configurations is discussed.

  17. High-fidelity modelling of an exciplex pumped alkali laser with radiative transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla, Andrew D; Carroll, David L; Verdeyen, Joseph T [CU Aerospace, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Heaven, Michael C, E-mail: apalla@cuaerospace.com [Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2011-07-14

    The exciplex-pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapour, Ar, and ethane by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically excited CsAr molecules (exciplexes or excimers). Because of the addition of atomic collision pairs and exciplex states, modelling of the XPAL system is far more complicated than the modelling of the classic diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL). In this paper, we discuss BLAZE-V time-dependent multi-dimensional modelling of this new laser system including radiative transport and parasitic loss effects. A two-dimensional, time-dependent baseline simulation of a pulsed XPAL is presented and compared to data. Good agreement is achieved on a laser pulse full width at half-maximum and laser pulse rise time. Parametric simulations of pulsed XPAL system configurations similar to that of the baseline case, given both four- and five-level laser operation, are presented in which good agreement is obtained with outcoupled laser energy as a function of absorbed pump energy data. The potential impact of parasitic losses on modelled system configurations is discussed.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Pycnogenol® on Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Günel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The supplement Pycnogenol® (PYC has been used for the treatment of several chronic diseases including allergic rhinitis (AR. However, the in vivo effects on allergic inflammation have not been identified to date. Aims: To investigate the treatment results of PYC on allergic inflammation in a rat model of allergic rhinitis. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Allergic rhinitis was stimulated in 42 rats by intraperitoneal sensitization and intranasal challenge with Ovalbumin. The animals were divided into six subgroups: healthy controls, AR group, AR group treated with corticosteroid (dexamethasone 1 mg/kg; CS+AR, healthy rats group that were given only PYC of 10 mg/kg (PYC10, AR group treated with PYC of 3mg/kg (PYC3+AR, and AR group treated with PYC of 10 mg/kg (PYC10+AR. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin-10 (IL-10, and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (Ig-E levels of serum were measured. Histopathological changes in nasal mucosa and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and IL-1β were evaluated. Results: The levels of the IL-4 were significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR, PYC10+AR and CS+AR groups compared with the AR group (p=0.002, p<0.001, p=0.006. The production of the IFN-γ was significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR and PYC10+AR groups compared with the AR group (p=0.013, p=0.001. The administration of PYC to allergic rats suppressed the elevated IL-10 production, especially in the PYC3+AR group (p=0.006. Mucosal edema was significantly decreased respectively after treatment at dose 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg PYC (both, p<0.001. The mucosal expression of TNF-α has significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR and PYC10+AR groups (p=0.005, p<0.001, while the IL-1β expression significantly decreased in the CS+AR, PYC3+AR, and PYC10+AR groups (p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.001. Conclusion: PYC has multiple suppressive effects on allergic response. Thus, PYC may be used as a supplementary agent in allergic

  19. Anafilaxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Montoya Guarín

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Las reacciones alérgicas fatales se describen desde hace más de 4.500 años (1, pero sólo desde el siglo pasado se empezó a comprender su fisiopatología. En 1902, Portier y Richet describieron una reacción sistémica fatal en algunos de sus animales de experimentación al inyectar repetitivamente una proteína de anémona marina, previamente tolerada (2; este fenómeno se denominó anafilaxia, para distinguirlo de la profilaxis (inyección de productos biológicos para la prevención de enfermedades.

    Hoy se define la anafilaxia como una reacción sistémica de hipersensibilidad inmediata, mediada por inmunoglobulina E (IgE, con liberación de mediadores proinflamatorios por los mastocitos y basófilos. La anafilaxia posee dos fases, la primera de sensibilización y la segunda efectora, como respuesta al reingreso del alergeno. El término reacción anafilactoide se refiere a un evento clínico similar, no mediado por IgE (3.

    Los informes clínicos iniciales sobre anafilaxia (4 mostraron una proporción elevada de casos tras la administración de suero equino utilizado en las antitoxinas para difteria y tétanos (3. Desde hace más de 4.000 años los venenos de Himenópteros son desencadenantes frecuentes de anafilaxia y aún hoy siguen siendo un problema clínico de importancia; se estima que en los Estados Unidos se generan 40 muertes al año por esta causa.>

  20. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, R. L.

    2011-10-01

    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  1. Hyperfine relaxation of an optically pumped cesium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornos, J.; Amare, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The relaxation of hyperfine orientation indirectly induced by optical pumping with a σ-polarized D 1 -light in a cesium vapor in the presence of Ar is experimentally studied. The detection technique ensures the absence of quadrupole relaxation contributions in the relaxation signals. The results from the dependences of the hyperfine relaxation rate on the temperature and argon pressure are: diffusion coefficient of Cs in Ar, D 0 = 0.101 +- 0.010 cm 2 s -1 at 0 0 C and 760 Torr; relaxation cross section by Cs-Ar collisions, σ/sub c/ = (104 +- 5) x 10 -23 cm 2 ; relaxation cross section by Cs-Cs (spin exchange) collisions, σ/sub e//sub x/ = (1.63 +- 0.13) x 10 -14 cm 2

  2. Activation of afferent renal nerves modulates RVLM-projecting PVN neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2015-05-01

    Renal denervation for the treatment of hypertension has proven to be successful; however, the underlying mechanism/s are not entirely clear. To determine if preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) respond to afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation, extracellular single-unit recording was used to investigate the contribution of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN (PVN-RVLM) neurons to the response elicited during stimulation of ARN. In 109 spontaneously active neurons recorded in the PVN of anesthetized rats, 25 units were antidromically activated from the RVLM. Among these PVN-RVLM neurons, 84% (21/25) were activated by ARN stimulation. The baseline discharge rate was significantly higher in these neurons than those PVN-RVLM neurons not activated by ARN stimulation (16%, 4/25). The responsiveness of these neurons to baroreflex activation induced by phenylephrine and activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) was also examined. Almost all of the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were sensitive to baroreflex (95%) and CSAR (100%). The discharge characteristics for nonevoked neurons (not activated by RVLM antidromic stimulation) showed that 23% of these PVN neurons responded to ARN stimulation. All the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate, and these responses were attenuated by the glutamate receptor blocker AP5. These experiments demonstrated that sensory information originating in the kidney is integrated at the level of preautonomic neurons within the PVN, providing a novel mechanistic insight for use of renal denervation in the modulation of sympathetic outflow in disease states such as hypertension and heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Lee Poe, Jr

    1998-10-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is

  4. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. Lee Poe, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is

  5. Elemental depth profiles and plasma etching rates of positive-tone electron beam resists after sequential infiltration synthesis of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuki; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    By scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDS), we investigated the elemental depth profiles of organic electron beam resist films after the sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of inorganic alumina. Although a 40-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was entirely hybridized with alumina, an uneven distribution was observed near the interface between the substrate and the resist as well as near the resist surface. The uneven distribution was observed around the center of a 100-nm-thick PMMA film. The thicknesses of the PMMA and CSAR62 resist films decreased almost linearly as functions of plasma etching period. The comparison of etching rate among oxygen reactive ion etching, C3F8 reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), and Ar ion beam milling suggested that the SIS treatment enhanced the etching resistance of the electron beam resists to chemical reactions rather than to ion collisions. We proposed oxygen- and Ar-assisted C3F8 RIBE for the fabrication of silica imprint molds by electron beam lithography.

  6. Radiative transport and collisional transfer of excitation energy in Cs vapors mixed with Ar or He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadla, Cedomil; Horvatic, Vlasta; Niemax, Kay

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review (with a few original additions) on the radiative transport and collisional transfer of energy in laser-excited cesium vapors in the presence of argon or helium. Narrow-band excitation of lines with Lorentz, Doppler and Voigt profiles is studied in order to calculate effective rates for pumping of spectral lines with profiles comprising inhomogeneous broadening components. The radiative transport of excitation energy is considered, and a new, simple and robust, but accurate theoretical method for quantitative treatment of radiation trapping in relatively optically thin media is presented. Furthermore, comprehensive lists of experimental values for the excitation energy transfer cross-sections related to thermal collisions in Cs-Ar and Cs-He mixtures are given. Within the collected cross-section data sets, specific regularities with respect to the energy defect, as well as the temperature, are discerned. A particular emphasis is put on the radiative and collisional processes important for the optimization of resonance-fluorescence imaging atomic filters based on Cs-noble gas systems

  7. M.Y.S.P.A.C.E. : Multinational Youth Studying Practical Applications of Climatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, M.; Arvedson, J. P.; Arvedson, P.

    2014-12-01

    M.Y. S.P.A.C.E. (Multinational Youth Studying Practical Applications of Climatic Events) is an international collaboration of high school students engaged in self-selected research projects on the local impact of global environmental issues. Students work with their own, trained, Teacher Leaders at their school sites using both locally generated and satellite-based remote-sensing data with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Teams from each school meet at the annual Satellites & Education Conference to discover global trends in their collective data and present their findings. Students learn and practice techniques of scientific investigation; methods of data processing, analysis and interpretation; leadership; and effective communication. They work with NOAA and NASA scientists and engineers, experience university campus life, and can apply for special internships at selected university research centers such as the Center for Energy and Sustainability (CE&S), the Center for Spatial Analysis and Remote Sensing (CSARS), and graduate research opportunities in Geosciences and Environment. The M.Y. S.P.A.C.E. Program is an initiative of the Satellites & Education Conference, which is produced by the non-profit Satellite Educators Association. It is administered from the campus of California State University, Los Angeles. NOAA, NASA, and the NOAA-CREST West grant support the program. It is aligned with NOAA goals of building excitement about careers in science, math, engineering and technology.

  8. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Prevention Design Features Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMBLE, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Operational Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. Rev. 0-N , Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The results of a review of Criticality Safety Analysis Reports (CSAR), later called Criticality Safety Evaluation Reports (CSER), and Criticality Prevention Specifications (CPS) to determine which equipment or components analyzed in the CSER or CPS are considered as one of the two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes before a criticality accident is possible. (2) Evaluations of equipment or components to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). (3) A list of essential drawings that show the safety system or component (Appendix A). (4) A list of the safety envelope (SE) equipment (Appendix B). (5) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment (Sections 3 and 4). (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Section 5)

  9. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LINTHO, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Technical Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Technical Requirements, HNF-SD-CP-OSR-010/Rev.1, Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document also defines the Safety Envelope (SE) for the liquid detection interlock system in the Process Vacuum System. The SE is derived FR-om information in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report (PFP FSAR), HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021, Rev 4, and the Criticality Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the 26-inch Hg Vacuum System, WHC-SD-SQA-CSA-20159, Rev 0-A. This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The system functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3). (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety envelope boundary for the system (Section 4 list of SE boundary drawings). (3) A list of the safety envelope equipment (Appendix B). (4) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment, including appropriate set points and process parameters (Section 4). (5) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Sections 5 and 6 and Appendix A)

  10. Comparative study of diode-pumped alkali vapor laser and exciplex-pumped alkali laser systems and selection principal of parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Tan, Rongqing; Li, Zhiyong; Han, Gaoce; Li, Hui

    2017-03-01

    A theoretical model based on common pump structure is proposed to analyze the output characteristics of a diode-pumped alkali vapor laser (DPAL) and XPAL (exciplex-pumped alkali laser). Cs-DPAL and Cs-Ar XPAL systems are used as examples. The model predicts that an optical-to-optical efficiency approaching 80% can be achieved for continuous-wave four- and five-level XPAL systems with broadband pumping, which is several times the pumped linewidth for DPAL. Operation parameters including pumped intensity, temperature, cell's length, mixed gas concentration, pumped linewidth, and output coupler are analyzed for DPAL and XPAL systems based on the kinetic model. In addition, the predictions of selection principal of temperature and cell's length are also presented. The concept of the equivalent "alkali areal density" is proposed. The result shows that the output characteristics with the same alkali areal density but different temperatures turn out to be equal for either the DPAL or the XPAL system. It is the areal density that reflects the potential of DPAL or XPAL systems directly. A more detailed analysis of similar influences of cavity parameters with the same areal density is also presented.

  11. Multi-quantum excitation in optically pumped alkali atom: rare gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally-Kinney, K. L.; Rawlins, W. T.; Davis, S. J.

    2014-03-01

    Diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) technology offers a means of achieving high-energy gas laser output through optical pumping of the D-lines of Cs, Rb, and K. The exciplex effect, based on weak attractive forces between alkali atoms and polarizable rare gas atoms (Ar, Kr, Xe), provides an alternative approach via broadband excitation of exciplex precursors (XPAL). In XPAL configurations, we have observed multi-quantum excitation within the alkali manifolds which result in infrared emission lines between 1 and 4 μm. The observed excited states include the 42FJ states of both Cs and Rb, which are well above the two-photon energy of the excitation laser in each case. We have observed fluorescence from multi-quantum states for excitation wavelengths throughout the exciplex absorption bands of Cs-Ar, Cs-Kr, and Cs-Xe. The intensity scaling is roughly first-order or less in both pump power and alkali concentration, suggesting a collisional energy pooling excitation mechanism. Collisional up-pumping appears to present a parasitic loss term for optically pumped atomic systems at high intensities, however there may also be excitation of other lasing transitions at infrared wavelengths.

  12. Towards ligand docking including explicit interface water molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Lemmon

    Full Text Available Small molecule docking predicts the interaction of a small molecule ligand with a protein at atomic-detail accuracy including position and conformation the ligand but also conformational changes of the protein upon ligand binding. While successful in the majority of cases, docking algorithms including RosettaLigand fail in some cases to predict the correct protein/ligand complex structure. In this study we show that simultaneous docking of explicit interface water molecules greatly improves Rosetta's ability to distinguish correct from incorrect ligand poses. This result holds true for both protein-centric water docking wherein waters are located relative to the protein binding site and ligand-centric water docking wherein waters move with the ligand during docking. Protein-centric docking is used to model 99 HIV-1 protease/protease inhibitor structures. We find protease inhibitor placement improving at a ratio of 9:1 when one critical interface water molecule is included in the docking simulation. Ligand-centric docking is applied to 341 structures from the CSAR benchmark of diverse protein/ligand complexes [1]. Across this diverse dataset we see up to 56% recovery of failed docking studies, when waters are included in the docking simulation.

  13. Theoretical model and simulations for a cw exciplex pumped alkali laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Tan, Rongqing; Li, Zhiyong; Lu, Xiaochuan

    2015-12-14

    The Exciplex Pumped Alkali Laser (XPAL) system, which is similar to DPAL (Diode Pumped Alkali vapor Laser), has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapor, Ar, with and without ethane. Unlike DPAL, it uses the broadband absorption blue satellite of the alkali D2 line, created by naturally occuring collision pairs. For example, Cs-Ar collision pairs have an absorption width which is as wide as the one of commercial semiconductor diode lasers. A continuous wave XPAL four-level theoretical model is presented in this paper. More factors are considered, such as the spectral dependence of pumped laser absorption for broadband pumping and the longitudinal population variation. Some intra-cavity details, such as longitudinal distributions of pumped laser and alkali laser, can also be solved well. The predictions of optical-to-optical efficiency as a function of temperature and pumped laser intensity are presented. The model predicts that there is an optimum value of temperature or pumped laser intensity. The analysis of the influence of cell length on optical-to-optical efficiency shows that a better performance can be achieved when using longer cell. The prediction of influence of Ar concentration and reflectivity of output coupler shows that higher optical-to-optical efficiency could be achieved if lower reflectivity of output coupler and higher Ar concentration are used. The optical-to-optical efficiency as high as 84% achieved by optimizing configuration with the pumped intensity of 5 × 10⁷ W/cm² presented shows that broadband pumped four-level XPAL system has a potential of high optical-to-optical efficiency.

  14. COMET-LICSAR: Systematic Deformation Monitoring of Fault Zones and Volcanoes with the Sentinel-1 Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, K.; Wright, T. J.; Hooper, A. J.; Hatton, E. L.; González, P. J.; Bhattarai, S.; Biggs, J.; Crippa, P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Elliott, J.; Gaddes, M.; Li, Z.; Parsons, B.; Qiu, Q.; McDougall, A.; Walters, R. J.; Weiss, J. R.; Ziebart, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Sentinel-1 constellation represents a major advance in our ability to monitor our planet's hazardous tectonic and volcanic zones. Here we present the latest progress from COMET (*), where we are now providing deformation results to the community for volcanoes and the tectonic belts (**). COMET now responds routinely to most significant continental earthquakes - Sentinel-1 allows us to do this within a few days for most earthquakes. For example, after the M7.8 Kaikoura (New Zealand) earthquake we supplied a processed interferogram to the community just 5 hours and 37 minutes after the Sentinel-1 acquisition. By the end of 2017, we will be producing interferogram products systematically for all earthquakes larger than M 6.0. For deformation data to be useful for preparedness, we need accuracy on the order of 1 mm/yr or better. This requires mass processing of long time series of radar acquisitions. We are currently (July 2017) processing interferograms systematically for the entire Alpine-Himalayan belt ( 9000 x 2000 km) using our LiCSAR chain, making interferograms and coherence products available to the community. By December 2017, we plan to process a wider tectonic area and the majority of subaerial volcanoes. We currently serve displacement and coherence grids, but plan to provide average deformation rates and time series. Results are available through our dedicated portal (**), and are being linked to the ESA G-TEP and EPOS during 2017. We will show the latest results for tectonics and volcanism, and discuss how these can be used to build value-added products, including (i) maps of tectonic strain (ii) maps of seismic hazard (iii) volcano deformation alerts. The accuracy of these products will improve as the number of data products acquired by Sentinel-1 increases, and as the time series lengthen. *http://comet.nerc.ac.uk**http://comet.nerc.ac.uk/COMET-LiCS-portal/

  15. Quantitative PET of liver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- D -galactose ( 18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11 C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [ N -methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood ( K 1 ; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion , SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18 F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET.

  16. Quantitative PET of liver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-galactose (18F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value (SUV) from a static liver 18F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood (K 1; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion, SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET. PMID:29755841

  17. Space-based observatories providing key data for climate change applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Sentinel-1 & 3 mission are part of the Copernicus program, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. This European Earth Observation program is led by the European Commission and the space infrastructure is developed under the European Space Agency leadership. Many services will be developed through the Copernicus program among different thematic areas. The climate change is one of this thematic area and the Sentinel-1 & 3 satellites will provide key space-based observations in this area. The Sentinel-1 mission is based on a constellation of 2 identical satellites each one embarking C-SAR Instrument and provides capability for continuous radar mapping of the Earth with enhanced revisit frequency, coverage, timeliness and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long time series. In particular, Sentinel 1 provides all-weather, day-and-night estimates of soil moisture, wind speed and direction, sea ice, continental ice sheets and glaciers. The Sentinel-3 mission will mainly be devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. Among these data, very accurate surface temperatures and topography measurements will be provided and will constitute key indicators, once ingested in climate change models, for identifying climate drivers and expected climate impacts. The paper will briefly recall the satellite architectures, their main characteristics and performance. The inflight performance and key features of their images or data of the 3 satellites namely Sentinel 1A, 1B and 3A will be reviewed to demonstrate the quality and high scientific potential of the data as well as their

  18. istar: a web platform for large-scale protein-ligand docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Li

    Full Text Available Protein-ligand docking is a key computational method in the design of starting points for the drug discovery process. We are motivated by the desire to automate large-scale docking using our popular docking engine idock and thus have developed a publicly-accessible web platform called istar. Without tedious software installation, users can submit jobs using our website. Our istar website supports 1 filtering ligands by desired molecular properties and previewing the number of ligands to dock, 2 monitoring job progress in real time, and 3 visualizing ligand conformations and outputting free energy and ligand efficiency predicted by idock, binding affinity predicted by RF-Score, putative hydrogen bonds, and supplier information for easy purchase, three useful features commonly lacked on other online docking platforms like DOCK Blaster or iScreen. We have collected 17,224,424 ligands from the All Clean subset of the ZINC database, and revamped our docking engine idock to version 2.0, further improving docking speed and accuracy, and integrating RF-Score as an alternative rescoring function. To compare idock 2.0 with the state-of-the-art AutoDock Vina 1.1.2, we have carried out a rescoring benchmark and a redocking benchmark on the 2,897 and 343 protein-ligand complexes of PDBbind v2012 refined set and CSAR NRC HiQ Set 24Sept2010 respectively, and an execution time benchmark on 12 diverse proteins and 3,000 ligands of different molecular weight. Results show that, under various scenarios, idock achieves comparable success rates while outperforming AutoDock Vina in terms of docking speed by at least 8.69 times and at most 37.51 times. When evaluated on the PDBbind v2012 core set, our istar platform combining with RF-Score manages to reproduce Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient of as high as 0.855 and 0.859 respectively between the experimental binding affinity and the predicted binding affinity of the docked

  19. istar: a web platform for large-scale protein-ligand docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Ballester, Pedro J; Wong, Man-Hon

    2014-01-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a key computational method in the design of starting points for the drug discovery process. We are motivated by the desire to automate large-scale docking using our popular docking engine idock and thus have developed a publicly-accessible web platform called istar. Without tedious software installation, users can submit jobs using our website. Our istar website supports 1) filtering ligands by desired molecular properties and previewing the number of ligands to dock, 2) monitoring job progress in real time, and 3) visualizing ligand conformations and outputting free energy and ligand efficiency predicted by idock, binding affinity predicted by RF-Score, putative hydrogen bonds, and supplier information for easy purchase, three useful features commonly lacked on other online docking platforms like DOCK Blaster or iScreen. We have collected 17,224,424 ligands from the All Clean subset of the ZINC database, and revamped our docking engine idock to version 2.0, further improving docking speed and accuracy, and integrating RF-Score as an alternative rescoring function. To compare idock 2.0 with the state-of-the-art AutoDock Vina 1.1.2, we have carried out a rescoring benchmark and a redocking benchmark on the 2,897 and 343 protein-ligand complexes of PDBbind v2012 refined set and CSAR NRC HiQ Set 24Sept2010 respectively, and an execution time benchmark on 12 diverse proteins and 3,000 ligands of different molecular weight. Results show that, under various scenarios, idock achieves comparable success rates while outperforming AutoDock Vina in terms of docking speed by at least 8.69 times and at most 37.51 times. When evaluated on the PDBbind v2012 core set, our istar platform combining with RF-Score manages to reproduce Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient of as high as 0.855 and 0.859 respectively between the experimental binding affinity and the predicted binding affinity of the docked conformation. istar

  20. The L1495-B218 filaments in Taurus seen in NH3 & CCS and Dynamical Stability of Filaments and Dense Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    We present deep NH3 map of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH3 (1,1) & (2,2) and CCS 21-10 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31". The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH3 (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH3 leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar (Seo et al. 2015).We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores with converging motions and under the influence of radiation pressure. The critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere and the isothermal cylinder have been widely used to test stability of dense cores and filaments; however, these assume a quiescent environment while actual star forming regions are turbulent and illuminated by radiation. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores (Seo et al. 2011) and the effect of radiation fields into account. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere (Seo et al. 2013). We also find that the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation are considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For inner Galactic regions and regions near OB associations, the critical

  1. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of MP Finance Group CC (In Liquidation v CSARS the High Court of Appeal ruled that income "received by" a taxpayer from illegal gains will be taxable in the hands of the taxpayer. This article explores whether or not the decision in the MP Finance-case (and preceding cases on the taxation of illegal receipts can be applied to determine if illegal transactions are subject to VAT and moreover if a trader in illegal goods and services should register as a VAT vendor. Although strictly speaking no analogy can be drawn between the charging provisions for income tax and VAT, it is clear that in the determination of the taxability of illegal income, the courts applied the principle of tax neutrality. In terms of the principle of tax neutrality, taxes are not concerned with the legality or illegality of a transaction, but rather with whether the transaction complies with the requirements for it to be taxed or not. That said, the European Court of Justice has a different approach in applying this principle. According to the European Court of Justice where the intrinsic nature of the goods excludes it from the commercial arena (like narcotic drugs it should not be subject to VAT, but where the goods compete with a legal market it must be subject to VAT. Charging VAT on illegal transactions might give the impression that government benefits from criminal activities. However, if illegal transactions are not subject to VAT the trader in illegal goods will benefit as his products will be 14% cheaper than his rival’s. Is this necessarily a moral dilemma? In conclusion three arguments can be deduced on the question if illegal transactions should be subject to VAT:1. Illegal transactions should not be taxed at all. Illegal goods or services fall outside the sphere of the application of the charging provision in section 7(1 of the VAT Act. Moreover, taxing illegal transactions lends a quasi-validity to the contract and gives the impression that